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Sample records for breast cancer histological

  1. Histology of Breast Cancer Metastasis Theresa Reno

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    Histology of Breast Cancer Metastasis Theresa Reno 11/18/08 #12;Hanahan and Weinberg, Cell 2000 Cancer: 6 Hallmarks #12;Breast Anatomy and Histology Normal Breast Histology - H&E Stain Ross and Pawlina, Histology: A Text and Atlas Ducts - Simple columnar epithelium Normal ductules with basement membrane #12

  2. Abstract--Breast cancers can be histologically categorized (graded) based upon their architectural patterns and cellular

    E-print Network

    Breen, David E.

    Abstract-- Breast cancers can be histologically categorized (graded) based upon their architectural patterns and cellular types. Inaccurate histologic grading can result in inappropriate treatment for histologic grading that should enhance grading reliability. We present the initial efforts to develop

  3. Mitosis Detection in Breast Cancer Histology Images with Deep Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Schmidhuber, Juergen

    Mitosis Detection in Breast Cancer Histology Images with Deep Neural Networks Dan C. Cires-pooling convolutional neural networks to detect mi- tosis in breast histology images. The networks are trained in histology sections is an important indicator for cancer screening and assessment. Normally, the count

  4. Histologic review of breast cancer cases in survivors of atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tokuoka, S; Asano, M; Yamamoto, T; Tokunaga, M; Sakamoto, G; Hartmann, W H; Hutter, R V; Land, C E; Henson, D E

    1984-09-01

    A panel of Japanese and American pathologists reviewed existing histologic material used to study breast cancer risk among the A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a population in which incidence studies have found a strong relationship between breast cancer risk and radiation dose. The primary charge to the panel was to define a body of confirmed cases in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation that would require little or no review for inclusion in future studies of breast cancer incidence. Broad agreement on histologic type was reached for 298 of 300 confirmed cases. The distribution of histologic types was, overall, similar to that seen in other studies of breast cancer in Japanese women, and did not appear to depend on dose; thus radiation-induced breast cancer appeared to be no different histologically from other breast cancer. Also, no evidence was found of variation in histologic type by city, age at exposure, age at diagnosis, or calendar time. PMID:6331630

  5. Endometrial pathology in breast cancer patients: Effect of different treatments on ultrasonographic, hysteroscopic and histological findings

    PubMed Central

    LE DONNE, MARIA; ALIBRANDI, ANGELA; CIANCIMINO, LEONARDA; AZZERBONI, ANDREA; CHIOFALO, BENITO; TRIOLO, ONOFRIO

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer patients have an increased risk of endometrial pathology. To investigate whether the incidence of endometrial abnormalities and their clinicopathological features were affected by receiving tamoxifen (TAM), non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors (AIs) or no treatment (NT), 333 peri/postmenopausal breast cancer patients, who were referred to the Department of Gynecological, Obstetrical Sciences and Reproductive Medicine for gynecological assessment, were reviewed retrospectively. Transvaginal ultrasonographic (TVUS), hysteroscopic and histological findings were investigated. Endometrial histological findings included: atrophy in 61, 94.3 and 55.6% of cases in the TAM, AIs and NT groups, respectively; polyps in 30.9, 31.4 and 42.2% of cases in the TAM, AIs and NT groups, respectively; hyperplasia in 3% of patients in the TAM group and 11.1% of patients in the NT group; and cancer in 3.8% of cases in the TAM group and 11.1% of cases in the NT group. There was a significant correlation between the duration of TAM treatment and the severity of endometrial pathology. In all groups, there was a significant correlation between hysteroscopic and histological findings with regard to the diagnosis of endometrial atrophy, polyps, hyperplasia and cancer (P<0.001). In conclusion, these data revealed that there was a higher incidence of endometrial pathology in the NT group compared with the TAM group, which was significant for endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. The chance of developing high-risk histological subtypes of endometrial cancer was independent of TAM use. Lastly, although there was no significant difference in recurrent vaginal bleeding and mean endometrial thickness between the TAM and AIs groups, patients receiving AIs did not exhibit hyperplastic, dysplastic or neoplastic changes in the endometrium. This study indicates that breast cancer patients require screening for endometrial pathology; TVUS alone is useful in asymptomatic patients, however, in patients where the endometrial line is irregular or its thickness is >3 mm, hysteroscopy with directed biopsy is the appropriate diagnostic method. PMID:23599784

  6. Nectin-4 is a new histological and serological tumor associated marker for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fabre-Lafay, Stéphanie; Monville, Florence; Garrido-Urbani, Sarah; Berruyer-Pouyet, Carole; Ginestier, Christophe; Reymond, Nicolas; Finetti, Pascal; Sauvan, Richard; Adélaïde, José; Geneix, Jeannine; Lecocq, Eric; Popovici, Cornel; Dubreuil, Patrice; Viens, Patrice; Gonçalves, Anthony; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Birnbaum, Daniel; Lopez, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease at the molecular level. Evolution is difficult to predict according to classical histoclinical prognostic factors. Different studies highlight the importance of large-scale molecular expression analyses to improve taxonomy of breast cancer and prognostic classification. Identification of new molecular markers that refine this taxonomy and improve patient management is a priority in the field of breast cancer research. Nectins are cell adhesion molecules involved in the regulation of epithelial physiology. We present here Nectin-4/PVRL4 as a new histological and serological tumor associated marker for breast carcinoma. Methods Expression of Nectin-4 protein was measured on a panel of 78 primary cells and cell lines from different origins and 57 breast tumors by FACS analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively. mRNA expression was measured by quantitative PCR. Serum Nectin-4 was detected by ELISA and compared with CEA and CA15.3 markers, on panels of 45 sera from healthy donors, 53 sera from patients with non-metastatic breast carcinoma (MBC) at diagnosis, and 182 sera from patients with MBC. Distribution of histological/serological molecular markers and histoclinical parameters were compared using the standard Chi-2 test. Results Nectin-4 was not detected in normal breast epithelium. By contrast, Nectin-4 was expressed in 61% of ductal breast carcinoma vs 6% in lobular type. Expression of Nectin-4 strongly correlated with the basal-like markers EGFR, P53, and P-cadherin, and negatively correlated with the luminal-like markers ER, PR and GATA3. All but one ER/PR-negative tumors expressed Nectin-4. The detection of Nectin-4 in serum improves the follow-up of patients with MBC: the association CEA/CA15.3/Nectin-4 allowed to monitor 74% of these patients compared to 67% with the association CEA/CA15.3. Serum Nectin-4 is a marker of disease progression, and levels correlate with the number of metastases (P = 0.038). Serum Nectin-4 is also a marker of therapeutic efficiency and correlates, in 90% of cases, with clinical evolution. Conclusion Nectin-4 is a new tumor-associated antigen for breast carcinoma. Nectin-4 is a new bio-marker whose use could help refine breast cancer taxonomy and improve patients' follow-up. Nectin-4 emerges as a potential target for breast cancer immunotherapy. PMID:17474988

  7. High histologic grade and increased relative content of tryptophan in breast cancer using ratios from fingerprint fluorescence spectral peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordillo, Laura A.; Sordillo, Peter P.; Budansky, Yury; Pu, Yang; Alfano, R. R.

