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Sample records for breast cancer histological

  1. Reproductive factors and histologic subtype in relation to mortality after a breast cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Warren Andersen, S; Newcomb, P A; Hampton, J M; Titus-Ernstoff, L; Egan, K M; Trentham-Dietz, A

    2011-12-01

    Evidence suggests that certain reproductive factors are more strongly associated with the incidence of lobular than of ductal breast cancer. The mechanisms influencing breast cancer incidence histology may also affect survival. Women with invasive breast cancer (N = 22,302) diagnosed during 1986-2005 were enrolled in a series of population-based studies in three US states. Participants completed telephone interviews regarding reproductive exposures and other breast cancer risk factors. Histologic subtype was obtained from state cancer registries. Vital status and cause of death were determined through December 2006 using the National Death Index. Women were followed for 9.8 years on average with 3,050 breast cancer deaths documented. Adjusted hazard rate ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models for breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. Parity was inversely associated with breast cancer-specific mortality (P (Trend) = 0.002). Associations were similar though attenuated for all-cause mortality. In women diagnosed with ductal breast cancer, a 15% reduction in breast cancer-specific mortality was observed in women with five or more children when compared to those with no children (HR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.73-1.00). A similar inverse though non-significant association was observed in women with lobular subtype (HR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.43-1.14). The trend did not extend to mixed ductal-lobular breast cancer. Age at first birth had no consistent relationship with breast cancer-specific or all-cause mortality. We found increasing parity reduced mortality in ductal and lobular breast cancer. The number of full-term births, rather than age at first birth, has an effect on both breast cancer-specific and overall mortality. PMID:21769659

  2. Histologic review of breast cancer cases in survivors of atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tokuoka, S; Asano, M; Yamamoto, T; Tokunaga, M; Sakamoto, G; Hartmann, W H; Hutter, R V; Land, C E; Henson, D E

    1984-09-01

    A panel of Japanese and American pathologists reviewed existing histologic material used to study breast cancer risk among the A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a population in which incidence studies have found a strong relationship between breast cancer risk and radiation dose. The primary charge to the panel was to define a body of confirmed cases in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation that would require little or no review for inclusion in future studies of breast cancer incidence. Broad agreement on histologic type was reached for 298 of 300 confirmed cases. The distribution of histologic types was, overall, similar to that seen in other studies of breast cancer in Japanese women, and did not appear to depend on dose; thus radiation-induced breast cancer appeared to be no different histologically from other breast cancer. Also, no evidence was found of variation in histologic type by city, age at exposure, age at diagnosis, or calendar time. PMID:6331630

  3. Whole exome sequencing of rare aggressive breast cancer histologies.

    PubMed

    Dieci, Maria Vittoria; Smutná, Veronika; Scott, Véronique; Yin, Guangliang; Xu, Ran; Vielh, Philippe; Mathieu, Marie-Christine; Vicier, Cécile; Laporte, Melanie; Drusch, Francoise; Guarneri, Valentina; Conte, Pierfranco; Delaloge, Suzette; Lacroix, Ludovic; Fromigué, Olivia; André, Fabrice; Lefebvre, Celine

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about mutational landscape of rare breast cancer (BC) subtypes. The aim of the study was to apply next generation sequencing to three different subtypes of rare BCs in order to identify new genes related to cancer progression. We performed whole exome and targeted sequencing of 29 micropapillary, 23 metaplastic, and 27 pleomorphic lobular BCs. Micropapillary BCs exhibit a profile comparable to common BCs: PIK3CA, TP53, GATA3, and MAP2K4 were the most frequently mutated genes. Metaplastic BCs presented a high frequency of TP53 (78 %) and PIK3CA (48 %) mutations and were recurrently mutated on KDM6A (13 %), a gene involved in histone demethylation. Pleomorphic lobular carcinoma exhibited high mutation rate of PIK3CA (30 %), TP53 (22 %), and CDH1 (41 %) and also presented mutations in PYGM, a gene involved in glycogen metabolism, in 8 out of 27 samples (30 %). Further analyses of publicly available datasets showed that PYGM is dramatically underexpressed in common cancers as compared to normal tissues and that low expression in tumors is correlated with poor relapse-free survival. Immunohistochemical staining on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues available in our cohort of patients confirmed higher PYGM expression in normal breast tissue compared to equivalent tumoral zone. Next generation sequencing methods applied on rare cancer subtypes can serve as a useful tool in order to uncover new potential therapeutic targets. Sequencing of pleomorphic lobular carcinoma identified a high rate of alterations in PYGM. These findings emphasize the role of glycogen metabolism in cancer progression. PMID:26907767

  4. High histologic grade and increased relative content of tryptophan in breast cancer using ratios from fingerprint fluorescence spectral peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordillo, Laura A.; Sordillo, Peter P.; Budansky, Yury; Pu, Yang; Alfano, R. R.

    2015-03-01

    Histologic grade is a very important, but underappreciated, parameter of breast cancer aggressiveness. Despite its importance, it has historically not been included as one of the criteria for staging of this cancer. In this study, spectral fluorescence profiles from patients with breast carcinoma were acquired. Ratios of emission peaks at 340 over 440,460 nm from biomolecules in malignant and normal samples were calculated. Cancerous over normal ratios (double ratio (DR) method) were evaluated with respect to tumor characteristics. Increased tryptophan content in breast cancer tissues correlates strongly with high grade, but not with lymph node metastases, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor or Her-2-Neu receptor status.

  5. An expert system for histological typing and grading of invasive breast cancer. First set up.

    PubMed

    van Diest, P J; Belien, J A; Baak, J P

    1992-06-01

    This article describes the set up of a rule-based expert system for histologic typing and grading of invasive breast cancer, which is designed to be a user-friendly tool that may be helpful for teaching and to support diagnosis making. The system raises questions and offers fixed choices to the user (usually yes/no) until a histologic diagnosis can be made with reasonable probability or enough data are available to assign a grade. As to histologic typing, the expert system is able to make the following diagnoses: ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, colloidal carcinoma, tubular carcinoma, and invasive cribriform carcinoma. If the diagnosis "ductal carcinoma" is arrived, the system offers the option to assign a histologic grade to the lesion. A first evaluation of the system in 30 cases (five each of the different subtypes) with unequivocal diagnoses by two human experts showed that the system classified 29 of the tumours in the same way as the human experts. The discrepancy case was solved after adding one rule to the system. Ten cases where a discrepancy existed between the original diagnosis of a referring centre and a reviewing human expert were all classified by the expert system in the same way as the human expert. The expert system thus seems to perform well. Further plans for evaluating, modifying and expanding the system are disclosed. PMID:1329049

  6. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Breast Cancer What is Breast Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... tumors form in the breast tissue. Who Gets Breast Cancer? Breast cancer is one of the most common ...

  7. Automatic glandular and tubule region segmentation in histological grading of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Kien; Barnes, Michael; Srinivas, Chukka; Chefd'hotel, Christophe

    2015-03-01

    In the popular Nottingham histologic score system for breast cancer grading, the pathologist analyzes the H and E tissue slides and assigns a score, in the range of 1-3, for tubule formation, nuclear pleomorphism and mitotic activity in the tumor regions. The scores from these three factors are added to give a final score, ranging from 3-9 to grade the cancer. Tubule score (TS), which reflects tubular formation, is a value in 1-3 given by manually estimating the percentage of glandular regions in the tumor that form tubules. In this paper, given an H and E tissue image representing a tumor region, we propose an automated algorithm to detect glandular regions and detect the presence of tubules in these regions. The algorithm first detects all nuclei and lumen candidates in the input image, followed by identifying tumor nuclei from the detected nuclei and identifying true lumina from the lumen candidates using a random forest classifier. Finally, it forms the glandular regions by grouping the closely located tumor nuclei and lumina using a graph-cut-based method. The glandular regions containing true lumina are considered as the ones that form tubules (tubule regions). To evaluate the proposed method, we calculate the tubule percentage (TP), i.e., the ratio of the tubule area to the total glandular area for 353 H and E images of the three TSs, and plot the distribution of these TP values. This plot shows the clear separation among these three scores, suggesting that the proposed algorithm is useful in distinguishing images of these TSs.

  8. A new histological therapeutic classification system to predict eradicated and residual lymph nodes in breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Morohashi, Satoko; Yoshizawa, Tadashi; Seino, Hiroko; Hirai, Hideaki; Haga, Toshihiro; Ota, Rie; Wu, Yunyan; Yoshida, Eri; Hakamada, Kenichi; Kijima, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    The indication for neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has recently broadened to include its use in the treatment of initial stage breast cancer. Axillary lymph node metastasis after NAC in breast cancer is a poor prognostic factor. Thus, the prediction of lymph node metastasis is important to estimate the prognosis of breast cancer patients after NAC. Therefore, we focused on residual carcinoma patterns of primary breast tumors after NAC and examined the correlation between the patterns and lymph node metastasis. In this study, we examined 50 breast cancer specimens and associated dissected lymph nodes after NAC. We divided 40 cases into an eradicated lymph node group and a residual lymph node group to analyze residual carcinoma patterns of primary breast tumors. Residual carcinoma patterns were classified according to the cell density of carcinoma cells: dense, focal/nested and sporadic/in-situ. There were significant differences in residual carcinoma patterns (P<0.01) among the three pattern groups. There was a high incidence of dense patterns in the residual lymph node group and a high incidence of sporadic/in-situ patterns in the eradicated lymph node group. Analysis of residual carcinoma patterns of primary breast tumors and clinicopathological factors demonstrated that there were significant differences in tumor reduced ratio on CT (P<0.001), primary tumor area before NAC (P<0.01), primary tumor area after NAC (P<0.00001), intrinsic subtype (P<0.01), Ki-67 labeling index (P<0.01), histological grade (P<0.05) and mitotic count (P<0.01) between the dense and non-dense groups. Therefore, our results suggest that the residual carcinoma pattern is useful for predicting eradicated or residual lymph nodes and the malignant potential in breast cancer after NAC. PMID:26935647

  9. A new histological therapeutic classification system to predict eradicated and residual lymph nodes in breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    MOROHASHI, SATOKO; YOSHIZAWA, TADASHI; SEINO, HIROKO; HIRAI, HIDEAKI; HAGA, TOSHIHIRO; OTA, RIE; WU, YUNYAN; YOSHIDA, ERI; HAKAMADA, KENICHI; KIJIMA, HIROSHI

    2016-01-01

    The indication for neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has recently broadened to include its use in the treatment of initial stage breast cancer. Axillary lymph node metastasis after NAC in breast cancer is a poor prognostic factor. Thus, the prediction of lymph node metastasis is important to estimate the prognosis of breast cancer patients after NAC. Therefore, we focused on residual carcinoma patterns of primary breast tumors after NAC and examined the correlation between the patterns and lymph node metastasis. In this study, we examined 50 breast cancer specimens and associated dissected lymph nodes after NAC. We divided 40 cases into an eradicated lymph node group and a residual lymph node group to analyze residual carcinoma patterns of primary breast tumors. Residual carcinoma patterns were classified according to the cell density of carcinoma cells: dense, focal/nested and sporadic/in-situ. There were significant differences in residual carcinoma patterns (P<0.01) among the three pattern groups. There was a high incidence of dense patterns in the residual lymph node group and a high incidence of sporadic/in-situ patterns in the eradicated lymph node group. Analysis of residual carcinoma patterns of primary breast tumors and clinicopathological factors demonstrated that there were significant differences in tumor reduced ratio on CT (P<0.001), primary tumor area before NAC (P<0.01), primary tumor area after NAC (P<0.00001), intrinsic subtype (P<0.01), Ki-67 labeling index (P<0.01), histological grade (P<0.05) and mitotic count (P<0.01) between the dense and non-dense groups. Therefore, our results suggest that the residual carcinoma pattern is useful for predicting eradicated or residual lymph nodes and the malignant potential in breast cancer after NAC. PMID:26935647

  10. Prognostic Value of Tumor-Associated Macrophages According to Histologic Locations and Hormone Receptor Status in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gwak, Jae Moon; Jang, Min Hye; Kim, Dong Il; Seo, An Na; Park, So Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are involved in tumor progression by promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumor cell invasion, migration and angiogenesis. However, in breast cancer, the clinical relevance of the TAM infiltration according to distinct histologic locations (intratumoral vs. stromal) and hormone receptor status is unclear. We investigated the significance of the levels of TAM infiltration in distinct histologic locations in invasive breast cancer. We also examined the relationship of the TAM levels with the clinicopathologic features of tumors, expression of EMT markers, and clinical outcomes. Finally, we analyzed the prognostic value of TAM levels according to hormone receptor status. High levels of infiltration of intratumoral, stromal and total TAMs were associated with high histologic grade, p53 overexpression, high Ki-67 proliferation index and negative hormone receptor status. Infiltration of TAMs was also correlated with overexpression of vimentin, smooth muscle actin and alteration of β-catenin. Overall, a high level of infiltration of intratumoral TAMs was associated with poor disease-free survival, and was found to be an independent prognostic factor. In subgroup analyses by hormone receptor status, a high level of infiltration of intratumoral TAM was an independent prognostic factor in the hormone receptor-positive subgroup, but not in the hormone-receptor negative subgroup. Our findings suggest that intratumoral TAMs play an important role in tumor progression in breast cancer, especially in the hormone receptor-positive group, and the level of TAM infiltration may be used as a prognostic factor and even a therapeutic target in breast cancer. PMID:25884955

  11. The role of ultrasonographic findings to predict molecular subtype, histologic grade, and hormone receptor status of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Çelebi, Filiz; Pilancı, Kezban Nur; Ordu, Çetin; Ağacayak, Filiz; Alço, Gül; İlgün, Serkan; Sarsenov, Dauren; Erdoğan, Zeynep; Özmen, Vahit

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The correlation between imaging findings and pathologic characteristics of tumors may provide information for diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The aim of this study is to determine whether ultrasound features of breast cancer are associated with molecular subtype, histologic grade, and hormone receptor status, as well as assess the predictive value of these features. METHODS A total of 201 consecutive invasive breast cancer patients were reviewed from the database according to the Breast Imaging and Reporting Data System (BI-RADS). Tumor margins were classified as circumscribed and noncircumscribed. Noncircumscribed group was divided into indistinct, spiculated, angular, and microlobulated. The posterior acoustic features were divided into four categories: shadowing, enhancement, no change, and mixed pattern. RESULTS Tumors with posterior shadowing were more likely to be of nontriple negative subtype (odds ratio [OR], 7.42; 95% CI, 2.10–24.99; P = 0.002), low histologic grade (grade 1 or 2 vs. grade 3: OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.34–4.35; P = 0.003) and having at least one positive receptor (OR, 3.36; 95% CI, 1.55–7.26; P = 0.002). Tumors with circumscribed margins were more often triple-negative subtype (OR, 6.72; 95% CI, 2.56–17.65; P < 0.001), high grade (grade 3 vs. grade 1 or 2: OR, 5.42; 95% CI, 2.66–11.00; P < 0.001) and hormone receptor negative (OR, 4.87; 95% CI, 2.37–9.99; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION Sonographic features are strongly associated with molecular subtype, histologic grade, and hormone receptor status of the tumor. These findings may separate triple-negative breast cancer from other molecular subtypes. PMID:26359880

  12. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. Breast cancer kills more women in the United States ... cancer. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are a number of risk ...

  13. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Overview Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Screening Symptoms ...

  14. What Is Breast Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Types of breast cancers What is breast cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... breast cancer? ” and Non-cancerous Breast Conditions . How Breast Cancer Spreads Breast cancer can spread through the lymph ...

  15. Use of different postmenopausal hormone therapies and risk of histology- and hormone receptor-defined invasive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Agnès; Fabre, Alban; Mesrine, Sylvie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Berrino, Franco; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2008-01-01

    Purpose We previously found that the risk of invasive breast cancer varied according to the progestagen component of combined postmenopausal hormone therapy (CHT): progesterone, dydrogesterone, or other progestagens. We conducted the present study to assess how these CHTs were associated with histology- and hormone receptor-defined breast cancer. Patients and Methods We used data from the French E3N cohort study, with 80,391 postmenopausal women followed for a mean duration of 8.1 years; 2,265 histologically confirmed invasive breast cancers were identified through biennial self-administered questionnaires completed from 1990 to 2002. The relative risks (RRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results Compared with postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) never-use, ever-use of estrogen+progesterone was not significantly associated with the risk of any breast cancer subtype, but increasing duration of estrogen+progesterone was associated with increasing risks of lobular (P=.06) and estrogen receptor–positive/progesterone receptor–negative (ER+/PR−; P=.02). Estrogen+dydrogesterone was associated with a significant increase in risk of lobular carcinoma (RR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.6). Estrogen+other progestagens was associated with significant increases in risk of ductal and lobular carcinomas (RR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3 to 1.8; and 2.0; 95% CI, 1.5 to 2.7, respectively), of ER+/PR+ and ER+/PR− carcinomas (RR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.5 to 2.1; and 2.6; 95% CI, 1.9 to 3.5, respectively), but not of ER−/PR+ or ER−/PR− carcinomas (RR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.5 to 2.1; and 1.4; 95% CI, 0.9 to 2.0, respectively). Conclusion The increase in risk of breast cancer observed with the use of CHTs other than estrogen+progesterone and estrogen+dydrogesterone seems to apply preferentially to ER+ carcinomas, especially those ER+/PR−, and to affect both ductal and lobular carcinomas. PMID:18323549

  16. Predictive value of c-erbB-2, p53, cathepsin-D and histology of the primary tumour in metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Niskanen, E.; Blomqvist, C.; Franssila, K.; Hietanen, P.; Wasenius, V. M.

    1997-01-01

    The value of various prognostic factors in breast cancer patients has been determined in a number of studies. Few reports have been published on the dependence of treatment outcome on histological and immunohistochemical characteristics in the primary tumour in patients with metastatic disease. We studied the incidence and prognostic value of histological and molecular abnormalities in the primary tumour of patients who had developed metastatic breast cancer. Eligible patients received a fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (FEC) regimen either once a week or once every 4 weeks. Adequate specimens for various analyses were available from 127 patients. Median follow-up time of the patients ranged from 15 to 101 months. In this study, the histological grade of the malignancy best predicted response to chemotherapy (P < 0.0005). Most of the responses were observed in patients with grade 1 tumours; in this group, time to progression was delayed. C-erb B-2 gene amplification and oncoprotein expression had no predictive value. Neither p53 nor cathepsin-D predicted treatment outcome after chemotherapy. None of the factors had an effect on overall survival. Among breast cancer patients who received anthracycline-containing chemotherapy, response to treatment correlated with histological grade. In patients with histological grade 1 breast cancer, the time to progression was longest. However, overall survival was not affected by histological grade nor the other parameters tested. In addition to histological grade, other prognostic factors that are not included in this study need to be identified to determine which patients with metastatic breast cancer would benefit from cytotoxic treatment. PMID:9328152

  17. Breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of targeted therapy. It blocks certain hormones that fuel cancer growth. Cancer treatment can be local or ... breast cancer should not drink alcohol at all) Alternative Names Cancer - breast; Carcinoma - ductal; Carcinoma - lobular; DCIS; ...

  18. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... I found something when I did my breast self-exam. What should I do now? How often should I have mammograms? I have breast cancer. What are my treatment options? How often should I do breast self-exams? I have breast cancer. Is my daughter ...

  19. Breast cancer and primary systemic therapy. Results of the Consensus Meeting on the recommendations for pathological examination and histological report of breast cancer specimens in the Marche Region.

    PubMed

    Santinelli, A; De Nictolis, M; Mambelli, V; Ranaldi, R; Bearzi, I; Battellpi, N; Mariotti, C; Fabbietti, L; Baldassarre, S; Giuseppetti, G M; Fabris, G

    2011-10-01

    Primary systemic therapy (PST) adds some practical problems to the pathologic examination of neoplastic breast tissue obtained from patients before and after chemotherapy. Pathologists, oncologists, breast surgeons, radiotherapists and radiologists in the Marche Region held a Consensus Meeting in Ancona on May 13, 2010, in which 15 statements dealing with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were approved by all participants. The first two statements are related to the pre-PST phase and concern the technical procedures and the histological report of the core biopsy. The other statements deal with similar issues of the post-PST surgical specimen. PMID:22393685

  20. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  1. Breast Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  2. Types of Breast Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... the key statistics about breast cancer? Types of breast cancers Breast cancer can be separated into different types ... than invasive ductal carcinoma. Less common types of breast cancer Inflammatory breast cancer This uncommon type of invasive ...

  3. Breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2016-08-17

    Essential facts Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the UK, with around 60,000 new cases diagnosed each year, according to the charity Breast Cancer Care. Over a lifetime, women have a one in eight risk of developing it. PMID:27533387

  4. Comparative Study of the One-step Nucleic Acid Amplification Assay and Conventional Histological Examination for the Detection of Breast Cancer Sentinel Lymph Node Metastases.

    PubMed

    Terada, Mizuho; Niikura, Naoki; Tsuda, Banri; Masuda, Shinobu; Kumaki, Nobue; Tang, Xiaoyan; Okamura, Takuho; Saito, Yuki; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Tokuda, Yutaka

    2014-09-01

    Intraoperative sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is widely used in patients with early-stage breast cancer and is conventionally performed using hematoxylin and eosin-based histological examination. The one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay is a molecular diagnostic tool and a semi-automated lymph node examination method. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of the OSNA assay and conventional histological examination with frozen sections (FSs) by using 111 SLN biopsy samples from 89 patients at the Tokai University Hospital. The SLN samples were split into 3 slices: the middle slice was used for FS histological examination and the other slices were used for the OSNA assay. The McNemar test was used to compare the differences in the sensitivity and specificity between the OSNA assay and FS histological examination. The sensitivity of the OSNA assay (97.1%) was less than that of FS histological examination (100%), but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.125). The specificity of both the methods was identical (96.9%). Despite previously published results suggesting that the OSNA assay is as reliable as histological examinations, our results indicate that this assay often fails to detect micrometastases or isolated tumor cells in SLNs. PMID:25248427

  5. Evaluation of breast cancer using intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) histogram analysis: comparison with malignant status, histological subtype, and molecular prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Gene Young; Moy, Linda; Kim, Sungheon G.; Baete, Steven H.; Moccaldi, Melanie; Babb, James S.; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Sigmund, Eric E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine heterogeneous breast cancer through intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) histogram analysis. Materials and methods This HIPAA-compliant, IRB-approved retrospective study included 62 patients (age 48.44±11.14 years, 50 malignant lesions and 12 benign) who underwent contrast-enhanced 3 T breast MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and IVIM biomarkers of tissue diffusivity (Dt), perfusion fraction (fp), and pseudo-diffusivity (Dp) were calculated using voxel-based analysis for the whole lesion volume. Histogram analysis was performed to quantify tumour heterogeneity. Comparisons were made using Mann–Whitney tests between benign/malignant status, histological subtype, and molecular prognostic factor status while Spearman’s rank correlation was used to characterize the association between imaging biomarkers and prognostic factor expression. Results The average values of the ADC and IVIM biomarkers, Dt and fp, showed significant differences between benign and malignant lesions. Additional significant differences were found in the histogram parameters among tumour subtypes and molecular prognostic factor status. IVIM histogram metrics, particularly fp and Dp, showed significant correlation with hormonal factor expression. Conclusion Advanced diffusion imaging biomarkers show relationships with molecular prognostic factors and breast cancer malignancy. This analysis reveals novel diagnostic metrics that may explain some of the observed variability in treatment response among breast cancer patients. PMID:26615557

  6. Breast Cancer Overview

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    ... Breast Cancer - Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Breast Cancer - Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. About breast cancer Cancer begins when healthy cells in the breast ...

  7. Breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... chance that you could develop breast cancer: Some risk factors you can control, such as drinking alcohol. Others, such as family history, you cannot control. The more risk factors you have, the more your risk increases. ...

  8. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) Surgery for breast cancer Most women with breast cancer have some type ... Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main types of surgery to ...

  9. Learning about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  10. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

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    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  11. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

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    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth ...

  12. Signatures of post-zygotic structural genetic aberrations in the cells of histologically normal breast tissue that can predispose to sporadic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Lars A; Rasi, Chiara; Pekar, Gyula; Davies, Hanna; Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Absher, Devin; Razzaghian, Hamid Reza; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Halaszka, Krzysztof; Przewoźnik, Marcin; Kruczak, Anna; Mandava, Geeta; Pasupulati, Saichand; Hacker, Julia; Prakash, K Reddy; Dasari, Ravi Chandra; Lau, Joey; Penagos-Tafurt, Nelly; Olofsson, Helena M; Hallberg, Gunilla; Skotnicki, Piotr; Mituś, Jerzy; Skokowski, Jaroslaw; Jankowski, Michal; Śrutek, Ewa; Zegarski, Wojciech; Tiensuu Janson, Eva; Ryś, Janusz; Tot, Tibor; Dumanski, Jan P

    2015-10-01

    Sporadic breast cancer (SBC) is a common disease without robust means of early risk prediction in the population. We studied 282 females with SBC, focusing on copy number aberrations in cancer-free breast tissue (uninvolved margin, UM) outside the primary tumor (PT). In total, 1162 UMs (1-14 per breast) were studied. Comparative analysis between UM(s), PT(s), and blood/skin from the same patient as a control is the core of the study design. We identified 108 patients with at least one aberrant UM, representing 38.3% of cases. Gains in gene copy number were the principal type of mutations in microscopically normal breast cells, suggesting that oncogenic activation of genes via increased gene copy number is a predominant mechanism for initiation of SBC pathogenesis. The gain of ERBB2, with overexpression of HER2 protein, was the most common aberration in normal cells. Five additional growth factor receptor genes (EGFR, FGFR1, IGF1R, LIFR, and NGFR) also showed recurrent gains, and these were occasionally present in combination with the gain of ERBB2. All the aberrations found in the normal breast cells were previously described in cancer literature, suggesting their causative, driving role in pathogenesis of SBC. We demonstrate that analysis of normal cells from cancer patients leads to identification of signatures that may increase risk of SBC and our results could influence the choice of surgical intervention to remove all predisposing cells. Early detection of copy number gains suggesting a predisposition toward cancer development, long before detectable tumors are formed, is a key to the anticipated shift into a preventive paradigm of personalized medicine for breast cancer. PMID:26430163

  13. Signatures of post-zygotic structural genetic aberrations in the cells of histologically normal breast tissue that can predispose to sporadic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Forsberg, Lars A.; Rasi, Chiara; Pekar, Gyula; Davies, Hanna; Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Absher, Devin; Razzaghian, Hamid Reza; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Halaszka, Krzysztof; Przewoźnik, Marcin; Kruczak, Anna; Mandava, Geeta; Pasupulati, Saichand; Hacker, Julia; Prakash, K. Reddy; Dasari, Ravi Chandra; Lau, Joey; Penagos-Tafurt, Nelly; Olofsson, Helena M.; Hallberg, Gunilla; Skotnicki, Piotr; Mituś, Jerzy; Skokowski, Jaroslaw; Jankowski, Michal; Śrutek, Ewa; Zegarski, Wojciech; Tiensuu Janson, Eva; Ryś, Janusz; Tot, Tibor; Dumanski, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic breast cancer (SBC) is a common disease without robust means of early risk prediction in the population. We studied 282 females with SBC, focusing on copy number aberrations in cancer-free breast tissue (uninvolved margin, UM) outside the primary tumor (PT). In total, 1162 UMs (1–14 per breast) were studied. Comparative analysis between UM(s), PT(s), and blood/skin from the same patient as a control is the core of the study design. We identified 108 patients with at least one aberrant UM, representing 38.3% of cases. Gains in gene copy number were the principal type of mutations in microscopically normal breast cells, suggesting that oncogenic activation of genes via increased gene copy number is a predominant mechanism for initiation of SBC pathogenesis. The gain of ERBB2, with overexpression of HER2 protein, was the most common aberration in normal cells. Five additional growth factor receptor genes (EGFR, FGFR1, IGF1R, LIFR, and NGFR) also showed recurrent gains, and these were occasionally present in combination with the gain of ERBB2. All the aberrations found in the normal breast cells were previously described in cancer literature, suggesting their causative, driving role in pathogenesis of SBC. We demonstrate that analysis of normal cells from cancer patients leads to identification of signatures that may increase risk of SBC and our results could influence the choice of surgical intervention to remove all predisposing cells. Early detection of copy number gains suggesting a predisposition toward cancer development, long before detectable tumors are formed, is a key to the anticipated shift into a preventive paradigm of personalized medicine for breast cancer. PMID:26430163

  14. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  15. Synchronous Bilateral Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Subramanyan, Annapurneswari; Radhakrishna, Selvi

    2015-01-01

    Background Bilateral breast cancer (BBC) is not an uncommon entity in contemporary breast clinics. Improved life expectancy after breast cancer treatment and routine use of contra-lateral breast mammography has led to increased incidence of BBC. Our study objective was to define the epidemiological and tumour characteristics of BBC in India. Materials and Methods A total of 1251 breast cancer patients were treated during the period January 2007 to March 2015 and 30 patients were found to have BBC who constituted the study population (60 tumour samples). Synchronous bilateral breast cancers (SBC) was defined as two tumours diagnosed within an interval of 6 months and a second cancer diagnosed after 6 months was labelled as metachronous breast cancer (MBC). Analyses of patient and tumour characteristics were done in this prospective data base of BBC patients. Results Median patient age was 66 years (range 39-85). Majority of the patients had SBC (n=28) and in 12 patients the second tumour was clinically occult and detected only by mammography of the contra-lateral breast. The second tumour was found at lower tumour size compared to the first in 73% of cases and was negative for axillary metastasis in 80% of cases (24/30). Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the commonest histological type (n=51) and majority of the tumours were ER/PR positive (50/60). Her2 was overexpressed in 13 tumours (21%). Over 70% (22/30) of patients had similar histology in both breasts and amongst them grade concordance was present in about 69% (15/22) of patients. Concordance rates of ER, PR and Her2 statuses were 83%, 80% and 90% respectively. Bilateral mastectomy was the commonest surgery performed in 80% of the patients followed by bilateral breast conservation in 13%. At the end of study period, 26 patients were alive and disease free. Median survival was 29 months (range 3-86 months). Conclusion In most patients with BBC, the second tumour is identified at an early stage than index

  16. Breast Cancer -- Male

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Overview Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  17. Discordance of Intraoperative Frozen Section Analysis with Definitive Histology of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer Surgery: Complementary Axillary Lymph Node Dissection is Irrelevant for Subsequent Systemic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Geertsema, D.; Gobardhan, P. D.; Madsen, E. V. E.; Albregts, M.; van Gorp, J.; de Hooge, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background In breast cancer surgery, intraoperative frozen section (FS) analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) enables axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) during the same operative procedure. In case of discordance between a “negative” FS analysis and definitive histology, an ALND as a second operation is advocated since additional lymph node metastases may be present. The clinical implications of the subsequent ALND in these patients were evaluated. Materials and Methods Between November 2000 and May 2008, 879 consecutive breast cancer patients underwent surgery including sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) with intraoperative FS analysis of 2 central cuts from axillary SLNs. Following fixation and serial sectioning, SLNs were further examined postoperatively with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical techniques. For patients with a discordant FS examination, the effect of the pathology findings of the subsequent ALND specimen on subsequent nonsurgical therapy were evaluated. Results FS analysis detected axillary metastases in the SLN(s) in 200 patients (23%), while the definitive pathology examination detected metastases in SLNs in another 151 patients (17%). A complementary ALND was performed in 108 of the 151 patients with discordant FS. Additional tumor positive axillary lymph nodes were found in 17 patients (16%), leading to “upstaging” in 7 (6%). Subsequent nonsurgical treatment was adjusted in 4 patients (4%): all 4 had more extensive locoregional radiotherapy; no patient received additional hormonal and/or chemotherapy. Conclusion Discordance between intraoperative FS analysis and definitive histology of SLNs is common. In this selection of patients, a substantial proportion had additional lymph node metastases, but postsurgical treatment was rarely adjusted based on the findings of the complementary ALND. PMID:20422461

  18. Breast cancer screenings

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000837.htm Breast cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast cancer screenings can help find breast cancer early, before ...

  19. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Breast Cancer KidsHealth > For Kids > Breast Cancer Print A A ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...

  20. Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  1. Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men ... usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. Other breast symptoms can include Dimpled ...

  2. Histological grade and steroid receptor content of primary breast cancer--impact on prognosis and possible modes of action.

    PubMed Central

    Kamby, C.; Andersen, J.; Ejlertsen, B.; Birkler, N. E.; Rytter, L.; Zedeler, K.; Thorpe, S. M.; Nørgaard, T.; Rose, C.

    1988-01-01

    The clinical course of breast cancer was related to degree of anaplasia (DA) and steroid receptor (SR) content of primary tumours in 743 patients (pts) with clinical recurrence, initially enrolled in the DBCG-77 protocols. The oestrogen receptor (ER) and the progesterone receptor (PgR) content was known in 110 and 67 pts. The recurrence-free interval, survival after recurrence, and the overall survival were all prolonged in patients with well differentiated tumours or with high SR content. The tumour growth rates were estimated as clinical rates of progression (i.e., the time elapsed from a single distant metastasis until dissemination). The progression rate was prolonged in relatively well differentiated as well as in receptor rich tumours. The extent of dissemination, as indicated by the number of metastatic sites, was not associated with either DA or SR content. However, the anatomical distribution of metastases varied with both DA and SR content: signs of poor prognosis (high DA or low SR content) were associated with occurrence of visceral metastases. In contrast, SR rich tumours had a propensity for recurrence in bone. The results suggest that the impact on prognosis of the features examined here includes both variations in growth rate and metastatic pattern. PMID:3207602

  3. [Breast cancer imaging].

    PubMed

    Canale, Sandra; Balleyguier, Corinne; Dromain, Clarisse

    2013-12-01

    Imaging of breast cancer is multimodal. Mammography uses X-rays, the development of digital mammography has improved its quality and enabled implementations of new technologies such astomosynthesis (3D mammography) or contrast-enhanced digital mammography. Ultrasound is added to mammography when there is need to improve detection in high-density breast, to characterize an image, or guide apuncture or biopsy. Breast MRI is the most sensitive imaging modality. It detects a possible tumor angiogenesis by highlighting an early and intense contrast uptake. This method has an excellent negative predictive value, but its lack of specificity (false positives) can be problematic, thus it has to be prescribed according to published standards. An imaging breast screening report must be concluded by the BI-RADS lexicon classification of the ACR and recommendations about monitoring or histological verification. PMID:24579332

  4. Application of multiplex PCR with histopathologic features for detection of familial breast cancer in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded histologic specimens.

    PubMed

    Rassi, H; Houshmand, M; Hashemi, M; Majidzadeh, K; Akbari, M H Hosseini; Panahi, M Shafa Shariat

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females in the world. Age and familial history are the major risk factors for the development of this disease in Iran. Mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with a greatly increased risk for development of familial breast cancer. Frequency of BRCA mutations was identified in familial breast cancers (FBC) and non-familial breast cancers (NFBC) by molecular genetics, morphological and Immunohistochemical methods. Thirty forth formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast tissue tumors were analyzed from 16 patients with FBC and 18 patients with NFBC. Three 5382insC mutations detected by multiplex PCR in 16 familial breast cancers. Immunohistochemical method was used to detect estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterona receptor (PR) and TP53. Comparison of ER, PR and TP53 exhibited high difference (P < 0.0001) in familial breast cancers and non-familial breast cancers. Our results demonstrated that 5382insC mutation, ER, PR, TP53, mitotic activity, polymorphism, necrosis and tubules can serve as the major risk factors for the development of FBC. PMID:18630122

  5. General Information about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  6. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer - Treatment Options Request Permissions Print to PDF Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  7. Breast Cancer Disparities

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  8. Breast cancer in men

    MedlinePlus

    ... in situ-male; Intraductal carcinoma-male; Inflammatory breast cancer-male; Paget disease of the nipple-male; Breast cancer-male ... The cause of breast cancer is not clear. But there are risk ... breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to radiation Higher ...

  9. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer On This Page What are hormones? How do ... sensitive breast cancer: Adjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer : Research has shown that women treated for early- ...

  10. Differences in fluorescence profiles from breast cancer tissues due to changes in relative tryptophan content via energy transfer: tryptophan content correlates with histologic grade and tumor size but not with lymph node metastases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordillo, Laura A.; Sordillo, Peter P.; Budansky, Yury; Pu, Yang; Alfano, Robert R.

    2014-12-01

    The correlation between histologic grade, an increasingly important measure of prognosis for patients with breast cancer, and tryptophan levels from tissues of 15 breast carcinoma patients was investigated. Changes in the relative content of key native organic biomolecule tryptophan were seen from the fluorescence spectra of cancerous and paired normal tissues with excitation wavelengths of 280 and 300 nm. Due to a large spectral overlap and matching excitation-emission spectra, fluorescence resonance energy transfer from tryptophan-donor to reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides-acceptor was noted. We used the ratios of fluorescence intensities at their spectral emission peaks, or spectral fingerprint peaks, at 340, 440, and 460 nm. Higher ratios correlated strongly with high histologic grade, while lower-grade tumors had low ratios. Large tumor size also correlated with high ratios, while the number of lymph node metastases, a major factor in staging, was not correlated with tryptophan levels. High histologic grade correlates strongly with increased content of tryptophan in breast cancer tissues and suggests that measurement of tryptophan content may be useful as a part of the evaluation of these patients.

  11. [Male breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Mattson, Johanna; Vehmanen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is rare in men. Diagnosis of the illness may be delayed due to the fact that the doctor and the patient fail to suspect it. Male breast cancer is treated mainly on the same principles as female breast cancer. A man affected with breast cancer should always be directed to genetic testing, as inherited mutations increasing the risk of developing cancer are more common than in female breast cancer. Most breast cancers in men are hormone receptor positive. Among hormone treatments, the antiestrogen tamoxifen exhibits the best efficacy both in early-state and advanced cases. PMID:27188086

  12. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  13. GATA3 immunohistochemistry expression in histologic subtypes of primary breast carcinoma and metastatic breast carcinoma cytology.

    PubMed

    Deftereos, Georgios; Sanguino Ramirez, Angela M; Silverman, Jan F; Krishnamurti, Uma

    2015-09-01

    GATA3 plays a role in cell proliferation and differentiation in many tissues, including breast, and it has been suggested that GATA3 expression correlates with ER expression. However, little is known on GATA3 expression in various subtypes of breast carcinoma, its utilization in cytology, and on how GATA3 performs in comparison with GCDFP-15 and mammaglobin. Eighty-four histology cases of breast carcinoma of various subtypes, including 28 triple-negative breast carcinomas, along with 20 cytology cases of metastatic breast carcinoma and 12 cytology cases of ER-positive metastatic gynecologic malignancies, were stained for GATA3, GCDFP-15, and mammaglobin. In non-triple-negative breast carcinomas (n=56), GATA3 showed 100% sensitivity, higher than GCDFP-15 (42.8%; P<0.0001) and mammaglobin (58.9%; P<0.0001), whereas staining patterns were similar for all the histologic subtypes examined. Staining scores were determined by multiplying the percentage of cancer cells staining with an intensity score of 1+, 2+, or 3+ (range, 0 to 300). In non-triple-negative carcinomas, GATA3 showed a mean score of 273.7, higher than GCDFP-15 (107.5; P<0.0001) and mammaglobin (147.7; P<0.0001). In triple-negative breast carcinomas (n=28), GATA3 showed a sensitivity of 60.7%, greater than GCDFP-15 (17.9%; P=0.0022) and mammaglobin (7.1%; P<0.0001). These results were consistent irrespective of the subtype examined. In breast carcinoma cytology cases, 100% stained with GATA3, higher than GCDFP-15 (20%; P<0.0001) and mammaglobin (45%; P<0.0001). None of the metastatic endometrial or ovarian carcinomas were positive for GATA3. Although GATA3 expression correlates with ER expression in breast, no correlation is observed in gynecologic malignancies. Thus, in working up ER-positive metastatic malignancies GATA3 demonstrates specificity for breast. PMID:26274030

  14. Breast cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  15. Stages of Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat breast cancer. Internal radiation therapy with strontium-89 (a radionuclide ) is used to relieve bone pain ... breast cancer that has spread to the bones. Strontium-89 is injected into a vein and travels to ...

  16. Breast Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat breast cancer. Internal radiation therapy with strontium-89 (a radionuclide ) is used to relieve bone pain ... breast cancer that has spread to the bones. Strontium-89 is injected into a vein and travels to ...

  17. Breast cancer in men

    MedlinePlus

    ... Johnson KC, Olsson H, Casagrande JT, et al. Anthropometric and hormonal risk factors for male breast cancer: ... D, Ferlay J, Brinton LA, Cook MB. An international comparison of male and female breast cancer incidence ...

  18. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  19. Reproducibility of histologic classification of gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Palli, D.; Bianchi, S.; Cipriani, F.; Duca, P.; Amorosi, A.; Avellini, C.; Russo, A.; Saragoni, A.; Todde, P.; Valdes, E.

    1991-01-01

    A panel review of histologic specimens was carried out as part of a multi-centre case-control study of gastric cancer (GC) and diet. Comparisons of diagnoses of 100 GCs by six pathologists revealed agreement in histologic classification for about 70-80% of the cancers. Concordance was somewhat higher when using the Lauren rather than the Ming or World Health Organization classification systems. Histologic types from reading biopsy tissue agreed with those derived from surgical specimens for 65-75% of the 100 tumours. Intra-observer agreement in histologic classification, assessed by repeat readings up to 3 years apart by one pathologist, was 95%. The findings indicate that, although overall concordance was good, it is important to standardise diagnoses in multi-centre epidemiologic studies of GC by histologic type. PMID:2039701

  20. Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the chance of dying from breast cancer. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) in women with a high risk of breast ... the body. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). MRI does not use any x-rays. ...

  1. Living as a Breast Cancer Survivor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emotional aspects of breast cancer Living as a breast cancer survivor For many women with breast cancer, treatment ... making some new choices. Follow-up care after breast cancer treatment Even after you have completed breast cancer ...

  2. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions breast cancer breast cancer Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in ...

  4. Mucocele-like lesions of the breast: a clinical outcome and histologic analysis of 102 cases.

    PubMed

    Meares, Annie L; Frank, Ryan D; Degnim, Amy C; Vierkant, Robert A; Frost, Marlene H; Hartmann, Lynn C; Winham, Stacey J; Visscher, Daniel W

    2016-03-01

    Mucocele-like lesions (MLLs) of the breast are characterized by cystic architecture with stromal mucin and frequent atypia, but it is unknown whether they convey long-term breast cancer risk. We evaluated 102 MLLs that were derived from a single-institution benign breast disease cohort of 13412 women who underwent biopsy from 1967 to 2001. MLLs were histologically characterized by type of lining epithelium, architecture of the lesion, associated atypical hyperplasia (AH), and incidence of breast cancer (14.8-year median follow-up). A relatively large proportion of MLLs (42%) were diagnosed in women older than 55 years. AH was significantly more frequent in MLL patient compared to the cohort overall (27% versus 5%; P < .001). Breast cancer has developed in 13 patients with MLL. This frequency is only slightly higher than population expected rates overall (standardized incidence ratio, 2.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-3.91) and not significantly different from women in the cohort with (nonatypical) proliferative breast lesions. Younger women (<45) with MLL had a nonsignificant increase in risk of cancer compared to the general population (standardized incidence ratio, 5.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.41-13.23). We conclude that MLL is an uncommon breast lesion that is often associated with coexisting AH. However, in women older than 45 years, MLLs do not convey additional risk of breast cancer beyond that associated with the presence of proliferative disease. PMID:26826407

  5. Chemoprevention of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Files, Julia A; Stan, Daniela L; Allen, Summer V; Pruthi, Sandhya

    2012-11-01

    The development of pharmacologic agents for the prevention of breast cancer is a significant milestone in medical and laboratory research. Despite these advances, the endorsement of preventive options has become challenging and complex, as physicians are expected to counsel and tailor their recommendations using a personalized approach taking into account medical comorbidities, degree of risk and patient preferences. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the major breast cancer prevention trials, review of the pharmacologic options available for breast cancer prevention, and strategies for integrating chemoprevention of breast cancer in high-risk women into clinical practice. PMID:23181529

  6. Recurrent thyroid cancer with changing histologic features

    PubMed Central

    Konduri, Kartik; Harshman, Leeanne K.; Welch, Brian J.; O'Brien, John C.

    2010-01-01

    We present the case of a 57-year-old woman diagnosed with breast cancer and a thyroid mass that was suspicious for cancer. The breast cancer was estrogen and progesterone receptor negative, HER2/neu borderline, with a high proliferative index. Treatment of this cancer took precedence. Nine months later, a total thyroidectomy was done for papillary thyroid cancer with metastases to 2 of 8 perithyroid lymph nodes. Postoperative radioactive iodine ablation was given. Recurrent thyroid disease was found in the right neck 1 year later and was resected; no radioactive iodine was given at that time. After 2½ years, the cancer recurred as a more highly aggressive, undifferentiated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Treatment is discussed. PMID:21240322

  7. Grading Breast Cancer Tissues Using Molecular Portraits*

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Niclas; Carlsson, Petter; James, Peter; Hansson, Karin; Waldemarson, Sofia; Malmström, Per; Fernö, Mårten; Ryden, Lisa; Wingren, Christer; Borrebaeck, Carl A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor progression and prognosis in breast cancer patients are difficult to assess using current clinical and laboratory parameters, where a pathological grading is indicative of tumor aggressiveness. This grading is based on assessments of nuclear grade, tubule formation, and mitotic rate. We report here the first protein signatures associated with histological grades of breast cancer, determined using a novel affinity proteomics approach. We profiled 52 breast cancer tissue samples by combining nine antibodies and label-free LC-MS/MS, which generated detailed quantified proteomic maps representing 1,388 proteins. The results showed that we could define in-depth molecular portraits of histologically graded breast cancer tumors. Consequently, a 49-plex candidate tissue protein signature was defined that discriminated between histological grades 1, 2, and 3 of breast cancer tumors with high accuracy. Highly biologically relevant proteins were identified, and the differentially expressed proteins indicated further support for the current hypothesis regarding remodeling of the tumor microenvironment during tumor progression. The protein signature was corroborated using meta-analysis of transcriptional profiling data from an independent patient cohort. In addition, the potential for using the markers to estimate the likelihood of long-term metastasis-free survival was also indicated. Taken together, these molecular portraits could pave the way for improved classification and prognostication of breast cancer. PMID:23982162

  8. Carboplatin and Eribulin Mesylate in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-30

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  9. PCNA immunostaining in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cummings, M C; Furnival, C M; Parsons, P G; Townsend, E

    1993-08-01

    Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) has been shown to be of prognostic value in patients with certain types of cancer. The aim of this study was to determine if the abundance of PCNA is inversely correlated with survival of patients with breast cancer. Paraffin blocks were available from 68 patients, all of whom had been followed clinically for at least 5 years. Sections from 20 patients showed no reactivity to PCNA and were excluded from the study because it was not possible to distinguish between true negatives and false negatives (those due to poor fixation of the original specimens). The PCNA index (the number of stained cancer cells as a percentage of the total number of cancer cells present) was calculated for the remaining 48 patients. Results were analysed by Wilcoxon's rank sum test (two tailed) and Pearson's correlation coefficient. There was no statistical difference between the PCNA indices of those patients dead from their disease within 5 years of diagnosis compared with those alive and without signs of breast cancer at 5 years. There was also no correlation between PCNA index and size of the cancer, involvement of axillary lymph nodes, time to recurrence or time to death. There was, however, a significant correlation between PCNA index and histological grade (P = 0.029). It appears that PCNA staining of stored paraffin sections is of little prognostic value in patients with breast cancer. PMID:8101708

  10. BREAST CANCER AND EXERCISE

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2008-03-19

    Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

  11. Breast Cancer in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... This may result in a delay in diagnosis. Survival is highest when breast cancer is found early. If you notice any of ... chest or nipple, see a doctor right away. Survival rates are similar for men and women when breast cancer is found at the same stage. A man’s ...

