Sample records for breast cancer histological

  1. Management of Unusual Histological Types of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    McArdle, Orla; O'Shea, Anne-Marie; Power, Colm P.; Hennessy, Bryan T.

    2012-01-01

    There is increased understanding of the heterogeneity of breast tumors, with greater emphasis now being placed on histological and molecular profiles and, in particular, their implications for prognosis and therapy. This review addresses breast cancers of unusual histological subtype with an approximate incidence ?1%. Given the rarity of these tumors, the literature contains primarily case reports, small series, and population-based studies. Data are heterogeneous and almost entirely retrospective, frequently gathered over long time periods, in the context of changing pathological techniques and reporting. In addition, our understanding of the disease biology and therapeutic context has also evolved significantly over this time. There is often limited information about the specific therapies used and the rationale for choosing such an approach. Meaningful comparisons of treatment modalities are not feasible and it is not possible to define management guidelines. Instead, this review correlates the available information to give an impression of how each subgroup behaves—of the favored surgical technique, responses to therapy, and prognosis—as well as the emerging molecular data, highlighting new research areas for potential target in clinical trials. Each tumor subtype described represents a small but real cohort of patients with breast cancer, and although inferences may be made from this review, we are mindful of the paucity of data. The management of each patient must be considered in the context of their unique clinical presentation and correlated with the evidence-based principles that apply to more common breast cancer histologies. PMID:22826373

  2. Menopausal hormone therapy and other breast cancer risk factors in relation to the risk of different histological subtypes of breast cancer: a case-control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lena U Rosenberg; Cecilia Magnusson; Emma Lindström; Sara Wedrén; Per Hall; Paul W Dickman

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Breast cancers of different histology have different clinical and prognostic features. There are also indications of differences in aetiology. We therefore evaluated the risk of the three most common histological subtypes in relation to menopausal hormone therapy and other breast cancer risk factors. METHODS: We used a population-based case-control study of breast cancer to evaluate menopausal hormone therapy and

  3. Metaplastic breast cancer: histologic characteristics, prognostic factors and systemic treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Metaplastic breast cancer (MBC) is a rare subtype of invasive breast cancer that tends to have an aggressive clinical presentation as well as a variety of distinct histologic designations. Few systemic treatment options are available for MBC, as it has consistently shown a suboptimal response to standard chemotherapy regimens. These characteristics result in a worse overall prognosis for patients with MBC compared to those with standard invasive breast cancer. Due to its rarity, data focusing on MBC is limited. This review will discuss the clinical presentation, breast imaging findings, histologic and molecular characteristics of MBC as well as potential future research directions. PMID:24499560

  4. Gene expression abnormalities in histologically normal breast epithelium of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Anusri; King, Chialin; de la Morenas, Antonio; Perry, Victoria Kristina; Burke, Bohdana; Antoine, Gregory A; Hirsch, Erwin F; Kavanah, Maureen; Mendez, Jane; Stone, Michael; Gerry, Norman P; Lenburg, Marc E; Rosenberg, Carol L

    2008-04-01

    Normal-appearing epithelium of cancer patients can harbor occult genetic abnormalities. Data comprehensively comparing gene expression between histologically normal breast epithelium of breast cancer patients and cancer-free controls are limited. The present study compares global gene expression between these groups. We performed microarrays using RNA from microdissected histologically normal terminal ductal-lobular units (TDLU) from 2 groups: (i) cancer normal (CN) (TDLUs adjacent to untreated ER+ breast cancers (n = 14)) and (ii) reduction mammoplasty (RM) (TDLUs of age-matched women without breast disease (n = 15)). Cyber-T identified differentially expressed genes. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and comparison to independent microarray data including 6 carcinomas in situ (CIS), validated the results. Gene ontology (GO), UniProt and published literature evaluated gene function. About 127 probesets, corresponding to 105 genes, were differentially expressed between CN and RM (p < 0.0009, corresponding to FDR <0.10). 104/127 (82%) probesets were also differentially expressed between CIS and RM, nearly always (102/104 (98%)) in the same direction as in CN vs. RM. Two-thirds of the 105 genes were implicated previously in carcinogenesis. Overrepresented functional groups included transcription, G-protein coupled and chemokine receptor activity, the MAPK cascade and immediate early genes. Most genes in these categories were under-expressed in CN vs. RM. We conclude that global gene expression abnormalities exist in normal epithelium of breast cancer patients and are also present in early cancers. Thus, cancer-related pathways may be perturbed in normal epithelium. These abnormalities could be markers of disease risk, occult disease, or the tissue's response to an existing tumor. PMID:18058819

  5. Risk factors for uncommon histologic subtypes of breast cancer using centralized pathology review in the Breast Cancer Family Registry

    PubMed Central

    Work, Meghan E.; Andrulis, Irene L.; John, Esther M.; Hopper, John L.; Liao, Yuyan; Zhang, Fang Fang; Knight, Julia A.; West, Dee W.; Milne, Roger L.; Giles, Graham G.; Longacre, Teri A.; O’Malley, Frances; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Southey, Melissa C.; Hibshoosh, Hanina

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of histologic types of breast cancer including mucinous, medullary, and tubular carcinomas have primarily relied on International Classification of Diseases-Oncology (ICD-O) codes assigned by local pathologists to define histology. Using data from the Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR), we compared histologic agreement between centralized BCFR pathology review and ICD-O codes available from local tumor registries among 3,260 breast cancer cases. Agreement was low to moderate for less common histologies; for example, only 55 and 26 % of cases classified as mucinous and medullary, respectively, by centralized review were similarly classified using ICD-O coding. We then evaluated risk factors for each histologic subtype by comparing each histologic case group defined by centralized review with a common set of 2,997 population-based controls using polytomous logistic regression. Parity [odds ratio (OR) = 0.4, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI): 0.2–0.9, for parous vs. nulliparous], age at menarche (OR = 0.5, 95 % CI: 0.3–0.9, for age ?13 vs. ?11), and use of oral contraceptives (OCs) (OR = 0.5, 95 % CI: 0.2–0.8, OC use >5 years vs. never) were associated with mucinous carcinoma (N = 92 cases). Body mass index (BMI) (OR = 1.05, 95 % CI: 1.0–1.1, per unit of BMI) and high parity (OR = 2.6, 95 % CI: 1.1–6.0 for ?3 live births vs. nulliparous) were associated with medullary carcinoma (N = 90 cases). We did not find any associations between breast cancer risk factors and tubular carcinoma (N = 86 cases). Relative risk estimates from analyses using ICD-O classifications of histology, rather than centralized review, resulted in attenuated, and/or more imprecise, associations. These findings suggest risk factor heterogeneity across breast cancer tumor histologies, and demonstrate the value of centralized pathology review for classifying rarer tumor types. PMID:22527103

  6. Histologic review of breast cancer cases in survivors of atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoji Tokuoka; Masahide Asano; Tsutomu Yamamoto; Masayoshi Tokunaga; Goi Sakamoto; William H. Hartmann; Robert V. P. Hutter; Charles E. Land; Donald E. Henson

    1984-01-01

    A panel of Japanese and American pathologists reviewed existing histologic material used to study breast cancer risk among the A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a population in which incidence studies have found a strong relationship between breast cancer risk and radiation dose. The primary charge to the panel was to define a body of confirmed cases in the Life

  7. Mitosis Detection in Breast Cancer Histology Images with Deep Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Schmidhuber, Juergen

    Mitosis Detection in Breast Cancer Histology Images with Deep Neural Networks Dan C. Cires is then applied to the network output. Our approach won the ICPR 2012 mitosis detection competition, outperforming. Mitosis detection is very hard. In fact, mitosis is a complex process during which a cell nucleus

  8. Endometrial pathology in breast cancer patients: Effect of different treatments on ultrasonographic, hysteroscopic and histological findings.

    PubMed

    LE Donne, Maria; Alibrandi, Angela; Ciancimino, Leonarda; Azzerboni, Andrea; Chiofalo, Benito; Triolo, Onofrio

    2013-04-01

    Breast cancer patients have an increased risk of endometrial pathology. To investigate whether the incidence of endometrial abnormalities and their clinicopathological features were affected by receiving tamoxifen (TAM), non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors (AIs) or no treatment (NT), 333 peri/postmenopausal breast cancer patients, who were referred to the Department of Gynecological, Obstetrical Sciences and Reproductive Medicine for gynecological assessment, were reviewed retrospectively. Transvaginal ultrasonographic (TVUS), hysteroscopic and histological findings were investigated. Endometrial histological findings included: atrophy in 61, 94.3 and 55.6% of cases in the TAM, AIs and NT groups, respectively; polyps in 30.9, 31.4 and 42.2% of cases in the TAM, AIs and NT groups, respectively; hyperplasia in 3% of patients in the TAM group and 11.1% of patients in the NT group; and cancer in 3.8% of cases in the TAM group and 11.1% of cases in the NT group. There was a significant correlation between the duration of TAM treatment and the severity of endometrial pathology. In all groups, there was a significant correlation between hysteroscopic and histological findings with regard to the diagnosis of endometrial atrophy, polyps, hyperplasia and cancer (P<0.001). In conclusion, these data revealed that there was a higher incidence of endometrial pathology in the NT group compared with the TAM group, which was significant for endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. The chance of developing high-risk histological subtypes of endometrial cancer was independent of TAM use. Lastly, although there was no significant difference in recurrent vaginal bleeding and mean endometrial thickness between the TAM and AIs groups, patients receiving AIs did not exhibit hyperplastic, dysplastic or neoplastic changes in the endometrium. This study indicates that breast cancer patients require screening for endometrial pathology; TVUS alone is useful in asymptomatic patients, however, in patients where the endometrial line is irregular or its thickness is >3 mm, hysteroscopy with directed biopsy is the appropriate diagnostic method. PMID:23599784

  9. Nectin-4 is a new histological and serological tumor associated marker for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fabre-Lafay, Stéphanie; Monville, Florence; Garrido-Urbani, Sarah; Berruyer-Pouyet, Carole; Ginestier, Christophe; Reymond, Nicolas; Finetti, Pascal; Sauvan, Richard; Adélaïde, José; Geneix, Jeannine; Lecocq, Eric; Popovici, Cornel; Dubreuil, Patrice; Viens, Patrice; Gonçalves, Anthony; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Birnbaum, Daniel; Lopez, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease at the molecular level. Evolution is difficult to predict according to classical histoclinical prognostic factors. Different studies highlight the importance of large-scale molecular expression analyses to improve taxonomy of breast cancer and prognostic classification. Identification of new molecular markers that refine this taxonomy and improve patient management is a priority in the field of breast cancer research. Nectins are cell adhesion molecules involved in the regulation of epithelial physiology. We present here Nectin-4/PVRL4 as a new histological and serological tumor associated marker for breast carcinoma. Methods Expression of Nectin-4 protein was measured on a panel of 78 primary cells and cell lines from different origins and 57 breast tumors by FACS analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively. mRNA expression was measured by quantitative PCR. Serum Nectin-4 was detected by ELISA and compared with CEA and CA15.3 markers, on panels of 45 sera from healthy donors, 53 sera from patients with non-metastatic breast carcinoma (MBC) at diagnosis, and 182 sera from patients with MBC. Distribution of histological/serological molecular markers and histoclinical parameters were compared using the standard Chi-2 test. Results Nectin-4 was not detected in normal breast epithelium. By contrast, Nectin-4 was expressed in 61% of ductal breast carcinoma vs 6% in lobular type. Expression of Nectin-4 strongly correlated with the basal-like markers EGFR, P53, and P-cadherin, and negatively correlated with the luminal-like markers ER, PR and GATA3. All but one ER/PR-negative tumors expressed Nectin-4. The detection of Nectin-4 in serum improves the follow-up of patients with MBC: the association CEA/CA15.3/Nectin-4 allowed to monitor 74% of these patients compared to 67% with the association CEA/CA15.3. Serum Nectin-4 is a marker of disease progression, and levels correlate with the number of metastases (P = 0.038). Serum Nectin-4 is also a marker of therapeutic efficiency and correlates, in 90% of cases, with clinical evolution. Conclusion Nectin-4 is a new tumor-associated antigen for breast carcinoma. Nectin-4 is a new bio-marker whose use could help refine breast cancer taxonomy and improve patients' follow-up. Nectin-4 emerges as a potential target for breast cancer immunotherapy. PMID:17474988

  10. [Clinical and histological study on breast cancer treated by preoperative mitoxantrone].

    PubMed

    Meng, Z X

    1990-07-01

    Fifteen patients with breast cancer treated with mitoxantrone preoperatively from December 1986 to June 1983 were evaluated as to treatment validity and histological response. It was shown that the mass in the breast became reduced 7 days after the start of treatment. Intact border and halo were formed around the mass and echo level inside the focus was increased even replacing all hypoecho areas by B-ultrasound. Microscopically, cell karyopyknosis, chromosome breaking plus karyorrhexis, mitochondrial destruction, vacuolization, reactive regeneration of a few capillaries and connective tissues were observed in the resected samples. Preoperative treatment with mitoxantrone helps prevent local recurrence and metastasis after tumor resection. PMID:2272266

  11. Histological evaluation of AMPK signalling in primary breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sirwan M Hadad; Lee Baker; Philip R Quinlan; Katherine E Robertson; Susan E Bray; George Thomson; David Kellock; Lee B Jordan; Colin A Purdie; David G Hardie; Stewart Fleming; Alastair M Thompson

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as a cellular fuel gauge that responds to energy stress by suppressing cell growth and biosynthetic processes, thus ensuring that energy-consuming processes proceed only if there are sufficient metabolic resources. Malfunction of the AMPK pathway may allow cancer cells to undergo uncontrolled proliferation irrespective of their molecular energy levels. The aim of this study

  12. High histologic grade and increased relative content of tryptophan in breast cancer using ratios from fingerprint fluorescence spectral peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordillo, Laura A.; Sordillo, Peter P.; Budansky, Yury; Pu, Yang; Alfano, R. R.

    2015-03-01

    Histologic grade is a very important, but underappreciated, parameter of breast cancer aggressiveness. Despite its importance, it has historically not been included as one of the criteria for staging of this cancer. In this study, spectral fluorescence profiles from patients with breast carcinoma were acquired. Ratios of emission peaks at 340 over 440,460 nm from biomolecules in malignant and normal samples were calculated. Cancerous over normal ratios (double ratio (DR) method) were evaluated with respect to tumor characteristics. Increased tryptophan content in breast cancer tissues correlates strongly with high grade, but not with lymph node metastases, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor or Her-2-Neu receptor status.

  13. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Breast Cancer What is Breast Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... tumors form in the breast tissue. Who Gets Breast Cancer? Breast cancer is one of the most common ...

  14. Nectin-4 is a new histological and serological tumor associated marker for breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphanie Fabre-Lafay; Florence Monville; Sarah Garrido-Urbani; Carole Berruyer-Pouyet; Christophe Ginestier; Nicolas Reymond; Pascal Finetti; Richard Sauvan; José Adélaïde; Jeannine Geneix; Eric Lecocq; Cornel Popovici; Patrice Dubreuil; Patrice Viens; Anthony Gonçalves; Emmanuelle Charafe-Jauffret; Jocelyne Jacquemier; Daniel Birnbaum; Marc Lopez

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease at the molecular level. Evolution is difficult to predict according to classical histoclinical prognostic factors. Different studies highlight the importance of large-scale molecular expression analyses to improve taxonomy of breast cancer and prognostic classification. Identification of new molecular markers that refine this taxonomy and improve patient management is a priority in

  15. High Preoperative CA 15-3 Concentrations Predict Adverse Outcome in Node-Negative and Node-Positive Breast Cancer: Study of 600 Patients with Histologically Confirmed Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Duffy; Catherine Duggan; Rachel Keane; Arnold D. K. Hill; Enda McDermott; John Crown; Niall O'Higgins

    Background: CA 15-3 is the most widely used serum marker in breast cancer. Currently, its main uses are in the surveillance of patients with diagnosed disease and monitoring the treatment of patients with advanced disease. Methods: Preoperative CA 15-3 concentrations were measured prospectively in 600 patients with histologi- cally confirmed breast cancer. Marker concentrations were related to patient outcome by

  16. Automatic glandular and tubule region segmentation in histological grading of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Kien; Barnes, Michael; Srinivas, Chukka; Chefd'hotel, Christophe

    2015-03-01

    In the popular Nottingham histologic score system for breast cancer grading, the pathologist analyzes the H and E tissue slides and assigns a score, in the range of 1-3, for tubule formation, nuclear pleomorphism and mitotic activity in the tumor regions. The scores from these three factors are added to give a final score, ranging from 3-9 to grade the cancer. Tubule score (TS), which reflects tubular formation, is a value in 1-3 given by manually estimating the percentage of glandular regions in the tumor that form tubules. In this paper, given an H and E tissue image representing a tumor region, we propose an automated algorithm to detect glandular regions and detect the presence of tubules in these regions. The algorithm first detects all nuclei and lumen candidates in the input image, followed by identifying tumor nuclei from the detected nuclei and identifying true lumina from the lumen candidates using a random forest classifier. Finally, it forms the glandular regions by grouping the closely located tumor nuclei and lumina using a graph-cut-based method. The glandular regions containing true lumina are considered as the ones that form tubules (tubule regions). To evaluate the proposed method, we calculate the tubule percentage (TP), i.e., the ratio of the tubule area to the total glandular area for 353 H and E images of the three TSs, and plot the distribution of these TP values. This plot shows the clear separation among these three scores, suggesting that the proposed algorithm is useful in distinguishing images of these TSs.

  17. Prognostic value of tumor-associated macrophages according to histologic locations and hormone receptor status in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Jae Moon; Jang, Min Hye; Kim, Dong Il; Seo, An Na; Park, So Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are involved in tumor progression by promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumor cell invasion, migration and angiogenesis. However, in breast cancer, the clinical relevance of the TAM infiltration according to distinct histologic locations (intratumoral vs. stromal) and hormone receptor status is unclear. We investigated the significance of the levels of TAM infiltration in distinct histologic locations in invasive breast cancer. We also examined the relationship of the TAM levels with the clinicopathologic features of tumors, expression of EMT markers, and clinical outcomes. Finally, we analyzed the prognostic value of TAM levels according to hormone receptor status. High levels of infiltration of intratumoral, stromal and total TAMs were associated with high histologic grade, p53 overexpression, high Ki-67 proliferation index and negative hormone receptor status. Infiltration of TAMs was also correlated with overexpression of vimentin, smooth muscle actin and alteration of ?-catenin. Overall, a high level of infiltration of intratumoral TAMs was associated with poor disease-free survival, and was found to be an independent prognostic factor. In subgroup analyses by hormone receptor status, a high level of infiltration of intratumoral TAM was an independent prognostic factor in the hormone receptor-positive subgroup, but not in the hormone-receptor negative subgroup. Our findings suggest that intratumoral TAMs play an important role in tumor progression in breast cancer, especially in the hormone receptor-positive group, and the level of TAM infiltration may be used as a prognostic factor and even a therapeutic target in breast cancer. PMID:25884955

  18. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ... liver, or elsewhere. Continue Why Do People Get Breast Cancer? Any woman can get breast cancer, but doctors ...

  19. Breast cancer histology and receptor status characterization in Asian Indian and Pakistani women in the U.S. - a SEER analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent reports suggest increase in estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) negative breast cancer yet little is known about histology or receptor status of breast cancer in Indian/Pakistani women.in the U.S. Methods We examined the United States National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Cancer program to assess: a) frequency of breast cancer by age, b) histologic subtypes, c) receptor status of breast cancer and, d) survival in Indians/Pakistanis compared to Caucasians. There were 360,933 breast cancer cases diagnosed 1988-2006. Chi-Square analyses and Cox proportional hazards models, to estimate relative risks for breast cancer mortality after adjusting for confounders, were performed using Statistical Analysis Software 9.2. Results Among Asian Indian/Pakistani breast cancer patients, 16.2% were < 40 yrs. old compared to 6.23% in Caucasians (p < 0.0001). Asian Indian women had more invasive ductal carcinoma (69.1 vs. 65.7%, p < 0.0001), inflammatory cancer (1.4% vs. 0.8, p < 0.0001) and less invasive lobular carcinoma (4.2% vs. 8.1%, p < 0.0001) than Caucasians. Asian Indian/Pakistani women had more ER/PR negative breast cancer (30.6% vs. 21.8%, p = 0.0095) than Caucasians. Adjusting for stage at diagnosis, age, tumor grade, nodal status, and histology, Asian Indian/Pakistani women's survival was similar to Caucasians, while African Americans' was worse. Conclusions Asian Indian/Pakistani women have higher frequency of breast cancer (particularly in age < 40), ER/PR negative invasive ductal and inflammatory cancer than Caucasians. PMID:20459777

  20. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... breast cancer early? The best way to find breast lumps is to do 2 things: Have regular mammograms ( ... listed below. Changes to look for in your breasts Any new lump (which may or may not be painful or ...

  1. Rat model of metastatic breast cancer monitored by MRI at 3 tesla and bioluminescence imaging with histological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ho-Taek; Jordan, Elaine K; Lewis, Bobbi K; Liu, Wei; Ganjei, Justin; Klaunberg, Brenda; Despres, Daryl; Palmieri, Diane; Frank, Joseph A

    2009-01-01

    Background Establishing a large rodent model of brain metastasis that can be monitored using clinically relevant magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques is challenging. Non-invasive imaging of brain metastasis in mice usually requires high field strength MR units and long imaging acquisition times. Using the brain seeking MDA-MB-231BR transfected with luciferase gene, a metastatic breast cancer brain tumor model was investigated in the nude rat. Serial MRI and bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was performed and findings were correlated with histology. Results demonstrated the utility of multimodality imaging in identifying unexpected sights of metastasis and monitoring the progression of disease in the nude rat. Methods Brain seeking breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231BR transfected with firefly luciferase (231BRL) were labeled with ferumoxides-protamine sulfate (FEPro) and 1-3 × 106 cells were intracardiac (IC) injected. MRI and BLI were performed up to 4 weeks to monitor the early breast cancer cell infiltration into the brain and formation of metastases. Rats were euthanized at different time points and the imaging findings were correlated with histological analysis to validate the presence of metastases in tissues. Results Early metastasis of the FEPro labeled 231BRL were demonstrated onT2*-weighted MRI and BLI within 1 week post IC injection of cells. Micro-metastatic tumors were detected in the brain on T2-weighted MRI as early as 2 weeks post-injection in greater than 85% of rats. Unexpected skeletal metastases from the 231BRL cells were demonstrated and validated by multimodal imaging. Brain metastases were clearly visible on T2 weighted MRI by 3-4 weeks post infusion of 231BRL cells, however BLI did not demonstrate photon flux activity originating from the brain in all animals due to scattering of the photons from tumors. Conclusion A model of metastatic breast cancer in the nude rat was successfully developed and evaluated using multimodal imaging including MRI and BLI providing the ability to study the temporal and spatial distribution of metastases in the brain and skeleton. PMID:19840404

  2. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is breast cancer treated? Surgery for breast cancer Radiation therapy for breast cancer Chemotherapy for breast cancer Hormone therapy for breast ... Topic How is breast cancer treated? Next Topic Radiation therapy for breast cancer Surgery for breast cancer Most women with breast ...

  3. Types of Breast Cancers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the key statistics about breast cancer? Types of breast cancers Breast cancer can be separated into different types ... than invasive ductal carcinoma. Less common types of breast cancer Inflammatory breast cancer This uncommon type of invasive ...

  4. Primary Tumor Response to Induction Chemotherapy as a Predictor of Histological Status of Axillary Nodes in Operable Breast Cancer Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey T. Lenert; Georges Vlastos; Nadem Q. Mirza; David J. Winchester; Susanne M. Binkley; Fred C. Ames; Merrick I. Ross; Barry W. Feig; Kelly K. Hunt; Eric Strom; Aman U. Buzdar; Gabriel N. Hortobagyi; S. Eva Singletary

    1999-01-01

    Background: Routine use of axillary lymph node dissection is being questioned, especially in clinically N0 patients. The goal of this study was to determine whether primary tumor response to induction chemotherapy (IC) can predict the histological volume of residual axillary disease in patients who were candidates for breast conservation surgery after IC.Methods: Forty-seven patients with stage II or IIIA breast

  5. Discordance of Intraoperative Frozen Section Analysis with Definitive Histology of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer Surgery: Complementary Axillary Lymph Node Dissection is Irrelevant for Subsequent Systemic Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Geertsema; P. D. Gobardhan; E. V. E. Madsen; M. Albregts; J. van Gorp; P. de Hooge; Th. van Dalen

    2010-01-01

    Background  In breast cancer surgery, intraoperative frozen section (FS) analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) enables axillary lymph\\u000a node dissection (ALND) during the same operative procedure. In case of discordance between a “negative” FS analysis and definitive\\u000a histology, an ALND as a second operation is advocated since additional lymph node metastases may be present. The clinical\\u000a implications of the subsequent ALND

  6. What Is Breast Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Next Topic Types of breast cancers What is breast cancer? Cancer starts when cells begin to grow out ... get it, too. This information refers only to breast cancer in women. For information on breast cancer in ...

  7. Learning about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  8. Living Beyond Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... I Breast Cancer Read more Upcoming Events Metastatic Breast Cancer: Understanding and Finding Clinical Trials 07/14/2015 ... consider when deciding whether to participate. Read more Breast Cancer 360: A Look at Triple-Negative Breast Cancer ...

  9. Breast Cancer -- Inflammatory

    MedlinePLUS

    ... here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer - Inflammatory Breast Cancer - Inflammatory This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer - Inflammatory. Use the menu below to choose the Overview section to ...

  10. Breast Cancer -- Metaplastic

    MedlinePLUS

    ... here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer - Metaplastic Breast Cancer - Metaplastic This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer - Metaplastic. Use the menu below to choose the Overview section to ...

  11. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®) What is screening? Screening is looking ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  12. Breastfeeding and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Breast_Cancer_042915.html Breastfeeding and Breast Cancer HealthDay News Video - April 29, ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Play video: Breastfeeding and Breast Cancer For closed captioning, click the ...

  13. Mining microarray data to predict the histological grade of a Breast Mickael Fabreguea

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    are continually being developed to target specific types of cancer and to reduce potentially adverse effectsMining microarray data to predict the histological grade of a Breast Cancer Mickael Fabreguea as features for class prediction. We applied it to classify breast cancer tumors according

  14. Invasive breast cancer: stratification of histological grade by gene-based assays: a still relevant example from an older data set

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Aims A Netherlands Kanker Institute data set provided the results of gene-based assays (GBAs) and histological grades of 295 patients with invasive breast cancer. Grade is the first prognostic assay available after a cancer diagnosis. Given this time-line of actual practise, the aim was to study how gene-based assays further stratify histologic grade. Methods and results Emphasis was placed on evaluation of a simple decision tree and on study of the recurrence score (RS). The decision tree determined three risk stratifications. Tumours that were both intermediate grade (IG) and low-RS were grouped with low grade, and tumours that were IG and high-RS were coupled with high grade. IG and intermediate-RS tumours comprised the third category. Survival analysis was performed with respect to the three stratifications. Cramer's V statistic was used for concordance analysis. The mixed grade-RS classifier showed significant survival stratification (P < 0.00001). The mixed classifier was concordant with the 70-gene assay (Cramer's V = 0.57). Recurrence score alone had a 0.59 Cramer's V with the gene assay. Because two-thirds of tumours were of either low or high grade, concordance was maintained despite the majority of classifications having been determined by grade alone. Conclusion There is no compelling reason to test low- and high-grade tumours further by GBAs. PMID:24673556

  15. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of HER-2/neu gene product (p185) in breast cancer: its correlation with sex steroid receptors, cathepsin D and histologic grades.

    PubMed

    Marsigliante, S; Muscella, A; Ciardo, V; Barker, S; Leo, G; Baker, V; Mottaghi, A; Vinson, G P; Storelli, C

    1993-12-20

    One hundred and nine primary breast cancers were analyzed to assess the presence of the HER-2/neu gene product (p185), the oestrogen (ER) and the progesterone (PR) receptors, and the total cathepsin D status. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit, Oncogene Science Inc.) was used for the evaluation of p185 in pellets obtained after a 100,000 x g centrifugation, ER and PR were measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA kit, Abbott Laboratories), and the total cathepsin D content was evaluated by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA kit, CIS Biointernational). We showed that the ELISA kit is feasible to quantify the p185 present in breast cancer cell membranes, and that the detector antibody recognises a protein of apprroximatly M(r) 185,000. The detected antigen was inversely related to both ER and PR, but it did not correlate to total cathepsin D. No significant differences were found in the expression of p185, ER, PR, cathepsin D between infiltrating ductal carcinomas without special features (NOS) and non-ductal (non-NOS) carcinomas. Nevertheless, in NOS carcinomas, a trend was observed in the p185 levels expressed by the tumours with different histological grades, in that p185 concentration was higher in the poorly differentiated grade 3 with respect to grade 2 and grade 1. PMID:7906196

  16. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer This page lists cancer ... Breast Cancer Drug Combinations Used in Breast Cancer Drugs Used to Prevent Breast Cancer Evista (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) ...

  17. Expression of MAGE-A3/6 in primary breast cancer is associated with hormone receptor negative status, high histologic grade, and poor survival.

    PubMed

    Ayyoub, Maha; Scarlata, Clara-Maria; Hamaï, Ahmed; Pignon, Pascale; Valmori, Danila

    2014-01-01

    The cancer testis antigen (CTA), melanoma-associated antigen A3/6 (MAGE-A3/6), is expressed in human cancers of different histologic types, to variable extents, and is an important target for immunotherapy. In this study, to address the potential of MAGE-A3/6 as an immunotherapeutic target in breast cancer (BC), we assessed MAGE-A3/6 expression by PCR in a cohort of 362 primary BC tumors and analyzed the correlation between MAGE-A3/6 expression, tumors hormone receptor (HR) status, and other clinicopathologic features. We found expression of MAGE-A3/6 in 10% of primary BC tumors. MAGE-A3/6 expression was significantly correlated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) negative status and was frequent in ER (29%) and in PR (24%) tumors. MAGE-A3/6 expression was also significantly associated with high histologic grade but not with patients age, tumor size, tumor type, lymph-node invasion, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression. Consistent with the associated poor clinicopathologic features, patients with MAGE-A3/6-expressing tumors had a worse disease-specific survival as compared with patients with MAGE-A3/6 tumors. The frequent expression of MAGE-A3/6 in tumors of patients with primary HR BC, who have, for a large part, limited therapeutic options, encourages the selection of BC patients bearing MAGE-A3/6-expressing tumors for targeted immunotherapy. PMID:24509169

  18. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and very aggressive disease in which cancer cells block lymph vessels ... difficult. Also, because inflammatory breast cancer is so aggressive, it can arise between scheduled screening mammograms and ...

  19. Breast Cancer Information Clearinghouse

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NYSERNet's Breast Cancer Information Clearinghouse: an Internet accessible resource for breast cancer patients and their families. Current partners represent government health agencies, hospitals, libraries, hospice and non-profit agencies.

  20. Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is available from the NCI Web site . Three tests are used by health care providers to screen for breast cancer: Mammogram Mammography is the most common screening test for breast cancer . A mammogram is an x- ...

  1. Breast Cancer: Early Detection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( ... the factors that may affect your risk for breast cancer, and find out what you can do to ...

  2. Nutrition and breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy J Key; Naomi E Allen; Elizabeth A Spencer; Ruth C Travis

    2003-01-01

    The major risk factors for breast cancer are hormone-related, and the only well-established diet-related risk factors for breast cancer are obesity and alcohol consumption. Obesity increases breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women by around 30%, probably by increasing serum concentrations of bioavailable oestradiol. Moderate alcohol intakes increase breast cancer risk by about 7% per alcoholic drink per day, perhaps also

  3. Nutrition and breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Hunter; Walter C. Willett

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and breast cancer is reviewed. After several decades of study, many aspects of the role of diet in breast cancer etiology are still unclear. Results from large prospective studies do not support the concept developed from animal and ecologic evidence that dietary fat intake in mid-life is associated with breast cancer risk. Thus,

  4. Breast Cancer Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... breast is removed. Research has shown lumpectomy plus radiation therapy offers the same overall survival benefit as mastectomy for early stage breast cancer. Lumpectomy (almost always followed by radiation therapy): Modified ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Breast cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Breast cancer On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed May 2015 What is breast cancer? Breast cancer is a disease in which certain ...

  6. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 1):R6. [PubMed Abstract] Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG). Relevance of breast cancer hormone receptors ... of the randomised trials. Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group. Lancet 1998; 351(9114):1451–1467. [PubMed ...

  7. Leukemia risk following radiotherapy for breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Curtis; J. D. Jr. Boice; M. Stovall; J. T. Flannery; W. C. Moloney

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate further the relationship between high-dose radiotherapy and leukemia incidence, a nested case-control study was conducted in a cohort of 22,753 women who were 18-month survivors of invasive breast cancer diagnosed from 1935 to 1972. Women treated for breast cancer after 1973 were excluded to minimize the possible confounding influence of treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. The cases had histologically

  8. Carboplatin and Eribulin Mesylate in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-03

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  9. Carboplatin and Eribulin Mesylate in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-23

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  10. TCGA Proteomics: Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    National Cancer Institute (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) scientists have released a dataset of proteins and phophorylated phosphopeptides identified through deep proteomic and phosphoproteomic analysis of breast tumor samples, previously genomically analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).

  11. Breast Cancer Screening Rates

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is easier to treat and before it is big enough to feel or cause symptoms. Having regular mammograms can lower the risk of dying from breast cancer. Source for graph data: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Cancer ...

  12. BREAST CANCER AND EXERCISE

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2008-03-19

    Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

  13. Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fang Fan

    \\u000a Invasive ductal carcinoma (cancer) refers to a malignant epithelial proliferation which stems from the terminal duct-lobular\\u000a unit. These tumors are so-named because of the resemblance of the tumor cells to the cells normally lining the ducts as opposed\\u000a to the lobules. These invasive epithelial tumor cells are no longer ­surrounded by a myoepithelial or basal cell layer as\\u000a in the

  14. Dietary factors and breast cancer risk in Vaud, Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Levi; Carlo La Vecchia; Cristina Gulie; Eva Negri

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between dietary factors and the risk of breast cancer was investigated in a case?control study conducted in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland as a pilot phase for a larger cooperative study within the SEARCH Programme of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (Lyon, France). A total of 107 incident, histologically confirmed cases of breast cancer and 318

  15. Your Body After Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... breasts removed, followed by radiation therapy and breast reconstruction. Her hair fell out, she lost the color ... to improve body image and appreciate a new post-cancer body. A changing body Breast cancer can ...

  16. Breast Cancer: The Orphan Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara E. Bond

    2008-01-01

    The American Cancer Society estimates that 178,000 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer annually. Estimates of between 1% and 5% of these women will be diagnosed with a more aggressive and less well understood form, inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). Women are often unaware that breast cancer can present without a lump, but with a red rash and swollen breast.

  17. Breast cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Thomas W.; Naylor, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumors are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breast cancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarize what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically. PMID:23986719

  18. Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Finding Breast Cancer Early Can Save Lives Disabilities & Breast Cancer Screening ...

  19. Cathepsin D in breast secretions from women with breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, L. M.; Ferrando, A. A.; Diez-Itza, I.; Vizoso, F.; Ruibal, A.; López-Otin, C.

    1993-01-01

    A proteinase accumulated in breast secretions from women with breast cancer has been characterised. Inhibition of the proteolytic activity of breast secretions by pepstatin A showed that the main enzyme involved was an aspartyl proteinase. Determination of its cleavage specificity by SDS-PAGE and amino acid sequence analysis revealed that it was identical to that of cathepsin D, an aspartyl proteinase suggested to be involved in breast cancer development. The identity between both proteins was further confirmed by immunological analysis with monoclonal antibodies against cathepsin D. Quantification of cathepsin D in nipple fluids from 41 women with benign or malignant breast diseases and from 19 control women without breast pathology revealed the presence of variable amounts of this proteinase. The average concentration of cathepsin D in breast secretions from cancer-bearing breasts was 7.2 +/- 2.2 fmol micrograms of protein, which was significantly higher than those of nipple fluids from control women (2.9 +/- 0.6 fmol micrograms-1) (P = 0.04) or from patients with benign breast diseases (2.1 +/- 0.3 fmol micrograms-1) (P = 0.004). Though the number of cancer patients studied was small (n = 21), no correlations were found with cytosolic concentrations of cathepsin D or oestrogen receptors, neither with other parameters such as tumour size, histological grade, axillary node involvement or menopausal status. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8494701

  20. A case of metaplastic breast cancer in a man

    PubMed Central

    Barr, James Geoffrey; Jane Clayton, Elizabeth Sarah; Sotheran, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Metaplastic breast cancers (MPBCs) represent <1% of breast cancers. Reports of MPBC in men are limited to case reports. We report a case of MPBC with pulmonary metastasis occurring in a 59-year-old man who initially presented with a presumed breast abscess. Histology from the breast lesion revealed a poorly differentiated carcinoma and a computed tomography scan showed an ulcerative right-sided breast mass and an area of scarring in the apex of the left lung. The breast lesion and the lung lesion were resected separately and the histology from the lung showed a poorly differentiated carcinoma with sarcomatous features in keeping with metastasis from a primary breast cancer. Our patient then proceeded to chemotherapy with FEC 100 regimen (5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide). MPBC is an aggressive breast cancer that has a propensity to metastasis to the lungs. Prognosis is poor. PMID:24964410

  1. A case of metaplastic breast cancer in a man.

    PubMed

    Barr, James Geoffrey; Jane Clayton, Elizabeth Sarah; Sotheran, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Metaplastic breast cancers (MPBCs) represent <1% of breast cancers. Reports of MPBC in men are limited to case reports. We report a case of MPBC with pulmonary metastasis occurring in a 59-year-old man who initially presented with a presumed breast abscess. Histology from the breast lesion revealed a poorly differentiated carcinoma and a computed tomography scan showed an ulcerative right-sided breast mass and an area of scarring in the apex of the left lung. The breast lesion and the lung lesion were resected separately and the histology from the lung showed a poorly differentiated carcinoma with sarcomatous features in keeping with metastasis from a primary breast cancer. Our patient then proceeded to chemotherapy with FEC 100 regimen (5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide). MPBC is an aggressive breast cancer that has a propensity to metastasis to the lungs. Prognosis is poor. PMID:24964410

  2. CISNET: Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    However, there are very limited data on the population effects of these novel cancer control approaches. Population modeling is a unique comparative effectiveness paradigm to fill this gap by translating advances from the laboratory and clinical trials to understanding their net effects on US breast cancer mortality. The CISNET Breast Working Group has collaborated over the past nine years to apply independent population models to evaluate cancer control practices and use results to inform clinical and public health guidelines.

  3. Breast Cancer in Canadian Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather Bryant

    2004-01-01

    HEALTH ISSUE: Although lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths for Canadian women, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed. About 5400 women are expected to die from this disease in 2003. In 1998, a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer was about one in nine. KEY FINDINGS: A number of risk factors for breast cancer have been

  4. Breast Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women in the United States (other than skin cancer). Women with breast cancer have many treatment options, including surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. A woman diagnosed with breast cancer may receive more than one type of treatment.

  5. Protect Yourself from Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for professional printing [PDF-1.1MB] Cancer Home Breast Cancer: Know the Risks Infographic Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Breast Cancer: Know the Risks Many things can increase the ...

  6. Epigenomics and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Pang-Kuo

    2009-01-01

    Breast carcinogenesis involves genetic and epigenetic alterations that cause aberrant gene function. Recent progress in the knowledge of epigenomics has had a profound impact on the understanding of mechanisms leading to breast cancer, and consequently the development of new strategies for diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Epigenetic regulation has been known to involve three mutually interacting events – DNA methylation, histone modifications and nucleosomal remodeling. These processes modulate chromatin structure to form euchromatin or heterochromatin, and in turn activate or silence gene expression. Alteration in expression of key genes through aberrant epigenetic regulation in breast cells can lead to initiation, promotion and maintenance of carcinogenesis, and is even implicated in the generation of drug resistance. We currently review known roles of the epigenetic machinery in the development and recurrence of breast cancer. Furthermore, we highlight the significance of epigenetic alterations as predictive biomarkers and as new targets of anticancer therapy. PMID:19072646

  7. Smoking and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Peggy

    2013-03-01

    The potential role of smoking in breast cancer risk has been the subject of over 100 publications, numerous scientific reviews, and animated debate. Tobacco exposure is a well-established cause of lung cancer, and is thought to account for nearly one third of all cancer deaths. Tobacco smoke contains thousands of chemicals, many of which are known to be mammary carcinogens. Although not initially thought to be a tobacco-related cancer, over the last several decades evidence has been accumulating on the role of both active smoking and secondhand smoking in the etiology of breast cancer. The human health evidence has been systematically evaluated not only by several independent researchers but also by several expert agency panels including those of the U.S. Surgeon General, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the California Environmental Protection Agency, and a coalition of Canadian health agencies. Although the assessments have varied with time and across reviewers, the most recent weight of the evidence has suggested a potentially casual role for active smoking and breast cancer, particularly for long-term heavy smoking and smoking initiation at an early age. The role of secondhand smoking and breast cancer is less clear, although there has been some suggestion for an increased risk for premenopausal breast cancer. Recent studies evaluating the possible modifying role of polymorphisms in genes involved in the metabolism of tobacco products, particularly NAT2, have contributed another dimension to these assessments, although to date that evidence remains equivocal. PMID:23179580

  8. What Is Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... statistics about breast cancer in men? What is breast cancer in men? A breast cancer is a malignant ... women but are very rare in men. General breast cancer terms Here are some of the key words ...

  9. General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant ( ... patient’s general health. Stages of Breast Cancer Key Points After breast cancer has been diagnosed, tests are ...

  10. Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant ( ... patient’s general health. Stages of Breast Cancer Key Points After breast cancer has been diagnosed, tests are ...

  11. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Chinese Women in Shanghai

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Min Yuan; Mimi C. Vu; Ronald K. Ross; Yu-Tang Gao; Brian E. Henderson

    1988-01-01

    Five hundred thirty-four histologically confirmed incident cases of breast cancer in Chinese women of Shanghai and an equal number of age and sex-matched population controls were interviewed as part of an epidemiológica! study of breast cancer risk factors. Early age at menarche was positively associated with breast cancer risk whereas early age at first full term pregnancy, high parity, and

  12. Treatment of Breast Cancer during Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is breast cancer treated? Surgery for breast cancer Radiation therapy for breast cancer Chemotherapy for breast cancer Hormone therapy for breast ... upon how long the woman has been pregnant. Radiation therapy during ... with breast cancer. Since breast-conserving surgery (BCS) needs to be ...