    2015-03-01

    Histologic grade is a very important, but underappreciated, parameter of breast cancer aggressiveness. Despite its importance, it has historically not been included as one of the criteria for staging of this cancer. In this study, spectral fluorescence profiles from patients with breast carcinoma were acquired. Ratios of emission peaks at 340 over 440,460 nm from biomolecules in malignant and normal samples were calculated. Cancerous over normal ratios (double ratio (DR) method) were evaluated with respect to tumor characteristics. Increased tryptophan content in breast cancer tissues correlates strongly with high grade, but not with lymph node metastases, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor or Her-2-Neu receptor status.

  8. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Breast Cancer What is Breast Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... tumors form in the breast tissue. Who Gets Breast Cancer? Breast cancer is one of the most common ...

  9. Mitosis detection in breast cancer histology images with deep neural networks.

    PubMed

    Cire?an, Dan C; Giusti, Alessandro; Gambardella, Luca M; Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    We use deep max-pooling convolutional neural networks to detect mitosis in breast histology images. The networks are trained to classify each pixel in the images, using as context a patch centered on the pixel. Simple postprocessing is then applied to the network output. Our approach won the ICPR 2012 mitosis detection competition, outperforming other contestants by a significant margin. PMID:24579167

  10. Automatic glandular and tubule region segmentation in histological grading of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Kien; Barnes, Michael; Srinivas, Chukka; Chefd'hotel, Christophe

    2015-03-01

    In the popular Nottingham histologic score system for breast cancer grading, the pathologist analyzes the H and E tissue slides and assigns a score, in the range of 1-3, for tubule formation, nuclear pleomorphism and mitotic activity in the tumor regions. The scores from these three factors are added to give a final score, ranging from 3-9 to grade the cancer. Tubule score (TS), which reflects tubular formation, is a value in 1-3 given by manually estimating the percentage of glandular regions in the tumor that form tubules. In this paper, given an H and E tissue image representing a tumor region, we propose an automated algorithm to detect glandular regions and detect the presence of tubules in these regions. The algorithm first detects all nuclei and lumen candidates in the input image, followed by identifying tumor nuclei from the detected nuclei and identifying true lumina from the lumen candidates using a random forest classifier. Finally, it forms the glandular regions by grouping the closely located tumor nuclei and lumina using a graph-cut-based method. The glandular regions containing true lumina are considered as the ones that form tubules (tubule regions). To evaluate the proposed method, we calculate the tubule percentage (TP), i.e., the ratio of the tubule area to the total glandular area for 353 H and E images of the three TSs, and plot the distribution of these TP values. This plot shows the clear separation among these three scores, suggesting that the proposed algorithm is useful in distinguishing images of these TSs.

  11. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. Breast cancer kills more women in the United States than ... cancer. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are a number of risk factors. ...

  12. Immutable functional attributes of histologic grade revealed by context-independent gene expression in primary breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dairkee, Shanaz H; Sayeed, Aejaz; Luciani, Gloria; Champion, Stacey; Meng, Zhenhang; Jakkula, Lakshmi R; Feiler, Heidi S; Gray, Joe W; Moore, Dan H

    2009-10-01

    Inherent cancer phenotypes that are independent of fluctuating cross-talk with the surrounding tissue matrix are highly desirable candidates for targeting tumor cells. Our novel study design uses epithelial cell lines derived from low versus high histologic grade primary breast cancer to effectively diminish the breadth of transient variability generated within the tumor microenvironment of the host, revealing a "paracrine-independent expression of grade-associated" (PEGA) gene signature. PEGA members extended beyond "proliferation-driven" signatures commonly associated with aggressive, high-grade breast cancer. The calcium-binding protein S100P was prominent among PEGA genes overexpressed in high-grade tumors. A three-member fingerprint of S100P-correlated genes, consisting of GPRC5A, FXYD3, and PYCARD, conferred poor outcome in multiple breast cancer data sets, irrespective of estrogen receptor status but dependent on tumor size (P < 0.01). S100P silencing markedly diminished coregulated gene transcripts and reversed aggressive tumor behavior. Exposure to pathway-implicated agents, including the calmodulin inhibitor N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide, phenothiazine, and chlorpromazine, resulted in rapid apoptotic cell death in high-grade tumor cells resistant to the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. This is the first comprehensive study describing molecular phenotypes intimately associated with histologic grade whose expression remains relatively fixed despite an unavoidably changing environment to which tumor cells are invariably exposed. PMID:19789341

  13. The role of ultrasonographic findings to predict molecular subtype, histologic grade, and hormone receptor status of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Çelebi, Filiz; Pilanc?, Kezban Nur; Ordu, Çetin; A?acayak, Filiz; Alço, Gül; ?lgün, Serkan; Sarsenov, Dauren; Erdo?an, Zeynep; Özmen, Vahit

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The correlation between imaging findings and pathologic characteristics of tumors may provide information for diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The aim of this study is to determine whether ultrasound features of breast cancer are associated with molecular subtype, histologic grade, and hormone receptor status, as well as assess the predictive value of these features. METHODS A total of 201 consecutive invasive breast cancer patients were reviewed from the database according to the Breast Imaging and Reporting Data System (BI-RADS). Tumor margins were classified as circumscribed and noncircumscribed. Noncircumscribed group was divided into indistinct, spiculated, angular, and microlobulated. The posterior acoustic features were divided into four categories: shadowing, enhancement, no change, and mixed pattern. RESULTS Tumors with posterior shadowing were more likely to be of nontriple negative subtype (odds ratio [OR], 7.42; 95% CI, 2.10–24.99; P = 0.002), low histologic grade (grade 1 or 2 vs. grade 3: OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.34–4.35; P = 0.003) and having at least one positive receptor (OR, 3.36; 95% CI, 1.55–7.26; P = 0.002). Tumors with circumscribed margins were more often triple-negative subtype (OR, 6.72; 95% CI, 2.56–17.65; P < 0.001), high grade (grade 3 vs. grade 1 or 2: OR, 5.42; 95% CI, 2.66–11.00; P < 0.001) and hormone receptor negative (OR, 4.87; 95% CI, 2.37–9.99; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION Sonographic features are strongly associated with molecular subtype, histologic grade, and hormone receptor status of the tumor. These findings may separate triple-negative breast cancer from other molecular subtypes. PMID:26359880

  14. Breast Histology Rules Matrix

    Cancer.gov

    NOS (8010) and a specific carcinoma in situ or Adenocarcinoma in situ, NOS (8140) and a specific adenocarcinoma in situ or Intraductal carcinoma, NOS (8500) and a specific intraductal carcinoma (Table 1) The specific histology may be identified as type, subtype, predominantly, with features of, major, or with ____ differentiation, architecture or pattern.