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  13. MYC and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jinhua; Chen, Yinghua; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.

    2010-01-01

    MYC is a key regulator of cell growth, proliferation, metabolism, differentiation, and apoptosis. MYC deregulation contributes to breast cancer development and progression and is associated with poor outcomes. Multiple mechanisms are involved in MYC deregulation in breast cancer, including gene amplification, transcriptional regulation, and mRNA and protein stabilization, which correlate with loss of tumor suppressors and activation of oncogenic pathways. The heterogeneity in breast cancer is increasingly recognized. Breast cancer has been classified into 5 or more subtypes based on gene expression profiles, and each subtype has distinct biological features and clinical outcomes. Among these subtypes, basal-like tumor is associated with a poor prognosis and has a lack of therapeutic targets. MYC is overexpressed in the basal-like subtype and may serve as a target for this aggressive subtype of breast cancer. Tumor suppressor BRCA1 inhibits MYC’s transcriptional and transforming activity. Loss of BRCA1 with MYC overexpression leads to the development of breast cancer—especially, basal-like breast cancer. As a downstream effector of estrogen receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor family pathways, MYC may contribute to resistance to adjuvant therapy. Targeting MYC-regulated pathways in combination with inhibitors of other oncogenic pathways may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for breast cancer, the basal-like subtype in particular. PMID:21779462

  14. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  15. The histological diagnosis of metastases to the breast from extramammary malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Andrew H S

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to review histological and immunohistochemical features that are useful in the diagnosis of metastases to the breast. Histological features were compared between non‐haematological metastases to the breast and 100 consecutive core biopsy specimens of primary invasive carcinomas of the breast. 18 non‐haematological metastases to the breast were diagnosed over a 10‐year period (0.3% of malignant mammary tumours). Elastosis and carcinoma in situ were seen only in primary mammary cancers. Two‐thirds of tumours had features raising the possibility of metastasis, such as clear cell carcinoma suggestive of renal origin and small cell carcinoma suggestive of pulmonary origin. The features observed in haematological metastases are also described. Immunohistochemical panels to distinguish mammary carcinoma (oestrogen receptor, gross cystic fluid protein‐15) from common metastases to the breast, including carcinoma of the lung (thyroid transcription factor‐1), malignant melanoma (S100, HMB45, melan‐A) and ovarian serous papillary carcinoma (Wilms' tumour 1), are discussed. The pathologist has a key role in considering the diagnosis of metastasis to the breast if the histological features are unusual for a primary mammary tumour. The clinical history is vital in some cases. Immunohistochemistry plays a useful supplementary role. PMID:18042689

  16. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone levels normally change throughout ... the development of breast cancer. Important Information about Breast Cancer Risk Factors At present, the factors known to ...

  17. Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Finding Breast Cancer Early Can Save Lives Disabilities & Breast Cancer Screening ...

  18. Combined magnetic resonance, fluorescence, and histology imaging strategy in a human breast tumor xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lu; Greenwood, Tiffany R.; Amstalden van Hove, Erika R.; Chughtai, Kamila; Raman, Venu; Winnard, Paul T.; Heeren, Ron; Artemov, Dmitri; Glunde, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Applications of molecular imaging in cancer and other diseases frequently require combining in vivo imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance and optical imaging, with ex vivo optical, fluorescence, histology, and immunohistochemical (IHC) imaging, to investigate and relate molecular and biological processes to imaging parameters within the same region of interest. We have developed a multimodal image reconstruction and fusion framework that accurately combines in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), ex vivo brightfield and fluorescence microscopic imaging, and ex vivo histology imaging. Ex vivo brightfield microscopic imaging was used as an intermediate modality to facilitate the ultimate link between ex vivo histology and in vivo MRI/MRSI. Tissue sectioning necessary for optical and histology imaging required generation of a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction module for 2D ex vivo optical and histology imaging data. We developed an external fiducial marker based 3D reconstruction method, which was able to fuse optical brightfield and fluorescence with histology imaging data. Registration of 3D tumor shape was pursued to combine in vivo MRI/MRSI and ex vivo optical brightfield and fluorescence imaging data. This registration strategy was applied to in vivo MRI/MRSI, ex vivo optical brightfield/fluorescence, as well as histology imaging data sets obtained from human breast tumor models. 3D human breast tumor data sets were successfully reconstructed and fused with this platform. PMID:22945331

  19. Pregnancy After Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gemignani; Petrek

    1999-05-01

    BACKGROUND: The issue of pregnancy following the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer is important because the incidence of breast cancer is increasing in women of childbearing age. The fact that many women are delaying childbearing, whether for educational, professional, or personal reasons, increases the number of women who will undergo breast cancer treatment before completing childbearing. METHODS: Data on pregnancy in breast cancer survivors are limited and consist only of retrospective data. This paper reviews the published literature on the influence of subsequent pregnancy on breast cancer, including three recent large-scale population-based studies. RESULTS: The survival of women with breast carcinoma who subsequently become pregnant is not reported to be decreased in any of the published series. However, several biases may be present that justify the concern regarding the conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: Further research on the safety of subsequent pregnancy after breast carcinoma treatment is needed. To address these issues, patients are currently being accrued for a large, prospective, multicenter study of young breast carcinoma patients. PMID:10758557

  20. Methylxanthines and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Schairer, C; Brinton, L A; Hoover, R N

    1987-10-15

    We investigated the relationship between methylxanthine consumption and breast cancer using data from a case-control study which included 1,510 cases and 1,882 controls identified through a nation-wide breast cancer screening program. There was no evidence of a positive association between methylxanthine consumption and risk of breast cancer. In fact, there was some suggestion of a negative association, particularly in women diagnosed after age 50. In addition, there was no evidence of increased risk with past or recent methylxanthine consumption, or with the consumption of caffeine or specific beverages, most notably brewed or instant caffeinated coffee and tea. PMID:3117709

  1. Targeting Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Mu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer-associated deaths. Despite the significant improvement in current therapies in extending patient life, 30–40% of patients may eventually suffer from distant relapse and succumb to the disease. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the metastasis biology is key to developing better treatment strategies and achieving long-lasting therapeutic efficacies against breast cancer. This review covers recent breakthroughs in the discovery of various metastatic traits that contribute to the metastasis cascade of breast cancer, which may provide novel avenues for therapeutic targeting. PMID:26380552

  2. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved to Prevent Breast Cancer Evista (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Keoxifene (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Nolvadex (Tamoxifen ...

  3. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Campaign Initiatives Participation in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah's family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  4. Pregnancy and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sasidharan, R; Harvey, V

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies during pregnancy. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) presents a challenging clinical situation. This article reviews the current evidence around the management of PABC and the safety of pregnancy after breast cancer. The trend towards later age at first childbirth has resulted in an increase in the number of breast cancer cases coexistent with pregnancy. The management of breast cancer during pregnancy requires a multidisciplinary team approach. Breast surgery can be safely performed during any trimester of pregnancy. Radiation therapy, if required, must be delayed until after delivery. The majority of patients with PABC require chemotherapy. The timing of delivery in relation to chemotherapy administration should be carefully considered. There is no evidence to date that pregnancy termination influences overall survival for the mother. To date, there is no clear evidence that subsequent pregnancy after breast cancer is associated with worse maternal survival. There is a suggestion that subsequent pregnancy may in fact be associated with an improved survival. However, the available studies are limited by potential biases.

  5. Potential clinical relevance of uPA and PAI-1 levels in node-negative, postmenopausal breast cancer patients bearing histological grade II tumors with ER/PR expression, during an early follow-up.

    PubMed

    Buta, Marko; Džodić, Radan; Đurišić, Igor; Marković, Ivan; Vujasinović, Tijana; Markićević, Milan; Nikolić-Vukosavljević, Dragica

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) prognostic value in postmenopausal, node-negative breast cancer patients bearing tumors with estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) expression, treated with locoregional therapy alone, within an early follow-up. We focused our analysis on tumors of histological grade II in order to improve its prognostic value and, consequently, to improve a decision-making process. The cytosol extracts of 73 tumor samples were used for assessing several biomarkers. ER and PR levels were measured by classical biochemical method. Cathepsin D was assayed by a radiometric immunoassay while both uPA and PAI-1 level determinations were performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. HER-2 gene amplification was determined by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) in primary tumor tissue. Patients bearing tumors smaller than or equal to 2 cm (pT1) or those with low PAI-1 levels (PAI-1 < 6.35 pg/mg) showed favorable outcome compared to patients bearing tumors greater than 2 cm (pT2,3) or those with high PAI-1 levels, respectively. Analyses of 4 phenotypes, defined by tumor size and PAI-1 status, revealed that patients bearing either pT1 tumors, irrespective of PAI-1 levels, or pT2,3 tumors with low PAI-1 levels, had similar disease-free interval probabilities and showed favorable outcome compared to those bearing pT2,3 tumors with high PAI-1 levels. Our findings suggest that tumor size and PAI-1, used in combination as phenotypes are not only prognostic but might also be predictive in node-negative, postmenopausal breast cancer patients bearing histological grade II tumors with ER/PR expression, during an early follow-up period. PMID:25994573

  6. Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preventing Recurrence in Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-20

    Benign Breast Neoplasm; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Paget Disease of the Breast; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  7. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-16

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  8. Breast cancer and protein biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Gam, Lay-Harn

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is a healthcare concern of women worldwide. Despite procedures being available for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of breast cancer, researchers are working intensively on the disease in order to improve the life quality of breast cancer patients. At present, there is no single treatment known to bring a definite cure for breast cancer. One of the possible solutions for combating breast cancer is through identification of reliable protein biomarkers that can be effectively used for early detection, prognosis and treatments of the cancer. Therefore, the task of identification of biomarkers for breast cancer has become the focus of many researchers worldwide. PMID:24520539

  9. Breast Cancer Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... therapy and targeted therapy. This helps to increase survival. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two main types of breast ... shown lumpectomy plus radiation offers the same overall survival benefit as mastectomy for early ... (almost always followed by radiation): The surgeon ...

  10. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  11. What Is Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... statistics about breast cancer in men? What is breast cancer in men? A breast cancer is a malignant ... women but are very rare in men. General breast cancer terms Here are some of the key words ...

  12. General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  13. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  15. PET/CT in Evaluating Response to Chemotherapy in Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-06

    HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  16. Tibolone and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Erel, C Tamer; Senturk, Levent M; Kaleli, Semih

    2006-01-01

    Tibolone is a relatively new drug for postmenopausal women, which is structurally related to 19‐nortestosterone derivatives and exhibits weak oestrogenic, progestogenic and androgenic activities. The effect of tibolone on breast tissue is still obscure. In vitro studies have shown conflicting results regarding the effects of tibolone on breast cells. On the other hand, although epidemiological studies show an increase in the risk of breast cancer among women treated with tibolone, accumulation of data obtained from radiological studies presents promising results. However, the safety of tibolone with regard to breast tissue needs to be investigated further, especially through well‐designed, large‐scale, randomised‐controlled trials. PMID:17068276

  17. Human Breast Cancer Histoid

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Pavinder; Ward, Brenda; Saha, Baisakhi; Young, Lillian; Groshen, Susan; Techy, Geza; Lu, Yani; Atkinson, Roscoe; Taylor, Clive R.; Ingram, Marylou

    2011-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of heterotypic cellular interaction in the tumor microenvironment, which is recognized to play major roles in cancer progression, has been hampered due to unavailability of an appropriate in vitro co-culture model. The aim of this study was to generate an in vitro 3-dimensional human breast cancer model, which consists of cancer cells and fibroblasts. Breast cancer cells (UACC-893) and fibroblasts at various densities were co-cultured in a rotating suspension culture system to establish co-culture parameters. Subsequently, UACC-893, BT.20, or MDA.MB.453 were co-cultured with fibroblasts for 9 days. Co-cultures resulted in the generation of breast cancer histoid (BCH) with cancer cells showing the invasion of fibroblast spheroids, which were visualized by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of sections (4 µm thick) of BCH. A reproducible quantitative expression of C-erbB.2 was detected in UACC-893 cancer cells in BCH sections by IHC staining and the Automated Cellular Imaging System. BCH sections also consistently exhibited qualitative expression of pancytokeratins, p53, Ki-67, or E-cadherin in cancer cells and that of vimentin or GSTPi in fibroblasts, fibronectin in the basement membrane and collagen IV in the extracellular matrix. The expression of the protein analytes and cellular architecture of BCH were markedly similar to those of breast cancer tissue. PMID:22034518

  18. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093

  19. Breast Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The BioScan System was developed by OmniCorder Technologies, Inc. at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The system is able to locate cancerous lesions by detecting the cancer's ability to recruit a new blood supply. A digital sensor detects infrared energy emitted from the body and identifies the minute differences accompanying the blood flow changes associated with cancerous cells. It also has potential use as a monitoring device during cancer treatment. This technology will reduce the time taken to detect cancerous cells and allow for earlier intervention, therefore increasing the overall survival rates of breast cancer patients.

  20. Stereotactic Image-Guided Navigation During Breast Reconstruction in Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-27

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  1. Breast Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Euhus, David; Di Carlo, Philip A; Khouri, Nagi F

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer screening has become a controversial topic. Understanding the points of contention requires an appreciation of the conceptual framework underpinning cancer screening in general, knowledge of the strengths and limitations of available screening modalities, and familiarity with published clinical trial data. This review is data intense with the intention of presenting enough information to permit the reader to enter into the discussion with an ample knowledge base. The focus throughout is striking a balance between the benefits and harms of breast cancer screening. PMID:26315519

  2. Correlation of E-cadherin expression with differentiation grade and histological type in breast carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Gamallo, C.; Palacios, J.; Suarez, A.; Pizarro, A.; Navarro, P.; Quintanilla, M.; Cano, A.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, a correlation has been suggested between a loss of E-cadherin (E-CD) and increased invasiveness of neoplastic cells. In this study, E-CD expression in breast cancer was investigated using an affinity-purified antibody (ECCD-2) in an immunoenzymatic (avidin-biotin-alkaline phosphatase) test. Intensity and extension of E-CD immunoreactivity were evaluated in 61 breast carcinomas and correlated with their histological type and grade, nodal involvement, and hormonal receptor status. Histological types were infiltrating ductal carcinoma of no special type (n = 54) and infiltrating lobular carcinoma (n = 7). All infiltrating ductal carcinomas of no special type except two grade 3 carcinomas showed positive immunoreactivity that was variable among different cases. Grade 1 breast carcinomas (n = 10) showed greater immunoreactivity than grade 2 (n = 25) and grade 3 (n = 19) carcinomas. E-CD immunoreactivity correlated positively with the degree of tubular formation and inversely with the mitoses number. None of the infiltrating lobular carcinomas expressed E-CD in their infiltrating cells, whereas they showed only weak immunostains in areas of atypical lobular hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ. These results indicate that E-CD expression correlates with histological type and grade in breast carcinomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7682767

  3. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... inhibitor, can do an even better job of preventing breast cancer than the SERMs. Aromatase inhibitors stop an enzyme ...

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat breast cancer. Internal radiation therapy with strontium-89 (a radionuclide ) is used to relieve bone pain ... breast cancer that has spread to the bones. Strontium-89 is injected into a vein and travels to ...

  5. 'Ppl, I Have Breast Cancer'

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160134.html 'Ppl, I Have Breast Cancer' Many women found online support after their diagnosis, ... Women who communicated via social media after a breast cancer diagnosis and received information and/or support about ...

  6. Life After Breast Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    FACTS FOR LIFE Life After Breast Cancer Treatment Once breast cancer treatment ends, you may face a new set of issues and concerns. ... fear. If fear starts to disrupt your daily life, talk to your doctor. Getting the support and ...

  7. Immunotherapy in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Marmé, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the tumor microenvironment including immune cell infiltrates in breast cancer has long been recognized. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are prognostic and predictive; however, their prevalence as well as their prognostic and predictive power are subtype-dependent and appear most prominent in aggressive subtypes like triple-negative and HER2-positive disease. The immune responses observed in many cancers are attracted by tumor-associated antigens and, as suggested by recent research, by neoantigens - immunogenic antigens encoded for by non-synonymous mutations. The appealing promise of cancer vaccines has been pursued in breast cancer for over 2 decades; however, despite much effort having been put into vaccine trials, their clinical benefit, with the exception of some encouraging preliminary results, remains disappointing. The main hurdles compromising the efficacy of these vaccination strategies are the difficulties to generate broad and robust immune responses as well as to overcome immune escape mechanisms. The remarkable efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in melanoma and lung cancer has set the ground for a race in the clinical development of numerous agents targeting these immune escape mechanisms in many tumor entities. Early clinical data in metastatic breast cancer suggests at least some clinical activity. This review discusses the current status and future perspectives of immunotherapy in breast cancer. PMID:27260697

  8. Minimally Invasive Treatments for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... SIR login) Interventional Radiology Minimally Invasive Treatments for Breast Cancer Interventional Radiology Treatments Offer New Options and Hope ... have in the fight against breast cancer. About Breast Cancer When breast tissue divides and grows at an ...

  9. Computerized Cognitive Retraining in Improving Cognitive Function in Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-26

    Cancer Survivor; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  10. Micronutrient intake and breast cancer characteristics among postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Olsen, Anja; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars O; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2010-09-01

    Few studies on micronutrients and postmenopausal breast cancer have examined the association with breast cancer characteristics. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between vitamin C, vitamin E, folate and beta-carotene from diet and supplements and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer subtypes defined by histology (ductal/lobular), estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PGR) status. In a prospective cohort study of 26,224 postmenopausal women information on diet, supplements and lifestyle was collected through questionnaires. One thousand seventy-two cases were identified during follow-up. Incidence rate ratios of total breast cancers and breast cancer subtypes related to micronutrient intake were calculated using Cox proportional hazard analyses. This study found no association between overall breast cancer and any micronutrients, while some effects were shown when stratifying by breast cancer subtypes: dietary but not supplemental beta-carotene showed a protective effect against lobular breast cancer [incidence rate ratio (IRR): 0.72; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-0.91]. Dietary vitamin E was associated with decreased risk of ER and PGR positive breast cancer (IRR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.25-0.98) and dietary folate was associated with increased risk of ER and PGR positive breast cancer (IRR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.03-1.95). This study found no effect of micronutrients on overall risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, but indicated possible effects of micronutrients in subgroups of breast cancer, with a potential beneficial effect of dietary beta-carotene in lobular breast cancer and dietary vitamin E in ER + PGR+ breast cancer and a potential harmful effect of dietary folate in ER+ PGR+ breast cancer. PMID:20698054

  11. Diet and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bradlow, H Leon; Sepkovic, Daniel W

    2002-06-01

    The preponderance of evidence suggests a role for fat and alcohol as risk factors for breast cancer. The role of milk is more controversial with some studies suggesting that milk is a risk factor and others that consumption of milk is protective against breast cancer. No other major nutrient appears to play a significant role in increasing breast cancer risk. On the other hand, there is increasing evidence that a variety of micronutrients and hormones appear to have significant anticancer activity. These range from steroids such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its analysis to indoles, isothiocyanates, and isoflavone derivatives. These compounds act directly by interfering with cyclins and promoting apoptosis as well as indirectly by altering estrogen metabolism in a favorable direction. These effects are not merely theoretical actions in cell culture and tissue explants; they have been demonstrated in human patients as a range of studies have demonstrated. PMID:12095951

  12. Cryosurgery of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Liang; Xu, Kecheng

    2012-01-01

    With recent improvements in breast imaging, the ability to identify small breast tumors is markedly improved, prompting significant interest in the use of cryoablation without surgical excision to treat early-stage breast cancer. The cryoablation is often performed using ultrasound-guided tabletop argon-gas-based cryoablation system with a double freeze/thaw cycle. Recent studies have demonstrated that, as a primary therapy for small breast cancer, cryoablation is safe and effective with durable results, and can successfully destroy all cancers <1.0 cm and tumors between 1.0 and 1.5 cm without a significant ductal carcinoma-in-situ (DCIS) component. Presence of noncalcified DCIS is the cause of most cryoablation failures. At this time, cryoablation should be limited to patients with invasive ductal carcinoma <1.5 cm and with <25% DCIS in the core biopsy. For unresectable advanced breast cancer, cryoablation is a palliation modality and may be used as complementary for subsequent resection or other therapies. PMID:25083433

  13. Surgery for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dooley, W C

    1998-11-01

    Women with breast cancer today have many more therapeutic options available to them for their surgical therapy. Almost all patients with breast cancer have some options for breast conservation. Active patient involvement in analyzing and understanding the pros and cons of each of these options seems extremely important to the long-term emotional and psychological outcome of their breast cancer therapy. Several reports this year have reintroduced the issue of adequate local control. The common philosophy a decade ago was that because systematic therapy (adjuvant chemotherapy) was improving, local therapy would become of lesser importance. Several studies this year have indicated the extreme importance of local control in maximizing survival advantage because of the relationship of increasing local failure and deteriorating survival from systemic disease. Despite significant improvements in treatment, our screening and diagnostic approaches have still failed to identify the majority of lesions prior to the patient's own palpation of the tumor. Using new diagnostic modalities that do not involve surgery, the biopsy of lower probability lesions with great accuracy is expected to improve the efficacy of the current screening measures. Despite all the improvements, the most important therapeutic step in the management of breast cancer remains earlier diagnosis and earlier extirpation of the initial invasive focus of malignancy. PMID:9818228

  14. Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Male Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  15. Inflammatory Breast Cancer from Metastatic Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Achariyapota, Vuthinun; Chuangsuwanich, Tuenjai

    2016-01-01

    Metastases to the breast from tumors other than breast carcinomas are extremely rare and represent only 0.2–1.3% of all diagnosed malignant breast tumors. Furthermore, while the most common sites for advanced ovarian cancer metastases are the liver, lung, and pleura, metastasis to the breast from a primary ovarian cancer is uncommon and has only been reported in 0.03–0.6% of all breast cancers. Here we describe a case report of a 50-year-old female patient with a rare case of breast metastases from an advanced ovarian cancer, presenting as inflammatory breast cancer. Our observations emphasize the clinical importance of distinguishing between primary and metastatic breast cancer during diagnosis for the purpose of appropriate prognosis and treatment. PMID:27047697

  16. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Paula; Grossbard, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its role in calcium homeostasis and bone health, vitamin D has also been reported to have anticancer activities against many cancer types, including breast cancer. The discovery that breast epithelial cells possess the same enzymatic system as the kidney, allowing local manufacture of active vitamin D from circulating precursors, makes the effect of vitamin D in breast cancer biologically plausible. Preclinical and ecologic studies have suggested a role for vitamin D in breast cancer prevention. Inverse associations have also been shown between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level (25(OH)D) and breast cancer development, risk for breast cancer recurrence, and mortality in women with early-stage breast cancer. Clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation, however, have yielded inconsistent results. Regardless of whether or not vitamin D helps prevent breast cancer or its recurrence, vitamin D deficiency in the U.S. population is very common, and the adverse impact on bone health, a particular concern for breast cancer survivors, makes it important to understand vitamin D physiology and to recognize and treat vitamin D deficiency. In this review, we discuss vitamin D metabolism and its mechanism of action. We summarize the current evidence of the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer, highlight ongoing research in this area, and discuss optimal dosing of vitamin D for breast cancer prevention. PMID:22234628

  17. Virtual Weight Loss Program in Maintaining Weight in African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-01

    Cancer Survivor; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  18. Accelerated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  19. Parametrization histological grade white adipose tissue of the breast by the cubic spline interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Leslie A.; Narea, Freddy J.; Cedeño, Fernando; Muñoz, Aaron A.; Reigosa, Aldo; Bravo, Kelly

    2013-11-01

    The noninvasive optical techniques have attracted considerable interest in recent years, because these techniques provide lot of information on the structure and composition of biological tissues more quickly and painlessly, in this study classifies the degrees of histological differentiation of neoplastic tissue of the breast in white adipose tissue samples through numerical pametrización of the diffuse reflection spectra using the Fourier series approximation. The white adipose tissue is irradiated with the spectrophotometer MiniScan XEplus and it from a mastectomy of patients with aged 38 and 50 who have a cancer lesion in the breast. The samples were provided by the pathologist with theirs medical report, it which we indicate the histological grade of tumor. We performed a parameterization algorithm where the classification criterion is the modulus of the minimum difference between the numerical approximation coefficients ai and average numerical approximation coefficients obtained for each histological grade ¯ al. Is confirmed that the cubic spline interpolation this low-power computing lets classified into histological grades with 91% certainty the tissues under study from |ai - ¯ al|

  20. Prostate cancer is not breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Venniyoor, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach. PMID:27051149

  1. Progestins and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, Jorge R

    2007-10-01

    Progestins exert their progestational activity by binding to the progesterone receptor (form A, the most active and form B, the less active) and may also interact with other steroid receptors (androgen, glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, estrogen). They can have important effects in other tissues besides the endometrium, including the breast, liver, bone and brain. The biological responses of progestins cover a very large domain: lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, water and electrolyte regulation, hemostasis, fibrinolysis, and cardiovascular and immunological systems. At present, more than 200 progestin compounds have been synthesized, but the biological response could be different from one to another depending on their structure, metabolism, receptor affinity, experimental conditions, target tissue or cell line, as well as the biological response considered. There is substantial evidence that mammary cancer tissue contains all the enzymes responsible for the local biosynthesis of estradiol (E(2)) from circulating precursors. Two principal pathways are implicated in the final steps of E(2) formation in breast cancer tissue: the 'aromatase pathway', which transforms androgens into estrogens, and the 'sulfatase pathway', which converts estrone sulfate (E(1)S) into estrone (E(1)) via estrone sulfatase. The final step is the conversion of weak E(1) to the potent biologically active E(2) via reductive 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity. It is also well established that steroid sulfotransferases, which convert estrogens into their sulfates, are present in breast cancer tissues. It has been demonstrated that various progestins (e.g. nomegestrol acetate, medrogestone, promegestone) as well as tibolone and their metabolites can block the enzymes involved in E(2) bioformation (sulfatase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) in breast cancer cells. These substances can also stimulate the sulfotransferase activity which converts estrogens into the biologically

  2. Surveying Breast Cancer's Genomic Landscape.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    An in-depth analysis has produced the most comprehensive portrait to date of the myriad genomic alterations involved in breast cancer. In sequencing the whole genomes of 560 breast cancers and combining this information with published data from another 772 breast tumors, the research team uncovered several new genes and mutational signatures that potentially influence this disease. PMID:27225883

  3. Primary cardiac sarcoma after breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Joana; Nunes, Sandra; Marques, Irene; Marques, Franklim

    2013-01-01

    Primary cardiac sarcomas are rare tumours carrying poor prognosis. Postradiation sarcoma has been reported in patients with breast, cervical and head and neck cancers. We report a case of a 56-year-old woman with stage IIA breast cancer diagnosed in 1997, submitted to mastectomy, adjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormonotherapy. Pulmonary metastasis were detected in 2008 and treated with chemotherapy and hormonotherapy, being in complete remission since August 2009. She was admitted in December 2009 with a 3-week history of fever, dyspnoea, polyarthralgias and leg oedema. An echocardiography showed a mass in the left atrium. She was submitted to a surgical tumour resection and the histology revealed a sarcoma of intermediate degree of differentiation. Chemoradiation therapy was started and she remains alive after 3 years, without tumour regrowth or metastasis. This case is a therapeutic challenge, because the previous therapies for breast cancer hampered the options for extra chemoradiation therapy. PMID:23608855

  4. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Harry Mahtani analyzes the gas content of nutrient media from Bioreactor used in research on human breast cancer. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  5. Pertuzumab, Trastuzumab, and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With HER2-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-23

    HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Breast Adenocarcinoma; Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma

  6. Breast cancer surveillance.

    PubMed

    Rachetta, Eleonora; Osano, Silvia; Astegiano, Francesco; Martincich, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Since several studies have demonstrated the inadequate diagnostic performance of mammography in high risk women, over the past two decades, different breast imaging tests have been evaluated as additional diagnostic methods to mammography, and the most relevant ones are the techniques that do not imply the use of X-rays, considering the young age of these patients and the higher radio-sensitivity. Breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has risen growing interest not only because of the absence of use of X-rays, but also because it provides morpho-functional features, which may depict biological characteristics of breast tissues, including invasive and in situ cancers. Different multicenter non-randomized prospective studies aimed to evaluate breast DCE-MRI as an integral part of surveillance programs, agreed about the evidence that in high risk women screening with DCE-MRI is more effective than either mammography and/or ultrasound. Moreover, this modality leads to the identifications of cancers at a more favorable stage, allowing a real advantage in terms of tumor size and nodal involvement. The medical community is evaluating to suggest DCE-MRI alone as screening modality in high-risk women, as it was reported that in these cases the sensitivity of MRI plus conventional imaging was not significantly higher than that of MRI alone. Breast MRI is now recommended as part of screening program for high risk women by both European and American guidelines. PMID:26924173

  7. Your Body After Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... from a trained breast cancer survivor. Cancer Survivors Network : An online community of people with cancer and their loved ones that provides peer support through discussion boards, chat rooms and other ...

  8. Reproduction after breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zervoudis, Stefanos; Iatrakis, George; Navrozoglou, Iordanis

    2010-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer in women of developed countries, and as a result of new developments in breast cancer treatment, more women are cured after being diagnosed with this disease. It is important that fertility preservation strategies are addressed before chemotherapy, because chemotherapy may induce premature ovarian failure (depending on the woman's age, the drugs used, the dosage and duration of treatment). Among possible solutions are embryos or oocytes cryopreservation, ovarian tissue cryopreservation-freezing with a subsequent orthotopic and heterotopic autotransplantation, whole ovary cryopreservation, ovarian suppression with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues, which inhibit ovarian follicular depletion induced by chemotherapeutic agents and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) after ovulation induction with aromatase inhibitors or tamoxifen. PMID:20170848

  9. The Basic Facts of Korean Breast Cancer in 2013: Results of a Nationwide Survey and Breast Cancer Registry Database

    PubMed Central

    Min, Sun Young; Kim, Zisun; Yoon, Chan Seok; Park, Eun-Hwa; Jung, Kyu-Won

    2016-01-01

    The Korean Breast Cancer Society (KBCS) has reported a nationwide breast cancer data since 1996. We present a comprehensive report on the facts and trends of breast cancer in Korea in 2013. Data on the newly diagnosed patients in the year 2013 were collected from 99 hospitals by using nationwide questionnaire survey. Clinical characteristics such as stage of cancer, histologic types, biological markers, and surgical management were obtained from the online registry database. A total of 19,316 patients were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 2013. The crude incidence rate of female breast cancer including carcinoma in situ was 76.2 cases per 100,000 women. The median age at diagnosis was 50 years, and the proportions of postmenopausal women with breast cancer accounted for more than half of total patients. The proportion of early breast cancer increased consistently, and the pathologic features have changed accordingly. Breast-conserving surgery was performed in more cases than total mastectomy in the year. The total number of breast reconstruction surgeries markedly increased approaching 3-fold in last 11 years. According to annual percentile change of invasive cancer incidence, the incidence increased rapidly until 2010. And thereafter the increase of it became steadier. For ductal carcinoma in situ, the incidence consistently increased during the same period without any joinpoint. Analysis of nationwide registry data will contribute to defining of the trends and characteristics of breast cancer in Korea. PMID:27066090

  10. Azacitidine in Treating Patients With Triple Negative Stage I-IV Invasive Breast Cancer That Can Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-05

    Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  11. What's New in Breast Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... References: Breast cancer detailed guide What`s new in breast cancer research and treatment? Researchers around the world are ... for breast cancer Breast cancer treatment Causes of breast cancer Studies continue to uncover lifestyle factors and habits, ...

  12. Pharmacokinetically Guided Everolimus in Patients With Breast Cancer, Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors, or Kidney Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-12

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Insulinoma; Mucositis; Oral Complications; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Somatostatinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer

  13. You, Your Teenage Daughter and Breast Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brateman, Libby

    1991-01-01

    Discusses breast cancer and teenagers, focusing on how parents can introduce the subject and encourage breast self-examination. The article provides information on breast cancer statistics, mammography, and American Cancer Society services. (SM)

  14. Surgery for Breast Cancer in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... therapy for breast cancer in men Surgery for breast cancer in men The thought of surgery can be ... 2 to 3 hours. What to expect after breast cancer surgery: After your surgery, you will be taken ...

  15. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Summary Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt with, as well as various pregnancy-associated factors, events, and perinatal outcomes. Finally, the contribution of breast feeding to a reduced breast cancer risk is discussed. PMID:25759622

  16. Chemoprevention for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bozovic-Spasojevic, I; Azambuja, E; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Dinh, P; Cardoso, F

    2012-08-01

    Despite the progress that has been made in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment, this disease is still a major health problem, being the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the first leading cause of cancer death among women both in developed and economically developing countries. In some developed countries incidence rate start to decrease from the end of last millennium and this can be explained, at least in part, by the decrease in hormone replacement therapy use by post-menopausal women. Chemoprevention has the potential to be an approach of utmost importance to reduce cancer burden at least among high-risk populations. Tamoxifen and raloxifene are both indicated for the prevention of breast cancer in women at high risk for the development of the disease, although raloxifene may have a more favorable adverse-effect profile, causing fewer uterine cancers and thromboembolic events. Aromatase inhibitors will most probably become an additional prevention treatment option in the near future, in view of the promising results observed in adjuvant trials and the interesting results of the very recently published first chemoprevention trial using an aromatase inhibitor.(2) Despite impressive results in most clinical trials performed to date, chemoprevention is still not widely used. Urgently needed are better molecular risk models to accurately identify high-risk subjects, new agents with a better risk/benefit ratio and validated biomarkers. PMID:21856081

  17. Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-12-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  18. A microscopic landscape of the invasive breast cancer genome

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Zheng; Xia, Yuchao; Shen, Tiansheng; Parekh, Vishwas; Siegal, Gene P.; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin; He, Jianbo; Chen, Dongquan; Deng, Minghua; Xi, Ruibin; Shen, Dejun

    2016-01-01

    Histologic grade is one of the most important microscopic features used to predict the prognosis of invasive breast cancer and may serve as a marker for studying cancer driving genomic abnormalities in vivo. We analyzed whole genome sequencing data from 680 cases of TCGA invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast and correlated them to corresponding pathology information. Ten genetic abnormalities were found to be statistically associated with histologic grade, including three most prevalent cancer driver events, TP53 and PIK3CA mutations and MYC amplification. A distinct genetic interaction among these genomic abnormalities was revealed as measured by the histologic grading score. While TP53 mutation and MYC amplification were synergistic in promoting tumor progression, PIK3CA mutation was found to have alleviated the oncogenic effect of either the TP53 mutation or MYC amplification, and was associated with a significant reduction in mitotic activity in TP53 mutated and/or MYC amplified breast cancer. Furthermore, we discovered that different types of genetic abnormalities (mutation versus amplification) within the same cancer driver gene (PIK3CA or GATA3) were associated with opposite histologic changes in invasive breast cancer. In conclusion, our study suggests that histologic grade may serve as a biomarker to define cancer driving genetic events in vivo. PMID:27283966

  19. A microscopic landscape of the invasive breast cancer genome.

    PubMed

    Ping, Zheng; Xia, Yuchao; Shen, Tiansheng; Parekh, Vishwas; Siegal, Gene P; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin; He, Jianbo; Chen, Dongquan; Deng, Minghua; Xi, Ruibin; Shen, Dejun

    2016-01-01

    Histologic grade is one of the most important microscopic features used to predict the prognosis of invasive breast cancer and may serve as a marker for studying cancer driving genomic abnormalities in vivo. We analyzed whole genome sequencing data from 680 cases of TCGA invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast and correlated them to corresponding pathology information. Ten genetic abnormalities were found to be statistically associated with histologic grade, including three most prevalent cancer driver events, TP53 and PIK3CA mutations and MYC amplification. A distinct genetic interaction among these genomic abnormalities was revealed as measured by the histologic grading score. While TP53 mutation and MYC amplification were synergistic in promoting tumor progression, PIK3CA mutation was found to have alleviated the oncogenic effect of either the TP53 mutation or MYC amplification, and was associated with a significant reduction in mitotic activity in TP53 mutated and/or MYC amplified breast cancer. Furthermore, we discovered that different types of genetic abnormalities (mutation versus amplification) within the same cancer driver gene (PIK3CA or GATA3) were associated with opposite histologic changes in invasive breast cancer. In conclusion, our study suggests that histologic grade may serve as a biomarker to define cancer driving genetic events in vivo. PMID:27283966

  20. Digital histologic analysis reveals morphometric patterns of age-related involution in breast epithelium and stroma.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Rupninder; Chollet-Hinton, Lynn; Kirk, Erin L; Midkiff, Bentley; Troester, Melissa A

    2016-02-01

    Complete age-related regression of mammary epithelium, often termed postmenopausal involution, is associated with decreased breast cancer risk. However, most studies have qualitatively assessed involution. We quantitatively analyzed epithelium, stroma, and adipose tissue from histologically normal breast tissue of 454 patients in the Normal Breast Study. High-resolution digital images of normal breast hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were partitioned into epithelium, adipose tissue, and nonfatty stroma. Percentage area and nuclei per unit area (nuclear density) were calculated for each component. Quantitative data were evaluated in association with age using linear regression and cubic spline models. Stromal area decreased (P = 0.0002), and adipose tissue area increased (P < 0.0001), with an approximate 0.7% change in area for each component, until age 55 years when these area measures reached a steady state. Although epithelial area did not show linear changes with age, epithelial nuclear density decreased linearly beginning in the third decade of life. No significant age-related trends were observed for stromal or adipose nuclear density. Digital image analysis offers a high-throughput method for quantitatively measuring tissue morphometry and for objectively assessing age-related changes in adipose tissue, stroma, and epithelium. Epithelial nuclear density is a quantitative measure of age-related breast involution that begins to decline in the early premenopausal period. PMID:26772400

  1. In vitro comparative models for canine and human breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    VISAN, SIMONA; BALACESCU, OVIDIU; BERINDAN-NEAGOE, IOANA; CATOI, CORNEL

    2016-01-01

    During the past four decades, an increased number of similarities between canine mammary tumors and human breast cancer have been reported: molecular, histological, morphological, clinical and epidemiological, which lead to comparative oncological studies. One of the most important goals in human and veterinary oncology is to discover potential molecular biomarkers that could detect breast cancer in an early stage and to develop new effective therapies. Recently, cancer cell lines have successfully been used as an in vitro model to study the biology of cancer, to investigate molecular pathways and to test the efficiency of anticancer drugs. Moreover, establishment of an experimental animal model for the study of human breast cancer will improve testing potential anti-cancer therapies and the discovery of effective therapeutic schemes suitable for human clinical trials. In this review, we collected data from previous studies that strengthen the value of canine mammary cancer cell lines as an in vitro model for the study of human breast cancer. PMID:27004024

  2. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Robert Richmond extracts breast cell tissue from one of two liquid nitrogen dewars. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  3. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Breast tissue specimens in traditional sample dishes. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  4. [Metrorrhagia disclosing a synchronous bilateral breast cancer: report of a case].

    PubMed

    Benkerroum, Z; Babahabib, A; Kouach, J; Chahdi, H; Al Bouzidi, A; Moussaoui Rehali, D; Dehayni, M

    2014-05-01

    Genital metastases are very rarely indicative of breast cancer; they are exceptionally located at the cervix. These atypical locations are more common when it comes to a metastatic breast cancer or a histological infiltrating lobular type. The simultaneous association of a lobular and a ductal infiltrating cancer under a synchronous bilateral breast cancer still remains a rare entity. In this work, we report the observation of a woman aged 48 who has a synchronous bilateral breast cancer, of different histological types, and who reported at first a genital bleeding which is caused by a metastasis in the cervix of the uterus. PMID:24411296

  5. Male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jepson, A S; Fentiman, I S

    1998-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease, often with a late presentation and poor prognosis. The mainstay of treatment is modified radical mastectomy, with axillary node dissection to assess stage, prognosis and the need for adjuvant treatment. When matched for age, tumour size, grade and axillary nodal status, the prognosis is similar for males and females. Concerted efforts must be made to educate both the public and health professionals, in order to make earlier diagnoses and thereby improve prognosis. PMID:10622057

  6. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    High magnification view of human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. The arrow points to bead surface indicating breast cancer cells (as noted by the staining of tumor cell intermediate filaments). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  7. Breast cancer risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  8. Tomosynthesis for breast cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Cole, Elodia B; Pisano, Etta D

    2016-01-01

    Breast tomosynthesis, a three-dimensional x-ray based breast imaging technology, has been available for clinical use in the United States since 2011. In this paper we review the literature on breast cancer screening with this new technology including where gaps in knowledge remain. PMID:26472036

  9. Targeting Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Suling; Wicha, Max S.

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that many cancers, including breast cancer, contain populations of cells that display stem-cell properties. These breast cancer stem cells, by virtue of their relative resistance to radiation and cytotoxic chemotherapy, may contribute to treatment resistance and relapse. The elucidation of pathways that regulate these cells has led to the identification of potential therapeutic targets. A number of agents capable of targeting breast cancer stem cells in preclinical models are currently entering clinical trials. Assessment of the efficacy of the agents will require development of innovative clinical trial designs with appropriate biologic and clinical end points. The effective targeting of breast cancer stem cells has the potential to significantly improve outcome for women with both early-stage and advanced breast cancer. PMID:20498387

  10. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  11. Circadian clocks and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Victoria; Williams, Jack L; Meng, Qing-Jun; Streuli, Charles H

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks respond to environmental time cues to coordinate 24-hour oscillations in almost every tissue of the body. In the breast, circadian clocks regulate the rhythmic expression of numerous genes. Disrupted expression of circadian genes can alter breast biology and may promote cancer. Here we overview circadian mechanisms, and the connection between the molecular clock and breast biology. We describe how disruption of circadian genes contributes to cancer via multiple mechanisms, and link this to increased tumour risk in women who work irregular shift patterns. Understanding the influence of circadian rhythms on breast cancer could lead to more efficacious therapies, reformed public health policy and improved patient outcome. PMID:27590298

  12. Vascular and Cognitive Assessments in Patients With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy After Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-27

    Cognitive/Functional Effects; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  13. Understanding your breast cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... what you can do to help prevent breast cancer. Risk Factors You Cannot Control Risk factors you cannot control ... risk. Race . White women are diagnosed with breast cancer more often than African American/black, ... Can Control Risk factors you can control ...

  14. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  15. Coexistence of malignant phyllodes tumor and her2-positive locally advanced breast cancer in distinct breasts: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tomoi; Muto, Ichiro; Sakai, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Phyllodes tumor of the breast is a rare biphasic neoplasm, accounting for less than 1% of all breast tumors. Coexistence of phyllodes tumor and breast cancer in distinct breasts is extremely rare. Case presentation A 47-year-old Japanese woman presented with bilateral breast lumps. A HER2-positive, unresectable invasive carcinoma in the right breast and fibroadenoma in the left were diagnosed via core needle biopsy. During chemotherapy with anti-HER2 therapy, the breast cancer shrank quickly, while the left breast lump suddenly enlarged. Under a diagnosis of malignant neoplasm of the breast, left mastectomy was performed. Malignant phyllodes tumor was diagnosed by postoperative histological examination and recurred in multiple areas as early as 2 months after surgery. Discussion Only 10 cases of coexisting phyllodes tumor and breast cancer in distinct breasts have been reported in the English literature. Phyllodes tumor associated with breast cancer in distinct breasts tends to be malignant. This is the first case of phyllodes tumor rapidly enlarging during anti-HER2 chemotherapy for locally advanced HER2-positive breast cancer. Conclusion Even during effective treatment of advanced or recurrent breast cancer, attention should also be paid to the contralateral breast for the possible association of a second malignancy such as phyllodes tumor. PMID:26773878

  16. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Older Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  17. Green Tea and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Anna H; Butler, Lesley M

    2014-01-01

    The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort studies are discordant. In addition, the mechanisms by which green tea intake may influence risk of breast cancer in humans remains not well studied. We review the human studies that have evaluated the relationship between green tea intake and four biomarkers (sex steroid hormones, mammographic density, insulin-like growth factor, adiponectin) that are believed to be important in breast cancer development. Results from these biomarker studies are also inconclusive. Limitations of human studies and areas of further investigations are discussed. PMID:21538855

  18. Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-15

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  19. Genetic susceptibility to breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Angela R; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I

    2007-09-01

    Deleterious mutations in two breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been identified in breast and ovarian cancer families. Women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation are candidates for additional risk reduction measures such as intensive screening, prophylactic surgery or chemoprevention. Additional susceptibility genes have been identified, including PTEN, ATM, TP53, CHEK2, CASP8, PBRL and BRIP1. Yet, many women with a personal or family history suggestive of a hereditary susceptibility to breast cancer undergo genetic testing and no significant genetic alteration is found. Thus, there are other susceptibility genes that have not been identified, and it is likely that the remaining familial contribution to breast cancer will be explained by the presence of multiple low penetrance alleles that coexist to confer high penetrance risks (a polygenic model). The American Cancer Society has identified cancer prevention as a key component of cancer management and there is interest in developing individualized cancer prevention focused on identifying high risk individuals who are most likely to benefit from more aggressive risk reduction measures. Breast cancer risk assessment and genetic counseling are currently provided by genetic counselors, oncology nurse specialist, geneticists, medical and surgical oncologists, gynecologists and other health care professionals, often working within a multidisciplinary clinical setting. Current methods for risk assessment and predictive genetic testing have limitations and improvements in molecular testing and risk assessment tools is necessary to maximize individual breast cancer risk assessment and to fulfill the promise of cancer prevention. PMID:17508290

  20. Curing Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sledge, George W

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is generally considered incurable, and this colors doctor-patient interactions for patients with metastatic disease. Although true for most patients, there appear to be important exceptions, instances where long-term disease-free survival occurs. Although these instances are few in number, they suggest the possibility of cure. How will we move toward cure for a much larger population of patients with metastatic disease? This article outlines a potential research agenda that might move us toward that distant goal. PMID:26759458

  1. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    PubMed

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way. PMID:26283037

  2. Treating Male Breast Cancer by Stage

    MedlinePlus

    ... men treated? Surgery for breast cancer in men Radiation therapy for breast cancer in men Chemotherapy for breast cancer in men ... these may be used after surgery and/or radiation therapy. Regional recurrence: When breast cancer comes back in nearby lymph nodes (such as ...