  13. Hepatic Acetylator Polymorphism in Breast Cancer Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José M. Ladero; María J. Fernandez; Ramiro Palmeiro; Juan J. Muñoz; Carlos Jara; Carmen Lazaro; Gumersindo Perez-Manga

    1987-01-01

    Hepatic acetylator phenotype has been determined, using sulfamethazine, in 81 white Spanish women with histologically proven breast cancer and in 75 adequate female controls. No differences were detected in the distribution of acetylator phenotype between the two groups of slow acetylators, 49 patients (60.5%) and 45 controls (60%). The percentage of acetylated sulfamethazine in plasma for each phenotype was not

  14. Breast asymmetry and predisposition to breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane Scutt; Gillian A Lancaster; John T Manning

    2006-01-01

    Introduction  It has been shown in our previous work that breast asymmetry is related to several of the known risk factors for breast cancer,\\u000a and that patients with diagnosed breast cancer have more breast volume asymmetry, as measured from mammograms, than age-matched\\u000a healthy women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In the present study, we compared the breast asymmetry of women who were free of breast disease

  15. Surgery for Breast Cancer in Men

    MedlinePLUS

    ... men treated? Surgery for breast cancer in men Radiation therapy for breast cancer in men Chemotherapy for breast cancer in men ... is breast cancer in men treated? Next Topic Radiation therapy for breast cancer in men Surgery for breast cancer in men ...

  16. Gastric Metastasis of Ectopic Breast Cancer Mimicking Axillary Metastasis of Primary Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kay?l?o?lu, Selami Ilgaz; Akyol, Cihangir; Esen, Ebru; Cans?z-Ersöz, Cevriye; Kocaay, Ak?n F?rat; Genç, Volkan; Kepenekçi, ?lknur; Demirer, Seher

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic breast tissue has the ability to undergo all the pathological changes of the normal breast, including breast cancer. Gastrointestinal metastasis of breast cancer is rarely observed and it is very difficult to differentiate gastric metastases from primary gastric cancer. We present a case of 52-year-old female, who suffered from abdominal pain. Physical examination showed a palpable mass in the left anterior axilla and computerized tomography revealed gastric wall thickening with linitis plastica. When gastroscopic biopsy showed no signs of malignancy, excisional biopsy was performed in the left axilla. Histological examination revealed invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast, consistent with ectopic breast cancer. Further gastroscopic submucosal biopsies and immunohistochemical studies revealed gastric metastases of invasive lobular carcinoma. Axillary ectopic breast tissue carcinomas can mimic axillary lymphadenopathies. Additionally, gastric metastasis of breast cancer is an uncommon but possible condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of ectopic breast cancer with gastric metastasis. PMID:25574403

  17. Bisphosphonates in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Aju; Brufsky, Adam

    2015-08-15

    Bisphosphonates are osteoclast inhibitors, currently being used in oncology to prevent or delay bone morbidity in cancer. Oral and intravenous formulations of bisphosphonates have been found to be efficacious in preventing skeletal-related events such as bone pain, pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression and hypercalcemia of malignancy, in patients with bone metastatic breast cancer. Bisphosphonates are also used to prevent bone loss associated with anti-estrogen therapy using aromatase inhibitors. In addition to its role in preventing bone resorption, several pre-clinical studies have noted an anti-tumor role as well. Recent research effort has particularly focused on investigating an adjuvant role for bisphosphonates in early breast cancer. Recently, few randomized trials have found a beneficial effect for adjuvant use of the aminobisphosphonate, zoledronate, in older patients who are post-menopausal. This review article will summarize the various clinical studies investigating the role of bisphosphonates in breast cancer. PMID:24824552

  18. Breast Cancer and the Environment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the IOM Reports Activities Meetings Print Print Report Breast Cancer and the Environment: A Life Course Approach Released: ... With more than 230,000 new cases of breast cancer expected to be diagnosed in the United States ...

  19. Minimally Invasive Treatments for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Multimedia gallery Multimedia Archive Minimally Invasive Treatments for Breast Cancer Interventional Radiology Treatments Offer New Options and Hope ... have in the fight against breast cancer. About Breast Cancer When breast tissue divides and grows at an ...

  20. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the development of breast cancer. Important Information about Breast Cancer Risk Factors At present, the factors known to ... postmenopausal women. Summary Report: Early Reproductive Events and Breast Cancer Workshop Introduction The Early Reproductive Events and Breast ...

  1. BCSC Grants: Breast Cancer Delays

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Home   |   Data   |   Statistics   |   Tools   |   Collaborations   |   Work with Us   |   Publications   |   About   |   Links Ongoing Collaborations CISNET ACS FAVOR Comprehensive Cancer Centers Ancillary Studies Breast Cancer

  2. Immunophenotyping of hereditary breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. van der Groep

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several family members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 which account for about 5% of all breast cancers. However, mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 may be missed, and small families and sometimes insufficient medical records may cause

  3. Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preventing Recurrence in Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-09

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Paget Disease of the Breast; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  4. Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-19

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Male Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  5. Inheritance of proliferative breast disease in breast cancer kindreds

    SciTech Connect

    Skolnick, M.H.; Cannon-Albright, L.A.; Goldgar, D.E.; Ward, J.H.; Marshall, C.J.; Schumann, G.B.; Hogle, H.; McWhorter, W.P.; Wright, E.C.; Tran, T.D.; Bishop, D.T.; Kushner, J.P.; Eyre, H.J. (Univ. of Utah Medical Center, Salt Lake City (United States))

    1990-12-21

    Previous studies have emphasized that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer is rare and is expressed primarily as premenopausal breast cancer, bilateral breast cancer, or both. Proliferative breast disease (PBD) is a significant risk factor for the development of breast cancer and appears to be a precursor lesion. PBD and breast cancer were studied in 103 women from 20 kindreds that were selected for the presence of two first degree relatives with breast cancer and in 31 control women. Physical examination, screening mammography, and four-quadrant fine-needle breast aspirates were performed. Cytologic analysis of breast aspirates revealed PBD in 35% of clinically normal female first degree relatives of breast cancer cases and in 13% of controls. Genetic analysis suggests that genetic susceptibility causes both PBD and breast cancer in these kindreds. This study supports the hypothesis that this susceptibility is responsible for a considerable portion of breast cancer, including unilateral and postmenopausal breast cancer.

  6. Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Velasco-Velázquez, Marco A.; Homsi, Nora; De La Fuente, Marisol; Pestell, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) constitute a subpopulation of tumor cells that express stem cell-associated markers and have a high capacity for tumor generation in vivo. Identification of BCSCs from tumor samples or breast cancer cell lines has been based mainly on CD44+/CD24?/low or ALDH+ phenotypes. BCSCs isolation has allowed the analysis of the molecular mechanisms involved in their origin, self-renewal, differentiation into tumor cells, resistance to radiation therapy and chemotherapy, and invasiveness and metastatic ability. Molecular genetic analysis using knockout animals and inducible transgenics have identified NF-?B, c-Jun, p21CIP1, and Forkhead-like-protein Dach1 in BCSC expansion and fate. Clinical analyses of BCSCs in breast tumors have found a correlation between the proportion of BCSCs and poor prognosis. Therefore, new therapies that specifically target BCSCs are an urgent need. We summarize recent evidence that partially explain the biological characteristics of BCSCs. PMID:22249027

  7. Evolving paradigms in multifocal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Roberto; Aftimos, Philippe; Sotiriou, Christos; Desmedt, Christine

    2015-04-01

    The 7th edition of the TNM defines multifocal breast cancer as multiple simultaneous ipsilateral and synchronous breast cancer lesions, provided they are macroscopically distinct and measurable using current traditional pathological and clinical tools. According to the College of American Pathologists (CAP), the characterization of only the largest lesion is considered sufficient, unless the grade and/or histology are different between the lesions. Here, we review three potentially clinically relevant aspects of multifocal breast cancers: first, the importance of a different intrinsic breast cancer subtype of the various lesions; second, the emerging awareness of inter-lesion heterogeneity; and last but not least, the potential introduction of bias in clinical trials due to the unrecognized biological diversity of these cancers. Although the current strategy to assess the lesion with the largest diameter has clearly its advantages in terms of costs and feasibility, this recommendation may not be sustainable in time and might need to be adapted to be compliant with new evolving paradigms in breast cancer. PMID:25066860

  8. More Breast Cancer Patients Opting for Lumpectomy

    MedlinePLUS

    More Breast Cancer Patients Opting for Lumpectomy: Study Experts often recommend this breast-conserving surgery, but many with early disease ... News) -- The percentage of women with early stage breast cancer who choose to have the breast-conserving surgery ...

  9. Azacitidine in Treating Patients With Triple Negative Stage I-IV Invasive Breast Cancer That Can Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-05

    Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  10. [Breast cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Delpech, Yann; Barranger, Emmanuel

    2013-12-01

    The surgery for breast cancer is frequently the first step in a multi-disciplinary care. It allows for local control, but also to establish crucial prognostic factor indicating potential adjuvant therapy. The current trend s towards de-escalation of surgical treatment for reducing the functional and aesthetic morbidity. At the local level, this de-escalation has been made possible by performing most often breast conservative surgery because of the development of oncoplastic techniques, but also because of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. At the axillary level, the reduction of morbidity has been made possible by the advent of the sentinel node biopsy which is more and more indicated year after year. PMID:24579336

  11. Birth weight, breast cancer susceptibility loci, and breast cancer risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rulla M. Tamimi; Pagona Lagiou; Kamila Czene; Jianjun Liu; Anders Ekbom; Chung-Cheng Hsieh; Hans-Olov Adami; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Per Hall

    2010-01-01

    Background  There is considerable evidence that birth weight is positively associated with breast cancer risk, and seven single-nucleotide\\u000a polymorphisms (SNPs) have been conclusively associated with this risk. We have hypothesized that breast cancer susceptibility\\u000a loci may have a greater influence on breast cancer risk among women with higher birth weight, who are expected to have a larger\\u000a pool of mammary stem

  12. Breast-Feeding May Lower Breast Cancer Recurrence, Death

    MedlinePLUS

    Breast-Feeding May Lower Breast Cancer Recurrence, Death: Study Strongest benefit seen in most common types of tumors, ... National Cancer Institute . Previous research has found that breast-feeding is linked with a lower risk of developing ...

  13. Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-12-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  14. Breast Cancer in Men: Emasculation by Association?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darrell T. Bunkley; John D. Robinson; Nelson E. Bennett; Sherilyn Gordon

    2000-01-01

    The occurrence of breast cancer in men is rare in comparison to women. Public knowledge that men can get breast cancer and of male breast self-examination are lacking. Research in the course and treatment of breast cancer in men is needed. Men generally present in more advanced stages of breast cancer than women, and have a poorer prognosis. In this

  15. Screening for breast cancer with MRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A Morris

    2003-01-01

    Breast MRI has emerged as an extremely powerful tool in breast imaging. The use of breast MRI for cancer detection has the potential to change our current algorithms in the detection of breast cancer. By being able to detect cancer that is occult on conventional imaging, such as mammography and sonography, MRI can detect early breast cancer that was previously

  16. Breast cancer susceptibility loci and mammographic density

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rulla M. Tamimi; David Cox; Peter Kraft; Graham A. Colditz; Susan E. Hankinson; David J. Hunter

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recently, the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study and identified 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer risk. Given the high degree of heritability of mammographic density and its strong association with breast cancer, it was hypothesised that breast cancer susceptibility loci may also be associated with breast density and provide insight

  17. Relationship between reflection spectra of breast adipose tissue with histologic grade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz Morales, Aarón; Vázquez Y Montiel, Sergio; Reigosa, Aldo

    2011-08-01

    Optical spectroscopy allows the characterization, recognition and differentiation of subcutaneous tissues healthy and no-healthy, to facilitate the diagnosis or early detection for breast cancer are studied white adipose tissue by the subcutaneous region with the help of the diffuse reflection spectroscopy in the visible areas (400 to 700 nm) of electromagnetic spectrum for them using a spectrometer portable of integrating sphere, Hunter lab Model Mini-Scan. The problem to be solved for cancer detection by optical techniques is to find the solution to the inverse problem of scattering of radiation in tissue where it is necessary to solve the equation of energy transfer. us through the trigonometric interpolation and by the data adjustment by least squares using Fourier series expansion to parameterize the spectral response curves of each sample of breast adipose tissue then correlated with histological grades established by the optical biopsy for each one of the samples, allowing use this technique to the study of anomalies in White Adipose Tissue Breast, changes are evident in the spectral response for Breast Adipose Tissue carcinogens with respect to healthy tissues and for the different histological grades.

  18. The genetics of breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra J. Murray

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the commonest cancer affecting women. A family history of breast cancer increases a woman's lifetime risk of developing the disease. Most of the genetic risk is due to low-risk and moderate-risk susceptibility alleles rather than high-penetrance genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2. Mutations in these two tumour suppressor genes only account for about 2% of all breast

  19. Pathology of hereditary breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra van der Groep; Elsken van der Wall; Paul J. van Diest

    2011-01-01

    Background  Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast\\u000a cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 accounting for about 5% of all breast cancers. Other genes that include CHEK2, PTEN, TP53, ATM, STK11\\/LKB1, CDH1, NBS1, RAD50, BRIP1 and PALB2 have been described to be high

  20. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Robert Richmond extracts breast cell tissue from one of two liquid nitrogen dewars. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  1. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Breast tissue specimens in traditional sample dishes. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  2. CRN - Cancer Care & Treatment: Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Breast cancer is a disease primarily of older women. The incidence of breast cancer reaches its maximum in the ninth decade of life. It is a serious disease in older women. Care of older women is further complicated by the fact that age is not only a major risk factor for breast cancer, but also for an increased burden of co-morbid disease and functional disability.

  3. Cancer Stem Cells in Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenny E. Chu; Alison L. Allan

    \\u000a Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. While it is highly treatable during\\u000a the primary stages, the disease is often lethal if it successfully metastasizes. Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) show distinct\\u000a similarities to normal breast stem cells, have been shown to be the driving force behind primary tumorigenesis, and are postulated\\u000a to

  4. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    High magnification view of human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. The arrow points to bead surface indicating breast cancer cells (as noted by the staining of tumor cell intermediate filaments). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  5. In situ breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronda S. Henry-Tillman; V. Suzanne Klimberg

    2000-01-01

    Opinion statement  The clinical expression of in situ cancer varies widely but is usually occult. Diagnosis can be made by a variety of minimally\\u000a invasive techniques. Treatment of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is patient-directed but generally requires only close followup.\\u000a Mastectomy is the gold standard for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and is associated with low recurrence rates. Breast conservation

  6. Regional Breast Cancer Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moshe Z. Papa; Siegal Sadetzki

    Advances in technology and the increase in screening for breast cancer that identifies tumors at earlier stages have made\\u000a it possible to destroy tumors in situ without surgery. This can also be used to treat locally advanced tumors. These locoregional\\u000a ablative techniques include minimally invasive surgical as well as noninvasive ablative modalities, new radiation technologies,\\u000a and regional chemotherapy. New developments

  7. Problems in the classification of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gallager, H S

    1983-03-01

    This article has sought to clarify the problems that beset the histologic classification of the numerous forms of breast cancer. Not only is classification itself difficult, but our lack of complete understanding of breast cancer often leaves us without criteria sufficiently clear to establish definite categories. Any adopted classification can be expected to require repeated revision as new information becomes available. Uniformly applying a classification will forever be hampered by factors inherent in the practice of surgical pathology and by the nature of breast disease. Considering the inherent problems, there is surprising uniformity among pathologists interested in the study of mammary carcinoma. The diversity is not so much an omen of impending chaos as a manifestation of a continuing struggle to understand the disease better. PMID:6836100

  8. The Latina Breast Cancer Screening SacleBeliefs about breast cancer and breast cancer screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evelinn A. Borrayo; Patricia González; Randall Swaim; AL Marcus; Estevan Flores; Paula Espinoza

    2009-01-01

    The Latina Breast Cancer Screening (LBCS) was developed to measure Latinas’ culturally-shared health beliefs about breast cancer and breast cancer screening. A 60-item LBCS scale was tested with 288 participants and reduced to 35 items using principal components analyses. The 35-item LBCS scale and other measures were administered to a second sample of 147 participants to establish the scale’s validity

  9. Breast Cancer: Screening for a Cure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda S. Haigh

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, an estimated 275,000 women in the United States were diagnosed with breast cancer and 41,000 patients died of this disease. 1 Because breast cancer is a common disease and early stage cancers detected by mammography are more successfully treated, mam- mogram screening programs have been instrumental in reducing breast cancer mortality. The morbidity of breast cancer treatment has

  10. Breast cancer therapies weighed

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, C.

    1990-06-29

    Even as the National Institutes of Health came under fire last week for giving short shrift to women in the institute's basic and clinical research programs, the report of a recent NIH consensus conference points up the need for more research on how to treat early breast cancer. Although the experts were able to agree on the best surgical treatment for women with early breast cancer, they couldn't resolve the more controversial issue of whether the patients should subsequently receive systemic treatment - chemotherapy or hormone therapy - to prevent recurrence of their disease. The panel reaffirmed that the removal of the lump and nearby lymph nodes, followed by irradiation, is just as effective as a mastectomy. But then came the contentious question: should women with early breast cancer, especially those without detectable lymph node metastases, receive drug therapy to prevent recurrence of the disease Currently, 70% of such cancers are successfully treated with surgery and radiation alone. For this reason, about 2 years ago, the National Cancer Institute issued a clinical alert saying that addition treatment with drugs or hormones is a credible therapeutic option worthy of careful attention for all early stage patients. This pronouncement engendered a storm of criticism. A consensus panel concluded that in cases where tumors are 1 centimeter or less in diameter and no lymph nodes are affected, the likelihood of recurrence is so small that the benefits of adjuvant therapy would be insignificant. But for the patients with larger tumors, the panel concluded that the decision is an individual one that depends on personal preferences and a variety of prognostic factors that can help to indicate whether a woman is at high risk of having a recurrence and should therefore have adjuvant therapy.

  11. Survivorship care in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sally L.; Murchison, Sonja; Singh-Carlson, Savitri; Alexander, Cheryl; Wai, Elaine S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To compare the perceptions of breast cancer survivors and primary care physicians (PCPs) about PCPs’ ability to deliver survivorship care in breast cancer. Design Mailed survey. Setting British Columbia. Participants A total of 1065 breast cancer survivors who had completed treatment of nonmetastatic breast cancer within the previous year, and 587 PCPs who had patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer discharged to their care within the preceding 18 months. Main outcome measures Breast cancer survivors’ and PCPs’ confidence ratings of PCPs’ ability to deliver the following aspects of care: screening for recurrence; managing osteoporosis, lymphedema, endocrine therapy, menopausal symptoms, and anxiety about or fear of recurrence; and providing nutrition and exercise counseling, sex and body image counseling, and family counseling. Response options for each question included low, adequate, or good. Responses were summarized as frequencies and compared using ?2 tests. Results Response rates for breast cancer survivors and PCPs were 47% and 59%, respectively. Responses were statistically different in all categories (P < .05). Both groups were most confident in the ability of PCPs to screen for recurrence, but breast cancer survivors were 10 times as likely to indicate low confidence (10% of breast cancer survivors vs 1% of PCPs) in this aspect of care. More breast cancer survivors (23%) expressed low confidence in PCPs’ ability to provide counseling about fear of recurrence compared with PCPs (3%). Aspects of care in which both breast cancer survivors and PCPs were most likely to express low confidence included sex and body image counseling (35% of breast cancer survivors vs 26% of PCPs) and family counseling (33% of breast cancer survivors vs 24% of PCPs). Primary care physicians (24%) described low confidence in their ability to manage lymphedema. Conclusion Breast cancer survivors and PCPs are reasonably confident in a PCP-based model of survivorship care. Primary care physicians are confident in their ability to manage physical effects related to breast cancer, with the exception of lymphedema. Low confidence ratings among both groups in psychosocial aspects of care suggest an area for improvement.

  12. Benign Breast Disease and the Risk of Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn C. Hartmann; Thomas A. Sellers; Marlene H. Frost; Wilma L. Lingle; Amy C. Degnim; Karthik Ghosh; Robert A. Vierkant; Shaun D. Maloney; V. Shane Pankratz; David W. Hillman; Vera J. Suman; Jo Johnson; Cassann Blake; Thea Tlsty; Celine M. Vachon; L. Joseph Melton III; Daniel W. Visscher

    2005-01-01

    background Benign breast disease is an important risk factor for breast cancer. We studied a large group of women with benign breast disease to obtain reliable estimates of this risk. methods We identified all women who received a diagnosis of benign breast disease at the Mayo Clinic between 1967 and 1991. Breast-cancer events were obtained from medical records and questionnaires.

  13. Pathways to Breast Cancer Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer remains a deadly disease, even with all the recent technological advancements. Early intervention has made an impact, but an overwhelmingly large number of breast cancer patients still live under the fear of “recurrent” disease. Breast cancer recurrence is clinically a huge problem and one that is largely not well understood. Over the years, a number of factors have been studied with an overarching aim of being able to prognose recurrent disease. This paper attempts to provide an overview of our current knowledge of breast cancer recurrence and its associated challenges. Through a survey of the literature on cancer stem cells (CSCs), epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), various signaling pathways such as Notch/Wnt/hedgehog, and microRNAs (miRNAs), we also examine the hypotheses that are currently under investigation for the prevention of breast cancer recurrence. PMID:23533807

  14. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  15. Vascular and Cognitive Assessments in Patients With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy After Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-20

    Cognitive/Functional Effects; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  16. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Older Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-01

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  17. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Older Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-20

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  18. Male Breast Cancer: One Man's Story

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Cancer: One Man's Story Male Breast Cancer: One Man's Story Posted in: Risk and Prevention , Treatments and ... the American Cancer Society, an estimated 2,000 men will be diagnosed with breast cancer this year. ...

  19. Parametrization histological grade white adipose tissue of the breast by the cubic spline interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Leslie A.; Narea, Freddy J.; Cedeño, Fernando; Muñoz, Aaron A.; Reigosa, Aldo; Bravo, Kelly

    2013-11-01

    The noninvasive optical techniques have attracted considerable interest in recent years, because these techniques provide lot of information on the structure and composition of biological tissues more quickly and painlessly, in this study classifies the degrees of histological differentiation of neoplastic tissue of the breast in white adipose tissue samples through numerical pametrización of the diffuse reflection spectra using the Fourier series approximation. The white adipose tissue is irradiated with the spectrophotometer MiniScan XEplus and it from a mastectomy of patients with aged 38 and 50 who have a cancer lesion in the breast. The samples were provided by the pathologist with theirs medical report, it which we indicate the histological grade of tumor. We performed a parameterization algorithm where the classification criterion is the modulus of the minimum difference between the numerical approximation coefficients ai and average numerical approximation coefficients obtained for each histological grade ¯ al. Is confirmed that the cubic spline interpolation this low-power computing lets classified into histological grades with 91% certainty the tissues under study from |ai - ¯ al|

  20. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... symptoms can mean there is a problem. What causes Breast cancer? Your genes and your hormones play a role ... synthetic form of progesterone, another female hormone) can cause breast tissue to grow faster than normal. Cancer usually appears in tissue that grows fast. hoW ...

  1. Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-19

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  2. Pertuzumab: development beyond breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Barthélémy, Philippe; Leblanc, Julie; Goldbarg, Veronica; Wendling, Frédérique; Kurtz, Jean-Emmanuel

    2014-04-01

    Pertuzumab (Perjeta®) represents the first monoclonal antibody in a new class of agents known as dimerization inhibitors. Pertuzumab was recently approved for the treatment of Human Epidermal Receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer in the metastatic and neo-adjuvant setting. This approval for first-line therapy for metastatic breast cancer was based on the results of a large randomized multicenter phase III trial showing a significant improvement in overall survival when pertuzumab was combined with trastuzumab and docetaxel in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. In the neoadjuvant setting, dual HER2 blockade by trastuzumab and pertuzumab improved the complete pathological response rate. However, pertuzumab development was not confined to breast cancer and in the present article, we focus on pertuzumab data for solid tumors other than breast cancer, and review the biological rationale for its use, the published pre-clinical and clinical evidence, as well ongoing trials. PMID:24692675

  3. Tubular Carcinoma of the Breast: A Histologic Subtype Indicative of Breast-Conserving Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keisei Anan; Shoshu Mitsuyama; Keiyoshi Tamae; Kazuyoshi Nishihara; Toshimitsu Iwashita; Yuji Abe; Takaaki Ihara; Shousaku Nakahara; Fujio Katsumoto; Shigeaki Takeda; Satoshi Toyoshima

    2000-01-01

    We reviewed the clinical and pathologic features of pure tubular carcinoma of the breast with particular emphasis on the\\u000a reported risk factors associated with local recurrences and survival following breast-conserving therapy. Of 1653 cases of\\u000a invasive breast cancer, 12 (0.7%) were identified as pure tubular carcinoma. Clinical\\/pathologic features of pure tubular\\u000a carcinoma were compared with those of T1 invasive carcinoma

  4. Genetic risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nasir, A; Shackelford, R E; Anwar, F; Yeatman, T J

    2009-12-01

    Several cutting-edge strategies are being used to evaluate candidate genetic risk factors for breast cancer. These include linkage analysis for mapping out BRCA1 and BRCA2, mutational screening of candidate risk genes like CHEK2, ATM, BRIP1 and PALB2, which are associated with an intermediate level of breast cancer risk. Genome-wide association studies have revealed several low-penetrance breast cancer risk alleles. The predisposition factors are associated with different levels of breast cancer risk. Relative to control population, the risk in patients harboring high-risk BRCA1 and 2 mutations is over 10-fold, with intermediate penetrance genes 2 to 4-fold and with low penetrance alleles less than 1.5-fold. Overall, these factors account for about 25% of the genetic risk for breast cancer. In the remainder, genetic factors to contribute to the risk of breast cancer remain unknown and are a subject of current investigation. With discovery and validation of newer and clinically relevant predisposition factors, additional breast cancer risk categories may be recognized. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation testing allows identification of individuals at increased risk of breast cancer who are offered risk-reducing interventions. Targeted therapies are being developed that may refine management of patients with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Further genome-wide studies are required to identify clinically relevant molecular factors that will allow more accurate and widely applicable genetic risk stratification. Current efforts in discovery, validation and qualification of molecular markers of breast cancer risk offer considerable promise in the future to develop more accurate breast cancer risk assessment along with development of more effective chemopreventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:20046159

  5. Treating Male Breast Cancer by Stage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... men treated? Surgery for breast cancer in men Radiation therapy for breast cancer in men Chemotherapy for breast cancer in men ... these may be used after surgery and/or radiation therapy. Regional recurrence: When breast cancer comes back in nearby lymph nodes (such as ...

  6. Family history of breast cancer and all-cause mortality after breast cancer diagnosis in the Breast Cancer Family Registry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen T. Chang; Roger L. Milne; Kelly-Anne Phillips; Jane C. Figueiredo; Meera Sangaramoorthy; Theresa H. M. Keegan; Irene L. Andrulis; John L. Hopper; Pamela J. Goodwin; Frances P. O’Malley; Nayana Weerasooriya; Carmel Apicella; Melissa C. Southey; Michael L. Friedlander; Graham G. Giles; Alice S. Whittemore; Dee W. West; Esther M. John

    2009-01-01

    Although having a family history of breast cancer is a well established breast cancer risk factor, it is not known whether\\u000a it influences mortality after breast cancer diagnosis. We studied 4,153 women with first primary incident invasive breast\\u000a cancer diagnosed between 1991 and 2000, and enrolled in the Breast Cancer Family Registry through population-based sampling\\u000a in Northern California, USA; Ontario,

  7. CANCER GENETICS & PREVENTION HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER

    E-print Network

    Liu, Xiaole Shirley

    CANCER GENETICS & PREVENTION HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME (HBOC) ­ BRCA1 PATIENT INFORMATION What is Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer syndrome? Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer syndrome (HBOC) is the most common hereditary form of breast and ovarian cancer. About 2% of women

  8. Addition of Carboplatin to Neoadjuvant Therapy for Triple-negative and HER2-positive Early Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-06

    Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II; Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II; Breast Cancer Female NOS; Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III; HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer Stage IV; Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  9. Pertuzumab, Trastuzumab, and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-01

    HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  10. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of breast cancer

    E-print Network

    Mohr, Sharif Burgette

    2012-01-01

    and breast cancer with consideration of the methodological issues. Cancer causes &and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Cancer Causesand breast cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Cancer Causes

  11. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Treated With Zoledronic Acid

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-23

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  12. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Time-lapse exposure depicts Bioreactor rotation. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  13. Epigenetics and Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Vo, An T.; Millis, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Several of the active compounds in foods, poisons, drugs, and industrial chemicals may, by epigenetic mechanisms, increase or decrease the risk of breast cancers. Enzymes that are involved in DNA methylation and histone modifications have been shown to be altered in several types of breast and other cancers resulting in abnormal patterns of methylation and/or acetylation. Hypermethylation at the CpG islands found in estrogen response element (ERE) promoters occurs in conjunction with ligand-bonded alpha subunit estrogen receptor (Er?) dimers wherein the ligand ER? dimer complex acts as a transcription factor and binds to the ERE promoter. Ligands could be 17-?-estradiol (E2), phytoestrogens, heterocyclic amines, and many other identified food additives and heavy metals. The dimer recruits DNA methyltransferases which catalyze the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to 5?-cytosine on CpG islands. Other enzymes are recruited to the region by ligand-ER? dimers which activate DNA demethylases to act simultaneously to increase gene expression of protooncogenes and growth-promoting genes. Ligand-ER? dimers also recruit histone acetyltransferase to the ERE promoter region. Histone demethylases such as JMJD2B and histone methyltransferases are enzymes which demethylate lysine residues on histones H3 and/or H4. This makes the chromatin accessible for transcription factors and enzymes. PMID:22567014

  14. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Human primary breast tumor cells after 49 days of growth in a NASA Bioreactor. Tumor cells aggregate on microcarrier beads (indicated by arrow). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  15. Breast Cancer and Women with Disabilities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Breast Cancer and Women with Disabilities Language: English Español (Spanish) ... years old, get a mammogram every two years. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. And ...

  16. BRCA1 polymorphisms and breast cancer epidemiology in the Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer (WEB) study

    PubMed Central

    Ricks-Santi, Luisel J.; Nie, Jing; Marian, Catalin; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Trevisan, Maurizio; Edge, Stephen B.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Shields, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    Results of studies for the association of BRCA1 genotypes and haplotypes with sporadic breast cancer have been inconsistent. Therefore, a candidate SNP approach was used in a breast cancer case-control study to explore genotypes and haplotypes that have the potential to affect protein functions or levels. In a breast cancer case-control study, genotyping of BRCA1 polymorphisms Q356R, D693N, and E1038G was performed on 1005 cases and 1765 controls. Unconditional, polytomous logistic regression and chi square tests were used to examine the associations of breast cancer with genotypes and haplotypes. Additionally, interactions between genotype and smoking, benign breast disease, family history of breast cancer, BMI, alcohol consumption, and hormonal risk factors, hormone receptor status, and breast cancer pathology were calculated also using logistic regression and chi square. While, sporadic breast cancer was not associated with BRCA1 genotypes or haplotypes overall or by menopausal status, there was evidence of an interaction between the E1038G BRCA1 genotype, smoking, and BMI among premenopausal women (p for interaction=0.01 and 0.045, respectively) and between E1038G and D693N BRCA1 genotypes and hormone therapy use among postmenopausal women (p for interaction=0.01 and 0.02, respectively). There were no other associations found between BRCA1 genotypes and stage, histologic grade, or nuclear grade. However, the D693N SNP was associated with the risk of triple negative breast cancer (OR=2.31 95% CI: 1.08–4.93). The BRCA1 variants studied may play a role in the etiology of triple negative breast cancer and may interact with environmental factors such as hormone therapy or smoking and increase sporadic breast cancer risk. PMID:23674270

  17. Cancer risk after radiotherapy for breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Levi; L Randimbison; V-C Te; C La Vecchia

    2006-01-01

    Among women with breast cancer, we compared the relative and absolute rates of subsequent cancers in 1541 women treated with radiotherapy (RT) to 4570 women not so treated (NRT), using all registered in the Swiss Vaud Cancer Registry in the period between 1978 and 1998, and followed up to December 2002. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and the corresponding 95% confidence

  18. Significance of the tritiated thymidine labeling index in breast cancers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keisuke Araki; Masaharu Kimura; Kiyoshi Sakamoto; Reiki Nishimura; Masanobu Akagi

    1985-01-01

    We carried out studiesto determine whether the Tritiated Thymidine Labeling Index (TLI) would correlate with hormone receptors\\u000a as well as with clinical and histological data. Sixty-four patients with breast cancer were the subjects studied. TLI showed\\u000a no relationship to age, menopausal status, T-factor, n-factor, stage, or histological type. However, compared to tubule formation,\\u000a nuclear pleomorphism, and mitotic activity, TLI showed

  19. Triiodothyronine and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    De Sibio, Maria Teresa; de Oliveira, Miriane; Moretto, Fernanda Cristina Fontes; Olimpio, Regiane Marques Castro; Conde, Sandro José; Luvizon, Aline Carbonera; Nogueira, Célia Regina

    2014-01-01

    The thyroid hormones (THs), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), are essential for survival; they are involved in the processes of development, growth, and metabolism. In addition to hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, THs are involved in other diseases. The role of THs in the development and differentiation of mammary epithelium is well established; however, their specific role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer (BC) is controversial. Steroid hormones affect many human cancers and the abnormal responsiveness of the mammary epithelial cells to estradiol (E2) in particular is known to be an important cause for the development and progression of BC. The proliferative effect of T3 has been demonstrated in various types of cancer. In BC cell lines, T3 may foster the conditions for tumor proliferation and increase the effect of cell proliferation by E2; thus, T3 may play a role in the development and progression of BC. Studies show that T3 has effects similar to E2 in BC cell lines. Despite controversy regarding the relationship between thyroid disturbances and the incidence of BC, studies show that thyroid status may influence the development of tumor, proliferation and metastasis. PMID:25114863

  20. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Cyclophosphamide, and Filgrastim Followed By Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer Previously Treated With Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-07

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  1. Can Breast Cancer in Men Be Found Early?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and symptoms of breast cancer in men Can breast cancer in men be found early? Early detection improves ... Differences affecting early detection of male and female breast cancers There are many similarities between breast cancer in ...

  2. Fostering early breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, Judy A; Weyhenmeyer, Diana P; Mabus, Linda K

    2014-12-01

    This article examines how faith community nurses (FCNs) fostered early breast cancer detection for those at risk in rural and African American populations throughout nine counties in midwestern Illinois to decrease breast cancer disparities. Flexible methods for breast cancer awareness education through FCNs, effective strategies for maximizing participation, and implications for practice were identified. In addition, networking within faith communities, connecting with complementary activities scheduled in those communities, and offering refreshments and gift items that support educational efforts were identified as effective ways of maximizing outcomes and reinforcing learning. Flexible educational programming that could be adapted to situational and learning needs was important to alleviate barriers in the project. As a result, the number of participants in the breast cancer awareness education program exceeded the grant goal, and the large number of African American participants and an unexpected number of Hispanic and Latino participants exceeded the target. PMID:25427713

  3. The TAILORx Breast Cancer Trial

    Cancer.gov

    A collection of material about the Trial Assigning IndividuaLized Options for Treatment (Rx), or TAILORx, which will examine whether a molecular test can assign women with early-stage breast cancer to the most appropriate and effective treatment.

  4. Paying for Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... other federal laws. State efforts to ensure private health insurance coverage of mammography Many states require that private ... self-insured employer plans should check with their health insurance administrator to see what breast cancer early detection ...

  5. Bilateral synchronous male breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nwashilli, Nnamdi J.; Ugiagbe, Ezekiel E.

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral synchronous breast cancer is extremely rare. A 75-year-old man presented with a right breast mass, which ulcerated and a lump in the left breast. Right breast examination revealed a breast ulcer 7×10cm with everted edges and complete nipple destruction. The left breast showed a hard lump measuring 4×5cm in the nipple-areolar area, unattached to skin, or underlying structure. There was no palpable axillary lymph node bilaterally. A wedge biopsy of right breast ulcer and excision of the left breast lump confirmed bilateral invasive ductal carcinoma - Grade 2 tumor in both breasts. He had bilateral simple mastectomy and chemotherapy; defaulted for 18 months during treatment, and re-presented with bilateral tumor recurrence. The importance of this case report is to create more awareness that breast cancer can occur in males just as in females, though the incidence is rare in males. Early presentation and compliance with treatment modality provide a better outcome. PMID:25737181

  6. Metals and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Celia; Divekar, Shailaja D; Storchan, Geoffrey B; Parodi, Daniela A; Martin, Mary Beth

    2013-03-01

    Metalloestrogens are metals that activate the estrogen receptor in the absence of estradiol. The metalloestrogens fall into two subclasses: metal/metalloid anions and bivalent cationic metals. The metal/metalloid anions include compounds such as arsenite, nitrite, selenite, and vanadate while the bivalent cations include metals such as cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, nickel, chromium, lead, mercury, and tin. The best studied metalloestrogen is cadmium. It is a heavy metal and a prevalent environmental contaminant with no known physiological function. This review addresses our current understanding of the mechanism by which cadmium and the bivalent cationic metals activate estrogen receptor-?. The review also summarizes the in vitro and in vivo evidence that cadmium functions as an estrogen and the potential role of cadmium in breast cancer. PMID:23338949

  7. Soy Isoflavones Supplementation in Treating Women at High Risk For or With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-20

    BRCA1 Mutation Carrier; BRCA2 Mutation Carrier; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer

  8. Choosing the right cell line for breast cancer research.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Deborah L; Speirs, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease. Gene expression profiling has contributed significantly to our understanding of this heterogeneity at a molecular level, refining taxonomy based on simple measures such as histological type, tumour grade, lymph node status and the presence of predictive markers like oestrogen receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) to a more sophisticated classification comprising luminal A, luminal B, basal-like, HER2-positive and normal subgroups. In the laboratory, breast cancer is often modelled using established cell lines. In the present review we discuss some of the issues surrounding the use of breast cancer cell lines as experimental models, in light of these revised clinical classifications, and put forward suggestions for improving their use in translational breast cancer research. PMID:21884641

  9. Choosing the right cell line for breast cancer research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease. Gene expression profiling has contributed significantly to our understanding of this heterogeneity at a molecular level, refining taxonomy based on simple measures such as histological type, tumour grade, lymph node status and the presence of predictive markers like oestrogen receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) to a more sophisticated classification comprising luminal A, luminal B, basal-like, HER2-positive and normal subgroups. In the laboratory, breast cancer is often modelled using established cell lines. In the present review we discuss some of the issues surrounding the use of breast cancer cell lines as experimental models, in light of these revised clinical classifications, and put forward suggestions for improving their use in translational breast cancer research. PMID:21884641

  10. Gene signatures of breast cancer progression and metastasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David I Rodenhiser; Joseph D Andrews; Theodore A Vandenberg; Ann F Chambers

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease. Patient outcome varies significantly, depending on prognostic features of patients and their tumors, including patient age, menopausal status, tumor size and histology, nodal status, and so on. Response to treatment also depends on a series of predictive factors, such as hormone receptor and HER2 status. Current treatment guidelines use these features to determine

  11. Breast Cancer prediction based on Backpropagation Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Bin Mohd Azmi; Z. C. Cob

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide and occurs in nearly one out of eight women. Currently there are three techniques to diagnose breast cancer: mammography, FNA (Fine Needle Aspirate) and surgical biopsy. In this paper, we develop a system that can classify “Breast Cancer Disease” tumor using neural network with Feed-forward Backpropagation Algorithm

  12. Prognosis of Breast Cancer using Genetic Programming

    E-print Network

    Ludwig, Simone

    Prognosis of Breast Cancer using Genetic Programming Simone A. Ludwig and Stefanie Roos Department of Computer Science, University of Saskatchewan, Canada ludwig@cs.usask.ca Abstract. Worldwide, breast cancer. In 2004, breast cancer caused 519,000 deaths worldwide. In order to reduce the cancer deaths and thereby

  13. [Mammary implants and breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Meunier, A; Tristant, H; Sinna, R; Delay, E

    2005-10-01

    Many publications deal with the impact of cosmetic breast implants to increase the breast cancer occurence or to delay its diagnosis. We first try to express the clinical and radiological differences in the implanted breast. The diagnostical and therapeutical difficulties were developped to the different technics of imagery, biopsy and specific management of the treatment. On one hand, the litterature revue does not show any significant difference in tumoral stage and nodal status between augmented and nonaugmented women eventhough the mammography sensibility is not as optimal. On the other hand, the global mortality of the augmented population is higher but it appears that this phenomenon could be link to their way of life and is totally independant of breast cancer. Finally, if the diagnosis and the treatment are more complex, the women survival is not altered by breast augmented surgery. PMID:16169139

  14. Environmental pollutants and breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer death among women 35-54 years of age. Rising incidence, increased risk among migrants to higher risk regions, and poor prediction of individual risk have prompted a search for additional modifiable factors. Risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive characteristics associated with estrogen and other hormones, pharmaceutical hormones, and activities such as alcohol use and lack of exercise that affect hormone levels. As a result, investigation of hormonally active compounds in commercial products and pollution is a priority. Compounds that cause mammary tumors in animals are additional priorities. Animal models provide insight into possible mechanisms for effects of environmental pollutants on breast cancer and identify chemical exposures to target in epidemiologic studies. Although few epidemiologic studies have been conducted for chemical exposures, occupational studies show associations between breast cancer and exposure to certain organic solvents and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Population-based studies have been limited to a few organochlorine compounds and PAHs and have been mostly negative. A variety of challenges in studies of breast cancer and the environment may have contributed to negative findings. Lack of exposure assessment tools and few hypothesis-generating toxicologic studies limit the scope of epidemiologic studies. Issues of timing with respect to latency and periods of breast vulnerability, and individual differences in susceptibility pose other challenges. Substantial work is needed in exposure assessment, toxicology, and susceptibility before we can expect a pay-off from large epidemiologic studies of breast cancer and environment. PMID:12826474

  15. Environmental exposures, breast development and cancer risk: Through the looking glass of breast cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Forman, Michele R; Winn, Deborah M; Collman, Gwen W; Rizzo, Jeanne; Birnbaum, Linda S

    2015-07-01

    This review summarizes the report entitled: Breast Cancer and the Environment: Prioritizing Prevention, highlights research gaps and the importance of focusing on early life exposures for breast development and breast cancer risk. PMID:25499721

  16. Sources: UCSF, Zero Breast Cancer, California Department of Public Health, American Association for Cancer Research, SEER Facts on Breast Cancer

    E-print Network

    Mullins, Dyche

    Top 5 cancers ALL CANCERS Prostate Breast Brain Melanoma ­ Skin Lung and Bronchus 6,234 832 575 405Sources: UCSF, Zero Breast Cancer, California Department of Public Health, American Association for Cancer Research, SEER Facts on Breast Cancer · UCSF's second highest ethnic group of breast cancer

  17. Does multicentric\\/multifocal breast cancer differ from unifocal breast cancer? An analysis of survival and contralateral breast cancer incidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rinat Yerushalmi; Hagen Kennecke; Ryan Woods; Ivo A. Olivotto; Caroline Speers; Karen A. Gelmon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose we evaluated whether patients with multifocal\\/multicentric (M\\/M) breast cancer have different outcomes compared to unifocal\\u000a (U) disease in terms of survival and the development of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) disease. Methods women diagnosed with stage I–III breast cancer were classified as having U or M\\/M disease. Prognostic factors were prospectively\\u000a collected and obtained from the breast cancer outcome unit

  18. The ‘other half’ of breast cancer: A review of male breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus W. L. Ying; Amit Agrawal; Kwok-Leung Cheung

    2005-01-01

    Male breast cancer has always been shadowed by the attention received by its other half of the coin; female breast cancer. It is widely known to be 1% of all breast cancer, constituting also about 1% of all breast cancer literature. As a rare disease, it is fortunate that its female counterpart has provided it with the wealth of knowledge

  19. Photodynamic therapy of breast cancer with photosense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoulovskaya, Elena G.; Shental, Victor V.; Oumnova, Loubov V.; Vorozhcsov, Georgiu N.