  15. Mitosis detection in breast cancer histological images An ICPR 2012 contest

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Ludovic; Racoceanu, Daniel; Loménie, Nicolas; Kulikova, Maria; Irshad, Humayun; Klossa, Jacques; Capron, Frédérique; Genestie, Catherine; Le Naour, Gilles; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In the framework of the Cognitive Microscope (MICO) project, we have set up a contest about mitosis detection in images of H and E stained slides of breast cancer for the conference ICPR 2012. Mitotic count is an important parameter for the prognosis of breast cancer. However, mitosis detection in digital histopathology is a challenging problem that needs a deeper study. Indeed, mitosis detection is difficult because mitosis are small objects with a large variety of shapes, and they can thus be easily confused with some other objects or artefacts present in the image. We added a further dimension to the contest by using two different slide scanners having different resolutions and producing red-green-blue (RGB) images, and a multi-spectral microscope producing images in 10 different spectral bands and 17 layers Z-stack. 17 teams participated in the study and the best team achieved a recall rate of 0.7 and precision of 0.89. Context: Several studies on automatic tools to process digitized slides have been reported focusing mainly on nuclei or tubule detection. Mitosis detection is a challenging problem that has not yet been addressed well in the literature. Aims: Mitotic count is an important parameter in breast cancer grading as it gives an evaluation of the aggressiveness of the tumor. However, consistency, reproducibility and agreement on mitotic count for the same slide can vary largely among pathologists. An automatic tool for this task may help for reaching a better consistency, and at the same time reducing the burden of this demanding task for the pathologists. Subjects and Methods: Professor Fr?d?rique Capron team of the pathology department at Piti?-Salp?tri?re Hospital in Paris, France, has selected a set of five slides of breast cancer. The slides are stained with H and E. They have been scanned by three different equipments: Aperio ScanScope XT slide scanner, Hamamatsu NanoZoomer 2.0-HT slide scanner and 10 bands multispectral microscope. The data set is made up of 50 high power fields (HPF) coming from 5 different slides scanned at ×40 magnification. There are 10 HPFs/slide. The pathologist has annotated all the mitotic cells manually. A HPF has a size of 512 ?m × 512 ?m (that is an area of 0.262 mm 2 , which is a surface equivalent to that of a microscope field diameter of 0.58 mm. These 50 HPFs contain a total of 326 mitotic cells on images of both scanners, and 322 mitotic cells on the multispectral microscope. Results: Up to 129 teams have registered to the contest. However, only 17 teams submitted their detection of mitotic cells. The performance of the best team is very promising, with F-measure as high as 0.78. However, the database we provided is by far too small for a good assessment of reliability and robustness of the proposed algorithms. Conclusions: Mitotic count is an important criterion in the grading of many types of cancers, however, very little research has been made on automatic mitotic cell detection, mainly because of a lack of available data. A main objective of this contest was to propose a database of mitotic cells on digitized breast cancer histopathology slides to initiate works on automated mitotic cell detection. In the future, we would like to extend this database to have much more images from different patients and also for different types of cancers. In addition, mitotic cells should be annotated by several pathologists to reflect the partial agreement among them. PMID:23858383

  16. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page Breast Cancer KidsHealth > Kids > Health Problems of Grown-Ups > Diseases & ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...

  17. Breast Cancer in Men

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PM EST. FACTS FOR LIFE Breast Cancer in Men Do men get breast cancer? Since men have breast tissue, they can get breast cancer. But, breast cancer in men is rare. About one percent of all breast ...

  18. Breast cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that obese women produce more estrogen. This may fuel the development of breast cancer. Radiation -- If you ... of targeted therapy. It blocks certain hormones that fuel cancer growth. Cancer treatment can be local or ...

  19. Breast Multiple Primary and Histology Rules Matrix

    Cancer.gov

    Breast Multiple Primary Rules – Matrix C500 – C509 (Excludes lymphoma and leukemia M9590 – 9989 and Kaposi sarcoma M9140) * Prepare one abstract. Use the histology coding rules to assign the appropriate histology code. ** Prepare two or more abstracts.

  20. Types of Breast Cancers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the key statistics about breast cancer? Types of breast cancers Breast cancer can be separated into different types ... than invasive ductal carcinoma. Less common types of breast cancer Inflammatory breast cancer This uncommon type of invasive ...

  1. Evaluation of inadequate, indeterminate, false-negative and false-positive cases in cytological examination for breast cancer according to histological type

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We previously investigated the current status of breast cytology cancer screening at seven institutes in our area of southern Fukuoka Prefecture, and found some differences in diagnostic accuracy among the institutions. In the present study, we evaluated the cases involved and noted possible reasons for their original cytological classification as inadequate, indeterminate, false-negative and false-positive according to histological type. Methods We evaluated the histological findings in 5693 individuals who underwent cytological examination for breast cancer (including inadequate, indeterminate, false-negative and false-positive cases), to determine the most common histological types and/or features in these settings and the usefulness/limitations of cytological examination for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Results Among 1152 cytologically inadequate cases, histology revealed that 75/173 (43.6%) cases were benign, including mastopathy (fibrocystic disease) in 38.6%, fibroadenoma in 24.0% and papilloma in 5.3%. Ninety-five of 173 (54.9%) cases were histologically malignant, with scirrhous growing type, invasive ductal carcinoma (SIDC) being significantly more frequent (49.5%) than papillotubular growing type (Papi-tub) (P?histologically benign (mastopathy, 30.0%; fibroadenoma, 27.8%; papilloma, 26.0%) and 73/139 (52.5%) were malignant, with SIDC being the most frequent malignant tumor (37.0%). Among 52 false-negative cases, SIDC was significantly more frequent (42.3%) than DCIS (P?=?0.0049) and Papi-tub (P?=?0.001). There were three false-positive cases, with one each of fibroadenoma, epidermal cyst and papilloma. Conclusions The inadequate, indeterminate, false-negative and false-positive cases showed similar histological types, notably SIDC for malignant tumors, and mastopathy, fibroadenoma and papilloma for benign cases. We need to pay particular attention to the collection and assessment of aspirates for these histological types of breast disease. In particular, several inadequate, indeterminate and false-negative cases with samples collected by aspiration were diagnosed as SIDC. These findings should encourage the use of needle biopsy rather than aspiration when this histological type is identified on imaging. Namely, good communication between clinicians and pathological staff, and triple assessment (i.e., clinical, pathological and radiological assessment), are important for accurate diagnosis of aspiration samples. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7349809170055423 PMID:22607447

  2. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  3. Contralateral Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Breast cancer survivors constitute about 25% of the growing population of cancer survivors in the US. Contralateral breast cancer is the most common second cancer in women with primary breast cancer. With increasing cure rates comes increasing concern