  3. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer. PMID:16045991

  4. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Time-lapse exposure depicts Bioreactor rotation. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  5. Carboplatin and Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Veliparib in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IIIC Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-12

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  6. Addition of Carboplatin to Neoadjuvant Therapy for Triple-negative and HER2-positive Early Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-12

    Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II; Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II; Breast Cancer Female NOS; Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III; HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer Stage IV; Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  7. Male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ottini, Laura; Palli, Domenico; Rizzo, Sergio; Federico, Mario; Bazan, Viviana; Russo, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    Male breast cancer (MaleBC) is a rare disease, accounting for <1% of all male tumors. During the last few years, there has been an increase in the incidence of this disease, along with the increase in female breast cancer (FBC). Little is known about the etiology of MaleBC: hormonal, environmental and genetic factors have been reported to be involved in its pathogenesis. Major risk factors include clinical disorders carrying hormonal imbalances, radiation exposure and, in particular, a positive family history (FH) for BC, the latter suggestive of genetic susceptibility. Rare mutations in high-penetrance genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) confer a high risk of BC development; low-penetrance gene mutations (i.e. CHEK-2) are more common but involve a lower risk increase. About 90% of all male breast tumors have proved to be invasive ductal carcinomas, expressing high levels of hormone receptors with evident therapeutic returns. The most common clinical sign of BC onset in men is a painless palpable retroareolar lump, which should be evaluated by means of mammography, ultrasonography and core biopsy or fine needle aspiration (FNA). To date, there are no published data from prospective randomized trials supporting a specific therapeutic approach in MaleBC. Tumor size together with the number of axillary nodes involved are the main prognostic factors and should guide the treatment choice. Locoregional approaches include surgery and radiotherapy (RT), depending upon the initial clinical presentation. When systemic treatment (adjuvant, neoadjuvant and metastatic) is delivered, the choice between hormonal and or chemotherapy (CT) should depend upon the clinical and biological features, according to the FBC management guidelines. However great caution is required because of high rates of age-related comorbidities. PMID:19427229

  8. Neo-adjuvant Therapy With Anastrozole Plus Pazopanib in Stage II and III ER+ Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-24

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer

  9. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Treated With Zoledronic Acid

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-12

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  10. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. A cross-section of a construct, grown from surgical specimens of brease cancer, stained for microscopic examination, reveals areas of tumor cells dispersed throughout the non-epithelial cell background. The arrow denotes the foci of breast cancer cells. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  11. Understanding Lymphedema (For Cancers Other Than Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... My ACS » Understanding Lymphedema: For Cancers Other Than Breast Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » Lymphedema can be caused ... News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services Breast Cancer Support TLC Hair Loss & Mastectomy Products Hope Lodge® ...

  12. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Human primary breast tumor cells after 49 days of growth in a NASA Bioreactor. Tumor cells aggregate on microcarrier beads (indicated by arrow). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  13. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    High magnification of view of tumor cells aggregate on microcarrier beads, illustrting breast cells with intercellular boundaires on bead surface and aggregates of cells achieving 3-deminstional growth outward from bead after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida.

  14. Breast Cancer In Women Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This infographic shows the Breast Cancer Subtypes in Women. It’s important for guiding treatment and predicting survival. Know the Science: HR = Hormone receptor. HR+ means tumor cells have receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone, which can promote the growth of HR+ tumors. Hormone therapies like tamoxifen can be used to treat HR+ tumors. HER2 = Human epidermal growth Factor receptor, HER2+ means tumor cells overexpress (make high levels of) a protein, called HE2/neu, which has been shown to be associated with certain aggressive types of breast cancer. Trastuzumab and some other therapies can target cells that overexpress HER2. HR+/HER2, aka “LuminalA”. 73% of all breast cancer cases: best prognosis, most common subtype for every race, age, and poverty level. HR-/HER2, aka “Triple Negative”: 13% of all breast cancer cases, Worst prognosis, Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest rate of this subtype at every age and poverty level. HR+/HER2+, aka “Luminal B”, 10% of all breast cancer cases, little geographic variation by state. HR-/HER2+, aka”HER2-enriched”, 5% of all breast cancer cases, lowest rates for all races and ethnicities. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  15. Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart Christine Unitt , Kamaneh Montazeri , ... Disclosures Footnotes Figures & Tables Info & Metrics eLetters Introduction Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. ...

  16. Understanding your breast cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... the chance that you could get cancer. Some risk factors you can control, such as drinking alcohol. Others, such as family ... Risk factors you cannot control includes: Age . Your risk for breast cancer increases as you age. Most cancers are found in ...

  17. Breast cancer cell lines: friend or foe?

    PubMed Central

    Burdall, Sarah E; Hanby, Andrew M; Lansdown, Mark RJ; Speirs, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    The majority of breast cancer research is conducted using established breast cancer cell lines as in vitro models. An alternative is to use cultures established from primary breast tumours. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of using both of these models in translational breast cancer research. PMID:12631387

  18. Consumer Health Education. Breast Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville, Cooperative Extension Service.

    This short booklet is designed to be used by health educators when teaching women about breast cancer and its early detection and the procedure for breast self-examination. It includes the following: (1) A one-page teaching plan consisting of objectives, subject matter, methods (including titles of films and printed materials), target audience,…

  19. Metals and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Celia; Divekar, Shailaja D.; Storchan, Geoffrey B.; Parodi, Daniela A.; Martin, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    Metalloestrogens are metals that activate the estrogen receptor in the absence of estradiol. The metalloestrogens fall into two subclasses: metal/metalloid anions and bivalent cationic metals. The metal/metalloid anions include compounds such as arsenite, nitrite, selenite, and vanadate while the bivalent cations include metals such as cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, nickel, chromium, lead, mercury, and tin. The best studied metalloestrogen is cadmium. It is a heavy metal and a prevalent environmental contaminant with no known physiological function. This review addresses our current understanding of the mechanism by which cadmium and the bivalent cationic metals activate estrogen receptor-α. The review also summarizes the in vitro and in vivo evidence that cadmium functions as an estrogen and the potential role of cadmium in breast cancer. PMID:23338949

  20. Association of breast cancer risk loci with breast cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindström, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N; Ziegler, Regina G; Buring, Julie E; Chanock, Stephen J; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Giles, Graham G; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J; Joshi, Amit D; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I-Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L; Southey, Melissa C; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, María-José; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2015-12-15

    The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of evidence suggest that alleles influencing breast cancer risk might also be associated with breast cancer survival. We examined the associations between 35 breast cancer susceptibility loci and the disease over-all survival (OS) in 10,255 breast cancer patients from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) of which 1,379 died, including 754 of breast cancer. We also conducted a meta-analysis of almost 35,000 patients and 5,000 deaths, combining results from BPC3 and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and performed in silico analyses of SNPs with significant associations. In BPC3, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was significantly associated with improved OS (HRper-allele =0.70; 95% CI: 0.58-0.85; ptrend  = 2.84 × 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes  = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.55-0.92; HRhomozygotes  = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.76; p2DF  = 1.45 × 10(-3) ). In silico, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was predicted to increase expression of the tumor suppressor cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C). In the meta-analysis, TNRC9-rs3803662 was significantly associated with increased death hazard (HRMETA =1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.15; ptrend  = 6.6 × 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes  = 0.96 95% CI: 0.90-1.03; HRhomozygotes  = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.35; p2DF =1.25 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, we show that there is little overlap between the breast cancer risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified so far and the SNPs associated with breast cancer prognosis, with the possible exceptions of LSP1-rs3817198 and TNRC9-rs3803662. PMID:25611573

  1. Cholesterol and Breast Cancer Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Erik R.; Chang, Ching-yi; McDonnell, Donald P.

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol is a risk factor for breast cancer although the mechanisms by which this occurs are not well understood. One hypothesis is that dyslipidemia results in increased cholesterol content in cell membranes thus impacting membrane fluidity and subsequent signaling. Additionally, studies demonstrate that the metabolite, 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC), can function as an estrogen, increasing the proliferation of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells. This was unexpected as 27HC and other oxysterols activate the liver X receptors resulting in the reduction of intracellular cholesterol. Resolution of this paradox will require a dissection of the molecular mechanisms by which ER and LXR converge in breast cancer cells. Regardless, the observation that 27HC influences breast cancer provides rationale for strategies that target cholesterol metabolism. PMID:25458418

  2. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical literature, the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) trial was started in 1998. That study enrolled ... in the BCPT. Studies, such as BCPT and STAR, involve women who have not had breast cancer, ...

  3. [Maternity after breast cancer treatment].

    PubMed

    Boratyn-Nowicka, Agnieszka; Sodowski, Krzysztof; Ulman-Włodarz, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen a notable increase in the number of breast cancer diagnoses among women who have not fulfilled their maternity plans before the disease. Cytotoxic drugs (chemotherapy), used in the treatment of breast cancer patients, cause varying degrees of damage to the ovaries. The expected favorable effect of gonadoliberin analogues on the preservation of fertility has not been confirmed in clinical trials, and these drugs are currently not recommended for therapy. It is only the development of cryobiology and assisted reproduction techniques that make it possible to preserve the reproductive potential. The safety of the mother and the baby after breast cancer treatment is a separate issue. The available data indicate that both, pregnancy and breast-feeding are safe for the mother and the baby. However, the majority of findings come from retrospective studies covering small sample size and excluding the heterogeneity of both, cancer cells and patient clinical data. PMID:25775879

  4. Palbociclib for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.

  5. Quantitative microscopic evaluation of mucin areas and its percentage in mucinous carcinoma of the breast using tissue histological images.

    PubMed

    Saha, Monjoy; Arun, Indu; Basak, Bijan; Agarwal, Sanjit; Ahmed, Rosina; Chatterjee, Sanjoy; Bhargava, Rohit; Chakraborty, Chandan

    2016-06-01

    Mucinous carcinoma (MC) of the breast is very rare (∼1-7% of all breast cancers), invasive ductal carcinoma. Presence of pools of extracellular mucin is one of the most important histological features for MC. This paper aims at developing a quantitative computer-aided methodology for automated identification of mucin areas and its percentage using tissue histological images. The proposed method includes pre-processing (i.e., colour space transformation and colour normalization), mucin regions segmentation, post-processing, and performance evaluation. The proposed algorithm achieved 97.74% segmentation accuracy in comparison to ground truths. In addition, the percentage of mucin present in the tissue regions is calculated by the mucin index (MI) for grading MC (pure, moderately, minimally mucinous). PMID:26971129

  6. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Cyclophosphamide, and Filgrastim Followed By Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer Previously Treated With Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-07

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  7. Lipofilling in breast cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lohsiriwat, Visnu; Rietjens, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Recently, lipofilling is being performed either as a part of oncoplastic technique or alone by itself for correction of defects and asymmetry after oncologic breast cancer surgery. Its efficacy, safety and technical procedures are varying among institutions and individual surgeon’s experiences. We provide a literature review and view point focus on this novel technique which emphasize on the application on breast cancer reconstruction. PMID:25083450

  8. Soy Isoflavones Supplementation in Treating Women at High Risk For or With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-06

    BRCA1 Mutation Carrier; BRCA2 Mutation Carrier; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer

  9. Associations between genetic variation in one-carbon metabolism and LINE-1 DNA methylation in histologically normal breast tissues

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, Adana A M; Marian, Catalin; Brasky, Theodore M; Dumitrescu, Ramona G; Liu, Zhenhua; Mason, Joel B; Makambi, Kepher H; Spear, Scott L; Kallakury, Bhaskar V S; Freudenheim, Jo L; Shields, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide DNA hypomethylation is an early event in the carcinogenic process. Percent methylation of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) is a biomarker of genome-wide methylation and is a potential biomarker for breast cancer. Understanding factors associated with percent LINE-1 DNA methylation in histologically normal tissues could provide insight into early stages of carcinogenesis. In a cross-sectional study of 121 healthy women with no prior history of cancer who underwent reduction mammoplasty, we examined associations between plasma and breast folate, genetic variation in one-carbon metabolism, and percent LINE-1 methylation using multivariable regression models (adjusting for race, oral contraceptive use, and alcohol use). Results are expressed as the ratio of LINE-1 methylation relative to that of the referent group, with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). We found no significant associations between plasma or breast folate and percent LINE-1 methylation. Variation in MTHFR, MTR, and MTRR were significantly associated with percent LINE-1 methylation. Variant allele carriers of MTHFR A1289C had 4% lower LINE-1 methylation (Ratio 0.96, 95% CI 0.93–0.98), while variant allele carriers of MTR A2756G (Ratio 1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.06) and MTRR A66G (Ratio 1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.06) had 3% higher LINE-1 methylation, compared to those carrying the more common genotypes of these SNPs. DNA methylation of LINE-1 elements in histologically normal breast tissues is influenced by polymorphisms in genes in the one-carbon metabolism pathway. Future studies are needed to investigate the sociodemographic, environmental and additional genetic determinants of DNA methylation in breast tissues and the impact on breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:26090795

  10. Targeting autophagy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maycotte, Paola; Thorburn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Macroautophagy (referred to as autophagy here) is an intracellular degradation pathway enhanced in response to a variety of stresses and in response to nutrient deprivation. This process provides the cell with nutrients and energy by degrading aggregated and damaged proteins as well as compromised organelles. Since autophagy has been linked to diverse diseases including cancer, it has recently become a very interesting target in breast cancer treatment. Indeed, current clinical trials are trying to use chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, alone or in combination with other drugs to inhibit autophagy during breast cancer therapy since chemotherapy and radiation, regimens that are used to treat breast cancer, are known to induce autophagy in cancer cells. Importantly, in breast cancer, autophagy has been involved in the development of resistance to chemotherapy and to anti-estrogens. Moreover, a close relationship has recently been described between autophagy and the HER2 receptor. Here, we discuss some of the recent findings relating autophagy and cancer with a particular focus on breast cancer therapy. PMID:25114840

  11. BREAST CANCER, DERMATOFIBROMAS AND ARSENIC

    PubMed Central

    Dantzig, Paul I

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dermatofibromas are common benign tumors in women, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The aim of this study is to determine if there is any relationship between the two conditions. Materials and Methods: Five patients with dermatofibromas and 10 control patients (two groups) had their skin biopsies measured for arsenic by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Fifty randomly selected patients with breast cancer and 50 control patients were examined for the presence of dermatofibromas. Results: The dermatofibromas were found to have an arsenic concentration of 0.171 micrograms/gram, compared with 0.06 and 0.07 micrograms/gram of the two control groups. Forty-three out of 50 patients with breast cancer had dermatofibromas and 32/50 patients with breast cancer had multiple dermatofibromas, compared to 10/50 control patients with dermatofibromas and only 1/50 with multiple dermatofibromas. Conclusions: Arsenic is important in the development of dermatofibromas and dermatofibromas represent a reservoir and important sign of chronic arsenic exposure. Dermatofibromas represent an important sign for women at risk for breast cancer, and arsenic may represent the cause of the majority of cases of breast cancer. PMID:20049264

  12. Survivorship Care Plan in Promoting Physical Activity in Breast or Colorectal Cancer Survivors in Wisconsin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-19

    Cancer Survivor; Healthy Subject; Stage I Colorectal Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer

  13. Genomic profiling of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Anjita; Singh, Alok Kumar; Maurya, Sanjeev Kumar; Rai, Rajani; Tewari, Mallika; Kumar, Mohan; Shukla, Hari S

    2009-05-01

    Genome study provides significant changes in the advancement of molecular diagnosis and treatment in Breast cancer. Several recent critical advances and high-throughput techniques identified the genomic trouble and dramatically accelerated the pace of research in preventing and curing this malignancy. Tumor-suppressor genes, proto-oncogenes, DNA-repair genes, carcinogen-metabolism genes are critically involved in progression of breast cancer. We reviewed imperative finding in breast genetics, ongoing work to segregate further susceptible genes, and preliminary studies on molecular profiling. PMID:19235775

  14. [Epidemiologic aspects of the histologic types of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Wilde, J; Matthäi, C; Wilde, J

    1990-01-01

    An epidemiological study was performed in the county of Erfurt including all lung cancer patients of the years 1963, 1968, and 1972 to 1977, together 2,585 males and 358 females. The following results were found: 1. The incidence of lung cancer increased significantly from 1963 to 1977. 2. About 60% of all lung cancer patients were younger than 70 years. 3. In male patients squamous cell carcinomas prevailed with 44.8%. Small cell cancers came up to 34.6% and adenocarcinomas to 10.1%. Large cell cancers reached 10.5%. These types in female patients had a proportion to each other like 26.9%: 30.8%: 30.4%: 11.9%. The proportion of adenocarcinomas increased significantly during 1963 to 1977. 4. We found a non significant age relation of histological types. The adenocarcinoma and the small cell cancers dropped with rising age. 5. The classification of histological types and the conditions of detection of lung cancers did not change in the study interval. Therefore the altering of patterns of histological types, especially the increase of adenocarcinomas was attached to the beginning of cigarette smoking in younger ages and the increasing proportion of filter tipped brands as well to a variation of exposition against professional cancerogens. 6. Patients with adenocarcinomas have the highest survival rate after 5 years: 8.1%. Squamous cell lung cancer patients have a 5 year survival rate of 6.8%. Patients with small cell cancers and large cell cancers ranged at 2.7% or 2.6%. 7. Peripheral tumors of each histological type will be detected earlier by fluorographic screening than central carcinomas. Therefore the 5 year survival rates of peripheral cancers always are more favourable than that of central cancers. 8. For the problems in exact typing and staging we propose an internationally adjusted definition of tumor localization as a third parameter for prognosis. PMID:2171236

  15. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  16. Environmental pollutants and breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer death among women 35-54 years of age. Rising incidence, increased risk among migrants to higher risk regions, and poor prediction of individual risk have prompted a search for additional modifiable factors. Risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive characteristics associated with estrogen and other hormones, pharmaceutical hormones, and activities such as alcohol use and lack of exercise that affect hormone levels. As a result, investigation of hormonally active compounds in commercial products and pollution is a priority. Compounds that cause mammary tumors in animals are additional priorities. Animal models provide insight into possible mechanisms for effects of environmental pollutants on breast cancer and identify chemical exposures to target in epidemiologic studies. Although few epidemiologic studies have been conducted for chemical exposures, occupational studies show associations between breast cancer and exposure to certain organic solvents and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Population-based studies have been limited to a few organochlorine compounds and PAHs and have been mostly negative. A variety of challenges in studies of breast cancer and the environment may have contributed to negative findings. Lack of exposure assessment tools and few hypothesis-generating toxicologic studies limit the scope of epidemiologic studies. Issues of timing with respect to latency and periods of breast vulnerability, and individual differences in susceptibility pose other challenges. Substantial work is needed in exposure assessment, toxicology, and susceptibility before we can expect a pay-off from large epidemiologic studies of breast cancer and environment. PMID:12826474

  17. Natural Products for Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Eun-Yi; Moon, Aree

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the primary cause of cancer death in women. Although current therapies have shown some promise against breast cancer, there is still no effective cure for the majority of patients in the advanced stages of breast cancer. Development of effective agents to slow, reduce, or reverse the incidence of breast cancer in high-risk women is necessary. Chemoprevention of breast cancer by natural products is advantageous, as these compounds have few side effects and low toxicity compared to synthetic compounds. In the present review, we summarize natural products which exert chemopreventive activities against breast cancer, such as curcumin, sauchinone, lycopene, denbinobin, genipin, capsaicin, and ursolic acid. This review examines the current knowledge about natural compounds and their mechanisms that underlie breast cancer chemopreventive activity both in vitro and in vivo. The present review may provide information on the use of these compounds for the prevention of breast cancer. PMID:26734584

  18. MRI Background Parenchymal Enhancement Is Not Associated with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bennani-Baiti, Barbara; Dietzel, Matthias; Baltzer, Pascal Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Previously, a strong positive association between background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and breast cancer was reported in high-risk populations. We sought to determine, whether this was also true for non-high-risk patients. Methods 540 consecutive patients underwent breast MRI for assessment of breast findings (BI-RADS 0–5, non-high-risk screening (no familial history of breast cancer, no known genetic mutation, no prior chest irradiation, or previous breast cancer diagnosis)) and subsequent histological work-up. For this IRB-approved study, BPE and fibroglandular tissue FGT were retrospectively assessed by two experienced radiologists according to the BI-RADS lexicon. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to explore associations between BPE, FGT, age and final diagnosis of breast cancer. Subsequently, multivariate logistic regression analysis, considering covariate colinearities, was performed, using final diagnosis as the target variable and BPE, FGT and age as covariates. Results Age showed a moderate negative correlation with FGT (r = -0.43, p<0.001) and a weak negative correlation with BPE (r = -0.28, p<0.001). FGT and BPE correlated moderately (r = 0.35, p<0.001). Final diagnosis of breast cancer displayed very weak negative correlations with FGT (r = -0.09, p = 0.046) and BPE (r = -0.156, p<0.001) and weak positive correlation with age (r = 0.353, p<0.001). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, the only independent covariate for prediction of breast cancer was age (OR 1.032, p<0.001). Conclusions Based on our data, neither BPE nor FGT independently correlate with breast cancer risk in non-high-risk patients at MRI. Our model retained only age as an independent risk factor for breast cancer in this setting. PMID:27379395

  19. [Immunotherapy opportunities in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Pusztai, Lajos; Ladányi, Andrea; Székely, Borbála; Dank, Magdolna

    2016-03-01

    The prognostic value of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer has long been recognized by histopathologists. These observations were reaffirmed by recent immunohistochemistry and gene expression profiling studies that also revealed an association between greater chemotherapy sensitivity and extensive lymphocytic infiltration in early stage breast cancers treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. These results suggest that local anti-tumor immune response can at least partially control cancer growth and may mediate the antitumor effects of chemotherapy. However, until recently, there was no direct clinical evidence to demonstrate that enhancing anti-tumor immune response could lead to clinical benefit in breast cancer patients. The recent development of clinically effective immune checkpoint inhibitors made it possible to test the therapeutic impact of augmenting the local anti-tumor immune response. Two Phase I clinical trials using single agent anti-PD-1 (MK-3475, pembrolizumab) and anti-PD-L1 (MPDL3280A, atezolizumab) antibodies demonstrated close to 20% tumor response rates in heavily pretreated, metastatic, triple negative breast cancers. The most remarkable feature of the responses was their long duration. Several patients had disease control close to a year, or longer, which has not previously been seen with chemotherapy regimens in this patient population. A large number of clinical trials are currently underway with these and similar drugs in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant and metastatic settings to define the role of this new treatment modality in breast cancer. PMID:26934349

  20. Azacitidine and Entinostat in Treating Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-26

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  1. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  2. Lipid biology of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Jan; Sevinsky, Christopher; Conklin, Douglas S.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in lipid metabolism have been reported in many types of cancer. Lipids have been implicated in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammation, autophagy, motility and membrane homeostasis. It is required that their biosynthesis is tightly regulated to ensure homeostasis and to prevent unnecessary energy expenditure. This review focuses on the emerging understanding of the role of lipids and lipogenic pathway regulation in breast cancer, including parallels drawn from the study of metabolic disease models, and suggestions on how these findings can potentially be exploited to promote gains in HER2/neu-positive breast cancer research. PMID:23562840

  3. Medical Prevention of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stubert, Johannes; Dieterich, Max; Gerber, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Summary Breast cancer is the most common cancer of women in Western Europe and North America. Effective strategies of medical prevention could reduce the burden of breast cancer mortality. The best evidence for a risk reduction exists for hormonal agents such as tamoxifen and raloxifene (22–72%) or aromatase inhibitors (50–65%). However, the severity of side effects and the lack of evidence for an improved survival compromise the risk/benefit balance. In this review the results of chemoprevention studies, including new treatment approaches, are summarized with critical discussion of their use in clinical practice. PMID:25759621

  4. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Isolate of long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from outgrowth of duct element; cells shown soon after isolation and early in culture in a dish. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  5. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneously die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  6. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Same long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), but after 3 weeks in concinuous culture. Note attempts to reform duct elements, but this time in two dimensions in a dish rather that in three demensions in tissue. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  7. Honoring Pioneers in Breast Cancer Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Honoring Pioneers in Breast Cancer Research Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Distinguished Medical Service Award for their pioneering breast cancer research. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson, NIH In this ...

  8. Screening for Breast Cancer: Detection and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table ... States Preventive Services Task Force updated recommendations on breast cancer screening, suggesting that women ages 50 to 74 ...

  9. Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection

    MedlinePlus

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( ... the factors that may affect your risk for breast cancer, and find out what you can do to ...

  10. Antiperspirants/Deodorants and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview–for health professionals Research Antiperspirants/Deodorants and Breast Cancer On This Page Can antiperspirants or deodorants cause breast cancer? What do scientists know about the ingredients in ...

  11. Screening for Breast Cancer: Staging and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Staging and Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents Staging The extent (stage) of breast cancer needs to be determined to help choose the ...

  12. Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview–for health professionals Research Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk On This Page Is there a relationship between pregnancy and breast cancer risk? Are any pregnancy-related factors associated with ...

  13. Breast Cancer: Match of Her Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breast Cancer The Match of Her Life Past Issues / Spring - ... Martina Navratilova stays strong in her battle against breast cancer and her work to help Americans live healthier, ...

  14. Treatment of Breast Cancer during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016 Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Breast Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Breast Cancer Talking With Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New ...

  15. Why Breast Cancer Survivors Should Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159781.html Why Breast Cancer Survivors Should Exercise Moderate physical activity can ease ... Excessive stress can lead to memory problems among breast cancer survivors, but exercise can help, according to new ...

  16. Honoring Pioneers in Breast Cancer Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Honoring Pioneers in Breast Cancer Research Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... the Distinguished Medical Service Award for their pioneering breast cancer research. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson, NIH In ...

  17. Innovative Trials Produce Promising Breast Cancer Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159762.html Innovative Trials Produce Promising Breast Cancer Drugs Adaptive study design allows researchers to match ... provide a fighting chance for women with advanced breast cancer. The drugs, neratinib and veliparib, both appear effective ...

  18. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... hormone therapy does not increase the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, according to an updated analysis ...

  19. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  20. Breast Cancer Gene Might Lower Women's Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158409.html Breast Cancer Gene Might Lower Women's Fertility: Study The BRCA1 ... that is linked to a greater risk of breast cancer may also be tied to potential fertility problems, ...

  1. Breast Cancer Gene Might Lower Women's Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158409.html Breast Cancer Gene Might Lower Women's Fertility: Study The BRCA1 ... that is linked to a greater risk of breast cancer may also be tied to potential fertility problems, ...

  2. Male Breast: Clinical and Imaging Evaluations of Benign and Malignant Entities with Histologic Correlation.

    PubMed

    Chau, Alec; Jafarian, Neda; Rosa, Marilin

    2016-08-01

    Breast cancer is an uncommon disease in men. As a result, the diagnosis may not initially be considered. Understanding the common benign and malignant entities affecting the male breast is critical for timely and accurate diagnosis in the primary care setting. Most patients present with a palpable breast mass or pain. The usual etiology is gynecomastia, the most common breast condition in males, but breast cancer must always be excluded through careful imaging evaluation when physical examination findings are suspicious or inconclusive. Imaging of the male breast generally relies on mammography and ultrasound, with mammography employed as the initial imaging modality of choice and ultrasound when a mass is detected or suspected. Here we describe the normal male breast anatomy and present an evaluation algorithm for the male patient with breast signs or symptoms. The most common benign and malignant entities are described. PMID:26844632

  3. Multicenter Breast Cancer Collaborative Registry

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Simon; Shats, Oleg; Fleissner, Elizabeth; Bascom, George; Yiee, Kevin; Copur, Mehmet; Crow, Kate; Rooney, James; Mateen, Zubeena; Ketcham, Marsha A.; Feng, Jianmin; Sherman, Alexander; Gleason, Michael; Kinarsky, Leo; Silva-Lopez, Edibaldo; Edney, James; Reed, Elizabeth; Berger, Ann; Cowan, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Breast Cancer Collaborative Registry (BCCR) is a multicenter web-based system that efficiently collects and manages a variety of data on breast cancer (BC) patients and BC survivors. This registry is designed as a multi-tier web application that utilizes Java Servlet/JSP technology and has an Oracle 11g database as a back-end. The BCCR questionnaire has accommodated standards accepted in breast cancer research and healthcare. By harmonizing the controlled vocabulary with the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) or Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT), the BCCR provides a standardized approach to data collection and reporting. The BCCR has been recently certified by the National Cancer Institute’s Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology (NCI CBIIT) as a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) Bronze Compatible product. The BCCR is aimed at facilitating rapid and uniform collection of critical information and biological samples to be used in developing diagnostic, prevention, treatment, and survivorship strategies against breast cancer. Currently, seven cancer institutions are participating in the BCCR that contains data on almost 900 subjects (BC patients and survivors, as well as individuals at high risk of getting BC). PMID:21918596

  4. Multicenter breast cancer collaborative registry.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Simon; Shats, Oleg; Fleissner, Elizabeth; Bascom, George; Yiee, Kevin; Copur, Mehmet; Crow, Kate; Rooney, James; Mateen, Zubeena; Ketcham, Marsha A; Feng, Jianmin; Sherman, Alexander; Gleason, Michael; Kinarsky, Leo; Silva-Lopez, Edibaldo; Edney, James; Reed, Elizabeth; Berger, Ann; Cowan, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Breast Cancer Collaborative Registry (BCCR) is a multicenter web-based system that efficiently collects and manages a variety of data on breast cancer (BC) patients and BC survivors. This registry is designed as a multi-tier web application that utilizes Java Servlet/JSP technology and has an Oracle 11g database as a back-end. The BCCR questionnaire has accommodated standards accepted in breast cancer research and healthcare. By harmonizing the controlled vocabulary with the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) or Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT), the BCCR provides a standardized approach to data collection and reporting. The BCCR has been recently certified by the National Cancer Institute's Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology (NCI CBIIT) as a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG(®)) Bronze Compatible product.The BCCR is aimed at facilitating rapid and uniform collection of critical information and biological samples to be used in developing diagnostic, prevention, treatment, and survivorship strategies against breast cancer. Currently, seven cancer institutions are participating in the BCCR that contains data on almost 900 subjects (BC patients and survivors, as well as individuals at high risk of getting BC). PMID:21918596

  5. Veliparib, Cisplatin, and Vinorelbine Ditartrate in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-01

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer - BRCA1; Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer - BRCA2; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  6. Leukemia risk following radiotherapy for breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, R.E.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Stovall, M.; Flannery, J.T.; Moloney, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate further the relationship between high-dose radiotherapy and leukemia incidence, a nested case-control study was conducted in a cohort of 22,753 women who were 18-month survivors of invasive breast cancer diagnosed from 1935 to 1972. Women treated for breast cancer after 1973 were excluded to minimize the possible confounding influence of treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. The cases had histologically confirmed leukemia reported to the Connecticut Tumor Registry (CTR) between 1935 and 1984. A total of 48 cases of leukemia following breast cancer were included in the study. Two controls were individually matched to each leukemia case on the basis of age, calendar year when diagnosed with breast cancer, and survival time. Leukemia diagnoses were verified by one hematologist. Radiation dose to active bone marrow was estimated by medical physicists on the basis of the original radiotherapy records of study subjects. Local radiation doses to each of the 16 bone marrow components for each patient were reconstructed; the dose averaged over the entire body was 530 rad (5.3 Gy). Based on this dosage and assuming a linear relationship between dose and affect, a relative risk (RR) in excess of 10 would have been expected. However, there was little evidence that radiotherapy increased the overall risk of leukemia (RR = 1.16; 90% confidence interval (CI), 0.6 to 2.1). The risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, one of the few malignancies without evidence for an association with ionizing radiation, was not significantly increased (RR = 1.8; n = 10); nor was the risk for all other forms of leukemia (RR = 1.0; n = 38). There was no indication that risk varied over categories of radiation dose.

  7. Breast Cancer in the Bahamas in 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Mungrue, K.; Chase, H.; Gordon, J.; Knowles, D.; Lockhart, K.; Miller, N.; Morley, T.; Sealey, L.; Turner, B.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer affecting women in the Bahamas, which consists of many islands. This is the first attempt to identify which island has the highest occurrence of breast cancer. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to describe the sociodemographical and spatial features of breast cancer in the Bahamas in 2009–2011. METHODS A review of the medical records of all women with a confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer during the period January 1, 2009–December 31, 2011, was undertaken. Data were first obtained from the National Oncology Board of the Bahamas and validated by a review of the medical records. The patient address was geocoded and mapped using ArcGIS 10.0 Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) to satellite images obtained from The Nature Conservancy in the Bahamas. RESULTS We recruited 270 patients who satisfied the entry criteria. The cumulative incidences of breast cancer for the years 2009–2011 were 51.4, 45.4, and 51.4, respectively. Breast cancer occurred most often in women of African origin with a mean age at diagnosis of 56.6 ± 13.8 years. Ductal carcinoma was the most common histological type observed with most cancers occurring in Grade II or higher and presenting as late stage (≥ Stage II). Surgery was the preferred method of treatment with modified radical mastectomy being the procedure of choice. Spatial distribution of cases across the Bahamas revealed one cluster, which is present on the island of New Providence. Further analysis of New Providence showed a consistently skewed kernel density in the central and eastern regions, compared with a scattered distribution in the southern and western regions. CONCLUSION The island of New Providence had the highest occurrence of breast cancer among all the islands of the Bahamas. The increasing incidence of breast cancer in young women is likely to impose a significant burden on the future of Bahamian health care. PMID:27127408

  8. Saracatinib in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Locally Advanced Breast Cancer That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-02

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  9. Fulvestrant and Palbociclib in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Breast Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-20

    Estrogen Receptor and/or Progesterone Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  10. Minocycline Hydrochloride in Reducing Chemotherapy Induced Depression and Anxiety in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-07

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  11. Heavy Metal Exposure in Predicting Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-01

    Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  12. Mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in patients with adenocarcinoma of the breast: Correlation with histological grade and menopausal status.

    PubMed

    Vinothini, Govindarajah; Murugan, Ramalingam Senthil; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2011-02-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the abnormalities in the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins that lead to the progression of breast cancer. Sixty breast cancer patients histologically categorized as grade I, II and III, and as pre- and post-menopausal were chosen for the study. We analyzed the expression of the anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins as well as cytochrome C, Apaf-1 and caspases in tumour and adjacent tissues by immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. The breast tumours analyzed in the present study were characterized by increased expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, associated with downregulation in the expression of Bax, cytosolic cytochrome C, Apaf-1 and caspases. The magnitude of the changes was however more pronounced in premenopausal patients and in grade III tumours. The results of the present study confirm that differential expression patterns of Bcl-2 family proteins and caspases are involved in evasion of apoptosis and in the progression of breast cancer. PMID:20829044

  13. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  14. Breast Cancer, Version 3.2013

    PubMed Central

    Theriault, Richard L.; Carlson, Robert W.; Allred, Craig; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Burstein, Harold J.; Edge, Stephen B.; Farrar, William B.; Forero, Andres; Giordano, Sharon Hermes; Goldstein, Lori J.; Gradishar, William J.; Hayes, Daniel F.; Hudis, Clifford A.; Isakoff, Steven J.; Ljung, Britt-Marie E.; Mankoff, David A.; Marcom, P. Kelly; Mayer, Ingrid A.; McCormick, Beryl; Pierce, Lori J.; Reed, Elizabeth C.; Schwartzberg, Lee S.; Smith, Mary Lou; Soliman, Hatem; Somlo, George; Ward, John H.; Wolff, Antonio C.; Zellars, Richard; Shead, Dorothy A.; Kumar, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates specific to the management of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer in the 2013 version of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Breast Cancer. These include new first-line and subsequent therapy options for patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. PMID:23847214

  15. Can We Prevent Breast Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Sabiha

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the most common cancer in females accounting to 23% of all cases. Between January 1998 and December 2004–2004, 6,882 cases were reported from all GCC states accounting to 11.8% from all cancers and 22.7% from cancers in females. An ASR/100,000 woman was 46.4 from Bahrain, 44.3 from Kuwait, 35.5 from Qatar, 19.2 from UAE, 14.2 from Oman and 12.9 from KSA. Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in Arab women constituting 14–42% of all women cancers. Breast cancer in Arab countries presents almost 10 yrs younger than in USA and Europe. Median age at presentation is 48–52 and 50% of all cases are below the age of 50 where as only 25% of cases in industrialized nations are below the age of 50 yrs. What we need to fight this deadly disease is opening of screening centers with trained physicians equipped with ultrasound, x-ray unit, a pathology lab and most of all a system where a patient is seen urgently on referral to a secondary level care. Health education campaigns should be organized, female medical students should be encouraged to be general surgeons in a community where social customs still have value. PMID:21475500

  16. Estrogen receptor determination in fine needle aspirates of the breast. Correlation with histologic grade and comparison with biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Lozowski, M S; Mishriki, Y; Chao, S; Grimson, R; Pai, P; Harris, M A; Lundy, J

    1987-01-01

    Material obtained by fine needle aspiration (FNA) of 25 surgically removed breast carcinomas was tested for the immunocytochemical localization of estrogen receptor (ER) using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method and a monoclonal antibody developed against human breast cancer ER. The results were compared to those obtained by the conventional biochemical analysis of cytosol protein. A semiquantitative relationship between the immunoperoxidase stain and the biochemical analysis suggests that cases in which greater than 70% of the cells stain and in which intense staining is present are likely to contain ER in a concentration of greater than 250 fmol/mg of cytosol. Less than 15% stained cells and an absence of intense staining is indicative of a concentration of less than 10 fmol/mg. In only one case was there a significant difference in positivity between the two methods, possibly as a result of a functional heterogeneity of the tumor cell population. Intense staining is strongly suggestive of a tumor of low histologic grade and was never seen in tumors with a high histologic grade or nuclear grade. The immunoperoxidase method of ER detection on material obtained by FNA is a semiquantitative means of selecting patients with breast cancer who are likely to respond to hormonal therapy. The method overcomes many important disadvantages of cytosol analysis and provides clinically significant information regarding the ER content and the degree of tumor differentiation. PMID:3314302

  17. [Cancer in ectopic breast tissue].

    PubMed

    Røikjer, Johan; Lindmark, Ida; Knudsen, Thor

    2015-06-15

    Two different forms of ectopic breast tissue exist in human beings: supernumerary and aberrant. Both forms are usually seen alongside the milk lines, which extend from the upper limbs to the inguinal region where they give rise to mammary glands, areolas and nipples. Although ectopic- and orthotopic breast tissue are placed in different areas of the body, they still share the same ability to undergo pathological degeneration. The focus of this case report is to shed light on this unusual form of breast cancer, and raise the level of awareness in cases with lumps located in the milk lines. PMID:26101129

  18. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis as the primary presentation of relapse in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Keith; Muhammad, Aun; Saleem, Waqar; Alshaker, Heba; Monzon, Leonardo; Islam, Mohammad Rafiqul; Pchejetski, Dmitri

    2016-01-01

    Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is an uncommon presentation of relapse in breast cancer, which is associated with poor clinical outcomes and poor prognosis. Notably, LM most commonly occurs in breast cancer. The aim of the present review was to investigate the occurrence of LM as the primary presentation of relapse following remission in breast cancer patients and to determine whether specific histological subtypes are predisposed to meningeal metastases. In addition, the present review evaluated whether patients presenting with LM as the primary site of relapse exhibit differences in survival when compared with patients exhibiting metastasis to other sites. Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that LM is commonly associated with other sites of distant metastasis including lung, liver and bone metastases. The histological breast cancer subtype most commonly associated with LM was invasive lobular carcinoma, while triple-negative breast cancer patients appear to be predisposed to the development of LM when considering the overall prevalence of histological breast cancer subtypes. At present, data regarding LM as the primary site of relapse are limited due to its rarity as the first site of metastasis in breast cancer. Case-controlled studies are required to investigate the incidence of LM as the primary site of recurrence in breast cancer patients as this would enable treatment standardization and identification of prognostic factors for improved survival. PMID:27446350

  19. Evaluate Risk/Benefit of Nab Paclitaxel in Combination With Gemcitabine and Carboplatin Compared to Gemcitabine and Carboplatin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer (or Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-12

    Breast Tumor; Breast Cancer; Cancer of the Breast; Estrogen Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; HER2- Negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  20. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues. Here, two High-Aspect Ratio Vessels turn at about 12 rmp to keep breast tissue constructs suspended inside the culture media. Syringes allow scientists to pull for analysis during growth sequences. The tube in the center is a water bubbler that dehumidifies the air to prevent evaporation of the media and thus the appearance of destructive bubbles in the bioreactor.

  1. Tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, V.C.

    1995-02-01

    The case for tamoxifen to be tested as a preventive for breast cancer has merit. Animal studies demonstrate that tamoxifen prevents mammary carcinogenesis and clinical studies now confirm that adjuvant tamoxifen therapy is the only systemic treatment that will prevent contralateral breast cancer. Developing clinical studies confirm the laboratory data that tamoxifen will maintain post-menopausal bone density in the lumbar spine and the neck of the femur; two important skeletal sites for the ultimate prevention of osteoporosis. However, a most important target site-specific effect of tamoxifen is the decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women. This positive property of tamoxifen may be responsible for the recorded decreases in hospital visits for the treatment of cardiac conditions and the significant decrease in fatal myocardial infarction for women treated with 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen. These data provide the scientific basis to undertake randomized, placebocontrolled clinical trials to test the worth of tamoxifen to prevent breast cancer.

  2. Denosumab in breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Drooger, Jan C; van der Padt, Annemieke; Sleijfer, Stefan; Jager, Agnes

    2013-10-01

    The bone is the most common site to which breast cancer metastasises. Recently, denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds to receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) has been developed as a new targeted bone therapy. In a large randomized phase III study with a head-to-head comparison of denosumab to zoledronic acid in patients with bone metastases of breast cancer, denosumab significantly delayed the time to first skeletal related event. In the adjuvant setting denosumab significantly increased bone mineral density compared to placebo in a phase III study in patients treated with aromatase inhibitors. Preclinical data suggest an effect of denosumab on tumour growth and even on carcinogenesis. This review describes the current indications for denosumab in the various settings of breast cancer treatment, with special attention for efficacy, short and long term toxicity and other relevant issues for clinical practice. Furthermore possible and necessary future research questions are proposed. PMID:23545361

  3. Spontaneous regression of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lewison, E F

    1976-11-01

    The dramatic but rare regression of a verified case of breast cancer in the absence of adequate, accepted, or conventional treatment has been observed and documented by clinicians over the course of many years. In my practice limited to diseases of the breast, over the past 25 years I have observed 12 patients with a unique and unusual clinical course valid enough to be regarded as spontaneous regression of breast cancer. These 12 patients, with clinically confirmed breast cancer, had temporary arrest or partial remission of their disease in the absence of complete or adequate treatment. In most of these cases, spontaneous regression could not be equated ultimately with permanent cure. Three of these case histories are summarized, and patient characteristics of pertinent clinical interest in the remaining case histories are presented and discussed. Despite widespread doubt and skepticism, there is ample clinical evidence to confirm the fact that spontaneous regression of breast cancer is a rare phenomenon but is real and does occur. PMID:799758

  4. Far Beyond the Usual Biomarkers in Breast Cancer: A Review

    PubMed Central

    dos Anjos Pultz, Brunna; da Luz, Felipe Andrés Cordero; de Faria, Paulo Rogério; Oliveira, Ana Paula Lima; de Araújo, Rogério Agenor; Silva, Marcelo José Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Research investigating biomarkers for early detection, prognosis and the prediction of treatment responses in breast cancer is rapidly expanding. However, no validated biomarker currently exists for use in routine clinical practice, and breast cancer detection and management remains dependent on invasive procedures. Histological examination remains the standard for diagnosis, whereas immunohistochemical and genetic tests are utilized for treatment decisions and prognosis determinations. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive review of literature published in PubMed on breast cancer biomarkers between 2009 and 2013. The keywords that were used together were breast cancer, biomarkers, diagnosis, prognosis and drug response. The cited references of the manuscripts included in this review were also screened. We have comprehensively summarized the performance of several biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and predicted drug responses of breast cancer. Finally, we have identified 15 biomarkers that have demonstrated promise in initial studies and several miRNAs. At this point, such biomarkers must be rigorously validated in the clinical setting to be translated into clinically useful tests for the diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of drug responses of breast cancer. PMID:25057307

  5. Multi-class texture analysis in colorectal cancer histology

    PubMed Central

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Bianconi, Francesco; Melchers, Susanne M.; Schad, Lothar R.; Gaiser, Timo; Marx, Alexander; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Automatic recognition of different tissue types in histological images is an essential part in the digital pathology toolbox. Texture analysis is commonly used to address this problem; mainly in the context of estimating the tumour/stroma ratio on histological samples. However, although histological images typically contain more than two tissue types, only few studies have addressed the multi-class problem. For colorectal cancer, one of the most prevalent tumour types, there are in fact no published results on multiclass texture separation. In this paper we present a new dataset of 5,000 histological images of human colorectal cancer including eight different types of tissue. We used this set to assess the classification performance of a wide range of texture descriptors and classifiers. As a result, we found an optimal classification strategy that markedly outperformed traditional methods, improving the state of the art for tumour-stroma separation from 96.9% to 98.6% accuracy and setting a new standard for multiclass tissue separation (87.4% accuracy for eight classes). We make our dataset of histological images publicly available under a Creative Commons license and encourage other researchers to use it as a benchmark for their studies. PMID:27306927

  6. Multi-class texture analysis in colorectal cancer histology.

    PubMed

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Bianconi, Francesco; Melchers, Susanne M; Schad, Lothar R; Gaiser, Timo; Marx, Alexander; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Automatic recognition of different tissue types in histological images is an essential part in the digital pathology toolbox. Texture analysis is commonly used to address this problem; mainly in the context of estimating the tumour/stroma ratio on histological samples. However, although histological images typically contain more than two tissue types, only few studies have addressed the multi-class problem. For colorectal cancer, one of the most prevalent tumour types, there are in fact no published results on multiclass texture separation. In this paper we present a new dataset of 5,000 histological images of human colorectal cancer including eight different types of tissue. We used this set to assess the classification performance of a wide range of texture descriptors and classifiers. As a result, we found an optimal classification strategy that markedly outperformed traditional methods, improving the state of the art for tumour-stroma separation from 96.9% to 98.6% accuracy and setting a new standard for multiclass tissue separation (87.4% accuracy for eight classes). We make our dataset of histological images publicly available under a Creative Commons license and encourage other researchers to use it as a benchmark for their studies. PMID:27306927

  7. Multi-class texture analysis in colorectal cancer histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Bianconi, Francesco; Melchers, Susanne M.; Schad, Lothar R.; Gaiser, Timo; Marx, Alexander; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit

    2016-06-01

    Automatic recognition of different tissue types in histological images is an essential part in the digital pathology toolbox. Texture analysis is commonly used to address this problem; mainly in the context of estimating the tumour/stroma ratio on histological samples. However, although histological images typically contain more than two tissue types, only few studies have addressed the multi-class problem. For colorectal cancer, one of the most prevalent tumour types, there are in fact no published results on multiclass texture separation. In this paper we present a new dataset of 5,000 histological images of human colorectal cancer including eight different types of tissue. We used this set to assess the classification performance of a wide range of texture descriptors and classifiers. As a result, we found an optimal classification strategy that markedly outperformed traditional methods, improving the state of the art for tumour-stroma separation from 96.9% to 98.6% accuracy and setting a new standard for multiclass tissue separation (87.4% accuracy for eight classes). We make our dataset of histological images publicly available under a Creative Commons license and encourage other researchers to use it as a benchmark for their studies.