    2003-06-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) using photosensitizer Photosense (PS) in dose 0.5 mg per kg of body weight have been provided in 24 patients with breast cancer. In 22 patients with T1-T2N0M0 primary tumor was treated as the preoperative treatment, radical mastectomy has been fulfilled 7-10 days after PDT with subsequent histological examination. 2 patients had recurrencies of breast cancer with lymph node metastases after radiotherapy. Fluorescent diagnostics of tumor, accumulation of PS in tumor, adjacent tissue, skin before and during PDT was fulfilled with spectranalyzer LESA-01. We used semiconductive laser for PDT - ? = 672+2nm, P=1,5 W, interstitial irradiation 2-24 hours after PS injection has been done in light dose 150-200 J/cm3, 1-3 irradiations with interval 24-48 hours and total light dose 400-600 J/cm3 depending mostly of size and fluorescent data. Partial regression of tumor with pathomorphosis of 2-4 degrees has been found in 19 cases. Our experience shows pronounced efficacy of PDT for treating breast cancer as preoperative modality and as palliation in cases of recurrencies.

  20. What Breast Cancer Survivors Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... browser. Home Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Other Conditions What Breast Cancer Survivors Need to Know About Osteoporosis Publication available ... Imperfecta Prostate Cancer Rheumatoid Arthritis Smoking Partner Resources Breast Cancer (NIH Senior Health) Breast Cancer FAQs (OWH) Cancer ...

  1. The impact of breast cancer screening on breast cancer registrations in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Richardson; Brian Cox; Thelma Brown; Paul Smale

    Aims To investigate the impact of the national breast cancer screening programme, BreastScreen Aotearoa, on breast cancer registrations in New Zealand. Methods Age-specific breast cancer incidence rates for women aged 50-64 years were compared before and after the establishment of BreastScreen Aotearoa. The degree of spread of breast cancers diagnosed at screening was compared with the degree of spread of

  2. Organochlorine Compounds and Risk of Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Tongzhang Zheng, of Yale University, New Haven, CT, and colleagues conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Connecticut to investigate risk for breast cancer associated with exposure to organochlorine compounds. Levels of organochlorine compounds are being measured in breast adipose (fatty) tissue and blood serum obtained from women who had surgery or biopsies for breast cancer or benign breast disease.

  3. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Isolate of long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from outgrowth of duct element; cells shown soon after isolation and early in culture in a dish. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  4. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Same long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), but after 3 weeks in concinuous culture. Note attempts to reform duct elements, but this time in two dimensions in a dish rather that in three demensions in tissue. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  5. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneously die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  6. FastStats: Mammography/Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ordered or provided: 3.0 million Source: National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2011 Outpatient Department Summary Tables, table 15 [PDF - 330 KB] Breast cancer mortality Number of breast cancer deaths for females: 40, ...

  7. What Happens After Treatment for Breast Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2015 Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Breast Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Breast Cancer Talking With Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New ...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility Suzanne. E. Fenton US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  9. Molecular apocrine differentiation is a common feature of breast cancer in patients with germline PTEN mutations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Breast carcinoma is the main malignant tumor occurring in patients with Cowden disease, a cancer-prone syndrome caused by germline mutation of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN characterized by the occurrence throughout life of hyperplastic, hamartomatous and malignant growths affecting various organs. The absence of known histological features for breast cancer arising in a PTEN-mutant background prompted us to explore them for potential new markers. Methods We first performed a microarray study of three tumors from patients with Cowden disease in the context of a transcriptomic study of 74 familial breast cancers. A subsequent histological and immunohistochemical study including 12 additional cases of Cowden disease breast carcinomas was performed to confirm the microarray data. Results Unsupervised clustering of the 74 familial tumors followed the intrinsic gene classification of breast cancer except for a group of five tumors that included the three Cowden tumors. The gene expression profile of the Cowden tumors shows considerable overlap with that of a breast cancer subgroup known as molecular apocrine breast carcinoma, which is suspected to have increased androgenic signaling and shows frequent ERBB2 amplification in sporadic tumors. The histological and immunohistochemical study showed that several cases had apocrine histological features and expressed GGT1, which is a potential new marker for apocrine breast carcinoma. Conclusions These data suggest that activation of the ERBB2-PI3K-AKT pathway by loss of PTEN at early stages of tumorigenesis promotes the formation of breast tumors with apocrine features. PMID:20712882

  10. Cancer Stem Cells in Breast

    PubMed Central

    Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Monville, Florence; Ginestier, Christophe; Dontu, Gabriela; Birnbaum, Daniel; Wicha, Max S.

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for the cancer stem cell hypothesis, which holds that cancers are driven by a cellular subcomponent that has stem cell properties, that is, self-renewal, tumorigenicity and multilineage differentiation capacity. The cancer stem cell hypothesis modifies our conceptual approach of oncogenesis and shall have implications in breast cancer prevention, detection and treatment, especially in metastatic breast cancer for which no curative treatment exists. Given the specific stem cell features, novel therapeutic pathways can be targeted. Following this approach, new molecules are currently in development. Focusing on the cross-talk between stem cells and their microenvironment is also a promising way to explore how to better target cancer stem cells and be curative. PMID:18544962

  11. Minocycline Hydrochloride in Reducing Chemotherapy Induced Depression and Anxiety in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-24

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  12. Prevention of ER-Negative Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuxin Li; Powel H. Brown

    The successful demonstration that the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) tamoxifen and raloxifene reduce the risk\\u000a of breast cancer has stimulated great interest in using drugs to prevent breast cancer in high-risk women. In addition, recent\\u000a results from breast cancer treatment trials suggest that aromatase inhibitors may be even more effective at preventing breast\\u000a cancer than are SERMs. However, while

  13. Multicenter Breast Cancer Collaborative Registry

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Simon; Shats, Oleg; Fleissner, Elizabeth; Bascom, George; Yiee, Kevin; Copur, Mehmet; Crow, Kate; Rooney, James; Mateen, Zubeena; Ketcham, Marsha A.; Feng, Jianmin; Sherman, Alexander; Gleason, Michael; Kinarsky, Leo; Silva-Lopez, Edibaldo; Edney, James; Reed, Elizabeth; Berger, Ann; Cowan, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Breast Cancer Collaborative Registry (BCCR) is a multicenter web-based system that efficiently collects and manages a variety of data on breast cancer (BC) patients and BC survivors. This registry is designed as a multi-tier web application that utilizes Java Servlet/JSP technology and has an Oracle 11g database as a back-end. The BCCR questionnaire has accommodated standards accepted in breast cancer research and healthcare. By harmonizing the controlled vocabulary with the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) or Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT), the BCCR provides a standardized approach to data collection and reporting. The BCCR has been recently certified by the National Cancer Institute’s Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology (NCI CBIIT) as a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) Bronze Compatible product. The BCCR is aimed at facilitating rapid and uniform collection of critical information and biological samples to be used in developing diagnostic, prevention, treatment, and survivorship strategies against breast cancer. Currently, seven cancer institutions are participating in the BCCR that contains data on almost 900 subjects (BC patients and survivors, as well as individuals at high risk of getting BC). PMID:21918596

  14. Correlation between PET/CT results and histological and immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinomas*

    PubMed Central

    Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Lima, Eduardo Nóbrega Pereira; Chojniak, Rubens; Marques, Elvira Ferreira; de Souza, Juliana Alves; Graziano, Luciana; Andrade, Wesley Pereira; Osório, Cynthia Aparecida Bueno de Toledo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To correlate the results of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) performed with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts with histological/immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinoma patients. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional study with prospective data collection, where patients with biopsy-confirmed breast carcinomas were studied. The patients underwent PET/CT examination in prone position, with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts. PET/CT findings were compared with histological and immunohistochemical data. Results The authors identified 59 malignant breast lesions in 50 patients. The maximum diameter of the lesions ranged from 6 to 80 mm (mean: 32.2 mm). Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most common histological type (n = 47; 79.7%). At PET/CT, 53 (89.8%) of the lesions demonstrated anomalous concentrations of 18F-FDG, with maximum SUV ranging from 0.8 to 23.1 (mean: 5.5). A statistically significant association was observed between higher values of maximum SUV and histological type, histological grade, molecular subtype, tumor diameter, mitotic index and Ki-67 expression. Conclusion PET/CT performed with specific protocol for assessment of breasts has demonstrated good sensitivity and was associated with relevant histological/immunohistochemical factors related to aggressiveness and prognosis of breast carcinomas. PMID:25741051

  15. Loss of primary cilia occurs early in breast cancer development

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles that protrude from the cell surface. Primary cilia play a critical role in development and disease through regulation of signaling pathways including the Hedgehog pathway. Recent mouse models have also linked ciliary dysfunction to cancer. However, little is known about the role of primary cilia in breast cancer development. Primary cilia expression was characterized in cancer cells as well as their surrounding stromal cells from 86 breast cancer patients by counting cilia and measuring cilia length. In addition, we examined cilia expression in normal epithelial and stromal cells from reduction mammoplasties as well as histologically normal adjacent tissue for comparison. Results We observed a statistically significant decrease in the percentage of ciliated cells on both premalignant lesions as well as in invasive cancers. This loss of cilia does not correlate with increased proliferative index (Ki67-positive cells). However, we did detect rare ciliated cancer cells present in patients with invasive breast cancer and found that these express a marker of basaloid cancers that is associated with poor prognosis (Cytokeratin 5). Interestingly, the percentage of ciliated stromal cells associated with both premalignant and invasive cancers decreased when compared to stromal cells associated with normal tissue. To understand how cilia may be lost during cancer development we analyzed the expression of genes required for ciliogenesis and/or ciliary function and compared their expression in normal versus breast cancer samples. We found that expression of ciliary genes were frequently downregulated in human breast cancers. Conclusions These data suggest that primary cilia are lost early in breast cancer development on both the cancer cells and their surrounding stromal cells. PMID:24987519

  16. HLA-G polymorphism and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rolfsen, G B; Castelli, E C; Donadi, E A; Duarte, R A; Soares, C P

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore a possible influence of the HLA-G coding polymorphisms on the susceptibility to breast cancer development in Brazilian subjects; however, none of the HLA-G variation sites evaluated was influencing breast cancer susceptibility indicating that the variation in the HLA-G coding region is not a risk factor for breast cancer. PMID:24164707

  17. The Basic Pathology of Human Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Mallon; Pinchas Osin; Nasar Nasiri; Iain Blain; Beatrice Howard; Barry Gusterson

    2000-01-01

    This article illustrates the most common benign and malignant lesions in the breast, and is intended for the biologist working in the area of breast cancer and breast biology, not for the practicing pathologist. The atlas covers benign proliferative lesions, atypical lesions, variants of in situ cancer, the main types of invasive cancers, spindle cell lesions, and examples of vascular

  18. Evaluate Risk/Benefit of Nab Paclitaxel in Combination With Gemcitabine and Carboplatin Compared to Gemcitabine and Carboplatin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer (or Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-12

    Breast Tumor; Breast Cancer; Cancer of the Breast; Estrogen Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; HER2- Negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  19. Tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, V.C. [Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The case for tamoxifen to be tested as a preventive for breast cancer has merit. Animal studies demonstrate that tamoxifen prevents mammary carcinogenesis and clinical studies now confirm that adjuvant tamoxifen therapy is the only systemic treatment that will prevent contralateral breast cancer. Developing clinical studies confirm the laboratory data that tamoxifen will maintain post-menopausal bone density in the lumbar spine and the neck of the femur; two important skeletal sites for the ultimate prevention of osteoporosis. However, a most important target site-specific effect of tamoxifen is the decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women. This positive property of tamoxifen may be responsible for the recorded decreases in hospital visits for the treatment of cardiac conditions and the significant decrease in fatal myocardial infarction for women treated with 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen. These data provide the scientific basis to undertake randomized, placebocontrolled clinical trials to test the worth of tamoxifen to prevent breast cancer.

  20. Clinical Proteomics of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bask?n, Y.; Yi?itba??, T.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the lifetimes that increased in breast cancers due to the the early screening programs and new therapeutic strategies, many cases still are being lost due to the metastatic relapses. For this reason, new approaches such as the proteomic techniques have currently become the prime objectives of breast cancer researches. Various omic-based techniques have been applied with increasing success to the molecular characterisation of breast tumours, which have resulted in a more detailed classification scheme and have produced clinical diagnostic tests that have been applied to both the prognosis and the prediction of outcome to the treatment. Implementation of the proteomics-based techniques is also seen as crucial if we are to develop a systems biology approach in the discovery of biomarkers of the early diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of the outcome of the breast cancer therapies. In this review, we discuss the studies that have been conducted thus far, for the discovery of diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers, and evaluate the potential of the discriminating proteins identified in this research for clinical use as breast cancer biomarkers. PMID:21532837

  1. Smoking and Breast Cancer Recurrence after Breast Conservation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Jennifer D.; Killelea, Brigid K.; Chagpar, Anees B.; Horowitz, Nina R.; Lannin, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Prior studies have shown earlier recurrence and decreased survival in patients with head and neck cancer who smoked while undergoing radiation therapy. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether smoking status at the time of partial mastectomy and radiation therapy for breast cancer affected recurrence or survival. Method. A single institution retrospective chart review was performed to correlate smoking status with patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and outcomes for patients undergoing partial mastectomy and radiation therapy. Results. There were 624 patients who underwent breast conservation surgery between 2002 and 2010 for whom smoking history and follow-up data were available. Smoking status was associated with race, patient age, and tumor stage, but not with grade, histology, or receptor status. African American women were more likely to be current smokers (22% versus 7%, P < 0.001). With a mean follow-up of 45 months, recurrence was significantly higher in current smokers compared to former or never smokers (P = 0.039). In a multivariate model adjusted for race and tumor stage, recurrence among current smokers was 6.7 times that of never smokers (CI 2.0–22.4). Conclusions. Although the numbers are small, this study suggests that smoking may negatively influence recurrence rates after partial mastectomy and radiation therapy. A larger study is needed to confirm these observations. PMID:24693439

  2. Clinical management of breast cancer heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Zardavas, Dimitrios; Irrthum, Alexandre; Swanton, Charles; Piccart, Martine

    2015-07-01

    Traditionally, intertumour heterogeneity in breast cancer has been documented in terms of different histological subtypes, treatment sensitivity profiles, and clinical outcomes among different patients. Results of high-throughput molecular profiling studies have subsequently revealed the true extent of this heterogeneity. Further complicating this scenario, the heterogeneous expression of the oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 has been reported in different areas of the same tumour. Furthermore, discordance, in terms of ER, PR and HER2 expression, has also been reported between primary tumours and their matched metastatic lesions. High-throughput molecular profiling studies have confirmed that spatial and temporal intratumour heterogeneity of breast cancers exist at a level beyond common expectations. We describe the different levels of tumour heterogeneity, and discuss the strategies that can be adopted by clinicians to tackle treatment response and resistance issues associated with such heterogeneity, including a rationally selected combination of agents that target driver mutations, the targeting of deleterious passenger mutations, identifying and eradicating the 'lethal' clone, targeting the tumour microenvironment, or using adaptive treatments and immunotherapy. The identification of the most-appropriate strategies and their implementation in the clinic will prove highly challenging and necessitate the adoption of radically new practices for the optimal clinical management of breast malignancies. PMID:25895611

  3. Postpartum Remodeling, Lactation, and Breast Cancer Risk: Summary of a National Cancer Institute–Sponsored Workshop

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The pregnancy–lactation cycle (PLC) is a period in which the breast is transformed from a less-developed, nonfunctional organ into a mature, milk-producing gland that has evolved to meet the nutritional, developmental, and immune protection needs of the newborn. Cessation of lactation initiates a process whereby the breast reverts to a resting state until the next pregnancy. Changes during this period permanently alter the morphology and molecular characteristics of the breast (molecular histology) and produce important, yet poorly understood, effects on breast cancer risk. To provide a state-of-the-science summary of this topic, the National Cancer Institute invited a multidisciplinary group of experts to participate in a workshop in Rockville, Maryland, on March 2, 2012. Topics discussed included: 1) the epidemiology of the PLC in relation to breast cancer risk, 2) breast milk as a biospecimen for molecular epidemiological and translational research, and 3) use of animal models to gain mechanistic insights into the effects of the PLC on breast carcinogenesis. This report summarizes conclusions of the workshop, proposes avenues for future research on the PLC and its relationship with breast cancer risk, and identifies opportunities to translate this knowledge to improve breast cancer outcomes. PMID:23264680

  4. Intensity Modulated Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Before Surgery in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Stage 0-I Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-07-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  5. Breast cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Sirovich, B E; Sox, H C

    1999-10-01

    Randomized controlled trials involving nearly 500,000 women on two continents have confirmed the early promise that screening mammography can reduce breast cancer mortality. The observed benefits of mammographic screening, however, are not the same in all women. The mortality reduction in women over age 70 is unknown, and women aged 40 to 49 do not appear to benefit from mammographic screening to the same extent as those over age 50. The reasons for this disparity are incompletely understood, but it depends in part upon differing tumor biology and mammographic test characteristics in younger women. Even if relative survival benefits were equal for women under and over age 50, absolute reduction in risk would remain considerably lower for younger women, a disparity that would not be corrected by improved screening technology or adjustment of interscreening intervals. The authors' review of the evidence leads them to strongly support mammographic screening of women aged 50 to 69 at an interval not longer than 2 years. The authors also feel it is reasonable to screen women over age 70 who have a favorable life expectancy. They conclude, however, that the evidence does not support a blanket recommendation in favor of screening women aged 40 to 49. Instead, they advocate a well-informed conversation between physician and patient regarding the present knowledge and the risks and benefits of screening for each individual woman. Definitive answers await the results of ongoing RCTs designed to study the survival benefit conferred by screening women aged 40 to 49. Disagreement will undoubtedly persist regarding which recommendations should determine private practice and public policy. PMID:10572546

  6. Study Comparing Nanoparticle-based Paclitaxel With Solvent-based Paclitaxel as Part of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Patients With Early Breast Cancer (GeparSepto)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-10

    Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II; Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II; Breast Cancer Female NOS; Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III; HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer Stage IV; Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  7. 19p13.1 is a triple negative-specific breast cancer susceptibility locus

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Kristen N.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Vachon, Celine M.; Wang, Xianshu; Margolin, Sara; Lindblom, Annika; Nevanlinna, Heli; Greco, Dario; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Vrieling, Alina; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Nickels, Stefan; Brauch, Hiltrud; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Meindl, Alfons; Bartram, Claus R.; Schott, Sarah; Engel, Christof; Godwin, Andrew K.; Weaver, JoEllen; Pathak, Harsh B.; Sharma, Priyanka; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Miron, Penelope; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Stavropoulou, Alexandra; Fountzilas, George; Gogas, Helen J.; Swann, Ruth; Dwek, Miriam; Perkins, Annie; Milne, Roger L.; Benítez, Javier; Zamora, M Pilar; Pérez, José Ignacio Arias; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Menegaux, Florence; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marmé, Frederick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Peto, Julian; Johnson, Nichola; Fletcher, Olivia; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Hartmann, Arndt; Ekici, Arif B.; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Muir, Kenneth; Puttawibul, Puttisak; Wiangnon, Surapon; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Braaf, Linde M; Rosenberg, Efraim H; Hopper, John L.; Apicella, Carmel; Park, Daniel J.; Southey, Melissa C.; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Bernstein, Leslie; Dur, Christina Clarke; Shen, Chen-Yang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Hamann, Ute; Dünnebier, Thomas; Rüdiger, Thomas; Ulmer, Hans Ulrich; Pharoah, Paul P.; Dunning, Alison M; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcom W.; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Hwang, Helena; Eccles, Diana M.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Sherman, Mark E.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Tollenaar, R.A.E.M.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; John, Esther M.; Miron, Alexander; Alnæs, Grethe Grenaker; Kristensen, Vessela; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona A; Severi, Gianluca; Kosel, Matthew L.; Pankratz, V.S.; Slager, Susan; Olson, Janet E.; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Lambrechts, Diether; Hatse, Sigrid; Dieudonne, Anne-Sophie; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Soini, Ylermi; Easton, Douglas F.; Couch, Fergus J.

    2012-01-01

    The 19p13.1 breast cancer susceptibility locus is a modifier of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers and is also associated with risk of ovarian cancer. Here we investigated 19p13.1 variation and risk of breast cancer subtypes, defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) status, using 48,869 breast cancer cases and 49,787 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Variants from 19p13.1 were not associated with breast cancer overall or with ER-positive breast cancer but were significantly associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk [rs8170 Odds Ratio (OR)=1.10, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.05 – 1.15, p=3.49 × 10-5] and triple negative (TN) (ER, PR and HER2 negative) breast cancer [rs8170 OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.13 – 1.31, p=2.22 × 10-7]. However, rs8170 was no longer associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk when TN cases were excluded [OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.89 – 1.07, p=0.62]. In addition, a combined analysis of TN cases from BCAC and the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC) (n=3,566) identified a genome-wide significant association between rs8170 and TN breast cancer risk [OR=1.25, 95% CI 1.18 – 1.33, p=3.31 × 10-13]. Thus, 19p13.1 is the first triple negative-specific breast cancer risk locus and the first locus specific to a histological subtype defined by ER, PR, and HER2 to be identified. These findings provide convincing evidence that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer varies by tumor subtype and that triple negative tumors and other subtypes likely arise through distinct etiologic pathways. PMID:22331459

  8. Nodular Fasciitis of the Breast Mimicking Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chishima, Takashi; Adachi, Shouko

    2014-01-01

    Nodular fasciitis is a benign proliferative lesion that is usually found in the soft tissue of the upper extremity and trunk in young to middle-aged persons. It has rarely been described in the breast. A 35-year-old woman had noticed a mass in her left breast. It was elastic-hard, 13?mm in size, and located mainly in the upper inner quadrant of the left breast. Mammography did not detect the mass. Ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic lesion with an irregular margin. Neither fine-needle aspiration cytology nor core needle biopsy established a definitive diagnosis. Excisional biopsy was therefore performed. Histologically, the excised tumor tissue results were consistent with a diagnosis of nodular fasciitis of the breast. We report a case of nodular fasciitis of the breast, a rare histological type of breast tumor. PMID:24963435

  9. Association between Chromosome Instability and Histological Grading in Laryngeal Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Witold Szyfter; Zygmunt Szmeja; Krzysztof Szyfter

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of chromosome instability in peripheral blood lymphocytes provides information on the genetic risk of cancer. The study was attempted to find a relationship between chromosome instability and the histological grading of laryngeal cancer using bleomycin as a model agent inducing chromatid breaks. Indices of chromatid breaks were calculated separately for subjects with grade G1 (n = 19), G2

  10. Association between Chromosome Instability and Histological Grading in Laryngeal Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piotr Dabrowski; Witold Szyfter; Zygmunt Szmeja; Krzysztof Szyfter

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of chromosome instability in peripheral blood lympho- cytes provides information on the genetic risk of cancer. The study was attempted to find a relationship between chromosome instabili- ty and the histological grading of laryngeal cancer using bleomycin as a model agent inducing chromatid breaks. Indices of chromatid breaks were calculated separately for subjects with grade G1 (n =

  11. Common breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with triple negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Kristen N.; Vachon, Celine M.; Lee, Adam M.; Slager, Susan; Lesnick, Timothy; Olswold, Curtis; Fasching, Peter A.; Miron, Penelope; Eccles, Diana; Carpenter, Jane E.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Ambrosone, Christine; Winqvist, Robert; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Sawyer, Elinor; Hartmann, Arndt; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Ekici, Arif B.; Tapper, William J; Gerty, Susan M; Durcan, Lorraine; Graham, Nikki; Hein, Rebecca; Nickels, Stephan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Fostira, Florentia; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Dimopoulos, Athanasios M.; Fountzilas, George; Clarke, Christine L.; Balleine, Rosemary; Olson, Janet E.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Diasio, Robert B.; Pathak, Harsh; Ross, Eric; Weaver, JoEllen; Rüdiger, Thomas; Försti, Asta; Dünnebier, Thomas; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Kulkarni, Swati; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Van Limbergen, Erik; Janssen, Hilde; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; Verhoef, Senno; Tomlinson, Ian; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Beesley, Jonathan; Greco, Dario; Blomqvist, Carl; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Blows, Fiona M.; Dawson, Sarah-Jane; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W; Lambrechts, Diether; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Severi, Gianluca; Hamann, Ute; Pharoah, Paul; Easton, Douglas F.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Nevanlinna, Heli; Wang, Xianshu; Couch, Fergus J.

    2012-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancers are an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with poor survival, but there remains little known about the etiological factors which promote its initiation and development. Commonly inherited breast cancer risk factors identified through genome wide association studies (GWAS) display heterogeneity of effect among breast cancer subtypes as defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. In the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC), 22 common breast cancer susceptibility variants were investigated in 2,980 Caucasian women with triple negative breast cancer and 4,978 healthy controls. We identified six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with risk of triple negative breast cancer, including rs2046210 (ESR1), rs12662670 (ESR1), rs3803662 (TOX3), rs999737 (RAD51L1), rs8170 (19p13.11) and rs8100241 (19p13.11). Together, our results provide convincing evidence of genetic susceptibility for triple negative breast cancer. PMID:21844186

  12. Prevention of ER-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuxin

    2014-01-01

    The successful demonstration that the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) tamoxifen and raloxifene reduce the risk of breast cancer has stimulated great interest in using drugs to prevent breast cancer in high-risk women. In addition, recent results from breast cancer treatment trials suggest that aromatase inhibitors may be even more effective at preventing breast cancer than are SERMs. However, while SERMs and aromatase inhibitors do prevent the development of many estrogen-receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers, these drugs do not prevent the development of ER-negative breast cancer. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify agents that can prevent ER-negative breast cancer. We have studied the cancer preventative activity of several classes of drugs for their ability to prevent ER-negative breast cancer in preclinical models. Results from these studies demonstrate that rexinoids (analogs of retinoids that bind and activate RXR receptors), tyrosine kinase inhibitors (such as EGFR inhibitors and dual kinase inhibitors that block EGFR and HER2/neu signaling), and cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors all prevent ER-negative breast cancer in transgenic mice that develop ER-negative breast cancer. Other promising agents now under investigation include vitamin D and vitamin D analogs, drugs that activate PPAR-gamma nuclear receptors, and statins. Many of these agents are now being tested in early phase cancer prevention clinical trials to determine whether they will show activity in breast tissue and whether they are safe for use in high-risk women without breast cancer. The current status of these studies will be reviewed. It is anticipated that in the future, drugs that effectively prevent ER-negative breast cancer will be used in combination with hormonal agents such SERMs or aromatase inhibitors to prevent all forms of breast cancer. PMID:19213564

  13. Mediterranean Dietary Pattern and Risk of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Couto, Elisabeth; Sandin, Sven; Löf, Marie; Ursin, Giske; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2013-01-01

    Background A Mediterranean diet has a recognized beneficial effect on health and longevity, with a protective influence on several cancers. However, its association with breast cancer risk remains unclear. Objective We aimed to investigate whether adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern influences breast cancer risk. Design The Swedish Women’s Lifestyle and Health cohort study includes 49,258 women aged 30 to 49 years at recruitment in 1991–1992. Consumption of foods and beverages was measured at enrollment using a food frequency questionnaire. A Mediterranean diet score was constructed based on the consumption of alcohol, vegetables, fruits, legumes, cereals, fish, the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fat, and dairy and meat products. Relative risks (RR) for breast cancer and specific tumor characteristics (invasiveness, histological type, estrogen/progesterone receptor status, malignancy grade and stage) associated with this score were estimated using Cox regression controlling for potential confounders. Results 1,278 incident breast cancers were diagnosed. Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was not statistically significantly associated with reduced risk of breast cancer overall, or with specific breast tumor characteristics. A RR (95% confidence interval) for breast cancer associated with a two-point increment in the Mediterranean diet score was 1.08 (1.00–1.15) in all women, and 1.10 (1.01–1.21) and 1.02 (0.91–1.15) in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively. When alcohol was excluded from the Mediterranean diet score, results became not statistically significant. Conclusions Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern did not decrease breast cancer risk in this cohort of relatively young women. PMID:23390532

  14. Interactive Gentle Yoga in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-03

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Fatigue; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  15. Breast cancer with cartilaginous and/or osseous metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Yoichi, Takuya; Nagashima, Takeshi; Yagata, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Kazuya; Suzuki, Masato; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Sangai, Takafumi; Nakatani, Yukio; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    We report a rare case of breast cancer with cartilaginous and/or osseous metaplasia. A 59-year-old woman had a large lump in her left breast, which had enlarged gradually over a period of 2 years. Mammography, ultrasonography and aspiration cytology suggested phyllodes tumor with carcinoma. She underwent wide excision and sentinel lymph node biopsy. Because of the existence metastatic tumor cells in the sentinel lymph node on frozen section, sequential axillary lymph node dissection was conducted consequently. Histologically, the tumor consisted of invasive ductal carcinoma and spindle-cell carcinoma, including cartilaginous metaplasia. Adjuvant chemotherapy and whole-breast irradiation were performed. However, she died of multiple metastases to the liver 2 years after surgery. Breast cancer with cartilaginous and/or osseous metaplasia belongs to a special type of invasive carcinoma, and the incidence is very low. We here present our case and a review of the literature. PMID:19184279

  16. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of breast cancer

    E-print Network

    Mohr, Sharif Burgette

    2012-01-01

    breast cancer with consideration of the methodological issues. Cancer causes &breast cancer incidence rates: a census- based methodology (United States). Cancer Causesbreast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Cancer Causes

  17. What Are the Key Statistics about Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... breast cancer in men? What are the key statistics about breast cancer in men? The American Cancer ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services ...

  18. Identification of different subtypes of breast cancer using tissue microarray.

    PubMed

    Munirah, M A; Siti-Aishah, M A; Reena, M Z; Sharifah, N A; Rohaizak, M; Norlia, A; Rafie, M K M; Asmiati, A; Hisham, A; Fuad, I; Shahrun, N S; Das, S

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer may be classified into luminal A, luminal B, HER2+/ER-, basal-like and normal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling or immunohistochemical (IHC) characteristics. The main aim of the present study was to classify breast cancer into molecular subtypes based on immunohistochemistry findings and correlate the subtypes with clinicopathological factors. Two hundred and seventeen primary breast carcinomas tumor tissues were immunostained for ER, PR, HER2, CK5/6, EGFR, CK8/18, p53 and Ki67 using tissue microarray technique. All subtypes were significantly associated with Malay ethnic background (p=0.035) compared to other racial origins. The most common subtypes of breast cancers were luminal A and was significantly associated with low histological grade (p<0.000) and p53 negativity (p=0.003) compared to HER2+/ER-, basal-like and normal-like subtypes with high histological grade (p<0.000) and p53 positivity (p=0.003). Luminal B subtype had the smallest mean tumor size (p=0.009) and also the highest mean number of lymph nodes positive (p=0.032) compared to other subtypes. All markers except EGFR and Ki67 were significantly associated with the subtypes. The most common histological type was infiltrating ductal carcinoma, NOS. Majority of basal-like subtype showed comedo-type necrosis (68.8%) and infiltrative margin (81.3%). Our studies suggest that IHC can be used to identify the different subtypes of breast cancer and all subtypes were significantly associated with race, mean tumor size, mean number of lymph node positive, histological grade and all immunohistochemical markers except EGFR and Ki67. PMID:21655659

  19. Unusual Aggressive Breast Cancer: Metastatic Malignant Phyllodes Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Adam; Tresley, Jonathan; Velazquez-Vega, Jose; Yepes, Monica

    2013-01-01

    For the year of 2012, it has been estimated that breast cancer will account for the greatest number of newly diagnosed cancers and the second highest proportion of cancer related deaths among women. Breast cancer, while often lumped together as one disease, represents a diverse group of malignancies with different imaging findings, histological appearances and behavior. While most invasive primary breast cancers are epithelial derived adenocarcinomas, rare neoplasms such as the phyllodes tumor may arise from mesenchymal tissue. Compared to the breast adenocarcinoma, the phyllodes tumor tends to affect a younger population, follows a different clinical course, is associated with different imaging and histological findings and is managed distinctively. There may be difficulty in differentiating the phyllodes tumor from a large fibroadenoma, but the mammographer plays a key role in reviewing the clinical and imaging data in order to arrive at the correct diagnosis. Early diagnosis with proper surgical management can often cure non-metastatic phyllodes tumors. However, in rare cases where metastasis occurs, prognosis tends to be poor. This report describes the presentation, imaging findings and management of a metastatic malignant phyllodes tumor. PMID:23705037

  20. Unusual aggressive breast cancer: metastatic malignant phyllodes tumor.

    PubMed

    Singer, Adam; Tresley, Jonathan; Velazquez-Vega, Jose; Yepes, Monica

    2013-02-01

    For the year of 2012, it has been estimated that breast cancer will account for the greatest number of newly diagnosed cancers and the second highest proportion of cancer related deaths among women. Breast cancer, while often lumped together as one disease, represents a diverse group of malignancies with different imaging findings, histological appearances and behavior. While most invasive primary breast cancers are epithelial derived adenocarcinomas, rare neoplasms such as the phyllodes tumor may arise from mesenchymal tissue. Compared to the breast adenocarcinoma, the phyllodes tumor tends to affect a younger population, follows a different clinical course, is associated with different imaging and histological findings and is managed distinctively. There may be difficulty in differentiating the phyllodes tumor from a large fibroadenoma, but the mammographer plays a key role in reviewing the clinical and imaging data in order to arrive at the correct diagnosis. Early diagnosis with proper surgical management can often cure non-metastatic phyllodes tumors. However, in rare cases where metastasis occurs, prognosis tends to be poor. This report describes the presentation, imaging findings and management of a metastatic malignant phyllodes tumor. PMID:23705037

  1. BRCA 1/2-Mutation Related and Sporadic Breast and Ovarian Cancers: More Alike than Different

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Melissa; Puhalla, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    No longer is histology solely predictive of cancer treatment and outcome. There is an increasing influence of tumor genomic characteristics on therapeutic options. Both breast and ovarian cancers are at higher risk of development in patients with BRCA 1/2-germline mutations. Recent data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and others have shown a number of genomic similarities between triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) and ovarian cancers. Recently, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have shown promising activity in hereditary BRCA 1/2-mutated and sporadic breast and ovarian cancers. In this review, we will summarize the current literature regarding the genomic and phenotypic similarities between BRCA 1/2-mutation related cancers, sporadic TNBCs, and sporadic ovarian cancers. We will also review Phase I, II, and III data using PARP inhibitors for these malignancies and compare and contrast the results with respect to histology. PMID:24579064

  2. Caloric Restriction in Treating Patients With Stage 0-I Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-05

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer

  3. Genomic Grade Index: An important tool for assessing breast cancer tumor grade and prognosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otto Metzger Filho; Michail Ignatiadis; Christos Sotiriou

    2011-01-01

    Different multi-gene expression signatures have been shown to outperform classic histopathologic variables and therefore represent an important step towards personalizing breast cancer treatment. In particular, gene profiles overcome many of the limitations observed with classic histopathologic variables. The Genomic Grade Index (GGI) is a gene expression signature developed to better define histologic grade assessment. GGI divides classic histologic grade into

  4. Ductal carcinoma in situ and the emergence of diversity during breast cancer evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Allred; Y. Wu; S. Mao; I. D. Nagtegaal; S. Lee; C. M. Perou; S. K. Mohsin; P. O'Connell; A. Tsimelzon; D. Medina

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Human invasive breast cancers (IBC) show enormous histologic and biological diversity. This study comprehensively evaluated diversity in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), the immediate precursors of IBCs. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The extent of diversity for conventional histologic grade and standard prognostic biomarkers assessed by immunohistochemistry was evaluated in a series of pure DCIS (n = 200) compared with a contemporaneous

  5. Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC)

    Cancer.gov

    Established in 1994 in response to the 1992 Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA), the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) develops and conducts collaborative research projects that use common data elements contributed by its network of seven mammography registries across the United States.

  6. Pictures of Breast Cancer Diagnoses

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This webpage by breastcancer.org, provides a number of diagrams relative to various methods of breast cancer diagnosis. The site also shows PET scan, mammogram, ultrasound, and MRI images from different perspectives; illustrations of abnormal lymph nodes are also shown. Lastly, webpage contains a link to additional information about screening and testing options.

  7. CISNET: Breast Cancer Model Profiles

    Cancer.gov

    Model profiles are standardized documents that facilitate the comparison of models and their results. The Joint Profile provided includes profiles for all breast cancer models. Individual profiles for each model are also provided and may be more current than the joint profile document.

  8. Progestin therapy for breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William L McGuire; Franco Cavalli; Philip Bonomi; J Alexieva-Figusch

    1985-01-01

    The use of pharmacologic doses of steroid hormones to treat patients with advanced breast cancer has been standard for many years. Recently there has been increased interest in the investigation of progestational agents, largely as a result of their excellent response rate in selected patients and their minimal side effects. In this panel discussion the participants discuss the use of

  9. Pain control in breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William L. McGuire; Kathleen M. Foley; Michael H. Levy; C. Kent Osborne

    1989-01-01

    Pain can be a prominent finding in breast cancer patients. It may occur in the setting of the postmastectomy period, related to the disruption of normal neural pathways or the development of lymphedema. In advanced disease, the management of pain from nerve compression or bone metastases requires special approaches. In this panel discussion, the participating physicians will discuss these topics

  10. The ALTTO Breast Cancer Trial

    Cancer.gov

    A collection of material about the Adjuvant Lapatinib And/Or Trastuzumab Treatment Optimisation, or ALTTO, study that will compare the targeted agents lapatinib and trastuzumab alone, in sequence, or in combination as adjuvant therapy for HER2-positive breast cancer.

  11. Breast cancer: Relationship between acculturation and barriers to breast cancer screening in Southwest Florida Latinas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Patino

    2006-01-01

    Despite multiple campaigns by the American Cancer Society, reports indicate that Latinas living in the United States who contract breast cancer are more likely than Anglos to die. These findings correlate with low participation in breast cancer screenings among Latinas. The objective of this study was to identify key obstacles that influence Latinas' low participation in breast cancer screenings, based

  12. Physical activity reduces breast cancer risk: A case–control study in Tunisia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Msolly Awatef; Gharbi Olfa; Chafai Rim; Kassab Asma; Mahmoudi Kacem; Hochlef Makram; Ben Fatma Leila; Landolsi Amel; Ben Ahmed Slim

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between lifetime history of physical activity and breast cancer risk. Methods: The case–control study was conducted on 400 women with histological confirmed breast cancer operated during the 2006–2009 period at Farhat Hached University Hospital, Sousse, Tunisia, and 400 cancer-free controls, aged 25–75 years. The physical activity was assessed using a structured questionnaire on each

  13. Zinc isotopic compositions of breast cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    Larner, Fiona; Woodley, Laura N; Shousha, Sami; Moyes, Ashley; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Halliday, Alex N; Rehkämper, Mark; Coombes, R Charles

    2015-01-01

    An early diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer is essential to improve outcome. High precision isotopic analysis, originating in Earth sciences, can detect very small shifts in metal pathways. For the first time, the natural intrinsic Zn isotopic compositions of various tissues in breast cancer patients and controls were determined. Breast cancer tumours were found to have a significantly lighter Zn isotopic composition than the blood, serum and healthy breast tissue in both groups. The Zn isotopic lightness in tumours suggests that sulphur rich metallothionein dominates the isotopic selectivity of a breast tissue cell, rather than Zn-specific proteins. This reveals a possible mechanism of Zn delivery to Zn-sequestering vesicles by metallothionein, and is supported by a similar signature observed in the copper isotopic compositions of one breast cancer patient. This change in intrinsic isotopic compositions due to cancer has the potential to provide a novel early biomarker for breast cancer. PMID:25489714

  14. Breast Cancer May Originate In Utero: The Importance of the Intrauterine Environment for Breast Cancer Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fei Xue; Karin B. Michels

    \\u000a Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer death (after lung cancer)\\u000a (American Cancer Society 2009). The incidence of breast cancer varies four- to fivefold across countries, is the highest in\\u000a Europe and North America, and the lowest in Asia (Ferlay et al. 2001). Breast cancer incidence has been on the rise

  15. Breast cancer and autism.

    PubMed

    Radcliff, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    Case Study Amy is a 44-year-old woman with severe autism. She lives with her sister Susan, who is her caregiver and guardian. Amy is ambulatory and able to dress and feed herself. She is a healthy individual with no other significant comorbidities. She walks daily and enjoys her sister's company. Amy's life expectancy is greater than 10 years. However, she is difficult to care for medically, as she will not allow a physical examination and strikes out when strangers try to touch her. She is nonverbal and unable to participate in decision-making. INITIAL DIAGNOSIS Amy has a history of breast cancer diagnosed 2 years ago, originally presenting as a stage I lesion (T2N0) that was palpated by her caregiver while bathing. She underwent right simple mastectomy with sentinel lymph node resection. Susan recalls that the mastectomy was a very challenging ordeal, as Amy kept pulling out IV lines, drains, and dressings. Susan felt that Amy withdrew from her after the procedure as she most likely associated Susan with the cause of the pain, making her role as caregiver more difficult. Pathology confirmed an invasive ductal carcinoma, moderately differentiated, 2.4 cm, estrogen/progesterone receptor negative, HER2/neu negative, with negative surgical margins. Two right axillary sentinel lymph nodes were negative for disease. The standard of care for a patient with these tumor features is surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy (National Comprehensive Cancer Network [NCCN], 2012). According to the Adjuvant Online! database (2012), Amy's risk for relapse was approximately 40% without adjuvant treatment; her risk for mortality was approximately 29%. After meeting with a medical oncologist, Amy did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. According to Susan, she was not offered the choice, and the decision was not explained to them. She was simply told that it was not necessary. Aside from pathology, previous records were unavailable for review. Medical assessment of Amy's level of autism reveals marked impairments in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body posture, and gestures to regulate social interaction. She exhibits a total lack of development of spoken language, with no attempt to compensate through alternative modes of communication such as gesture. During the visit, she occupies herself with repetitive motor mannerisms. Susan believes that Amy struggles with overstimulation from tactile input. Therefore, she is combative with health-care providers and intolerant of invasive devices. Susan has an intimate understanding of Amy's ability to communicate her needs and wants through nonverbal changes. RECURRENCE Approximately 2 months ago, Amy began favoring her right arm and appeared to be in pain when participating in various activities. Susan became aware of Amy's pain issues by noticing that her posture was slightly altered and she was carrying herself differently. Further investigation with a CT scan showed concern for local disease recurrence involving the axillary lymph nodes. No distant metastases were seen. The standard of care for this diagnosis is surgical resection and consideration of radiation therapy, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy (NCCN, 2012). Susan does not want Amy to undergo further surgery and believes radiation would be too difficult to maneuver. The next best option would be a medical approach with chemotherapy as the main modality. DIFFICULT DECISIONS If treatment is pursued, the advanced practitioner will need to perform regular examinations and prescribe and monitor chemotherapy. The delivery of therapy, requiring frequent blood draws and IV access, will be a challenge for the health-care staff. The APN is apprehensive about the ability to accomplish these tasks safely given Amy's limited capacity to participate. The APN is also concerned with how treatment will affect Amy's life. The APN may have her own individual conflict of morals to contend with, given the limited understanding of the patient vs. nontreatment of a potentially curative malignancy. Chemotherapy is

  16. Intelligent Decision Support System for Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Janghel; Anupam Shukla; Ritu Tiwari; Rahul Kala

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide and occurs in nearly one out of eight women.\\u000a Currently there are three techniques to diagnose breast cancer: mammography, FNA (Fine Needle Aspirate) and surgical biopsy.\\u000a In this paper we develop an integrated expert system for diagnosis, prognosis and prediction for breast cancer using soft\\u000a computing techniques.