  4. Synchronous Bilateral Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Subramanyan, Annapurneswari; Radhakrishna, Selvi

    2015-01-01

    Background Bilateral breast cancer (BBC) is not an uncommon entity in contemporary breast clinics. Improved life expectancy after breast cancer treatment and routine use of contra-lateral breast mammography has led to increased incidence of BBC. Our study objective was to define the epidemiological and tumour characteristics of BBC in India. Materials and Methods A total of 1251 breast cancer patients were treated during the period January 2007 to March 2015 and 30 patients were found to have BBC who constituted the study population (60 tumour samples). Synchronous bilateral breast cancers (SBC) was defined as two tumours diagnosed within an interval of 6 months and a second cancer diagnosed after 6 months was labelled as metachronous breast cancer (MBC). Analyses of patient and tumour characteristics were done in this prospective data base of BBC patients. Results Median patient age was 66 years (range 39-85). Majority of the patients had SBC (n=28) and in 12 patients the second tumour was clinically occult and detected only by mammography of the contra-lateral breast. The second tumour was found at lower tumour size compared to the first in 73% of cases and was negative for axillary metastasis in 80% of cases (24/30). Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the commonest histological type (n=51) and majority of the tumours were ER/PR positive (50/60). Her2 was overexpressed in 13 tumours (21%). Over 70% (22/30) of patients had similar histology in both breasts and amongst them grade concordance was present in about 69% (15/22) of patients. Concordance rates of ER, PR and Her2 statuses were 83%, 80% and 90% respectively. Bilateral mastectomy was the commonest surgery performed in 80% of the patients followed by bilateral breast conservation in 13%. At the end of study period, 26 patients were alive and disease free. Median survival was 29 months (range 3-86 months). Conclusion In most patients with BBC, the second tumour is identified at an early stage than index tumours supporting the importance of contralateral breast cancer screening at the time of primary diagnosis and during follow-up. BBC occurs more frequently in old age group and majority of these tumours are estrogen dependent. There is good pathological concordance between the index tumour and the contralateral breast cancer. PMID:26500995

  5. Signatures of post-zygotic structural genetic aberrations in the cells of histologically normal breast tissue that can predispose to sporadic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Forsberg, Lars A.; Rasi, Chiara; Pekar, Gyula; Davies, Hanna; Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Absher, Devin; Razzaghian, Hamid Reza; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Halaszka, Krzysztof; Przewo?nik, Marcin; Kruczak, Anna; Mandava, Geeta; Pasupulati, Saichand; Hacker, Julia; Prakash, K. Reddy; Dasari, Ravi Chandra; Lau, Joey; Penagos-Tafurt, Nelly; Olofsson, Helena M.; Hallberg, Gunilla; Skotnicki, Piotr; Mitu?, Jerzy; Skokowski, Jaroslaw; Jankowski, Michal; ?rutek, Ewa; Zegarski, Wojciech; Tiensuu Janson, Eva; Ry?, Janusz; Tot, Tibor; Dumanski, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic breast cancer (SBC) is a common disease without robust means of early risk prediction in the population. We studied 282 females with SBC, focusing on copy number aberrations in cancer-free breast tissue (uninvolved margin, UM) outside the primary tumor (PT). In total, 1162 UMs (1–14 per breast) were studied. Comparative analysis between UM(s), PT(s), and blood/skin from the same patient as a control is the core of the study design. We identified 108 patients with at least one aberrant UM, representing 38.3% of cases. Gains in gene copy number were the principal type of mutations in microscopically normal breast cells, suggesting that oncogenic activation of genes via increased gene copy number is a predominant mechanism for initiation of SBC pathogenesis. The gain of ERBB2, with overexpression of HER2 protein, was the most common aberration in normal cells. Five additional growth factor receptor genes (EGFR, FGFR1, IGF1R, LIFR, and NGFR) also showed recurrent gains, and these were occasionally present in combination with the gain of ERBB2. All the aberrations found in the normal breast cells were previously described in cancer literature, suggesting their causative, driving role in pathogenesis of SBC. We demonstrate that analysis of normal cells from cancer patients leads to identification of signatures that may increase risk of SBC and our results could influence the choice of surgical intervention to remove all predisposing cells. Early detection of copy number gains suggesting a predisposition toward cancer development, long before detectable tumors are formed, is a key to the anticipated shift into a preventive paradigm of personalized medicine for breast cancer. PMID:26430163

  6. Signatures of post-zygotic structural genetic aberrations in the cells of histologically normal breast tissue that can predispose to sporadic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Lars A; Rasi, Chiara; Pekar, Gyula; Davies, Hanna; Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Absher, Devin; Razzaghian, Hamid Reza; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Halaszka, Krzysztof; Przewo?nik, Marcin; Kruczak, Anna; Mandava, Geeta; Pasupulati, Saichand; Hacker, Julia; Prakash, K Reddy; Dasari, Ravi Chandra; Lau, Joey; Penagos-Tafurt, Nelly; Olofsson, Helena M; Hallberg, Gunilla; Skotnicki, Piotr; Mitu?, Jerzy; Skokowski, Jaroslaw; Jankowski, Michal; ?rutek, Ewa; Zegarski, Wojciech; Tiensuu Janson, Eva; Ry?, Janusz; Tot, Tibor; Dumanski, Jan P

    2015-10-01

    Sporadic breast cancer (SBC) is a common disease without robust means of early risk prediction in the population. We studied 282 females with SBC, focusing on copy number aberrations in cancer-free breast tissue (uninvolved margin, UM) outside the primary tumor (PT). In total, 1162 UMs (1-14 per breast) were studied. Comparative analysis between UM(s), PT(s), and blood/skin from the same patient as a control is the core of the study design. We identified 108 patients with at least one aberrant UM, representing 38.3% of cases. Gains in gene copy number were the principal type of mutations in microscopically normal breast cells, suggesting that oncogenic activation of genes via increased gene copy number is a predominant mechanism for initiation of SBC pathogenesis. The gain of ERBB2, with overexpression of HER2 protein, was the most common aberration in normal cells. Five additional growth factor receptor genes (EGFR, FGFR1, IGF1R, LIFR, and NGFR) also showed recurrent gains, and these were occasionally present in combination with the gain of ERBB2. All the aberrations found in the normal breast cells were previously described in cancer literature, suggesting their causative, driving role in pathogenesis of SBC. We demonstrate that analysis of normal cells from cancer patients leads to identification of signatures that may increase risk of SBC and our results could influence the choice of surgical intervention to remove all predisposing cells. Early detection of copy number gains suggesting a predisposition toward cancer development, long before detectable tumors are formed, is a key to the anticipated shift into a preventive paradigm of personalized medicine for breast cancer. PMID:26430163

  7. Same-Day Diagnosis Based on Histology for Women Suspected of Breast Cancer: High Diagnostic Accuracy and Favorable Impact on the Patient