  8. Estrogen Metabolism and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Samavat, Hamed; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2015-01-01

    There is currently accumulating evidence that endogenous estrogens play a critical role in the development of breast cancer. Estrogens and their metabolites have been studied in both pre- and postmenopausal women with more consistent results shown in the latter population, in part because of large hormonal variations during the menstrual cycle and far fewer studies having been performed in premenopausal women. In this review we describe in detail estrogen metabolism and associated genetic variations, and provide a critical review of the current literature regarding the role of estrogens and their metabolites in breast cancer risk. PMID:24784887

  9. Breast cancer. Selected legal issues.

    PubMed

    Wynstra, N A

    1994-07-01

    Several legal and ethical issues may arise during the course of screening for and diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Among the most active legal areas are reimbursement for therapies deemed experimental by certain insurance companies, such as high dose chemotherapy/autologous bone marrow transplantation (HDCT/ABMT) and off-label drug use; these reimbursement issues are discussed. Legal issues in mammography screening and insurance coverage and legal issues relative to informed consent in breast cancer treatment also are discussed. PMID:8004625

  10. Intensity Modulated Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Before Surgery in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Stage 0-I Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-04

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  11. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    FENGA, CONCETTINA

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are defined environmental factors for breast cancer, particularly at young ages. However, the mechanisms by which occupational factors can promote breast cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the evaluation of occupational factors for breast cancer, particularly in the workplace, also remains to be explained. The present review summarizes the occupational risk factors and the associated mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, in order to highlight new environmental exposures that could be correlated to breast cancer and to provide new insights for breast cancer prevention in the occupational settings. Furthermore, this review suggests that there is a requirement to include, through multidisciplinary approaches, different occupational exposure risks among those associated with breast cancer development. Finally, the design of new epigenetic biomarkers may be useful to identify the workers that are more susceptible to develop breast cancer. PMID:26998264

  12. Postpartum Remodeling, Lactation, and Breast Cancer Risk: Summary of a National Cancer Institute–Sponsored Workshop

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The pregnancy–lactation cycle (PLC) is a period in which the breast is transformed from a less-developed, nonfunctional organ into a mature, milk-producing gland that has evolved to meet the nutritional, developmental, and immune protection needs of the newborn. Cessation of lactation initiates a process whereby the breast reverts to a resting state until the next pregnancy. Changes during this period permanently alter the morphology and molecular characteristics of the breast (molecular histology) and produce important, yet poorly understood, effects on breast cancer risk. To provide a state-of-the-science summary of this topic, the National Cancer Institute invited a multidisciplinary group of experts to participate in a workshop in Rockville, Maryland, on March 2, 2012. Topics discussed included: 1) the epidemiology of the PLC in relation to breast cancer risk, 2) breast milk as a biospecimen for molecular epidemiological and translational research, and 3) use of animal models to gain mechanistic insights into the effects of the PLC on breast carcinogenesis. This report summarizes conclusions of the workshop, proposes avenues for future research on the PLC and its relationship with breast cancer risk, and identifies opportunities to translate this knowledge to improve breast cancer outcomes. PMID:23264680

  13. Skeletal Manifestations of Treatment of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choksi, Palak; Williams, Margaret; Clark, Patricia M.; Van Poznak, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer and osteoporosis are common diagnoses in women. Breast cancer survival has improved due to earlier detection and improved treatments. As most breast cancers are estrogen receptor positive, treatment is often aimed at altering the hormonal environment. Both pre and postmenopausal women undergoing these therapies are at risk for bone loss. The patient's health care team ought to have an awareness of the potential for breast cancer treatments to accelerate bone loss. Women with early stage breast cancer are treated with curative intent and, therefore, maintaining bone health is important and is part of the survivorship care to ensure an optimal quality of life. PMID:24132726

  14. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Broeders, M J; Verbeek, A L

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in our summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point in time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women. PMID:9274126

  15. Significance of Heterogeneous Twist2 Expression in Human Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yubin; Zhang, Nini; Xu, Jinfei; Ding, Zhijie; Zong, Rongrong; Liu, Zuguo

    2012-01-01

    Background Twist2 (Dermo1) has been shown to mediate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to promote tumor invasion and even metastasis. However, the involvement of EMT in breast cancer progression is highly debated, partially due to clinical observations showing that the majority of human breast carcinoma metastases express E-cadherin and maintain their epithelial morphology. The molecular mechanism by which Twist2 participates in EMT of breast cancer in vivo remains poorly understood. Methods We examined Twist2 expression pattern in human breast carcinomas by western blot and tissue microarray, and analyzed Twist2 cellular localization by confocal microscopy, cell fractionation and other approaches. Results Twist2 expression was significantly increased in breast cancer. Cytoplasmic Twist2 positive cancer cells expressing E-cadherin on the cellular membrane were mainly located at tumor center of primary carcinomas and lymph metastases, while cancer cells with nuclear Twist2 clearly showed loss of E-cadherin and were detected at the invasive front in ductal breast carcinomas. In addition, ectopically stable-expressed Twist2 was found to localize in the cytoplasm of cancer cells. Collectively, these data indicate that upregulation of cytoplasmic Twist2 is correlated with tumor histological type and tumor metastasis in human breast cancers. Conclusion The differential cellular distribution of Twist2 may be associated with tumor progression. The cytoplasmic Twist2 in cancer cells at tumor center of primary carcinomas and lymph metastases contributes to the maintenance of epithelial cancer characteristics expressing E-cadherin in a noninvasive state, while the nuclear Twist2 at the cancer invasion front activates EMT to deprive epithelial property of neoplastic cells, thus facilitating invasion and metastasis. These findings suggest that heterogeneous expression of Twist2 in tumors may have a functional link to tumor progression. PMID:23133563

  16. What Breast Cancer Survivors Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... browser. Home Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Other Conditions What Breast Cancer Survivors Need to Know About Osteoporosis Publication available ... Print-Friendly Page April 2016 The Impact of Breast Cancer Other than skin cancer, breast cancer is the ...

  17. Breast Cancer Death Rates Down 34% Since 1990

    MedlinePlus

    ... News » Filed under: Breast Cancer Report: Breast Cancer Death Rates Down 34% Since 1990 Article date: October ... report from the American Cancer Society finds that death rates from breast cancer in the United States ...

  18. Common breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with triple negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Kristen N.; Vachon, Celine M.; Lee, Adam M.; Slager, Susan; Lesnick, Timothy; Olswold, Curtis; Fasching, Peter A.; Miron, Penelope; Eccles, Diana; Carpenter, Jane E.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Ambrosone, Christine; Winqvist, Robert; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Sawyer, Elinor; Hartmann, Arndt; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Ekici, Arif B.; Tapper, William J; Gerty, Susan M; Durcan, Lorraine; Graham, Nikki; Hein, Rebecca; Nickels, Stephan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Fostira, Florentia; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Dimopoulos, Athanasios M.; Fountzilas, George; Clarke, Christine L.; Balleine, Rosemary; Olson, Janet E.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Diasio, Robert B.; Pathak, Harsh; Ross, Eric; Weaver, JoEllen; Rüdiger, Thomas; Försti, Asta; Dünnebier, Thomas; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Kulkarni, Swati; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Van Limbergen, Erik; Janssen, Hilde; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; Verhoef, Senno; Tomlinson, Ian; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Beesley, Jonathan; Greco, Dario; Blomqvist, Carl; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Blows, Fiona M.; Dawson, Sarah-Jane; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W; Lambrechts, Diether; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Severi, Gianluca; Hamann, Ute; Pharoah, Paul; Easton, Douglas F.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Nevanlinna, Heli; Wang, Xianshu; Couch, Fergus J.

    2012-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancers are an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with poor survival, but there remains little known about the etiological factors which promote its initiation and development. Commonly inherited breast cancer risk factors identified through genome wide association studies (GWAS) display heterogeneity of effect among breast cancer subtypes as defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. In the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC), 22 common breast cancer susceptibility variants were investigated in 2,980 Caucasian women with triple negative breast cancer and 4,978 healthy controls. We identified six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with risk of triple negative breast cancer, including rs2046210 (ESR1), rs12662670 (ESR1), rs3803662 (TOX3), rs999737 (RAD51L1), rs8170 (19p13.11) and rs8100241 (19p13.11). Together, our results provide convincing evidence of genetic susceptibility for triple negative breast cancer. PMID:21844186

  19. MiRNA-101 inhibits breast cancer growth and metastasis by targeting CX chemokine receptor 7

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-Shan; Liu, Qin-Qin; Wang, Xiu-Li; Yu, Feng; Liu, Yan-Li; Yang, An-Gang; Gao, Chun-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Whereas miR-101 is involved in the development and progression of breast cancer, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that miR-101 expression is inversely correlated with the clinical stage, lymph node metastasis and prognosis in breast cancers. Introduction of miR-101 inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and suppressed tumor growth and lung metastasis of in vivo. CX chemokine receptor 7 (CXCR7) is a direct target of miR-101, positively correlating with the histological grade and the incidence of lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients. The effects of miR-101 were mimicked and counteracted by CXCR7 depletion and overexpression, respectively. STAT3 signaling downstream of CXCR7 is involved in miR-101 regulation of breast cancer cell behaviors. These findings have implications for the potential application of miR-101 in breast cancer treatment. PMID:26360780

  20. Breast and Gynecologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV | Prevention and early detection of breast, cervix, endometrial and ovarian cancers and their precursors.

  1. MicroRNA analysis of breast ductal fluid in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    DO CANTO, LUISA MATOS; MARIAN, CATALIN; WILLEY, SHAWNA; SIDAWY, MARY; DA CUNHA, PATRICIA A.; RONE, JANICE D.; LI, XIN; GUSEV, YURIY; HADDAD, BASSEM R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that microRNAs show promise as excellent biomarkers for breast cancer; however there is still a high degree of variability between studies making the findings difficult to interpret. In addition to blood, ductal lavage (DL) and nipple aspirate fluids represent an excellent opportunity for biomarker detection because they can be obtained in a less invasive manner than biopsies and circumvent the limitations of evaluating blood biomarkers with regards to tissue of origin specificity. In this study, we have investigated for the first time, through a real-time PCR array, the expression of 742 miRNAs in the ductal lavage fluid collected from 22 women with unilateral breast tumors. We identified 17 differentially expressed miRNAs between tumor and paired normal samples from patients with ductal breast carcinoma. Most of these miRNAs have various roles in breast cancer tumorigenesis, invasion and metastasis, therapeutic response, or are associated with several clinical and pathological characteristics of breast tumors. Moreover, some miRNAs were also detected in other biological fluids of breast cancer patients such as serum (miR-23b, -133b, -181a, 338-3p, -625), plasma (miR-200a), and breast milk (miR-181a). A systems biology analysis of these differentially expressed miRNAs points out possible pathways and cellular processes previously described as having an important role in breast cancer such as Wnt, ErbB, MAPK, TGF-β, mTOR, PI3K-Akt, p53 signaling pathways. We also observed a difference in the miRNA expression with respect to the histological type of the tumors. In conclusion, our findings suggest that miRNA analysis of breast ductal fluid is feasible and potentially very useful for the detection of breast cancer. PMID:26984519

  2. MicroRNA analysis of breast ductal fluid in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Do Canto, Luisa Matos; Marian, Catalin; Willey, Shawna; Sidawy, Mary; Da Cunha, Patricia A; Rone, Janice D; Li, Xin; Gusev, Yuriy; Haddad, Bassem R

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that microRNAs show promise as excellent biomarkers for breast cancer; however there is still a high degree of variability between studies making the findings difficult to interpret. In addition to blood, ductal lavage (DL) and nipple aspirate fluids represent an excellent opportunity for biomarker detection because they can be obtained in a less invasive manner than biopsies and circumvent the limitations of evaluating blood biomarkers with regards to tissue of origin specificity. In this study, we have investigated for the first time, through a real-time PCR array, the expression of 742 miRNAs in the ductal lavage fluid collected from 22 women with unilateral breast tumors. We identified 17 differentially expressed miRNAs between tumor and paired normal samples from patients with ductal breast carcinoma. Most of these miRNAs have various roles in breast cancer tumorigenesis, invasion and metastasis, therapeutic response, or are associated with several clinical and pathological characteristics of breast tumors. Moreover, some miRNAs were also detected in other biological fluids of breast cancer patients such as serum (miR-23b, -133b, -181a, 338-3p, -625), plasma (miR-200a), and breast milk (miR-181a). A systems biology analysis of these differentially expressed miRNAs points out possible pathways and cellular processes previously described as having an important role in breast cancer such as Wnt, ErbB, MAPK, TGF-β, mTOR, PI3K-Akt, p53 signaling pathways. We also observed a difference in the miRNA expression with respect to the histological type of the tumors. In conclusion, our findings suggest that miRNA analysis of breast ductal fluid is feasible and potentially very useful for the detection of breast cancer. PMID:26984519

  3. Nanoparticle-based Paclitaxel vs Solvent-based Paclitaxel as Part of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Early Breast Cancer (GeparSepto)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II; Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II; Breast Cancer Female NOS; Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III; HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer Stage IV; Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  4. Combination Chemotherapy and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant Followed By Aldesleukin and Sargramostim in Treating Patients With Inflammatory Stage IIIB or Metastatic Stage IV Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-07-08

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  5. Interactive Gentle Yoga in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-03

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Fatigue; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  6. Nanotechnology for breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takemi; Decuzzi, Paolo; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Sakamoto, Jason H; Tasciotti, Ennio; Robertson, Fredika M; Ferrari, Mauro

    2009-02-01

    Breast cancer is the field of medicine with the greatest presence of nanotechnological therapeutic agents in the clinic. A pegylated form of liposomally encapsulated doxorubicin is routinely used for treatment against metastatic cancer, and albumin nanoparticulate chaperones of paclitaxel were approved for locally recurrent and metastatic disease in 2005. These drugs have yielded substantial clinical benefit, and are steadily gathering greater beneficial impact. Clinical trials currently employing these drugs in combination with chemo and biological therapeutics exceed 150 worldwide. Despite these advancements, breast cancer morbidity and mortality is unacceptably high. Nanotechnology offers potential solutions to the historical challenge that has rendered breast cancer so difficult to contain and eradicate: the extreme biological diversity of the disease presentation in the patient population and in the evolutionary changes of any individual disease, the multiple pathways that drive disease progression, the onset of 'resistance' to established therapeutic cocktails, and the gravity of the side effects to treatment, which result from generally very poor distribution of the injected therapeutic agents in the body. A fundamental requirement for success in the development of new therapeutic strategies is that breast cancer specialists-in the clinic, the pharmaceutical and the basic biological laboratory-and nanotechnologists-engineers, physicists, chemists and mathematicians-optimize their ability to work in close collaboration. This further requires a mutual openness across cultural and language barriers, academic reward systems, and many other 'environmental' divides. This paper is respectfully submitted to the community to help foster the mutual interactions of the breast cancer world with micro- and nano-technology, and in particular to encourage the latter community to direct ever increasing attention to breast cancer, where an extraordinary beneficial impact may

  7. Multimodal optical imaging for detecting breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Rakesh; Khan, Ashraf; Wirth, Dennis; Kamionek, Michal; Kandil, Dina; Quinlan, Robert; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.

    2012-06-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate wide-field and high-resolution multimodal optical imaging, including polarization, reflectance, and fluorescence for the intraoperative detection of breast cancer. Lumpectomy specimens were stained with 0.05 mg/ml aqueous solution of methylene blue (MB) and imaged. Wide-field reflectance images were acquired between 390 and 750 nm. Wide-field fluorescence images were excited at 640 nm and registered between 660 and 750 nm. High resolution confocal reflectance and fluorescence images were excited at 642 nm. Confocal fluorescence images were acquired between 670 nm and 710 nm. After imaging, the specimens were processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histopathology. Histological slides were compared with wide-field and high-resolution optical images to evaluate correlation of tumor boundaries and cellular morphology, respectively. Fluorescence polarization imaging identified the location, size, and shape of the tumor in all the cases investigated. Averaged fluorescence polarization values of tumor were higher as compared to normal tissue. Statistical analysis confirmed the significance of these differences. Fluorescence confocal imaging enabled cellular-level resolution. Evaluation and statistical analysis of MB fluorescence polarization values registered from single tumor and normal cells demonstrated higher fluorescence polarization from cancer. Wide-field high-resolution fluorescence and fluorescence polarization imaging shows promise for intraoperative delineation of breast cancers.

  8. Breast density and breast cancer risk: a practical review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Amy T; Vachon, Celine M; Brandt, Kathleen R; Ghosh, Karthik

    2014-04-01

    New legislation in several states requiring breast density notification in all mammogram reports has increased awareness of breast density. Estimates indicate that up to 50% of women undergoing mammography will have high breast density; thus, with increased attention and high prevalence of increased breast density, it is crucial that primary care clinicians understand the implications of dense breasts and are able to provide appropriate counseling. This review provides an overview of breast density, specifically by defining breast density, exploring the association between breast density and breast cancer risk, both from masking and as an independent risk factor, and reviewing supplemental screening options as part of a larger framework for counseling patients with dense breasts. PMID:24684876

  9. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue; A: Duct element recovered from breast tissue digest. B: Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneousely die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. C: Isolate of long-term frowth HMEC from outgrowth of duct element; cells shown soon after isolation and in early full-cell contact growth in culture in a dish. D: same long-term growth HMEC, but after 3 weeks in late full-cell contact growth in a continuous culture in a dish. Note attempts to reform duct elements but this in two demensions in a dish rather than in three dimensions in tissue. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  10. Breast Cancer Startup Challenge winners

    Cancer.gov

    Ten winners of a world-wide competition to bring emerging breast cancer research technologies to market faster were announced today by the Avon Foundation for Women, in partnership with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI). Avon is providing

  11. Ruptured poly-implant protheses breast implant after aesthetic breast augmentation: diagnosis, case management, and histologic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dieterich, M; Stubert, J; Stachs, A; Radke, A; Reimer, T; Gerber, B

    2013-02-01

    Since the scandal of the poly-implant protheses (PIP) breast implants, all patients with PIP are advised to have their implants removed. With approximately 400,000 PIP implants sold worldwide breast, surgeons will be confronted with these patients. Histologic examination in the reported case showed silicone infiltration into fatty tissue and breast tissue without signs of malignancy. A general histologic analysis for the rare event of an anaplastic large T cell lymphoma is not advised. The malignant potential of PIP implants currently is uncertain, and further investigation is required. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 . PMID:23288097

  12. Caloric Restriction in Treating Patients With Stage 0-I Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-11

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer

  13. Breast cancer with inguinal node recurrence.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Shikha; Puri, Tarun; Julka, Pramod K

    2015-03-01

    Surgery and irradiation for breast cancer may interfere with conventional pathways of spread, leading to bizarre patterns of dissemination through lymphatics or through hematogenous route. Lymphoscintigraphic studies may help identify nodal involvement. Other possible reasons could be occurrence of primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue retained in the vulva following involution of milk line. We describe a case of triple negative breast cancer, who developed contralateral breast cancer during treatment. Three years later, she developed isolated inguinal nodal metastases, which responded to local radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, the patient relapsed after 2 years and could not be salvaged thereafter. PMID:25455282

  14. What You Need to Know about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Breast Cancer This booklet is about breast cancer. Learning about your cancer can help you take ... This booklet covers: Basics about breast anatomy and breast cancer Treatments for breast cancer, including taking part in ...

  15. Breast cancer in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Crivellari, Diana; Aapro, Matti; Leonard, Robert; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Brain, Etienne; Goldhirsch, Aron; Veronesi, Andrea; Muss, Hyman

    2007-05-10

    Screening and adjuvant postoperative therapies have increased survival among women with breast cancer. These tools are seldom applied in elderly patients, although the usually reported incidence of breast cancer is close to 50% in women 65 years or older, reaching 47% after 70 years in the updated Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Elderly breast cancer patients, even if in good medical health, were frequently excluded from adjuvant clinical trials. Women age 70 years who are fit actually have a median life expectancy of 15.5 years, ie, half of them will live much longer and will remain exposed for enough time to the potentially preventable risks of a relapse and specific death. In the last few years, a new concern about this issue has developed. Treatment now faces two major end points, as in younger women: to improve disease-free survival in the early stages, and to palliate symptoms in advanced disease. However, in both settings, the absolute benefit of treatment is critical because protecting quality of life and all its related aspects (especially functional status and independence), is crucial in older persons who have more limited life expectancy. Furthermore, the new hormonal compounds (aromatase inhibitors) and chemotherapeutic drugs (capecitabine, liposomal doxorubicin), are potentially less toxic than and equally as effective as older more established therapies. These new treatments bring new challenges including higher cost, and defining their benefit in elderly breast cancer must include an analysis of the cost/benefit ratio. These issues emphasize the urgent need to develop and support clinical trials for this older population of breast cancer patients both in the adjuvant and metastatic settings, a move that will take us from a prejudiced, age-based medicine to an evidence-based medicine. PMID:17488987

  16. HSP90 Inhibitor AT13387 and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Advanced Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-15

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  17. Breast metastasis from vaginal cancer.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Neeraja; Scharifker, Daniel; Varsegi, George; Almeida, Zoyla

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal cancer is a rare malignancy accounting for 1-2% of all pelvic neoplasms. Dissemination usually occurs through local invasion and rarely metastasises to distal locations. Metastasis of vaginal cancer to the breast is extremely infrequent and unique. A 66-year-old Asian woman presented with vaginal bleeding and was found to have a vaginal mass and a left breast mass. Pathological assessment of the biopsies revealed identical squamous cell characteristics of both masses. We describe a very rare and novel case of a distally located vaginal carcinoma with metastasis to the breast Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IV (FIGO IVB). Robot-assisted extrafascial total hysterectomy with local vaginal mass excision and partial mastectomy of the left breast were performed. After surgery, the patient underwent adjuvant chemotherapy followed by breast and pelvic radiotherapy, with maintained complete remission after 3 years of follow-up. This combination of findings and treatment is very distinct with a unique and favourable response. PMID:27444140

  18. Do We Know What Causes Breast Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells become cancerous because of changes (mutations) in DNA. Some DNA mutations are inherited. This means the mutations are ... cancers that run in some families. But most DNA changes related to breast cancer are acquired in ...

  19. Coping with a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer.org Handling treatment The goal of any breast cancer treatment is to get rid of the cancer and offer the best possible chance of survival. But even the best treatments have side effects. ...

  20. Prognostic Typing in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hartveit, F.

    1971-01-01

    Infiltrating breast carcinomas in which recurrence takes place 10 years or more after operation are reported to contain tumour cells of characteristic morphology. The cytological features of these tumour cells form the basis of the system of classification described here. Three cytological types are recognized, prognosis being best in type III. Typing is carried out on specimens stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The results of typing were reproducible in over 90% of cases and independent of the histology of the lesion. Correlation to survival time was shown in a total of 222 cases. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:4107964

  1. Paclitaxel and Cyclophosphamide With or Without Trastuzumab Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-12-12

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  2. Reversing breast cancer stem cell into breast somatic stem cell.

    PubMed

    Wijaya, L; Agustina, D; Lizandi, A O; Kartawinata, M M; Sandra, F

    2011-02-01

    Stem cells have an important role in cell biology, allowing tissues to be renewed by freshly created cells throughout their lifetime. The specific micro-environment of stem cells is called stem cell niche; this environment influences the development of stem cells from quiescence through stages of differentiation. Recent advance researches have improved the understanding of the cellular and molecular components of the micro-environment--or niche--that regulates stem cells. We point out an important trend to the study of niche activity in breast cancers. Breast cancer has long been known to conserve a heterogeneous population of cells. While the majority of cells that make up tumors are destined to differentiate and eventually stop dividing, only minority populations of cells, termed cancer stem cell, possess extensive self renewal capability. These cancer stem cells possess characteristics of both stem cells and cancer cells. Breast cancer stem cells reversal to breast somatic stem cells offer a new therapy, that not only can stop the spread of breast cancer cells, but also can differentiate breast cancer stem cells into normal breast somatic stem cells. These can replace damaged breast tissue. Nevertheless, the complexity of realizing this therapy approach needs further research. PMID:21044008

  3. Histopathological Features of Non-Neoplastic Breast Parenchyma Do Not Predict BRCA Mutation Status of Patients with Invasive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bayraktar, Soley; Qiu, Hongming; Liu, Diane; Shen, Yu; Gutierrez-Barrera, Angelica M; Arun, Banu K; Sahin, Aysegul A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Several studies have evaluated histologic features of non-neoplastic breast parenchyma in patients with BRCA1/2 mutations, but the results are conflicting. The limited data suggest a much higher prevalence of high-risk precursor lesions in BRCA carriers. Therefore, we designed this study to compare the clinicopathological characteristics of peritumoral benign breast tissue in patients with and without deleterious BRCA mutations. METHODS Women with breast cancer (BC) who were referred for genetic counseling and underwent BRCA genetic testing in 2010 and 2011 were included in the study. RESULTS Of the six benign histological features analyzed in this study, only stromal fibrosis grade 2/3 was found to be statistically different, with more BRCA noncarriers having stromal fibrosis grade 2/3 than BRCA1/2 carriers (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION There is no significant association between mutation risk and the presence of benign histologic features of peritumoral breast parenchyma. PMID:26327783

  4. FLT PET in Measuring Treatment Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-02

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  5. Evolution of Imaging in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Evelyn M; Crowley, James; Hagan, Catherine; Atkinson, Lisa L

    2016-06-01

    The following topics are discussed in this article. A historical review of the evolution of breast cancer imaging from thermography through digital breast tomosynthesis, molecular breast imaging, and advanced breast magnetic resonance imaging. Discussion of multiple clinical trials, their strengths, and weaknesses. Historical perspective on the Mammography Quality Standards Act and its relationship with development and implementation of the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). PMID:27029017

  6. Fertility after breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Kasum, Miro; Beketić-Orešković, Lidija; Peddi, Parvin F; Orešković, Slavko; Johnson, Rebecca H

    2014-02-01

    In many countries of the developed world, there is an increasing trend toward delay in childbearing from 30 to 40 years of age for various reasons. This is unfortunately concordant with an increasing incidence of breast cancer in women who have not yet completed their family. The current choice for premenopausal women with breast cancer is adjuvant therapy which includes cytotoxic chemotherapy, ovarian ablation (by surgery, irradiation, or chemical ovarian suppression), anti-estrogen therapy, or any combination of these. Although the use of adjuvant therapies with cytotoxic drugs can significantly reduce mortality, it raises issues of the long-term toxicity, such as induction of an early menopause and fertility impairment. The risk of infertility is a potential hardship to be faced by the patients following treatment of breast cancer. The offspring of patients who became pregnant after completion of chemotherapy have shown no adverse effects and congenital anomalies from the treatment, but sometimes high rates of abortion (29%) and premature deliveries with low birth weight (40%) have been demonstrated. Therefore, the issue of recent cytotoxic treatment remains controversial and further research is required to define a "safety period" between cessation of treatment and pregnancy. Preservation of fertility in breast cancer survivors of reproductive age has become an important issue regarding the quality of life. Currently, there are several potential options, including all available assisted technologies, such as in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, in vitro maturation, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. Because increased estrogen levels are thought to be potentially risky in breast cancer patients, recently developed ovarian stimulation protocols with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and tamoxifen appear to provide safe stimulation with endogenous estrogen. Embryo cryopreservation seems to be the most established

  7. Triciribine Phosphate, Paclitaxel, Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IV Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-13

    Breast Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  8. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride and Cyclophosphamide Followed by Paclitaxel With or Without Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-06

    Breast Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  9. Breast cancer and autism.

    PubMed

    Radcliff, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    Case Study Amy is a 44-year-old woman with severe autism. She lives with her sister Susan, who is her caregiver and guardian. Amy is ambulatory and able to dress and feed herself. She is a healthy individual with no other significant comorbidities. She walks daily and enjoys her sister's company. Amy's life expectancy is greater than 10 years. However, she is difficult to care for medically, as she will not allow a physical examination and strikes out when strangers try to touch her. She is nonverbal and unable to participate in decision-making. INITIAL DIAGNOSIS Amy has a history of breast cancer diagnosed 2 years ago, originally presenting as a stage I lesion (T2N0) that was palpated by her caregiver while bathing. She underwent right simple mastectomy with sentinel lymph node resection. Susan recalls that the mastectomy was a very challenging ordeal, as Amy kept pulling out IV lines, drains, and dressings. Susan felt that Amy withdrew from her after the procedure as she most likely associated Susan with the cause of the pain, making her role as caregiver more difficult. Pathology confirmed an invasive ductal carcinoma, moderately differentiated, 2.4 cm, estrogen/progesterone receptor negative, HER2/neu negative, with negative surgical margins. Two right axillary sentinel lymph nodes were negative for disease. The standard of care for a patient with these tumor features is surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy (National Comprehensive Cancer Network [NCCN], 2012). According to the Adjuvant Online! database (2012), Amy's risk for relapse was approximately 40% without adjuvant treatment; her risk for mortality was approximately 29%. After meeting with a medical oncologist, Amy did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. According to Susan, she was not offered the choice, and the decision was not explained to them. She was simply told that it was not necessary. Aside from pathology, previous records were unavailable for review. Medical assessment of Amy's level of autism

  10. Noncoding RNAs in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lo, Pang-Kuo; Wolfson, Benjamin; Zhou, Xipeng; Duru, Nadire; Gernapudi, Ramkishore; Zhou, Qun

    2016-05-01

    The mammalian transcriptome has recently been revealed to encompass a large number of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) that play a variety of important regulatory roles in gene expression and other biological processes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), the best studied of the short noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs), have been extensively characterized with regard to their biogenesis, function and importance in tumorigenesis. Another class of sncRNAs called piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) has also gained attention recently in cancer research owing to their critical role in stem cell regulation. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) of >200 nucleotides in length have recently emerged as key regulators of developmental processes, including mammary gland development. lncRNA dysregulation has also been implicated in the development of various cancers, including breast cancer. In this review, we describe and discuss the roles of sncRNAs (including miRNAs and piRNAs) and lncRNAs in the initiation and progression of breast tumorigenesis, with a focus on outlining the molecular mechanisms of oncogenic and tumor-suppressor ncRNAs. Moreover, the current and potential future applications of ncRNAs to clinical breast cancer research are also discussed, with an emphasis on ncRNA-based diagnosis, prognosis and future therapeutics. PMID:26685283

  11. Vitamin D deficiency in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Imtiaz, Saba; Siddiqui, Neelam; Raza, Syed Abbas; Loya, Asif; Muhammad, Aasim

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine serum vitamin D levels in breast cancer patients and to assess its risk association with grade and stage of the tumor. Materials and Methods: Ninety breast cancer patients and equal number of age-matched healthy females were recruited into the study by consecutive sampling over a period of 6 months for this case control study. Serum 25(OH)2D levels and CT bone mineral density was done. Results: The mean age was 46±1.5 years. Age, marital status, menopausal, residential area, parda observing status, and body mass index were similar in distribution among cases and controls. The mean serum vitamin D level in the breast cancer patients was 9.3 ng/ml and in the control group was 14.9 ng/ml (P value <0.001). Vitamin D deficiency was seen in 95.6% (86) breast cancer patients and in 77% (69) of the control group (P value <0.001). Among the breast cancer patients the tumor characteristics (histology, grade, stage, and receptor status) did not show any significant associations with serum levels of vitamin D. Premenopausal breast cancer females had a mean serum vitamin D level of 10.5 ng/ml and postmenopausal females had a mean value of 13.5 ng/ml (P value 0.015). Low BMD did not correlate significantly with vitamin D deficiency (P value 0.787). Conclusion: Invariably almost all patients with breast cancer were vitamin D deficient. Tumor characteristics did not show any significant associations with serum levels of vitamin D. Bone mineral density did not correlate significantly with vitamin D deficiency. PMID:22629509

  12. What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in men? What are the risk factors for breast cancer in men? A risk factor is anything that ... old when they are diagnosed. Family history of breast cancer Breast cancer risk is increased if other members ...

  13. Early-Stage Breast Cancer Treatment Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast cancer treatment fact sheet ePublications Early-stage breast cancer treatment fact sheet Print this fact sheet Early-stage breast cancer treatment fact sheet (PDF, 943 KB) Related information ...

  14. Can Breast Cancer in Men Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and symptoms of breast cancer in men Can breast cancer in men be found early? Early detection improves ... be treated successfully. Differences affecting early detection of breast cancers in men and women There are many similarities ...

  15. Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Screening Research Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival For some women with breast ... took it for 5 years. (See the table.) Breast Cancer Recurrence and Death 5 to 14 Years after ...

  16. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  17. Electric power, melatonin, and breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.G.

    1987-08-01

    In this paper, the epidemiology of breast cancer will be discussed, followed by a brief description of the effect of electric fields on melatonin and the relation of melatonin to mammary cancer in rats. Finally, there will be a consideration of factors such as alcohol that affect melatonin and their relation to breast cancer risk. 55 refs.

  18. Selected National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Research Topics | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sciences are jointly funding three Breast Cancer and Environment Research Centers (BCERCs) to conduct interdisciplinary research on the effects of early environmental exposures on breast development and breast cancer risk. The Breast Cancer Surveillance ...

  19. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high rate of breast cancer (142.7 per 100,000 in Suffolk County) and in a representative sample of US women (NHANES 1999-2008, 92 with breast cancer and 2,884 without). In a multivariable logistic model, both samples showed a significant trend for increased odds of breast cancer across increasing UCd quartiles (NHANES, p=0.039 and LI, p=0.023). Compared to those in the lowest quartile, LI women in the highest quartile had increased risk for breast cancer (OR=2.69; 95% CI=1.07, 6.78) and US women in the two highest quartiles had increased risk (OR=2.50; 95% CI=1.11, 5.63 and OR=2.22; 95% CI=.89, 5.52, respectively). Further research is warranted on the impact of environmental cadmium on breast cancer risk in specific populations and on identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:21071816

  20. Diet and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diet may play a role in both promoting and inhibiting human breast cancer development. In this review, nutritional risk factors such as consumption of dietary fat, meat, fiber, and alcohol, and intake of phytoestrogen, vitamin D, iron, and folate associated with breast cancer are reviewed. These nutritional factors have a variety of associations with breast cancer risk. Type of fat consumed has different effects on risk of breast cancer: consumption of meat is associated with heterocyclic amine (HCA) exposure; different types of plant fiber have various effects on breast cancer risk; alcohol consumption may increase the risk of breast cancer by producing acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS); intake of phytoestrogen may reduce risk of breast cancer through genomic and non-genomic action; vitamin D can reduce the risk of breast cancer by inhibiting the process of cancer invasion and metastasis; intake of dietary iron may lead to oxidative stress, DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation; and lower intake of folate may be linked to a higher risk of breast cancer. PMID:27095934

  1. Diet and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kotepui, Manas

    2016-01-01

    Diet may play a role in both promoting and inhibiting human breast cancer development. In this review, nutritional risk factors such as consumption of dietary fat, meat, fiber, and alcohol, and intake of phytoestrogen, vitamin D, iron, and folate associated with breast cancer are reviewed. These nutritional factors have a variety of associations with breast cancer risk. Type of fat consumed has different effects on risk of breast cancer: consumption of meat is associated with heterocyclic amine (HCA) exposure; different types of plant fiber have various effects on breast cancer risk; alcohol consumption may increase the risk of breast cancer by producing acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS); intake of phytoestrogen may reduce risk of breast cancer through genomic and non-genomic action; vitamin D can reduce the risk of breast cancer by inhibiting the process of cancer invasion and metastasis; intake of dietary iron may lead to oxidative stress, DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation; and lower intake of folate may be linked to a higher risk of breast cancer. PMID:27095934

  2. Predicting prognostic factors of breast cancer using shear wave elastography.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo Jung; Kim, Hak Hee; Cha, Joo Hee; Shin, Hee Jung; Kim, Hyunji; Chae, Eun Young; Hong, Min Ji

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the study described here was to investigate the correlation between histologic factors, including immunohistochemical factors, related to the prognosis of breast cancer and shear wave elastography (SWE) measurements. One hundred twenty-two breast cancers from 116 women were subjected to sonoelastography. Of the SWE features, mean and maximum elasticity and SWE ratio were extracted. The SWE ratio was calculated as the ratio of the stiffness of a portion of the lesion to that of a similar region of interest in fatty tissue. High ratios indicate stiffer lesions. The Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used for statistical analysis. Estrogen receptor negativity, progesterone receptor negativity, p53 positivity, Ki-67 positivity, high nuclear grade, high histologic grade and large tumor (invasive) size were associated with a significantly high SWE ratio (p < 0.05). ROC curve analysis yielded SWE ratio cutoff values of 2.74-3.69 for significant immunohistochemical factors and 4.21 for the basal-like subtype by maximizing specificity while ensuring more than 80% sensitivity. Breast cancers with aggressive histologic features had high SWE ratios. Shear wave elastography may provide useful information for determining prognosis. PMID:24268451

  3. What Are the Key Statistics about Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast cancer in men? What are the key statistics about breast cancer in men? The American Cancer ... 30 years. Visit the American Cancer Society’s Cancer Statistics Center for more key statistics. Last Medical Review: ...

  4. Skp2 is over-expressed in breast cancer and promotes breast cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenwen; Cao, Lulu; Sun, Zijia; Xu, Jing; Tang, Lin; Chen, Weiwei; Luo, Jiayan; Yang, Fang; Wang, Yucai; Guan, Xiaoxiang

    2016-05-18

    The F box protein Skp2 is oncogenic. Skp2 and Skp2B, an isoform of Skp2 are overexpressed in breast cancer. However, little is known regarding the mechanism by which Skp2B promotes the occurrence and development of breast cancer. Here, we determined the expression and clinical outcomes of Skp2 in breast cancer samples and cell lines using breast cancer database, and investigated the role of Skp2 and Skp2B in breast cancer cell growth, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. We obtained Skp2 is significantly overexpressed in breast cancer samples and cell lines, and high Skp2 expression positively correlated with poor prognosis of breast cancer. Both Skp2 and Skp2B could promote breast cancer cell proliferation, inhibit cell apoptosis, change the cell cycle distribution and induce the increased S phase cells and therefore induce cell proliferation in breast cancer cells. Moreover, the 2 isoforms could both suppress PIG3 expression via independent pathways in the breast cancer cells. Skp2 suppressed p53 and inhibited PIG3-induced apoptosis, while Skp2B attenuated the function of PIG3 by inhibiting PHB. Our results indicate that Skp2 and Skp2B induce breast cancer cell development and progression, making Skp2 and Skp2B potential molecular targets for breast cancer therapy. PMID:27111245

  5. Pathology of breast cancer in women irradiated for acute postpartum mastitis. [X rays

    SciTech Connect

    Dvoretsky, P.M.; Woodard, E.; Bonfiglio, T.A.; Hempelmann, L.H.; Morse, I.P.

    1980-11-15

    The gross and microscopic pathology of breast cancers in women irradiated for acute postpartum mastitis was compared to the breast cancers found in the sisters of the irradiated women. In considering the lesions in the two populations, the size, location, histologic type, histologic grade, inflammatory response, lymphatic and blood vascular invasion, nipple involvement, axillary lymph node metastases, and menopausal status at the time of diagnosis were statistically indistinguishable. The only parameter that was different in the two populations was the desmoplastic response to the malignant lesion. The control population had more marked fibrosis within the cancers compared with the irradiated women.

  6. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Kaufman, Bella; Meirow, Dror

    2008-10-01

    The frequency of pregnancy-associated breast cancer, a rare but serious occurrence, may increase in light of the secular trends for lower parity in general and for older age at first full-term delivery in particular Data on PABC in individuals who are at high risk for breast cancer are limited. A computerized search of Pubmed showed that the reported incidence of PABC is 1:3000 pregnancies; it is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and its prognosis is inferior compared to non-PABC Carriers of mutations in the genes BRCA1/2 may present a specific high risk group for PABC especially at younger ages. Women treated with fertility treatment drugs may be at a higher risk for PABC as well. PMID:19009954

  7. Consumption of coffee, but not black tea, is associated with decreased risk of premenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Baker, Julie A; Beehler, Gregory P; Sawant, Abhishek C; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; McCann, Susan E; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2006-01-01

    Caffeine has been suggested as a possible risk factor for breast cancer, potentially through its effect of facilitating the development of benign breast disease. However, coffee and tea also contain polyphenols, which exhibit anticarcinogenic properties. A hospital-based, case-control study was conducted to evaluate the role of coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and black tea in breast cancer etiology. Study participants included 1932 cases with primary, incident breast cancer and 1895 hospital controls with nonneoplastic conditions. All participants completed a comprehensive epidemiological questionnaire. Among premenopausal women, consumption of regular coffee was associated with linear declines in breast cancer risk (P for trend = 0.03); consumers of >or=4 cups/d experienced a 40% risk reduction (odds ratio = 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.98). No clear associations between intake of black tea or decaffeinated coffee and breast cancer risk were noted among premenopausal women, although black tea was associated with a protective effect unique to a subsample of cases with lobular histology. Among postmenopausal women, breast cancer risk was not associated with consumption of coffee, tea, or decaffeinated coffee. Results among postmenopausal women did not differ by histologic subtype. Our findings support a protective effect of coffee intake on premenopausal, but not postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:16365077

  8. Differentiating cancerous from normal breast tissue by redox imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, He N.; Tchou, Julia; Feng, Min; Zhao, Huaqing; Li, Lin Z.

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal metabolism can be a hallmark of cancer occurring early before detectable histological changes and may serve as an early detection biomarker. The current gold standard to establish breast cancer (BC) diagnosis is histological examination of biopsy. Previously we have found that pre-cancer and cancer tissues in animal models displayed abnormal mitochondrial redox state. Our technique of quantitatively measuring the mitochondrial redox state has the potential to be implemented as an early detection tool for cancer and may provide prognostic value. We therefore in this present study, investigated the feasibility of quantifying the redox state of tumor samples from 16 BC patients. Tumor tissue aliquots were collected from both normal and cancerous tissue from the affected cancer-bearing breasts of 16 female patients (5 TNBC, 9 ER+, 2 ER+/Her2+) shortly after surgical resection. All specimens were snap-frozen with liquid nitrogen on site and scanned later with the Chance redox scanner, i.e., the 3D cryogenic NADH/oxidized flavoprotein (Fp) fluorescence imager. Our preliminary results showed that both NADH and Fp (including FAD, i.e., flavin adenine dinucleotide) signals in the cancerous tissues roughly tripled to quadrupled those in the normal tissues (p<0.05) and the redox ratio Fp/(NADH+Fp) was about 27% higher in the cancerous tissues than in the normal ones (p<0.05). Our findings suggest that the redox state could differentiate between cancer and non-cancer breast tissues in human patients and this novel redox scanning procedure may assist in tissue diagnosis in freshly procured biopsy samples prior to tissue fixation. We are in the process of evaluating the prognostic value of the redox imaging indices for BC.

  9. MK2206 in Treating Patients With Stage I, Stage II, or Stage III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-16

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; HER2/Neu Positive; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  10. Educational Counseling in Improving Communication and Quality of Life in Spouses and Breast Cancer Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  11. [Treatment of disseminated breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Mattson, Johanna; Huovinen, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    Although several effective drugs have in recent years been introduced for the treatment of disseminated breast cancer, it is still an incurable illness. Many patients live a fairly normal life with their illness for a long time, and some of them are able to continue working in spite of the therapies. Factors considered in tailoring the treatment include tumor subtype, extent of the disease, symptoms, previous treatments and the achieved treatment outcome, and adverse effects of the treatments. PMID:26245064

  12. Features of triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Plasilova, Magdalena L.; Hayse, Brandon; Killelea, Brigid K.; Horowitz, Nina R.; Chagpar, Anees B.; Lannin, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the features of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) using a large national database. TNBC is known to be an aggressive subtype, but national epidemiologic data are sparse. All patients with invasive breast cancer and known molecular subtype diagnosed in 2010 to 2011 were identified from the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB). Patients with and without TNBC were compared with respect to their sociodemographic and clinicopathologic features. TNBC was present in 38,628 of 295,801 (13%) female patients compared to 185 of 3136 (6%) male patients (P < 0.001). The incidence of TNBC varied by region from 10.8% in New England to 15.8% in the east south central US (P < 0.001), as well as by race with the highest rates in African-Americans (23.7%), and lowest in Filipino patients (8.9%). The incidence of TNBC also varied by histology, accounting for 76% of metaplastic cancers, but only 2% of infiltrating lobular carcinomas. TNBCs were significantly larger than non-TNBC (mean 2.8 cm vs 2.1 cm, P < 0.001), and more TNBC were poorly differentiated compared to other subtypes (79.7% vs 25.8%, P < 0.001). On univariate analysis, TNBC was no more likely than non-TNBC to have node-positive disease (32.0% vs 31.7%, respectively, P = 0.218) but in a multivariable analysis controlling for tumor size and grade, TNBC was associated with significantly less node-positivity (OR = 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57–0.60). TNBC has distinct features regarding age, gender, geographic, and racial distribution. Compared to non-TNBC, TNBC is larger and higher grade, but less likely to have lymph node metastases. PMID:27583878

  13. Using hair to screen for breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Veronica; Kearsley, John; Irving, Tom; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Cookson, David

    1999-03-01

    We have studied hair using fibre X-ray diffraction studies with synchrotron radiation and find that hair from breast-cancer patients has a different intermolecular structure to hair from healthy subjects. These changes are seen in all samples of scalp and pubic hair taken from women diagnosed with breast cancer. All the hair samples from women who tested positive for a mutation of the BRCA1 gene, which is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, also show these changes. Because our results are so consistent, we propose that such hair analyses may be used as a simple, non-invasive screening method for breast cancer.