  17. [Breast cancer detection and medicalization of public health].

    PubMed

    Junod, B; Massé, R

    2003-06-01

    The aim of reducing breast cancer mortality announced in the report on health in France published in 1994 strongly implicated the promotion of screening and early surgical treatment. However, this mortality has not evolved significantly in France, although more and more cancers have been found and operated upon. The increased prevalence rates of histological diagnoses of breast cancer obtained from the studies of autopsies published has shown that the screening has discovered non-terminal, benign cancers. It has been estimated that 120 of the surgical operations conducted per day in France in 1999 have been carried out to remove non-terminal, benign cancers. Public health has an ethical responsibility to face in terms of the allocation of resources and must remain vigilant in order to avoid excessive screening and unnecessary interventions. PMID:12891811

  18. HSP90 Inhibitor AT13387 and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Advanced Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-15

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  19. Targeted Therapy for Breast Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    den Hollander, Petra; Savage, Michelle I.; Brown, Powel H.

    2013-01-01

    With a better understanding of the etiology of breast cancer, molecularly targeted drugs have been developed and are being testing for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Targeted drugs that inhibit the estrogen receptor (ER) or estrogen-activated pathways include the selective ER modulators (tamoxifen, raloxifene, and lasofoxifene) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) (anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane) have been tested in preclinical and clinical studies. Tamoxifen and raloxifene have been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer and promising results of AIs in breast cancer trials, suggest that AIs might be even more effective in the prevention of ER-positive breast cancer. However, these agents only prevent ER-positive breast cancer. Therefore, current research is focused on identifying preventive therapies for other forms of breast cancer such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC, breast cancer that does express ER, progesterone receptor, or HER2). HER2-positive breast cancers are currently treated with anti-HER2 therapies including trastuzumab and lapatinib, and preclinical and clinical studies are now being conducted to test these drugs for the prevention of HER2-positive breast cancers. Several promising agents currently being tested in cancer prevention trials for the prevention of TNBC include poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, vitamin D, and rexinoids, both of which activate nuclear hormone receptors (the vitamin D and retinoid X receptors). This review discusses currently used breast cancer preventive drugs, and describes the progress of research striving to identify and develop more effective preventive agents for all forms of breast cancer. PMID:24069582

  20. Hereditary female cancers: Breast, ovarian, and endometrial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Morgan Tucker; Botros Rizk

    Hereditary cancers breast, ovarian, and endometrial cancers comprise a significant portion of cancers affecting women. This paper strives to review the genetics and current screening, prophylaxis, and treatment of these malignancies.

  1. Are males with early breast cancer treated differently from females with early breast cancer in Australia and New Zealand?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim Wang; James Kollias; Claire Marsh; Guy Maddern

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer in males is much rare than in females so in practice, male breast cancer treatment is likely to follow the guidelines developed for female breast cancer patients. The objective of this study is to compare the characteristics and treatment pattern of male breast cancer patients with comparable subgroups of female breast cancer patients using data submitted to the

  2. FLT PET in Measuring Treatment Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-02

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  3. Analysis of Senate Bill 255: Breast Cancer

    E-print Network

    California Health Benefits Review Program

    2011-01-01

    treatment of patients with early stage invasive breast cancer recommends lumpectomy with radiationradiation as a treatment option for women with breast cancercancer who were treated with mastectomy or with lumpectomy with radiation treatment.

  4. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... biopsy procedures themselves. Radiation therapy : Women who had radiation therapy to the chest (including the breasts) before age 30 have an increased risk of developing breast cancer throughout their lives. This includes women treated for ...

  5. The non-breast-cancer death rate among breast cancer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devon Bush; Barbara Smith; Jerry Younger; James S. Michaelson

    2011-01-01

    Non-breast-cancer deaths currently account for almost half of deaths among breast carcinoma patients in the 15 years following\\u000a diagnosis. Understanding the trends of non-breast-cancer death is vital for calibrating treatment and survival expectations,\\u000a and for understanding the consequences of potentially toxic therapies. To observe trends over time in non-breast-cancer relative\\u000a survival—the non-breast-cancer survival rates of breast cancer patients relative to the

  6. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride and Cyclophosphamide Followed by Paclitaxel With or Without Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-07

    Breast Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  7. Triciribine Phosphate, Paclitaxel, Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IV Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-25

    Breast Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  8. [Diagnostic approach for breast cancer classification].

    PubMed

    Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Mishellany, Florence; Fouilhoux, Geneviève; Trechot, Isabelle; Maury, Florence; Robin, Nina; Cayre, Anne; Dauplat, Marie-Mélanie

    2013-12-01

    The pathologist is involved at various steps in the management of a patient with breast cancer and in the therapeutic decision. First, the pathologist confirms a diagnosis of malignancy on cytology specimens, microbiopsies and surgical specimens. During the surgery, through the frozen section, the pathologist specifies the surgical limits and collects specimens for research purposes. Then the pathologist evaluates the parameters needed to establish the final diagnosis, the prognosis and the identification of predictive factors, using ancillary techniques such as immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization or molecular techniques. Mandatory elements to be included in the final pathological report are size, histological type, SBR grade modified by Elston and Ellis, the presence or absence of vascular or lymphatic peritumoral emboli (prognostic parameters), the status of resection margins (local relapse risk) and the status of hormonal receptor and HER2 (predictive parameters). PMID:24579333

  9. 76 FR 62285 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ...8724 of October 3, 2011 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2011 By the...commitment to preventing and treating breast cancer, and to supporting those courageously...early detection, and treatment of breast cancer. Still, this year,...

  10. 75 FR 62297 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ...8572 of October 1, 2010 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2010 By the...been made in the fight against breast cancer, it remains the most frequently...will be claimed. During National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, we...

  11. 77 FR 60605 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ...8874 of October 1, 2012 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2012 By the...States of America A Proclamation Breast cancer touches the lives of Americans...000 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer this year, and tens of...

  12. Guide to Understanding Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Owens, MSN, RN, FNP , Kathryn J. Ruddy, MD, MPH & Elizabeth Woolfe, MPH Our Guide to Understanding Triple-Negative Breast Cancer , ... Triple-Negative Breast Cancer . Living Beyond Breast Cancer 40 Monument Road, Suite 104 Bala Cynwyd, PA 19004 ...

  13. Coding Instructions for Breast Cancer Chart Audit (DETECT)

    Cancer.gov

    CODING INSTRUCTIONS FOR BREAST CANCER CHART AUDIT ? DETECT ? I. GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS About this study: Study period. Chart audits will be conducted among women diagnosed with breast cancer. The Breast Cancer Audit will capture the clinical experience

  14. Diffusion MRI Methods for Improved Treatment Monitoring in Breast Cancer

    E-print Network

    Aliu, Sheye

    2009-01-01

    lymph node dissection for patients with breast carcinoma. Cancer,cancers based on tumor size and spread to neighboring tissue (T), lymph nodelymph nodes, and the pectoralis major and minor muscles behind the breast) was routine treatment for breast cancer.

  15. Fertility after breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Kasum, Miro; Beketi?-Oreškovi?, Lidija; Peddi, Parvin F; Oreškovi?, Slavko; Johnson, Rebecca H

    2014-02-01

    In many countries of the developed world, there is an increasing trend toward delay in childbearing from 30 to 40 years of age for various reasons. This is unfortunately concordant with an increasing incidence of breast cancer in women who have not yet completed their family. The current choice for premenopausal women with breast cancer is adjuvant therapy which includes cytotoxic chemotherapy, ovarian ablation (by surgery, irradiation, or chemical ovarian suppression), anti-estrogen therapy, or any combination of these. Although the use of adjuvant therapies with cytotoxic drugs can significantly reduce mortality, it raises issues of the long-term toxicity, such as induction of an early menopause and fertility impairment. The risk of infertility is a potential hardship to be faced by the patients following treatment of breast cancer. The offspring of patients who became pregnant after completion of chemotherapy have shown no adverse effects and congenital anomalies from the treatment, but sometimes high rates of abortion (29%) and premature deliveries with low birth weight (40%) have been demonstrated. Therefore, the issue of recent cytotoxic treatment remains controversial and further research is required to define a "safety period" between cessation of treatment and pregnancy. Preservation of fertility in breast cancer survivors of reproductive age has become an important issue regarding the quality of life. Currently, there are several potential options, including all available assisted technologies, such as in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, in vitro maturation, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. Because increased estrogen levels are thought to be potentially risky in breast cancer patients, recently developed ovarian stimulation protocols with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and tamoxifen appear to provide safe stimulation with endogenous estrogen. Embryo cryopreservation seems to be the most established fertility preservation strategy, providing a 25-35% chance of pregnancy. In addition, oocyte freezing can be considered as an alternative in patients who are single and in those who do not wish a sperm donor. Although ovarian tissue harvesting appears to be safe, experience regarding ovarian transplantation is still limited due to low utilization, so the true value of this procedure remains to be determined. Nevertheless, in clinical situations in which chemotherapy needs to be started in young patients facing premature ovarian failure, ovarian tissue preservation seems to be a promising option for restoring fertility, especially in conjunction with other options like immature oocyte retrieval, in vitro maturation of oocytes, oocyte vitrification, or embryo cryopreservation. It seems that in vitro maturation is a useful strategy because it improves oocyte or cryopreservation outcome in breast cancer patients undergoing ovarian stimulation for fertility preservation. PMID:24315568

  16. Breast cancer in Singapore: some perspectives.

    PubMed

    Jara-Lazaro, Ana Richelia; Thilagaratnam, Shyamala; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy among Singapore women, accounting for 29.7% of all female cancers, with an age-standardized rate of 54.9 per 100,000 per year. It has been the most frequent cancer in Singapore women for the last 30 years, with the highest rates previously reported in those aged between 45 and 49 years, but with a more recent observation of a change in peak age group to women in their late 50s. About 1,100 new cases are diagnosed annually and approximately 270 women die in Singapore each year from breast cancer. In the multiethnic population of Singapore, it has been noted that rising breast cancer incidence is consistent across all three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays, and Indians). Singapore has among the highest breast cancer incidence in Asia. Possible explanations include rapid urbanization, improvement in socio-economic status, and adoption of a western lifestyle. Our experience with the Singapore breast screening pilot project (1994-1997) and the national breast-screening program (BreastScreen Singapore) has led to increased understanding of this disease in the country. Data from the pilot project showed that breast screening is just as effective in a predominantly Asian population as in the west. Early breast cancer accounted for most breast cancers detected, with pre-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) comprising 26% of all screen-detected cancers in the pilot study. In the currently on-going BreastScreen Singapore, DCIS forms >30% of all breast cancers among pre-menopausal women, a relatively high proportion probably accounted for partially by the greater participation of women aged between 40 and 49 years. Despite the ready availability of subsidized mammographic screening, there are still women in Singapore who present with locally advanced breast cancer. Clinical management of an increasing number of women with breast cancer embraces a multidisciplinary team-based approach, with regular discussions of therapeutic strategies at tumor boards. In order to improve breast cancer diagnostics and therapeutics in our country, it is important that there are continual breast cancer and breast disease-related educational activities for medical professionals engaged in diagnosing and managing breast cancer. The role of public education in raising awareness is also essential. PMID:19701678

  17. Diabetes and breast cancer : the women's healthy eating & living study

    E-print Network

    Erickson, Kirsten Diann

    2011-01-01

    with early stage breast cancer. Cancer Causes Control 19:Shanghai breast cancer survival study. Cancer Causes Controlbreast cancer survival is reduced in women with diabetes due to diabetes-related causes

  18. Triple-negative breast cancer: clinicopathological characteristics and relationship with basal-like breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aye Aye Thike; Poh Yian Cheok; Ana Richelia Jara-Lazaro; Benita Tan; Patrick Tan; Puay Hoon Tan

    2010-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer, defined as that with negative expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors and cerbB2, accounted for 11% of invasive breast cancers in our study, drawn from an original cohort of 7048 women diagnosed with breast cancer from the files of the Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital, over 14 years. Women with triple-negative breast cancer were generally postmenopausal,

  19. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony B Miller; Peter Gøtzsche

    2001-01-01

    The HIP trial was done in an era when the size of breast cancers was much larger than became usual in the subsequent two decades in North America. I recall no instance in which the masking of the allocation was compromised. The major difficulty for the reviewers was not whether the patient died of cancer, nor whether breast cancer had

  20. BREAST CANCER GROUP WOMEN'S HEALTH INTERDISCIPLINARY

    E-print Network

    Spence, Harlan Ernest

    BREAST CANCER GROUP May 2009 WOMEN'S HEALTH INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH CENTER [WHIRC] #12;2 Table of Contents Page Introduction to the Women's Health Interdisciplinary Research Center (WHIRC) 3 Overview Cancer Prevention 27 Aging and Breast Cancer 30 Slone Epidemiology Center Black Women's Health Study

  1. Expression and prognostic significance of lysozyme in male breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Carlos; Vizoso, Francisco; Alonso, Lorena; Rodríguez, Juan C; González, Luis O; Fernández, María; Lamelas, María L; Sánchez, Luis M; García-Muñiz, José L; Baltasar, Aniceto; Medrano, Justo

    2002-01-01

    Background Lysozyme, one of the major protein components of human milk that is also synthesized by a significant percentage of breast carcinomas, is associated with lesions that have a favorable outcome in female breast cancer. Here we evaluate the expression and prognostic value of lysozyme in male breast cancer (MBC). Methods Lysozyme expression was examined by immunohistochemical methods in a series of 60 MBC tissue sections and in 15 patients with gynecomastia. Staining was quantified using the HSCORE (histological score) system, which considers both the intensity and the percentage of cells staining at each intensity. Prognostic value of lysozyme was retrospectively evaluated by multivariate analysis taking into account conventional prognostic factors. Results Lysozyme immunostaining was negative in all cases of gynecomastia. A total of 27 of 60 MBC sections (45%) stained positively for this protein, but there were clear differences among them with regard to the intensity and percentage of stained cells. Statistical analysis showed that lysozyme HSCORE values in relation to age, tumor size, nodal status, histological grade, estrogen receptor status, metastasis and histological type did not increase the statistical significance. Univariate analysis confirmed that both nodal involvement and lysozyme values were significant predictors of short-term relapse-free survival. Multivariate analysis, according to Cox's regression model, also showed that nodal status and lysozyme levels were significant independent indicators of short-term relapse-free survival. Conclusion Tumor expression of lysozyme is associated with lesions that have an unfavorable outcome in male breast cancer. This milk protein may be a new prognostic factor in patients with breast cancer. PMID:12473177

  2. Evolution of breast cancer screening in countries with intermediate and increasing incidence of breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grace Hui-Min Wu; Li-Sheng Chen; King-Jen Chang; Ming-Feng Hou; Shin-Chen Chen; Tse-Jia Liu; Chiun-Sheng Huang; Giu-Cheng Hsu; Chih-Cheng Yu; Li-Li Jeng; Shou-Tung Chen

    2006-01-01

    Background Few studies have been published regarding the practice of breast cancer screening in Asian countries. Aims The present study illustrates how the health policy for breast cancer screening has evolved in Taiwan from selective mammographic screening within a high-risk group, firstly to a programme of physical examination by public health nurses, and finally to a two-stage breast cancer screening

  3. Diagnosis and Management of Male Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophocles Lanitis; Alexandra J. Rice; Alexander Vaughan; Paul Cathcart; George Filippakis; Ragheed Al Mufti; Dimitri J. Hadjiminas

    2008-01-01

    Background  Male breast cancer (MBC) is rare with an incidence of 1% of all breast cancers. The evidence about the treatment is derived\\u000a from the data on the management of the female breast cancer because conduction of randomized, controlled trials is impossible\\u000a due to the rarity of the disease. In this study, we review the special features, overall management, diagnosis, and

  4. Multidisciplinary care for patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hulvat, Melissa C; Hansen, Nora M; Jeruss, Jacqueline S

    2009-02-01

    The care of patients with breast cancer has become increasingly complex with advancements in diagnostic modalities, surgical approaches, and adjuvant treatments. A multidisciplinary approach to breast cancer care is essential to the successful integration of available therapies. This article addresses the key components of multidisciplinary breast cancer care, with a special emphasis on new and emerging approaches over the past 10 years in the fields of diagnostics, surgery, radiation, medical oncology, and plastic surgery. PMID:19186235

  5. Clinical proteomics in breast cancer: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Christine W. Gast; Jan H. M. Schellens; Jos H. Beijnen

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer imposes a significant healthcare burden on women worldwide. Early detection is of paramount importance in reducing\\u000a mortality, yet the diagnosis of breast cancer is hampered by the lack of an adequate detection method. In addition, better\\u000a breast cancer prognostication may improve selection of patients eligible for adjuvant therapy. Hence, new markers for early\\u000a diagnosis, accurate prognosis and prediction

  6. Unique features of breast cancer in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Skye Hongiun Cheng; Mei-Hua Tsou; Mei-Ching Liu; James J. Jian; Jason Chia-Hsein Cheng; Szu-Yun Leu; Cheng-Yee Hsieh; Andrew T. Huang

    2000-01-01

    Between April 1990 and December 1997, 811 consecutive patients with 830 newly diagnosed breast cancers having their primary treatments in our institution were included in this study. Sixty three percent of breast cancer patients were premenopausal. The early-onset breast cancer (age =?40) composed 29.3% of all patients. The five-year survival rate of all patients was 80.4% (95% confidence interval [CI],

  7. CISNET: Simulating Breast Cancer in Wisconsin

    Cancer.gov

    This project will update and extend a previously developed model simulating breast cancer age- and stage-specific incidence and age-specific mortality in Wisconsin. The model was developed and validated in 1992-93 and was used to explain breast cancer trends in Wisconsin from 1982-1992. We will reprogram the macrosimulation model as a discrete event microsimulation, updating inputs to account for demographic, and breast cancer detection and treatment changes since 1992.

  8. Typhoid Vaccine in Testing Response to Immune Stress in Patients With Stage I-IIIA Breast Cancer Who Received Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-09

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Depression; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  9. Effective methods for disclosing breast cancer diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle C. Azu; Stephanie Jean; Jean-Marie Piotrowski; Brian O’Hea

    2007-01-01

    BackgroundThe current study sought to determine effective methods for disclosing breast cancer diagnosis and to identify epidemiologic patterns in patient preference for method of information disclosure.

  10. Breast cancer circulating tumor cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria João Carvalho; Mafalda Laranjo; Margarida Abrantes; António S. Cabrita; Filomena Botelho; Carlos F. de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Metastasization of breast cancer involves various mechanisms responsible for progression from invasive lesion to dissemination\\u000a in distant organs. Regional lymph node metastasization was considered an initial step in this process, but it is now recognized\\u000a that hematogenous dissemination is a deviation from lymphatic circulation. The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC)\\u000a is an aim in several oncology areas. For this

  11. Presenting Painless Breast Cancer Detection!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    This lesson culminates the unit with the Go Public phase of the legacy cycle. In the associated activity, students depict a tumor amidst healthy body tissue using a Microsoft Excel® graph. In addition, students design a brochure for both patients and doctors advertising a new form of painless yet reliable breast cancer detection. Together, the in-class activity and the take-home assignment function as an assessment of what students have learned throughout the unit.

  12. CISNET: Breast Cancer Landmark Study

    Cancer.gov

    After remaining relatively constant for many years, breast cancer mortality in the United States decreased by a dramatic 24% from 1989 to 2000. CISNET investigators initiated a joint comparative modeling effort among seven groups to determine the contributions of mammography and adjuvant therapy to this decline. While the benefits of adjuvant therapy were more settled, controversy regarding the benefits of mammography screening persisted due to uneven results and continuing criticism of the controlled trials on which the mortality benefits had been based.

  13. Selected medical conditions and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Talamini, R.; Franceschi, S.; Favero, A.; Negri, E.; Parazzini, F.; La Vecchia, C.

    1997-01-01

    Several diseases are known or suspected to be associated with altered levels of hormones and growth factors that may influence breast cancer risk. To elucidate this possibility, we studied the relationship between 23 medical conditions or procedures and breast cancer risk by means of data from a multicentric case-control study conducted between 1991 and 1994 in six Italian areas. The study included 2569 histologically confirmed incident cases of breast cancer (median age 55 years, range 23-74 years) and 2588 control women (median age 56 years, range 20-74 years) admitted to the same hospitals as cases for a variety of acute conditions unrelated to known or suspected risk factors for breast cancer. After allowance for education, parity and body mass index, elevated odds ratios (ORs) emerged for history of diabetes mellitus in post-menopausal women (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0), hypertension in pregnancy (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.0-3.4) and breast nodules (OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.7). Risk decreases were associated with ovarian ablation for ovarian cysts (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.7) and with thyroid nodules (OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9) but not with the combination of any type of benign thyroid disease. While most examined conditions seemed unrelated to breast cancer risk, the association with late-onset diabetes is of special interest as it suggests a role of hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance in breast cancer promotion. It also points to preventive lifestyle modifications. PMID:9184190

  14. Iron homeostasis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Marques, Oriana; da Silva, Berta Martins; Porto, Graça; Lopes, Carlos

    2014-05-28

    Iron is an essential element and a critical component of molecules involved in energy production, cell cycle and intermediate metabolism. However, the same characteristic chemistry that makes it so biologically versatile may lead to iron-associated toxicity as a consequence of increased oxidative stress. The fact that free iron accumulates with age and generates ROS led to the hypothesis that it could be involved in the etiogenesis of several chronic diseases. Iron has been consistently linked to carcinogenesis, either through persistent failure in the redox balance or due to its critical role in cellular proliferation. Several reports have given evidence that alterations in the import, export and storage of cellular iron may contribute to breast cancer development, behavior and recurrence. In this review, we summarize the basic mechanisms of systemic and cellular iron regulation and highlight the findings that link their deregulation with breast cancer. To conclude, progresses in iron chelation therapy in breast cancer, as a tool to fight chemotherapy resistance, are also reviewed. PMID:24486738

  15. Deciphering Medspeak: Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... information on symptoms and diagnosis, news and research, library of terms, interactive discussion lists, treatment options and ... Web sites and a list of patient cancer libraries in the United States and Canada. http://www. ...

  16. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor expression in breast cancer tissue and mammographic density

    PubMed Central

    SUN, WOO-YOUNG; YUN, HYO-YOUNG; SONG, YOUNG-JIN; KIM, HEON; LEE, OK-JUN; NAM, SEOK-JIN; KOO, JA-SEUNG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) expression in breast cancer tissue and mammographic density and the clinical significance of IGF-1R overexpression. A total of 167 patients with primary invasive breast cancer were analyzed. Mammographic breast density and IGF-1R overexpression were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and analyzed by overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Increased breast tissue density was significantly associated with age, body mass index, menopausal status, histological grade and IGF-1R overexpression in the univariate analysis and with age (P=0.001), histological grade (P=0.045) and IGF-1R overexpression (P=0.021) in the multivariate analysis. IGF-1R overexpression was significantly associated with dense breast tissue in patients aged >40 years (P=0.002). IGF-1R overexpression in breast cancer in premenopausal women was associated with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) positivity (P=0.016) and worse DFS (P=0.0414). There was no significant difference in OS and DFS between dense and non-dense breast tissue. IGF-1R expression in breast cancer tissue was significantly associated with mammographic breast tissue density in patients aged >40 years. It appears that IGF-1R expression in breast cancer tissue plays an important role in breast cancer in patients with dense breast tissue. In premenopausal women, IGF-1R overexpression in breast cancer tissue was significantly associated with HER-2 positivity and poor DFS.

  17. Detecting Breast Cancer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students are introduced to the unit challenge: To develop a painless means of identifying cancerous tumors. Solving the challenge depends on an understanding of the properties of stress and strain. After learning the challenge question, students generate ideas and consider the knowledge required to solve the challenge. Then they read an expert's opinion on ultrasound imaging and the potentials for detecting cancerous tumors. This interview helps to direct student research and learning towards finding a solution.

  18. Radiation Therapy in Treating Post-Menopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-24

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Cribriform Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  19. Radiation Therapy in Treating Post-Menopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-08

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Cribriform Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  20. Breast Cancer Decision Support System for Rural People

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thoranin Intarajak; Seung Hwan Kang

    In Thailand, breast cancer is one of the top five cancers and the percentage of breast cancer patients is surprisingly increasing. Siriraj Hospital has collected data of breast cancer patients for more than ten years. Unfortunately, those data were not arranged in a useable form. Therefore, a system to record breast cancer information and treatment methods has been created. It

  1. Intraoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Norman R.; Pigott, Katharine H.; Brew-Graves, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Intra-operative radiotherapy (IORT) as a treatment for breast cancer is a relatively new technique that is designed to be a replacement for whole breast external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in selected women suitable for breast-conserving therapy. This article reviews twelve reasons for the use of the technique, with a particular emphasis on targeted intra-operative radiotherapy (TARGIT) which uses X-rays generated from a portable device within the operating theatre immediately after the breast tumour (and surrounding margin of healthy tissue) has been removed. The delivery of a single fraction of radiotherapy directly to the tumour bed at the time of surgery, with the capability of adding EBRT at a later date if required (risk-adaptive technique) is discussed in light of recent results from a large multinational randomised controlled trial comparing TARGIT with EBRT. The technique avoids irradiation of normal tissues such as skin, heart, lungs, ribs and spine, and has been shown to improve cosmetic outcome when compared with EBRT. Beneficial aspects to both institutional and societal economics are discussed, together with evidence demonstrating excellent patient satisfaction and quality of life. There is a discussion of the published evidence regarding the use of IORT twice in the same breast (for new primary cancers) and in patients who would never be considered for EBRT because of their special circumstances (such as the frail, the elderly, or those with collagen vascular disease). Finally, there is a discussion of the role of the TARGIT Academy in developing and sustaining high standards in the use of the technique. PMID:25083504

  2. Promoter hypermethylation in sentinel lymph nodes as a marker for breast cancer recurrence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hetty E. Carraway; Shelun Wang; Amanda Blackford; Mingzho Guo; Penny Powers; Stacie Jeter; Nancy E. Davidson; Pedram Argani; Kyle Terrell; James G. Herman; Julie R. Lange

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes in histologically negative sentinel lymph nodes (HNSN) of early stage breast\\u000a cancer patients has not been extensively studied. This study evaluates the methylation frequency and pattern in HNSN to determine\\u000a if detection of hypermethylation of one or more genes is associated with an increased recurrence risk in node negative breast\\u000a cancer. Experimental design

  3. Lack of Survival Gain for Elderly Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bastiaannet, Esther; Portielje, Johanneke E.A.; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; de Craen, Anton J.M.; van der Velde, Susanne; Kuppen, Peter J.K.; van der Geest, Lydia G.M.; Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska L.G.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The number of elderly women with breast cancer is increasing and will become a major health concern. However, little is known about the optimal treatment for this age group. The aim of this study was to describe time trends for the overall Dutch breast cancer cohort with an emphasis on differences between young and elderly patients. Methods. All adult female patients diagnosed in 1995–2005 were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Relative excess risks for death (adjusted for stage, histology, treatment, and grade) were estimated using a multivariate generalized linear model with a Poisson distribution, based on collapsed relative survival data, using exact survival times. Results. Overall, 127,805 patients were included. Treatment of patients aged ?75 years changed significantly over time: they received less surgery, more adjuvant hormonal treatment and chemotherapy, and more hormonal treatment without surgery. In contrast to younger patients, the relative survival did not improve significantly over time for elderly patients. With increasing age, the observed–expected death ratio decreased to almost 1.0. Conclusion. Survival for elderly patients with breast cancer did not improve significantly. Observed–expected death ratios in the elderly are close to 1, indicating that excess mortality is low. Elderly patients with breast cancer have a higher risk for overtreatment and undertreatment, with a delicate therapeutic balance between breast cancer survival gain and potential toxicities. To improve breast cancer survival in the elderly, a critical reappraisal is needed of costs and benefits of hormonal as well as other treatments, and better selection of patients who can benefit from available therapies is warranted. PMID:21406470

  4. Immunohistochemical Expression of CXCR4 on Breast Cancer and Its Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Okuyama Kishima, Marina; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Coral; Banin-Hirata, Bruna Karina; Losi-Guembarovski, Roberta; Brajão de Oliveira, Karen; Amarante, Marla Karine; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara

    2015-01-01

    Many tumor cells express chemokines and chemokine receptors, and, for this reason, these molecules can affect the tumor progression. It is known that breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous neoplasia comprising distinct diseases, histological characteristics, and clinical outcomes. The most studied role for CXCL12 chemokine and its receptor CXCR4 in breast cancer pathogenesis is the metastasis event, although several reports have demonstrated its involvement in other processes, such as angiogenesis and tumor growth. It has been found that CXCR4 is required for breast cancer cell migration to other sites such as lung, bone, and lymph nodes, which express high levels of CXCL12 chemokine. Therefore, CXCR4 is being considered a prognostic marker in breast cancer. Within this context, this review summarizes established studies involving expression of CXCR4 on breast cancer, focusing on its clinical significance. PMID:26161302

  5. The intracrinology of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Keely May; Sasano, Hironobu

    2015-01-01

    The importance of intracrinology, or in situ production of steroids from circulating precursors, in breast cancer has been firmly established in estrogen actions on postmenopausal patients. Expression levels of various steroid synthesizing and/or metabolizing enzymes have been examined in human breast cancer tissues by a number of groups. The enzymes examined include those capable of converting circulating DHEA-S to sex steroids (STS and 3?HSD?4-5 isomerase), the group of enzymes that modulate the strength of both androgens and estrogens (17?HSD family) as well as the androgenic 5?R enzymes and the estrogenic aromatase enzyme. In addition to these DHEA-related metabolism pathways, other intracrine pathways involving progesterone and cholesterol have also been examined. Some risk factors of breast cancer development, including obesity, have also been postulated to interact with steroid metabolising pathways. In this review, we aimed to summarise the current state of knowledge regarding intracrine metabolism including expression levels of various enzymes and receptors, focusing particularly upon the importance of the production of biologically potent steroids from circulating sulfated precursors such as DHEA-S. In addition, we attempted to summarise the factors, both steroidal and non-steroidal, involved in the regulation of these enzymes and propose future directions for research in this particular field. The concept of intracrinology was first proposed over 20 years ago but there still remain many unanswered questions which could open new horizons for the understanding of intracrine metabolism in the breast. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Essential role of DHEA'. PMID:24751707

  6. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Lippman, M. [Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)] [comps.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  7. Optical spectra analysis for breast cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkov, S. A.; Kochemasov, G. G.; Lyubynskaya, T. E.; Maslov, N. V.; Nuzhny, A. S.; da Silva, L. B.; Rubenchik, A.

    2011-11-01

    Minimally invasive probe and optical biopsy system based on optical spectra recording and analysis seem to be a promising tool for early diagnostics of breast cancer. Light scattering and absorption spectra are generated continuously as far as the needle-like probe with one emitting and several collecting optical fibers penetrates through the tissues toward to the suspicious area. That allows analyzing not only the state of local site, but also the structure of tissues along the needle trace. The suggested method has the advantages of automated on-line diagnosing and minimal tissue destruction and in parallel with the conventional diagnostic procedures provides the ground for decision-making. 165 medical trials were completed in Nizhny Novgorod Regional Oncology Centre, Russia. Independent diagnoses were the results of fine biopsy and histology. Application of wavelet expansion and clasterization techniques for spectra analysis revealed several main spectral types for malignant and benign tumors. Automatic classification algorithm demonstrated specificity ˜90% and sensitivity ˜91%. Large amount of information, fuzziness in criteria and data noisiness make neural networks to be an attractive analytic tool. The model based on three-layer perceptron was tested over the sample of 29 `cancer' and 29 `non-cancer' cases and demonstrated total separation.

  8. Phospho-TCTP as a therapeutic target of Dihydroartemisinin for aggressive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lucibello, Maria; Adanti, Sara; Antelmi, Ester; Dezi, Dario; Ciafrè, Stefania; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Zonfrillo, Manuela; Nicotera, Giuseppe; Sica, Lorenzo; De Braud, Filippo; Pierimarchi, Pasquale

    2015-03-10

    Upregulation of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) is associated with poorly differentiated aggressive tumors, including breast cancer, but the underlying mechanism(s) are still debated. Here, we show that in breast cancer cell lines TCTP is primarily localized in the nucleus, mostly in the phosphorylated form.The effects of Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), an anti-malaria agent that binds TCTP, were tested on breast cancer cells. DHA decreases cell proliferation and induces apoptotic cell death by targeting the phosphorylated form of TCTP. Remarkably, DHA enhances the anti-tumor effects of Doxorubicin in triple negative breast cancer cells resulting in an increased level of apoptosis. DHA also synergizes with Trastuzumab, used to treat HER2/neu positive breast cancers, to induce apoptosis of tumor cells.Finally, we present new clinical data that nuclear phospho-TCTP overexpression in primary breast cancer tissue is associated with high histological grade, increase expression of Ki-67 and with ER-negative breast cancer subtypes. Notably, phospho-TCTP expression levels increase in trastuzumab-resistant breast tumors, suggesting a possible role of phospho-TCTP as a new prognostic marker.In conclusion, the anti-tumor effect of DHA in vitro with conventional chemotherapeutics suggests a novel therapeutic strategy and identifies phospho-TCTP as a new promising target for advanced breast cancer. PMID:25779659

  9. Phospho-TCTP as a therapeutic target of dihydroartemisinin for aggressive breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lucibello, Maria; Adanti, Sara; Antelmi, Ester; Dezi, Dario; Ciafrè, Stefania; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Zonfrillo, Manuela; Nicotera, Giuseppe; Sica, Lorenzo; De Braud, Filippo; Pierimarchi, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Upregulation of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) is associated with poorly differentiated aggressive tumors, including breast cancer, but the underlying mechanism(s) are still debated. Here, we show that in breast cancer cell lines TCTP is primarily localized in the nucleus, mostly in the phosphorylated form. The effects of Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), an anti-malaria agent that binds TCTP, were tested on breast cancer cells. DHA decreases cell proliferation and induces apoptotic cell death by targeting the phosphorylated form of TCTP. Remarkably, DHA enhances the anti-tumor effects of Doxorubicin in triple negative breast cancer cells resulting in an increased level of apoptosis. DHA also synergizes with Trastuzumab, used to treat HER2/neu positive breast cancers, to induce apoptosis of tumor cells. Finally, we present new clinical data that nuclear phospho-TCTP overexpression in primary breast cancer tissue is associated with high histological grade, increase expression of Ki-67 and with ER-negative breast cancer subtypes. Notably, phospho-TCTP expression levels increase in trastuzumab-resistant breast tumors, suggesting a possible role of phospho-TCTP as a new prognostic marker. In conclusion, the anti-tumor effect of DHA in vitro with conventional chemotherapeutics suggests a novel therapeutic strategy and identifies phospho-TCTP as a new promising target for advanced breast cancer. PMID:25779659

  10. Biomechanical breast modeling to improve patient positioning during breast cancer radiotherapy

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Biomechanical breast modeling to improve patient positioning during breast cancer radiotherapy S irradiation for cases of early stage breast cancer. Delivering higher doses to more localized volumes demands, France Keywords: Finite Element model; breast soft tissues; partial breast irradiation; breast phantom. 1

  11. [Breast tomosynthesis: a new tool for diagnosing breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Martínez Miravete, P; Etxano, J

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer continues to be the most common malignant tumor in women in occidental countries. Mammography is currently the technique of choice for screening programs; however, although it has been widely validated, mammography has its limitations, especially in dense breasts. Breast tomosynthesis is a revolutionary advance in the diagnosis of breast cancer. It makes it possible to define lesions that are occult in the glandular tissue and therefore to detect breast tumors that are impossible to see on conventional mammograms. In considering the combined use of mammography and tomosynthesis, many factors must be taken into account apart from cancer detection; these include additional radiation, the recall rate, and the time necessary to carry out and interpret the two tests. In this article, we review the technical principles of tomosynthesis, it main uses, and the future perspective for this imaging technique. PMID:24598575

  12. Flax and Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Flower, Gillian; Fritz, Heidi; Balneaves, Lynda G; Verma, Shailendra; Skidmore, Becky; Fernandes, Rochelle; Kennedy, Deborah; Cooley, Kieran; Wong, Raimond; Sagar, Stephen; Fergusson, Dean; Seely, Dugald

    2013-09-01

    Background. Flax is a food and dietary supplement commonly used for menopausal symptoms. Flax is known for its lignan, ?-linolenic acid, and fiber content, components that may possess phytogestrogenic, anti-inflammatory, and hormone modulating effects, respectively. We conducted a systematic review of flax for efficacy in improving menopausal symptoms in women living with breast cancer and for potential impact on risk of breast cancer incidence or recurrence. Methods. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and AMED from inception to January 2013 for human interventional or observational data pertaining to flax and breast cancer. Results. Of 1892 records, we included a total of 10 studies: 2 randomized controlled trials, 2 uncontrolled trials, 1 biomarker study, and 5 observational studies. Nonsignificant (NS) decreases in hot flash symptomatology were seen with flax ingestion (7.5 g/d). Flax (25 g/d) increased tumor apoptotic index (P < .05) and decreased HER2 expression (P < .05) and cell proliferation (Ki-67 index; NS) among newly diagnosed breast cancer patients when compared with placebo. Uncontrolled and biomarker studies suggest beneficial effects on hot flashes, cell proliferation, atypical cytomorphology, and mammographic density, as well as possible anti-angiogenic activity at doses of 25 g ground flax or 50 mg secoisolariciresinol diglycoside daily. Observational data suggests associations between flax and decreased risk of primary breast cancer (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.69-0.97), better mental health (AOR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.05-2.94), and lower mortality (multivariate hazard ratio = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.50-0.95) among breast cancer patients. Conclusions. Current evidence suggests that flax may be associated with decreased risk of breast cancer. Flax demonstrates antiproliferative effects in breast tissue of women at risk of breast cancer and may protect against primary breast cancer. Mortality risk may also be reduced among those living with breast cancer. PMID:24013641

  13. The Genomic Signature of Breast Cancer Prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose Russo; Gabriela Balogh; Daniel Mailo; Patricia A. Russo; Rebecca Heulings; Irma H. Russo

    Early pregnancy imprints in the breast permanent genomic changes or a signature that reduces the susceptibility of this organ to cancer. The breast attains its maximum development during pregnancy and\\u000a lactation. After menopause, the breast regresses in both nulliparous and parous women containing lobular structures designated\\u000a Lob.1. The Lob 1 found in the breast of nulliparous women and of parous

  14. Breast Cancer Diagnosis Systems: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esugasini Subramaniam; Tan Kuan Liung

    Studies on breast cancer have been approached for many years from different angles of importance; be it the cause of the disease, the detection of the disease, the diagnosis systems, method of treatments before and after surgery. These studies have been divided into two paradigms, one which defines breast cancer disease as a local and regional disease; and another as

  15. Multidrug Resistance in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Can Atalay; Ismet Deliloglu Gurhan; Cigdem Irkkan; Ufuk Gunduz

    2006-01-01

    Background: Advanced breast cancer cases can still be encountered resulting in poor prognosis. The primary treatment for these patients is chemotherapy, and multidrug resistance (MDR) is a serious obstacle in the treatment. Detecting drug resistance before first-line chemotherapy may increase the patient’s survival. In this study, the role of MDR is evaluated in locally advanced breast cancer patients. Methods: Reverse

  16. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhaskarapillai Binukumar; Aleyamma Mathew

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and

  17. Prognostic factors in primary breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary M. Clark; William L. McGuire

    1983-01-01

    Summary Estrogen receptor (ER) has been well documented as an important predictor of long disease-free intervals and survival for patients with primary breast cancer (1). In advanced breast cancer it has been hypothesized that the presence of progesterone receptor (PR) might be a more sensitive marker for predicting response to endocrine therapy (2,3). We have recently found that PR was

  18. Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR) Cohort

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR) Cohort is an international resource of multi-generational families, data, and biospecimens established in 1995 for interdisciplinary collaborative research on the genetic epidemiology of breast cancer. Questionnaire data, clinical data and (when available) biospecimens have been collected for over 30,000 women and men from nearly 12,000 families.