    PubMed Central

    Barentsz, Maarten W.; Wessels, Hester; van Diest, Paul J.; Pijnappel, Ruud M.; van der Pol, Carmen C.; Witkamp, Arjen J.; van den Bosch, Maurice A. A. J.; Verkooijen, Helena M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Same-day diagnosis based on histology is increasingly being offered to patients suspected of breast cancer. We evaluated to which extent same-day diagnosis affected diagnostic accuracy and patients' anxiety levels during the diagnostic phase. Patients and methods All 759 women referred for same-day evaluation of suspicious breast lesions between November 2011–March 2013 were included. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by linking all patients to the national pathology database to identify diagnostic discrepancies, in which case slides were reviewed. Patients' anxiety was measured in 127 patients by the State Trait and Anxiety Inventory on six moments during the diagnostic workup and changes over time (cancer was found. Final diagnosis on the same day was provided for 606/759 (79.8%) patients. Overall, 3/759 (0.4%) discordant findings were identified. Anxiety levels decreased significantly over time from 45.2 to 30.0 (P?=?<0.001). Anxiety levels decreased from 44.4 to 25.9 (P?=?<0.001) for patients with benign disease, and remained unchanged for patients diagnosed with malignancies (48.6 to 46.7, P?=?0.933). Time trends in anxiety were not affected by other patient or disease characteristics like age, education level or (family) history of breast cancer. Conclusion Same-day histological diagnosis is feasible in the vast majority of patients, without impairing diagnostic accuracy. Patients' anxiety rapidly decreased in patients with a benign diagnosis and remained constant in patients with malignancy. PMID:25047134

  8. Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  9. Immunohistochemical analysis of medullary breast carcinoma autoantigens in different histological types of breast carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background On the past decade a plethora of investigations were directed on identification of molecules involved in breast tumorogenesis, which could represent a powerful tool for monitoring, diagnostics and treatment of this disease. In current study we analyzed six previously identified medullary breast carcinoma autoantigens including LGALS3BP, RAD50, FAM50A, RBPJ, PABPC4, LRRFIP1 with cancer restricted serological profile in different histological types of breast cancer. Methods Semi-quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of 20 tissue samples including medullary breast carcinoma, invasive ductal carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma and non-cancerous tissues obtained from patients with fibrocystic disease (each of five) was performed using specifically generated polyclonal antibodies. Differences in expression patterns were evaluated considering percent of positively stained cells, insensitivity of staining and subcellular localization in cells of all tissue samples. Results All 6 antigens predominantly expressed in the most cells of all histological types of breast tumors and non-cancerous tissues with slight differences in intensity of staining and subcellular localization. The most significant differences in expression pattern were revealed for RAD50 and LGALS3BP in different histological types of breast cancer and for PABPC4 and FAM50A antigens in immune cells infiltrating breast tumors. Conclusions This pilot study made possible to select 4 antigens LGALS3BP, RAD50, PABPC4, and FAM50A as promising candidates for more comprehensive research as potential molecular markers for breast cancer diagnostics and therapy. Virtual slides The virtual slides’ for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1860649350796892 PMID:23181716

  10. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cancer care team right away. Reconstructive or breast implant surgery After having a mastectomy (or certain breast- ... Voices Blog Programs & Services Breast Cancer Support TLC Hair Loss & Mastectomy Products Hope Lodge® Lodging Rides To ...

  11. Breast Cancer Disparities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  12. Breast cancer in men

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in situ-male; Intraductal carcinoma-male; Inflammatory breast cancer-male; Paget disease of the nipple-male; Breast cancer-male; ... The cause of breast cancer is not clear. But there are risk ... breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to radiation Higher ...

  13. Correlation of tumor characteristics derived from DCE-MRI and DW-MRI with histology in murine models of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Stephanie L; Sorace, Anna G; Loveless, Mary E; Whisenant, Jennifer G; Yankeelov, Thomas E

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the relationship between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC, from diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI), the extravascular, extracellular volume fraction (ve , from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI), and histological measurement of the extracellular space fraction. Athymic nude mice were injected with either human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive (HER2+) BT474 (n = 15) or triple negative MDA-MB-231 (n = 20) breast cancer cells, treated with either Herceptin (n = 8), Abraxane (low dose n = 7, high dose n = 6), or saline (n = 7 for each cell line), and imaged using DW- and DCE-MRI before, during, and after treatment. After the final imaging acquisition, the tissue was resected and evaluated by histological analysis. H&E-stained central slices were scanned using a digital brightfield microscope and evaluated with thresholding techniques to calculate the extracellular space. For both BT474 and MDA-MB-231, the median ADC of the central slice exhibited a significantly positive correlation with the corresponding central slice extracellular space as measured by H&E (p = 0.03, p < 0.01, respectively). Median ve calculated from the central slice showed differing results between the two cell lines. For BT474, a significant correlation between ve and extracellular space was calculated (p = 0.02), while MDA-MB-231 tumors did not demonstrate a significant correlation (p = 0.64). Additionally, there was no correlation discovered between ADC and ve with either whole tumor analysis or central slice analysis (p > 0.05). While ADC correlates well with the histologically determined fraction of extracellular space, these data add to the growing body of literature that suggests that ve derived from DCE-MRI is not a reliable biomarker of extracellular space for a range of physiological conditions. PMID:26332194

  14. What Happens After Treatment for Breast Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... happens after treatment for breast cancer? Lymphedema after breast cancer treatment Emotional aspects of breast cancer Body image after breast cancer treatment Sexuality after breast cancer Pregnancy after breast cancer ...

  15. Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... trials is available from the NCI website . Three tests are used by health care providers to screen for breast cancer: Mammogram Mammography is the most common screening test for breast cancer . A mammogram is an x- ...

  16. Breast Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... information about breast cancer in childhood) A family history of breast cancer and other factors increase the ... with letrozole . Radiation therapy and/or surgery for relief of pain and other symptoms . Bisphosphonate drugs to ...

  17. Stages of Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... information about breast cancer in childhood) A family history of breast cancer and other factors increase the ... with letrozole . Radiation therapy and/or surgery for relief of pain and other symptoms . Bisphosphonate drugs to ...

  18. Breast Cancer Screening Methods

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... medlineplus/videos/news/Screening_Methods_123015.html Breast Cancer Screening Methods HealthDay News Video - December 31, 2015 ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Play video: Breast Cancer Screening Methods For closed captioning, click the CC ...

  19. Breast Cancer: Early Detection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( ... the factors that may affect your risk for breast cancer, and find out what you can do to ...

  20. Differences in fluorescence profiles from breast cancer tissues due to changes in relative tryptophan content via energy transfer: tryptophan content correlates with histologic grade and tumor size but not with lymph node metastases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordillo, Laura A.; Sordillo, Peter P.; Budansky, Yury; Pu, Yang; Alfano, Robert R.