  14. [Systemic therapy of breast cancer: practice guideline].

    PubMed

    Horváth, Zsolt; Boér, Katalin; Dank, Magdolna; Kahán, Zsuzsanna; Kocsis, Judit; Kövér, Erika; Pajkos, Gábor; Pikó, Béla; Rubovszky, Gábor; Eckhardt, Sándor

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the practice guideline of systemic treatment of breast cancer and recommendations of the 3rd Hungarian Breast Cancer Consensus Conference. It reflects the recent international guidelines (ESMO, NCCN, ABC2, St Gallen's) irrespectively of the current financial opportunities. Here we follow the early - locally advanced - locally relapsed - metastatic breast cancer line for didactic considerations and we discuss the different subgroups of breast cancer based on hormone receptor and HER2 receptor status. Diagnosis and treatment options of rare clinical entities are summarised at the end of the paper. PMID:27579723

  15. Breast cancer and the consumption of coffee.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, L; Miller, D R; Helmrich, S P; Kaufman, D W; Schottenfeld, D; Stolley, P D; Shapiro, S

    1985-09-01

    The hypothesis has been raised that coffee consumption may increase the incidence of breast cancer, based on the report that fibrocystic breast disease, a risk factor for breast cancer, regresses after abstention from coffee and other methylxanthines. The relation between recent coffee consumption and the risk of breast cancer was evaluated in a case-control study, based on interviews conducted 1975-1982 at several mainly eastern US teaching and community hospitals. The responses of 2,651 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer were compared with those of 1,501 controls with nonmalignant conditions and 385 controls with cancers at other sites. The relative risk estimates for levels of coffee drinking up to seven or more cups daily, relative to none, approximated 1.0 with narrow 95% confidence intervals. After allowance for confounding, the relative risk estimate for drinking at least five cups a day was 1.2 (95% confidence interval, 0.9-1.6) using the noncancer controls and 1.1 (0.7-1.6) using the cancer controls. Coffee consumption was not associated with an increase in the risk of breast cancer among women with a history of fibrocystic breast disease, nor were tea or decaffeinated coffee associated with an increase in the risk of breast cancer. The results suggest that the recent consumption of coffee does not influence the incidence of breast cancer. PMID:4025289

  16. Carboplatin, Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, and Mifepristone in Treating Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer or Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-31

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  17. Breast Cancer 2012 - New Aspects.

    PubMed

    Kolberg, H-C; Lüftner, D; Lux, M P; Maass, N; Schütz, F; Fasching, P A; Fehm, T; Janni, W; Kümmel, S

    2012-07-01

    Treatment options as well as the characteristics for therapeutic decisions in patients with primary and advanced breast cancer are increasing in number and variety. New targeted therapies in combination with established chemotherapy schemes are broadening the spectrum, however potentially promising combinations do not always achieve a better result. New data from the field of pharmacogenomics point to prognostic and predictive factors that take not only the properties of the tumour but also inherited genetic properties of the patient into consideration. Current therapeutic decision-making is thus based on a combination of classical clinical and modern molecular biomarkers. Also health-economic aspects are more frequently being taken into consideration so that health-economic considerations may also play a part. This review is based on information from the recent annual congresses. The latest of these are the 34th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium 2011 and the ASCO Annual Meeting 2012. Among their highlights are the clinically significant results from the CLEOPATRA, BOLERO-2, EMILIA and SWOG S0226 trials on the therapy for metastatic breast cancer as well as further state-of-the-art data on the adjuvant use of bisphosphonates within the framework of the ABCSG-12, ZO-FAST, NSABP-B34 and GAIN trials. PMID:25324576

  18. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Epithelial and fibroblast cell coculture: Long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) admixed in coculture with fibroblast from the same initial breast tissue grown as 3-dimenstional constructions in the presence of attachment beads in the NASA Bioreactor. A: A typical constrct about 2.0 mm in diameter without beads on the surface. The center of these constrcts is hollow, and beads are organized about the irner surface. Although the coculture provides smaller constructs than the monoculture, the metabolic of the organized cells is about the same. B, C, D: Closer views of cells showing that the shape of cells and cell-to-cell interactions apprear different in the coculture than in the monoculture constructs. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  19. Intractable pain with breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, C. P.; Evans, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    This study examines retrospectively the cause, clinical features, natural history and results of treatment of intractable pain associated with breast cancer in 210 patients. The three chief types of pain were that due to skeletal metastases or brachial plexus neuropathy and pain of psychogenic origin. Onset at the time of cancer diagnosis characterized the psychogenic pain, whereas pain from metastases first occurred after a median latency of 3.7 years. Treatment was custom-tailored to the specific patient and pain problem, with several factors taken into account. The onset of intractable pain due to metastatic disease indicated a short survival (median, 9 months). PMID:6277445

  20. Typhoid Vaccine in Testing Response to Immune Stress in Patients With Stage I-IIIA Breast Cancer Who Received Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-15

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Depression; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  1. Adolescent meat intake and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y; Eliassen, A Heather; Willett, Walter C

    2015-04-15

    The breast is particularly vulnerable to carcinogenic influences during adolescence due to rapid proliferation of mammary cells and lack of terminal differentiation. We investigated consumption of adolescent red meat and other protein sources in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. We followed prospectively 44,231 women aged 33-52 years who, in 1998, completed a detailed questionnaire about diet during adolescence. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. We documented 1132 breast cancer cases during 13-year follow-up. In multivariable Cox regression models with major breast cancer risk factors adjustment, greater consumption of total red meat in adolescence was significantly associated with higher premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintiles, RR, 1.43; 95%CI, 1.05-1.94; Ptrend  = 0.007), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. Adolescent intake of poultry was associated with lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.76; 95%CI, 0.60-0.97; for each serving/day). Adolescent intakes of iron, heme iron, fish, eggs, legumes and nuts were not associated with breast cancer. Replacement of one serving/day of total red meat with one serving of combination of poultry, fish, legumes, and nuts was associated with a 15% lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.85; 95%CI, 0.74-0.96) and a 23% lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer (RR, 0.77; 95%CI, 0.64-0.92). In conclusion, higher consumption of red meat during adolescence was associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Substituting other dietary protein sources for red meat in adolescent diet may decrease premenopausal breast cancer risk. PMID:25220168

  2. Clinical Outcome of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Detected Additional Lesions in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Gi-Won; Yi, Mi Suk; Lee, Byoung Kil; Jung, Sung Hoo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical outcome of additional breast lesions identified with breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in breast cancer patients. Methods A total of 153 patients who underwent breast MRI between July 2006 and March 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-three patients (21.6&) were recommended for second-look ultrasound (US) for further characterization of additional lesions detected on breast MRI and these patients constituted our study population. Results Assessment for lesions detected on breast MRI consisted of the following: 25 benign lesions (73.5&), two indeterminate (5.9%), and seven malignant (20.6%) in 33 patients. Second-look US identified 12 additional lesions in 34 lesions (35.3%) and these lesions were confirmed by histological examination. Of the 12 lesions found in the 11 patients, six (50.0%) including one contralateral breast cancer were malignant. The surgical plan was altered in 18.2% (six of 33) of the patients. The use of breast MRI justified a change in treatment for four patients (66.7%) and caused two patients (33.3&) to undergo unwarranted additional surgical procedures. Conclusion Breast MRI identified additional multifocal or contralateral cancer which was not detected initially on conventional imaging in breast cancer patients. Breast MRI has become an indispensable modality in conjunction with conventional modalities for preoperative evaluation of patients with operable breast cancer. PMID:22031803

  3. Molecular homology and difference between spontaneous canine mammary cancer and human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Deli; Xiong, Huan; Ellis, Angela E; Northrup, Nicole C; Rodriguez, Carlos O; O'Regan, Ruth M; Dalton, Stephen; Zhao, Shaying

    2014-09-15

    Spontaneously occurring canine mammary cancer represents an excellent model of human breast cancer, but is greatly understudied. To better use this valuable resource, we performed whole-genome sequencing, whole-exome sequencing, RNA-seq, and/or high-density arrays on twelve canine mammary cancer cases, including seven simple carcinomas and four complex carcinomas. Canine simple carcinomas, which histologically match human breast carcinomas, harbor extensive genomic aberrations, many of which faithfully recapitulate key features of human breast cancer. Canine complex carcinomas, which are characterized by proliferation of both luminal and myoepithelial cells and are rare in human breast cancer, seem to lack genomic abnormalities. Instead, these tumors have about 35 chromatin-modification genes downregulated and are abnormally enriched with active histone modification H4-acetylation, whereas aberrantly depleted with repressive histone modification H3K9me3. Our findings indicate the likelihood that canine simple carcinomas arise from genomic aberrations, whereas complex carcinomas originate from epigenomic alterations, reinforcing their unique value. Canine complex carcinomas offer an ideal system to study myoepithelial cells, the second major cell lineage of the mammary gland. Canine simple carcinomas, which faithfully represent human breast carcinomas at the molecular level, provide indispensable models for basic and translational breast cancer research. PMID:25082814

  4. High levels of class III β-tubulin expression are associated with aggressive tumor features in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    LEBOK, PATRICK; ÖZTÜRK, MELIKE; HEILENKÖTTER, UWE; JAENICKE, FRITZ; MÜLLER, VOLKMAR; PALUCHOWSKI, PETER; GEIST, STEFAN; WILKE, CHRISTIAN; BURANDT, EICKE; LEBEAU, ANNETTE; WILCZAK, WALDEMAR; KRECH, TILL; SIMON, RONALD; SAUTER, GUIDO; QUAAS, ALEXANDER

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of class III β-tubulin (TUBB3), a factor that confers dynamic properties to microtubules, is a candidate biomarker for resistance to microtubule-targeting chemotherapeutics in breast and other types of solid cancer. Discrepant results from previous studies, with respect to the association of TUBB3 expression levels with breast cancer phenotype and patient prognosis, prompted the present study to investigate TUBB3 expression in a large cohort of breast cancer cases, with available clinical follow-up data. A preexisting breast cancer prognosis tissue microarray, containing a single 0.6 mm tissue core from each of 2,197 individual patients with breast cancer, was analyzed for TUBB3 expression by immunohistochemistry. The results of the present study revealed that TUBB3 expression was less frequent in lobular breast cancer cases (34%), compared with that of cancer cases of alternative histologies, including breast cancer of no special type (60%; P<0.0001). High TUBB3 positivity was associated with high tumor grade (P<0.0001), negativity for estrogen (P<0.0001) and progesterone receptors (P<0.004), as well as the presence of human epidermal growth factor 2 amplification (P<0.0001) and a triple-negative phenotype (P<0.0001). TUBB3 overexpression was additionally associated with reduced patient survival if all breast cancer cases of any histology were jointly analyzed (P=0.0088); however this link was not evident in the subset of breast cancer cases of no special type, or in a multivariate analysis including the established prognostic factors of tumor stage, grade and nodal stage. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that TUBB3 overexpression was associated with adverse features of breast cancer, and that TUBB3 may possess a distinct role in lobular breast cancer cases, compared with alternative histological subtypes. The results of the present study do not support a clinically relevant role for TUBB3 as a prognostic marker in breast cancer. PMID

  5. [THE EFFECT OF PREGNANCY ON BREAST CANCER].

    PubMed

    Matalon, Shelly Tartakover; Shochet, Gali Epstein; Drucker, Liat; Lishner, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Cancer and pregnancy coincide in about one in 1,000 pregnancies. One of the most common malignancies associated with pregnancy is breast cancer. Women with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) have a higher likelihood of being diagnosed with metastatic disease and estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumors than do non-pregnant women. Controversies exist regarding the effect of pregnancy on breast cancer prognosis. Some researchers suggest that pregnancy does not affect breast cancer prognosis, whereas others claim the opposite. Although PABC is usually discovered in an advanced stage, breast cancer metastasis on the placenta is a rare event. During cancer progression, the surrounding microenvironment co-evolves into an activated state through continuous communication with the malignant cells, thereby promoting tumor growth. The effect of pregnancy and placental environment on breast cancer biology is the issue of this review. Placental and cancer cells implantation processes share similar molecular pathways. This suggests that placental factors may affect breast cancer cells biology. Previously, we analyzed the effect of first trimester human placenta on breast cancer cells. Breast cancer cells were co-cultured with placental explants during their implantation on matrigel substrate. We found that the placenta reduced ER expression on the cancer cells and induced their migration and invasion abilities. As a result of it, breast cancer cells migrated away from the placental implantation sites. Hormonal pathways were involved in these phenomena. These results may explain the high incidence of metastases during pregnancy in on the one hand and the rarity of metastases on the placenta on the other hand. PMID:26480621

  6. Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159652.html Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too Women with BRCA1 may want to ... increased risk for a deadly form of uterine cancer, a new study finds. The BRCA1 gene mutation ...

  7. Validation of analytical breast cancer microarray analysis in medical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Darweesh, Amal Said; Louka, Manal Louis; Hana, Maha; Rashad, Shaymaa; El-Shinawi, Mohamed; Sharaf-Eldin, Ahmed; Kassim, Samar Kamal

    2014-10-01

    A previously reported microarray data analysis by RISS algorithm on breast cancer showed over-expression of the growth factor receptor (Grb7) and it also highlighted Tweety (TTYH1) gene to be under expressed in breast cancer for the first time. Our aim was to validate the results obtained from the microarray analysis with respect to these genes. Also, the relationship between their expression and the different prognostic indicators was addressed. RNA was extracted from the breast tissue of 30 patients with primary malignant breast cancer. Control samples from the same patients were harvested at a distance of ≥5 cm from the tumour. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis was done on all samples. There was a significant difference between the malignant and control tissues as regards Grb7 expression. It was significantly related to the presence of lymph node metastasis, stage and histological grade of the malignant tumours. There was a significant inverse relation between expression of Grb7 and expression of both oestrogen and progesterone receptors. Grb7 was found to be significantly related to the biological classification of breast cancer. TTYH1 was not expressed in either the malignant or the control samples. The RISS by our group algorithm developed was laboratory validated for Grb7, but not for TTYH1. The newly developed software tool needs to be improved. PMID:25182704

  8. Radiation Therapy in Treating Post-Menopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-02

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Cribriform Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  9. Intraoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Norman R.; Pigott, Katharine H.; Brew-Graves, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Intra-operative radiotherapy (IORT) as a treatment for breast cancer is a relatively new technique that is designed to be a replacement for whole breast external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in selected women suitable for breast-conserving therapy. This article reviews twelve reasons for the use of the technique, with a particular emphasis on targeted intra-operative radiotherapy (TARGIT) which uses X-rays generated from a portable device within the operating theatre immediately after the breast tumour (and surrounding margin of healthy tissue) has been removed. The delivery of a single fraction of radiotherapy directly to the tumour bed at the time of surgery, with the capability of adding EBRT at a later date if required (risk-adaptive technique) is discussed in light of recent results from a large multinational randomised controlled trial comparing TARGIT with EBRT. The technique avoids irradiation of normal tissues such as skin, heart, lungs, ribs and spine, and has been shown to improve cosmetic outcome when compared with EBRT. Beneficial aspects to both institutional and societal economics are discussed, together with evidence demonstrating excellent patient satisfaction and quality of life. There is a discussion of the published evidence regarding the use of IORT twice in the same breast (for new primary cancers) and in patients who would never be considered for EBRT because of their special circumstances (such as the frail, the elderly, or those with collagen vascular disease). Finally, there is a discussion of the role of the TARGIT Academy in developing and sustaining high standards in the use of the technique. PMID:25083504

  10. Coffee consumption and the risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tavani, A; Pregnolato, A; La Vecchia, C; Favero, A; Franceschi, S

    1998-02-01

    On the basis of clinical observations that some women with fibrocystic breast disease experienced resolution of the disease on eliminating methylxanthines from their diet, it has been suggested that coffee intake might be related to breast carcinogenesis. The relationship between coffee (mostly expresso and mocha), decaffeinated coffee and tea intake and breast cancer risk was therefore considered, combining data from two case-control studies, conducted in Italy between 1983 and 1994. Cases were 5,984 women, below age 75, with histologically confirmed breast cancer, and controls were 5,504 women admitted to hospital for a wide spectrum of acute, non-neoplastic, non-hormone-related diseases. The odds ratios (ORs) were estimated from multiple logistic regression equations including terms for study/centre, age, education, body mass index, smoking status, total alcohol intake, age at menarche and menopause, parity and age at first birth, use of oral contraceptives, use of hormone replacement therapy, history of benign breast disease and family history of breast cancer. No relationship was observed between coffee intake and the risk of breast cancer. The multivariate ORs were 1.17 (1.03-1.33), 1.17 (1.04-1.33), 1.21 (1.06-1.37) and 0.96 (0.83-1.11) for women drinking < 2, 2, > 2 to < 4 and > or = 4 cups/day compared to non-drinkers. Decaffeinated coffee was consumed only by 6-7% of cases and controls and the corresponding OR was 0.84 (0.72-0.98). Tea consumption was also low and not associated with the risk of breast cancer (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.85-1.03). No significant heterogeneity was found for coffee intake across strata of age at diagnosis, education, body mass index, smoking status, total alcohol intake, age at menarche and menopause, parity, age at first birth, ever use of oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, history of benign breast disease and family history of breast cancer. Thus, this study, based on a large data set, allows us to exclude the

  11. Women with Breast Cancer Micrometastases in Their Sentinel Lymph Nodes May Not Need Axillary Dissection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and data sets for researchers Research by Cancer Type Find research about a specific cancer type Progress Annual Report ... Laws Careers Visitor Information Search Search Home Cancer Types Breast Cancer Research Breast Cancer Patient Breast Cancer Treatment Male Breast ...

  12. Breast Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has come up with a technique to decrease exposure to harmful x-rays in mammographies or breast radiography. Usually, physicians make more than one exposure to arrive at an x-ray film of acceptable density. Now the same solar cells used to convert sunlight into electricity on space satellites can make a single exposure sufficient. When solar cell sensor is positioned directly beneath x-ray film, it can determine exactly when film has received sufficient radiation and has been exposed to optimum density. At that point associated electronic equipment sends signal to cut off x-ray source. Reduction of mammography to single exposures not only reduced x-ray hazard significantly, but doubled the number of patient examinations handled by one machine. The NASA laboratory used this control system at the Huntington Memorial Hospital with overwhelming success.

  13. Male breast cancer: is the scenario changing

    PubMed Central

    Contractor, Kaiyumars B; Kaur, Kanchan; Rodrigues, Gabriel S; Kulkarni, Dhananjay M; Singhal, Hemant

    2008-01-01

    Background The overall incidence of male breast cancer is around 1% of all breast cancers and is on the rise. In this review we aim to present various aspects of male breast cancer with particular emphasis on incidence, risk factors, patho-physiology, treatment, prognostic factors, and outcome. Methods Information on all aspects of male breast cancer was gathered from available relevant literature on male breast cancer from the MEDLINE database over the past 32 years from 1975 to 2007. Various reported studies were scrutinized for emerging evidence. Incidence data were also obtained from the IARC, Cancer Mondial database. Conclusion There is a scenario of rising incidence, particularly in urban US, Canada and UK. Even though more data on risk factors is emerging about this disease, more multi-institutional efforts to pool data with large randomized trials to show treatment and survival benefits are needed to support the existing vast emerging knowledge about the disease. PMID:18558006

  14. Overcoming radiation resistance in inflammatory breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Wendy A; Debeb, Bisrat G; Xu, Wei; Buchholz, Thomas A

    2010-06-01

    The clinical-pathological features of inflammatory breast cancer include enrichment of factors that have been previously associated with radioresistant disease, including negative hormone receptor status and a phenotype enriched for relatively radioresistant breast cancer stem/progenitor cells. The risks and benefits of accelerated postmastectomy radiation treatment regimens in the multimodality management of inflammatory breast cancer were reviewed at the first International Inflammatory Breast Cancer Conference at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The biological basis for radiation resistance and strategies to radiosensitize these tumors were also presented. The prevalent basal phenotype of inflammatory breast cancer makes it an ideal clinical model to examine stem cell hypotheses, which the authors believe can help guide future trials to continue making incremental progress against this aggressive disease. PMID:20503417

  15. Optical spectra analysis for breast cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkov, S. A.; Kochemasov, G. G.; Lyubynskaya, T. E.; Maslov, N. V.; Nuzhny, A. S.; da Silva, L. B.; Rubenchik, A.

    2011-11-01

    Minimally invasive probe and optical biopsy system based on optical spectra recording and analysis seem to be a promising tool for early diagnostics of breast cancer. Light scattering and absorption spectra are generated continuously as far as the needle-like probe with one emitting and several collecting optical fibers penetrates through the tissues toward to the suspicious area. That allows analyzing not only the state of local site, but also the structure of tissues along the needle trace. The suggested method has the advantages of automated on-line diagnosing and minimal tissue destruction and in parallel with the conventional diagnostic procedures provides the ground for decision-making. 165 medical trials were completed in Nizhny Novgorod Regional Oncology Centre, Russia. Independent diagnoses were the results of fine biopsy and histology. Application of wavelet expansion and clasterization techniques for spectra analysis revealed several main spectral types for malignant and benign tumors. Automatic classification algorithm demonstrated specificity ˜90% and sensitivity ˜91%. Large amount of information, fuzziness in criteria and data noisiness make neural networks to be an attractive analytic tool. The model based on three-layer perceptron was tested over the sample of 29 `cancer' and 29 `non-cancer' cases and demonstrated total separation.

  16. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.C.; Lippman, M.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  17. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Cancer.gov

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  18. Late age at first full term birth is strongly associated with lobular breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, PA; Trentham-Dietz, A; Hampton, JM; Egan, KM; Titus-Ernstoff, L; Andersen, S Warren; Greenberg, ER; Willett, WC

    2010-01-01

    Background Late age at first full-term birth (AFB) and nulliparity are known to increase breast cancer risk. The frequency of these risk factors has increased in recent decades. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study to examine associations between parity, AFB, and specific histological subtypes of breast cancer. Women with breast cancer (N=21,266) were identified from cancer registries in Wisconsin, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire. Control women (N=26,677) were randomly selected from population lists. Interviews collected information on reproductive histories and other risk factors. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of ductal, lobular, and mixed ductal-lobular breast cancer diagnosis in association with AFB and nulliparity. Results AFB ≥ 30 years of age was associated with a 2.4-fold increase in risk of lobular breast cancer compared to AFB < 20 years (OR 2.4; 95%CI 1.9–2.9). The association was less pronounced for ductal breast cancer (OR 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2–1.4). Nulliparity was associated with increased risk for all breast cancer subtypes, compared to women with AFB <20 years, but the association was stronger for lobular (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.34–2.20) than for ductal (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.08–1.31) subtypes (P=0.004). The adverse effects of later AFB was stronger with obesity (P=0.03) in lobular, but not ductal, breast cancer. Conclusion Stronger associations observed for late AFB and nulliparity suggests that these preferentially stimulate growth of lobular breast carcinomas. Recent temporal changes in reproductive patterns and rates of obesity may impact the histological presentation of breast cancer. PMID:21509772

  19. Mammographic breast density: effect on imaging and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Pinsky, Renee W; Helvie, Mark A

    2010-10-01

    Mammographic breast density has been studied for more than 30 years. Greater breast density not only is related to decreased sensitivity of mammograms because of a masking effect but also is a major independent risk factor for breast cancer. This article defines breast density and reviews literature on quantification of mammographic density that is key to future clinical and research protocols. Important influences on breast density are addressed, including age, menopausal status, exogenous hormones, and genetics of density. Young women with dense breasts benefit from digital mammographic technique. The potential use of supplemental MRI and ultrasound screening techniques in high-risk women and women with dense breasts is explored, as are potential risk reduction strategies. PMID:20971840

  20. Thermoacoustic imaging of prostate cancer: comparison to histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patch, S. K.; Griep, S. K.; Jacobsohn, K.; See, W. A.; Hull, D.

    2014-03-01

    Ex vivo imaging of fresh prostate specimens was performed to test the hypothesis that the thermoacoustic (TA) contrast mechanism generated with very high frequency electromagnetic (EM) irradiation is sensitive to prostate cancer. Ex vivo imaging was performed immediately after radical prostatectomy, performed as part of normal care. Irradiation pulsewidth was 700 ns and duty cycle was extremely low. Typical specific absorption rate (SAR) throughout the prostate was 70-90 kW/kg during pulsing, but time-averaged SAR was below 2 W/kg. TA pressure pulses generated by rapid heating due to EM energy deposition were detected using single element transducers. 15g/L glycine powder mixed into DI water served as acoustic couplant, which was chilled to prevent autolysis. Spatial encoding was performed by scanning in tomographic "step-and-shoot" mode, with 3 mm translation between slices and 1.8-degree rotation between tomographic views. Histology slides for 3 cases scanned with 2.25 MHz transducers were marked for comparison to TA reconstructions. These three cases showed little, moderate, and severe involvement in the histology levels surrounding the verumontanum. TA signal strength decreased with percent cancerous involvement. When VHF is used for tissue heating, the TA contrast mechanism is driven by ionic content and we observed suppressed TA signal from diseased prostate tissue in the peripheral zone. For the 45 regions of interest analyzed, a reconstruction value of 0.4 mV provides 100% sensitivity but only 29% specificity.

  1. 0927GCC: Entinostat and Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Women With Triple-Negative Breast Cancer That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-01

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  2. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Inflammatory Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-14

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative

  3. Palbociclib in Combination With Tamoxifen as First Line Therapy for Metastatic Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-05

    Hormone Receptor Positive Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Positive Tumor; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility
    Suzanne. E. Fenton
    US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  5. Breast Cancer in the Personal Genomics Era

    PubMed Central

    Ellsworth, Rachel E.; Decewicz, David J.; Shriver, Craig D.; Ellsworth, Darrell L.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a complex etiology that develops from different cellular lineages, progresses along multiple molecular pathways, and demonstrates wide variability in response to treatment. The “standard of care” approach to breast cancer treatment in which all patients receive similar interventions is rapidly being replaced by personalized medicine, based on molecular characteristics of individual patients. Both inherited and somatic genomic variation is providing useful information for customizing treatment regimens for breast cancer to maximize efficacy and minimize adverse side effects. In this article, we review (1) hereditary breast cancer and current use of inherited susceptibility genes in patient management; (2) the potential of newly-identified breast cancer-susceptibility variants for improving risk assessment; (3) advantages and disadvantages of direct-to-consumer testing; (4) molecular characterization of sporadic breast cancer through immunohistochemistry and gene expression profiling and opportunities for personalized prognostics; and (5) pharmacogenomic influences on the effectiveness of current breast cancer treatments. Molecular genomics has the potential to revolutionize clinical practice and improve the lives of women with breast cancer. PMID:21037853

  6. THE LONG ISLAND BREAST CANCER STUDY (LIBCSP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NIEHS and the NCI are collaborating on the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP), which is designed to conduct epidemiologic research on the role of environmental factors in the etiology of breast cancer in women who live in Nassau and Suffolk counties, New York. T...

  7. Industrialization, electromagnetic fields, and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kheifets, L I; Matkin, C C

    1999-01-01

    The disparity between the rates of breast cancer in industrialized and less-industrialized regions has led to many hypotheses, including the theory that exposure to light-at-night and/or electromagnetic fields (EMF) may suppress melatonin and that reduced melatonin may increase the risk of breast cancer. In this comprehensive review we consider strengths and weaknesses of more than 35 residential and occupational epidemiologic studies that investigated the association between EMF and breast cancer. Although most of the epidemiologic data do not provide strong support for an association between EMF and breast cancer, because of the limited statistical power as well as the possibility of misclassification and bias present in much of the existing data, it is not possible to rule out a relationship between EMF and breast cancer. We make several specific recommendations for future studies carefully designed to test the melatonin-breast cancer and EMF-breast cancer hypotheses. Future study designs should have sufficient statistical power to detect small to moderate associations; include comprehensive exposure assessments that estimate residential and occupational exposures, including shift work; focus on a relevant time period; control for known breast cancer risks; and pay careful attention to menopausal and estrogen receptor status. PMID:10229714

  8. Depression in older breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among U.S. women .The 5-year survival rate for this tumour is nowadays 85%, and the 61% of these women are still alive at 15 years. When depression symptoms are present as a consequence of breast cancer treatments, they may interfere negatively with patients’ quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of breast cancer treatment on the quality of life and the impact of depression on the health-related life. Methods We enrolled 173 women aged 65-75 years with early stage breast cancer diagnosed over the last 10 years, initially recruited to participate in a study examining heath-related quality of life in the first 5 years after breast cancer diagnosis. Participants were divided into four groups: 1) 46 breast cancer survivors (aged 65-70); 2) 62 women diagnosed with breast cancer (aged 65-69); 3) 32 women with recurrent breast cancer after 10 years (aged 66-75); 4) 30 women in good health status (aged 60-70). The Geriatric Depression Scale was used as a routine part of a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Collection of data for the application of instruments, such as sociodemographic variables (age, educational level, social state) and clinical date (stage and time of the disease and treatment), was carried out by trained researcher assistants. Results Our results demonstrated the correlation between depression and previous cancer experiences. In fact, in patients with cancer experience, the grade of depression was significantly higher compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the patients with recurrent breast cancer were severely depressed compared to other groups. Conclusions A high percentage of participants were identified as having emotional and/or well being problems. Further investigations on the cause of depression problems cancer-related are needed. PMID:23173836

  9. The Changing World of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Christiane K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Compared with other fields of medicine, there is hardly an area that has seen such fast development as the world of breast cancer. Indeed, the way we treat breast cancer has changed fundamentally over the past decades. Breast imaging has always been an integral part of this change, and it undergoes constant adjustment to new ways of thinking. This relates not only to the technical tools we use for diagnosing breast cancer but also to the way diagnostic information is used to guide treatment. There is a constant change of concepts for and attitudes toward breast cancer, and a constant flux of new ideas, new treatment approaches, and new insights into the molecular and biological behavior of this disease. Clinical breast radiologists and even more so, clinician scientists, interested in breast imaging need to keep abreast with this rapidly changing world. Diagnostic or treatment approaches that are considered useful today may be abandoned tomorrow. Approaches that seem irrelevant or far too extravagant today may prove clinically useful and adequate next year. Radiologists must constantly question what they do, and align their clinical aims and research objectives with the changing needs of contemporary breast oncology. Moreover, knowledge about the past helps better understand present debates and controversies. Accordingly, in this article, we provide an overview on the evolution of breast imaging and breast cancer treatment, describe current areas of research, and offer an outlook regarding the years to come. PMID:26083829

  10. Breast thermography. A prognostic indicator for breast cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Isard, H J; Sweitzer, C J; Edelstein, G R

    1988-08-01

    A prognostic classification for thermographic staging of breast cancer has been applied to a cohort of 70 patients from 5040 screenees enrolled in the Albert Einstein Medical Center (AEMC) Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project (BCDDP). A diagnosis of breast cancer was established in each case before December 31, 1980. None of the patients have been lost to follow-up which extended from a minimum of 6 to a maximum of 13 years. Survival rates for those with favorable, equivocal, and poor thermographic factors are compared with each other and with results in accordance with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification. As of December 31, 1986, there have been 22 (31.4%) deaths, all attributed to breast cancer. The thermographic scoring system clearly shows shorter survival for patients with poor thermographic prognostic factors, 30% surviving at 5 years and only 20% at 10 years compared with overall survival of 80% at 5 years and 70% at 10 years. PMID:3390789

  11. Radiation-induced sarcoma of the breast in a female adolescent. Case report with histologic and therapeutic considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, R.; Bianchi, A.; Jakate, S.M.

    1988-06-15

    A 14-year-old girl developed a radiation-induced sarcoma of the left breast after successful combined surgical and radiation therapy of a left adrenal carcinoma when she was 9 months old. The breast lesion was histologically described as a stromal sarcoma with fibrosarcomatous and myxosarcomatous areas. The second primary lesion and local recurrence of this was treated with surgery. At each recurrence the tumor became more aggressive both clinically and histologically, and eventually proved fatal.

  12. Metastatic male ductal breast cancer mimicking obstructing primary colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Koleilat, Issam; Syal, Anil; Hena, Muhammad

    2010-03-01

    Male breast cancer comprises only about 1% of all breast cancers. Commonly, sites of metastases include the central nervous system, lungs, bones, and even liver. In females, extrahepatic gastrointestinal metastases are unusual but have been reported with various clinical presentations. We are reporting the first case of a male patient with a history of ductal breast carcinoma that developed colonic metastasis and presented with mechanical large bowel obstruction masquerading as primary colon cancer. PMID:23675178

  13. Metastatic Male Ductal Breast Cancer Mimicking Obstructing Primary Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koleilat, Issam; Syal, Anil; Hena, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Male breast cancer comprises only about 1% of all breast cancers. Commonly, sites of metastases include the central nervous system, lungs, bones, and even liver. In females, extrahepatic gastrointestinal metastases are unusual but have been reported with various clinical presentations. We are reporting the first case of a male patient with a history of ductal breast carcinoma that developed colonic metastasis and presented with mechanical large bowel obstruction masquerading as primary colon cancer. PMID:23675178

  14. Luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin receptors in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Meduri, G; Charnaux, N; Loosfelt, H; Jolivet, A; Spyratos, F; Brailly, S; Milgrom, E

    1997-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that human choriogonadotropin (hCG), in addition to its function in regulating steroidogenesis, may also play a role as a growth factor. Immunocytochemistry using two different monoclonal antibodies (LHR29 and LHR1055) raised against the human luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin (LH/hCG) receptor allowed us to detect this receptor in breast cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF7, and ZR75) in individual cancer biopsies and in benign breast lesions. The receptor was also present in epithelial cells of normal human and sow breast. In the latter, its concentration increased after ovulation. The presence of LH/hCG receptor mRNA was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR using primers extending over exons 2-4, 5-11, and 9-11. The proportion of LH/hCG-receptor positive cells and the intensity of the immunolabeling varied in individual biopsies, but there was no obvious correlation with the histological type of the cancer. These results are compatible with previous studies suggesting that during pregnancy, hCG is involved in the differentiation of breast glandular epithelium and that this hormone may play an inhibitory role in mammary carcinogenesis and in the growth of breast tumors. PMID:9041186

  15. Claudin 1 in Breast Cancer: New Insights

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bowen; Moodie, Amanda; Blanchard, Anne A. A.; Leygue, Etienne; Myal, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Claudin 1 is a small transmembrane protein responsible for maintaining the barrier function that exists between epithelial cells. A tight junction protein that regulates the paracellular transport of small ions across adjacent cells, claudin 1 maintains cellular polarity and plays a major role in cell-cell communication and epithelial cell homeostasis. Long considered to be a putative tumor suppressor in human breast cancer, new studies suggest a role much more complex. While most invasive breast cancers exhibit a down regulation or absence of claudin 1, some aggressive subtypes that exhibit high claudin 1 levels have now been described. Furthermore, a causal role for claudin 1 in breast cancer progression has recently been demonstrated in some breast cancer cell lines. In this review we highlight new insights into the role of claudin 1 in breast cancer, including its involvement in collective migration and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). PMID:26633531

  16. Claudin 1 in Breast Cancer: New Insights.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bowen; Moodie, Amanda; Blanchard, Anne A A; Leygue, Etienne; Myal, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Claudin 1 is a small transmembrane protein responsible for maintaining the barrier function that exists between epithelial cells. A tight junction protein that regulates the paracellular transport of small ions across adjacent cells, claudin 1 maintains cellular polarity and plays a major role in cell-cell communication and epithelial cell homeostasis. Long considered to be a putative tumor suppressor in human breast cancer, new studies suggest a role much more complex. While most invasive breast cancers exhibit a down regulation or absence of claudin 1, some aggressive subtypes that exhibit high claudin 1 levels have now been described. Furthermore, a causal role for claudin 1 in breast cancer progression has recently been demonstrated in some breast cancer cell lines. In this review we highlight new insights into the role of claudin 1 in breast cancer, including its involvement in collective migration and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). PMID:26633531

  17. Breast cancer detection using time reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh Sajjadieh, Mohammad Hossein

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death after lung cancer among women. Mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have certain limitations in detecting breast cancer, especially during its early stage of development. A number of studies have shown that microwave breast cancer detection has potential to become a successful clinical complement to the conventional X-ray mammography. Microwave breast imaging is performed by illuminating the breast tissues with an electromagnetic waveform and recording its reflections (backscatters) emanating from variations in the normal breast tissues and tumour cells, if present, using an antenna array. These backscatters, referred to as the overall (tumour and clutter) response, are processed to estimate the tumour response, which is applied as input to array imaging algorithms used to estimate the location of the tumour. Due to changes in the breast profile over time, the commonly utilized background subtraction procedures used to estimate the target (tumour) response in array processing are impractical for breast cancer detection. The thesis proposes a new tumour estimation algorithm based on a combination of the data adaptive filter with the envelope detection filter (DAF/EDF), which collectively do not require a training step. After establishing the superiority of the DAF/EDF based approach, the thesis shows that the time reversal (TR) array imaging algorithms outperform their conventional conterparts in detecting and localizing tumour cells in breast tissues at SNRs ranging from 15 to 30dB.

  18. Is clinical breast examination important for breast cancer detection?

    PubMed Central

    Provencher, L.; Hogue, J.C.; Desbiens, C.; Poirier, B.; Poirier, E.; Boudreau, D.; Joyal, M.; Diorio, C.; Duchesne, N.; Chiquette, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening clinical breast examination (cbe) is controversial; the use of cbe is declining not only as a screening tool, but also as a diagnostic tool. In the present study, we aimed to assess the value of cbe in breast cancer detection in a tertiary care centre for breast diseases. Methods This retrospective study of all breast cancers diagnosed between July 1999 and December 2010 at our centre categorized cases according to the mean of detection (cbe, mammography, or both). A cbe was considered “abnormal” in the presence of a mass, nipple discharge, skin or nipple retraction, edema, erythema, peau d’orange, or ulcers. Results During the study period, a complete dataset was available for 6333 treated primary breast cancers. Cancer types were ductal carcinoma in situ (15.3%), invasive ductal carcinoma (75.7%), invasive lobular carcinoma (9.0%), or others (2.2%). Of the 6333 cancers, 36.5% (n = 2312) were detected by mammography alone, 54.8% (n = 3470) by mammography and cbe, and 8.7% (n = 551) by physician-performed cbe alone (or 5.3% if considering ultrasonography). Invasive tumours diagnosed by cbe alone were more often triple-negative, her2-positive, node-positive, and larger than those diagnosed by mammography alone (p < 0.05). Conclusions A significant number of cancers would have been missed if cbe had not been performed. Compared with cancers detected by mammography alone, those detected by cbe had more aggressive features. Clinical breast examination is a very low-cost test that could improve the detection of breast cancer and could prompt breast ultrasonography in the case of a negative mammogram. PMID:27536182

  19. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Epithelial cell monoculture: Long-term growth of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) grown in monoculture as 3-dimensional constructions in the presence of attachment beads in the NASA Bioreactor. A: A typical construct about 3.5 mm (less than 1/8th inch) in diameter with slightly dehydrted, crinkled beads contained on the surface as well as within the 3-dimensional structure. B: The center of these constructs is hollow. Crinkling of the beads causes a few to fall out, leaving crater-like impressiions in the construct. The central impression shows a small hole that accesses the hollow center of the construct. C: A closeup view of the cells and the hole the central impression. D: Closer views of cells in the construct showing sell-to-cell interactions. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  20. Depression in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cvetković, Jovana; Nenadović, Milutin

    2016-06-30

    Breast cancer is the third most common illness in the world and the most frequent malignant disease with women. Cytotoxic therapy is connected to significant psychiatric adverse effects, and the appearance of depressive symptoms is the most common. The main goal is determining the degree of depression with breast cancer patients in the oncology ward of the University Clinical Hospital in Niš and its connection to their marital status, age, level of education, economic status and the number of therapy cycles. This research is a prospective study. The statistical data analysis included measures of descriptive and analytical statistics. The presence of depressive symptoms of different intensity was showed in 76.00% of the interviewees in group I, and the second included 77.4%. The frequency distributions show that 27.084% interviewees from the first group showed signs of depressive symptoms, while the second included 25%. The intensity of these symptoms categorizes them into the group of moderate to significantly expressed depressive states, so they require therapeutic treatment. Depression is significantly more often recorded with cancer patients receiving cytotoxic therapy; mild depression is the most common, followed by moderate and severe depression. PMID:27138829

  1. KeraStat Skin Therapy in Treating Radiation Dermatitis in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage 0-IIIA Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-28

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Skin Reactions Secondary to Radiation Therapy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  2. GDC-0941 and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Androgen Receptor-Negative Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-17

    Estrogen Receptor Negative Breast Cancer; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  3. Trastuzumab Emtansine in Treating Older Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-31

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2 Positive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  4. How I report breast magnetic resonance imaging studies for breast cancer staging and screening.

    PubMed

    Vinnicombe, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast is the most sensitive imaging technique for the diagnosis and local staging of primary breast cancer and yet, despite the fact that it has been in use for 20 years, there is little evidence that its widespread uncritical adoption has had a positive impact on patient-related outcomes.This has been attributed previously to the low specificity that might be expected with such a sensitive modality, but with modern techniques and protocols, the specificity and positive predictive value for malignancy can exceed that of breast ultrasound and mammography. A more likely explanation is that historically, clinicians have acted on MRI findings and altered surgical plans without prior histological confirmation. Furthermore, modern adjuvant therapy for breast cancer has improved so much that it has become a very tall order to show a an improvement in outcomes such as local recurrence rates.In order to obtain clinically useful information, it is necessary to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the technique and the physiological processes reflected in breast MRI. An appropriate indication for the scan, proper patient preparation and good scan technique, with rigorous quality assurance, are all essential prerequisites for a diagnostically relevant study.The use of recognised descriptors from a standardised lexicon is helpful, since assessment can then dictate subsequent recommendations for management, as in the American College of Radiology BI-RADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) lexicon (Morris et al., ACR BI-RADS® Atlas, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, 2013). It also enables audit of the service. However, perhaps the most critical factor in the generation of a meaningful report is for the reporting radiologist to have a thorough understanding of the clinical question and of the findings that will influence management. This has never been more important than at present, when we are in the throes of a

  5. [Infertility, fertility treatment and breast cancer risk].