  19. PAQR3 expression is downregulated in human breast cancers and correlated with HER2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenghu; Ling, Zhi-Qiang; Guo, Weiwei; Lu, Xiao-Xiao; Pan, Yi; Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Yan

    2015-01-01

    PAQR3 is a newly discovered tumor suppressor and its functional role in breast cancer has not been well characterized. We report here that PAQR3 is associated with the progression and survival of human patients with breast cancer, as well as cell proliferation and migration of human breast cancer cells. PAQR3 mRNA level was robustly downregulated in human breast cancer samples compared with their corresponding para-cancerous histological normal tissues (n = 82, P < 0.0001). The mRNA level of PAQR3 was negatively correlated with HER2 expression (P < 0.0001) and disease-free survival of the patients (P < 0.0001). PAQR3 overexpression inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation and migration of breast cancer cells including MCF7, SKBR3, MDA-MD-231, MDA-MD-468 and MDA-MD-453 cells. Knockdown of PAQR3 in MDA-MD-231 cells elevated cell proliferation and migration. Inhibition of HER2 by trastuzumab increased PAQR3 expression in SKBR3 cells. In conclusion, PAQR3 expression is frequently downregulated in human breast cancers inversely correlated with HER2 expression. PAQR3 is able to modulate the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. Our data indicate that PAQR3 functions as a tumor suppressor in the development of human breast cancers. PMID:25900239

  20. PAQR3 expression is downregulated in human breast cancers and correlated with HER2 expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenghu; Ling, Zhi-Qiang; Guo, Weiwei; Lu, Xiao-Xiao; Pan, Yi; Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Yan

    2015-05-20

    PAQR3 is a newly discovered tumor suppressor and its functional role in breast cancer has not been well characterized. We report here that PAQR3 is associated with the progression and survival of human patients with breast cancer, as well as cell proliferation and migration of human breast cancer cells. PAQR3 mRNA level was robustly downregulated in human breast cancer samples compared with their corresponding para-cancerous histological normal tissues (n = 82, P < 0.0001). The mRNA level of PAQR3 was negatively correlated with HER2 expression (P < 0.0001) and disease-free survival of the patients (P < 0.0001). PAQR3 overexpression inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation and migration of breast cancer cells including MCF7, SKBR3, MDA-MD-231, MDA-MD-468 and MDA-MD-453 cells. Knockdown of PAQR3 in MDA-MD-231 cells elevated cell proliferation and migration. Inhibition of HER2 by trastuzumab increased PAQR3 expression in SKBR3 cells. In conclusion, PAQR3 expression is frequently downregulated in human breast cancers inversely correlated with HER2 expression. PAQR3 is able to modulate the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. Our data indicate that PAQR3 functions as a tumor suppressor in the development of human breast cancers. PMID:25900239

  1. Breast cancer radiotherapy and cardiac risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anusheel Munshi; Kaustav Talapatra; Debanarayan Dutta

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women in the developed world and its incidence in the developing\\u000a world is on the rise. Management of breast cancer requires a multimodality approach and an integration of the services of\\u000a surgery, radiation, and medical oncology. Radiotherapy after mastectomy or breast conservation leads to reduction in local\\u000a recurrence by

  2. Cancer Detection and Prevention 26 (2002) 192196 Mastalgia and breast cancer: a protective association?

    E-print Network

    Apkarian, A. Vania

    2002-01-01

    Cancer Detection and Prevention 26 (2002) 192­196 Mastalgia and breast cancer: a protective to breast cancer risk. We have examined the association between mastalgia and breast cancer in the patient breast cancer risk factor information, 1532 (28%) reported breast pain as an incidental complaint

  3. Trastuzumab Emtansine in Treating Older Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-15

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2 Positive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  4. GDC-0941 and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Androgen Receptor-Negative Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-15

    Estrogen Receptor Negative Breast Cancer; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  5. KeraStat Skin Therapy in Treating Radiation Dermatitis in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage 0-IIIA Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-28

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Skin Reactions Secondary to Radiation Therapy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  6. Axillary skin malignancy: a rare breast cancer presentation.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Benjamin H; Malahias, Marco; El-Said, Tarek F A; Fahmy, Fahmy S

    2014-05-01

    A rise in incidence and decrease in mortality rates from breast cancer have lead to an increase in prevalence within developed countries. Presentation is classically with a palpable breast tissue mass that may metastasize to bone, lung, liver, brain, lymph nodes, and skin. We describe a delayed diagnosis, in an 80-year-old female patient, where, on 2 occasions, the primary initial presentation was with a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in the right axilla. It was not until the third referral, with an ipsilateral breast lump, that breast cancer was clinically diagnosed. This was histologically identified as the primary malignancy, most likely in-keeping with squamous cell carcinoma of the breast. This unique atypical presentation represents a diagnostic challenge and highlights a clinically relevant learning point that may avoid subsequent diagnostic delay. Cutaneous axillary lesions should be treated with a high index of suspicion, necessitating the requirement for chest examination because of the possible presence of an associated primary breast carcinoma. PMID:23241794

  7. A retrospective comparative study of clinicopathological features between young and elderly women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingli; Ma, Baohua; Kang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This is a retrospective study to compare the clinicopathological features between young and elderly women with breast cancer. Methods: Totally 181 young and 186 elderly breast cancer patients were analyzed and compared in respects of the histological subtype, tumor number and size, tumor location, histological grading, UICC-pTNM pathological staging, and lymph node metastasis status. Results: Our results showed that invasive ductal carcinoma was the most frequent histotype in young and elderly breast cancer patients. The second most frequent histological subtype was intraductal carcinoma in the young group, while the second leading histotype was invasive lobular carcinoma in the elderly group. No significant differences in tumor number and location were observed between the young and elderly groups. The percentage of patients with tumor size T3 (diameter > 5 cm) and the proportion of patients with histological grade III in the young group were significantly higher than the elderly group. For UICC-pTNM pathological staging, patients at stages 0-I and II in the young group were less than, while patients at stage III was more than, in the elderly group. In addition, the axillary lymph node metastasis rate and the numbers of axillary lymph node metastasis were elevated in the young group, compared with the elderly group. Conclusion: Breast cancer in young female patients is associated with increased aggressiveness and potential malignancy. Our findings might contribute to future diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in young women.

  8. High frequency of lobular breast cancer in distant metastases to the orbit

    PubMed Central

    Raap, Mieke; Antonopoulos, Wiebke; Dämmrich, Maximilian; Christgen, Henriette; Steinmann, Diana; Länger, Florian; Lehmann, Ulrich; Kreipe, Hans; Christgen, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis to the periocular soft tissue of the orbit is a rare manifestation of metastatic cancer. Infiltrating lobular breast cancer (ILBC) is a special breast cancer subtype, which accounts for 10–15% of all mammary carcinomas and for ?1% of all malignancies. Here, we report on a high frequency of lobular breast cancer in patients with orbital metastases identified in an original series of metastatic tumor specimens and by a systematic literature review. A series of 14 orbital metastases was compiled from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival tissues. All cases were subjected to histological re-review and detailed immunophenotypical characterization. In addition, we performed a meta-analysis of 68 previously published case reports describing orbital metastases, with special reference to breast cancer subtypes. Based on clinical history, histomorphology, immunophenotype, and/or comparison with matched primary tumors, orbital metastases were derived from breast cancer in 8/14 cases, seven of which were classified as metastatic lobular breast cancer. Other entities included non-small cell lung cancer (4/14), infiltrating ductal breast cancer (1/14), prostate cancer (1/14) and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus (1/14). In line with this original series of orbital metastases, lobular breast cancer was the most common malignancy in 72 patients with orbital metastases described in 68 independent case reports. In conclusion, lobular breast cancer represents the cancer subtype with the highest prevalence among orbital metastases. The high frequency of ILBC in orbital metastases illustrates the special metastatic behavior of this tumor entity and may have implications for the understanding of the organotropism of metastatic lobular breast cancer. PMID:25355547

  9. Ospemifene, vulvovaginal atrophy, and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wurz, Gregory T; Soe, Lin H; DeGregorio, Michael W

    2013-03-01

    The incidence and severity of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) in postmenopausal breast cancer patients has a significant impact on quality of life. While the etiology of VVA is primarily related to low estrogen levels seen in menopause, women with breast cancer have an added risk of VVA induced by a combination of chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and menopause. Ospemifene is a new, non-hormonal selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) triphenylethylene derivative that is effective in treating VVA in postmenopausal women. Although other SERMs have antagonistic effects on the vagina, ospemifene exerts an estrogen-like effect on the vaginal epithelium. This review will focus on data demonstrating the antiestrogenic activity of ospemifene in several unique breast cancer animal models, and the implications for utilizing ospemifene in patients with breast cancer suffering from VVA. Additional research addressing the expanded use of ospemifene in breast cancer patients is also warranted. PMID:23332519

  10. Diet and breast cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mourouti, Niki; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Papavagelis, Christos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2015-02-01

    Breast cancer occurs as a result between genes-diet interactions. Concerning diet, only alcohol is widely recognized for being most consistently associated with breast cancer risk. The purpose of this review is to report through a systematic way the current scientific evidence relating breast cancer and diet, through original-research studies published in English language during the last decade, assessing the consumption of specific foodstuffs/food-nutrients in relation to the disease. The available literature suggests that soy food intake seems to be inversely associated with the disease, while no association seems to be reported for dietary carbohydrates and dietary fiber intake. The consumption of dietary fat, is probably suggestive of an increase in breast cancer risk, while studies evaluating the role of fruit/vegetable, meat as well as dietary patterns and breast cancer risk, provide inconsistent results. Diet seems to be modestly associated with the disease, highlighting the need for more studies to be conducted. PMID:25198160

  11. Mammography screening in the Netherlands: delay in the diagnosis of breast cancer after breast cancer screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L E M Duijm; J H Groenewoud; F H Jansen; J Fracheboud; M van Beek; H J de Koning; LEM Duijm

    2004-01-01

    In a prospective study we determined the frequency and causes of delay in the diagnosis of breast cancer after suspicious screening mammography. We included all women aged 50–75 years who underwent biennial screening mammography in the southern breast cancer screening region of the Netherlands between 1 January 1996 and 1 January 2002. Clinical data, breast imaging reports, biopsy results and

  12. A case of neurofibromatosis and breast cancer: loss of heterozygosity of NF1 in breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?ef?k Güran; Mükerrem Safali

    2005-01-01

    Only a few cases with breast cancer and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) have been reported in the literature. Here, we present a family with a history of neurofibromatosis and breast cancer. No hereditary NF1 mutation was observed in this case. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analyses of the breast tumor revealed LOH in the NF1 region. In this family, the proband

  13. Breast cancer detection using time reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh Sajjadieh, Mohammad Hossein

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death after lung cancer among women. Mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have certain limitations in detecting breast cancer, especially during its early stage of development. A number of studies have shown that microwave breast cancer detection has potential to become a successful clinical complement to the conventional X-ray mammography. Microwave breast imaging is performed by illuminating the breast tissues with an electromagnetic waveform and recording its reflections (backscatters) emanating from variations in the normal breast tissues and tumour cells, if present, using an antenna array. These backscatters, referred to as the overall (tumour and clutter) response, are processed to estimate the tumour response, which is applied as input to array imaging algorithms used to estimate the location of the tumour. Due to changes in the breast profile over time, the commonly utilized background subtraction procedures used to estimate the target (tumour) response in array processing are impractical for breast cancer detection. The thesis proposes a new tumour estimation algorithm based on a combination of the data adaptive filter with the envelope detection filter (DAF/EDF), which collectively do not require a training step. After establishing the superiority of the DAF/EDF based approach, the thesis shows that the time reversal (TR) array imaging algorithms outperform their conventional conterparts in detecting and localizing tumour cells in breast tissues at SNRs ranging from 15 to 30dB.

  14. Current and future role of neoadjuvant therapy for breast cancer

    E-print Network

    Untch, M; Konecny, GE; Paepke, S; von Minckwitz, G; von Minckwitz, G

    2014-01-01

    radiotherapy after primary systemic therapy be administered with the same recommendations made for operable breast cancerBreast Radiotherapy (START) trials of radiotherapy hypofractionation for treatment of early breast cancer:

  15. Obese Postmenopausal Women May Face Higher Risk for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Obese Postmenopausal Women May Face Higher Risk for Breast Cancer Researchers report the increased risk was as high ... and postmenopausal may face significantly higher odds for breast cancer compared with slimmer women. The risk for breast ...

  16. Diabetes and breast cancer : the women's healthy eating & living study

    E-print Network

    Erickson, Kirsten Diann

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome as a prognostic factor for breast cancermetabolic syndrome, 29 also found associations with a worse prognosis after breast cancer.metabolic disorders can be controlled and may present an opportunity for improving prognosis in early stage breast cancer

  17. What Happens After Treatment for Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2015 Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Breast Cancer In Men? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Breast Cancer In Men After Treatment What`s New in Breast ...

  18. Breast-feeding after breast cancer: if you wish, madam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hatem A. Azim Jr; Giulia Bellettini; Shari Gelber; Fedro A. Peccatori

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor-affecting women during the child bearing period. With the rising trend in\\u000a delaying pregnancy later in life, the issue of subsequent pregnancy and lactation following breast cancer diagnosis has been\\u000a more frequently encountered. In this context, data is scarce particularly those addressing the issue of lactation. In this\\u000a review, we discussed different endocrinal,

  19. A comparison of hormonal profiles between breast cancer and benign breast disease: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Lagiou, P.; Samoli, E.; Lagiou, A.; Zourna, P.; Barbouni, A.; Georgila, C.; Tsikkinis, A.; Vassilarou, D.; Minaki, P.; Sfikas, C.; Spanos, E.; Trichopoulos, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Benign breast disease (BBD), particularly proliferative BBD, is an established breast cancer risk factor. However, there has been no systematic attempt to compare the hormonal profiles of the two conditions. In a case–control investigation in Athens, Greece, we compared levels of estrogens, testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), as well as their principal binding proteins, between breast cancer patients, women with BBD by histological type (proliferative and nonproliferative) and women with no breast pathology. Patients and methods We studied 466 women with incident breast cancer, 704 women with BBD and 244 healthy women. We used multiple regression to compare log-transformed serum hormone levels of breast cancer patients with those of healthy women and women with BBD by histological type (proliferative and nonproliferative BBD). Results The hormonal profile of breast cancer in our study was in line with the generally accepted hormonal profile of this disease, as reported from large cohort studies. Compared with healthy women, breast cancer patients tended to have higher levels of steroid hormones. The evidence was strong for estrone (difference 21.5%, P < 0.001), weaker for testosterone (difference 15.8%, P = 0.07) and weaker still for estradiol (difference 12.0%, P = 0.18). Also compared with healthy women, breast cancer patients had barely higher levels of IGF-1 (difference 2.0%, P = 0.51), but had significantly lower levels of IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) (difference ?6.7%, P = 0.001). Compared with women with BBD, breast cancer patients had nonstatistically significantly lower levels of steroid hormones, but they had higher levels of IGF-1 [difference 5.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7% to 10.6%] and lower levels of IGFBP-3 (difference ?3.7%, 95% CI ?6.7% to ?0.7%). Differences were more pronounced when breast cancer patients were contrasted to women with proliferative BBD. Conclusions Our findings suggest that high levels of IGF-1 may be an important factor toward the evolution of BBD to breast cancer. PMID:23723293

  20. Questionnaires in Identifying Upper Extremity Function and Quality of Life After Treatment in Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-17

    Musculoskeletal Complication; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Therapy-Related Toxicity

  1. DNA methylation epigenotypes in breast cancer molecular subtypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naiara G Bediaga; Amelia Acha-Sagredo; Isabel Guerra; Amparo Viguri; Carmen Albaina; Irune Ruiz Diaz; Ricardo Rezola; María Jesus Alberdi; Joaquín Dopazo; David Montaner; Mertxe de Renobales; Agustín F Fernández; John K Field; Mario F Fraga; Triantafillos Liloglou; Marian M de Pancorbo

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Identification of gene expression-based breast cancer subtypes is considered a critical means of prognostication. Genetic mutations along with epigenetic alterations contribute to gene-expression changes occurring in breast cancer. So far, these epigenetic contributions to sporadic breast cancer subtypes have not been well characterized, and only a limited understanding exists of the epigenetic mechanisms affected in those particular breast cancer

  2. Competing risks to breast cancer mortality in Catalonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ester Vilaprinyo; Rosa Gispert; Montserrat Martínez-Alonso; Misericòrdia Carles; Roger Pla; Josep-Alfons Espinàs; Montserrat Rué

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer mortality has experienced important changes over the last century. Breast cancer occurs in the presence of other competing risks which can influence breast cancer incidence and mortality trends. The aim of the present work is: 1) to assess the impact of breast cancer deaths among mortality from all causes in Catalonia (Spain), by age and birth cohort

  3. The efficacy of surgical treatment of breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Benjamin

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the analysis was to resolve the two opposing claims regarding the efficacy of surgical treatment of breast cancer, namely the course of the disease is not affected by surgery because breast cancer is an incurable systemic disease, as shown by a previous analysis, results of randomized breast cancer treatment trials and long-term follow-up of breast cancer patients;

  4. Coincidence of nonpuerperal mastitis and noninflammatory breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedolf Peters; Anja Kießlich; Volker Pahnke

    2002-01-01

    Background: Nonpuerperal mastitis may mimic breast cancer but the incidence of noninflammatory cancer among such patients is unknown. Aim: To estimate the risk of breast cancer in patients with nonpuerperal mastitis within 12 months of treatment. Study design: Two hundred seventy-seven patients with nonpuerperal breast inflammation were prospectively screened for breast cancer within 1 year after mastitis was diagnosed. The

  5. Breast cancer subtyping from plasma proteins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Early detection of breast cancer in blood is both appealing clinically and challenging technically due to the disease's illusive nature and heterogeneity. Today, even though major breast cancer subtypes have been characterized, i.e., luminal A, luminal B, HER2+, and basal-like, little is known about the heterogeneity of breast cancer in blood, which could help to discover minimally invasive protein biomarkers with which clinical researchers can detect, classify, and monitor different breast cancer subtypes. Results In this study, we performed an integrative pathway-assisted clustering analysis of breast cancer subtypes from plasma proteome samples collected from 80 patients diagnosed with breast cancer and 80 healthy women. First, four breast cancer subtypes and additionally unknown subtype (according to existing annotation) were determined based on pathology lab test results in primary tumors of enrolled patients. Next, we developed and applied four distance metrics, i.e., Protein Intensity, Q-Value, Pathway Profile, and Distance Score Function, to measure and characterize these cancer subtypes. Then, we developed a permutation test to evaluate the significant protein level changes in each biological pathway for each breast cancer subtype, using q-value. Lastly, we developed a pathway-protein matrix for each of the four distance methods to estimate the distance between breast cancer subtypes, for which further Pathway Association Network analysis were performed. Conclusions We found that 1) the luminal group (luminal A and luminal B) are clustered together, as well as the basal group (basal-like and HER2+) and 2) luminal A and luminal B are more close to each other than basal-like and HER2+ to each other. Our results were consistent with a recent independent breast cancer research from the Cancer Genome Atlas Network using genomic DNA copy number arrays, DNA methylation, exome sequencing, messenger RNA arrays, microRNA sequencing and reverse-phase protein arrays. Our results showed that changes of different breast cancer subtypes at the pathway level are more profound and less variable than those at the molecular level. Similar subtypes share distinct yet similar pathway activation networks, while dissimilar subtypes are different also at the level of pathway activation networks. The results also showed that distance or similarity of cancer subtypes based on pathway analysis might be able to provide further insight into the intrinsic relationship of breast cancer subtypes. We believe integrative pathway-assisted proteomics analysis described here can become a model for reliable clustering or classification of other cancer subtypes. PMID:23369492

  6. [Breast cancer classification is evolving].

    PubMed

    Penault-Llorca, Frédérique

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic strategy of breast cancer has changed enormously during the last thirty years. To classical obligatory morphological data on the macroscopical and microscopical levels are now added imunocytochemistry, which is capable of detecting therapeutic targets such hormonal receptors and HER2 (Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor2), and molecular biology, which yields the molecular profile of tumors and their multigenic properties. By leaning on up-to-date classifications (TNM system and UICC grades), the pathologist is able to evaluate not only diagnostic but also pronostic criteria, leading to personalized and predictive treatments. PMID:25840451

  7. Adenosquamous variant of metaplastic carcinoma of breast - an unusual histological variant.

    PubMed

    Swathy, P U; Arunalatha, P; Chandramouleeswari, K; Lily, S Mary; Ramya, S

    2015-02-01

    Metaplastic carcinoma of breast refers to a heterogeneous group of neoplasms characterized by intimate admixture of adenocarcinoma with dominant areas of spindle cell, squamous cell and/ or mesenchymal differentiation. They constitute the rarest histological variant of invasive ductal carcinoma. These carcinomas have aggressive clinical behaviour and show suboptimal response to standard treatment. A 49-year-old female presented with lump in the left breast for one year. She was diagnosed as infiltrating ductal carcinoma breast with triple negative hormone status by trucut biopsy. She completed four cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Postchemotherapy, axillary nodes decreased in size but the size of the primary tumour remained the same. Hence, she underwent modified radical mastectomy and the specimen sent for histopathological examination. Grossly, there was a solitary cyst measuring 4x3cm. Histologically, cyst enclosing malignant cells which resemble mature squamous epithelial cells. Also, seen are malignant cells in glandular pattern. PMID:25859463

  8. Esophageal cancer as second primary tumor after breast cancer radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatrix Scholl; Ernane D Reis; Abderrahim Zouhair; Igor Chereshnev; Jean-Claude Givel; Michel Gillet

    2001-01-01

    Background: An increased risk of esophageal cancer has been reported in survivors of breast cancer treated with radiotherapy. This study further characterizes this association.Methods: Through hospital databases, 118 patients (109 men, 9 women) treated for esophageal cancer between 1985 and 1993 were identified, of whom 37 had 60 synchronous or metachronous cancers. 5 women had primary esophageal cancer after having

  9. Analysis of gene expression of secreted factors associated with breast cancer metastases in breast cancer subtypes.

    PubMed

    Fertig, Elana J; Lee, Esak; Pandey, Niranjan B; Popel, Aleksander S

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, having multiple subtypes with different malignant phenotypes. The triple-negative breast cancer, or basal breast cancer, is highly aggressive, metastatic, and difficult to treat. Previously, we identified that key molecules (IL6, CSF2, CCL5, VEGFA, and VEGFC) secreted by tumor cells and stromal cells in basal breast cancer can promote metastasis. It remains to assess whether these molecules function similarly in other subtypes of breast cancer. Here, we characterize the relative gene expression of the five secreted molecules and their associated receptors (GP130, GMRA, GMRB, CCR5, VEGFR2, NRP1, VEGFR3, NRP2) in the basal, HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) positive, luminal A, and luminal B subtypes using high throughput data from tumor samples in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC). IL6 and CCL5 gene expression are basal breast cancer specific, whereas high gene expression of GP130 was observed in luminal A/B. VEGFA/C and CSF2?mRNA are overexpressed in HER2 positive breast cancer, with VEGFA and CSF2 also overexpressed in basal breast cancer. Further study of the specific protein function of these factors within their associated cancer subtypes may yield personalized biomarkers and treatment modalities. PMID:26173622

  10. Using social marketing to increase breast cancer screening among African American women: perspectives from African American breast cancer survivors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Yvonne Talbert

    2008-01-01

    ? Despite progressive preventative techniques, intervention programs, and guidelines to help reduce breast cancer mortality, African American women (AAW) remain affected by breast cancer in greater numbers compared to Caucasians. As rates of breast cancer mortality continue to increase among AAW, a greater need for change emerges, which should include crafting culturally specific social marketing programs that promote breast cancer

  11. CISNET: Mechanistic Modeling of Breast Cancer Surveillance

    Cancer.gov

    The model will be validated with data on breast cancer from the Utah Population Data Base and the Utah Cancer registry. Using these resources we will obtain initial parameter values for a pertinent estimation algorithm designed for grouped data on breast cancer mortality provided by the National Center for Health Statistics. This two-step estimation procedure will be tested by computer simulations and analyses of epidemiological data.

  12. Breast cancer screening in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Panieri, Eugenio

    2012-04-01

    Diagnosing breast cancer early and efficiently is a critical component of any strategy aimed at decreasing breast cancer mortality in developing countries. In this chapter, I evaluate the evidence behind screening strategies and its controversies. The effect of breast-cancer screening has never been formally evaluated in developing countries, and data from the major screening trials need to be viewed in this context. Screening asymptomatic women by means of breast self-examination, clinical examination or mammography can play a significant role in decreasing breast-cancer mortality in developing countries. Major programmes should not be implemented, however, until adequate diagnostic and therapeutic facilities are in place. The most fundamental interventions in early detection, diagnosis, surgery, radiation therapy, and drug therapy must be integrated, organised and resourced appropriately within existing healthcare structures. PMID:22222136

  13. Video Q&A: Molecular profiling of breast cancer

    E-print Network

    Caldas, Carlos

    2013-06-21

    % of all breast cancer), and the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab for HER2 positive breast cancer (up to 15% of all breast cancer). 2. What are the problems with current treatments for breast cancer? The problems are that any systemic treatment, whether... risk. In the case of hormone therapy and trastuzumab, we have very good predictive tests that can help to assess benefit. For example, we know that women with estrogen receptor negative breast cancer do not benefit from hormone therapy, and those...

  14. Chemotherapy With or Without Trastuzumab After Surgery in Treating Women With Invasive Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-01

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Positive; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  15. GLUT 5 Is Not Over-Expressed in Breast Cancer Cells and Patient Breast Cancer Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Gowrishankar, Gayatri; Zitzmann-Kolbe, Sabine; Junutula, Anitha; Reeves, Robert; Levi, Jelena; Srinivasan, Ananth; Bruus-Jensen, Kjerstin; Cyr, John; Dinkelborg, Ludger; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2011-01-01

    F18 2-Fluoro 2-deoxyglucose (FDG) has been the gold standard in positron emission tomography (PET) oncologic imaging since its introduction into the clinics several years ago. Seeking to complement FDG in the diagnosis of breast cancer using radio labeled fructose based analogs, we investigated the expression of the chief fructose transporter-GLUT 5 in breast cancer cells and human tissues. Our results indicate that GLUT 5 is not over-expressed in breast cancer tissues as assessed by an extensive immunohistochemistry study. RT-PCR studies showed that the GLUT 5 mRNA was present at minimal amounts in breast cancer cell lines. Further knocking down the expression of GLUT 5 in breast cancer cells using RNA interference did not affect the fructose uptake in these cell lines. Taken together these results are consistent with GLUT 5 not being essential for fructose uptake in breast cancer cells and tissues. PMID:22073218

  16. Gastric and Endobronchial Metastases in a Case of Lobular Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, G.S.; Corrêa, T.S.; Carvalho, E.P.B.; Katz, A.; Hoff, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is the second most common histological type of invasive breast carcinoma, preceded only by infiltrating ductal carcinoma, which has clinical, biological and molecular distinctions. These distinctions imply a different metastatic behavior between the histology of these 2 types of breast cancer. Case Presentation We report the case of a 51-year-old woman with breast cancer with ILC histology, diagnosed at an early stage. In the course of her disease, recurrences in the gastric mucosa and endobronchial area occurred. The treatment she received is described herein. Conclusion This is a case of ILC with unusual metastases. The absence of E-cadherin is related to the carcinogenesis of ILC and probably to these patterns of metastasis as well. PMID:24348393

  17. Vitamin supplement use and risk for breast cancer: the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsogzolmaa Dorjgochoo; Martha J. Shrubsole; Xiao Ou Shu; Wei Lu; Zhixian Ruan; Ying Zheng; Hui Cai; Qi Dai; Kai Gu; Yu-Tang Gao; Wei Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective The influence of vitamin supplements on breast cancer risk is unclear and the interactive effects of dietary and supplemental\\u000a sources are unknown. This study investigated (1) the association between self-reported vitamin supplement use (multivitamin,\\u000a A, B, C, and E) and breast cancer and (2) the combined effect of vitamin supplements in relation to dietary vitamin intakes\\u000a on breast cancer

  18. Circulating transforming growth factor-?-1 and breast cancer prognosis: results from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana M. Grau; Wanqing Wen; Denise S. Ramroopsingh; Yu-Tang Gao; Jinghuan Zi; Qiuyin Cai; Xiao-Ou Shu; Wei Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Studies investigating the prognostic effect of circulating TGF-?-1 in breast cancer have given inconsistent findings. The\\u000a purpose of this study is to evaluate whether circulating transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?-1) is associated with overall\\u000a and disease-free survival in a cohort of recently diagnosed breast cancer patients. Methods We measured TGF-?-1 levels in plasma samples of breast cancer patients

  19. Can differences in breast cancer utilities explain disparities in breast cancer care?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Schleinitz; Dina DePalo; Jeffrey Blume; Michael Stein

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Black, older, and less affluent women are less likely to receive adjuvant breast cancer therapy than their counterparts.\\u000a Whereas preference contributes to disparities in other healt care scenarios, it is unclear if preference explains differential\\u000a rates of breast cancer care.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: To ascertain utilities from women of diverse backgrounds for the different stages of, and treatments for, breast cancer

  20. Management of fertility preservation in young breast cancer patients in a large breast cancer centre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Lawrenz; E. Neunhoeffer; M. Henes; S. Lessmann-Bechle; B. Krämer; Tanja Fehm

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  The increase of breast cancer in young women under 40 years and the increasing age of women at the time of the birth of their\\u000a first child underlines the importance to implement counselling for fertility-preserving strategies in the management of breast\\u000a cancer care. We present the fertility-preserving procedures performed after routine counselling for primary breast cancer\\u000a patients in a large certified

  1. BCSC Grants: Commonly Used Medications and Breast Cancer Recurrence

    Cancer.gov

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women and it is the second most common cause of cancer mortality. Breast cancer incidence rates have continued to rise since 1980, while mortality rates have declined. As a result, more women are at risk for breast cancer recurrences. Recurrences have important negative consequences requiring a variety of palliative treatments and often lead to death.

  2. From Bombs to Breast Cancer Imaging: Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martineau; Rebecca M

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, one in eight women will be affected by breast cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed - as well as the second most fatal - cancer in American women. It is estimated that there will be nearly 200,000 diagnoses of breast cancer this year; more than 40,000 of these

  3. Breast cancer incidence and prevalence estimated from survival and mortality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riccardo Capocaccia; Arduino Verdecchia; Andrea Micheli; Milena Sant; Gemma Gatta; Franco Berrino

    1990-01-01

    Survival probability for female breast cancer patients was used to estimate incidence rates from breast cancer mortality data in Italy. The female breast cancer survival curve from the Lombardy Cancer Registry (LCR) was used to test the method on data from four local cancer registries, covering areas in different regions of Italy. In spite of the well known geographic variability

  4. Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Millikan; Beth Newman; Chiu-Kit Tse; Patricia G. Moorman; Kathleen Conway; Lisa V. Smith; Miriam H. Labbok; Joseph Geradts; Jeannette T. Bensen; Susan Jackson; Sarah Nyante; Chad Livasy; Lisa Carey; H. Shelton Earp; Charles M. Perou

    2008-01-01

    Risk factors for the newly identified “intrinsic” breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal\\u000a growth factor receptor 2-positive\\/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based,\\u000a case–control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to subtype 1,424 cases of invasive\\u000a and in situ breast cancer, and case subtypes were compared

  5. Breast Cancer In Women Infographic (Infographic)

    Cancer.gov

    This infographic shows the Breast Cancer Subtypes in Women. It’s important for guiding treatment and predicting survival. Know the Science: HR = Hormone receptor. HR+ means tumor cells have receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone, which can promote the growth of HR+ tumors. Hormone therapies like tamoxifen can be used to treat HR+ tumors. HER2 = Human epidermal growth Factor receptor, HER2+ means tumor cells overexpress (make high levels of) a protein, called HE2/neu, which has been shown to be associated with certain aggressive types of breast cancer. Trastuzumab and some other therapies can target cells that overexpress HER2. HR+/HER2, aka “LuminalA”. 73% of all breast cancer cases: best prognosis, most common subtype for every race, age, and poverty level. HR-/HER2, aka “Triple Negative”: 13% of all breast cancer cases, Worst prognosis, Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest rate of this subtype at every age and poverty level. HR+/HER2+, aka “Luminal B”, 10% of all breast cancer cases, little geographic variation by state. HR-/HER2+, aka”HER2-enriched”, 5% of all breast cancer cases, lowest rates for all races and ethnicities. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  6. What You Need to Know about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Dictionary of Genetics Terms Blogs and Newsletters Health Communications Publications What You Need To Know About™ Breast Cancer This booklet is about breast cancer. Learning about your cancer can help you take an ...

  7. Carbohydrate Intake and Outcomes among Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Survivors /

    E-print Network

    Emond, Jennifer Ann

    2013-01-01

    intake would reduce the risk of a breast cancer recurrencereduce the risk of recurrence among postmenopausal breast cancerbreast cancer survivors soon after completing treatment for their primary cancer. Dietary targets should reduce

  8. Identification of genes involved in breast cancer and breast cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Apostolou, Panagiotis; Toloudi, Maria; Papasotiriou, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in women. Great progress has been made in its treatment but relapse is common. One hypothesis to account for the high recurrence rates is the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple malignant cell types. This study aimed to determine genes that are expressed in breast cancer and breast CSCs and to investigate their correlation with stemness. RNA was extracted from established breast cancer cell lines and from CSCs derived from five different breast cancer patients. DNA microarray analysis was performed and any upregulated genes were also studied in other cancer types, including colorectal and lung cancer. For genes that were expressed only in breast cancer, knockdown-based experiments were performed. Finally, the gene expression levels of stemness transcription factors were measured. The outcome of the analysis indicated a group of genes that were aberrantly expressed mainly in breast cancer cells with stemness properties. Knockdown experiments confirmed the impact of several of these on NANOG, OCT3/4, and SOX2 transcription factors. It seems that several genes that are not directly related with hormone metabolism and basic signal transduction pathways might have an important role in relapse and disease progression and, thus, can be targeted for new treatment approaches for breast cancer.

  9. Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preventing Recurrence in Breast Cancer Survivors | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase II trial studies how well docosahexaenoic acid works in preventing recurrence in breast cancer survivors. Docosahexaenoic acid supplement may prevent recurrence in breast cancer survivors.

  10. Effects of irradiation for cervical cancer on subsequent breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Harlan, L.C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Previous research suggests that cervical cancer patients have a lower risk of breast cancer than women in the general population. Possible explanations include opposing risk factors for cervical cancer and breast cancer, the effect of irradiation used to treat cervical cancer, or both. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between irradiation for cervical cancer and the subsequent development of breast cancer. There was no statistically significant relationship between radiation to the ovarian area and the risk of breast cancer in this study. However, the results were consistent with a 19% reduction in risk for women irradiated for cervical cancer when compared to nonirradiated women. In a dose-response analysis, there was a nonsignificant trend of decreased risk of breast cancer with increased radiation up to 1800 rad. There was no consistent pattern for higher doses. The trend, although nonsignificant, differed by age. Women <60 years of age at irradiation were generally at a lower risk of breast cancer than nonirradiated women. Women over 59 years were at an increased risk. There are some potentially important findings from this study which might influence medical care. These should be examined in the larger International Radiation Study.

  11. A prophylactic vaccine for breast cancer?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine J Watson; Barry A Gusterson

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Cancer vaccines are the Holy Grail for patients and clinicians alike. The possibility that we can be vaccinated against common cancers is very appealing and the socioeconomic consequences are significant. A recent paper published in the journal Nature Medicine suggests a new approach for the development of a prophylactic vaccine for breast cancer. Their strategy was to induce mammary

  12. Local linear wavelet neural network for breast cancer recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Senapati; A. K. Mohanty; S. Dash; P. K. Dash

    Breast cancer is the major cause of cancer deaths in women today and it is the most common type of cancer in women. Many sophisticated\\u000a algorithm have been proposed for classifying breast cancer data. This paper presents some experiments for classifying breast\\u000a cancer tumor and proposes the use local linear wavelet neural network for breast cancer recognition by training its

  13. Breast Cancer Risk Reduction, Version 2.2015.

    PubMed

    Bevers, Therese B; Ward, John H; Arun, Banu K; Colditz, Graham A; Cowan, Kenneth H; Daly, Mary B; Garber, Judy E; Gemignani, Mary L; Gradishar, William J; Jordan, Judith A; Korde, Larissa A; Kounalakis, Nicole; Krontiras, Helen; Kumar, Shicha; Kurian, Allison; Laronga, Christine; Layman, Rachel M; Loftus, Loretta S; Mahoney, Martin C; Merajver, Sofia D; Meszoely, Ingrid M; Mortimer, Joanne; Newman, Lisa; Pritchard, Elizabeth; Pruthi, Sandhya; Seewaldt, Victoria; Specht, Michelle C; Visvanathan, Kala; Wallace, Anne; Bergman, Mary Ann; Kumar, Rashmi

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in women in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. To assist women who are at increased risk of developing breast cancer and their physicians in the application of individualized strategies to reduce breast cancer risk, NCCN has developed these guidelines for breast cancer risk reduction. PMID:26150582

  14. GPER Function in Breast Cancer: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Lappano, Rosamaria; Pisano, Assunta; Maggiolini, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    The G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER, formerly known as GPR30) has attracted increasing interest, considering its ability to mediate estrogenic signaling in different cell types, including the hormone-sensitive tumors like breast cancer. As observed for other GPCR-mediated responses, the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor is a fundamental integration point in the biological action triggered by GPER. A wide number of natural and synthetic compounds, including estrogens and anti-estrogens, elicit stimulatory effects in breast cancer through GPER up-regulation and activation, suggesting that GPER function is associated with breast tumor progression and tamoxifen resistance. GPER has also been proposed as a candidate biomarker in triple-negative breast cancer, opening a novel scenario for a more comprehensive assessment of breast tumor patients. PMID:24834064

  15. Perceived Versus Objective Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer Risk in Diverse Women

    PubMed Central

    Fehniger, Julia; Livaudais-Toman, Jennifer; Karliner, Leah; Kerlikowske, Karla; Tice, Jeffrey A.; Quinn, Jessica; Ozanne, Elissa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Prior research suggests that women do not accurately estimate their risk for breast cancer. Estimating and informing women of their risk is essential for tailoring appropriate screening and risk reduction strategies. Methods: Data were collected for BreastCARE, a randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate a PC-tablet based intervention providing multiethnic women and their primary care physicians with tailored information about breast cancer risk. We included women ages 40–74 visiting general internal medicine primary care clinics at one academic practice and one safety net practice who spoke English, Spanish, or Cantonese, and had no personal history of breast cancer. We collected baseline information regarding risk perception and concern. Women were categorized as high risk (vs. average risk) if their family history met criteria for referral to genetic counseling or if they were in the top 5% of risk for their age based on the Gail or Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium Model (BCSC) breast cancer risk model. Results: Of 1,261 participants, 25% (N=314) were classified as high risk. More average risk than high risk women had correct risk perception (72% vs. 18%); 25% of both average and high risk women reported being very concerned about breast cancer. Average risk women with correct risk perception were less likely to be concerned about breast cancer (odds ratio [OR]=0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.2–0.4) while high risk women with correct risk perception were more likely to be concerned about breast cancer (OR=5.1; 95%CI=2.7–9.6). Conclusions: Many women did not accurately perceive their risk for breast cancer. Women with accurate risk perception had an appropriate level of concern about breast cancer. Improved methods of assessing and informing women of their breast cancer risk could motivate high risk women to apply appropriate prevention strategies and allay unnecessary concern among average risk women. PMID:24372085

  16. The Effect of Environment on Breast Cancer Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YvonneMarie Coyle

    2004-01-01

    Environmental factors are believed to explain a large proportion of breast cancer incidence. Known risk factors for breast cancer, which are related to the reproductive life of women, and other factors, such as inheritance and socioeconomic status, explain only about half of the breast cancer cases in the US. Ionizing radiation is a well established environmental risk factor for breast

  17. Ultra-Wideband Imaging Systems for Breast Cancer Detection

    E-print Network

    Genov, Roman

    Ultra-Wideband Imaging Systems for Breast Cancer Detection Hossein Kassiri Bidhendi, Hamed Mazhab system design and its advantages for breast cancer detection after reading this chapter. Keywords Breast cancer detection · Breast imaging · Ultra-wideband imaging · UWB transceiver · UWB pulses · UWB

  18. Cryotherapy in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy and Nail Toxicity in Patients With Breast Cancer Who Are Receiving Paclitaxel

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-06

    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Pain; Peripheral Neuropathy; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Therapy-related Toxicity

  19. Breast cancer associated with type 1 neurofibromatosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolaos S. Salemis; Georgios Nakos; Dimitrios Sambaziotis; Stavros Gourgiotis

    2010-01-01

    The association between breast cancer and type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1) is a rare clinical entity. We herein present the\\u000a case of a 59-year-old woman, with typical clinical manifestations of NF1, who presented with a painless lump in her right\\u000a breast, which she had first noticed 8 months earlier. Clinical examination and diagnostic workup were suggestive of a breast\\u000a carcinoma, and

  20. A population-based study of contralateral breast cancer following a first primary breast cancer (Washington, United States)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda S. Cook; Emily White; Stephen M. Schwartz; Barbara McKnight; Janet R. Daling; Noel S. Weiss

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate predictors of contralateral breast cancer risk, we examined data from a nested case-control study of second primary cancers among a cohort of women in western Washington (United States) diagnosed with breast cancer during 1978 through 1990 and identified through a population-based cancer registry. Cases included all women in the cohort who subsequently developed contralateral breast cancer at least

  1. Breast cancer management in low resource countries (LRCs): Consensus statement from the Breast Health Global Initiative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nagi S. El Saghir; Clement A. Adebamowo; Benjamin O. Anderson; Robert W. Carlson; Peter A. Bird; Marilys Corbex; Rajendra A. Badwe; Mohammad A. Bushnaq; Alexandru Eniu; Julie R. Gralow; Jay K. Harness; Riccardo Masetti; Fernando Perry; Massoud Samiei; David B. Thomas; Beatrice Wiafe-Addai; Eduardo Cazap

    2011-01-01

    The Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) brought together international breast cancer experts to discuss breast cancer in low resource countries (LRCs) and identify common concerns reviewed in this consensus statement. There continues to be a lack of public and health care professionals' awareness of the importance of early detection of breast cancer. Mastectomy continues to be the most common treatment

  2. MRI Evaluation of the Contralateral Breast in Women with Recently Diagnosed Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Constance D. Lehman; Constantine Gatsonis; Christiane K. Kuhl; R. Edward Hendrick; Etta D. Pisano; Lucy Hanna; Sue Peacock; Stanley F. Smazal; Daniel D. Maki; Thomas B. Julian; Elizabeth R. DePeri; David A. Bluemke; Mitchell D. Schnall

    2007-01-01

    Even after careful clinical and mammographic evaluation, cancer is found in the contralateral breast in up to 10% of women who have received treatment for unilat- eral breast cancer. We conducted a study to determine whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could improve on clinical breast examination and mammography in detecting contralateral breast cancer soon after the initial diagnosis of unilateral

  3. Soy Food Intake and Breast Cancer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiao Ou; Zheng, Ying; Cai, Hui; Gu, Kai; Chen, Zhi; Zheng, Wei; Lu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Context Soy foods are rich in isoflavones, a major group of phytoestrogens that have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of breast cancer. However, the estrogen-like effect of isoflavones and the potential interaction between isoflavones and tamoxifen have led to concern about soy food consumption among breast cancer patients. Objective To evaluate the association of soy food intake after diagnosis of breast cancer with total mortality and cancer recurrence. Design, Setting, and Participants The Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study, a large, population-based cohort study of 5,042 female breast cancer survivors. Study participants were recruited between March 2002 and April 2006 and followed through June 2009. Information on cancer diagnosis and treatment, lifestyle exposures after cancer diagnosis, and disease progression was collected at approximately 6 months after cancer diagnosis and was reassessed at three follow-up interviews conducted at 18, 36, and 60 months after diagnosis. Annual record linkage with the Shanghai Vital Statistics Registry database was carried out to obtain survival information for participants who were lost to follow-up. Medical charts were reviewed to verify disease and treatment information. Main Outcome Measures Any death and recurrence or breast cancer-related death. Cox regression analysis was carried out with adjustment for known clinical predictors and other lifestyle factors. Soy food intake was treated as a time-dependent variable. Results During the median follow-up of 3.9 years (range: 0.5-6.2), 444 deaths and 534 recurrences or breast cancer-related deaths were documented in 5,033 surgically-treated breast cancer patients. Soy food intake, as measured either by soy protein or soy isoflavone intake, was inversely associated with mortality and recurrence. The hazard ratio (HR) associated with highest quartile of soy protein intake was 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.51-0.88) for total mortality and 0.66 (95%CI=0.52-0.84) for recurrence compared with the lowest quartile of intake. The multivariate adjusted 5-year mortality rates were 13.1% and 9.2% and 5-year recurrence rates were 13.0% and 8.9%, respectively, for women in the lowest and highest quartiles of soy protein intake. The inverse association was evident among women with either ER?positive or ER-negative breast cancer and was present in both users and non-users of tamoxifen. Conclusion Among women with breast cancer, soy food consumption was significantly associated with decreased risk of death and recurrence. PMID:19996398

  4. Inequalities in breast cancer care and outcome.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, M.; Sainsbury, R.; Kerr, D.