    2014-12-01

    The correlation between histologic grade, an increasingly important measure of prognosis for patients with breast cancer, and tryptophan levels from tissues of 15 breast carcinoma patients was investigated. Changes in the relative content of key native organic biomolecule tryptophan were seen from the fluorescence spectra of cancerous and paired normal tissues with excitation wavelengths of 280 and 300 nm. Due to a large spectral overlap and matching excitation-emission spectra, fluorescence resonance energy transfer from tryptophan-donor to reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides-acceptor was noted. We used the ratios of fluorescence intensities at their spectral emission peaks, or spectral fingerprint peaks, at 340, 440, and 460 nm. Higher ratios correlated strongly with high histologic grade, while lower-grade tumors had low ratios. Large tumor size also correlated with high ratios, while the number of lymph node metastases, a major factor in staging, was not correlated with tryptophan levels. High histologic grade correlates strongly with increased content of tryptophan in breast cancer tissues and suggests that measurement of tryptophan content may be useful as a part of the evaluation of these patients.

  1. Breast Cancer Trends

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kinds of Cancer Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Cancer Home Breast Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) ... Native). Stay Informed Trends for Other Kinds of Cancer Cervical Colorectal ... Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: ...

  2. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  3. Breast Cancer -- Metaplastic

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer.Net Editorial Board , which is composed of medical, surgical, radiation, gynecologic, and pediatric oncologists, oncology nurses, physician assistants, social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer - ...

  4. Breast Cancer -- Inflammatory

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer.Net Editorial Board , which is composed of medical, surgical, radiation, gynecologic, and pediatric oncologists, oncology nurses, physician assistants, social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer - ...

  5. Breast Cancer -- Male

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer.Net Editorial Board , which is composed of medical, surgical, radiation, gynecologic, and pediatric oncologists, oncology nurses, physician assistants, social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer ...

  6. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  7. Paying for Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... screening coverage in your state. National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program States are making breast cancer ... Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) . The NBCCEDP attempts to ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Breast cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Breast cancer On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed May 2015 What is breast cancer? Breast cancer is a disease in which certain ...

  9. CISNET: Breast Cancer Modeling

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Group is in its third round of funding. Six groups and a coordinating center are funded to model modern developments in breast prevention, early detection and treatment. A unique aspect of the current round of funding is that the groups will model breast cancer as four separate sub-types (based on molecular subtypes).

  10. Breast Lumps: A 21-Year Single-Center Clinical and Histological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Njeze, Gabriel E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To review the presentation and histological diagnosis of breast lumps of patients seen in Trans Ekulu Hospital Enugu Southeastern Nigeria from 1993 to 2013 in a period of 21 years. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study covering a period of 21 years. Case notes of patients containing clinical information and their histology reports were studied. Results: Only 38% of the patients came within 3 months of finding lumps in their breast. One hundred and thirty-seven patients (83%) had benign disease, i.e., fibroadenoma, mammary dysplasia, cysts, adenomas, tuberculosis, phyllodes tumor, mastitis, and lipoma. Only 16.9% i.e., 28 patients had breast cancer, out of which two females were in their 20s, and three were males. Conclusions: Benign breast diseases, i.e., fibroadenoma, fibroadenosis, cysts, adenomas, tuberculosis, phyllodes, mastitis, and lipoma are the commoner breast diseases in our locality. PMID:24665202

  11. Carboplatin and Eribulin Mesylate in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-23

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  12. Comparison of Oncotype DX Recurrence Score by Histologic Types of Breast Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bomeisl, Philip E; Thompson, Cheryl L; Harris, Lyndsay N; Gilmore, Hannah L

    2015-12-01

    Context .- Oncotype DX (ODX) is a widely used commercial assay that estimates the risk of distant recurrence and may predict the benefit of chemotherapy in a subset of breast cancers. Some studies have shown the ability to predict Oncotype DX recurrence score (ODXRS), based on routinely reported pathologic features; however, there are limited data correlating specific histologic type of breast cancer to ODXRS. Objective .- To compare ODXRS to specific histologic types of breast cancer. Design .- One hundred eighty-four cases were sent for ODXRS testing and the results were compared with histologic type and grade. Results .- The highest average ODXRS was seen in invasive ductal carcinoma with micropapillary features (29) followed by invasive ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified (mean = 19.4, SD = 11.6), invasive mucinous carcinoma (mean = 17.2, SD = 5.9), invasive lobular carcinoma (mean = 15.7, SD = 7.2), mixed ductal and lobular carcinoma (mean = 14.1, SD = 7.7), tubular carcinoma (10.0), and mixed ductal and mucinous carcinoma (mean = 8.0, SD = 4.2). Most tumors that had a high ODXRS were grade 3 invasive ductal carcinoma, representing 13 of a total of 20 cases (65%). Interestingly, 3 of the 4 cases of pure invasive mucinous carcinoma had an intermediate ODXRS. Conclusions .- Although the numbers are small, our findings raise further awareness of the significance between histologic type and grade, and RS in breast cancer. In some special histologic types of breast cancer, particularly those considered to follow either an excellent or poor clinical course by histology alone, it is unclear whether the ODXRS results are as meaningful as in carcinomas of no special type. Further investigation with higher numbers and outcome data is needed. PMID:26619027

  13. Breast Cancer Screening Rates

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is easier to treat and before it is big enough to feel or cause symptoms. Having regular mammograms can lower the risk of dying from breast cancer. Source for graph data: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Cancer ...

  14. BREAST CANCER AND EXERCISE

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2008-03-19

    Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

  15. Breast Density and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... news/Breast_Density_120215.html Breast Density and Cancer Risk HealthDay News Video - December 3, 2015 To ... please enable JavaScript. Play video: Breast Density and Cancer Risk For closed captioning, click the CC button ...

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  17. CISNET: Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    However, there are very limited data on the population effects of these novel cancer control approaches. Population modeling is a unique comparative effectiveness paradigm to fill this gap by translating advances from the laboratory and clinical trials to understanding their net effects on US breast cancer mortality. The CISNET Breast Working Group has collaborated over the past nine years to apply independent population models to evaluate cancer control practices and use results to inform clinical and public health guidelines.