    PubMed

    Riskin-Mashiah, Shlomit

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in Israel and throughout the world. It is the leading cause of death from cancer in women. The cause of breast cancer is unknown; however gynecological history and hormonal factors have a major impact on the risk to develop breast cancer. Infertility affects 15-20% of couples in developed countries and most of them will need fertility treatment. The variety of fertility treatments and their use has been widespread during the last 50 years and especially since the introduction of in vitro fertilization. During fertility treatment, and depending on the type of treatment, there is ovarian hyperstimulation with maturation of several follicles and higher than normal estradiol levels. This article reviews the leading studies that evaluated the possible link between fertility treatment and the development of breast cancer. Most studies showed no association between fertility drugs and breast cancer. Whereas other researchers demonstrated a possible link between some fertility drugs and increased risk for breast cancer in certain subgroups. Therefore, larger studies with longer follow-up periods and better control for all possible confounding factors are needed in order to confirm the safety of fertility treatments in the long run. The combination of infertility and fertility treatment might cause harm, such as an increased risk for breast cancer Therefore, one has to consider carefully, together with the woman, the need for fertility treatment and give the lowest possible dosage for the shortest duration in order to minimize the risk. PMID:24450034

  6. DDT Exposure in Utero and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    La Merrill, Michele; Krigbaum, Nickilou Y.; Yeh, Gregory; Park, June-Soo; Zimmermann, Lauren; Cirillo, Piera M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Currently no direct evidence links in utero dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exposure to human breast cancer. However, in utero exposure to another xenoestrogen, diethylstilbestrol, predicts an increased breast cancer risk. If this finding extends to DDT, it could have far-reaching consequences. Many women were heavily exposed in utero during widespread DDT use in the 1960s. They are now reaching the age of heightened breast cancer risk. DDT exposure persists and use continues in Africa and Asia without clear knowledge of the consequences for the next generation. Hypothesis: In utero exposure to DDT is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Design: This was a case-control study nested in a prospective 54-year follow-up of 9300 daughters in the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort (n = 118 breast cancer cases, diagnosed by age 52 y and 354 controls matched on birth year). Setting and Participants: Kaiser Foundation Health Plan members who received obstetric care in Alameda County, California, from 1959 to 1967, and their adult daughters participated in the study. Main Outcome Measure: Daughters' breast cancer diagnosed by age 52 years as of 2012 was measured. Results: Maternal o,p′-DDT predicted daughters' breast cancer (odds ratio fourth quartile vs first = 3.7, 95% confidence interval 1.5–9.0). Mothers' lipids, weight, race, age, and breast cancer history did not explain the findings. Conclusions: This prospective human study links measured DDT exposure in utero to risk of breast cancer. Experimental studies are essential to confirm results and discover causal mechanisms. Findings support classification of DDT as an endocrine disruptor, a predictor of breast cancer, and a marker of high risk. PMID:26079774

  7. Estrogen sulfotransferases in breast and endometrial cancers.

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, Jorge Raul

    2009-02-01

    Estrogen sulfotransferase is significantly more active in the normal breast cell (e.g., Human 7) than in the cancer cell (e.g., MCF-7). The data suggest that in breast cancer sulfoconjugated activity is carried out by another enzyme, the SULT1A, which acts at high concentration of the substrates. In breast cancer cells sulfotransferase (SULT) activity can be stimulated by various progestins: medrogestone, promegestone, and nomegestrol acetate, as well as by tibolone and its metabolites. SULT activities can also be controlled by other substances including phytoestrogens, celecoxib, flavonoids (e.g., quercetin, resveratrol), and isoflavones. SULT expression was localized in breast cancer cells, which can be stimulated by promegestone and correlated with the increase of the enzyme activity. The estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1), which acts at nanomolar concentration of estradiol, can inactivate most of this hormone present in the normal breast; however, in the breast cancer cells, the sulfotransferase denoted as SULT1A1 is mainly present, and this acts at micromolar concentrations of E(2). A correlation was postulated among breast cancer cell proliferation, the effect of various progestins, and sulfotransferase stimulation. In conclusion, it is suggested that factors involved in the stimulation of the estrogen sulfotransferases could provide new possibilities for the treatment of patients with hormone-dependent breast and endometrial cancers. PMID:19250196

  8. The role of oestrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer – immunohistochemical evaluation of oestrogen and progesterone receptor expression in invasive breast cancer in women

    PubMed Central

    Patera, Janusz; Sobol, Maria; Przybylski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study Expression of oestrogen and progesterone receptors is a very powerful and useful predictor. Because the response rate to hormonal treatment in breast cancer is associated with the presence of oestrogen and progesterone receptors, assessment of the receptor expression profile allows for prediction of breast cancer response to hormonal treatment. The aim of this study was to assess whether the expression of receptors for oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) in the tumour tissue of patients with invasive breast cancer correlated with tumour histological type, histological grade of malignancy, tumour size, and lymph node status. Material and methods Materials consisted of histological preparations derived from patients treated for invasive breast cancer. Evaluations were conducted with histopathological and immunohistochemical methods using suitable antibodies. Results Among 231 cases of breast cancer 18 invasive lobular carcinomas (ILC) and 213 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC) were diagnosed. Taking the histological type of tumour into account, oestrogen receptor-positive reaction was observed in 74.2% of IDC and 77.8% of ILC, and the positive response to PR was observed in 67.1% of IDC and 61.1% of ILC. Considering the histological grade, ER- in the largest percentage (72%) was observed in second-grade (G2) invasive carcinomas. Similarly, PR expression (75%) was found in the largest percentage in second-grade (G2) carcinomas. Based on our own studies and data from literature, it appears that the ER (+) status is an indicator of good prognosis, because it points to a less aggressive cancer, in which overall survival and disease-free time is longer in comparison with ER (–) tumours. Conclusions Determination of ER status may, therefore, have significant clinical value and is widely used in routine pathological diagnostics. PMID:26557763

  9. Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Nattinger, Ann B; Mitchell, Julie L

    2016-06-01

    This issue provides a clinical overview of breast cancer screening and prevention, focusing on risk assessment, screening, prevention, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers. PMID:27270661

  10. Antipsychotic treatment in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Tahir; Clevenger, Charles V; Kaklamani, Virginia; Lauriello, John; Campbell, Austin; Malwitz, Kari; Kirkland, Robert S

    2014-06-01

    Special consideration is required when prescribing antipsychotic drugs for patients with an existing diagnosis of breast cancer. The package inserts of all approved antipsychotics contain precautions regarding their administration in this patient group. These drugs are well known to elevate serum prolactin levels to varying degrees. Overexpression of the prolactin receptor is seen in more than 95% of human breast cancers. Many genes that are activated by the prolactin receptor are associated with tumorigenesis and cancer cell proliferation. The authors discuss the pathophysiology, clinical implications, and pertinent preclinical data and make specific recommendations regarding the use of antipsychotics in patients with breast cancer. PMID:24880509

  11. Genomic similarities between breast and ovarian cancers

    Cancer.gov

    One subtype of breast cancer shares many genetic features with high-grade serous ovarian cancer, a cancer that is very difficult to treat, according to researchers supported by the National Institutes of Health. The findings suggest that the two cancers a

  12. Questionnaires in Identifying Upper Extremity Function and Quality of Life After Treatment in Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-24

    Musculoskeletal Complication; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Therapy-Related Toxicity

  13. The effects of tricyclic antidepressants on breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, C R; Collet, J-P; Belzile, E; Hanley, J A; Boivin, J-F

    2002-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that tricyclic antidepressant use increases invasive female breast cancer incidence, we carried out a case–control study within the population of female beneficiaries of the Saskatchewan Prescription Drug Plan aged ⩾35 years from 1981–1995 with no history of cancer since 1970. This agency has provided full or partial coverage for outpatient prescriptions to Saskatchewan residents since 1975. We accrued 5882 histologically proven cases and 23 517 controls, randomly selected from the source population and individually matched on age and sampling time. Heavy exposure to any tricyclic antidepressants was associated with an elevated rate ratio for breast cancer 11–15 years later (2.02, 95% confidence interval: 1.34–3.04). Post hoc analyses based on the results of genotoxicity studies carried out using Drosophila melanogaster suggested that the increased risk could be attributed to the use of the six genotoxic tricyclic antidepressants, and not to the use of the four nongenotoxic tricyclic antidepressants. However, our results may have been confounded by the effects of other determinants of breast cancer associated with tricyclic antidepressant use. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 92–97. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600013 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 The Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11857018

  14. Characteristics of BRCA1/2 Mutation-Positive Breast Cancers in Korea: A Comparison Study Based on Multicenter Data and the Korean Breast Cancer Registry

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jong-Han; Son, Byung Ho; Kim, Sung-Won; Park, Sue K.; Lee, Min Hyuk; Kim, Lee Su; Noh, Woo-Chul; Kim, Eun-Kyu; Yoon, Dae Sung; Lee, Jeeyeon; Jung, Jin Hyang; Jung, Sang Seol; Gong, Gyungyup; Ahn, Sei-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Mutations in BRCA genes are the main cause of hereditary breast cancer in Korea. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of breast cancers involving BRCA1 (BRCA1 group) and BRCA2 (BRCA2 group) mutations. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with BRCA1 (BRCA1 group) or BRCA2 (BRCA2 group) mutation positive breast cancer from multiple centers and compared the data to that of the Korean Breast Cancer Society registry (registry group). Results The patients of the BRCA1 group were diagnosed at a younger age (median age, 37 years) and had tumors of higher histological (61.3% with histological grade 3) and nuclear (37.5% with nuclear grade 3) grade than those of the registry group. In addition, the frequency of ductal carcinoma in situ in the BRCA1 group was lower (3.7%) than in the registry group, and the BRCA1 group were more likely to be triple-negative breast cancer (61.3%). Patients in the BRCA2 group were also younger at diagnosis (mean age, 41 years) and were more likely to have involvement of the axillary node than the registry group (45.5% vs. 33.5%, p=0.002). The BRCA1 and BRCA2 groups did not show a correlation between tumor size and axillary node involvement. Conclusion We report the characteristics of BRCA mutation positive breast cancer patients in the Korean population through multicenter data and nation-wide breast cancer registry study. However, BRCA-mutated breast cancers appear highly complex, and further research on their molecular basis is needed in Korea. PMID:25013433

  15. Elevated insulin receptor content in human breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Papa, V; Pezzino, V; Costantino, A; Belfiore, A; Giuffrida, D; Frittitta, L; Vannelli, G B; Brand, R; Goldfine, I D; Vigneri, R

    1990-01-01

    The growth of breast cancer cells is under the regulation of hormones, growth factors, and their receptors. In the present study, we have employed a new, sensitive, and specific radioimmunoassay for the direct measurement of insulin receptors in surgical specimens of breast cancers. In 159 specimens the insulin receptor content was 6.15 +/- 3.69 ng/0.1 mg protein. This value was more than sixfold higher than the mean value found in both 27 normal breast tissues obtained at total mastectomy (0.95 + 0.68, P less than 0.001) and in six normal specimens obtained from reduction mammoplasty (0.84 +/- 0.78, P less than 0.001). The insulin receptor content in breast cancer tissues was also higher than in any normal tissue investigated including liver (Pezzino, V., V. Papa, V. Trischitta, A. Brunetti, P.A. Goodman, M.K. Treutelaar, J.A. Williams, B.A. Maddux, R. Vigneri, and I.D. Goldfine, 1989. Am. J. Physiol. 257:E451-457). The insulin receptor in breast cancer retained its ability to both bind insulin and undergo insulin-induced tyrosine kinase activation. Immunostaining of the specimens revealed that the insulin receptor was present in malignant epithelial cells, but was not detected in stromal and inflammatory cells. Univariant analysis revealed that the insulin receptor content of the tumors correlated positively with tumor size (P = 0.014), histological grading (P = 0.030), and the estrogen receptor content (P = 0.035). There were no significant correlations between insulin receptor content and the age, body weight, menopausal status, and nodal involvement of the patients. These studies indicate, therefore, that the insulin receptor content is increased in breast cancers and raise the possibility that the insulin receptor may have a role in the biology of these tumors. Images PMID:2243127

  16. The history of breast cancer advocacy.

    PubMed

    Braun, Susan

    2003-01-01

    There have been four key steps in the advent of breast cancer advocacy: priming the market, engaging consumers, establishing political advocacy, and taking the advocacy mainstream. Breast cancer was surrounded by secrecy until the 1980s, when brave individuals such as former First Ladies Betty Ford and Nancy Reagan, and founder of the Susan G. Komen Foundation, Nancy Brinker (Susan Komen's sister), began speaking publicly about the personal impact of the disease, which increased awareness of breast cancer and made it more acceptable to talk about it openly. At the same time, statistics about breast cancer were presented in new ways that the public could understand. Public health advocates played a key role in the second step, engaging consumers, when they established guidelines in the 1980s that encouraged women to perform breast self-examinations (BSEs) and have screening mammograms and clinical breast examinations (CBEs). Other events that helped engage consumers were increased media coverage of breast cancer issues, the founding of the Komen Race for the Cure in 1983, and the establishment of other programs that both educated the public and raised funds. Funds from these efforts enabled advocates to hold educational forums and produce educational materials in different media and tailored to different audiences and to become active in the funding of research. The third step, political action, became possible when breast cancer advocates joined together in the 1980s and 1990s to work toward legislative, regulatory, and funding changes, such as passage of the Mammography Quality Standards Act and increased funding for the National Cancer Institute. These efforts contributed to a more than quadrupling of federal funding for breast cancer research in the 1990s. Going mainstream, the final step in the advocacy process, entailed establishing a solid base of support to ensure that the message about breast cancer stays strong and fresh. This has been achieved by engaging

  17. Main controversies in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zervoudis, Stephane; Iatrakis, George; Tomara, Eirini; Bothou, Anastasia; Papadopoulos, George; Tsakiris, George

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we have reviewed available evidence for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up in female breast cancer (BC). Into daily clinical practice some controversies are occurred. Especially, in the diagnosis field, despite the fact that the optimal age in which screening mammography should start is a subject of intense controversy, there is a shift toward the beginning at the age of 40 although it is suggested that the net benefit is small for women aged 40 to 49 years. In addition, a promising tool in BC screening seems to be breast tomosynthesis. Other tools such as 3D ultrasound and shear wave elastography (SWE) are full of optimism in BC screening although ultrasonography is not yet a first-line screening method and there is insufficient evidence to recommend the systemic use of the SWE for BC screening. As for breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), even if it is useful in BC detection in women who have a strong family history of BC, it is not generally recommended as a screening tool. Moreover, based on the lack of randomized clinical trials showing a benefit of presurgical breast MRI in overall survival, it’s integration into breast surgical operations remains debatable. Interestingly, in contrast to fine needle aspiration, core biopsy has gained popularity in presurgical diagnosis. Furthermore, after conservative surgery in patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes, the recent tendency is the shift from axillary dissection to axillary conserving strategies. While the accuracy of sentinel lymph node after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and second BC surgery remains controversial, more time is needed for evaluation and for determining the optimal interval between the two surgeries. Additionally, in the decision between immediate or delayed breast reconstruction, there is a tendency in the immediate use. In the prevention of BC, the controversial issue between tamoxifen and raloxifene becomes clear with raloxifene be more profitable through the toxicities

  18. Analysis of gene expression of secreted factors associated with breast cancer metastases in breast cancer subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Fertig, Elana J.; Lee, Esak; Pandey, Niranjan B.; Popel, Aleksander S.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, having multiple subtypes with different malignant phenotypes. The triple-negative breast cancer, or basal breast cancer, is highly aggressive, metastatic, and difficult to treat. Previously, we identified that key molecules (IL6, CSF2, CCL5, VEGFA, and VEGFC) secreted by tumor cells and stromal cells in basal breast cancer can promote metastasis. It remains to assess whether these molecules function similarly in other subtypes of breast cancer. Here, we characterize the relative gene expression of the five secreted molecules and their associated receptors (GP130, GMRA, GMRB, CCR5, VEGFR2, NRP1, VEGFR3, NRP2) in the basal, HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) positive, luminal A, and luminal B subtypes using high throughput data from tumor samples in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC). IL6 and CCL5 gene expression are basal breast cancer specific, whereas high gene expression of GP130 was observed in luminal A/B. VEGFA/C and CSF2 mRNA are overexpressed in HER2 positive breast cancer, with VEGFA and CSF2 also overexpressed in basal breast cancer. Further study of the specific protein function of these factors within their associated cancer subtypes may yield personalized biomarkers and treatment modalities. PMID:26173622

  19. Analysis of gene expression of secreted factors associated with breast cancer metastases in breast cancer subtypes.

    PubMed

    Fertig, Elana J; Lee, Esak; Pandey, Niranjan B; Popel, Aleksander S

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, having multiple subtypes with different malignant phenotypes. The triple-negative breast cancer, or basal breast cancer, is highly aggressive, metastatic, and difficult to treat. Previously, we identified that key molecules (IL6, CSF2, CCL5, VEGFA, and VEGFC) secreted by tumor cells and stromal cells in basal breast cancer can promote metastasis. It remains to assess whether these molecules function similarly in other subtypes of breast cancer. Here, we characterize the relative gene expression of the five secreted molecules and their associated receptors (GP130, GMRA, GMRB, CCR5, VEGFR2, NRP1, VEGFR3, NRP2) in the basal, HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) positive, luminal A, and luminal B subtypes using high throughput data from tumor samples in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC). IL6 and CCL5 gene expression are basal breast cancer specific, whereas high gene expression of GP130 was observed in luminal A/B. VEGFA/C and CSF2 mRNA are overexpressed in HER2 positive breast cancer, with VEGFA and CSF2 also overexpressed in basal breast cancer. Further study of the specific protein function of these factors within their associated cancer subtypes may yield personalized biomarkers and treatment modalities. PMID:26173622

  20. Classification of lung cancer histology by gold nanoparticle sensors

    PubMed Central

    Barash, Orna; Peled, Nir; Tisch, Ulrike; Bunn, Paul A.; Hirsch, Fred R.; Haick, Hossam

    2016-01-01

    We propose a nanomedical device for the classification of lung cancer (LC) histology. The device profiles volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace of (subtypes of) LC cells, using gold nanoparticle (GNP) sensors that are suitable for detecting LC-specific patterns of VOC profiles, as determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. Analyzing the GNP sensing signals by support vector machine allowed significant discrimination between (i) LC and healthy cells; (ii) small cell LC and non–small cell LC; and between (iii) two subtypes of non–small cell LC: adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The discriminative power of the GNP sensors was then linked with the chemical nature and composition of the headspace VOCs of each LC state. These proof-of-concept findings could totally revolutionize LC screening and diagnosis, and might eventually allow early and differential diagnosis of LC subtypes with detectable or unreachable lung nodules. PMID:22033081

  1. Molecular basis of invasion in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    McSherry, E A; Donatello, S; Hopkins, A M; McDonnell, S

    2007-12-01

    Cancer cell invasion involves the breaching of tissue barriers by cancer cells, and the subsequent infiltration of these cells throughout the surrounding tissue. In breast cancer, invasion at the molecular level requires the coordinated efforts of numerous processes within the cancer cell and its surroundings. Accumulation of genetic changes which impair the regulation of cell growth and death is generally accepted to initiate cancer. Loss of cell-adhesion molecules, resulting in a loss in tissue architecture, in parallel with matrix remodelling may also confer a motile or migratory advantage to breast cancer cells. The tumour microenvironment may further influence the behaviour of these cancer cells through expression of cytokines, growth factors, and proteases promoting chemotaxis and invasion. This review will attempt to summarise recent work on these fundamental processes influencing or facilitating breast cancer cell invasion. (Part of a Multi-author Review). PMID:17957337

  2. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanyuan; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and distant site metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer patients. There is increasing evidence supporting the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tumor cell progression, invasion, and metastasis. During the process of EMT, epithelial cancer cells acquire molecular alternations that facilitate the loss of epithelial features and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Such transformation promotes cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that EMT is associated with the increased enrichment of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and these CSCs display mesenchymal characteristics that are resistant to chemotherapy and target therapy. However, the clinical relevance of EMT in human cancer is still under debate. This review will provide an overview of current evidence of EMT from studies using clinical human breast cancer tissues and its associated challenges. PMID:26821054

  3. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanyuan; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and distant site metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer patients. There is increasing evidence supporting the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tumor cell progression, invasion, and metastasis. During the process of EMT, epithelial cancer cells acquire molecular alternations that facilitate the loss of epithelial features and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Such transformation promotes cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that EMT is associated with the increased enrichment of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and these CSCs display mesenchymal characteristics that are resistant to chemotherapy and target therapy. However, the clinical relevance of EMT in human cancer is still under debate. This review will provide an overview of current evidence of EMT from studies using clinical human breast cancer tissues and its associated challenges. PMID:26821054

  4. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cassano, E; Rizzo, S; Bozzini, A; Menna, S; Bellomi, M

    2006-01-01

    The importance of ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of breast cancer has been widely demonstrated. During the last few years, the introduction of ultrasound contrast media has been considered a promising tool for studying the vascular pattern of focal lesions within the breast. Our purpose was to assess whether contrast-enhanced (CE) ultrasound examination, performed using specific contrast imaging modes, can be helpful for detection and characterization of breast lesions, and for prediction of the response of breast cancer to therapy. PMID:16478698

  5. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cassano, E; Rizzo, S; Bozzini, A; Menna, S; Bellomi, M

    2006-01-01

    The importance of ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of breast cancer has been widely demonstrated. During the last few years, the introduction of ultrasound contrast media has been considered a promising tool for studying the vascular pattern of focal lesions within the breast. Our purpose was to assess whether contrast-enhanced (CE) ultrasound examination, performed using specific contrast imaging modes, can be helpful for detection and characterization of breast lesions, and for prediction of the response of breast cancer to therapy. PMID:16478698

  6. Eribulin mesylate in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Verdaguer, Helena; Morilla, Idoia; Urruticoechea, Ander

    2013-11-01

    Eribulin mesylate is a synthetic analog of halichondrin B (a polyether macrolide isolated from a marine sponge). It is a nontaxane microtubule dynamics inhibitor with a novel mechanism of action. It is the first drug that has demonstrated an improvement in overall survival as a single agent compared with the physician's choice of currently available treatments in locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer, previously treated with anthracyclines and taxanes. It has shown a good manageable tolerability profile. This drug has been approved by the US FDA and by the EMA for patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer who have received at least two chemotherapeutic regimens for advanced/metastatic disease. Prior therapy should have included an anthracycline and a taxane in either the adjuvant or metastatic setting unless patients were not suitable for these treatments. The aim of this article is to describe the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and the most relevant clinical trials in the development of this drug. PMID:24161305

  7. Adoption of Hypofractionated Whole-Breast Irradiation for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A National Cancer Data Base Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Elyn H.; Mougalian, Sarah S.; Soulos, Pamela R.; Rutter, Charles E.; Evans, Suzanne B.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Gross, Cary P.; Yu, James B.

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship of patient, hospital, and cancer characteristics with the adoption of hypofractionation in a national sample of patients diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study of breast cancer patients in the National Cancer Data Base from 2004-2011 who were treated with radiation therapy and met eligibility criteria for hypofractionation. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with receipt of hypofractionation (vs conventional fractionation). Results: We identified 13,271 women (11.7%) and 99,996 women (88.3%) with early-stage breast cancer who were treated with hypofractionation and conventional fractionation, respectively. The use of hypofractionation increased significantly, with 5.4% of patients receiving it in 2004 compared with 22.8% in 2011 (P<.001 for trend). Patients living ≥50 miles from the cancer reporting facility had increased odds of receiving hypofractionation (odds ratio 1.57 [95% confidence interval 1.44-1.72], P<.001). Adoption of hypofractionation was associated with treatment at an academic center (P<.001) and living in an area with high median income (P<.001). Hypofractionation was less likely to be used in patients with high-risk disease, such as increased tumor size (P<.001) or poorly differentiated histologic grade (P<.001). Conclusions: The use of hypofractionation is rising and is associated with increased travel distance and treatment at an academic center. Further adoption of hypofractionation may be tempered by both clinical and nonclinical concerns.

  8. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pelttari, Liisa M.; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Vilske, Sara; Nevanlinna, Viivi; Ranta, Salla; Schleutker, Johanna; Winqvist, Robert; Kallioniemi, Anne; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Figueroa, Jonine; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Dunning, Alison M.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Wang, Qin; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Rosenberg, Efraim H.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Surowy, Harald; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Benitez, Javier; González-Neira, Anna; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Van Dyck, Laurien; Janssen, Hilde; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Hallberg, Emily; Olson, Janet E.; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Hooning, Maartje J.; Collée, Margriet; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert N.; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Couch, Fergus J.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Orr, Nick; Swerdlow, Anthony; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Mattson, Johanna; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients and subsequently genotyped the mutation in additional breast cancer cases (n = 5259) and population controls (n = 3586) from Finland and Belarus. No significant association with breast cancer risk was seen in the meta-analysis of the Finnish datasets or in the large BCAC dataset. The association with previously identified risk variants rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 was replicated among all breast cancer cases and also among familial cases in the BCAC dataset. The most significant association was observed for the haplotype carrying the risk-alleles of all the three SNPs both among all cases (odds ratio (OR): 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11–1.19, P = 8.88 x 10−16) and among familial cases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.16–1.32, P = 6.19 x 10−11), compared to the haplotype with the respective protective alleles. Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in RAD51B are rare, but common variation at the RAD51B region is significantly associated with familial breast cancer risk. PMID:27149063

  9. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Pelttari, Liisa M; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko; Kiiski, Johanna I; Vilske, Sara; Nevanlinna, Viivi; Ranta, Salla; Schleutker, Johanna; Winqvist, Robert; Kallioniemi, Anne; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Figueroa, Jonine; Pharoah, Paul D P; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Dunning, Alison M; García-Closas, Montserrat; Bolla, Manjeet K; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Wang, Qin; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Rosenberg, Efraim H; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Peto, Julian; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Surowy, Harald; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Benitez, Javier; González-Neira, Anna; Neuhausen, Susan L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Van Dyck, Laurien; Janssen, Hilde; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Hallberg, Emily; Olson, Janet E; Giles, Graham G; Milne, Roger L; Haiman, Christopher A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L; Glendon, Gord; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Hooning, Maartje J; Collée, Margriet; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert N; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Couch, Fergus J; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Orr, Nick; Swerdlow, Anthony; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F; Mattson, Johanna; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients and subsequently genotyped the mutation in additional breast cancer cases (n = 5259) and population controls (n = 3586) from Finland and Belarus. No significant association with breast cancer risk was seen in the meta-analysis of the Finnish datasets or in the large BCAC dataset. The association with previously identified risk variants rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 was replicated among all breast cancer cases and also among familial cases in the BCAC dataset. The most significant association was observed for the haplotype carrying the risk-alleles of all the three SNPs both among all cases (odds ratio (OR): 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-1.19, P = 8.88 x 10-16) and among familial cases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.16-1.32, P = 6.19 x 10-11), compared to the haplotype with the respective protective alleles. Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in RAD51B are rare, but common variation at the RAD51B region is significantly associated with familial breast cancer risk. PMID:27149063

  10. A polymorphism in the nuclear receptor coactivator 7 gene and breast cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Süllner, Julia; Lattrich, Claus; Häring, Julia; Görse, Regina; Ortmann, Olaf; Treeck, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear receptor coactivator 7 (NCoA7) gene codes for an estrogen receptor-associated protein that plays a significant role in the cellular response to estrogens. Given that NCoA7 is expressed in the mammary gland, alterations in this gene may affect breast cancer risk. In this study, we compared the genotype and allele frequencies of the missense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1567, located in the coding region of the NCoA7 gene and resulting in an amino acid exchange from asparagine to glutamine, in 305 women with sporadic breast cancer and 346 women without any malignancy. Statistical analysis of the observed frequencies did not reveal a significant difference between the cancer and control groups, nor did a comparison between histological breast cancer subgroups. In conclusion, the results of our phenotype-genotype association study indicate that NCoA7 SNP rs1567 does not affect breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:22740868

  11. A polymorphism in the nuclear receptor coactivator 7 gene and breast cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    SÜLLNER, JULIA; LATTRICH, CLAUS; HÄRING, JULIA; GÖRSE, REGINA; ORTMANN, OLAF; TREECK, OLIVER

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear receptor coactivator 7 (NCoA7) gene codes for an estrogen receptor-associated protein that plays a significant role in the cellular response to estrogens. Given that NCoA7 is expressed in the mammary gland, alterations in this gene may affect breast cancer risk. In this study, we compared the genotype and allele frequencies of the missense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1567, located in the coding region of the NCoA7 gene and resulting in an amino acid exchange from asparagine to glutamine, in 305 women with sporadic breast cancer and 346 women without any malignancy. Statistical analysis of the observed frequencies did not reveal a significant difference between the cancer and control groups, nor did a comparison between histological breast cancer subgroups. In conclusion, the results of our phenotype-genotype association study indicate that NCoA7 SNP rs1567 does not affect breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:22740868

  12. Chemotherapy With or Without Trastuzumab After Surgery in Treating Women With Invasive Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-15

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Positive; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  13. Circulating testosterone and prostate-specific antigen in nipple aspirate fluid and tissue are associated with breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Edward R; Tichansky, David S; Chervoneva, Inna; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary evidence has associated testosterone and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) with breast cancer. Our objective was to determine whether a) testosterone levels in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF), serum, or breast tissue are associated with breast cancer; b) testosterone levels in serum are associated with levels in NAF; c) PSA in NAF, serum, or breast tissue is associated with breast cancer; and d) serum PSA is associated with NAF PSA levels. We obtained 342 NAF specimens from 171 women by means of a modified breast pump. Additionally, we collected 201 blood samples from 99 women and 51 tissue samples from 41 subjects who underwent surgical resection for suspected disease. Women currently using birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy were excluded from the study. Controlling for age and menopausal status, serum testosterone was significantly increased in women with breast cancer (p = 0.002). NAF and serum testosterone levels were not associated. Neither NAF nor tissue testosterone was associated with breast cancer. Controlling for menopausal status and age, NAF PSA was significantly decreased in women with breast cancer (p < 0.001). We did not find serum PSA to be associated with breast cancer, although we found an indication that, in postmenopausal women, its levels were lower in women with cancer. Serum PSA was associated with NAF PSA in postmenopausal women (p < 0.001). PSA levels in cancerous tissue were significantly lower than in benign breast specimens from subjects without cancer (p = 0.011), whereas levels of PSA in histologically benign specimens from subjects with cancer were intermediate. Our results suggest that serum testosterone is increased and NAF PSA is decreased in women with breast cancer, with PSA expression being higher in normal than in cancerous breast tissues. NAF and serum PSA levels in postmenopausal women are correlated, suggesting that as laboratory assessment of PSA becomes more sensitive, serum PSA may become useful in

  14. Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Millikan, Robert C.; Newman, Beth; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Moorman, Patricia G.; Conway, Kathleen; Smith, Lisa V.; Labbok, Miriam H.; Geradts, Joseph; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Jackson, Susan; Nyante, Sarah; Livasy, Chad; Carey, Lisa; Earp, H. Shelton; Perou, Charles M.

    2008-01-01

    Risk factors for the newly identified “intrinsic” breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case–control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to subtype 1,424 cases of invasive and in situ breast cancer, and case subtypes were compared to 2,022 controls. Luminal A, the most common subtype, exhibited risk factors typically reported for breast cancer in previous studies, including inverse associations for increased parity and younger age at first full-term pregnancy. Basal-like cases exhibited several associations that were opposite to those observed for luminal A, including increased risk for parity and younger age at first term full-term pregnancy. Longer duration breastfeeding, increasing number of children breastfed, and increasing number of months breastfeeding per child were each associated with reduced risk of basal-like breast cancer, but not luminal A. Women with multiple live births who did not breastfeed and women who used medications to suppress lactation were at increased risk of basal-like, but not luminal A, breast cancer. Elevated waist-hip ratio was associated with increased risk of luminal A in postmenopausal women, and increased risk of basal-like breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women. The prevalence of basal-like breast cancer was highest among premenopausal African-American women, who also showed the highest prevalence of basal-like risk factors. Among younger African-American women, we estimate that up to 68% of basal-like breast cancer could be prevented by promoting breastfeeding and reducing abdominal adiposity. PMID:17578664

  15. Cell Fate Decisions During Breast Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Kayla; Wronski, Ania; Skibinski, Adam; Phillips, Sarah; Kuperwasser, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    During the formation of breast cancer, many genes become altered as cells evolve progressively from normal to a pre-malignant to a malignant state of growth. How mutations in genes lead to specific subtypes of human breast cancer is only partially understood. Here we review how initial genetic or epigenetic alterations within mammary epithelial cells (MECs) can alter cell fate decisions and put pre-malignant cells on a path towards cancer development with specific phenotypes. Understanding the early stages of breast cancer initiation and progression and how normal developmental processes are hijacked during transformation has significant implications for improving early detection and prevention of breast cancer. In addition, insights gleaned from this understanding may also be important for developing subtype-specific treatment options. PMID:27110512

  16. RECQL: a new breast cancer susceptibility gene

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Taraswi; Brosh, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Identifying and characterizing novel genetic risk factors for BRCA1/2 negative breast cancers is highly relevant for early diagnosis and development of a management plan. Mutations in a number of DNA repair genes have been associated with genomic instability and development of breast and various other cancers. Whole exome sequencing efforts by 2 groups have led to the discovery in distinct populations of multiple breast cancer susceptibility mutations in RECQL, a gene that encodes a DNA helicase involved in homologous recombination repair and response to replication stress. RECQL pathogenic mutations were identified that truncated or disrupted the RECQL protein or introduced missense mutations in its helicase domain. RECQL mutations may serve as a useful biomarker for breast cancer. Targeting RECQL associated tumors with novel DNA repair inhibitors may provide a new strategy for anti-cancer therapy. PMID:26125302

  17. Breast Cancer Basics and You | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Basics and You Past Issues / Summer 2014 ... women, although male breast cancer is rare. The Breasts Inside a woman's breast are 15 to 20 ...

  18. Breast Cancer Basics and You: Introduction | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Basics and You: Introduction Past Issues / Spring - ... women, although male breast cancer is rare. The Breasts Inside a woman's breast are 15 to 20 ...

  19. Screening and self examination for breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Austoker, J.

    1994-01-01

    Breast cancer is the major form of cancer in women, with nearly 30,000 new cases and over 15,000 deaths in the United Kingdom each year. Breast screening by mammography has been shown in randomised trials to reduce mortality from breast cancer in women aged 50 and over. An NHS breast screening programme has been in operation in the United Kingdom since 1988. Its aim is to reduce mortality from breast cancer by 25% in the population of women invited to be screened. The uptake of mammography among the eligible population may be the single most important determinant if the programme is to be effective. Primary care teams have an important part to play in encouraging women to attend for screening and in providing information, advice, and reassurance at all stages of the screening process. To date, routine breast self examination has not been shown to be an effective method of screening for breast cancer and should not therefore be promoted as a primary screening procedure. There is, however, a case to be made for women to become more "breast aware." PMID:8044097

  20. β-Blockers Reduce Breast Cancer Recurrence and Breast Cancer Death: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Childers, W Kurtis; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Cheriyath, Pramil

    2015-12-01

    The normal physiologic stress mechanism, mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, causes a release of the neurotransmitters epinephrine and norepinephrine. Preclinical data have demonstrated an effect on tumor progression and metastasis via the sympathetic nervous system mediated primarily through the β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) pathway. In vitro data have shown an increase in tumor growth, migration, tumor angiogenesis, and metastatic spread in breast cancer through activation of the β-AR. Retrospective cohort studies on the clinical outcomes of β-blockers in breast cancer outcomes showed no clear consensus. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of β-blockers on breast cancer outcomes. A systematic review was performed using the Cochrane library and PubMed. Publications between the dates of January 2010 and December 2013 were identified. Available hazard ratios (HRs) were extracted for breast cancer recurrence, breast cancer death, and all-cause mortality and pooled using a random effects meta-analysis. A total of 7 studies contained results for at least 1 of the outcomes of breast cancer recurrence, breast cancer death, or all-cause mortality in breast cancer patients receiving β-blockers. In the 5 studies that contained results for breast cancer recurrence, there was no statistically significant risk reduction (HR, 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-1.13). Breast cancer death results were contained in 4 studies, which also suggested a significant reduction in risk (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.32-0.80). Among the 4 studies that reported all-cause mortality, there was no significant effect of β-blockers on risk (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.75-1.37). Results of this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that the use of β-blockers significantly reduced risk of breast cancer death among women with breast cancer. PMID:26516037

  1. Histology, composition, and quality traits of chicken Pectoralis major muscle affected by wooden breast abnormality.

    PubMed

    Soglia, F; Mudalal, S; Babini, E; Di Nunzio, M; Mazzoni, M; Sirri, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2016-03-01

    Only a few years ago, the poultry industry began to face a recent abnormality in breast meat, known as wooden breast, which frequently overlaps with white striping. This study aimed to assess the impact of wooden breast abnormality on quality traits of meat. For this purpose, 32 normal (NRM), 32 wooden (WB), and 32 wooden and white-striped (WB/WS) Pectoralis major muscles were selected from the same flock of heavy broilers (males, Ross 708, weighing around 3.7 kg) in the deboning area of a commercial processing plant at 3 h postmortem and used to assess histology, proximate (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and collagen) and mineral composition (Mg, K, P, Na and Ca), sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein patterns, and technological traits of breast meat. Compared to the normal group, WB/WS fillets showed more severe histological lesions characterized by fiber degeneration, fibrosis, and lipidosis, coupled with a significantly harder texture. With regard to proximate and mineral composition, abnormal samples exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher moisture, fat, and collagen contents coupled with lower (P < 0.001) amounts of protein and ash. Furthermore, increased calcium (131 vs. 84 mg kg(-1); P < 0.05) and sodium (741 vs. 393 mg kg(-1); P < 0.001) levels were found in WB/WS meat samples. The SDS-PAGE analysis revealed a significantly lower amount of calcium-ATPase (SERCA, 114 kDa), responsible for the translocation of Ca ions across the membrane, in normal breasts compared to abnormal ones. As for meat quality traits, fillets affected by wooden abnormality exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher ultimate pH and lower water-holding/water-binding capacity. In particular, compared to normal, abnormal samples showed reduced marinade uptake coupled with increased drip loss and cooking losses as well. In conclusion, this study revealed that meat affected by wooden breast or both wooden breast and white striping abnormalities exhibit poorer nutritional value, harder

  2. [Adjuvant drug therapies for breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Huovinen, Riikka; Auvinen, Päivi; Mattson, Johanna; Joensuu, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Most breast cancers are hormone receptor positive and exhibit a slow growth pattern. Based on biological properties, breast cancers are divided into four different biological subtypes. Furthermore, these subtypes are indicative of the risk of recurrence, which is also influenced by the size of the tumor and extension to lymph nodes. Postoperative adjuvant drug therapy is chosen on the basis of the biological type. Chemotherapy can be used in all subtypes. Hormonal therapies are used exclusively for the treatment of hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Trastuzumab antibody belongs to the treatment of the HER2 positive subtype. PMID:26245052

  3. [Screening for cervical and breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Wilm, J; Schüler-Toprak, S; Ortmann, O

    2016-09-01

    Screening programs for cervical cancer and breast cancer lead to a clear reduction of mortality. Starting in 2018 screening for cervical cancer will be structured as an organized program as already exists for breast cancer. In future screening for cervical cancer will be primarily performed by human papillomavirus (HPV) testing at intervals of 5 years while cytological examination (Pap smear) will also be available as an additional or alternative procedure. For breast cancer screening in Germany an annual clinical examination with palpation and mammography screening at 2‑year intervals is provided for women aged between 50 and 69 years. In Germany only approximately 50 % of invited women have used the opportunity to participate in screening in recent years. Weighing the benefits against the harms of cancer screening programs is always important in the process of evaluation of different strategies. PMID:27577734

  4. Fertility preservation for breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Oktem, Ozgur; Oktay, Kutluk

    2009-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most common neoplasm in women and accounts for 26% (182,460) of all new cancer cases among women. With the use of screening mammography and advancement in other diagnostic modalities, many cases of breast cancer now can be diagnosed and treated at early stages of the disease. Unfortunately, adjuvant chemotherapy regimens commonly used in the treatment of breast cancer may cause premature ovarian failure due to their cytotoxic effects on the germ cells in the ovary. Therefore preservation of fertility in breast cancer survivors at reproductive age has become an important quality of life issue. Fertility preservation is a recently emerged field of reproductive medicine that may help protect the reproductive capability of the cancer survivors and allow them to have children in the future. Embryo freezing is the most established fertility preservation strategy. But conventional ovarian stimulation protocols are contraindicated in breast cancer patients because of the rise of estrogen and its metabolites to supraphysiological levels. Recently developed ovarian stimulation protocols with aromatase inhibitor letrozole and tamoxifen appear to provide a safe stimulation with endogenous estrogen levels comparable with those achieved in the natural cycle. Oocyte freezing can be considered in single women and in those who do not wish donor sperm. Ovarian tissue freezing could also be an option in breast cancer patients who do not wish or have a time for an in vitro fertilization cycle, which requires 10 to 14 days of ovarian stimulation. PMID:19806518

  5. Older women, breast cancer, and social support

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Ellen G.; Aviv, Caryn; Ewing, Cheryl; Au, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Introduction One in ten women over the age of 65 will develop breast cancer. Despite this high incidence of breast cancer among older women, social support for them is often inadequate. This paper describes a qualitative study of the impact of a breast cancer diagnosis on older women from racially/ethnically diverse populations and their subsequent need for social support. Methods Forty-seven older African American, Asian American, Caucasian and Latina women between the ages of 65 to 83 participated in a larger study examining the impact of breast cancer on women from racially/ethnically diverse populations and the meaning and nature of social support. The women completed an in-depth qualitative interview on the psychosocial impact of breast cancer and the meaning and nature of social support. Results and Conclusion The results indicate that there are variations in reactions to a breast cancer diagnosis among older women, and that these reactions impact their experiences with seeking social support at diagnosis and during treatment. Respondents were concerned about their aging bodies, potential dependency on others, and loss of autonomy. At the same time, the severity of cancer treatment and existing co-morbidities often meant they needed to learn to receive support, and to reach out if they had no support. The implications of these findings underscore the older cancer patient’s need to strengthen her supportive networks at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and post-treatment. PMID:20967554

  6. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase is expressed in different subtypes of human breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Chang, Y.; Astudillo, A.; Mortimer, J.; Deuel, T.F. . E-mail: tfdeuel@scripps.edu

    2007-06-29

    Pleiotrophin (PTN, Ptn) is an 18 kDa cytokine expressed in human breast cancers. Since inappropriate expression of Ptn stimulates progression of breast cancer in transgenic mice and a dominant negative PTN reverses the transformed phenotype of human breast cancer cells that inappropriately express Ptn, it is suggested that constitutive PTN signaling in breast cancer cells that inappropriately express Ptn activates pathways that promote a more aggressive breast cancer phenotype. Pleiotrophin signals by inactivating its receptor, the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP){beta}/{zeta}, and, recently, PTN was found to activate anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) through the PTN/RPTP{beta}/{zeta} signaling pathway in PTN-stimulated cells, not through a direct interaction of PTN with ALK and thus not through the PTN-enforced dimerization of ALK. Since full-length ALK is activated in different malignant cancers and activated ALK is a potent oncogenic protein, we examined human breast cancers to test the possibility that ALK may be expressed in breast cancers and potentially activated through the PTN/RPTP{beta}/{zeta} signaling pathway; we now demonstrate that ALK is strongly expressed in different histological subtypes of human breast cancer; furthermore, ALK is expressed in both nuclei and cytoplasm and, in the 'dotted' pattern characteristic of ALK fusion proteins in anaplastic large cell lymphoma. This study thus supports the possibility that activated ALK may be important in human breast cancers and potentially activated either through the PTN/RPTP{beta}/{zeta} signaling pathway, or, alternatively, as an activated fusion protein to stimulate progression of breast cancer in humans.

  7. Association between SIRT1 Gene Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer in Egyptians

    PubMed Central

    Rizk, Sherine M.; Shahin, Nancy N.; Shaker, Olfat G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is reported to cause the highest mortality among female cancer patients. Previous studies have explored the association of silent mating-type information regulator 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) gene expression with prognosis in breast cancer. However, no studies exist, so far, on the role of SIRT1 gene polymorphism in breast cancer risk or prognosis. The present study aimed to assess the association between SIRT1 gene polymorphisms and breast cancer in Egyptians. Methods The study comprised 980 Egyptian females divided into a breast cancer group (541 patients) and a healthy control group (439 subjects). SIRT1 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs3758391, rs3740051 and rs12778366 were genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Allelic and genotypic frequencies were determined in both groups and association with breast cancer and clinicopathological characteristics was assessed. Results Breast cancer patients exhibited elevated serum SIRT1 levels which varied among different tumor grades. SIRT1 rs3758391 and rs12778366 TT genotypes were more frequent, exhibited higher SIRT1 levels than CC and CT genotypes and were associated with histologic grade and lymph node status. SIRT1 rs12778366 TT genotype also correlated with negative estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) statuses. The T allele frequency for both SNPs was higher in breast cancer patients than in normal subjects. Combined GG and AG genotypes of rs3740051 were more frequent, showed higher serum SIRT1 levels than the AA genotype, and were associated with ER and PR expression. Furthermore, inheritance of the G allele was associated with breast cancer. Conclusions Our findings reveal that rs3758391 and rs12778366 polymorphisms of SIRT1 gene are associated with breast cancer risk and prognosis in the Egyptian population. PMID:26999517

  8. Adjuvant chemotherapy in early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ejlertsen, Bent

    2016-05-01

    of epirubicin and the presence of TOP2A, but not the presence of HER2 aberrations. The results obtained in the 89D trial regarding TOP2A have been reproduced by others, but not consistently. However, a recent individual-patient pooled analysis of five adjuvant trials demonstrated that patients with either TOP2A or centromere 17 aberrations, but not with HER2 amplification, benefit from anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy. Anthracyclins have additional distinct biological mechanisms; and results from the DBCG 89D suggested that tumours with normal TOP2A were only non-responsive to anthracyclines if they were TIMP1 immunoreactive. The DBCG READ trial (N = 2,015) prospectively included patients without TOP2A-aberrated breast cancers, and its results are awaited for prospective confirmation of the results from the DBCG 89D and the individual-patient pooled analysis. Adjuvant chemotherapy substantially reduces the risk of recurrence and mortality of breast cancer, but is also associated with significant toxicity. However, according to a large cohort study from DBCG, chemotherapy can safely be withheld in one fourth of postmenopausal patients who will be without excess mortality following sufficient adjuvant endocrine therapy for ER positive breast cancer. A prognostic standard mortality rate index (PSI) was constructed using regression coefficients obtained in a multivariate fractional polynomials model, and most accurately identified those who could be spared chemotherapy. In addition to age, tumour size, nodal status, histological type and malignancy grade, the PSI also includes ER level addressed as a continuous variable in the MFP model. In the MFP model, absence of LVI was sufficient to counteract the impact of other risk factors, while that could not be achieved with a categorical multivariate model in a prior study. An evaluation of whether the addition of results from a molecular assay may improve the clinical utility of the PSI is on-going, but when

  9. Human breast cancer biopsies induce eosinophil recruitment and enhance adjacent cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Szalayova, Gabriela; Ogrodnik, Aleksandra; Spencer, Brianna; Wade, Jacqueline; Bunn, Janice; Ambaye, Abiy; James, Ted; Rincon, Mercedes

    2016-06-01

    Chronic inflammation is known to facilitate cancer progression and metastasis. Less is known about the effect of acute inflammation within the tumor microenvironment, resulting from standard invasive procedures. Recent studies in mouse models have shown that the acute inflammatory response triggered by a biopsy in mammary cancer increases the frequency of distal metastases. Although tumor biopsies are part of the standard clinical practice in breast cancer diagnosis, no studies have reported their effect on inflammatory response. The objective of this study is to (1) determine whether core needle biopsies in breast cancer patients trigger an inflammatory response, (2) characterize the type of inflammatory response present, and (3) evaluate the potential effect of any acute inflammatory response on residual tumor cells. The biopsy wound site was identified in the primary tumor resection tissue samples from breast cancer patients. The inflammatory response in areas adjacent (i.e., immediately around previous biopsy site) and distant to the wound biopsy was investigated by histology and immunohistochemistry analysis. Proliferation of tumor cells was also assayed. We demonstrate that diagnostic core needle biopsies trigger a selective recruitment of inflammatory cells at the site of the biopsy, and they persist for extended periods of time. While macrophages were part of the inflammatory response, an unexpected accumulation of eosinophils at the edge of the biopsy wound was also identified. Importantly, we show that biopsy causes an increase in the proliferation rate of tumor cells located in the area adjacent to the biopsy wound. Diagnostic core needle biopsies in breast cancer patients do induce a unique acute inflammatory response within the tumor microenvironment and have an effect on the surrounding tumor cells. Therefore, biopsy-induced inflammation could have an impact on residual tumor cell progression and/or metastasis in human breast cancer. These findings

  10. Metabolic profiling of breast cancer: Differences in central metabolism between subtypes of breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Willmann, Lucas; Schlimpert, Manuel; Halbach, Sebastian; Erbes, Thalia; Stickeler, Elmar; Kammerer, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    Although the concept of aerobic glycolysis in cancer was already reported in the 1930s by Otto Warburg, the understanding of metabolic pathways remains challenging especially due to the heterogeneity of cancer. In consideration of four different time points (1, 2, 4, and 7 days of incubation), GC-MS profiling of metabolites was performed on cell extracts and supernatants of breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, -453, BT-474) with different sub classification and the breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A. To the exclusion of trypsinization, direct methanolic extraction, cell scraping and cell disruption was executed to obtain central metabolites. Major differences in biochemical pathways have been observed in the breast cancer cell lines compared to the breast epithelial cell line, as well as between the breast cancer cell lines themselves. Characteristics of breast cancer subtypes could be correlated to their individual metabolic profiles. PLS-DA revealed the discrimination of breast cancer cell lines from MCF-10A based on elevated amino acid levels. The observed metabolic signatures have great potential as biomarker for breast cancer as well as an improved understanding of subtype specific phenomenons of breast cancer. PMID:26218769

  11. Kallikrein gene downregulation in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yousef, G M; Yacoub, G M; Polymeris, M-E; Popalis, C; Soosaipillai, A; Diamandis, E P

    2004-01-12

    Recent evidence suggests that many members of the human kallikrein gene family are differentially regulated in breast cancer and other endocrine-related malignancies. In this study, we utilised the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) and expressed sequence tag (EST) databases of the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP) to perform in silico analyses of the expression pattern of the 15 human kallikrein genes in normal and cancerous breast tissues and cell lines using different analytical tools such as Virtual Northern blotting, Digital Differential Display and X-profiler. Our results indicate that at least four kallikrein genes (KLK5, 6, 8, 10) are downregulated in breast cancer. Probing eight normal and 24 breast cancer SAGE libraries with gene-specific tags for each of the above kallikreins indicated moderate-to-high expression densities in normal breast (27-319 tags per million; tpm, in two to five out of eight libraries), compared to no or low expression (0 - 34 tpm in zero to two libraries out of 24) in breast cancer. These data were verified by screening the EST databases, where all mRNA clones isolated for these genes, except for one in each, were from normal breast libraries, with no clones detected from breast cancer tissues or cell lines (with the exception of KLK8). X-profiler comparison of two pools of normal and breast cancer libraries further verified the presence of significant downregulation of expression levels of 4 of the kallikreins genes (KLK5, 6, 10, 12). We experimentally verified the downregulation of these four kallikreins (KLK5, 6, 8, 10 and 12) by RT - PCR analysis. PMID:14710225

  12. Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Breast: A Rare Breast Cancer Subtype – Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ratti, Vilma; Pagani, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Background Glycogen-rich clear cell breast carcinoma is a rare histological breast cancer subtype. Its prognosis may vary depending on specific clinical and pathological characteristics such as low grade, strong positivity of estrogen receptor (ER) expression and early diagnosis. Case Presentation We present the case of a 53-year-old woman with a bleeding 10-cm-diameter mass in the left breast. The histological examination showed a poorly differentiated tumor with malignant cells characterized by abundant clear cytoplasm. The diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma was based on the histological characteristics of the tumor, and a nonmammary origin was initially ruled out. The tumor was triple negative [i.e. ER, progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 negative]. Four months after the initial locoregional treatment, the patient developed lung and distant lymph node metastases. Conclusions Glycogen-rich clear cell carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor. Early diagnosis, absence of lymph node metastases and ER/PR positivity are associated with a better prognosis, as in other common breast cancer subtypes. PMID:26600782

  13. Computer-Aided Assessment of Tumor Grade for Breast Cancer in Ultrasound Images

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study involved developing a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for discriminating the grades of breast cancer tumors in ultrasound (US) images. Histological tumor grades of breast cancer lesions are standard prognostic indicators. Tumor grade information enables physicians to determine appropriate treatments for their patients. US imaging is a noninvasive approach to breast cancer examination. In this study, 148 3-dimensional US images of malignant breast tumors were obtained. Textural, morphological, ellipsoid fitting, and posterior acoustic features were quantified to characterize the tumor masses. A support vector machine was developed to classify breast tumor grades as either low or high. The proposed CAD system achieved an accuracy of 85.14% (126/148), a sensitivity of 79.31% (23/29), a specificity of 86.55% (103/119), and an AZ of 0.7940. PMID:25810750

  14. Gamma-secretase/Notch Signalling Pathway Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating Patients With Advanced, Metastatic, or Recurrent Triple Negative Invasive Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-19

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  15. Assessment of Breast Cancer Risk and Belief in Breast Cancer Screening Among the Primary Healthcare Nurses.