    1997-01-01

    Comparisons across Europe suggest that survival from breast cancer is less good in the United Kingdom than in many countries. The care given in some UK breast cancer units is exemplary. However, it is difficult to escape the conclusion that a substantial number of women who present with breast cancer receive suboptimal care. Cancer registry-based studies have clearly demonstrated variations between surgeons and between hospitals in the management of early breast cancer. Although variations in surgical practice per se may have little impact on survival, there is evidence that differences in the use of systemic adjuvant therapy influence outcome. Five-year survival seems to be greater in women treated by surgeons seeing more than 30-50 new cases of breast cancer each year. This may be because such patients are more likely to be treated by a multidisciplinary team and to receive adjuvant therapy. Proposals that would increase the overall quality of breast cancer care and remove current inequalities must be carefully considered and should then be implemented. PMID:9303363

  5. Nuclear imaging and early breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Laura; Cervino, Anna Rita

    2014-01-01

    The present report discusses about the most important roles of nuclear medicine related to the early detection of breast cancer. We summarily describe the established and emerging diagnostic techniques, their indications and clinical impact for planar and tomographic breast scintigraphy, positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and positron emission mammography (PEM). PMID:24836945

  6. Neoadjuvant Docetaxel in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew W. Hutcheon; Steven D. Heys; Tarun K. Sarkar

    2003-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy produces substantial increases in clinical response rates and rates of breast conserving therapy. Pathologic response rate, though generally low, is an important outcome as it is presumably associated with eradication of micrometastatic disease and may likely result in improved outcomes. Anthracyclines have long been considered the most efficacious chemotherapy agents for neoadjuvant therapy of early breast cancer. Unfortunately,

  7. The unsatisfactory margin in breast cancer surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han H Luu; Christopher N Otis; William P Reed; Jane L Garb; James L Frank

    1999-01-01

    Background: Surgical margin involvement with breast cancer usually results in obligatory reexcision or mastectomy. While unalterable occult host and pathologic factors may interfere with margin clearance during the initial excision, it is possible that alterations in surgical technique might increase the likelihood of obtaining satisfactory margins.Methods: Two hundred and thirty-five patients who were candidates for breast conservation therapy were identified

  8. Targeting SH2 domains in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morlacchi, Pietro; Robertson, Fredika M; Klostergaard, Jim; McMurray, John S

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is among the most commonly diagnosed cancer types in women worldwide and is the second leading cause of cancer-related disease in the USA. SH2 domains recruit signaling proteins to phosphotyrosine residues on aberrantly activated growth factor and cytokine receptors and contribute to cancer cell cycling, metastasis, angiogenesis and so on. Herein we review phosphopeptide mimetic and small-molecule approaches targeting the SH2 domains of Grb2, Grb7 and STAT3 that inhibit their targets and reduce proliferation in in vitro breast cancer models. Only STAT3 inhibitors have been evaluated in in vivo models and have led to tumor reduction. Taken together, these studies suggest that targeting SH2 domains is an important approach to the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25495984

  9. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Metastatic Breast Cancer, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, or Prostate Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-05

    Male Breast Carcinoma; Prostate Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  10. Optical Microscope Software for Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers at NCI have developed computer software able to analyze optical microscopic images of human breast tissue sections for diagnosing cancer by using the differences in spatial positioning of certain genes.

  11. Asymptomatic Bladder Metastasis from Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Di Fino, Giuseppe; Massenio, Paolo; Ruocco, Nicola; Bufo, Pantaleo; Carrieri, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Breast cancer is the most common nondermatologic cancer in women. Common metastatic sites include lymph nodes, lung, liver, and bone. Metastases to the bladder are extremely rare, with all reported cases presenting with urinary symptoms. Case Report. Herein, we report the first case of completely asymptomatic bladder metastasis from breast cancer, occasionally revealed, 98 months after the initial diagnosis of lobular breast carcinoma, by a follow-up computed tomography scanning showing thickening of left bladder wall and grade II left hydronephrosis. A positive staining for estrogen and progesterone receptors was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Discussion. The reported case confirms that bladder metastases from breast cancer tend to occur late after the diagnosis of the primary tumor and, for the first time, points out they can be asymptomatic. Conclusion. Such data support the need for careful follow-up and early intervention whenever such clinical situation is suspected. PMID:24716084

  12. Asymptomatic bladder metastasis from breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cormio, Luigi; Sanguedolce, Francesca; Di Fino, Giuseppe; Massenio, Paolo; Liuzzi, Giuseppe; Ruocco, Nicola; Bufo, Pantaleo; Carrieri, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Breast cancer is the most common nondermatologic cancer in women. Common metastatic sites include lymph nodes, lung, liver, and bone. Metastases to the bladder are extremely rare, with all reported cases presenting with urinary symptoms. Case Report. Herein, we report the first case of completely asymptomatic bladder metastasis from breast cancer, occasionally revealed, 98 months after the initial diagnosis of lobular breast carcinoma, by a follow-up computed tomography scanning showing thickening of left bladder wall and grade II left hydronephrosis. A positive staining for estrogen and progesterone receptors was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Discussion. The reported case confirms that bladder metastases from breast cancer tend to occur late after the diagnosis of the primary tumor and, for the first time, points out they can be asymptomatic. Conclusion. Such data support the need for careful follow-up and early intervention whenever such clinical situation is suspected. PMID:24716084

  13. Zoledronic Acid Improves Early Breast Cancer Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    The addition of zoledronic acid (Zometa®) to adjuvant endocrine therapy in premenopausal women with early stage breast cancer significantly improves clinical outcomes beyond those achieved with endocrine therapy alone, according to findings presented at the 2008 ASCO meeting in Chicago.

  14. Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cardiology Patient Page Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart Christine Unitt , BS ; Kamaneh Montazeri , MD ; Sara Tolaney , ... in remission. Previous Section Next Section What Is Heart Failure? Heart failure or cardiomyopathy occurs when the ...

  15. New approaches in the management of male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Patten, Darren K; Sharifi, Laurence K; Fazel, Maisam

    2013-10-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare condition that accounts for 0.1% of all male cancers. Our current evidence base for treatment is derived from female breast cancer (FBC) patients. Risk factors for MBC include age, genetic predisposition, race, sex hormone exposure, and environmental factors. Most patients present later and with more advanced disease than comparable FBC patients. Tumors are likely to be estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor positive, with the most common histologic type being invasive ductal carcinoma. Triple assessment remains the criterion standard for diagnosis. Primary MBC is mostly managed initially by simple mastectomy, with the option of breast conserving surgery, which carries an increased risk of recurrence. Sentinel node biopsy is recommended as the initial procedure for staging the axilla. Reconstructive surgery focuses on achieving primary skin closure, and radiotherapy largely follows treatment protocols validated in FBC. We recommend chemotherapy for men with more advanced disease, in particular, those with estrogen receptor negative histology. MBC responds well to endocrine therapy, although it is associated with significant adverse effects. Third-generation aromatase inhibitors are promising but raise concerns due to their failure to prevent estrogen synthesis in the testes. Fulvestrant remains unproven as a therapy, and data on trastuzumab is equivocal with HER2 receptor expression and functionality unclear in MBC. In metastatic disease, drug-based hormonal manipulation remains a first-line therapy, followed by systemic chemotherapy for hormone-refractory disease. Prognosis for MBC has improved over the past 30 years, with survival affected by disease staging, histologic classification, and comorbidity. PMID:23845572

  16. Comparative proteome analysis of breast cancer and normal breast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuanming Luo; Jindan Zhang; Yanxin Liu; Allan Christian Shaw; Xiaorong Wang; Shuzhen Wu; Xuan Zeng; Jie Chen; Youhe Gao; Dexian Zheng

    2005-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of death for women. The underlying molecular mechanism is still not well understood. In this\\u000a study, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry was used to analyze changes in the proteome of\\u000a infiltrating ductal carcinoma compared to normal breast tissue. Ten sets of two-dimensional gels per experimental condition\\u000a were analyzed and more than 500

  17. Endocrine resistance in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, L H; Zhao, Y H; Feng, H L; Liu, Y J

    2014-10-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are synthetic molecules which bind to estrogen receptors (ER) and can modulate their transcriptional capabilities in different ways in diverse estrogen target tissues. Unfortunately, the use of resistant therapy is associated with acquired resistance. Several molecular mechanisms have been proposed to be responsible for endocrine resistance in breast cancer, including MIR-451, FGF and FGFR, ADAM12, fibronectin and other soluble stromal factors, PELP1-KDM1, HER2, NOTCH, ?EF1, mTOR, AKT/mTOR, Pi3K/AKT, Pi3K/AKT/mTOR, NF?B, LMTK3, IGF1R, cyclin E2, IRF1, Tab2, and SRC-1. Further research is needed to know more about endocrine resistance. PMID:24245601

  18. Histological Analysis of ?? T Lymphocytes Infiltrating Human Triple-Negative Breast Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Jose Villacorta; Bronsert, Peter; Orlowska-Volk, Marzenna; Díaz, Liliana B.; Stickeler, Elmar; Werner, Martin; Schmitt-Graeff, Annette; Kayser, Gian; Malkovsky, Miroslav; Fisch, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women and the second most common cancer worldwide after lung cancer. The remarkable heterogeneity of breast cancers influences numerous diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic factors. Triple-negative breast carcinomas (TNBCs) lack expression of HER2 and the estrogen and progesterone receptors and often contain lymphocytic infiltrates. Most of TNBCs are invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) with poor prognosis, whereas prognostically more favorable subtypes such as medullary breast carcinomas (MBCs) are somewhat less frequent. Infiltrating T-cells have been associated with an improved clinical outcome in TNBCs. The prognostic role of ?? T-cells within CD3+ tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes remains unclear. We analyzed 26 TNBCs, 14 IDCs, and 12 MBCs, using immunohistochemistry for the quantity and patterns of ?? T-cell infiltrates within the tumor microenvironment. In both types of TNBCs, we found higher numbers of ?? T-cells in comparison with normal breast tissues and fibroadenomas. The numbers of infiltrating ?? T-cells were higher in MBCs than in IDCs. ?? T-cells in MBCs were frequently located in direct contact with tumor cells, within the tumor and at its invasive border. In contrast, most ?? T-cells in IDCs were found in clusters within the tumor stroma. These findings could be associated with the fact that the patient’s prognosis in MBCs is better than that in IDCs. Further studies to characterize these ?? T-cells at the molecular and functional level are in progress. PMID:25540645

  19. Estrogen-Related Receptors in Breast Cancer and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Misawa, Aya; Inoue, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen-signaling pathways are implicated in the development of breast cancer and prostate cancer. Various studies have focused on additional signaling pathways, mediated by estrogen-related receptors (ERRs). ERRs are constitutively active receptors that share a high degree of homology with the classical estrogen receptors (ERs). However, they do not bind to estrogen, while ERs do. ERRs are involved in the development of alternative pathways that lead to the development of cancer and are regarded as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of breast cancer and prostate cancer that do not respond to conventional therapies. In this review, we first present general structural features of ERRs. Then, we focus on breast cancer and prostate cancer, which are primarily hormone-dependent cancers, and summarizes recent progress in elucidating the involvement of each ERR in these two types of malignancies. PMID:26074877

  20. Breast cancer clinical characteristics and outcomes in trinidad and tobago.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Rivera, Marlene; Ragin, Camille; Roach, Veronica; Kalwar, Tricia; Taioli, Emanuela

    2015-06-01

    Trinidad and Tobago (TT) is the country with the highest breast cancer mortality in the Caribbean. It is unknown whether biological, behavioral, environmental, or clinical factors play a significant role in such outcome. A total of 2,614 incident cases, histologically confirmed and recorded in the TT cancer registries between 1995 and 2005, with follow-up through 2009 were analyzed. Half of the cases were diagnosed between the ages of 40-59 years, 12.5 % before the age of 40 years; 45 % of women were diagnosed at localized stage and 43.7 % were hormone receptor positive. Women diagnosed with distant staging were more likely to undergo chemotherapy compared to those with localized staging (OR 1.39; 95 % CI 1.01-1.89). Hormone receptor negative cases were significantly less likely to undergo radiation or surgery therapy (OR 0.66; 95 % CI 0.56-0.79 and OR 0.67; 95 % CI 0.51-0.88 respectively) compared to those who were hormone receptor positive, but more than 1.5 times as likely to undergo chemotherapy. In multivariate analyses, advanced stage disease and negative hormone receptor status were independently significantly associated with poorer survival outcome. No racial/ethnic differences were observed with respect to treatment or survival. Although access to breast cancer screening and treatment is free in Trinidad and Tobago, breast cancer diagnosis occurs at advanced stages; use of multimodality therapy as a first course of treatment is low. PMID:24146313

  1. Fetal Dose Evaluation During Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christos Antypas; Panagiotis Sandilos; John Kouvaris; Ersi Balafouta; Eleftheria Karinou; Nikos Kollaros; Lambros Vlahos

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the work was to estimate the radiation dose delivered to the fetus in a pregnant patient irradiated for breast cancer.Methods and Materials: A 45-year woman was treated for left breast cancer using a 6 MV photon beam with two isocentric opposing tangential unwedged fields. Daily dose was 2.3 Gy at 95% isodose line given by two

  2. Breast Cancer Classification Applying Artificial Metaplasticity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexis Marcano-cedeño; Fulgencio S. Buendía-Buendía; Diego Andina

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we are apply Artificial Metaplasticity MLP (MMLPs) to Breast Cancer Classification. Artificial Metaplasticity\\u000a is a novel ANN training algorithm that gives more relevance to less frequent training patterns and subtract relevance to the\\u000a frequent ones during training phase, achieving a much more efficient training, while at least maintaining the Multilayer Perceptron\\u000a performance. Wisconsin Breast Cancer Database (WBCD)

  3. Dietary Carbohydrates, Fiber, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle D. Holmes; Simin Liu; Susan E. Hankinson; Graham A. Colditz; David J. Hunter; Walter C. Willett

    2004-01-01

    Dietary fiber, fiber fractions, carbohydrate, glycemic index, and glycemic load were prospectively assessed five times over 18 years with a validated food frequency questionnaire in relation to breast cancer risk among 88,678 women (aged 34-59 years at baseline) in the Nurses' Health Study. Incident breast cancer occurred in 4,092 of these women between 1980 and 1998. The authors observed no

  4. Adipocytokine resistin and breast cancer risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chien-An Sun; Mei-Hsuan Wu; Chi-Hong Chu; Yu-Ching Chou; Giu-Cheng Hsu; Tsan Yang; Wan-Yun Chou; Cheng-Ping Yu; Jyh-Cherng Yu

    2010-01-01

    Adipocytokine resistin is a member of the newly discovered family of cysteine-rich protein. Recent data suggest that macrophages\\u000a are a major source of human resistin. Given the obesity-breast cancer link and convergence of adipocyte and macrophage function,\\u000a resistin may provide unique insight into links between obesity, inflammation, and breast cancer risk in humans. We conducted\\u000a a hospital-based case–control study to

  5. The emerging landscape of breast cancer susceptibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael R Stratton; Nazneen Rahman

    2007-01-01

    The genetic basis of inherited predisposition to breast cancer has been assiduously investigated for the past two decades and has been the subject of several recent discoveries. Three reasonably well-defined classes of breast cancer susceptibility alleles with different levels of risk and prevalence in the population have become apparent: rare high-penetrance alleles, rare moderate-penetrance alleles and common low-penetrance alleles. The

  6. Modern Breast Cancer Detection: A Technological Review

    PubMed Central

    Nover, Adam B.; Jagtap, Shami; Anjum, Waqas; Yegingil, Hakki; Shih, Wan Y.; Shih, Wei-Heng; Brooks, Ari D.

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is a serious threat worldwide and is the number two killer of women in the United States. The key to successful management is screening and early detection. What follows is a description of the state of the art in screening and detection for breast cancer as well as a discussion of new and emerging technologies. This paper aims to serve as a starting point for those who are not acquainted with this growing field. PMID:20069109

  7. Disparities across the breast cancer continuum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JudyAnn Bigby; Michelle D. Holmes

    2005-01-01

    Objective: We performed a structured review of the literature to identify areas of greater and lesser knowledge of the nature of disparities across the breast cancer continuum from risk and prevention to treatment and mortality.Methods: We searched OvidMedline and PubMed to identify published studies from January 1990 to March 2004 that address disparities in breast cancer. We read the abstracts

  8. TGFBR1 Signaling and Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lakisha Moore-Smith; Boris Pasche

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade mutations discovered in genes such as BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53 and PTEN, have emerged as high-penetrance susceptibility genes and are clinically relevant for determination of breast cancer risk.\\u000a Genetic counseling and subsequent screening for mutations and gene rearrangement has improved patient outcome through early\\u000a detection and prophylactic interventions in patients with familial breast cancer syndromes. However, these

  9. Quantifying the natural history of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tan, K H X; Simonella, L; Wee, H L; Roellin, A; Lim, Y-W; Lim, W-Y; Chia, K S; Hartman, M; Cook, A R

    2013-01-01

    Background: Natural history models of breast cancer progression provide an opportunity to evaluate and identify optimal screening scenarios. This paper describes a detailed Markov model characterising breast cancer tumour progression. Methods: Breast cancer is modelled by a 13-state continuous-time Markov model. The model differentiates between indolent and aggressive ductal carcinomas in situ tumours, and aggressive tumours of different sizes. We compared such aggressive cancers, that is, which are non-indolent, to those which are non-growing and regressing. Model input parameters and structure were informed by the 1978–1984 Ostergotland county breast screening randomised controlled trial. Overlaid on the natural history model is the effect of screening on diagnosis. Parameters were estimated using Bayesian methods. Markov chain Monte Carlo integration was used to sample the resulting posterior distribution. Results: The breast cancer incidence rate in the Ostergotland population was 21 (95% CI: 17–25) per 10?000 woman-years. Accounting for length-biased sampling, an estimated 91% (95% CI: 85–97%) of breast cancers were aggressive. Larger tumours, 21–50?mm, had an average sojourn of 6 years (95% CI: 3–16 years), whereas aggressive ductal carcinomas in situ took around half a month (95% CI: 0–1 month) to progress to the invasive ?10?mm state. Conclusion: These tumour progression rate estimates may facilitate future work analysing cost-effectiveness and quality-adjusted life years for various screening strategies. PMID:24084766

  10. Preterm delivery and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Melbye, M; Wohlfahrt, J; Andersen, A-M N; Westergaard, T; Andersen, P K

    1999-01-01

    To explore the risk of breast cancer in relation to the length of a pregnancy we tested whether a preterm delivery carries a higher risk of breast cancer than does a full-term delivery. Based on information from the Civil Registration System, and the National Birth Registry in Denmark, we established a population-based cohort of 474 156 women born since April 1935, with vital status and detailed parity information, including the gestational age of liveborn children and stillbirths. Information on spontaneous and induced abortions was obtained from the National Hospital Discharge Registry and the National Registry of Induced Abortions. Incident cases of breast cancer in the cohort (n = 1363) were identified through linkage with the Danish Cancer Registry. The period at risk started in 1978 and continued until a breast cancer diagnosis, death, emigration, or 31 December, 1992, whichever occurred first. After adjusting for attained age, parity, age at first birth and calendar period, we observed the following relative risks of breast cancer for different lengths of the pregnancy: < 29 gestational weeks = 2.11 (95% confidence interval 1.00–4.45); 29–31 weeks = 2.08 (1.20–3.60); 32–33 weeks = 1.12 (0.62–2.04); 34–35 weeks = 1.08 (0.71–1.66); 36–37 weeks = 1.04 (0.83–1.32); 38–39 weeks = 1.02 (0.89–1.17); 40 weeks = 1 (reference). Parous women who had a preterm delivery below 32 weeks gestation had a 1.72-fold (1.14–2.59) increased risk of breast cancer compared with other parous women. In conclusion, a preterm delivery of 32+ weeks gestation did not significantly increase a woman's risk of contracting breast cancer. Only for the very small group of women with preterm deliveries of less than 32 weeks gestation did we observe an increased risk. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10408874

  11. Breast Cancer: Modelling and Detection D.J. GAVAGHANa

    E-print Network

    Maini, Philip K.

    Breast Cancer: Modelling and Detection D.J. GAVAGHANa , J.M. BRADYb , C.P. BEHRENBRUCHb , R cancer, breast carcinoma, to illustrate how the modelling can be used in aiding detection. We to meet some of the major challenges in cancer detection. Keywords: Breast cancer; Tumour; Image

  12. Radio-induced malignancies after breast cancer postoperative radiotherapy in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There are no specific recommendations for the management of breast cancer patients with germ-line p53 mutations, an exceptional genetic condition, particularly regarding postoperative radiotherapy. Preclinical data suggested that p53 mutations conferred enhanced radiosensitivity in vitro and in vivo and the few clinical observations showed that Li-Fraumeni families were at a higher risk of secondary radio-induced malignancies. Methods We reviewed a cohort of patients with germ-line p53 mutations who had been treated for breast cancer as the first tumor event. We assessed their outcome and the incidence of secondary radio-induced malignancies. Results Among 47 documented Li-Fraumeni families treated from 1997 to 2007 at the Institut Gustave Roussy, 8 patients had been diagnosed with breast cancer as the first tumor event. Three patients had undergone conservative breast surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy and five patients had undergone a mastectomy (3 with postoperative radiotherapy). Thus, 6/8 patients had received postoperative radiotherapy. Median follow-up was 6 years. Median age at the diagnosis of the primary breast cancer was 30 years. The histological characteristics were as follows: intraductal carcinoma in situ (n = 3), invasive ductal carcinoma (n = 4) and a phyllodes tumor (n = 1). Among the 6 patients who had received adjuvant radiotherapy, the following events had occurred: 3 ipsilateral breast recurrences, 3 contralateral breast cancers, 2 radio-induced cancers, and 3 new primaries (1 of which was an in-field thyroid cancer with atypical histology). In contrast, only one event had occurred (a contralateral breast cancer) among patients who had not received radiation therapy. Conclusions These observations could argue in favor of bilateral mastectomy and the avoidance of radiotherapy. PMID:21059199

  13. Radiation-induced sarcoma of the breast in a female adolescent. Case report with histologic and therapeutic considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, R.; Bianchi, A.; Jakate, S.M.

    1988-06-15

    A 14-year-old girl developed a radiation-induced sarcoma of the left breast after successful combined surgical and radiation therapy of a left adrenal carcinoma when she was 9 months old. The breast lesion was histologically described as a stromal sarcoma with fibrosarcomatous and myxosarcomatous areas. The second primary lesion and local recurrence of this was treated with surgery. At each recurrence the tumor became more aggressive both clinically and histologically, and eventually proved fatal.

  14. Diagnosis delay of breast cancer and its associated factors in Malaysian women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bachok Norsa’adah; Krishna G Rampal; Mohd A Rahmah; Nyi N Naing; Biswa M Biswal

    2011-01-01

    Background  Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality among women in Malaysia. Delayed diagnosis is preventable and has major\\u000a effects on patients' prognosis and survival. The objectives of our study were to identify the magnitude of delayed diagnosis\\u000a and its associated factors in women with breast cancer in Malaysia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This study had a cross-sectional design. Respondents had histologically confirmed

  15. Hypofractionated Image Guided Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IV Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-22

    Central Nervous System Metastases; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma With Predominant in Situ Component; Liver Metastases; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lung Metastases; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Tumors Metastatic to Brain

  16. Thermoacoustic imaging of prostate cancer: comparison to histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patch, S. K.; Griep, S. K.; Jacobsohn, K.; See, W. A.; Hull, D.

    2014-03-01

    Ex vivo imaging of fresh prostate specimens was performed to test the hypothesis that the thermoacoustic (TA) contrast mechanism generated with very high frequency electromagnetic (EM) irradiation is sensitive to prostate cancer. Ex vivo imaging was performed immediately after radical prostatectomy, performed as part of normal care. Irradiation pulsewidth was 700 ns and duty cycle was extremely low. Typical specific absorption rate (SAR) throughout the prostate was 70-90 kW/kg during pulsing, but time-averaged SAR was below 2 W/kg. TA pressure pulses generated by rapid heating due to EM energy deposition were detected using single element transducers. 15g/L glycine powder mixed into DI water served as acoustic couplant, which was chilled to prevent autolysis. Spatial encoding was performed by scanning in tomographic "step-and-shoot" mode, with 3 mm translation between slices and 1.8-degree rotation between tomographic views. Histology slides for 3 cases scanned with 2.25 MHz transducers were marked for comparison to TA reconstructions. These three cases showed little, moderate, and severe involvement in the histology levels surrounding the verumontanum. TA signal strength decreased with percent cancerous involvement. When VHF is used for tissue heating, the TA contrast mechanism is driven by ionic content and we observed suppressed TA signal from diseased prostate tissue in the peripheral zone. For the 45 regions of interest analyzed, a reconstruction value of 0.4 mV provides 100% sensitivity but only 29% specificity.

  17. Cisplatin Induces Differentiation of Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakaran, Praseetha; Hassiotou, Foteini; Blancafort, Pilar; Filgueira, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Breast tumors are heterogeneous including cells with stem cell properties and more differentiated cells. This heterogeneity is reflected into the molecular breast cancer subtypes. Breast cancer stem cells are resistant to chemotherapy, thus recent efforts are focusing on identifying treatments that shift them toward a more differentiated phenotype, making them more susceptible to chemotherapy. We examined whether the drug cisplatin induces differentiation in breast cancer cell lines that represent different breast cancer subtypes. We used three cell lines representing triple-negative breast cancers, BT-549 and MDA-MB-231 (claudin-low), and MDA-MB-468 (basal-like), along with estrogen and progesterone receptor positive MCF-7 cells (luminal). Cisplatin was applied at 2.5, 5, 10, and 20??M, and cell viability and proliferation were measured using MTS and BrdU assays, respectively. The effect of cisplatin on the cellular hierarchy was examined by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and qRT-PCR. Cisplatin treatment of 10 and 20??M reduced cell viability by 36–51% and proliferation capacity by 36–67%. Treatment with cisplatin resulted in 12–67% down-regulation of stem cell markers (CD49f, SSEA4) and 10–130% up-regulation of differentiation markers (CK18, SMA, ?-tubulin). At the mRNA level, CD49f was down-regulated whilst ?-tubulin was up-regulated in the claudin-low cell lines. SSEA4 protein expression decreased upon cisplatin treatment, but SSEA4 mRNA expression increased indicating a differential regulation of cisplatin at the post-transcriptional level. It is concluded that cisplatin reduces breast cancer cell survival and induces differentiation of stem/progenitor cell subpopulations within breast cancer cell lines. These effects indicate the potential of this drug to target specific chemotherapy-resistant cells within a tumor. PMID:23761858

  18. Proteomic studies in breast cancer (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Bruce X.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common types of invasive cancer in females worldwide. Despite major advances in early cancer detection and emerging therapeutic strategies, further improvement has to be achieved for precise diagnosis to reduce the chance of metastasis and relapses. Recent proteomic technologies have offered a promising opportunity for the identification of new breast cancer biomarkers. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and the derived surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) enable the development of high-throughput proteome analysis based on comprehensive reliable biomarkers. In this review, we examined proteomic technologies and their applications, and provided focus on the proteomics-based profiling analyses of tumor tissues/cells in order to identify and confirm novel biomarkers of breast cancer. PMID:22740985

  19. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer According to Family History of Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham A. Colditz; Bernard A. Rosner; Frank E. Speizer

    1996-01-01

    Background: Family history of breast cancer is an established risk factor for this disease and is used to identify women at higher risk, although the im- pact of risk factors for breast cancer among women with a family history is not well defined. Purpose: Using a modified extended log-incidence Pike model, we prospectively examined the impact of risk factors for

  20. The role of bisphosphonates in breast cancer: Direct effects of bisphosphonates on breast cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siddhika G Senaratne; Kay W Colston

    2002-01-01

    In addition to inhibiting bone resorption, bisphosphonates have also been shown to exhibit antitumour effects. In vitro, bisphosphonates inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in cultured human breast cancer cells. In addition, bisphosphonate treatment interferes with breast cancer cell adhesion to bone matrix, and inhibits cell migration and invasion. The combination of bisphosphonates with other anticancer drugs such as the taxoids

  1. Breast cancer risk during HRT: influence of estradiol metabolites on breast cancer and endothelial cell proliferation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harald Seeger; Fritz-Ulrich Deuringer; Diethelm Wallwiener; Alfred O. Mueck

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: Long-term hormone replacement therapy is associated with an increased breast cancer risk. Evidence is accumu- lating that estradiol metabolites are involved in carcinogenesis. These metabolites may have proliferating and anti-proliferative properties. We have investigated the effect of 14 metabolites on the proliferation of human breast cancer cells and on the pro- liferation of human vascular endothelial cells. Methods: As

  2. The Auckland Breast Cancer Register: a special project of the Auckland Breast Cancer Study Group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorraine Neave; Vernon Harvey; Chelleraj Benjamin; Paul Thompson; Ora Pellett; Jeremy Whitlock; Wayne Jones; Garth Poole

    Aims The Auckland Breast Cancer Register (ABCR) has been established in response to the need for a comprehensive database of breast cancer cases from the Auckland area. Methods The database records patient demographics, diagnosis, treatment options, prognosis and long-term outcome (annual follow up). Data from 1204 cases, recorded between June 2000 and June 2002 are reported. Results The major findings

  3. THE AUSTRALIA NEW ZEALAND BREAST CANCER TRIALS GROUP: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO BREAST CANCER TRIALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F Forbes

    The Australian New Zealand Breast Cancer Trials Group was formed in 1978 after the first adjuvant therapy trials were published. This commenced a new era of clinical trials and the commencement of substantial global collaboration, particularly with the International Breast Cancer Study Group. The Australia New Zealand Group is currently conducting 46 trials encompassing prevention and early and advanced disease.

  4. Randomized clinical trials in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Crago, Aimee M; Azu, Michelle; Tierney, Shannon; Morrow, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer remains the most common cancer diagnosed in women and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in this group. Significant advances in the treatment of breast cancer and in the ability to screen for the disease mean that it is also one of the most curable forms of cancer. Long-term updates of the trials reviewed in the previous edition of this article have demonstrated that breast-conserving therapy remains a viable option for most patients, and that local control is related to overall survival. New chemotherapeutic options and endocrine therapies are available to select subsets of patients, and the use of endocrine therapy in breast cancer prevention has been shown to be of clear benefit. The sheer number of breast cancer-related randomized, controlled trials makes it impossible to review all level Ia evidence in this article but, where possible, extensive referencing and tabular review of related trials are used to provide the reader with a clear outline of the central data dictating current standard of care. PMID:19914559

  5. Increased expression of ADAM family members in human breast cancer and breast cancer cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uwe Lendeckel; Jana Kohl; Marco Arndt; Stacy Carl-McGrath; Hans Donat; Christoph Röcken

    2005-01-01

    Purpose ADAMs (A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease) are multifunctional, membrane-bound cell surface glycoproteins, which have numerous functions in cell growth, differentiation, and motility. We wished to investigate the expression of ADAM 9, 10, 12, 15, and in human breast cancer.Methods Expression of ADAMs was determined in breast cancer specimens and the corresponding non-neoplastic breast tissue from 24 patients, and in the

  6. Goserelin for ovarian protection during breast-cancer adjuvant chemotherapy

    E-print Network

    2015-01-01

    reduce metastasis forma- tion by triple-negative human breast can- cer cells in vivo. Breast Cancerreduce the rate of ovarian failure after adju- vant or neoadjuvant treatment of hormone-recep- tor–negative early breast cancer.

  7. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of breast cancer

    E-print Network

    Mohr, Sharif Burgette

    2012-01-01

    the presence of a lump in the breast or armpit (110). Thisexamination when a lump is found in the breast or armpit (breast cancers do not initially produce clinical symptoms other than the presence of a lump.

  8. Breast Tissue Composition and Immunophenotype and Its Relationship with Mammographic Density in Women at High Risk of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Jia-Min B.; Byrne, David J.; Takano, Elena A.; Jene, Nicholas; Petelin, Lara; McKinley, Joanne; Poliness, Catherine; Saunders, Christobel; Taylor, Donna; Mitchell, Gillian; Fox, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate the cellular and immunophenotypic basis of mammographic density in women at high risk of breast cancer. Methods Mammograms and targeted breast biopsies were accrued from 24 women at high risk of breast cancer. Mammographic density was classified into Wolfe categories and ranked by increasing density. The histological composition and immunophenotypic profile were quantified from digitized haematoxylin and eosin-stained and immunohistochemically-stained (ER?, ER?, PgR, HER2, Ki-67, and CD31) slides and correlated to mammographic density. Results Increasing mammographic density was significantly correlated with increased fibrous stroma proportion (rs (22) = 0.5226, p = 0.0088) and significantly inversely associated with adipose tissue proportion (rs (22) = -0.5409, p = 0.0064). Contrary to previous reports, stromal expression of ER? was common (19/20 cases, 95%). There was significantly higher stromal PgR expression in mammographically-dense breasts (p=0.026). Conclusions The proportion of stroma and fat underlies mammographic density in women at high risk of breast cancer. Increased expression of PgR in the stroma of mammographically dense breasts and frequent and unexpected presence of stromal ER? expression raises the possibility that hormone receptor expression in breast stroma may have a role in mediating the effects of exogenous hormonal therapy on mammographic density. PMID:26110820

  9. Leptin-cytokine crosstalk in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Newman, Gale; Gonzalez-Perez, Ruben Rene

    2014-01-25

    Despite accumulating evidence suggesting a positive correlation between leptin levels, obesity, post-menopause and breast cancer incidence, our current knowledge on the mechanisms involved in these relationships is still incomplete. Since the cloning of leptin in 1994 and its receptor (OB-R) 1 year later by Friedman's laboratory (Zhang et al., 1994) and Tartaglia et al. (Tartaglia et al., 1995), respectively, more than 22,000 papers related to leptin functions in several biological systems have been published (Pubmed, 2012). The ob gene product, leptin, is an important circulating signal for the regulation of body weight. Additionally, leptin plays critical roles in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, reproduction, growth and the immune response. Supporting evidence for leptin roles in cancer has been shown in more than 1000 published papers, with almost 300 papers related to breast cancer (Pubmed, 2012). Specific leptin-induced signaling pathways are involved in the increased levels of inflammatory, mitogenic and pro-angiogenic factors in breast cancer. In obesity, a mild inflammatory condition, deregulated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF-? and leptin from adipose tissue, inflammatory and cancer cells could contribute to the onset and progression of cancer. We used an in silico software program, Pathway Studio 9, and found 4587 references citing these various interactions. Functional crosstalk between leptin, IL-1 and Notch signaling (NILCO) found in breast cancer cells could represent the integration of developmental, proinflammatory and pro-angiogenic signals critical for leptin-induced breast cancer cell proliferation/migration, tumor angiogenesis and breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). Remarkably, the inhibition of leptin signaling via leptin peptide receptor antagonists (LPrAs) significantly reduced the establishment and growth of syngeneic, xenograft and carcinogen-induced breast cancer and, simultaneously decreased the levels of VEGF/VEGFR2, IL-1 and Notch. Inhibition of leptin-cytokine crosstalk might serve as a preventative or adjuvant measure to target breast cancer, particularly in obese women. This review is intended to present an update analysis of leptin actions in breast cancer, highlighting its crosstalk to inflammatory cytokines and growth factors essential for tumor development, angiogenesis and potential role in BCSC. PMID:23562747

  10. Leptin–cytokine crosstalk in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Gale; Gonzalez-Perez, Ruben Rene

    2013-01-01

    Despite accumulating evidence suggesting a positive correlation between leptin levels, obesity, post-menopause and breast cancer incidence, our current knowledge on the mechanisms involved in these relationships is still incomplete. Since the cloning of leptin in 1994 and its receptor (OB-R) 1 year later by Friedman’s laboratory (Zhang et al., 1994) and Tartaglia et al. (Tartaglia et al., 1995), respectively, more than 22,000 papers related to leptin functions in several biological systems have been published (Pubmed, 2012). The ob gene product, leptin, is an important circulating signal for the regulation of body weight. Additionally, leptin plays critical roles in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, reproduction, growth and the immune response. Supporting evidence for leptin roles in cancer has been shown in more than 1000 published papers, with almost 300 papers related to breast cancer (Pubmed, 2012). Specific leptin-induced signaling pathways are involved in the increased levels of inflammatory, mitogenic and pro-angiogenic factors in breast cancer. In obesity, a mild inflammatory condition, deregulated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF-? and leptin from adipose tissue, inflammatory and cancer cells could contribute to the onset and progression of cancer. We used an in silico software program, Pathway Studio 9, and found 4587 references citing these various interactions. Functional crosstalk between leptin, IL-1 and Notch signaling (NILCO) found in breast cancer cells could represent the integration of developmental, proinflammatory and pro-angiogenic signals critical for leptin-induced breast cancer cell proliferation/migration, tumor angiogenesis and breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). Remarkably, the inhibition of leptin signaling via leptin peptide receptor antagonists (LPrAs) significantly reduced the establishment and growth of syngeneic, xenograft and carcinogen-induced breast cancer and, simultaneously decreased the levels of VEGF/VEGFR2, IL-1 and Notch. Inhibition of leptin–cytokine crosstalk might serve as a preventative or adjuvant measure to target breast cancer, particularly in obese women. This review is intended to present an update analysis of leptin actions in breast cancer, highlighting its crosstalk to inflammatory cytokines and growth fact ors essential for tumor development, angiogenesis and potential role in BCSC. PMID:23562747

  11. The AURORA initiative for metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zardavas, D; Maetens, M; Irrthum, A; Goulioti, T; Engelen, K; Fumagalli, D; Salgado, R; Aftimos, P; Saini, K S; Sotiriou, C; Campbell, P; Dinh, P; von Minckwitz, G; Gelber, R D; Dowsett, M; Di Leo, A; Cameron, D; Baselga, J; Gnant, M; Goldhirsch, A; Norton, L; Piccart, M

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality among women in the Western world. To date most research efforts have focused on the molecular analysis of the primary tumour to dissect the genotypes of the disease. However, accumulating evidence supports a molecular evolution of breast cancer during its life cycle, with metastatic lesions acquiring new molecular aberrations. Recognising this critical gap of knowledge, the Breast International Group is launching AURORA, a large, multinational, collaborative metastatic breast cancer molecular screening programme. Approximately 1300 patients with metastatic breast cancer who have received no more than one line of systemic treatment for advanced disease will, after giving informed consent, donate archived primary tumour tissue, as well as will donate tissue collected prospectively from the biopsy of metastatic lesions and blood. Both tumour tissue types, together with a blood sample, will then be subjected to next generation sequencing for a panel of cancer-related genes. The patients will be treated at the discretion of their treating physicians per standard local practice, and they will be followed for clinical outcome for 10 years. Alternatively, depending on the molecular profiles found, patients will be directed to innovative clinical trials assessing molecularly targeted agents. Samples of outlier patients considered as ‘exceptional responders' or as ‘rapid progressors' based on the clinical follow-up will be subjected to deeper molecular characterisation in order to identify new prognostic and predictive biomarkers. AURORA, through its innovative design, will shed light onto some of the unknown areas of metastatic breast cancer, helping to improve the clinical outcome of breast cancer patients. PMID:25225904

  12. Breast metastasis from lung cancer: a report of two cases and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Wang, Shu-Ling; Shen, Hong-Hong; Niu, Feng-Ting; Niu, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Breast metastasis from extra-mammary malignancy is rare. An incidence of 0.4% to 1.3% has been reported in literature. The primary malignancies that most commonly metastasize to the breast are leukemia, lymphoma, and malignant melanoma. In this report, two cases of pulmonary metastasis to the breast were presented. A 40-year-old female manifested a right breast mass of 2-month duration. After physical examination was performed, a poorly defined mass was noted in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast. Another 49-year-old female manifested right breast mass of 5-day duration. A poorly defined mass was noted in the lower inner quadrant of the right breast. Mammography results also revealed breast cancer. The patients underwent local excision. After histological and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted, a primary lung carcinoma that metastasized to the breast was diagnosed. An accurate differentiation of metastasis to the breast from primary breast cancer is very important because the treatment and prognosis of the two differ significantly. PMID:25364582