  18. 'Occult' breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, M. S.; Nash, A. G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore current trends in the diagnosis, investigation and treatment of patients presenting with axillary lymph node metastases without a primary in the breast being found and, more rarely, those cases with metastatic breast cancer where the primary remains unknown--the so-called, 'occult' breast cancer. A retrospective study of 25 reported cases were selected from our database at the Royal Marsden and 6 patients were found to have true 'occult' breast cancer. These 6 patients are all still alive with no primary ever having been found in the breast. A literature review was then undertaken exploring the changing trends in this diagnostic enigma. MRI scanning, it is reported, may reveal the primary. Occult cancers in which imaging totally fails to show the primary will become increasingly rare. The prognosis of these, however, may be surprisingly better than one would expect from the nature of their presentation. PMID:11777139

  19. Multifocal/multicentric breast carcinomas showing intertumoural heterogeneity: a comparison of histological tumour type and Nottingham histological grade of primary tumour and lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Boros, Monica; Podoleanu, Cristian; Georgescu, Rares; Moldovan, Cosmin; Molnar, Calin; Stolnicu, Simona

    2015-06-01

    Our study aimed to compare the histological tumour type and Nottingham histological grade of invasive tumour foci in multifocal/multicentric breast carcinomas with those in corresponding axillary lymph node (LN) metastases. We reassessed slides from consecutive multiple breast carcinomas surgically treated with axillary LN dissection (2007-2012). 155 (19.23%) of 806 cases had multiple breast cancer, of which 115 (74.19%) cases had identical morphology. Of these, 85 (73.91%) cases had axillary LN metastases morphologically identical to the originating breast tumours. 32 of the 40 (80%) cases with different morphology had axillary LN metastases; in most heterogeneous cases with differences in grade (87.5%), the grade of metastases was identical to the grade of the tumour foci with the highest histological grade, and in 33.33% of cases the grade in LN was concordant with the grade of smaller foci. Among the 18 cases heterogeneous in histological type with axillary metastases, 33.33% presented heterogeneous histological types in LN, and 22.22% of them were only concordant with the histological type of the smaller tumour foci. The morphological aspects of axillary LN metastases correspond to the highest histological grade and/or histological tumour type with unfavourable prognosis, which does not necessarily appear in the largest tumour focus. PMID:26247525

  20. Targeting Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Mu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer-associated deaths. Despite the significant improvement in current therapies in extending patient life, 30–40% of patients may eventually suffer from distant relapse and succumb to the disease. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the metastasis biology is key to developing better treatment strategies and achieving long-lasting therapeutic efficacies against breast cancer. This review covers recent breakthroughs in the discovery of various metastatic traits that contribute to the metastasis cascade of breast cancer, which may provide novel avenues for therapeutic targeting. PMID:26380552

  1. Breast Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women in the United States (other than skin cancer). Women with breast cancer have many treatment options, including surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. A woman diagnosed with breast cancer may receive more than one type of treatment.

  2. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-17

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  3. Epigenomics and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Pang-Kuo

    2009-01-01

    Breast carcinogenesis involves genetic and epigenetic alterations that cause aberrant gene function. Recent progress in the knowledge of epigenomics has had a profound impact on the understanding of mechanisms leading to breast cancer, and consequently the development of new strategies for diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Epigenetic regulation has been known to involve three mutually interacting events – DNA methylation, histone modifications and nucleosomal remodeling. These processes modulate chromatin structure to form euchromatin or heterochromatin, and in turn activate or silence gene expression. Alteration in expression of key genes through aberrant epigenetic regulation in breast cells can lead to initiation, promotion and maintenance of carcinogenesis, and is even implicated in the generation of drug resistance. We currently review known roles of the epigenetic machinery in the development and recurrence of breast cancer. Furthermore, we highlight the significance of epigenetic alterations as predictive biomarkers and as new targets of anticancer therapy. PMID:19072646

  4. PET/CT in Evaluating Response to Chemotherapy in Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-31

    HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  5. What Is Breast Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... small number start in other tissues. The lymph (lymphatic) system of the breast The lymph system is important ... fluid and waste products, as well as immune system cells. Breast cancer cells can enter lymphatic vessels and begin to grow in lymph nodes. ...

  6. BREAST CANCER SUPPORT RESOURCES Smilow Cancer Hospital

    E-print Network

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    BREAST CANCER SUPPORT RESOURCES Smilow Cancer Hospital · Early Stage Breast Cancer Support Group · Advanced Stage Cancer Support Group · IMPACT ­ Young Cancer Survivors' Group Contact: Angela Khairallah, LCSW at 203-200-2360 Reach to Recovery ­ American Cancer Society 1-800-227-2345 www.cancer.org Sisters

  7. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for most tumors that test positive for either estrogen or progesterone receptors (called ER-positive or PR- ... symptoms. Tamoxifen. Tamoxifen is a drug that blocks estrogen from binding to breast cancer cells. It is ...

  8. Targeting Breast Cancer Metastasis

    E-print Network

    Mu, Ping

    Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer-associated deaths. Despite the significant improvement in current therapies in extending patient life, 30–40% of patients may eventually suffer from distant relapse and ...

  9. Sexuality After Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... supplies feeling to the nipple runs through the deep breast tissue, and it gets disconnected during surgery. ... Site Comments Better Business Bureau Health On The Net National Health Council © 2015 American Cancer Society, Inc. ...

  10. Breast Cancer and Diet

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... health news that matters to you. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Breast Cancer Diets About MedlinePlus Site Map ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  11. Digital Tomosynthesis: Advanced Breast Cancer

    E-print Network

    Hansma, Paul

    Digital Tomosynthesis: Advanced Breast Cancer Imaging Technique Max Wiedmann #12;Digital in CT. #12;Breast Cancer · The leading Cause of death for women ages 40-55. · Is only behind lung and bronchus cancer in terms of number of deaths in US. · Early detection of breast cancer is believed to save

  12. Breast Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Breast Biopsy (Arabic) ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Breast Cancer (Arabic) ????? ????? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Breast Cancer English (Arabic) ????? ????? - ??????? Multimedia ...

  13. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093

  14. Stereotactic Image-Guided Navigation During Breast Reconstruction in Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-27

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  15. Breast Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The BioScan System was developed by OmniCorder Technologies, Inc. at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The system is able to locate cancerous lesions by detecting the cancer's ability to recruit a new blood supply. A digital sensor detects infrared energy emitted from the body and identifies the minute differences accompanying the blood flow changes associated with cancerous cells. It also has potential use as a monitoring device during cancer treatment. This technology will reduce the time taken to detect cancerous cells and allow for earlier intervention, therefore increasing the overall survival rates of breast cancer patients.

  16. Potential clinical relevance of uPA and PAI-1 levels in node-negative, postmenopausal breast cancer patients bearing histological grade II tumors with ER/PR expression, during an early follow-up.

    PubMed

    Buta, Marko; Džodi?, Radan; ?uriši?, Igor; Markovi?, Ivan; Vujasinovi?, Tijana; Marki?evi?, Milan; Nikoli?-Vukosavljevi?, Dragica

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) prognostic value in postmenopausal, node-negative breast cancer patients bearing tumors with estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) expression, treated with locoregional therapy alone, within an early follow-up. We focused our analysis on tumors of histological grade II in order to improve its prognostic value and, consequently, to improve a decision-making process. The cytosol extracts of 73 tumor samples were used for assessing several biomarkers. ER and PR levels were measured by classical biochemical method. Cathepsin D was assayed by a radiometric immunoassay while both uPA and PAI-1 level determinations were performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. HER-2 gene amplification was determined by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) in primary tumor tissue. Patients bearing tumors smaller than or equal to 2 cm (pT1) or those with low PAI-1 levels (PAI-1?breast cancer patients bearing histological grade II tumors with ER/PR expression, during an early follow-up period. PMID:25994573

  17. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... trials is available from the NCI website . Three tests are used by health care providers to screen for breast cancer: Mammogram Mammography is the most common screening test for breast cancer . A mammogram is an x- ...