    PubMed

    İz, Fatma Başalan; Tümer, Adile

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Early detection of breast cancer is known to increase survival rates significantly after diagnosis. This research was carried out to determine the level of breast cancer risk among primary healthcare nurses and their belief in breast cancer screening. In this descriptive research, the data were collected in face-to-face interviews with the participants. The researchers contacted all primary healthcare nurses currently working in the province. The data collection tools included a questionnaire form on sociodemographic characteristics, breast cancer risk assessment form, and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS) for breast cancer screening. In data analysis, descriptive statistics, t test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. The mean age of nurses was 35 ± 3.6. The mean score for the breast cancer risk assessment form was calculated as 82.9 ± 18.7. The subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening were as follows: susceptibility 7.3 ± 1.8, seriousness 19.5 ± 4.1, benefits of breast self-exam 15.5 ± 2.6, barriers to breast self-exam 15.1 ± 2.8, self-efficacy 40.3 ± 7.0, and motivation 19.5 ± 4.1. The risk of breast cancer was found to be low in the study group. The analysis of the subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening revealed that nurses had a below-average susceptibility perception, a somewhat lower perception of seriousness, an above-average mean score for perceived benefits, a moderate barrier perception, a relatively high perceived self-efficacy, and motivation above average. PMID:26758047

  16. Cancer Hallmarks, Biomarkers and Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaofeng; Xiang, Liangjian; Li, Ting; Bai, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex disease encompassing multiple tumor entities, each characterized by distinct morphology, behavior and clinical implications. Besides estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, novel biomarkers have shown their prognostic and predictive values, complicating our understanding towards to the heterogeneity of such cancers. Ten cancer hallmarks have been proposed by Weinberg to characterize cancer and its carcinogenesis. By reviewing biomarkers and breast cancer molecular subtypes, we propose that the divergent outcome observed from patients stratified by hormone status are driven by different cancer hallmarks. 'Sustaining proliferative signaling' further differentiates cancers with positive hormone receptors. 'Activating invasion and metastasis' and 'evading immune destruction' drive the differentiation of triple negative breast cancers. 'Resisting cell death', 'genome instability and mutation' and 'deregulating cellular energetics' refine breast cancer classification with their predictive values. 'Evading growth suppressors', 'enabling replicative immortality', 'inducing angiogenesis' and 'tumor-promoting inflammation' have not been involved in breast cancer classification which need more focus in the future biomarker-related research. This review novels in its global view on breast cancer heterogeneity, which clarifies many confusions in this field and contributes to precision medicine. PMID:27390604

  17. Cancer Hallmarks, Biomarkers and Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaofeng; Xiang, Liangjian; Li, Ting; Bai, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex disease encompassing multiple tumor entities, each characterized by distinct morphology, behavior and clinical implications. Besides estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, novel biomarkers have shown their prognostic and predictive values, complicating our understanding towards to the heterogeneity of such cancers. Ten cancer hallmarks have been proposed by Weinberg to characterize cancer and its carcinogenesis. By reviewing biomarkers and breast cancer molecular subtypes, we propose that the divergent outcome observed from patients stratified by hormone status are driven by different cancer hallmarks. 'Sustaining proliferative signaling' further differentiates cancers with positive hormone receptors. 'Activating invasion and metastasis' and 'evading immune destruction' drive the differentiation of triple negative breast cancers. 'Resisting cell death', 'genome instability and mutation' and 'deregulating cellular energetics' refine breast cancer classification with their predictive values. 'Evading growth suppressors', 'enabling replicative immortality', 'inducing angiogenesis' and 'tumor-promoting inflammation' have not been involved in breast cancer classification which need more focus in the future biomarker-related research. This review novels in its global view on breast cancer heterogeneity, which clarifies many confusions in this field and contributes to precision medicine. PMID:27390604

  18. Effects of irradiation for cervical cancer on subsequent breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Harlan, L.C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Previous research suggests that cervical cancer patients have a lower risk of breast cancer than women in the general population. Possible explanations include opposing risk factors for cervical cancer and breast cancer, the effect of irradiation used to treat cervical cancer, or both. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between irradiation for cervical cancer and the subsequent development of breast cancer. There was no statistically significant relationship between radiation to the ovarian area and the risk of breast cancer in this study. However, the results were consistent with a 19% reduction in risk for women irradiated for cervical cancer when compared to nonirradiated women. In a dose-response analysis, there was a nonsignificant trend of decreased risk of breast cancer with increased radiation up to 1800 rad. There was no consistent pattern for higher doses. The trend, although nonsignificant, differed by age. Women <60 years of age at irradiation were generally at a lower risk of breast cancer than nonirradiated women. Women over 59 years were at an increased risk. There are some potentially important findings from this study which might influence medical care. These should be examined in the larger International Radiation Study.

  19. Effects of childhood body size on breast cancer tumour characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Although a role of childhood body size in postmenopausal breast cancer risk has been established, less is known about its influence on tumour characteristics. Methods We studied the relationships between childhood body size and tumour characteristics in a Swedish population-based case-control study consisting of 2,818 breast cancer cases and 3,111 controls. Our classification of childhood body size was derived from a nine-level somatotype. Relative risks were estimated by odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals, derived from fitting unconditional logistic regression models. Association between somatotype at age 7 and tumour characteristics were evaluated in a case-only analysis where P values for heterogeneity were obtained by performing one degree of freedom trend tests. Results A large somatotype at age 7 was found to be associated with decreased postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Although strongly associated with other risk factors such as age of menarche, adult body mass index and mammographic density, somatotype at age 7 remained a significant protective factor (odds ratio (OR) comparing large to lean somatotype at age 7 = 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.58-0.91, P trend = 0.004) after adjustment. The significant protective effect was observed within all subgroups defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status, with a stronger effect for ER-negative (0.40, 95% CI = 0.21-0.75, P trend = 0.002), than for ER-positive (0.80, 95% CI = 0.62-1.05, P trend = 0.062), tumours (P heterogeneity = 0.046). Somatotype at age 7 was not associated with tumour size, histology, grade or the presence or absence of metastatic nodes. Conclusions Greater body size at age 7 is associated with a decreased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, and the associated protective effect is stronger for the ER-negative breast cancer subtype than for the ER-positive subtype. PMID:20398298

  20. Breast Cancer Risk Reduction, Version 2.2015.

    PubMed

    Bevers, Therese B; Ward, John H; Arun, Banu K; Colditz, Graham A; Cowan, Kenneth H; Daly, Mary B; Garber, Judy E; Gemignani, Mary L; Gradishar, William J; Jordan, Judith A; Korde, Larissa A; Kounalakis, Nicole; Krontiras, Helen; Kumar, Shicha; Kurian, Allison; Laronga, Christine; Layman, Rachel M; Loftus, Loretta S; Mahoney, Martin C; Merajver, Sofia D; Meszoely, Ingrid M; Mortimer, Joanne; Newman, Lisa; Pritchard, Elizabeth; Pruthi, Sandhya; Seewaldt, Victoria; Specht, Michelle C; Visvanathan, Kala; Wallace, Anne; Bergman, Mary Ann; Kumar, Rashmi

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in women in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. To assist women who are at increased risk of developing breast cancer and their physicians in the application of individualized strategies to reduce breast cancer risk, NCCN has developed these guidelines for breast cancer risk reduction. PMID:26150582

  1. [Special considerations in breast cancer treatment of an augmented breast].

    PubMed

    Mátrai, Zoltán; Gulyás, Gusztáv; Tóth, László; Sávolt, Akos; Kunos, Csaba; Pesthy, Pál; Bartal, Alexandra; Szabó, Eva; Kásler, Miklós

    2011-10-16

    Breast augmentation surgery involving the use of implants has been one of the most popular plastic surgical procedures for decades. As the multi-million female population who received breast implants ages, the risk of cancer is increasing rapidly, therefore the incidence of malignant disease in association with breast implants will increase as well. Although there is no relationship between tumor development and implants, these cases require special considerations in diagnostics, therapy and follow-up methods. Appropriate multidisciplinary treatment of tumors in augmented breasts corresponding with modern oncoplastic principles can only be accomplished based on adequate oncological, breast and plastic surgical knowledge. Supposing a possible increase of this condition in Hungary, too, authors provide a wide review of the literature on the special oncological and esthetic considerations, for the first time in Hungarian language. PMID:21979221

  2. The fraction of breast cancer attributable to smoking: The Norwegian women and cancer study 1991–2012

    PubMed Central

    Gram, Inger T; Little, Melissa A; Lund, Eiliv; Braaten, Tonje

    2016-01-01

    Background: Results from several recent cohort studies on smoking and breast cancer incidence and mortality suggest that the burden of smoking on society is underestimated. We estimated the fraction of breast cancer attributable to smoking in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study, a nationally representative prospective cohort study. Methods: We followed 130 053 women, aged 34–70 years, who completed a baseline questionnaire between 1991 and 2007, through linkages to national registries through December 2012. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), while adjusting for confounders. Never smokers, excluding passive smokers, were used as the reference group in all main analyses. We estimated attributable fractions (AFs) % in smokers and in the population (PAFs) % with 95% CIs. Results: Altogether, 4293 women developed invasive breast cancer, confirmed by histology. Compared with never active, never passive smokers, ever (former and current) smokers had an overall risk of breast cancer that was 21% higher (HR=1.21; 95% CI=1.08–1.34). For ever smokers, the AF was 17.3% (95% CI =7.4–25.4) and for the population the PAF of breast cancer was 11.9% (95% CI=5.3–18.1). For passive smokers, the PAF of breast cancer was 3.2% (95% CI=1.0–5.4). When we applied PAF estimates for ever smoking on the 2907 new breast cancer cases among Norwegian women aged 35+ at diagnosis in 2012, this yielded 345 (95% CI=154–526) breast cancer cases that could have been avoided in the absence of active smoking that year. Conclusions: In smokers, one in six and in the population, one in nine breast cancer cases could have been avoided in the absence of active smoking. Our findings support the notion that the global cancer burden due to smoking is substantially underestimated. PMID:27280631

  3. New targeted therapies for breast cancer: A focus on tumor microenvironmental signals and chemoresistant breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kamdje, Armel Hervé Nwabo; Etet, Paul Faustin Seke; Vecchio, Lorella; Tagne, Richard Simo; Amvene, Jeremie Mbo; Muller, Jean-Marc; Krampera, Mauro; Lukong, Kiven Erique

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent female malignancy worldwide. Current strategies in breast cancer therapy, including classical chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and targeted therapies, are usually associated with chemoresistance and serious adverse effects. Advances in our understanding of changes affecting the interactome in advanced and chemoresistant breast tumors have provided novel therapeutic targets, including, cyclin dependent kinases, mammalian target of rapamycin, Notch, Wnt and Shh. Inhibitors of these molecules recently entered clinical trials in mono- and combination therapy in metastatic and chemo-resistant breast cancers. Anticancer epigenetic drugs, mainly histone deacetylase inhibitors and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors, also entered clinical trials. Because of the complexity and heterogeneity of breast cancer, the future in therapy lies in the application of individualized tailored regimens. Emerging therapeutic targets and the implications for personalized-based therapy development in breast cancer are herein discussed. PMID:25516852

  4. Radiation treatment for breast cancer. Recent advances.

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Edward

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review recent advances in radiation therapy in treatment of breast cancer. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE and CANCERLIT were searched using the MeSH words breast cancer, ductal carcinoma in situ, sentinel lymph node biopsy, and postmastectomy radiation. Randomized studies have shown the efficacy of radiation treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and for invasive breast cancer. MAIN MESSAGE: Lumpectomy followed by radiation is effective treatment for DCIS. In early breast cancer, shorter radiation schedules are as efficacious for local control and short-term cosmetic results as traditional fractionation regimens. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is done in specialized cancer centres; regional radiation is recommended for patients with four or more positive axillary lymph nodes. Postmastectomy radiation has been shown to have survival benefits for high-risk premenopausal patients. Systemic metastases from breast cancer usually respond satisfactorily to radiation. CONCLUSION: Radiation therapy continues to have an important role in treatment of breast cancer. There have been great advances in radiation therapy in the last decade, but they have raised controversy. Further studies are needed to address the controversies. PMID:12113193

  5. Managing Breast Cancer in the Older Patient

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Tracey; Shinde, Arvind; Doan, Caroline; Katheria, Vani; Hurria, Arti

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is a disease associated with aging, with almost one-half of all new breast cancer cases diagnosed annually in the United States occurring in women age 65 and older. Recent data suggest that although breast cancer outcomes in younger women have shown substantial improvement as a result of advances in treatment and screening, the benefits in older women have been less pronounced. Although older adults have been under-represented on cancer clinical trials there is an emerging body of literature to help guide treatment decisions. For early stage breast cancer, the discussion regarding treatment options involves balancing the reduction in risk of recurrence gained by specific therapies with the potential for increased treatment-related toxicity potentially exacerbated by physiological decline or comorbidities that often co-exist in the older population. A key component of care of the older adult is the recognition that chronologic age alone cannot guide the management of an older individual with breast cancer; rather, treatment decisions must also take into account an individual’s functional status, estimated life expectancy, the risks and benefits of the therapy, potential barriers to treatment, and patient preference. This article reviews the available evidence for therapeutic management of early-stage breast cancer in older adults, and highlights data from geriatric oncology literature that provides a basis on which to facilitate evidence-based treatment. PMID:24472802

  6. DNA Repair and Personalized Breast Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu-Xia; Sjolund, Ashley; Harris, Lyndsay; Sweasy, Joann B.

    2010-01-01

    Personalized cancer therapy is likely to be one of the next big advances in our search for a cure for cancer. To be able to treat people in an individualized manner, researchers need to know a great deal about their genetic constitution and the DNA repair status of their tumors. Specific knowledge is required regarding the polymorphisms individuals carry and how these polymorphisms influence responses to therapy. Researchers are actively engaged in biomarker discovery and validation for this purpose. In addition, the design of clinical trials must be reassessed to include new information on biomarkers and drug responses. In this review, we focus on personalized breast cancer therapy. The hypothesis we focus upon in this review is that there is connection between the DNA repair profile of individuals, their breast tumor subtypes, and their responses to cancer therapy. We first briefly review cellular DNA repair pathways that are likely to be impacted by breast cancer therapies. Next, we review the phenotypes of breast tumor subtypes with an emphasis on how a DNA repair deficiency might result in tumorigenesis itself and lead to the chemotherapeutic responses that are observed. Specific examples of breast tumor subtypes and their responses to cancer therapy are given, and we discuss possible DNA repair mechanisms that underlie the responses of tumors to various chemotherapeutic agents. Much is known about breast cancer subtypes and the way each of these subtypes responds to chemotherapy. In addition, we discuss novel design of clinical trials that incorporates rapidly emerging information on biomarkers. PMID:20872853

  7. Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Screening Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vahabi, Mandana

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess young women's breast health knowledge and explore its relation to the use of screening mammography. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women aged 25-45 residing in Toronto, Canada, with no history of breast cancer and mammography received an information brochure and four questionnaires which assessed their knowledge of…

  8. Optical imaging for breast cancer prescreening

    PubMed Central

    Godavarty, Anuradha; Rodriguez, Suset; Jung, Young-Jin; Gonzalez, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer prescreening is carried out prior to the gold standard screening using X-ray mammography and/or ultrasound. Prescreening is typically carried out using clinical breast examination (CBE) or self-breast examinations (SBEs). Since CBE and SBE have high false-positive rates, there is a need for a low-cost, noninvasive, non-radiative, and portable imaging modality that can be used as a prescreening tool to complement CBE/SBE. This review focuses on the various hand-held optical imaging devices that have been developed and applied toward early-stage breast cancer detection or as a prescreening tool via phantom, in vivo, and breast cancer imaging studies. Apart from the various optical devices developed by different research groups, a wide-field fiber-free near-infrared optical scanner has been developed for transillumination-based breast imaging in our Optical Imaging Laboratory. Preliminary in vivo studies on normal breast tissues, with absorption-contrasted targets placed in the intramammary fold, detected targets as deep as 8.8 cm. Future work involves in vivo imaging studies on breast cancer subjects and comparison with the gold standard X-ray mammography approach. PMID:26229503

  9. Cryotherapy in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy and Nail Toxicity in Patients With Breast Cancer Who Are Receiving Paclitaxel

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-26

    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Pain; Peripheral Neuropathy; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Therapy-related Toxicity

  10. Brain metastases of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Diane; Smith, Quentin R; Lockman, Paul R; Bronder, Julie; Gril, Brunilde; Chambers, Ann F; Weil, Robert J; Steeg, Patricia S

    Central nervous system or brain metastases traditionally occur in 10-16% of metastatic breast cancer patients and are associated with a dismal prognosis. The development of brain metastases has been associated with young age, and tumors that are estrogen receptor negative, Her-2+ or of the basal phenotype. Treatment typically includes whole brain irradiation, or either stereotactic radiosurgery or surgery with whole brain radiation, resulting in an approximately 20% one year survival. The blood-brain barrier is a formidable obstacle to the delivery of chemotherapeutics to the brain. Mouse experimental metastasis model systems have been developed for brain metastasis using selected sublines of human MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells. Using micron sized iron particles and MRI imaging, the fate of MDA-MB-231BR cells has been mapped: Approximately 2% of injected cells form larger macroscopic metastases, while 5% of cells remain as dormant cells in the brain. New therapies with permeability for the blood-brain barrier are needed to counteract both types of tumor cells. PMID:17473372

  11. Breast cancer and sexual function

    PubMed Central

    Boswell, Erica N.

    2015-01-01

    As the most common malignancy affecting women within the United States, breast cancer can bring about multiple physical and psychological challenges. Among the greatest challenges are those associated with female sexual function. Chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, surgeries and radiation can all have a large effect in altering a woman’s sexual health and function. Sexual concerns result in significant emotional distress, including sadness/depression, issues related to personal appearance, stigma, and negative impacts on personal relationships. In this article, we discuss some of the specific challenges that present with each type of treatment and the socio-physical impact they have on survivorship. Among the most detrimental to sexual function, are the use of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy. Additionally, anatomical changes that transpire in patients who have undergone surgery or radiation therapy (RT), disrupt perceptions of body image. Here we will discuss and also review the contemporary literature to determine effective management and treatment of sexual dysfunction. PMID:26816822

  12. Breast cancer and sexual function.

    PubMed

    Boswell, Erica N; Dizon, Don S

    2015-04-01

    As the most common malignancy affecting women within the United States, breast cancer can bring about multiple physical and psychological challenges. Among the greatest challenges are those associated with female sexual function. Chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, surgeries and radiation can all have a large effect in altering a woman's sexual health and function. Sexual concerns result in significant emotional distress, including sadness/depression, issues related to personal appearance, stigma, and negative impacts on personal relationships. In this article, we discuss some of the specific challenges that present with each type of treatment and the socio-physical impact they have on survivorship. Among the most detrimental to sexual function, are the use of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy. Additionally, anatomical changes that transpire in patients who have undergone surgery or radiation therapy (RT), disrupt perceptions of body image. Here we will discuss and also review the contemporary literature to determine effective management and treatment of sexual dysfunction. PMID:26816822

  13. Multiple chimeric antigen receptors successfully target chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 in several different cancer histologies and cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The development of immunotherapy has led to significant progress in the treatment of metastatic cancer, including the development of genetic engineering technologies that redirect lymphocytes to recognize and target a wide variety of tumor antigens. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are hybrid proteins combining antibody recognition domains linked to T cell signaling elements. Clinical trials of CAR-transduced peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) have induced remission of both solid organ and hematologic malignancies. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) is a promising target antigen that is overexpressed in multiple cancer histologies including melanoma, triple-negative breast cancer, glioblastoma, mesothelioma and sarcoma. Methods CSPG4 expression in cancer cell lines was assayed using flow cytometry (FACS) and reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Immunohistochemistry was utilized to assay resected melanomas and normal human tissues (n = 30) for CSPG4 expression and a reverse-phase protein array comprising 94 normal tissue samples was also interrogated for CSPG4 expression. CARs were successfully constructed from multiple murine antibodies (225.28S, TP41.2, 149.53) using second generation (CD28.CD3ζ) signaling domains. CAR sequences were cloned into a gamma-retroviral vector with subsequent successful production of retroviral supernatant and PBL transduction. CAR efficacy was assayed by cytokine release and cytolysis following coculture with target cell lines. Additionally, glioblastoma stem cells were generated from resected human tumors, and CSPG4 expression was determined by RT-PCR and FACS. Results Immunohistochemistry demonstrated prominent CSPG4 expression in melanoma tumors, but failed to demonstrate expression in any of the 30 normal human tissues studied. Two of 94 normal tissue protein lysates were positive by protein array. CAR constructs demonstrated cytokine secretion and cytolytic function after co-culture with tumor cell lines

  14. Endoxifen shows promise in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    In a phase I trial of endoxifen, a metabolite of tamoxifen, multiple patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer that was resistant to treatment with aromatase inhibitors had partial responses or long-lasting stable disease. PMID:24501306

  15. [New targeted therapies in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Coussy, F; Teixeira, L; Giacchetti, S; Cuvier, C; Hocini, H; Espié, M

    2014-11-01

    Trastuzumab improves care of patients with HER2+ breast cancer and allows a major gain in terms of survival. T-DM1 and pertuzumab are two new treatments, which give very encouraging results in metastatic breast cancer. Their place in neo-adjuvant and adjuvant setting still remains to be defined. Bevacizumab have its place in metastatic breast cancer. In adjuvant setting, results are disappointing and in neo-adjuvant setting, we need more studies on subgroups, which can benefit more. Development of the PARP inhibitors was slowed down by recent negative results in metastatic breast cancer but studies continue with more targeted patient's. Finally, everolimus, inhibitor of mTOR, allows to by pass the hormono-resistance in metastatic phase. Its toxicity must be taken into account in particular in adjuvant setting. PMID:25442825

  16. Breast Cancer and Women with Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Features Breast Cancer and Women with Disabilities Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The feature you selected is no longer available. In 10 seconds you will be automatically redirected to the CDC. ...

  17. Bringing Breast Cancer Technologies to Market | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    CCR research is recognized in novel competition to encourage the commercialization of breast cancer inventions. Editor’s note: This article was originally published in CCR Connections (Volume 8, No. 1). The Breast Cancer Startup Challenge was named one of six finalists in the HHS Innovates Award Competition, and was one of three finalists recognized by HHS Secretary Sylvia Mathews Burwell and Deputy Secretary Bill Corr. For more information on the Challenge, see previous article on the Poster website. Start-up companies are instrumental in bringing the fruits of scientific research to market. Recognizing an opportunity to bring entrepreneurial minds to bear on the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, the Avon Foundation for Women partnered with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation to launch the Breast Cancer Startup Challenge.

  18. Breast cancer risk in mothers of twins.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, M. F.; Broeders, M. J.; Carpenter, L. M.; Gunnarskog, J.; Leon, D. A.

    1997-01-01

    The risk of breast cancer associated with delivering a twin birth was examined in a population-based nested case-control study of nearly 4800 Swedish women with breast cancer and 47000 age-matched control subjects. All were aged less than 50 years and parous. After adjustment for age at first birth and parity, a 29% reduction in breast cancer risk was observed in mothers of twins relative to those who were not (odds ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.55-0.91). These results provide evidence that women who bear twins are at reduced risk of breast cancer, one explanation for which may be their unusual levels of hormonal exposure. PMID:9083344

  19. Breast Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breast Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/breastcancer.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  20. Adjuvant Bisphosphonates for Postmenopausal Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of a meta-analysis of randomized trials of bisphosphonates as adjuvant therapy for women with early-stage breast cancer that shows the drugs can reduce the rate of disease recurrence in bone.

  1. ALND for Women with Breast Cancer Micrometastases

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from a randomized clinical trial that compared axillary lymph node dissection versus no axillary lymph node dissection in women with breast cancer and only micrometastases in their sentinel lymph nodes.

  2. Breast Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breast Cancer URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/breastcancer.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  3. Breast Cancer Imaging with Novel PET Tracers.

    PubMed

    Mankoff, David A; Lee, Jean H; Eubank, William B

    2009-10-01

    Whereas (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/computed tomography has proven to be valuable for breast cancer diagnosis and response evaluation, it is likely that PET radiopharmaceuticals beyond FDG will contribute further to the understanding of breast cancer and thereby further direct breast cancer care. Increasingly specific and quantitative approaches will help direct treatment selection from an ever-expanding and increasing array of targeted breast cancer therapies. This article highlights 4 areas of ongoing research where preliminary patient results look promising: (1) tumor perfusion and angiogenesis, (2) drug delivery and transport, (3) tumor receptor imaging, and (4) early response evaluation. For each area, the biologic background is reviewed and early results are highlighted. PMID:27157306

  4. Targeting SH2 domains in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morlacchi, Pietro; Robertson, Fredika M; Klostergaard, Jim; McMurray, John S

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is among the most commonly diagnosed cancer types in women worldwide and is the second leading cause of cancer-related disease in the USA. SH2 domains recruit signaling proteins to phosphotyrosine residues on aberrantly activated growth factor and cytokine receptors and contribute to cancer cell cycling, metastasis, angiogenesis and so on. Herein we review phosphopeptide mimetic and small-molecule approaches targeting the SH2 domains of Grb2, Grb7 and STAT3 that inhibit their targets and reduce proliferation in in vitro breast cancer models. Only STAT3 inhibitors have been evaluated in in vivo models and have led to tumor reduction. Taken together, these studies suggest that targeting SH2 domains is an important approach to the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25495984

  5. Reovirus oncolysis of human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Norman, Kara L; Coffey, Matthew C; Hirasawa, Kensuke; Demetrick, Douglas J; Nishikawa, Sandra G; DiFrancesco, Lisa M; Strong, James E; Lee, Patrick W K

    2002-03-20

    We have previously shown that human reovirus replication is restricted to cells with an activated Ras pathway, and that reovirus could be used as an effective oncolytic agent against human glioblastoma xenografts. This study examines in more detail the feasibility of reovirus as a therapeutic for breast cancer, a subset of cancer in which direct activating mutations in the ras proto-oncogene are rare, and yet where unregulated stimulation of Ras signaling pathways is important in the pathogenesis of the disease. We demonstrate herein the efficient lysis of breast tumor-derived cell lines by the virus, whereas normal breast cells resist infection in vitro. In vivo studies of reovirus breast cancer therapy reveal that viral administration could cause tumor regression in an MDA-MB-435S mammary fat pad model in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Reovirus could also effect regression of tumors remote from the injection site in an MDA-MB-468 bilateral tumor model, raising the possibility of systemic therapy of breast cancer by the oncolytic agent. Finally, the ability of reovirus to act against primary breast tumor samples not propagated as cell lines was evaluated; we found that reovirus could indeed replicate in ex vivo surgical specimens. Overall, reovirus shows promise as a potential breast cancer therapeutic. PMID:11916487

  6. 19p13.1 is a triple negative-specific breast cancer susceptibility locus

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Kristen N.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Vachon, Celine M.; Wang, Xianshu; Margolin, Sara; Lindblom, Annika; Nevanlinna, Heli; Greco, Dario; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Vrieling, Alina; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Nickels, Stefan; Brauch, Hiltrud; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Meindl, Alfons; Bartram, Claus R.; Schott, Sarah; Engel, Christof; Godwin, Andrew K.; Weaver, JoEllen; Pathak, Harsh B.; Sharma, Priyanka; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Miron, Penelope; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Stavropoulou, Alexandra; Fountzilas, George; Gogas, Helen J.; Swann, Ruth; Dwek, Miriam; Perkins, Annie; Milne, Roger L.; Benítez, Javier; Zamora, M Pilar; Pérez, José Ignacio Arias; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Menegaux, Florence; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marmé, Frederick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Peto, Julian; Johnson, Nichola; Fletcher, Olivia; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Hartmann, Arndt; Ekici, Arif B.; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Muir, Kenneth; Puttawibul, Puttisak; Wiangnon, Surapon; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Braaf, Linde M; Rosenberg, Efraim H; Hopper, John L.; Apicella, Carmel; Park, Daniel J.; Southey, Melissa C.; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Bernstein, Leslie; Dur, Christina Clarke; Shen, Chen-Yang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Hamann, Ute; Dünnebier, Thomas; Rüdiger, Thomas; Ulmer, Hans Ulrich; Pharoah, Paul P.; Dunning, Alison M; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcom W.; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Hwang, Helena; Eccles, Diana M.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Sherman, Mark E.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Tollenaar, R.A.E.M.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; John, Esther M.; Miron, Alexander; Alnæs, Grethe Grenaker; Kristensen, Vessela; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona A; Severi, Gianluca; Kosel, Matthew L.; Pankratz, V.S.; Slager, Susan; Olson, Janet E.; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Lambrechts, Diether; Hatse, Sigrid; Dieudonne, Anne-Sophie; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Soini, Ylermi; Easton, Douglas F.; Couch, Fergus J.

    2012-01-01

    The 19p13.1 breast cancer susceptibility locus is a modifier of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers and is also associated with risk of ovarian cancer. Here we investigated 19p13.1 variation and risk of breast cancer subtypes, defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) status, using 48,869 breast cancer cases and 49,787 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Variants from 19p13.1 were not associated with breast cancer overall or with ER-positive breast cancer but were significantly associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk [rs8170 Odds Ratio (OR)=1.10, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.05 – 1.15, p=3.49 × 10-5] and triple negative (TN) (ER, PR and HER2 negative) breast cancer [rs8170 OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.13 – 1.31, p=2.22 × 10-7]. However, rs8170 was no longer associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk when TN cases were excluded [OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.89 – 1.07, p=0.62]. In addition, a combined analysis of TN cases from BCAC and the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC) (n=3,566) identified a genome-wide significant association between rs8170 and TN breast cancer risk [OR=1.25, 95% CI 1.18 – 1.33, p=3.31 × 10-13]. Thus, 19p13.1 is the first triple negative-specific breast cancer risk locus and the first locus specific to a histological subtype defined by ER, PR, and HER2 to be identified. These findings provide convincing evidence that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer varies by tumor subtype and that triple negative tumors and other subtypes likely arise through distinct etiologic pathways. PMID:22331459

  7. Breast cancer following polyacrylamide hydrogel injection for breast augmentation: A case report

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, GANG; WANG, YUJIA; HUANG, JIN-LONG

    2016-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) has been used for several years as an injectable implant for augmentation mammoplasty in China. Although patients who received PAAG injections experienced a number of complications, breast cancer following PAAG injection has been reported only in two cases. In this report, we present a case of breast cancer following PAAG injection for breast augmentation. Our study demonstrated that PAAG injection may increase the risk of breast cancer development. Early-stage breast cancer detection is difficult, since the breast is covered with the indurated injected gel. Thus, PAAG injection for augmentation mammoplasty may negatively affect breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:26998299

  8. Breast cancer screening controversies: who, when, why, and how?

    PubMed

    Chetlen, Alison; Mack, Julie; Chan, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Mammographic screening is effective in reducing mortality from breast cancer. The issue is not whether mammography is effective, but whether the false positive rate and false negative rates can be reduced. This review will discuss controversies including the reduction in breast cancer mortality, overdiagnosis, the ideal screening candidate, and the optimal imaging modality for breast cancer screening. The article will compare and contrast screening mammography, tomosynthesis, whole-breast screening ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular breast imaging. Though supplemental imaging modalities are being utilized to improve breast cancer diagnosis, mammography still remains the gold standard for breast cancer screening. PMID:26093511

  9. Insulin resistance and breast-cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Bruning, P F; Bonfrèr, J M; van Noord, P A; Hart, A A; de Jong-Bakker, M; Nooijen, W J

    1992-10-21

    Life-style has a major influence on the incidence of breast cancer. To evaluate the effects of life-style related metabolic-endocrine factors on breast cancer risk we conducted a case-control study comparing 223 women aged 38 to 75 years presenting with operable (stage I or II) breast cancer and 441 women of the same age having no breast cancer, who participated in a population-based breast cancer screening program. Women reporting diabetes mellitus were excluded. Sera from 110 women of the same age group presenting with early stage melanoma, lymphoma or cervical cancer were used as a second 'other-cancer control group'. Serum levels of C-peptide were significantly higher in early breast cancer cases compared to controls. The same was found for the ratios C-peptide to glucose or C-peptide to fructosamine, indicating insulin resistance. Sex hormone binding globulin was inversely, triglycerides and available estradiol were positively related to C-peptide. Serum C-peptide levels were related to body mass index (BMI), and to waist/hip ratio (WHR), in particular in controls. However, the relative increase of C-peptide, C-peptide to glucose or C-peptide to fructosamine in cases was independent of BMI or WHR. The log relative risk was linearly related to the log C-peptide levels. Relative risk according to quintiles, and adjusted for age, family history, BMI and WHR, for women at the 80% level was 2.9 as compared with those at the 20% level for C-peptide. Elevated C-peptide or C-peptide to fructosamine values were not observed in the sera from women belonging to the 'other-cancer control group'. This study suggests that hyperinsulinemia with insulin resistance is a significant risk factor for breast cancer independent of general adiposity or body fat distribution. PMID:1399128

  10. Ovarian stimulation in patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Elkin; González, Naira; Muñoz, Luis; Aguilar, Jesús; Velasco, Juan A García

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy among women under 50. Improvements in diagnosis and treatment have yielded an important decrease in mortality in the last 20 years. In many cases, chemotherapy and radiotherapy develop side effects on the reproductive function. Therefore, before the anti-cancer treatment impairs fertility, clinicians should offer some techniques for fertility preservation for women planning motherhood in the future. In order to obtain more available oocytes for IVF, the ovary must be stimulated. New protocols which prevent exposure to increased estrogen during gonadotropin stimulation, measurements to avoid the delay in starting anti-cancer treatment or the outcome of ovarian stimulation have been addressed in this review. There is no evidence of association between ovarian stimulation and breast cancer. It seems that there are more relevant other confluent factors than ovarian stimulation. Factors that can modify the risk of breast cancer include: parity, age at full-term birth, age of menarche, and family history. There is an association between breast cancer and exogenous estrogen. Therefore, specific protocols to stimulate patients with breast cancer include anti-estrogen agents such as letrozole. By using letrozole plus recombinant follicular stimulating hormone, patients develop a multifollicular growth with only a mild increase in estradiol serum levels. Controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) takes around 10 days, and we discuss new strategies to start COS as soon as possible. Protocols starting during the luteal phase or after inducing the menses currently prevent a delay in starting ovarian stimulation. Patients with breast cancer have a poorer response to COS compared with patients without cancer who are stimulated with conventional protocols of gonadotropins. Although many centres offer fertility preservation and many patients undergo ovarian stimulation, there are not enough studies to evaluate the recurrence, breast cancer

  11. Prognosis for Mammographically Occult, Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conservation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tzu-I. J.; Yang Qifeng; Haffty, Bruce G.; Moran, Meena S.

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To compare mammographically occult (MamOcc) and mammographically positive (MamPos) early-stage breast cancer patients treated with breast-conservation therapy (BCT), to analyze differences between the two cohorts. Methods and Materials: Our two cohorts consisted of 214 MamOcc and 2168 MamPos patients treated with BCT. Chart reviews were conducted to assess mammogram reports and method of detection. All clinical-pathologic and outcome parameters were analyzed to detect differences between the two cohorts. Results: Median follow-up was 7 years. There were no differences in final margins, T stage, nodal status, estrogen/progesterone receptor status, or 'triple-negative' status. Significant differences included younger age at diagnosis (p < 0.0001), more positive family history (p = 0.0033), less HER-2+ disease (p = 0.0294), and 1{sup o} histology (p < 0.0001). At 10 years, the differences in overall survival, cause-specific survival, and distant relapse between the two groups did not differ significantly. The MamOcc cohort had more breast relapses (15% vs. 8%; p = 0.0357), but on multivariate analysis this difference was not significant (hazard ratio 1.0, 95% confidence interval 0.993-1.007, p = 0.9296). Breast relapses were mammographically occult in 32% of the MamOcc and 12% of the MamPos cohorts (p = 0.0136). Conclusions: Although our study suggests that there are clinical-pathologic variations for the MamOcc cohort vs. MamPos patients that may ultimately affect management, breast relapse after BCT was not significantly different. Breast recurrences were more often mammographically occult in the MamOcc cohort; consideration should be given to closer follow-up and alternative imaging strategies (ultrasound, breast MRI) for routine posttreatment examination. To our knowledge, this represents the largest series addressing the prognostic significance of MamOcc cancers treated with BCT.

  12. The effects of tricyclic antidepressants on breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, C R; Collet, J-P; Belzile, E; Hanley, J A; Boivin, J-F

    2002-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that tricyclic antidepressant use increases invasive female breast cancer incidence, we carried out a case-control study within the population of female beneficiaries of the Saskatchewan Prescription Drug Plan aged 35 years from 1981-995 with no history of cancer since 1970. This agency has provided full or partial coverage for outpatient prescriptions to Saskatchewan residents since 1975. We accrued 5882 histologically proven cases and 23,517 controls, randomly selected from the source population and individually matched on age and sampling time. Heavy exposure to any tricyclic antidepressants was associated with an elevated rate ratio for breast cancer 11-15 years later (2.02, 95% confidence interval: 1.34-3.04). Post hoc analyses based on the results of genotoxicity studies carried out using Drosophila melanogaster suggested that the increased risk could be attributed to the use of the six genotoxic tricyclic antidepressants, and not to the use of the four nongenotoxic tricyclic antidepressants. However, our results may have been confounded by the effects of other determinants of breast cancer associated with tricyclic antidepressant use. PMID:11857018

  13. Dietary factors and breast cancer risk in Vaud, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Levi, F; La Vecchia, C; Gulie, C; Negri, E

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between dietary factors and the risk of breast cancer was investigated in a case-control study conducted in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland as a pilot phase for a larger cooperative study within the SEARCH Programme of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (Lyon, France). A total of 107 incident, histologically confirmed cases of breast cancer and 318 controls admitted to hospital for acute, nonhormone-related, gynecological, metabolic, or neoplastic disorders were interviewed. Significant direct trends in risk were observed with total energy intake [relative risk (RR) for highest vs. lowest intake tertile = 1.9] and, after allowance for energy intake, with frequency of consumption of various types of meat (RR = 2.1 for the highest tertile), cheese (RR = 2.7), and alcohol (RR = 2.1). Significant protections, on the order of 40-60% reductions for the highest vs. lowest consumption tertile, were conferred by total green vegetable consumption, selected types of vegetables and fruits (cucumbers, onions, pears), and a summary index of beta-carotene intake (RR = 0.4 for highest consumption tertile). Thus the present study confirmed the existence of an unfavorable dietary pattern for breast cancer risk (characterized by high-calorie, selected sources of animal fat and alcohol intake). Moreover, a significant protection could be gained by consuming a diet rich in vegetables and perhaps fruits. PMID:8346081

  14. Pharmacoprevention for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cazzaniga, Massimiliano; Bonanni, Bernardo

    2016-10-01

    Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome is an important women's health condition characterized by an increased susceptibility to the development of cancer, in particular breast and ovarian neoplasms, and is caused by an inherited germline genetic mutation in one or both tumor suppressor genes named BRCA1 and BRCA2. This monographic issue provides an update on our knowledge of this syndrome with particular emphasis on the risk reduction strategies through a pharmacopreventive approach. PMID:26928419

  15. Vaginal Health During Breast Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Falk, Sandy J; Bober, Sharon

    2016-05-01

    There are increasing numbers of breast cancer survivors. Chemotherapy or endocrine therapy result in effects on vaginal health that may affect quality of life. These effects may impact sexual function, daily comfort, or the ability to perform a pelvic examination. Vulvovaginal atrophy, or genitourinary syndrome of menopause, may be treated with nonhormonal or hormonal measures. Breast cancer survivors who are menopausal and/or on endocrine therapy should be screened for issues with vaginal health and counseled about treatment options. PMID:27074843

  16. Novel Nanophotolysis Technique for Breast Cancer Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashiq, M. G. B.; Ibrahim, Noorddin; Shahid, M.; Tahir, B. A.; Saeed, M. A.

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of gold nanoparticles on breast cancer tumor. A theoretical approach has been adopted to probe the nanophotolysis technique using short pulse laser. The influences of various parameters including number of ions, shock front, energy distribution function, laser fluence are discussed in detail. Computational results suggest that spherical gold nanoparticles provides a promising platform for selective killing of abnormal cells in breast cancer tumor.