  13. Breast cancer on the Internet: the quality of Swedish breast cancer websites.

    PubMed

    Nilsson-Ihrfelt, Elisabeth; Fjällskog, Marie-Louise; Blomqvist, Carl; Ahlgren, Johan; Edlund, Per; Hansen, Jörgen; Malmberg, Lena; Villman, Kenneth; Andersson, Gerhard

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of Swedish-language breast cancer information available on the Internet. The questions explored were the extent and type of breast cancer information available, the coverage and correctness of that information, and whether the websites fulfilled the European Commission quality criteria for health-related websites. Three search engines were used to find websites containing medical information on breast cancer. An oncologist then evaluated the 29 relevant sites. Only seven of these were judged suitable for breast cancer patients. The coverage and correctness of the medical information varied considerably. None of the websites fulfilled the European Commission quality criteria. Therefore, considerable effort will be required before the Internet can serve as a valuable and up-to-date source of information on breast cancer for both professionals and laypersons. Our findings broadly match the results of earlier studies of English-language websites. PMID:15454192

  14. Clinicopathologic features of triple negative breast cancers: an experience from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Young age breast cancers are quite prevalent in our setup, a significant number of which exhibit triple negative phenotype. These cancers behave in an aggressive fashion and unresponsive to targeted adjuvant therapy. We aimed to evaluate clinical and histopathologic features of triple negative cancers in our population. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 1104 cases of primary breast cancers. Immunohistochemical studies for ER, PR and Her2neu followed by Her2neu gene amplification by FISH testing were done to identify 205 (18.6%) cases of triple negative breast cancers. Results Mean age for triple negative breast cancer patients was 48.4 years (±12.3) and 60% of patients were diagnosed at less than 50 years of age. Although ductal carcinoma was the most frequent histologic type, a meaningful number of cases exhibited metaplastic and medullary like features (10.7% and 5.9% respectively). Similarly geographic necrosis involving more than 40% of tumor and extensive lymphocytic infiltration was a considerable finding. Mean Ki67 index was 45.2% (±25.2) and as a reflection of tumor grade, a significantly higher proportion of cases (66.3%) were under high risk Ki67 category (>30%). Conclusion Triple negative breast cancers typify high grade breast cancers with a higher frequency of atypical medullary and metaplastic histologies. Their prevailing occurrence at a younger age raises question of under lying BRCA mutations in our population. Therefore, we suggest that risk factors including BRCA 1 mutations should be uncovered in reproductive age group breast cancers especially those disclosing basal like phenotype. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/9042440621102239. PMID:24581278

  15. Male Breast Cancer: Presenting as Synchronous, Large, Bilateral Masses

    PubMed Central

    Chougule, P. G.; Khatib, Wasim; Shukla, Dhirajkumar B.; Jagtap, Swati Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a very rare neoplasm which accounts for 1% of all breast cancers. A 70-year-old male presented with a rapidly growing, bilateral breast masses with large size, surface ulceration and bloody discharge. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer was diagnosed by using fine needle aspiration cytology, mammography, ultrasonography and incisional biopsy. Histopathological studies revealed invasive ductal carcinoma (not otherwise specified), which was of grade III in left breast and of grade II in right breast. We are presenting this case with its clinico-pathological findings, as synchronous bilateral breast cancer occurs extremely rarely in males. PMID:24959456

  16. Impact of advances in breast cancer management on reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery.

    PubMed

    Dobke, Marek

    2012-10-01

    An overview of advances and controversies in the management of breast cancer and their impact on plastic breast surgery is presented, including prophylactic mastectomy for women at high risk of breast cancer, size and location of the primary tumor and feasibility of breast-conserving surgery and oncoplastic approach, the management of the axilla, postmastectomy radiation and chemotherapy, emerging breast reconstructive techniques and cancer risk, and oncological follow-up and imaging of the reconstructed breast. This material should help plastic surgeons to understand multiple specialty considerations regarding breast cancer and provide comprehensive surgical care and interventions in aesthetic and reconstructive settings. PMID:23036297

  17. MMTV mouse models and the diagnostic values of MMTV-like sequences in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Pankaj; Frazier, Donna P; Kendig, Robert D; Maglic, Dejan; Sugiyama, Takayuki; Kai, Fumitake; Taneja, Neetu K; Inoue, Kazushi

    2009-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) long terminal repeat (LTR)-driven transgenic mice are excellent models for breast cancer as they allow for the targeted expression of various oncogenes and growth factors in neoplastic transformation of mammary glands. Numerous MMTV-LTR-driven transgenic mouse models of breast cancer have been created in the past three decades, including MMTV-neu/ErbB2, cyclin D1, cyclin E, Ras, Myc, int-1 and c-rel. These transgenic mice develop mammary tumors with different latency, histology and invasiveness, reflecting the oncogenic pathways activated by the transgene. Recently, homologous sequences of the env gene of MMTV have been identified in approximately 40% of human breast cancers, but not in normal breast or other types of cancers, suggesting possible involvement of mammary tumor virus in human breast carcinogenesis. Accumulating evidence demonstrates the association of MMTV provirus with progesterone receptor, p53 mutations and advanced-stage breast cancer. Thus, the detection of MMTV-like sequences may have diagnostic value to predict the clinical outcome of breast cancer patients. PMID:19580428

  18. Expression of sigma 1 receptor in human breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Wang; R. Rouzier; C. T. Albarracin; A. Sahin; P. Wagner; Y. Yang; T. L. Smith; F. Meric Bernstam; A. C. Marcelo; G. N. Hortobagyi; L. Pusztai

    2004-01-01

    The sigma 1 receptor (S1R) represents a unique drug-binding site that is distinct from any other receptors. We examined S1R expression in human breast cancer and assessed the activity of S1R ligands in breast cancer cell lines. One-hundred nine breast specimens from normal breast, benign breast disease and cancer were examined with immunohistochemistry or RT- PCR and six different cell

  19. Hierarchical Clustering of Breast Cancer Methylomes Revealed Differentially Methylated and Expressed Breast Cancer Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Hsuan; Chen, Dow-Tien; Chang, Yi-Feng; Lee, Yu-Ling; Su, Chia-Hsin; Cheng, Ching; Tsai, Yi-Chien; Ng, Swee-Chuan; Chen, Hsiao-Tan; Lee, Mei-Chen; Chen, Hong-Wei; Suen, Shih-Hui; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Tze-Tze; Chang, Chuan-Hsiung; Hsu, Ming-Ta

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic transformation of normal cells often involves epigenetic alterations, including histone modification and DNA methylation. We conducted whole-genome bisulfite sequencing to determine the DNA methylomes of normal breast, fibroadenoma, invasive ductal carcinomas and MCF7. The emergence, disappearance, expansion and contraction of kilobase-sized hypomethylated regions (HMRs) and the hypomethylation of the megabase-sized partially methylated domains (PMDs) are the major forms of methylation changes observed in breast tumor samples. Hierarchical clustering of HMR revealed tumor-specific hypermethylated clusters and differential methylated enhancers specific to normal or breast cancer cell lines. Joint analysis of gene expression and DNA methylation data of normal breast and breast cancer cells identified differentially methylated and expressed genes associated with breast and/or ovarian cancers in cancer-specific HMR clusters. Furthermore, aberrant patterns of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) was found in breast cancer cell lines as well as breast tumor samples in the TCGA BRCA (breast invasive carcinoma) dataset. They were characterized with differentially hypermethylated XIST promoter, reduced expression of XIST, and over-expression of hypomethylated X-linked genes. High expressions of these genes were significantly associated with lower survival rates in breast cancer patients. Comprehensive analysis of the normal and breast tumor methylomes suggests selective targeting of DNA methylation changes during breast cancer progression. The weak causal relationship between DNA methylation and gene expression observed in this study is evident of more complex role of DNA methylation in the regulation of gene expression in human epigenetics that deserves further investigation. PMID:25706888

  20. Metastatic Breast Cancer to the Bladder case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Luczy?ska, El?bieta; Pawlik, Tomasz; Chwalibóg, Anna; Anio?, Joanna; Ry?, Janusz

    2010-01-01

    The main cause of mortality among patients with breast cancer is the metastatic spread of the primary tumour. The urinary bladder is considered as an unusual site for breast cancer metastasis. A patient has presented with right breast tumour and qualified for surgical treatment. After removal of the mass, an intra-operative and final pathology evaluation indicated breast invasive lobular carcinoma. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given. Years later, an increase of serum CA15-3 tumour marker level was noted and physical examination revealed a lump at the mastectomy scar. A follow-up abdominal ultrasound scan demonstrated thickening of the urinary bladder wall segment, confirmed later by CT scan. A transurethral resection of bladder was performed, reaffirming a neoplastic mass, with histological assessment revealing invasive breast carcinoma. Palliative chemotherapy was given and another follow-up ultrasound scans were unremarkable. The patient is alive today. PMID:22470730

  1. [Distinctive infrared spectral features in human breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Shen, S; Liu, B; Ma, X; Song, Z; Li, Q

    2000-02-01

    Substantial differences were found in the spectral properties of surgical samples from 20 women patients with histologically normal and cancerous breast tissue. The most striking changes in the spectra were observed in the symmetric and asymmetric stretching bands of phosphodiester groups, which shifted to short wavenumber about 3 cm-1 in nu s PO2-, and to long wavenumber about 2 cm-1 in nu s PO2-. The ratio of A1,173/A1,163 increased and that of A1,025/A1,082 decreased, the intensity of symmetric and asymmetric stretching bands of CH3 decreased and those of CH2 increased in all of breast cancer tissues. Our findings indicated that in breast cancer tissue, the degree of hydrogen-bonding of oxygen atoms in the backbone of nucleic acid increased; the content of glycogen decreased; the degree of hydrogen-bonding of OH groups in serine, tyrosine, and threonine residues of cell proteins decreased; and also there were changes in the packing and the conformational structure of the methylene chains of membrane lipids. PMID:12953444

  2. BCSC Grants: Dense Breast Tissue Volume and Image Texture Features Assocation with Breast Cancer Risk

    Cancer.gov

    Mammography is an ideal time to assess risk of breast cancer because breast density, one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer, can be assessed from the patient's mammogram. Clinical risk factors are already assessed at the time of mammography. The combination of a qualitative measure of breast density and risk factors estimates a patient's risk of breast cancer more accurately than does either alone, but prediction is still modest.

  3. Normal Breast Physiology The Reasons Hormonal Contraceptives and Induced Abortion Increase Breast-Cancer Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Lanfranchi

    A woman gains protection from breast cancer by completing a full-term pregnancy. In utero, her offspring produce hormones that mature 85 percent of the mother's breast tissue into cancer-resistant breast tissue. If the pregnancy ends through an induced abortion or a premature birth before thirty-two weeks, the mother's breasts will have only partially matured, retaining even more cancer-susceptible breast tissue

  4. Pathology of lymph nodes from patients with breast implants: a histologic and spectroscopic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Katzin, William E; Centeno, José A; Feng, Lu-Jean; Kiley, Maureen; Mullick, Florabel G

    2005-04-01

    There are only a few published reports describing the pathology of regional lymph nodes from patients with silicone breast implants. Systematic analytical chemical verification of foreign material has not previously been reported. In this study, biopsies of regional lymph nodes from 96 patients with breast implants were studied using conventional histology as well as laser-Raman microprobe spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. Lymph nodes from 12 patients without implants served as negative controls. Foamy macrophages, ranging from rare scattered cells to confluent sheets, were observed in sections of lymph nodes from 91 patients with implants and only rare foamy macrophages were observed in sections from 4 patients without implants. Refractile material consistent with silicone was observed in sections from 86 patients with implants and in no sections from patients without implants. Fragments of foreign material consistent with polyurethane were observed in sections from 16 patients with implants and in no sections from patients without implants. Using spectroscopy, the presence of silicone was confirmed in 71 patients with implants, and the presence of polyurethane was confirmed in 2 patients with implants. Spectroscopy was negative for silicone and polyurethane in all patients without implants. In summary, regional lymph nodes from patients with breast implants often have histologic evidence of silicone migration. Characteristic histologic findings include foamy macrophages and refractile droplets of clear material. Polygonal fragments of polyurethane were observed in lymph nodes from a number of patients. This finding has not been previously reported. The presence of silicone and polyurethane was confirmed using confocal laser-Raman microprobe and Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. Other than two prior case reports, this is the first confirmatory evidence of silicone migration to lymph nodes in patients with breast implants and this is the first confirmatory report of polyurethane migration to lymph nodes. PMID:15767806

  5. [Neoadjuvant treatment of breast cancer: implications for the pathologist].

    PubMed

    Le Guellec, Sophie; Perallon, Romain; Alunni, Jean-Philippe; Charitansky, Hélène; Leaha, Christina; Gonzalez, Aurélie Maran; Chateau, Marie-Christine; Simony-Lafontaine, Joelle; Jacot, William; Gutowski, Marian; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Dalenc, Florence; Lacroix-Triki, Magali

    2011-12-01

    These past few years, neoadjuvant strategy has taken an increasing place in the management of breast cancer patients. This strategy is mainly indicated to obtain a tumour bulk regression allowing a breast conserving surgery in patients that otherwise would have undergone mastectomy. Of note, development of new chemotherapy agents and targeted therapies has critically helped in the progress of neoadjuvant strategy as it is currently associated with better pathological response rates. In this context, the pathologist is at the crossroad of this multidisciplinary process. First, he provides on the initial core needle biopsy the tumour pathological characteristics that are critical for the choice of treatment strategy, i.e. histological type, histological grade, proliferative activity (mitotic count and Ki67/MIB1 index labeling), hormone receptor status (oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor) and HER2 status. Secondly, the pathologist evaluates the pathological response and the status of surgical margins with regards to the residual tumour on the surgical specimen after neoadjuvant treatment. These parameters are important for the management of the patient, since it has been shown that complete pathological response is associated with improved disease free survival. Several grading systems are used to assess the pathological response in breast and axillary lymph nodes. The most frequently used in France are currently the systems described by Sataloff et al. and Chevallier et al. In this review, we detail the different steps involving the pathologist in neoadjuvant setting, with special regards to the quality process and future perspectives such as emerging predictive biomarkers. PMID:22172117

  6. Emerging modalities in breast cancer imaging.

    PubMed

    Aminololama-Shakeri, Shadi; Khatri, Vijay P

    2014-10-01

    Breast cancer continues to be the most frequently diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of death caused by cancer in women in the United States. Although each of the emerging imaging techniques discussed in this article has advantages compared with standard mammography, they are not perfect, and each has inherent limitations. To date, none have been studied by large randomized clinical trials to match the proven benefits of screening mammography; namely the reduction of mortality caused by breast cancer by nearly 30%. PMID:25246048

  7. Risk factors of developing long-lasting breast pain after breast cancer radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Lundstedt; Magnus Gustafsson; Gunnar Steineck; Per Malmström; David Alsadius; Agnetha Sundberg; Ulrica Wilderäng; Erik Holmberg; Karl-Axel Johansson

    PurposePostoperative radiotherapy decreases breast cancer mortality. However, studies have revealed a long-lasting breast pain among some women after radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors that contribute to breast pain after breast cancer radiotherapy.

  8. Stromal influences on breast cancer cell growth.

    PubMed Central

    van Roozendaal, C. E.; van Ooijen, B.; Klijn, J. G.; Claassen, C.; Eggermont, A. M.; Henzen-Logmans, S. C.; Foekens, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    Paracrine influences from fibroblasts derived from different sources of breast tissue on epithelial breast cancer cell growth in vitro were investigated. Medium conditioned (CM) by fibroblasts derived from tumours, adjacent normal breast tissue, and normal breast tissue obtained from reduction mammoplasty or from skin tissue significantly stimulated the growth of the steroid-receptor positive cell lines MCF-7 and ZR 75.1. The proliferation index (PI) on MCF-7 cells with CM from fibroblasts derived from breast tumour tissue was significantly higher than that obtained with fibroblasts derived from adjacent normal breast tissue (2p less than 0.05, n = 8). The PI obtained with CM from normal fibroblast cultures from reduction mammoplasty tissue, like normal tissue adjacent to the tumour, fell in the lower range of values. Skin fibroblast, like tumour tissue derived fibroblast, CM caused a high range PI. MDA-MB-231 and Evsa-T, two steroid-receptor negative cell lines, showed only a minor growth stimulatory responses with some of the fibroblast CM's. Evsa-T was occasionally inhibited by CM's. In conclusion, stromal factors play a role in the growth regulation of human breast cancer cells. The effects on cancer cell growth are, however, varying depending on the source of the stroma and the characteristics of the epithelial tumour cells. PMID:1733444

  9. Immunohistochemical studies with monoclonal antibodies B72.3 and MA5 on histologic and cytologic specimens from benign and malignant breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, C; Shatz, P; Margolese, R; Major, P; Ferenczy, A

    1989-02-01

    Monoclonal antibodies B72.3 and MA5 were tested by the avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase method in histologic sections of 38 benign, 22 precancerous and 22 cancerous breast lesions, as well as in fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears and cell blocks of 25 breast carcinomas. Neither B72.3 nor MA5 was specific for breast cancer cells: both also reacted with cells from benign and precancerous conditions. B72.3 as a "detector" of malignant cells or their precursors was superior to MA5, however: it was not reactive to cells in most benign breast lesions (mammary duct ectasia, fibroadenoma and ductal hyperplasia, with and without atypia). Cancerous cells had heterogeneous immunostaining with B72.3, which may lead to false-negative results in relatively hypocellular FNA samples. FNA samples prepared as both smears and cell blocks provided the most abundant cellular samples and the lowest false-negative immunostaining reaction of cancerous cells with B72.3. PMID:2719794

  10. Pain-associated biomarkers in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Diaconu, C; Pantis, C; Cirimbei, C; Bordea, C; Gruia, MI; Blidaru, A

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer represents a major public health problem, being the highest incidence neoplasia in females in Romania. The most important step in the treatment of this neoplasia is the surgical procedure; the biggest problem associated with this form of treatment in these patients is pain-related. Pain is a complex symptom with an impact on quality of life and psychology of cancer patient and can only be monitored verbally and subjectively. Consequently, the purpose of our work is to identify some biochemical parameters involved in the events cascade associated with inflammation and pain in breast cancer female patients, monitored in dynamics of anesthesia and surgical procedure. Measurements of lipid peroxides, ceruloplasmin and immune circulating complexes in mentioned dynamics have been performed. The recorded values are in concordance with the inflammatory processes and pain intensity, thus we can allege that these measurements can complete the pain-associated clinical picture in female breast cancer patients. PMID:25914735

  11. Surgery Not Always Needed for Early Form of Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Surgery Not Always Needed for Early Form of Breast Cancer: Study No difference found in survival for women ... News) -- Surgery for a very early type of breast cancer does not significantly improve outcomes for patients, according ...

  12. What's New in Breast Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Next Topic Additional resources for breast cancer What`s new in breast cancer research and treatment? Research into ... can help some women avoid overly aggressive treatment. New laboratory tests Circulating tumor cells Researchers have found ...

  13. [Public policies for the detection of breast cancer in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Montañez, Olga Georgina; Uribe-Zúñiga, Patricia; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    Breast Cancer is a significant public health problem associated with epidemiological and demographic transitions that are currently taking place in Mexico. Aging and increased exposure to risk factors are thought to increase breast cancer incidence, having great relevance for the society and health services. Under this scenario, the health system must respond to the growing needs for better breast cancer screening services. In this paper we present an update of breast cancer mortality, general international recommendations for breast cancer screening programs and key aspects of the Mexico Action Program for Breast Cancer Screening and Control 2007-2012. Breast cancer policies are aimed at organizing and increasing the infrastructure to develop a National Program for Detection, Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer with optimal quality, friendliness and respect for patient's rights. PMID:19967293

  14. Diabetes and breast cancer : the women's healthy eating & living study

    E-print Network

    Erickson, Kirsten Diann

    2011-01-01

    reduce the risk of recurrence and all-cause mortality among women previously treated for early-stage breast cancer.reduce the risk of recurrence and all-cause mortality among women previously treated for early stage breast cancer.

  15. Breast Cancer Death Rates Down 34% Since 1990

    MedlinePLUS

    ... News » Filed under: Breast Cancer Report: Breast Cancer Death Rates Down 34% Since 1990 Article date: October ... known risk factors for the disease, factors that influence survival, the latest data on prevention, early detection, ...

  16. Breast Cancer Biology and Ethnic Disparities in Breast Cancer Mortality in New Zealand: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Seneviratne, Sanjeewa; Lawrenson, Ross; Scott, Nina; Kim, Boa; Shirley, Rachel; Campbell, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Indigenous M?ori women have a 60% higher breast cancer mortality rate compared with European women in New Zealand. We investigated differences in cancer biological characteristics and their impact on breast cancer mortality disparity between M?ori and NZ European women. Materials and Methods Data on 2849 women with primary invasive breast cancers diagnosed between 1999 and 2012 were extracted from the Waikato Breast Cancer Register. Differences in distribution of cancer biological characteristics between M?ori and NZ European women were explored adjusting for age and socioeconomic deprivation in logistic regression models. Impacts of socioeconomic deprivation, stage and cancer biological characteristics on breast cancer mortality disparity between M?ori and NZ European women were explored in Cox regression models. Results Compared with NZ European women (n=2304), M?ori women (n=429) had significantly higher rates of advanced and higher grade cancers. M?ori women also had non-significantly higher rates of ER/PR negative and HER-2 positive breast cancers. Higher odds of advanced stage and higher grade remained significant for M?ori after adjusting for age and deprivation. M?ori women had almost a 100% higher age and deprivation adjusted breast cancer mortality hazard compared with NZ European women (HR=1.98, 1.55-2.54). Advanced stage and lower proportion of screen detected cancer in M?ori explained a greater portion of the excess breast cancer mortality (HR reduction from 1.98 to 1.38), while the additional contribution through biological differences were minimal (HR reduction from 1.38 to 1.35). Conclusions More advanced cancer stage at diagnosis has the greatest impact while differences in biological characteristics appear to be a minor contributor for inequities in breast cancer mortality between M?ori and NZ European women. Strategies aimed at reducing breast cancer mortality in M?ori should focus on earlier diagnosis, which will likely have a greater impact on reducing breast cancer mortality inequity between M?ori and NZ European women. PMID:25849101

  17. Oral Contraceptive Use and Risk of Breast Cancer among Women with a Family History of Breast Cancer: a Prospective Cohort Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie A. N. Silvera; Anthony B. Miller; Thomas E. Rohan

    2005-01-01

    Family history of breast cancer is an established risk factor for breast cancer. In addition, there is evidence that oral contraceptive use may be associated with a moderate increase in breast cancer risk. The three cohort studies that have investigated the relationship between oral contraceptive use and breast cancer risk among women with a family history of breast cancer have

  18. [Diagnosis of (intra)-cystic breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Schwarz, E; Kiesler, J

    1986-08-01

    Besides the known intracystic carcinoma of the breast there are also other cystic tumour types such as, for example, the cystically necrotized carcinoma of the mamma. Preoperative diagnosis of these tumours is effected via pneumocystography and aspiration cytology if mammography alone does not yet permit a definitive assessment of the tumour status. If sonography is used as the only additional examination, diagnostic errors are likely to happen. The well-known recommendation according to which sonographically identified ("simple") cysts can be left as they are, deserves further discussion under this aspect. The problems associated with histological classification and preoperative diagnosis are discussed taking five cystic carcinomas of the breast as basis. PMID:3529346

  19. Primary breast cancer in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Lickley, H. Lavina A.

    1997-01-01

    Objectives With respect to breast cancer in the elderly, to define “old” in the context of comorbidity and physiologic rather than chronologic age. In addition, after discussion of factors influencing decisions regarding screening, stage at presentation and treatment decisions, to present an approach to the treatment of primary breast cancer in the elderly, taking into account quality of life, expected outcomes and cost-effectiveness. Data sources A review of the medical literature from 1980 to 1996, using the MEDLINE database and 2 relevant studies from The Henrietta Banting Breast Centre Research Programme at Women’s College Hospital, Toronto. Study selection A large number of breast cancer studies that might provide a better understanding of primary breast cancer in the elderly. Data synthesis The studies reviewed demonstrated that the annual incidence of breast cancer increases with age, along with a longer life expectancy for women. There appears to be a delay in presentation for elderly women with breast cancer, related in part to patient and physician knowledge. Biennial mammography and physical examination are effective in women aged 50 to 74 years, but compliance with screening recommendations decreases with age. Although treatment goals are the same for women of all ages, most treatment decisions are based on studies that seldom include women over 65 years of age. Physicians tend to underestimate life expectancy and older women are less likely to seek information. Breast conserving surgery, partial mastectomy and even axillary dissection can be carried out under local anesthesia with little physiologic disturbance, but unless axillary dissection is required to make a treatment decision, it may be foregone in clinically node-negative elderly women. The role of adjuvant radiotherapy in the elderly is not yet well established; tamoxifen is the usual adjuvant systemic therapy given to older women. For those who are truly infirm, tamoxifen alone can be considered. Studies to date do not clarify whether breast cancer in older women runs a more or less favourable course. However, locoregional recurrence appears to decrease with age. Deaths from competing causes are a confounding issue. Conclusions It is imperative to develop a coherent strategy for the treatment of primary breast cancer in the elderly that takes into account functional status and quality of life. Clinical trials must include older women and there must be good clinical trials designed specifically for older women. PMID:9336523

  20. Unmet needs in ovarian cancer: dividing histologic subtypes to exploit novel targets and pathways.

    PubMed

    Galic, Vijaya; Coleman, Robert L; Herzog, Thomas J

    2013-07-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) carries a poor prognosis; however, accumulating molecular data for the major histologic subtypes may lead to subtype-specific treatment paradigms. The present review discusses what is currently understood about the major molecular and histologic subgroups of OC. Areas specifically addressed include hormonal pathways, tumor protein p53 (TP53) and AT rich interactive domain 1A (SWI-like; ARID1A) mutation, and the breast cancer 1/2, early onset (BRCA1/2) mutation/poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3- kinase, catalytic subunit alpha (PI3KCA)/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT1)/mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR), and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 and 2 (MAP2K1/2) pathways. This molecular characterization only very recently has impacted clinical research efforts to develop targeted therapies for both common and rare OC subtypes. This targeted strategy is illustrated by ongoing low-grade serous, clear-cell, and mucinous subtypeexclusive clinical trials evaluating agents based on common molecular abnormalities among patients (i.e., PARP1 inhibitors for BRCA1/2 mutation-positive OC). This report also reviews the published clinical trial efficacy data for investigational therapies within specific subgroups, and summarizes the currently active clinical trials evaluating these agents (e.g., temsirolimus, sunitinib, TP53 immunotherapy, olaparib, iniparib, veliparib). Available data suggest that histologic profiles and molecular tumor markers are valuable resources for identifying patients who may benefit from these specific agents, and future research should focus on targeting molecules and signaling pathways that are most commonly altered in each subtype. PMID:23675882

  1. Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride and Carboplatin Followed by Surgery and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Triple Negative Stage II-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-10

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  2. The T61 human breast cancer xenograft: An experimental model of estrogen therapy of breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nils Briinner I; Mogens Spang-Thomsen; Kevin Cullen

    1996-01-01

    Summary Endocrine therapy is one of the principal treatment modalities of breast cancer, both in an adjuvant setting and in advanced disease. The T61 breast cancer xenograft described here provides an experimental model of the effects of estrogen treatment at a molecular level. T61 is an estrogen receptor positive tumor which was originally derived from a T1N0M0 invasive ductal cancer

  3. Human breast biomonitoring and environmental chemicals: use of breast tissues and fluids in breast cancer etiologic research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judy S Lakind; Amy A Wilkins; Michael N Bates

    2007-01-01

    Extensive research indicates that the etiology of breast cancer is complex and multifactorial and may include environmental risk factors. Breast cancer etiology and exposure to xenobiotic compounds, diet, electromagnetic fields, and lifestyle have been the subject of numerous scientific inquiries, but research has yielded inconsistent results. Biomonitoring has been used to explore associations between breast cancer and levels of environmental

  4. Breast Cancer Basics and You: Detection and Diagnosis | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Basics and You: Detection and Diagnosis Past Issues / ... regular clinical breast exams and mammograms to find breast cancer early, when treatment is more likely to work ...

  5. Is triple negative a prognostic factor in breast cancer?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reiki Nishimura; Nobuyuki Arima

    2008-01-01

    Background  Breast cancer is characterized by hormone dependency, and endocrine therapy is a key treatment in breast cancer. Recently,\\u000a targeted therapies such as Trastuzumab treatment for HER2-positive breast cancer has been important. Triple-negative (TN)\\u000a breast cancer is characterized by lack of expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR), and the absence\\u000a of HER2 protein overexpression, and so there is

  6. Incidence of prostate cancer in male breast cancer patients: a risk factor for prostate cancer screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U J Lee; J S Jones

    2009-01-01

    Synchronous or metachronous occurrences of both prostate cancer and male breast cancer are rarely reported, but provide insight into their hormonal and genetic biology. We sought to determine the incidence of prostate cancer in male breast cancer patients at our institution, and to examine estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER-2\\/neu receptor (HR) status in these patients. A retrospective

  7. Southeastern Cancer Study Group: breast cancer studies

    SciTech Connect

    Smalley, R.V.; Bartolucci, A.A.; Moore, M.

    1983-12-01

    During the past 10 years, the Southeastern Cancer Study Group (SECSG) has been engaged in one major adjuvant study and three major advanced disease studies for patients with adenocarcinoma of the breast. The adjuvant study is demonstrating that six months of adjuvant CMF is the therapeutic equivalent of 12 months and that post-operative irradiation is of no added therapeutic benefit. In patients with advanced disease, a low dose 5 drug combination of CMFVP induces more objective responses than single agent 5FU, but improves survival only for those patients with liver metastases when compared to the sequential use of the same 5 single agents. The three drug combination, CAF, utilizing doxorubicin, induces more objective responses than low dose CMFVP, but it does not improve overall survival. The addition of a phase active combination, CAMELEON, (i.e., sequentially alternating therapy) of CAF has not improved the duration of disease control and survival for patients with liver metastases, lymphangitic and nodular lung metastases compared to CAF. Aggressive combination chemotherapeutic approaches to patients with advanced disease provide better and longer disease and tumor control but only marginal improvements in overall survival. Adding additional agents to a maximally tolerable regimen has not improved the therapeutic outcome.

  8. Breast cancer in Singapore: some perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Richelia Jara-Lazaro; Shyamala Thilagaratnam; Puay Hoon Tan

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy among Singapore women, accounting for 29.7% of all female cancers, with an age-standardized\\u000a rate of 54.9 per 100,000 per year. It has been the most frequent cancer in Singapore women for the last 30 years, with the\\u000a highest rates previously reported in those aged between 45 and 49 years, but with a more recent observation of

  9. Histone H1 phosphorylation in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Harshman, Sean W; Hoover, Michael E; Huang, Chengsi; Branson, Owen E; Chaney, Sarah B; Cheney, Carolyn M; Rosol, Thomas J; Shapiro, Charles L; Wysocki, Vicki H; Huebner, Kay; Freitas, Michael A

    2014-05-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. The need for new clinical biomarkers in breast cancer is necessary to further predict prognosis and therapeutic response. In this article, the LC-MS histone H1 phosphorylation profiles were established for three distinct breast cancer cell lines. The results show that the extent of H1 phosphorylation can distinguish between the different cell lines. The histone H1 from the metastatic cell line, MDA-MB-231, was subjected to chemical derivitization and LC-MS/MS analysis. The results suggest that the phosphorylation at threonine 146 is found on both histone H1.2 and histone H1.4. Cell lines were then treated with an extracellular stimulus, estradiol or kinase inhibitor LY294002, to monitor changes in histone H1 phosphorylation. The data show that histone H1 phosphorylation can increase and decrease in response to extracellular stimuli. Finally, primary breast tissues were stained for the histone H1 phosphorylation at threonine 146. Variable staining patterns across tumor grades and subtypes were observed with pT146 labeling correlating with tumor grade. These results establish the potential for histone H1 phosphorylation at threonine 146 as a clinical biomarker in breast cancer. PMID:24601643

  10. Histone H1 Phosphorylation in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. The need for new clinical biomarkers in breast cancer is necessary to further predict prognosis and therapeutic response. In this article, the LC-MS histone H1 phosphorylation profiles were established for three distinct breast cancer cell lines. The results show that the extent of H1 phosphorylation can distinguish between the different cell lines. The histone H1 from the metastatic cell line, MDA-MB-231, was subjected to chemical derivitization and LC-MS/MS analysis. The results suggest that the phosphorylation at threonine 146 is found on both histone H1.2 and histone H1.4. Cell lines were then treated with an extracellular stimulus, estradiol or kinase inhibitor LY294002, to monitor changes in histone H1 phosphorylation. The data show that histone H1 phosphorylation can increase and decrease in response to extracellular stimuli. Finally, primary breast tissues were stained for the histone H1 phosphorylation at threonine 146. Variable staining patterns across tumor grades and subtypes were observed with pT146 labeling correlating with tumor grade. These results establish the potential for histone H1 phosphorylation at threonine 146 as a clinical biomarker in breast cancer. PMID:24601643

  11. Multiparametric Spectroscopic Photoacoustic Imaging of Breast Cancer Development in a Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Katheryne E.; Bachawal, Sunitha V.; Tian, Lu; Willmann, Jürgen K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the potential of multiparametric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging using oxygen saturation, total hemoglobin, and lipid content to differentiate among four different breast histologies (normal, hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and invasive breast carcinoma) in a transgenic mouse model of breast cancer development. Materials and Methods: Animal studies were approved by the Institutional Administrative Panel on Laboratory Animal Care. Mammary glands (n=251) of a transgenic mouse model of breast cancer development (FVB/N-Tg(MMTV-PyMT)634Mul) were imaged using B-mode ultrasound and spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging, analyzed for oxygen saturation, total hemoglobin, and lipid content, and processed for histological analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA, two-sample t-tests, logistic regression, and ROC analysis. Results: Eighty-two normal, 12 hyperplastic, 96 DCIS, and 61 invasive breast carcinoma mammary glands were analyzed. Based on spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging, the oxygen saturation of hyperplasia (50.6%), DCIS (43.0%), and invasive carcinoma (46.2%) significantly increased compared to normal glands (35.5%, P <0.0001), while both total hemoglobin (P<0.01), and lipid content (P<0.0008) significantly decreased with advancing histology. In differentiating normal and hyperplasia from DCIS and invasive breast carcinoma, multiparametric imaging of oxygen saturation, lipid content, and raw photoacoustic signal at 750 nm provided an AUC value of 0.770. Conclusion: Multiparametric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging is feasible and allows detection of differences in concentration of tissue chromophores among different histologies in a transgenic mouse model of breast cancer development. PMID:25285161

  12. Multiple chimeric antigen receptors successfully target chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 in several different cancer histologies and cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The development of immunotherapy has led to significant progress in the treatment of metastatic cancer, including the development of genetic engineering technologies that redirect lymphocytes to recognize and target a wide variety of tumor antigens. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are hybrid proteins combining antibody recognition domains linked to T cell signaling elements. Clinical trials of CAR-transduced peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) have induced remission of both solid organ and hematologic malignancies. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) is a promising target antigen that is overexpressed in multiple cancer histologies including melanoma, triple-negative breast cancer, glioblastoma, mesothelioma and sarcoma. Methods CSPG4 expression in cancer cell lines was assayed using flow cytometry (FACS) and reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Immunohistochemistry was utilized to assay resected melanomas and normal human tissues (n?=?30) for CSPG4 expression and a reverse-phase protein array comprising 94 normal tissue samples was also interrogated for CSPG4 expression. CARs were successfully constructed from multiple murine antibodies (225.28S, TP41.2, 149.53) using second generation (CD28.CD3?) signaling domains. CAR sequences were cloned into a gamma-retroviral vector with subsequent successful production of retroviral supernatant and PBL transduction. CAR efficacy was assayed by cytokine release and cytolysis following coculture with target cell lines. Additionally, glioblastoma stem cells were generated from resected human tumors, and CSPG4 expression was determined by RT-PCR and FACS. Results Immunohistochemistry demonstrated prominent CSPG4 expression in melanoma tumors, but failed to demonstrate expression in any of the 30 normal human tissues studied. Two of 94 normal tissue protein lysates were positive by protein array. CAR constructs demonstrated cytokine secretion and cytolytic function after co-culture with tumor cell lines from multiple different histologies, including melanoma, breast cancer, mesothelioma, glioblastoma and osteosarcoma. Furthermore, we report for the first time that CSPG4 is expressed on glioblastoma cancer stem cells (GSC) and demonstrate that anti-CSPG4 CAR-transduced T cells recognize and kill these GSC. Conclusions The functionality of multiple different CARs, with the widespread expression of CSPG4 on multiple malignancies, suggests that CSPG4 may be an attractive candidate tumor antigen for CAR-based immunotherapies using appropriate technology to limit possible off-tumor toxicity. PMID:25197555

  13. Stromal Modulation of Radiation Carcinogenesis in Breast Cancer

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, David Hiendat Hua

    2011-01-01

    profile of mouse tumors detects ER status of human breast cancers. (profiles of 56 Trp53 null tumors from the irradiated host experiments to human breast cancer andprofiles of 56 Trp53 null tumors of the radiation chimera experiments to human breast cancers.

  14. Molecular targets for breast cancer therapy and prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes Bange; Esther Zwick; Axel Ullrich

    2001-01-01

    The recent completion of the human genome sequence has raised great hopes for the discovery of new breast cancer therapies based on newly-discovered genes linked to breast cancer development and progression. Here we describe breast cancer therapies that have emerged from gene-based scientific efforts over the past 20 years and that are now approved for clinical testing or treatment.

  15. Metabolic disorders and breast cancer risk (United States)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Baron; Elisabete Weiderpass; Polly A. Newcomb; Meir Stampfer; Linda Titus-Ernstoff; Kathleen M. Egan; E. Robert Greenberg

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To clarify the hormonal context of breast cancer etiology we used data from a large, population-based case–control study to investigate the relationship between breast cancer risk and a history of diabetes mellitus, disorders associated with estrogen stimulation (uterine fibroids, endometriosis, gallstones), and disorders associated with androgen stimulation (acne, hirsutism, and polycystic ovaries). Methods: Breast cancer patients between 50 and

  16. Management of solitary and multiple brain metastases from breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Addison; Wilkinson, J. Ben; Shah, Chirag; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2015-01-01

    As local and systemic control of breast cancer improves, metastasis to the brain remains a common event requiring a specialized management approach. Women diagnosed with breast cancer who develop brain metastases have superior overall survival compared to patients with other forms of metastatic carcinoma. This article summarizes some of the unique aspects of care for patients with breast cancer metastases to the brain.

  17. Self-assembled levan nanoparticles for targeted breast cancer imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Jung; Bae, Pan Kee; Chung, Bong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    We report on the targeted imaging of breast cancer using self-assembled levan nanoparticles. Indocyanine green (ICG) was encapsulated in levan nanoparticles via self-assembly. Levan-ICG nanoparticles were found to be successfully accumulated in breast cancer via specific interaction between fructose moieties in levan and overexpressed glucose transporter 5 in breast cancer cells. PMID:25383444

  18. Breast cancer risk factors and outcome: a global perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Bhoo Pathy

    2011-01-01

    The burden of breast cancer had been increasing in Asia. However, little is known regarding the presentation, management and outcome of breast cancer among multi-ethnic Asian women. Asian ethnicities, lifestyles, health beliefs, and even life expectancies are substantially different from those of western women, and each of these may play a distinct role in breast cancer presentation, management and prognosis.

  19. Defense Health Program Department of Defense Breast Cancer Research Program

    E-print Network

    von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    Defense Health Program Department of Defense Breast Cancer Research Program Funding Opportunities for Fiscal Year 2013 The Fiscal Year 2013 (FY13) Defense Appropriations Act provides $120 million (M) to the Department of Defense Breast Cancer Research Program (BCRP) to support innovative, high-impact breast cancer

  20. PKC? expression is a marker for breast cancer aggressiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gry Kalstad Lønne; Louise Cornmark; Iris Omanovic Zahirovic; Göran Landberg; Karin Jirström; Christer Larsson

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms are potential targets for breast cancer therapy. This study was designed to evaluate which PKC isoforms might be optimal targets for different breast cancer subtypes. RESULTS: In two cohorts of primary breast cancers, PKC? levels correlated to estrogen and progesterone receptor negativity, tumor grade, and proliferative activity, whereas PKC? and PKC? did not correlate

  1. Quantitative ultrasound assessment of breast cancer using a multiparameter approach

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    Quantitative ultrasound assessment of breast cancer using a multiparameter approach Michael L set have been developed for classifying rodent models of breast cancer. The improvement in detection and diagnosis of breast cancer using QUS will have significant medical impact. Two kinds of mammary tumors

  2. THE INDIANA CENTER FOR BREAST CANCER RESEARCH: PROGRESS REPORT

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    THE INDIANA CENTER FOR BREAST CANCER RESEARCH: PROGRESS REPORT Harikrishna Nakshatri, George W Email: hnakshat@iupui.edu The mission of IUPUI breast cancer center is to address prevention, early detection, and treatment of breast cancer through translational projects, supportive cores, and synergistic

  3. Fish oil prevents breast cancer cell metastasis to bone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chandi Charan Mandal; Triparna Ghosh-Choudhury; Toshi Yoneda; Goutam Ghosh Choudhury; Nandini Ghosh-Choudhury

    2010-01-01

    The data derived from epidemiological and animal models confirm a beneficial effect of fish oil (rich in ??3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) in the amelioration of tumor growth and progression, including breast cancer. The breast cancer patients often develop bone metastasis evidenced by osteolytic lesions, leading to severe pain and bone fracture. Using a mouse model of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer

  4. Breast cancer measurements with magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, and mammography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter L. Davis; Melinda J. Staiger; Kathleen B. Harris; Marie A. Ganott; Jolita Klementaviciene; Kenneth S. McCarty; Hector Tobon

    1996-01-01

    Summary Background: Accurate measurement of the size of breast cancers becomes more important as breast cancer therapy advances. This study reports the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasonography and mammography for measuring the largest breast cancer diameter in comparison to the pathology measurement.

  5. Physical Activity and Reduced Breast Cancer Risk: A Multinational Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luke D. Ratnasinghe; Ramakrishna V. Modali; Michael B. Seddon; Teresa A. Lehman

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the association between physical activity and breast cancer risk among 1,463 breast cancer cases and 4,862 controls in a multinational study. All subjects were asked how many times and for how long they exercised or engaged in strenuous physical labor per week. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the association between physical activity and breast cancer risk.

  6. Increased Prevalence of Colorectal Adenomas in Women with Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Ochsenkühn; Ekkehard Bayerdörffer; Alexander Meining; Lydia Späth; Gerd Alexander Mannes; Baldur Wiebecke; Wolfgang Eiermann; Michael Sackmann; Burkhard Göke

    2005-01-01

    Background: The frequency of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas was investigated in a large cohort of women with breast cancer in comparison with matched controls, since data on the occurrence of second tumors in women with breast cancer is controversial. Design: In a cohort study, 188 consecutive women (median age 57 years) with primary breast cancer and 376 age-matched women who

  7. Discovery Park Impact International Breast Cancer & Nutrition (IBCN) Project

    E-print Network

    Holland, Jeffrey

    Discovery Park Impact International Breast Cancer & Nutrition (IBCN) Project NEED The development interdisciplinary projects and centers. One of the newest is the International Breast Cancer & Nutrition (IBCN effort to understand the link between breast cancer types, nutrition and the epigenome; (2) to foster

  8. 623. Transcriptional Targeting of Breast Cancer Employing the Heparanase Promoter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martina Breidenbach; Daniel T. Rein; Yuko Tsuruta; Minghui Wang; Isabell Herrmann; Ronald D. Alvarez; Paul N. Reynolds; David T. Curiel

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of death in the United States. Despite some advances in treatment of primary breast cancer, patients with metastatic disease still have no chance of cure and conventional treatment modalities remain palliative. Therefore, the identification of new agents with better antitumor activity merits a high priority in the treatment of advanced or metastatic breast cancer.

  9. New breast cancer committee to establish federal research agenda

    Cancer.gov

    A newly formed advisory committee will develop and coordinate a strategic federal research agenda on environmental and genetic factors related to breast cancer. The 19-member Interagency Breast Cancer and Environmental Research Coordinating Committee (IBCERCC) was established by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in collaboration with NCI to review all breast cancer research efforts conducted or supported by federal agencies.

  10. Radiation-induced malignancies following radiotherapy for breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Roychoudhuri; H Evans; D Robinson; H Møller

    2004-01-01

    With advances in diagnosis and treatment, breast cancer is becoming an increasingly survivable disease resulting in a large population of long-term survivors. Factors affecting the quality of life of such patients include the consequences of breast cancer treatment, which may have involved radiotherapy. In this study, we compare the incidence of second primary cancers in women who received breast radiotherapy

  11. Junctional Adhesion Molecules (JAMs) - New Players in Breast Cancer?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gozie Offiah; Kieran Brennan; Ann M Hopkins

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer remains a leading cause of death amongst women. Annually, it i sestimated that breast cancer is diagnosed in over a million women (Kasler et al., 2009) with over 450,000 deaths worldwide (Tirona et al., 2010). The incidence of the disease is highest in economically-developed countries, with lower rates in developing countries. Despite continual advances in breast cancer

  12. Passive Smoking Exposure and Female Breast Cancer Mortality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Wartenberg; Eugenia E. Calle; Michael J. Thun; Clark W. Heath; Cathy Lally; Tracey Woodruff

    2000-01-01

    Background: Several studies have reported positive associa- tions between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and in- creased risk of breast cancer. However, studies of active smoking and risk of breast cancer are equivocal and in gen- eral do not support a positive association. To try to resolve this paradox, we examined the association between breast cancer mortality and potential ETS exposure

  13. Recent Progress in Ultra-Wideband Microwave Breast Cancer Detection

    E-print Network

    Coates, Mark

    Recent Progress in Ultra-Wideband Microwave Breast Cancer Detection Simone A. Winkler, Emily Porter in the field of breast cancer detection research carried out at McGill University. A low-cost time performance. Latest results are shown and presented in comparison to prior experiments. Keywords-breast cancer

  14. Gene expression profiles of human breast cancer progression

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    Gene expression profiles of human breast cancer progression Xiao-Jun Ma*, Ranelle Salunga*, J. Todd) Although distinct pathological stages of breast cancer have been described, the molecular differences among stages of human breast cancer. Our data reveal extensive similarities at the transcriptome level among

  15. Breast cancer risks and risk prediction models.

    PubMed

    Engel, Christoph; Fischer, Christine

    2015-02-01

    BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have a considerably increased risk to develop breast and ovarian cancer. The personalized clinical management of carriers and other at-risk individuals depends on precise knowledge of the cancer risks. In this report, we give an overview of the present literature on empirical cancer risks, and we describe risk prediction models that are currently used for individual risk assessment in clinical practice. Cancer risks show large variability between studies. Breast cancer risks are at 40-87% for BRCA1 mutation carriers and 18-88% for BRCA2 mutation carriers. For ovarian cancer, the risk estimates are in the range of 22-65% for BRCA1 and 10-35% for BRCA2. The contralateral breast cancer risk is high (10-year risk after first cancer 27% for BRCA1 and 19% for BRCA2). Risk prediction models have been proposed to provide more individualized risk prediction, using additional knowledge on family history, mode of inheritance of major genes, and other genetic and non-genetic risk factors. User-friendly software tools have been developed that serve as basis for decision-making in family counseling units. In conclusion, further assessment of cancer risks and model validation is needed, ideally based on prospective cohort studies. To obtain such data, clinical management of carriers and other at-risk individuals should always be accompanied by standardized scientific documentation. PMID:25960719

  16. Cancer Stem Cells in Breast: Current Opinion and Future Challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuelle Charafe-Jauffret; Florence Monville; Christophe Ginestier; Gabriela Dontu; Daniel Birnbaum; Max S. Wicha

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for the cancer stem cell hypothesis, which holds that cancers are driven by a cellular subcomponent that has stem cell properties, that is, self-renewal, tumorigenicity and multilineage differentiation capacity. The cancer stem cell hypothesis modifies our conceptual approach of oncogenesis and shall have implications in breast cancer prevention, detection and treatment, especially in metastatic breast cancer

  17. The role of inflammation in breast cancer and prostate cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-liang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory conditions increase the risk of cancer. Strong evidences showed that inflammation contributes to breast cancer\\u000a and prostate cancer in different ways such as inflammation-induced DNA or RNA damage, overexpression cytokines, chemokines\\u000a etc. Recent studies have begun to unravel molecular pathways linking inflammation and cancer. Some possible mechanisms by\\u000a which inflammation can contribute to carcinogenesis have been found. These mechanisms

  18. One-stop diagnostic breast clinics: how often are breast cancers missed?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Britton; S W Duffy; R Sinnatamby; M G Wallis; S Barter; M Gaskarth; A O'Neill; C Caldas; J D Brenton; P Forouhi; G C Wishart

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the number of patients discharged from a symptomatic breast clinic who subsequently develop breast cancer and to determine how many of these cancers had been ‘missed’ at initial assessment. Over a 3-year period, 7004 patients were discharged with a nonmalignant diagnosis. Twenty-nine patients were subsequently diagnosed with breast cancer over the next

  19. ICSN Data - Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Breast Cancer: Mortality Rates | Screening

  20. Breast cancer messaging for younger women: gender, femininity, and risk.

    PubMed

    Haines, Rebecca J; Bottorff, Joan L; Barclay McKeown, Stephanie; Ptolemy, Erin; Carey, Joanne; Sullivan, Kelli

    2010-06-01

    Evidence linking both active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure to premenopausal breast cancer makes the development of health messages specific to younger women a pressing priority. To determine how to communicate information about this modifiable breast cancer risk to young women, we analyzed a selection of 32 recent English-language breast cancer messages and campaigns that targeted young women. In addition, we obtained young women's responses to three breast cancer campaign images during focus group discussions. A visual analysis of messages points to an explicitly gendered discourse within contemporary campaigns, one that entails conflicting messages regarding breast cancer, health, feminine beauty, and risk. Although the intent might be to educate and empower young women to "fight" against breast cancer, paradoxically, the messages employ imagery that sexually objectifies young women's breasts and bodies. Recommendations are made for messaging about tobacco and breast cancer risk to avoid reproducing one-dimensional or stereotypical presentations of gender and femininity. PMID:20354237

  1. Differential subcellular expression of protein kinase C betaII in breast cancer: correlation with breast cancer subtypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yesim Gökmen-Polar; Rutika Mehta; Sukru Tuzmen; Spyro Mousses; Mangesh A. Thorat; Kerry L. Sanders; Dmitry Turbin; Samuel Leung; David G. Huntsman; George W. Sledge; Sunil Badve

    2010-01-01

    Protein kinase C betaII (PKC?II) represents a novel potential target for anticancer therapies in breast cancer. In order\\u000a to identify patient subgroups which might benefit from PKC-targeting therapies, we investigated the expression of PKC?II in\\u000a human breast cancer cell lines and in a tissue microarray (TMA). We first screened breast cancer cell line representatives\\u000a of breast cancer subtypes for PKC?II

  2. Gamma-Secretase/Notch Signalling Pathway Inhibitor RO4929097, Paclitaxel, and Carboplatin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Stage II or Stage III Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-22

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  3. Hormone Therapy With or Without Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Women Who Have Undergone Surgery for Node-Negative Breast Cancer (The TAILORx Trial)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-07

    Breast Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor and/or Progesterone Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer

  4. Osteoprotegerin in breast cancer: beyond bone remodeling.

    PubMed

    Weichhaus, Michael; Chung, Stephanie Tsang Mui; Connelly, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a secreted protein and member of the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptor superfamily. OPG has been well characterized as a regulator of bone metabolism which acts by blocking osteoclast maturation and preventing bone breakdown. Given this role, early studies on OPG in breast cancer focused on the administration of OPG in order to prevent the osteolysis observed with bone metastases. However OPG is also produced by the breast tumor cells themselves. Research focusing on OPG produced by breast tumor cells has revealed actions of OPG which promote tumor progression. In vitro studies into the role of OPG produced by breast tumor cells have demonstrated that OPG can block TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, in vivo studies show that OPG expression by breast tumors can promote tumor growth and metastasis. In addition it has been shown that OPG stimulates endothelial cell survival and tube formation thus it may indirectly promote breast tumor progression through impacting angiogenesis. This article will present a summary of the data concerning the tumor-promoting effects of OPG in breast cancer. PMID:26054853

  5. Radiation Therapy for Locally Recurrent Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Siglin, Joshua; Champ, Colin E.; Vakhnenko, Yelena; Anne, Pramila R.; Simone, Nicole L.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately one-third of all breast cancer patients experience local recurrence of their tumor after initial treatment. As initial treatment often employs the use of radiation therapy (RT), the standard of care for local breast cancer recurrence after initial breast conserving therapy has traditionally been surgical intervention with mastectomy. However, recent attempts to preserve the intact breast after recurrence with local excision have revealed a potential need for RT in addition to repeat breast conserving surgery as rates of local failure with resection alone remain high. Additionally, local recurrence following initial mastectomy and chest wall RT can be treated with reirradiation to increase local control. Repeating RT, however, in a previously irradiated area, is a complex treatment strategy, as the clinician must carefully balance maximizing treatment effectiveness while minimizing treatment-related toxicity. As a result, physicians have been hesitant to treat recurrent disease with repeat RT with limited data. Results from the current literature are promising and current clinical trials are underway to explore reirradiation modalities which will provide additional information on treatment-related toxicity and outcomes. This paper will review the current literature on repeat radiation therapy for locally recurrent breast cancer. PMID:23091733

  6. Nifuroxazide induces apoptosis and impairs pulmonary metastasis in breast cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, F; Hu, M; Lei, Q; Xia, Y; Zhu, Y; Song, X; Li, Y; Jie, H; Liu, C; Xiong, Y; Zuo, Z; Zeng, A; Li, Y; Yu, L; Shen, G; Wang, D; Xie, Y; Ye, T; Wei, Y

    2015-01-01

    Breast carcinoma is the most common female cancer with considerable metastatic potential. Signal transducers and activators of the transcription 3 (Stat3) signaling pathway is constitutively activated in many cancers including breast cancer and has been validated as a novel potential anticancer target. Here, we reported our finding with nifuroxazide, an antidiarrheal agent identified as a potent inhibitor of Stat3. The potency of nifuroxazide on breast cancer was assessed in vitro and in vivo. In this investigation, we found that nifuroxazide decreased the viability of three breast cancer cell lines and induced apoptosis of cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, western blot analysis demonstrated that the occurrence of its apoptosis was associated with activation of cleaved caspases-3 and Bax, downregulation of Bcl-2. Moreover, nifuroxazide markedly blocked cancer cell migration and invasion, and the reduction of phosphorylated-Stat3Tyr705, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression were also observed. Furthermore, in our animal experiments, intraperitoneal administration of 50?mg/kg/day nifuroxazide suppressed 4T1 tumor growth and blocked formation of pulmonary metastases without detectable toxicity. Meanwhile, histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed a decrease in Ki-67-positive cells, MMP-9-positive cells and an increase in cleaved caspase-3-positive cells upon nifuroxazide. Notably, nifuroxazide reduced the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cell in the lung. Our data indicated that nifuroxazide may potentially be a therapeutic agent for growth and metastasis of breast cancer. PMID:25811798

  7. Hyaluronan, Inflammation, and Breast Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Schwertfeger, Kathryn L.; Cowman, Mary K.; Telmer, Patrick G.; Turley, Eva A.; McCarthy, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer-induced inflammation in the tumor reactive stroma supports invasion and malignant progression and is contributed to by a variety of host cells including macrophages and fibroblasts. Inflammation appears to be initiated by tumor cells and surrounding host fibroblasts that secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and remodel the extracellular matrix (ECM) to create a pro-inflammatory “cancerized” or tumor reactive microenvironment that supports tumor expansion and invasion. The tissue polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) is an example of an ECM component within the cancerized microenvironment that promotes breast cancer progression. Like many ECM molecules, the function of native high-molecular weight HA is altered by fragmentation, which is promoted by oxygen/nitrogen free radicals and release of hyaluronidases within the tumor microenvironment. HA fragments are pro-inflammatory and activate signaling pathways that promote survival, migration, and invasion within both tumor and host cells through binding to HA receptors such as CD44 and RHAMM/HMMR. In breast cancer, elevated HA in the peri-tumor stroma and increased HA receptor expression are prognostic for poor outcome and are associated with disease recurrence. This review addresses the critical issues regarding tumor-induced inflammation and its role in breast cancer progression focusing specifically on the changes in HA metabolism within tumor reactive stroma as a key factor in malignant progression.

  8. The breast cancer susceptibility genes (BRCA) in breast and ovarian cancers

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Arindam; Paul, Soumen

    2015-01-01

    The Breast Cancer Susceptibility Genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, are the dynamic regulators of genomic integrity. Inherited mutations in these genes are associated with the development of cancer in multiple organs including the breast and ovary. Mutations of BRCA1/2 genes greatly increase lifetime risk to develop breast and ovarian cancer and these mutations are frequently observed in hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. In addition, misregulation and altered expressions of BRCA1/2 proteins potentiate sporadic forms of breast cancer. In particular, both genes contribute to DNA repair and transcriptional regulation in response to DNA damage. Thus, deficiencies of BRCA1/2 functions lead to the accumulation of genetic alterations and ultimately influence the development of cancer. Studies since identification of both BRCA1 and BRCA2 have provided strong evidences for their tumor suppressor activities specifically for breast and ovarian cancer and this article aims to review the current state of knowledge regarding the BRCAs and associated cancer risk. PMID:24389207

  9. THE MANAGEMENT OF CANCER OF THE BREAST

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Justin J.

    1958-01-01

    Radical mastectomy is excellent only for cases of operable breast cancer in which the tumor is limited to the breast or to the nodes in the axilla. That there is metastasis to the internal mammary lymph nodes in a high proportion of cases has been “overlooked” for many years. Also it is probable that metastasis occurs to the supraclavicular lymph nodes more often than is suspected. Hence the extended radical mastectomy operation leaves much to be desired. There has been no significant improvement in recent years in the mortality rate of mammary cancer. Simple mastectomy and thorough adequate postoperative radiation therapy have much to offer. Treatment of “operable” breast cancer should be a cooperative effort of surgeon, radiation therapist and pathologist. PMID:13511211

  10. Symptom Management in Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Irvin, William; Muss, Hyman B.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 40,000 women die as a result of breast cancer each year and many more live with advanced disease. When breast cancer recurs, the goals of treatment often shift from one of cure to controlling the disease for as long as possible while palliating symptoms interfering with the patient's functional status and quality of life. This requires ongoing discussions with the patient and family about the goals of care. Many symptoms depend on the site of metastasis, with bone being the most frequent, and commonly occur with fatigue, depression, insomnia, and pain. The purpose of this paper is to identify and provide an overview of the management of the most common symptoms in patients with breast cancer metastases. PMID:21880861

  11. Mutational Screening of Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene 1 from Early Onset, Bilateral, and Familial Breast Cancer Patients in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shou-Tung Chen; Ruei-A Chen; Shou-Jen Kuo; Yi-Chih Chien

    2003-01-01

    The BRCA1 gene has been shown to be strongly associated with the occurrence of familial breast cancer. The spectrum of BRCA1 gene mutations in breast cancer patients in various populations has been investigated. In this study, patients in Central Taiwan with breast cancer were screened for BRCA1 mutations by sequencing PCR products spanning the coding region and partial intronic regions

  12. The emerging role of the molecular diagnostics laboratory in breast cancer personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    De Abreu, Francine B; Wells, Wendy A; Tsongalis, Gregory J

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer is a complex disease characterized by many morphological, clinical, and molecular features. For many years, breast cancer has been classified according to traditional parameters, such as histological type, grade, tumor size, lymph node involvement and vascular invasion, and biomarkers (eg, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and epidermal growth factor receptor 2), which are used in patient management. With emerging imaging techniques (ie, digital mammography, tomosynthesis, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine, and genomic techniques, such as real-time RT-PCR and microarrays), breast cancer diagnostics is going through a significant evolution. Imaging technologies have improved breast cancer diagnosis, survival, and treatment by early detection of primary or metastatic lesions, differentiating benign from malignant lesions and promoting intraoperative surgical guidance and postoperative specimen evaluation. Genomic and transcriptomic technologies make the analysis of gene expression signatures and mutation status possible so that tumors may be classified more accurately with respect to diagnosis and prognosis. The -omic era has also made possible the identification of new biomarkers involved in breast cancer development, survival, and invasion that can be gradually incorporated into clinical testing. These advances in both imaging and genomics contribute to more personalized and predictive patient management. We review the progress made in breast cancer diagnosis and management using these new tools. PMID:23920325

  13. N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-14 as a potential biomarker for breast cancer by immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The post-translational modification of proteins, including glycosylation, differs between normal and tumor cells. The UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Tases) family of enzymes regulates the initial steps of mucin O-glycosylation and is responsible for the altered glycosylation state observed in cancer cells. Recently it was found that GalNAc-T14 mRNA is heterogeneously expressed in breast carcinomas compared to normal tissue, however the expression profile of GalNAc-T14 protein in breast carcinomas compared to normal tissue is still unknown. In this study, we assessed the expression profile of GalNAc-T14 protein in malignant and non-malignant breast tissues by immunohistochemistry to evaluate whether GalNAc-T14 might be a potential biomarker for breast cancer. Methods In formalin-fixed tissues, the expression level of GalNAc-T14 protein was evaluated by immunohistochemistry assay in breast tissues. Expression profiles were assessed in normal tissues, benign fibroadenomas and several types of carcinomas. Results Our results showed that GalNAc-T14 was heterogeneously expressed in breast carcinomas compared to non-malignant tissue. GalNAc-T14 expression was observed in 47/56 (83.9%) carcinoma samples, 7/48 (14.6%) non-malignant breast tissue samples. GalNAc-T14 expression level was associated with histological grade. For this enzyme a significant association with invasive ductal type, mucinous adenocarcinoma and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) type was found. Conclusion Our results provide evidence that GalNAc-T14 may be a potential biomarker for breast cancer by immunohistochemistry. GalNAc-T14 expression level was associated with histological grade. GalNAc-T14 expression can provide new insights about breast cancer glycobiology. PMID:20356418

  14. Chapter 27 -- Breast Cancer Genomics, Section VI, Pathology and Biological Markers of Invasive Breast Cancer

    E-print Network

    Spellman, Paul T.

    2011-01-01

    somatic genetic profile for BRCA1 tumors.  Cancer Res  64.  profiles in human  BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast tumors highlight differential sets of genomic aberrations.  Cancer cancer genomes is the extent of variation between tumors.  Figure  27.6, for example, shows CGH profiles 

  15. Translational advances regarding hereditary breast cancer syndromes.

    PubMed

    Gage, M; Wattendorf, D; Henry, L R

    2012-04-01

    Approximately 5-10% of breast cancers may be inheritable, up to 90% of which are due to mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. A substantial minority are caused by non-BRCA mutations, such as TP53, PTEN, STK11, CHEK2, ATM, BRIP1, and PALB2 mutations. This review highlights translational research advances with regard to the development of probabilistic models for hereditary breast cancer syndromes, the identification of specific genetic mutations responsible for these syndromes, as well as their testing and interpretations. PMID:22441895

  16. Trilostane therapy for advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Coombes, R C; Powles, T J; Muindi, J; Hunt, J; Ward, M; Perez, D; Neville, A M

    1985-04-01

    Forty-one postmenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer have been treated with trilostane, a 3 beta D-hydrogenase delta 5-isomerase inhibitor, for periods of up to 1 year. One patient responded to trilostane and in six patients the disease was stabilized. The remaining patients failed to respond to therapy. Six patients who failed to respond to trilostane subsequently responded to other forms of endocrine therapy. It is concluded that trilostane alone is not a useful agent in the treatment of advanced breast cancer. PMID:3995507

  17. [Resection margins in conservative breast cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Medina Fernández, Francisco Javier; Ayllón Terán, María Dolores; Lombardo Galera, María Sagrario; Rioja Torres, Pilar; Bascuñana Estudillo, Guillermo; Rufián Peña, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    Conservative breast cancer surgery is facing a new problem: the potential tumour involvement of resection margins. This eventuality has been closely and negatively associated with disease-free survival. Various factors may influence the likelihood of margins being affected, mostly related to the characteristics of the tumour, patient or surgical technique. In the last decade, many studies have attempted to find predictive factors for margin involvement. However, it is currently the new techniques used in the study of margins and tumour localisation that are significantly reducing reoperations in conservative breast cancer surgery. PMID:23611356

  18. OPTIMIZING BREAST CANCER TREATMENT EFFICACY WITH INTENSITY-MODULATED RADIOTHERAPY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRANK A. VICINI; MICHAEL SHARPE; LARRY KESTIN; ALVARO MARTINEZ; CHRISTINA K. MITCHELL; MICHELLE F. WALLACE; JOHN WONG

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To present our clinical experience using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to improve dose uniformity and treatment efficacy in patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 281 patients with Stage 0, I, and II breast cancer treated with breast- conserving therapy received whole breast RT after lumpectomy using our static, multileaf collimator

  19. Heterogeneity of breast cancer subtypes and survival among Hispanic women with invasive breast cancer in California

    PubMed Central

    Banegas, Matthew P.; Tao, Li; Altekruse, Sean; Anderson, William F.; John, Esther M.; Clarke, Christina A.; Gomez, Scarlett L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose There are limited data regarding breast cancer subtypes among Hispanic women. The current study assessed the distribution and prognosis of molecular subtypes defined by joint expression of the hormone receptors (HR; estrogen and progesterone) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Methods Using California Cancer Registry data, we identified Hispanic women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from 2005–2010. Breast cancer subtypes were defined as HR+/HER2?, HR+/HER2+, HR?/HER2+, and HR?/HER2? (triple negative). We estimated breast cancer subtype frequencies and used polytomous logistic regression, Kaplan Meier survival plots and Cox regression to examine differences in relation to demographic and clinical characteristics. Results Among 16,380 Hispanic women with breast cancer, HR+/HER? subtype was most common (63%), followed by triple negative (16%), HR+/HER2+ (14%) and HR?/HER2+ (8%). Women in lower SES neighborhoods had greater risk of triple negative and HR?/HER2+ subtypes relative to HR+/HER2? (p<0.05). Hispanic women with triple negative and HR?/HER2+ tumors experienced poorer survival than those with HR+/HER? tumors. Breast cancer-specific mortality increased with decreasing SES, relative to the highest SES quintile, from HR=1.38 for quintile 4 to HR=1.76 for quintile 1 (lowest SES level). Conclusion Our findings indicate that Hispanic women residing in low SES neighborhoods had significantly increased risk of developing and dying from HR? than HR+ breast cancers. Similar patterns of subtype frequency and prognosis among California Hispanic women and studies of other racial/ethnic groups underscore the need to better understand the impact of SES on risk factor exposures that increase the risk of breast cancer subtypes with poor prognosis. PMID:24658879

  20. Risk of breast cancer recurrence and contralateral breast cancer in relation to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status following breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youlia M. Kirova; Dominique Stoppa-Lyonnet; Alexia Savignoni; Brigitte Sigal-Zafrani; Nicolas Fabre; Alain Fourquet

    2005-01-01

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations are associated with a strong risk of breast cancer, which may preclude breast-conserving treatment in carriers. This study examined whether mutation status influenced the rate of breast cancer recurrence following breast-conserving treatment. BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were screened for germline mutations in 131 patients with a family history of breast and\\/or ovarian cancer, who had

  1. Breast-conserving surgery for T3\\/T4 breast cancer: an analysis of 196 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian Fitzal; Otto Riedl; Lisa Wutzl; Wolfgang Draxler; Margaretha Rudas; Ursula Pluschnig; Leonore Handl-Zeller; Peter Dubsky; Thomas Bachleitner-Hofmann; Günther Steger; Raimund Jakesz; Michael Gnant

    2007-01-01

    Introduction  Breast conservation therapy (BCT) increases quality of life and self-esteem of breast cancer patients. In special cancer centers\\u000a up to 90% of patients are treated with BCT. T3\\/T4 breast cancer is one of the few contraindications for BCT. However, retrospective\\u000a data suggest that BCT may be eligible in selected cases of T3\\/T4 breast cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  We analyzed retrospectively 196 breast cancer

  2. [Curcumin in chemoprevention of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Terlikowska, Katarzyna; Witkowska, Anna; Terlikowski, S?awomir

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant cancer among women, both in Poland and worldwide. Due to the constantly increasing number of breast cancer cases, it is vital to develop effective activities in primary and secondary prevention. One of the promising methods of best value, connecting both types of cancer prevention, appears to be chemoprevention. Chemoprevention uses natural or synthetic compounds to inhibit, delay or reverse the process of carcinogenesis. Among ingredients of natural origin, great attention is paid to curcumin - a broad-spectrum anti-cancer polyphenol derivative, extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. Curcumin has a number of chemopreventive properties such as anti-inflammatory activity, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis as well as tumor metastasis. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the mentioned anti-cancer effect in the epithelial breast cell line MCF-10A and in the epithelial breast cell lines MCF-7, BT-474, SK-BR-3-hr and MDA-MB-231. The main problem associated with the use of curcumin as a chemopreventive agent in humans is its low absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, poor solubility in body fluids and low bioavailability. Current studies are underway to increase the bioavailability and effectiveness of curcumin in vivo. Good results in the prevention and the treatment of breast cancer could be ensured by curcumin nanoparticles coated with albumin, known as nanocurcumin. The studies using nanocurcumin, however, are still in the preclinical stage, which is why there is a need to conduct extensive long-term randomized clinical trials to determine its effectiveness. PMID:24864107

  3. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer among Bahraini Women

    PubMed Central

    Hamadeh, Randah R.; Abulfatih, Najat M.; Fekri, Majeda A.; Al-Mehza, Hala E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of breast cancer among the Bahraini female population in the years 2000–2010 and examine its health policy implications. Methods: All breast cancer cases in the Bahrain Cancer Registry from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2010 were included. Results: There were 1,005 cases, 12.7% of which were detected by screening. The overall mean age at diagnosis was 50.9 years (95% confidence interval 50.1–51.6). The age-standardised incidence rate declined from 58.2 per 100,000 in 2000 to 44.4 per 100,000 in 2010. The majority of cases were infiltrating ductal carcinoma (76.9%). Of the registered cases, 44.1% and 48.1% had an unknown grade and stage, respectively. The five-year survival rate was 63 ± 2%. Conclusion: The low percentage of cases detected by screening merits further evaluation of Bahrain’s screening programme. More effort should be made to reduce the proportion of unknown stage and grade breast cancers. Future research has to be directed towards understanding the reasons for Bahrain having the highest incidence rate of breast cancer in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries. PMID:24790739

  4. Comparison of Inflammatory Breast Cancer and Noninflammatory Breast Cancer in Western Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birsen Karaca Saydam; Gamze Goksel; Esra Korkmaz; Osman Zekioglu; Murat Kapkac; Ulus Ali Sanli; Ruchan Uslu; Canfeza Sezgin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The study was aimed at investigating the clinical and biological features and survival outcomes of patients who were treated for metastatic inflammatory and noninflammatory breast carcinoma. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and sixty-seven metastatic breast cancer patients were enrolled into this study and divided into two groups: inflammatory (n = 46) and noninflammatory (n = 121). The clinical and

  5. Breast Cancer Cause Beliefs: Chinese, Korean, and Mexican American Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Patricia; Lim, Jung-Won; Wang-Letzkus, Ming; Flores, Katrina F; Allen, Kristi M; Castañeda, Sheila F; Talavera, Gregory A

    2015-08-01

    This study examined causal attribution beliefs about breast cancer and the influence that these beliefs exert on health behavior change among breast cancer survivors (BCS). Focus groups with Chinese (n = 21), Korean (n = 11), and Mexican American (n = 9) BCS recruited through community- and hospital-based support groups were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English for thematic content analysis. Three themes concerning beliefs about breast cancer cause common to all three groups included (a) stress, (b) diet, and (c) fatalism. Causal beliefs corresponded to behavioral changes with women describing efforts to improve their diet and manage their stress. Ethnic minority BCS adhere to beliefs about what caused their cancer that influence their health behaviors. Providing quality health care to ethnically diverse cancer survivors requires cultural sensitivity to patients' beliefs about the causes of their cancer and awareness of how beliefs influence patients' health behaviors post diagnosis. PMID:25001237

  6. Prognostic significance of synchronous and metachronous bilateral breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Kollias; Ian O. Ellis; Christopher W. Elston; Roger W. Blamey

    2001-01-01

    Women previously treated for primary operable breast cancer are at increased risk of developing cancer in the contralateral\\u000a breast, but the clinical significance of this development is unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of\\u000a synchronous bilateral breast cancer or the development of a metachronous contralateral breast primary on the prognosis. In\\u000a a series of 3210

  7. Epigenetic silencing of neurofilament genes promotes an aggressive phenotype in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Calmon, Marilia Freitas; Jeschke, Jana; Zhang, Wei; Dhir, Mashaal; Siebenkäs, Cornelia; Herrera, Alexander; Tsai, Hsing-Chen; O'Hagan, Heather M; Pappou, Emmanouil P; Hooker, Craig M; Fu, Tao; Schuebel, Kornel E; Gabrielson, Edward; Rahal, Paula; Herman, James G; Baylin, Stephen B; Ahuja, Nita

    2015-07-01

    Neurofilament heavy polypeptide (NEFH) has recently been identified as a candidate DNA hypermethylated gene within the functional breast cancer hypermethylome. NEFH exists in a complex with neurofilament medium polypeptide (NEFM) and neurofilament light polypeptide (NEFL) to form neurofilaments, which are structural components of the cytoskeleton in mature neurons. Recent studies reported the deregulation of these proteins in several malignancies, suggesting that neurofilaments may have a role in other cell types as well. Using a comprehensive approach, we studied the epigenetic inactivation of neurofilament genes in breast cancer and the functional significance of this event. We report that DNA methylation-associated silencing of NEFH, NEFL, and NEFM in breast cancer is frequent, cancer-specific, and correlates with clinical features of disease progression. DNA methylation-mediated inactivation of these genes occurs also in multiple other cancer histologies including pancreas, gastric, and colon. Restoration of NEFH function, the major subunit of the neurofilament complex, reduces proliferation and growth of breast cancer cells and arrests them in Go/G1 phase of the cell cycle along with a reduction in migration and invasion. These findings suggest that DNA methylation-mediated silencing of the neurofilament genes NEFH, NEFM, and NEFL are frequent events that may contribute to the progression of breast cancer and possibly other malignancies. PMID:25985363

  8. The spectrum of genetic mutations in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Asfandyar; Hussain, Syed Ather; Ghori, Quratulain; Naeem, Nida; Fazil, Abul; Giri, Smith; Sathian, Brijesh; Mainali, Prajeena; Al Tamimi, Dalal M

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women around the world. About one in 12 women in the West develop breast cancer at some point in life. It is estimated that 5%-10% of all breast cancer cases in women are linked to hereditary susceptibility due to mutations in autosomal dominant genes. The two key players associated with high breast cancer risk are mutations in BRCA 1 and BRCA 2. Another highly important mutation can occur in TP53 resulting in a triple negative breast cancer. However, the great majority of breast cancer cases are not related to a mutated gene of high penetrance, but to genes of low penetrance such as CHEK2, CDH1, NBS1, RAD50, BRIP1 and PALB2, which are frequently mutated in the general population. In this review, we discuss the entire spectrum of mutations which are associated with breast cancer. PMID:25824734

  9. Lifetime Cigarette Smoking and Breast Cancer Prognosis in the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is controversy on whether former smokers have increased risk for breast cancer recurrence or all-cause mortality, regardless of how much they smoked. Methods Data were from three US cohorts in the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project, with detailed information on smoking among 9975 breast cancer survivors. Smoking was assessed an average of 2 years after diagnosis. Delayed entry Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the relationships of smoking status, cigarettes per day, years of smoking, and pack years with breast cancer prognosis. Endpoints included breast cancer recurrence (n = 1727), breast cancer mortality (n = 1059), and overall mortality (n = 1803). Results Compared with never smokers, former smokers with less than 20 pack-years of exposure had no increased risk of any outcome. However, former smokers with 20 to less than 34.9 pack-years of exposure had a 22% increased risk of breast cancer recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01 to 1.48) and a 26% increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.48). For former smokers with 35 or more pack-years of exposure, the probability of recurrence increased by 37% (HR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.66), breast cancer mortality increased by 54% (HR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.24 to 1.91), and all-cause mortality increased by 68% (HR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.44 to 1.96). Current smoking increased the probability of recurrence by 41% (HR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.16 to 1.71), increased breast cancer mortality by 60% (HR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.28 to 2.03), and doubled the risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.85 to 2.54). Conclusions Lifetime cigarette smoking was statistically significantly associated with a poor prognosis among women diagnosed with breast cancer, dose-dependent increased risks of recurrence, and breast cancer and all-cause mortality. PMID:24317179

  10. History of Recreational Physical Activity and Survival After Breast Cancer: The California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yani; John, Esther M; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Vigen, Cheryl; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Kwan, Marilyn L; Caan, Bette J; Lee, Valerie S; Roh, Janise M; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Keegan, Theresa H M; Kurian, Allison W; Monroe, Kristine R; Cheng, Iona; Sposto, Richard; Wu, Anna H; Bernstein, Leslie

    2015-06-15

    Recent epidemiologic evidence suggests that prediagnosis physical activity is associated with survival in women diagnosed with breast cancer. However, few data exist for racial/ethnic groups other than non-Latina whites. To examine the association between prediagnosis recreational physical activity and mortality by race/ethnicity, we pooled data from the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium for 3 population-based case-control studies of breast cancer patients (n = 4,608) diagnosed from 1994 to 2002 and followed up through 2010. Cox proportional hazards models provided estimates of the relative hazard ratio for mortality from all causes, breast cancer, and causes other than breast cancer associated with recent recreational physical activity (i.e., in the 10 years before diagnosis). Among 1,347 ascertained deaths, 826 (61%) were from breast cancer. Compared with women with the lowest level of recent recreational physical activity, those with the highest level had a marginally decreased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval: 0.76, 1.01) and a statistically significant decreased risk of mortality from causes other than breast cancer (hazard ratio = 0.63, 95% confidence interval: 0.49, 0.80), and particularly from cardiovascular disease. No association was observed for breast cancer-specific mortality. These risk patterns did not differ by race/ethnicity (non-Latina white, African American, Latina, and Asian American). Our findings suggest that physical activity is beneficial for overall survival regardless of race/ethnicity. PMID:25925388

  11. Breast cancer screening case-control study design: impact on breast cancer mortality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Paap; A. L. M. Verbeek; D. Puliti; E. Paci; M. J. M. Broeders

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent case-control studies on the effectiveness of population-based breast cancer screening show differences in the magnitude of breast cancer mortality reduction. We investigated the role played by aspects of the case-control study design on these differences, e.g. the definition of cases and exposure to screening. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated six case-control studies conducted in East Anglia (UK), Wales,

  12. Aspects of genetic and clinical heterogeneity in breast cancer in breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Bootsma

    1994-01-01

    Breast cancer affects approximately 1 in every 12 women in Western countries.\\u000aIt is the leading cause of cancer death in women in these countries.\\u000aInvestigation of the mechanism of breast carcinogenesis is hampered by the\\u000aheterogeneity of the disease that can be observed at the clinical, biological and\\u000agenetic levels. Delineating this heterogeneity may give opportunities to gain\\u000amore

  13. GLUT 5 Is Not Over-Expressed in Breast Cancer Cells and Patient Breast Cancer Tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gayatri Gowrishankar; Sabine Zitzmann-Kolbe; Anitha Junutula; Robert Reeves; Jelena Levi; Ananth Srinivasan; Kjerstin Bruus-Jensen; John Cyr; Ludger Dinkelborg; Sanjiv S. Gambhir

    2011-01-01

    F18 2-Fluoro 2-deoxyglucose (FDG) has been the gold standard in positron emission tomography (PET) oncologic imaging since its introduction into the clinics several years ago. Seeking to complement FDG in the diagnosis of breast cancer using radio labeled fructose based analogs, we investigated the expression of the chief fructose transporter-GLUT 5 in breast cancer cells and human tissues. Our results

  14. The role of bisphosphonates in breast cancer: Actions of bisphosphonates in animal models of breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan S Padalecki; Theresa A Guise

    2001-01-01

    The skeleton is the most common site of breast cancer metastases. These bone metastases are usually osteolytic and cause significant\\u000a morbidity. Bisphosphonates, potent inhibitors of bone resorption, reduce skeletal morbidity in breast cancer patients with\\u000a bone metastases. Animal studies with bisphosphonates are crucial to understanding the mechanisms by which these compounds\\u000a affect bone and tumor cells in vivo. Such animal

  15. BARD1 variants are not associated with breast cancer risk in Australian familial breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kylie L. Gorringe; David Y. H. Choong; Jane E. Visvader; Geoffrey J. Lindeman; Ian G. Campbell

    2008-01-01

    Several studies in various populations have suggested that non-synonymous BARD1 variants are associated with increased breast cancer risk. Using DHPLC analysis we screened the coding region of BARD1 for variants in 210 probands of breast cancer families including 129 families with no mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2. These families were ascertained in Australia through the Kathleen Cunningham Foundation Consortium for

  16. MMP9 polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: a report from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Genetics Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alicia Beeghly-FadielWei; Wei Lu; Xiao-Ou Shu; Jirong Long; Qiuyin Cai; Yongbin Xiang; Yu-Tang Gao; Wei Zheng

    2011-01-01

    In addition to tumor invasion and angiogenesis, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)9 also contributes to carcinogenesis and tumor\\u000a growth. Genetic variation that may influence MMP9 expression was evaluated among participants of the Shanghai Breast Cancer\\u000a Genetics Study (SBCGS) for associations with breast cancer susceptibility. In stage 1, 11 MMP9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped by the Affymetrix Targeted Genotyping System and\\/or

  17. Digital Mammography: Improvements in Breast Cancer Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2006-01-06

    X-ray mammography is the most sensitive imaging technique for early detection of breast cancer (diagnostics). It is performed by a radiological system equipped with a rotating molybdenum (Mo) anode tube with an additional Mo filter. In the production of X-ray, bremsstrahlung photons produce an intense diffuse radiation, affecting the contrast between normal and cancerous tissue. So it is known that a good mammographic imaging can help to detect cancer in the first stages avoiding surgery, amputation or even death. In the last years there has been some developments in new imaging techniques to improve the contrast spatial resolution between different tissues: digital imaging, or the so call digital mammography. Digital mammographic imaging is considered an improvement in the prevention of breast cancer due to the advantages it offers.

  18. Morphoimmunohistochemical characteristics of synchronous bilateral breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Todorov, S S; Kit, O I; Bosenko, E S; Kas'yanenko, V N; Lushnikova, E L; Nepomnyashchikh, L M

    2014-09-01

    We performed a complex morphoimmunohistochemical study of synchronous bilateral breast cancer (diagnosed in 0.69% cases in women of the postproductive period after the age of 50). The molecular genetic characteristics of this cancer were detected and the algorithm of diagnostic studies was suggested. We have demonstrated that bilateral breast cancer was in 75% cases estrogen- and progesterone-positive, but androgen-negative. The HER-2/neu status of the tumor was negative in 75% cases, but expression of HER-2/neu was detected in the tumor of one mammary gland in 20% cases. Membrane expression of E-cadherin in infiltrative ductal cancer cells significantly decreased up to its complete disappearance with the decrease in tumor cell differentiation degree. The data provide new insight into prognostic value of the studied biomarkers and help to develop treatment protocol with consideration for the molecular biology of this group of tumors. PMID:25257431

  19. Breast cancer and aging: results of the U13 conference breast cancer panel.

    PubMed

    Barginear, M F; Muss, H; Kimmick, G; Owusu, C; Mrozek, E; Shahrokni, A; Ballman, K; Hurria, A

    2014-07-01

    Breast cancer is predominantly a disease of older women, yet there is a knowledge gap due to the persisting misalignment between the age distribution of women with breast cancer and the age distribution of participants in clinical trials. The purpose of this report is to state the U13 conference breast cancer panel's recommendations regarding therapeutic clinical trials that will fill gaps in knowledge regarding the care of older patients with breast cancer. The U13 conference was a collaboration between the Cancer and Aging Research Group and the National Institute on Aging and the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Clinical trials should be developed for frail and vulnerable patients who would not enroll on the standard phase III trials, as well as efforts need to be made to increase enrollment of fit older patients on standard phase III trials. As a result of this conference, panel members are working with the NCI and cooperative groups to address these knowledge gaps. With the aging population and increasing incidence of breast cancer with age, it is essential to study the feasibility, toxicity, and efficacy of cancer therapy in this at-risk population. PMID:24847891

  20. Fuzzy rough sets hybrid scheme for breast cancer detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aboul Ella Hassanien

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a hybrid scheme that combines the advantages of fuzzy sets and rough sets in conjunction with statistical feature extraction techniques. An application of breast cancer imaging has been chosen and hybridization scheme have been applied to see their ability and accuracy to classify the breast cancer images into two outcomes: cancer or non-cancer. The introduced scheme starts