  17. Clinicopathological significance of forkhead box protein A1 in breast cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    HE, KELI; ZENG, HUI; XU, XIANQUN; LI, ANLING; CAI, QING; LONG, XINGHUA

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between the expression of forkhead box protein A1 (FOXA1) and differential clinicopathological characteristics in breast cancer using a meta-analysis method. Eligible studies that investigated the correlation between FOXA1 expression and the clinical characteristics of breast cancer were collected through searching numerous databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and the VIP database. In total, eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. Following a systematic analysis, the expression of FOXA1 was found to be significantly associated with the estrogen receptor α status, the progesterone receptor status, lymph node metastasis and the histological grade in breast cancer. However, no statistically significant association was observed between FOXA1 expression and the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status in breast cancer patients. PMID:27284343

  18. Platinum Based Chemotherapy or Observation in Treating Patients With Residual Triple-Negative Basal-Like Breast Cancer Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-14

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  19. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Atezolizumab Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed, Stage II-III Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-29

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  20. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Metastatic Breast Cancer, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, or Prostate Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-17

    Male Breast Carcinoma; Prostate Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  1. Endothelial CXCR7 Regulates Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Stacer, Amanda C.; Fenner, Joseph; Cavnar, Stephen P.; Xiao, Annie; Zhao, Shuang; Chang, S. Laura; Salomonnson, Anna; Luker, Kathryn E.; Luker, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    Atypical chemokine receptor CXCR7 (ACKR3) functions as a scavenger receptor for chemokine CXCL12, a molecule that promotes multiple steps in tumor growth and metastasis in breast cancer and multiple other malignancies. While normal vascular endothelium expresses low levels of CXCR7, marked upregulation of CXCR7 occurs in tumor vasculature in breast cancer and other tumors. To investigate effects of endothelial CXCR7 in breast cancer, we conditionally deleted this receptor from vascular endothelium of adult mice, generating CXCR7ΔEND/ΔEND animals. CXCR7ΔEND/ΔEND mice appeared phenotypically normal, although these animals exhibited a modest 35 ± 3% increase in plasma CXCL12 as compared with control. Using two different syngeneic, orthotopic tumor implant models of breast cancer, we discovered that CXCR7ΔEND/ΔEND mice had significantly greater local recurrence of cancer following resection, elevated numbers of circulating tumor cells, and more spontaneous metastases. CXCR7ΔEND/ΔEND mice also showed greater experimental metastases following intracardiac injection of cancer cells. These results establish that endothelial CXCR7 limits breast cancer metastasis at multiple steps in the metastatic cascade, advancing understanding of CXCL12 pathways in tumor environments and informing ongoing drug development targeting CXCR7 in cancer. PMID:26119946

  2. Pathway-based analysis of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dong; Cui, Miao; Zhao, Gang; Fan, Zhimin; Nolan, Katherine; Yang, Ying; Lee, Peng; Ye, Fei; Zhang, David Y

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Although HER2 and ER pathways are predominant pathways altered in breast cancer, it is now well accepted that many other signaling pathways are also involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. The understanding of these additional pathways may assist in identifying new therapeutic approaches for breast cancer. Methods: 13 invasive ductal carcinoma tissues and 5 benign breast tissues were analyzed for the mRNA expression level of 1243 cancer pathway-related genes using SmartChip (WaferGen, CA), a real-time PCR-base method. In addition, the levels of 131 cancer pathway-related proteins and phosphoproteins in 33 paired breast cancers were measured using our innovative Protein Pathway Array. Results: Out of 1,243 mRNAs, 68.7% (854) were detected in breast cancer and 395 mRNAs were statistically significant (fold change >2) between benign and cancer tissues. Of these mRNAs, 105 only expressed in breast cancer tissues and 33 mRNAs only expressed in normal breast tissues. Out of 131 proteins and phosphoproteins, 68% (89) were detected in cancer tissues and 57 proteins were significantly differentiated between tumor and normal tissues. Interestingly, only 3 genes (CDK6, Vimentin and SLUG) showed decreases in both protein and mRNA. Six proteins (BCL6, CCNE1, PCNA, PDK1, SRC and XIAP) were differentially expressed between tumor and normal tissues but no differences were observed at mRNA levels. Analyses of mRNA and protein data using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed more than 15 pathways were altered in breast cancer and 6 of which were shared between mRNAs and proteins, including p53, IL17, HGF, NGF, PTEN and PI3K/AKT pathways. Conclusions: There is a broad dysregulation of various pathways in breast cancer both at protein levels and mRNA levels. It is important to note that mRNA expression does not correlate with protein level, suggesting different regulation mechanisms between proteins and mRNAs. PMID:24936222

  3. Adherence to cancer prevention guidelines and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Catsburg, Chelsea; Miller, Anthony B; Rohan, Thomas E

    2014-11-15

    Healthy eating patterns and keeping physically active are potentially more important for chronic disease prevention than intake or exclusion of specific food items or nutrients. To this end, many health organizations routinely publish dietary and lifestyle recommendations aimed at preventing chronic disease. Using data from the Canadian National Breast Screening Study, we investigated the association between breast cancer risk and adherence to two sets of guidelines specific for cancer prevention, namely the American Cancer Society (ACS) Guidelines and the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) Recommendations. At baseline, 49,613 women completed dietary and lifestyle questionnaires and height and weight measurements were taken. During a mean follow-up of 16.6 years, 2,503 incident cases of breast cancer were ascertained. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of meeting each guideline, and number of guidelines met, with breast cancer risk. The two sets of guidelines yielded similar results. Specifically, adherence to all six ACS guidelines was associated with a 31% reduction in breast cancer risk when compared to subjects adhering to at most one guideline (HR=0.69; 95% CI=0.49-0.97); similarly, adherence to six or seven of the WCRF/AICR guidelines was also associated with a 31% reduction in breast cancer risk (HR=0.69; 95% CI=0.47-1.00). Under either classification, meeting each additional guideline was associated with a 4-6% reduction in breast cancer risk. These results suggest that adherence to cancer prevention guidelines is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. PMID:24723234

  4. Distinct breast cancer characteristics between screen- and self-detected breast cancers recorded in the Japanese Breast Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Takayuki; Kumamaru, Hiraku; Miyata, Hiroaki; Tomotaki, Ai; Niikura, Naoki; Kawai, Masaaki; Anan, Keisei; Hayashi, Naoki; Masuda, Shinobu; Tsugawa, Koichiro; Aogi, Kenjiro; Ishida, Takanori; Masuoka, Hideji; Iijima, Kotaro; Matsuoka, Junji; Doihara, Hiroyoshi; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Nakamura, Seigo; Tokuda, Yutaka

    2016-04-01

    The rate of breast cancer screening for women of all ages in Japan is increasing. However, little is known about the biological differences between screen- and self-detected tumors. We used data from the Japanese Breast Cancer Registry (JBCR), a nationwide registry of newly diagnosed breast cancer cases in Japan, to investigate patients diagnosed between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2011. We compared the clinicopathological features of tumors and assessed yearly trends regarding the proportion of screen-detected cases during the study period. We found that 31.8 % (65,358/205,544) of cancers were detected by screening. Asymptomatic tumors detected by screening (asymptomatic) were more likely to have favorable prognostic features than those that were self-detected (ductal carcinoma in situ [DCIS]: 19.8 versus 4.1 %, node-negative: 77.0 versus 61.6 %, and estrogen receptor-positive [ER+]: 82.0 versus 72.9 %, respectively). All these findings were statistically significant (p < .001). The proportion of breast cancers detected by screening among all cases increased from 21.7 % in 2004 to 37.1 % in 2011. During the same time period, the proportion of screen-detected DCIS increased from 41.5 to 66.0 % and that of ER+ cancers increased from 23.2 to 39.7 %. This study demonstrated that low-risk tumors, including DCIS, ER+, and lower TNM stage, account for a substantial proportion of clinical screening-detected cancers. The differences in biological characteristics between screen- and self-detected cancers may account in part for the limited efficacy of breast cancer screening programs aimed at improving breast cancer mortality. PMID:27048417

  5. Cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Jane A; Shafer, Martin M; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Hampton, John M; Newcomb, Polly A

    2006-06-21

    Cadmium, a highly persistent heavy metal, has been categorized as a probable human carcinogen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Primary exposure sources include food and tobacco smoke. We carried out a population-based case-control study of 246 women, aged 20-69 years, with breast cancer and 254 age-matched control subjects. We measured cadmium levels in urine samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and conducted interviews by telephone to obtain information on known breast cancer risk factors. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer by creatinine-adjusted cadmium levels were calculated by multivariable analysis. Statistical tests were two-sided. Women in the highest quartile of creatinine-adjusted cadmium level (> or = 0.58 microg/g) had twice the breast cancer risk of those in the lowest quartile (<0.26 microg/g; OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.3 to 4.2) after adjustment for established risk factors, and there was a statistically significant increase in risk with increasing cadmium level (P(trend) = .01). Based on this study, the absolute risk difference is 45 (95% CI = 0 to 77) per 100,000 given an overall breast cancer rate of 124 per 100,000. Whether increased cadmium is a causal factor for breast cancer or reflects the effects of treatment or disease remains to be determined. PMID:16788160

  6. Serum fatty acids and breast cancer incidence.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, Harri; Knekt, Paul; Järvinen, Ritva; Salminen, Irma; Hakulinen, Timo

    2003-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of the diet may be essential to the development of breast cancer. We studied the ability of several fatty acids of serum total lipids to predict breast cancer incidence in a case-control study nested within a longitudinal population study. The proportions of fatty acids in serum total lipids were determined from stored serum samples collected at baseline for 127 incident breast cancer cases and 242 matched controls. Women with a higher proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in serum had a reduced risk of breast cancer. The odds ratio (OR) between the highest and lowest tertiles of serum PUFA was 0.31 (95% confidence interval, CI = 0.12-0.77). This association was mainly due to n-6 PUFAs and especially to linoleic acid. The ORs were 0.35 (CI = 0.14-0.84) and 0.29 (CI = 0.12-0.73), respectively. Of the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), higher trans-11-18:1 levels were related to an increased breast cancer risk (OR = 3.69, CI = 1.35-10.06). The association was stronger in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. The present study suggests that higher serum proportions of the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid and lower proportions of the MUFA trans-11-18:1 fatty acid predict a reduced incidence of breast cancer. PMID:12881010

  7. Radiation dose and second breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Basco, V. E.; Coldman, A. J.; Elwood, J. M.; Young, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    Amongst 14,000 women with breast cancer treated between 1946 and 1982, 194 developed a second primary tumour in the contralateral breast more than one year after diagnosis of the first primary. The radiation dose to the contralateral breast was calculated for each member of this group and also for members of a control group matched for age, year of diagnosis and survival time. Comparison of the groups provides no evidence for radiation induced carcinogenesis on the contralateral breast in these patients. PMID:4041361

  8. Evolution of radical mastectomy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Plesca, M; Bordea, C; El Houcheimi, B; Ichim, E; Blidaru, A

    2016-01-01

    Surgical treatment of breast cancer has been marked by a constant evolution since the Halsted radical mastectomy described in the late 19th century has become the current standard Madden radical mastectomy, a breast surgery that involves the ablation of tissue with the axillary lymphatic preserving both pectoral muscles. The purpose of this paper was to present the stages that have marked the evolution of this intervention and to provide an overview of the way breast cancer has been understood and treated in the last century. PMID:27453752

  9. Hypofractionated Image Guided Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IV Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-24

    Central Nervous System Metastases; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma With Predominant in Situ Component; Liver Metastases; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lung Metastases; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Tumors Metastatic to Brain

  10. The changing epidemiology of smoking and lung cancer histology.

    PubMed Central

    Wynder, E L; Muscat, J E

    1995-01-01

    In 1950, the first large-scale epidemiological studies demonstrated that lung cancer is causatively associated with cigarette smoking, a finding subsequently confirmed by the Royal College of Physicians in London, the U.S. Surgeon General, and the World Health Organization. Although cigarette consumption has gradually decreased in the United States from a high of about 3800 cigarettes per adult per year in 1965 to about 2800 cigarettes in 1993, death from lung cancer has reached a high among males at the rate of 74.9/100,000/year and among females at the rate of 28.5. However, in the younger cohorts, the lung cancer death rate is decreasing in both men and women. In this overview we discuss the steeper increase during recent decades of lung adenocarcinoma incidence compared with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. In 1950, the ratio of these two major types of lung cancer in males was about 1:18; today it is about 1:1.2-1.4. This overview discusses two concepts that are regarded as contributors to this change in the histological types of lung cancer. One factor is the decrease in average nicotine and tar delivery of cigarettes from about 2.7 and 38 mg in 1955 to 1.0 and 13.5 mg in 1993, respectively. Other major factors for the reduced emission of smoke relate to changes in the composition of the cigarette tobacco blend and general acceptance of cigarettes with filter tips; the latter constitute 97% of all cigarettes currently sold. However, smokers of low-yield cigarettes compensate for the low delivery of nicotine by inhaling the smoke more deeply and by smoking more intensely; such smokers may be taking up to 5 puffs/min with puff volumes up to 55 ml. Under these conditions, the peripheral lung is exposed to increased amounts of smoke carcinogens that are suspected to lead to lung adenocarcinoma. Among the important changes in the composition of the tobacco blend of the U.S. cigarette is a significant increase in nitrate content (0.5% to 1.2-1.5%), which raises

  11. The changing epidemiology of smoking and lung cancer histology.

    PubMed

    Wynder, E L; Muscat, J E

    1995-11-01

    In 1950, the first large-scale epidemiological studies demonstrated that lung cancer is causatively associated with cigarette smoking, a finding subsequently confirmed by the Royal College of Physicians in London, the U.S. Surgeon General, and the World Health Organization. Although cigarette consumption has gradually decreased in the United States from a high of about 3800 cigarettes per adult per year in 1965 to about 2800 cigarettes in 1993, death from lung cancer has reached a high among males at the rate of 74.9/100,000/year and among females at the rate of 28.5. However, in the younger cohorts, the lung cancer death rate is decreasing in both men and women. In this overview we discuss the steeper increase during recent decades of lung adenocarcinoma incidence compared with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. In 1950, the ratio of these two major types of lung cancer in males was about 1:18; today it is about 1:1.2-1.4. This overview discusses two concepts that are regarded as contributors to this change in the histological types of lung cancer. One factor is the decrease in average nicotine and tar delivery of cigarettes from about 2.7 and 38 mg in 1955 to 1.0 and 13.5 mg in 1993, respectively. Other major factors for the reduced emission of smoke relate to changes in the composition of the cigarette tobacco blend and general acceptance of cigarettes with filter tips; the latter constitute 97% of all cigarettes currently sold. However, smokers of low-yield cigarettes compensate for the low delivery of nicotine by inhaling the smoke more deeply and by smoking more intensely; such smokers may be taking up to 5 puffs/min with puff volumes up to 55 ml. Under these conditions, the peripheral lung is exposed to increased amounts of smoke carcinogens that are suspected to lead to lung adenocarcinoma. Among the important changes in the composition of the tobacco blend of the U.S. cigarette is a significant increase in nitrate content (0.5% to 1.2-1.5%), which raises

  12. Genetic characterization of breast cancer and implications for clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, Felipe C; Lopez-Garcia, Maria A; Lambros, Maryou B; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is a genetic disease caused by the accumulation of mutations in neoplastic cells. In the last few years, high-throughput microarray-based molecular analysis has provided increasingly more coherent information about the genetic aberrations in breast cancer. New biomarkers and molecular techniques are slowly becoming part of the diagnostic and prognostic armamentarium available for pathologists and oncologists to tailor the therapy for breast cancer patients. In this review, we will focus on the contribution of breast cancer somatic genetics to our understanding of breast cancer biology and its impact on breast cancer patient management. PMID:19754664

  13. Observed and Predicted Risk of Breast Cancer Death in Randomized Trials on Breast Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Autier, Philippe; Sullivan, Richard; Boyle, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of breast screening in breast cancer mortality declines is debated. Screening impacts cancer mortality through decreasing the number of advanced cancers with poor diagnosis, while cancer treatment works through decreasing the case-fatality rate. Hence, reductions in cancer death rates thanks to screening should directly reflect reductions in advanced cancer rates. We verified whether in breast screening trials, the observed reductions in the risk of breast cancer death could be predicted from reductions of advanced breast cancer rates. Patients and Methods The Greater New York Health Insurance Plan trial (HIP) is the only breast screening trial that reported stage-specific cancer fatality for the screening and for the control group separately. The Swedish Two-County trial (TCT)) reported size-specific fatalities for cancer patients in both screening and control groups. We computed predicted numbers of breast cancer deaths, from which we calculated predicted relative risks (RR) and (95% confidence intervals). The Age trial in England performed its own calculations of predicted relative risk. Results The observed and predicted RR of breast cancer death were 0.72 (0.56–0.94) and 0.98 (0.77–1.24) in the HIP trial, and 0.79 (0.78–1.01) and 0.90 (0.80–1.01) in the Age trial. In the TCT, the observed RR was 0.73 (0.62–0.87), while the predicted RR was 0.89 (0.75–1.05) if overdiagnosis was assumed to be negligible and 0.83 (0.70–0.97) if extra cancers were excluded. Conclusions In breast screening trials, factors other than screening have contributed to reductions in the risk of breast cancer death most probably by reducing the fatality of advanced cancers in screening groups. These factors were the better management of breast cancer patients and the underreporting of breast cancer as the underlying cause of death. Breast screening trials should publish stage-specific fatalities observed in each group. PMID:27100174

  14. Radiation therapy for breast cancer: Literature review.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Karunakaran; Subramanian, Balaji; Yadav, Poonam; Anu Radha, Chandrasekaran; Ramasubramanian, Velayudham

    2016-01-01

    Concave shape with variable size target volume makes treatment planning for the breast/chest wall a challenge. Conventional techniques used for the breast/chest wall cancer treatment provided better sparing of organs at risk (OARs), with poor conformity and uniformity to the target volume. Advanced technologies such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) improve the target coverage at the cost of higher low dose volumes to OARs. Novel hybrid techniques present promising results in breast/chest wall irradiation in terms of target coverage as well as OARs sparing. Several published data compared these technologies for the benefit of the breast/chest wall with or without nodal volumes. The aim of this article is to review relevant data and identify the scope for further research in developing optimal treatment plan for breast/chest wall cancer treatment. PMID:27545009

  15. Noninvasive strategies for breast cancer early detection.

    PubMed

    Trecate, Giovanna; Sinues, Pablo Martinez-Lozano; Orlandi, Rosaria

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer screening and presurgical diagnosis are currently based on mammography, ultrasound and more sensitive imaging technologies; however, noninvasive biomarkers represent both a challenge and an opportunity for early detection of cancer. An extensive number of potential breast cancer biomarkers have been discovered by microarray hybridization or sequencing of circulating DNA, noncoding RNA and blood cell RNA; multiplex analysis of immune-related molecules and mass spectrometry-based approaches for high-throughput detection of protein, endogenous peptides, circulating and volatile metabolites. However, their medical relevance and their translation to clinics remain to be exploited. Once they will be fully validated, cancer biomarkers, used in combination with the current and emerging imaging technologies, represent an avenue to a personalized breast cancer diagnosis. PMID:27044539

  16. Genomic tumor evolution of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sato, Fumiaki; Saji, Shigehira; Toi, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    Owing to recent technical development of comprehensive genome-wide analysis such as next generation sequencing, deep biological insights of breast cancer have been revealed. Information of genomic mutations and rearrangements in patients' tumors is indispensable to understand the mechanism in carcinogenesis, progression, metastasis, and resistance to systemic treatment of breast cancer. To date, comprehensive genomic analyses illustrate not only base substitution patterns and lists of driver mutations and key rearrangements, but also a manner of tumor evolution. Breast cancer genome is dynamically changing and evolving during cancer development course from non-invasive disease via invasive primary tumor to metastatic tumor, and during treatment exposure. The accumulation pattern of base substitution and genomic rearrangement looks gradual and punctuated, respectively, in analogy with contrasting theories for evolution manner of species, Darwin's phyletic gradualism, and Eldredge and Gould's "punctuated equilibrium". Liquid biopsy is a non-invasive method to detect the genomic evolution of breast cancer. Genomic mutation patterns in circulating tumor cells and circulating cell-free tumor DNA represent those of tumors existing in patient body. Liquid biopsy methods are now under development for future application to clinical practice of cancer treatment. In this article, latest knowledge regarding breast cancer genome, especially in terms of 'tumor evolution', is summarized. PMID:25998191

  17. Leptin–cytokine crosstalk in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Gale; Gonzalez-Perez, Ruben Rene

    2013-01-01

    Despite accumulating evidence suggesting a positive correlation between leptin levels, obesity, post-menopause and breast cancer incidence, our current knowledge on the mechanisms involved in these relationships is still incomplete. Since the cloning of leptin in 1994 and its receptor (OB-R) 1 year later by Friedman’s laboratory (Zhang et al., 1994) and Tartaglia et al. (Tartaglia et al., 1995), respectively, more than 22,000 papers related to leptin functions in several biological systems have been published (Pubmed, 2012). The ob gene product, leptin, is an important circulating signal for the regulation of body weight. Additionally, leptin plays critical roles in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, reproduction, growth and the immune response. Supporting evidence for leptin roles in cancer has been shown in more than 1000 published papers, with almost 300 papers related to breast cancer (Pubmed, 2012). Specific leptin-induced signaling pathways are involved in the increased levels of inflammatory, mitogenic and pro-angiogenic factors in breast cancer. In obesity, a mild inflammatory condition, deregulated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α and leptin from adipose tissue, inflammatory and cancer cells could contribute to the onset and progression of cancer. We used an in silico software program, Pathway Studio 9, and found 4587 references citing these various interactions. Functional crosstalk between leptin, IL-1 and Notch signaling (NILCO) found in breast cancer cells could represent the integration of developmental, proinflammatory and pro-angiogenic signals critical for leptin-induced breast cancer cell proliferation/migration, tumor angiogenesis and breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). Remarkably, the inhibition of leptin signaling via leptin peptide receptor antagonists (LPrAs) significantly reduced the establishment and growth of syngeneic, xenograft and carcinogen-induced breast cancer and, simultaneously

  18. Exemestane With or Without Entinostat in Treating Patients With Recurrent Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer That is Locally Advanced or Metastatic

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-15

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  19. The AURORA initiative for metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zardavas, D; Maetens, M; Irrthum, A; Goulioti, T; Engelen, K; Fumagalli, D; Salgado, R; Aftimos, P; Saini, K S; Sotiriou, C; Campbell, P; Dinh, P; von Minckwitz, G; Gelber, R D; Dowsett, M; Di Leo, A; Cameron, D; Baselga, J; Gnant, M; Goldhirsch, A; Norton, L; Piccart, M

    2014-11-11

    Metastatic breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality among women in the Western world. To date most research efforts have focused on the molecular analysis of the primary tumour to dissect the genotypes of the disease. However, accumulating evidence supports a molecular evolution of breast cancer during its life cycle, with metastatic lesions acquiring new molecular aberrations. Recognising this critical gap of knowledge, the Breast International Group is launching AURORA, a large, multinational, collaborative metastatic breast cancer molecular screening programme. Approximately 1300 patients with metastatic breast cancer who have received no more than one line of systemic treatment for advanced disease will, after giving informed consent, donate archived primary tumour tissue, as well as will donate tissue collected prospectively from the biopsy of metastatic lesions and blood. Both tumour tissue types, together with a blood sample, will then be subjected to next generation sequencing for a panel of cancer-related genes. The patients will be treated at the discretion of their treating physicians per standard local practice, and they will be followed for clinical outcome for 10 years. Alternatively, depending on the molecular profiles found, patients will be directed to innovative clinical trials assessing molecularly targeted agents. Samples of outlier patients considered as 'exceptional responders' or as 'rapid progressors' based on the clinical follow-up will be subjected to deeper molecular characterisation in order to identify new prognostic and predictive biomarkers. AURORA, through its innovative design, will shed light onto some of the unknown areas of metastatic breast cancer, helping to improve the clinical outcome of breast cancer patients. PMID:25225904

  20. The AURORA initiative for metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zardavas, D; Maetens, M; Irrthum, A; Goulioti, T; Engelen, K; Fumagalli, D; Salgado, R; Aftimos, P; Saini, K S; Sotiriou, C; Campbell, P; Dinh, P; von Minckwitz, G; Gelber, R D; Dowsett, M; Di Leo, A; Cameron, D; Baselga, J; Gnant, M; Goldhirsch, A; Norton, L; Piccart, M

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality among women in the Western world. To date most research efforts have focused on the molecular analysis of the primary tumour to dissect the genotypes of the disease. However, accumulating evidence supports a molecular evolution of breast cancer during its life cycle, with metastatic lesions acquiring new molecular aberrations. Recognising this critical gap of knowledge, the Breast International Group is launching AURORA, a large, multinational, collaborative metastatic breast cancer molecular screening programme. Approximately 1300 patients with metastatic breast cancer who have received no more than one line of systemic treatment for advanced disease will, after giving informed consent, donate archived primary tumour tissue, as well as will donate tissue collected prospectively from the biopsy of metastatic lesions and blood. Both tumour tissue types, together with a blood sample, will then be subjected to next generation sequencing for a panel of cancer-related genes. The patients will be treated at the discretion of their treating physicians per standard local practice, and they will be followed for clinical outcome for 10 years. Alternatively, depending on the molecular profiles found, patients will be directed to innovative clinical trials assessing molecularly targeted agents. Samples of outlier patients considered as ‘exceptional responders' or as ‘rapid progressors' based on the clinical follow-up will be subjected to deeper molecular characterisation in order to identify new prognostic and predictive biomarkers. AURORA, through its innovative design, will shed light onto some of the unknown areas of metastatic breast cancer, helping to improve the clinical outcome of breast cancer patients. PMID:25225904

  1. Attitudes and Stereotypes in Lung Cancer versus Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, N.

    2015-01-01

    Societal perceptions may factor into the high rates of nontreatment in patients with lung cancer. To determine whether bias exists toward lung cancer, a study using the Implicit Association Test method of inferring subconscious attitudes and stereotypes from participant reaction times to visual cues was initiated. Participants were primarily recruited from an online survey panel based on US census data. Explicit attitudes regarding lung and breast cancer were derived from participants’ ratings (n = 1778) regarding what they thought patients experienced in terms of guilt, shame, and hope (descriptive statements) and from participants’ opinions regarding whether patients ought to experience such feelings (normative statements). Participants’ responses to descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer were compared with responses to statements about breast cancer. Analyses of responses revealed that the participants were more likely to agree with negative descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer than breast cancer (P<0.001). Furthermore, participants had significantly stronger implicit negative associations with lung cancer compared with breast cancer; mean response times in the lung cancer/negative conditions were significantly shorter than in the lung cancer/positive conditions (P<0.001). Patients, caregivers, healthcare providers, and members of the general public had comparable levels of negative implicit attitudes toward lung cancer. These results show that lung cancer was stigmatized by patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals, and the general public. Further research is needed to investigate whether implicit and explicit attitudes and stereotypes affect patient care. PMID:26698307

  2. Attitudes and Stereotypes in Lung Cancer versus Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sriram, N; Mills, Jennifer; Lang, Edward; Dickson, Holli K; Hamann, Heidi A; Nosek, Brian A; Schiller, Joan H

    2015-01-01

    Societal perceptions may factor into the high rates of nontreatment in patients with lung cancer. To determine whether bias exists toward lung cancer, a study using the Implicit Association Test method of inferring subconscious attitudes and stereotypes from participant reaction times to visual cues was initiated. Participants were primarily recruited from an online survey panel based on US census data. Explicit attitudes regarding lung and breast cancer were derived from participants' ratings (n = 1778) regarding what they thought patients experienced in terms of guilt, shame, and hope (descriptive statements) and from participants' opinions regarding whether patients ought to experience such feelings (normative statements). Participants' responses to descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer were compared with responses to statements about breast cancer. Analyses of responses revealed that the participants were more likely to agree with negative descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer than breast cancer (P<0.001). Furthermore, participants had significantly stronger implicit negative associations with lung cancer compared with breast cancer; mean response times in the lung cancer/negative conditions were significantly shorter than in the lung cancer/positive conditions (P<0.001). Patients, caregivers, healthcare providers, and members of the general public had comparable levels of negative implicit attitudes toward lung cancer. These results show that lung cancer was stigmatized by patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals, and the general public. Further research is needed to investigate whether implicit and explicit attitudes and stereotypes affect patient care. PMID:26698307

  3. Breast cancer risk in MEN1 - a cancer genetics perspective.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Paul

    2015-03-01

    The tumour spectrum associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) has been known for many years. New data suggest that females with MEN1 may face an additional, hitherto unrecognized, risk of early-onset breast cancer. The menin protein is certainly known to have a role in regulating oestrogen receptor activity; but how robust are the data linking MEN1 to breast cancer? This article examines the published data from the viewpoint of a cancer geneticist and considers whether there really is a justifiable indication for enhanced breast surveillance in women with MEN1. PMID:25279812

  4. MET deregulation in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Landi, Lorenza

    2015-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) is an oncogene encoding for a trans-membrane tyrosine kinase receptor activated by the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). MET has a normal function in organ development during embryogenesis and in tissue homeostasis during adult life. Deregulation of HGF/MET signaling pathway is frequently observed in many cancer types, conferring invasive growth and tendency to progression. MET deregulation is due to gene amplification or increased copy number, gene mutation, receptor over-expression or ligand autocrine loops activation. These events lead to migration, invasion, proliferation, metastatic spread and neo-angiogenesis of cancer cells, suggesting that anti-HGF/MET agents may represent a potential antitumor strategy. In breast cancer (BC), preclinical and clinical data demonstrated the role of HGF/MET signalling pathway in carcinogenesis, disease progression and resistance features. Methods For this review article, all published data on HGF/MET in BC were collected and analyzed. Results Several evidences underline that, in early BC, MET over-expression has an independent negative prognostic significance, regardless of method used for evaluation and BC subtypes. Available data suggest that MET is a relevant target particularly in basal-like (BL) and in triple negative BC. Moreover, preclinical and retrospective data support the critical role of MET deregulation in the development of resistance to target-agents, such as anti-HER2 strategies. Conclusions MET is a promising new target in BC. Several anti-MET agents are under investigation and ongoing clinical trials will clarify its relevance in BC treatment. PMID:26366398

  5. Dietary effects on breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.G. )

    1991-07-20

    Professor Lee and colleagues show a significant effect of dietary red meat intake, no effect of fat, and a protective effect of soya protein on the risk of breast cancer in young women in Singapore. They do not ascribe the red-meat effect to fat in the meat, and offer no alternative explanation. Red meat contains the most readily absorbed form of dietary iron, and there is evidence that increased body iron stores raise cancer risk, perhaps by one or both of two possible mechanisms: (1) boosting the availability of an essential nutrient for cancer cells, and (2) increasing the production of oxygen radicals. In addition, there is some evidence from studies in animals for a role for iron in mammary-tumor induction. Thompson et al administered 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea to groups of rats receiving normal rat chow, a low-iron diet, or an iron-supplemented diet. The group receiving dietary iron supplementation had the greatest mammary-tumor burden, whereas that receiving an iron-restricted diet had fewer tumors than the group on the normal diet (although this latter effect may have resulted merely from reduced body weight in the rats on an iron-restricted diet). The protective effect of soya protein seen by Lee et al may also be related to iron metabolism. Soy beans are a source of phytate, a constituent of most cereals, nuts, and legumes, that avidly binds iron in such a way that it is incapable of catalyzing the production of oxygen radicals. The protective effect of soya protein may be shared by increased intakes of other plant products that are high in phytate but either not consumed in quantity in Singapore or not assessed in the questionnaire Lee et al administered.

  6. A Review of the Clinical Implications of Breast Cancer Biology

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Yekta; Mirmalek, Seyed Abbas; Kani, Fatemeh Elham; Aidun, Amir; Salimi-Tabatabaee, Seyed Alireza; Yadollah-Damavandi, Soheila; Jangholi, Ehsan; Parsa, Tina; Shahverdi, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Background Histologically similar tumors may have different prognoses and responses to treatment. These differences are due to molecular differences. Hence, in this review, the biological interaction of breast cancer in several different areas is discussed. In addition, the performance and clinical application of the most widely-recognized biomarkers, metastasis, and recurrences from a biological perspective and current global advances in these areas are addressed. Objective This review provides the performance and clinical application of the most widely-recognized biomarkers, metastasis, and recurrences from the biological perspective and current global advances in these areas. Methods PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched comprehensively with combinations of the following keywords: “breast cancer,” “biological markers,” and “clinical.” The definition of breast cancer, diagnostic methods, biological markers, and available treatment approaches were extracted from the literature. Results Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2), and Ki-67 are the most well-known biological markers that have important roles in prognosis and response to therapeutic methods. Some studies showed the response of ER-positive and PR-negative tumors to anti-estrogenic treatment to be lower than ER-positive and PR-positive tumors. Patients with high expression of HER-2 and Ki-67 had a poor prognosis. In addition, recent investigations indicated the roles of new biomarkers, such as VEGF, IGF, P53 and P21, which are associated with many factors, such as age, race, and histological features. Conclusion The objective of scientists, from establishing a relationship between cancer biology infrastructures with clinical manifestations, is to find new ways of prevention and progression inhibition and then possible introduction of less dangerous and better treatments to resolve this dilemma of human society. PMID

  7. Conservation therapy for breast cancers other than infiltrating ductal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, J M; Jacquemier, J; Torhorst, J; Spitalier, J M; Amalric, R; Hünig, R; Walther, E; Harder, F; Almendral, A; Brandone, H

    1989-04-15

    Pathologic review of 861 Stage I and II breast cancers yielded 152 patients (18%) with histologic types other than invasive ductal carcinoma. All patients had been treated by breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy, including supplemental radiation to the tumor bed. For 67 patients with predominantly lobular carcinomas, the actuarial overall 5-year survival was 100% and 77% for node-negative and node-positive patients, respectively. The actuarial probability of recurrence in the treated breast (13.5% at 5 years) appeared to be somewhat greater than that observed after treatment of invasive ductal cancers (8.8% at 5 years, P = 0.11). Of 12 mammary recurrences in patients with lobular carcinoma, four occurred at a considerable distance from the original primary and seven were multifocal, involving more than one quadrant in five patients. Of 47 patients with strictly in situ carcinomas, one patient whose axillary nodal status had not been determined subsequently developed distant metastases. Three additional patients developed mammary recurrence, two at the primary tumor site and one in another quadrant. The actuarial 5-year mammary recurrence and overall survival rates were 4% and 98%, respectively. For 27 patients with true medullary cancers, overall survival at 5 years was 90%. One localized mammary recurrence was observed at the site of the original primary. Actuarial mammary recurrence rate was 4% at 5 years. No relapse was observed in ten patients with colloid and one patient with adenoid cystic carcinoma. The authors conclude that, in addition to its well-established efficacy in the treatment of infiltrating ductal carcinomas, the combination of tumor excision and radiotherapy appears to provide adequate local control for other histologic types as well. However, patients with lobular cancer appear to be at somewhat greater risk of mammary failure, and recurrences in such patients tend to be multifocal and multicentric. PMID:2538219

  8. Cellular iron metabolism in prognosis and therapy of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Torti, Suzy V; Torti, Frank M

    2013-01-01

    Despite many recent advances, breast cancer remains a clinical challenge. Current issues include improving prognostic evaluation and increasing therapeutic options for women whose tumors are refractory to current frontline therapies. Iron metabolism is frequently disrupted in breast cancer, and may offer an opportunity to address these challenges. Iron enhances breast tumor initiation, growth and metastases. Iron may contribute to breast tumor initiation by promoting redox cycling of estrogen metabolites. Up-regulation of iron import and down-regulation of iron export may enable breast cancer cells to acquire and retain excess iron. Alterations in iron metabolism in macrophages and other cells of the tumor microenvironment may also foster breast tumor growth. Expression of iron metabolic genes in breast tumors is predictive of breast cancer prognosis. Iron chelators and other strategies designed to limit iron may have therapeutic value in breast cancer. The dependence of breast cancer on iron presents rich opportunities for improved prognostic evaluation and therapeutic intervention. PMID:23879588

  9. How Is Breast Cancer Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... mammogram. It also helps tell the difference between fluid-filled cysts and solid masses. See Mammograms and Other Breast Imaging Tests for more detailed information. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast MRIs use ...

  10. Cancer risk-reduction behaviors of breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Ada M; Waltman, Nancy; Gross, Gloria; Ott, Carol D; Twiss, Jan

    2004-12-01

    Using secondary data analysis, the aim was to determine if postmenopausal women, who have survived breast cancer, have adopted healthy nutritional and physical activity behaviors recommended in the American Cancer Society guidelines as cancer risk-reduction strategies, and in guidelines for prevention of other chronic diseases or for improving general health. From their personal health history, women who have survived breast cancer would be likely candidates to adopt healthy behaviors recommended as cancer risk-reduction strategies or for prevention of other chronic diseases. A secondary aim was to determine the perceived general health and affective state of these women. These breast cancer survivors had a high perception of their general health, a positive affective state, and have adopted some healthy lifestyle behaviors, but they are not fully adhering to the ACS nutrition and physical activity guidelines or other health related guidelines for cancer risk reduction or prevention of other chronic diseases. PMID:15539533

  11. Docetaxel, Carboplatin, Trastuzumab, and Pertuzumab With or Without Estrogen Deprivation in Treating Patients With Hormone Receptor-Positive, HER2-Positive Operable or Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-15

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Positive; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  12. Parotid Gland Metastasis of Breast Cancer: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Ando, Katsutoshi; Masumoto, Norio; Sakamoto, Masaaki; Teraoka, Kou; Suzuki, Takako; Kurihara, Terumasa; Abe, Satoko; Tozaki, Mitsuhiro; Fukuma, Eisuke; Hoshi, Kazuei

    2011-12-01

    BACKGROUND: Parotid gland metastasis in breast cancer is extremely rare, and only 14 cases have been reported between 1982 and 2010. CASE REPORT: A 67-year-old female patient was diagnosed with invasive lobular carcinoma of the left breast. Although clinical staging was T1N3M1 (stage IV), the tumor experienced a complete response to chemotherapy. We therefore performed a mastectomy followed by radiotherapy, and continued administration of trastuzumab. However, 11 months later, the patient complained of a swelling in the left parotid gland. Histology following a partial parotidectomy revealed a parotid gland metastasis from the breast. CONCLUSION: Treatment with capecitabine in addition to trastuzumab, which is one of the strategies applied in HER2-positive breast cancer, was effective in our patient. Analysis of the 14 cases of parotid gland metastasis from the breast reported between 1982 and 2010 revealed that the metastasis may occur not by direct lymphatic but by hematogenous spread. PMID:22419903

  13. Novel optical spectroscopy system for breast cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhova, Natalia; Turchin, Ilya; Kamensky, Vladislav; Sergeeva, Ekaterina; Golubyatnikov, German; Da Silva, Luiz; Kasthuri, Usha; Pavlycheva, Irina; Smetanina, Svetlana; Artifeksova, Anna; Belkov, Sergey; Kochemasov, Gennady

    2007-02-01

    We report on development of minimally invasive system for immediate diagnostics of breast cancer and on the results of its pilot clinical testing. The system designed by BioTelligent Inc is based on analysis of optical diffusion spectra (ODS) measured by a probe inserted into breast tissue during standard punch biopsy. Analysis of scattered spectra aimed to distinction of benign tumors from malignant ones is done by original procedure of data processing. Clinical testing of the created diagnostic system has been performed by classification of spectra collected from 146 patients with previously detected mammary neoplasms. The data of ODS study in each patient have been compared to the results of histology. The proposed technique has to date demonstrated sensitivity of 96%, specificity of 80% and diagnostic accuracy of 88%. These values are expected to improve as the data sets continue to grow and more sophisticated data processing is employed.

  14. Hierarchical Clustering of Breast Cancer Methylomes Revealed Differentially Methylated and Expressed Breast Cancer Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Hsuan; Chen, Dow-Tien; Chang, Yi-Feng; Lee, Yu-Ling; Su, Chia-Hsin; Cheng, Ching; Tsai, Yi-Chien; Ng, Swee-Chuan; Chen, Hsiao-Tan; Lee, Mei-Chen; Chen, Hong-Wei; Suen, Shih-Hui; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Tze-Tze; Chang, Chuan-Hsiung; Hsu, Ming-Ta

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic transformation of normal cells often involves epigenetic alterations, including histone modification and DNA methylation. We conducted whole-genome bisulfite sequencing to determine the DNA methylomes of normal breast, fibroadenoma, invasive ductal carcinomas and MCF7. The emergence, disappearance, expansion and contraction of kilobase-sized hypomethylated regions (HMRs) and the hypomethylation of the megabase-sized partially methylated domains (PMDs) are the major forms of methylation changes observed in breast tumor samples. Hierarchical clustering of HMR revealed tumor-specific hypermethylated clusters and differential methylated enhancers specific to normal or breast cancer cell lines. Joint analysis of gene expression and DNA methylation data of normal breast and breast cancer cells identified differentially methylated and expressed genes associated with breast and/or ovarian cancers in cancer-specific HMR clusters. Furthermore, aberrant patterns of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) was found in breast cancer cell lines as well as breast tumor samples in the TCGA BRCA (breast invasive carcinoma) dataset. They were characterized with differentially hypermethylated XIST promoter, reduced expression of XIST, and over-expression of hypomethylated X-linked genes. High expressions of these genes were significantly associated with lower survival rates in breast cancer patients. Comprehensive analysis of the normal and breast tumor methylomes suggests selective targeting of DNA methylation changes during breast cancer progression. The weak causal relationship between DNA methylation and gene expression observed in this study is evident of more complex role of DNA methylation in the regulation of gene expression in human epigenetics that deserves further investigation. PMID:25706888

  15. MMTV mouse models and the diagnostic values of MMTV-like sequences in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Pankaj; Frazier, Donna P; Kendig, Robert D; Maglic, Dejan; Sugiyama, Takayuki; Kai, Fumitake; Taneja, Neetu K; Inoue, Kazushi

    2009-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) long terminal repeat (LTR)-driven transgenic mice are excellent models for breast cancer as they allow for the targeted expression of various oncogenes and growth factors in neoplastic transformation of mammary glands. Numerous MMTV-LTR-driven transgenic mouse models of breast cancer have been created in the past three decades, including MMTV-neu/ErbB2, cyclin D1, cyclin E, Ras, Myc, int-1 and c-rel. These transgenic mice develop mammary tumors with different latency, histology and invasiveness, reflecting the oncogenic pathways activated by the transgene. Recently, homologous sequences of the env gene of MMTV have been identified in approximately 40% of human breast cancers, but not in normal breast or other types of cancers, suggesting possible involvement of mammary tumor virus in human breast carcinogenesis. Accumulating evidence demonstrates the association of MMTV provirus with progesterone receptor, p53 mutations and advanced-stage breast cancer. Thus, the detection of MMTV-like sequences may have diagnostic value to predict the clinical outcome of breast cancer patients. PMID:19580428

  16. [Hormonotherapy for breast cancer prevention: What about women with genetic predisposition to breast cancer?].

    PubMed

    Sénéchal, Claire; Reyal, Fabien; Callet, Nasrine; This, Pascale; Noguès, Catherine; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Fourme, Emmanuelle

    2016-03-01

    In France, women carrying BRCA1/2 mutation, at an identified high risk of breast cancer are recommended to undergo breast MRI screening. That screening does not however prevent the risk of developing a breast cancer. The only alternative to breast cancer screening available in France is surgical prevention by prophylactic mastectomy. An interesting option for women who wish to reduce their breast cancer risk, but are unready for prophylactic mastectomy is a preventive hormonal treatment by aromatase inhibitors, or selective estrogens receptor modulators (SERMs). Reliable clinical trials show the efficiency of tamoxifen, raloxifen, exemestane, and anastrozole especially, in reducing breast cancer incidence by 33%, 34%, 65% and 53% respectively. This article tries to sum up the main published trials of breast cancer prevention with hormonal treatment, and presents the latest American and English clinical guidelines concerning hormonal prevention for women at high risk of breast cancer, and starts thinking about the possibilities of hormonoprevention, especially among women carrying a BRCA1/2 mutation in France. PMID:26852151

  17. [Neoadjuvant treatment of breast cancer: implications for the pathologist].

    PubMed

    Le Guellec, Sophie; Perallon, Romain; Alunni, Jean-Philippe; Charitansky, Hélène; Leaha, Christina; Gonzalez, Aurélie Maran; Chateau, Marie-Christine; Simony-Lafontaine, Joelle; Jacot, William; Gutowski, Marian; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Dalenc, Florence; Lacroix-Triki, Magali

    2011-12-01

    These past few years, neoadjuvant strategy has taken an increasing place in the management of breast cancer patients. This strategy is mainly indicated to obtain a tumour bulk regression allowing a breast conserving surgery in patients that otherwise would have undergone mastectomy. Of note, development of new chemotherapy agents and targeted therapies has critically helped in the progress of neoadjuvant strategy as it is currently associated with better pathological response rates. In this context, the pathologist is at the crossroad of this multidisciplinary process. First, he provides on the initial core needle biopsy the tumour pathological characteristics that are critical for the choice of treatment strategy, i.e. histological type, histological grade, proliferative activity (mitotic count and Ki67/MIB1 index labeling), hormone receptor status (oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor) and HER2 status. Secondly, the pathologist evaluates the pathological response and the status of surgical margins with regards to the residual tumour on the surgical specimen after neoadjuvant treatment. These parameters are important for the management of the patient, since it has been shown that complete pathological response is associated with improved disease free survival. Several grading systems are used to assess the pathological response in breast and axillary lymph nodes. The most frequently used in France are currently the systems described by Sataloff et al. and Chevallier et al. In this review, we detail the different steps involving the pathologist in neoadjuvant setting, with special regards to the quality process and future perspectives such as emerging predictive biomarkers. PMID:22172117

  18. Neuroendocrine breast tumours: breast cancer or neuroendocrine cancer presenting in the breast?

    PubMed

    Adams, R W; Dyson, P; Barthelmes, L

    2014-04-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) of the breast are rare. Diagnosis depends on close scrutiny of core- or excisional-biopsy specimens for characteristic growth patterns (papillary, nesting or mixed), which should trigger immunohistochemical staining for neuroendocrine markers (in particular chromogranin and synaptophysin). The diagnosis is confirmed if a) >50% of the tissue specimen demonstrate neuroendocrine markers and b) in-situ ductal carcinoma is identified and/or imaging modalities exclude extra-mammary sites. Our literature search including the non-English literature identified 66 articles with data on 123 cases, including our own. Oestrogen receptors are not diagnostic for NET's of the breast as they are found in tumours of non-mammary origin, too. Half of reported cases of neuroendocrine tumours have axillary lymph node involvement. Breast-conserving surgery (wide local excision ± axillary clearance) is commonly performed for suitable tumours. Chemotherapy regimens utilised are commonly either platinum- (as for small-cell cancers) or anthracycline-based (as for primary breast cancers). Best management remains unknown. PMID:24342375

  19. Breast cancer screening in regional Hispanic populations.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, A G; Talavera, G A; Villarreal, R; Suarez, L; McAlister, A; Trapido, E; Pérez-Stable, E; Marti, J

    2000-10-01

    Although Hispanics' use of breast cancer screening services has been investigated, to date there have been no published studies of distinct Hispanic populations in different areas of the country. Using the diverse populations and sites involved in the National Hispanic Leadership Initiative on Cancer 'En Acción', this study examines ethno-regional differences in breast cancer screening rates among these groups and explores the correlates of screening participation. Data collected through telephone surveys were analyzed for women 40 years of age and older (n = 2082). After controlling for demographic variables traditionally related to breast cancer screening rates, it was found that ethno-regional differences in breast cancer screening practices clearly persisted. In addition to traditional demographic factors, other variables evidently underlie differences in Hispanics' utilization of breast cancer screening services. These variables may be cultural and should be investigated in future research. Meanwhile, researchers should not refer to the 'Hispanic' population at large without identifying, addressing and clarifying the ethno-regional characteristics of their samples. PMID:11184215

  20. Exercise after breast cancer treatment: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Dieli-Conwright, Christina M; Orozco, Breanna Z

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offset treatment-related side effects. Noticeable reductions in physical fitness (ie, cardiopulmonary fitness and muscular strength), negative changes in body composition (ie, increase in body mass, decrease in lean body mass, and increase in fat mass), increased fatigue, depression, or anxiety are some of the common side effects of cancer treatments that negatively impact overall quality of life and increase the risk for the development of comorbidities. Exercise plays a vital role in improving cardiopulmonary function, psychological events, muscular strength, and endurance in breast cancer survivors, and thus should be considered as a key factor of lifestyle intervention to reverse negative treatment-related side effects. The purpose of this review is to address current perspectives on the benefits of aerobic and resistance exercise after breast cancer treatments. This review is focused on the well-established benefits of exercise on physical and emotional well-being, bone health, lymphedema management, and the postulated benefits of exercise on risk reduction for recurrence of breast cancer. PMID:26543382