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... information about breast cancer in childhood) A family history of breast cancer and other factors increase the ... with letrozole . Radiation therapy and/or surgery for relief of pain and other symptoms . Bisphosphonate drugs to ...

  19. Surgery for Breast Cancer in Men

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topic Radiation therapy for breast cancer in men Surgery for breast cancer in men The thought of ... and/or a medical oncologist. Types of breast surgery Most men with breast cancer have some type ...

  20. BCSC Grants: Breast Cancer Delays

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Home   |   Data   |   Statistics   |   Tools   |   Collaborations   |   Work with Us   |   Publications   |   About   |   Links Ongoing Collaborations CISNET ACS FAVOR Comprehensive Cancer Centers Ancillary Studies Breast Cancer

  1. Histologic variants of urothelial bladder cancer and nonurothelial histology in bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, Venu; Chin, Joseph L.; Izawa, Jonathan I.

    2009-01-01

    Bladder cancer can be classified histologically as urothelial or non-urothelial. Urothelial cancer has a propensity for divergent differentiation, which has increasingly been recognized in recent years due to heightened awareness and improved immunohistochemistry techniques. Furthermore, the recent World Health Organization classification of urothelial cancers improved clarity on this issue, with its listing of 13 histologic variants of urothelial cancer. The divergent differentiation patterns include, amongst others, squamous, glandular, micropapillary, nested, lymphepithelioma-like, plasmacytoid and sarcomatoid variants of urothelial cancer. Attempts to quantify the amount of divergent differentiation present, such as using the nonconventional differentiation number, have been made recently, which will improve the ability to compare publications from different centres. Genetic-based studies have indicated that the histologic variants of urothelial cancer arise from a common clonal precursor. Mostly, the current evidence suggests that urothelial cancer with divergent differentiation has a worse prognosis when compared with pure urothelial cancer. This article will review the current literature on variant histologies of urothelial cancer, and well as new developments in pure squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the bladder. PMID:20019984

  2. Histologic variants of urothelial bladder cancer and nonurothelial histology in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Chalasani, Venu; Chin, Joseph L; Izawa, Jonathan I

    2009-12-01

    Bladder cancer can be classified histologically as urothelial or non-urothelial. Urothelial cancer has a propensity for divergent differentiation, which has increasingly been recognized in recent years due to heightened awareness and improved immunohistochemistry techniques. Furthermore, the recent World Health Organization classification of urothelial cancers improved clarity on this issue, with its listing of 13 histologic variants of urothelial cancer. The divergent differentiation patterns include, amongst others, squamous, glandular, micropapillary, nested, lymphepithelioma-like, plasmacytoid and sarcomatoid variants of urothelial cancer. Attempts to quantify the amount of divergent differentiation present, such as using the nonconventional differentiation number, have been made recently, which will improve the ability to compare publications from different centres. Genetic-based studies have indicated that the histologic variants of urothelial cancer arise from a common clonal precursor. Mostly, the current evidence suggests that urothelial cancer with divergent differentiation has a worse prognosis when compared with pure urothelial cancer. This article will review the current literature on variant histologies of urothelial cancer, and well as new developments in pure squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the bladder. PMID:20019984

  3. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Paula; Grossbard, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its role in calcium homeostasis and bone health, vitamin D has also been reported to have anticancer activities against many cancer types, including breast cancer. The discovery that breast epithelial cells possess the same enzymatic system as the kidney, allowing local manufacture of active vitamin D from circulating precursors, makes the effect of vitamin D in breast cancer biologically plausible. Preclinical and ecologic studies have suggested a role for vitamin D in breast cancer prevention. Inverse associations have also been shown between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level (25(OH)D) and breast cancer development, risk for breast cancer recurrence, and mortality in women with early-stage breast cancer. Clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation, however, have yielded inconsistent results. Regardless of whether or not vitamin D helps prevent breast cancer or its recurrence, vitamin D deficiency in the U.S. population is very common, and the adverse impact on bone health, a particular concern for breast cancer survivors, makes it important to understand vitamin D physiology and to recognize and treat vitamin D deficiency. In this review, we discuss vitamin D metabolism and its mechanism of action. We summarize the current evidence of the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer, highlight ongoing research in this area, and discuss optimal dosing of vitamin D for breast cancer prevention. PMID:22234628

  4. Risk factors for male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, K; Bross, D S; Kessler, I I

    1985-02-01

    To investigate risk factors in male breast cancer, a case-control study of 52 histologically diagnosed cases and 52 controls--matched for age, race, marital status, and hospital--was conducted in 5 U.S. metropolitan areas. Cases were significantly more likely to be Jewish than were the controls, supporting earlier suggestions of an increased risk in Jewish males. A significant association of male breast cancer with mumps infections at age 20 years or older, along with the possible association with antecedent testicular injury and the excess frequency of mumps orchitis among cases, suggests that testicular factors may be important in the development of breast cancer among males. An increased frequency of breast cancer among persons who have worked in blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills is of interest because of the possible testicular effect of high environmental temperatures. The observed association between breast cancer and a prior history of swollen breast is difficult to interpret because of potential recall bias, and a possible relationship with military service needs further confirmation. PMID:3856050

  5. Breast cancer imaging devices.

    PubMed

    Moadel, Renee M

    2011-05-01

    Conventional mammography is a screening procedure constrained by low specificity in the detection of breast cancer. Approximately 40% of women undergoing mammography screening have dense breast tissue, and conventional mammographic imaging has a sensitivity range of only 50%-85% for malignant lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now recommended for breast cancer screening in high-risk patients. However, approximately 15% of patients cannot tolerate MRI. These are the clinical situations in which positron emission mammography (PEM) and breast-specific gamma (BSG) camera systems fulfill a need for primary breast cancer imaging. Because breast cancer is the most common malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among women, many nuclear medicine imaging techniques are essential in the evaluation and therapy of patients with this disease. Nuclear medicine surgical techniques consist of sentinel lymph node localization and the use of radiolabeled seeds for intraoperative localization of nonpalpable breast cancers. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the PEM Flex Solo II scanner, which has the capability for stereotactic biopsy, with an array of pixelated lutetium yttrium orthosilicate (LYSO) crystals, position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PS-PMT), and a spatial resolution of 2.4 mm. Clear PEM is a scanner in development with cerium-doped LYSO (LYSO:Ce) crystals, multipixel avalanche photodiodes, depth of interaction measurement with a resolution of 1.3 mm. The Dilon 6800 Gamma Camera is a BSG device approved by the FDA with stereotactic biopsy guidance capability, a pixelated array of sodium iodide crystals, PS-PMTs, and an extrinsic spatial resolution of 6 mm at 3 cm from the camera. GE has just received clearance from the FDA for a molecular breast imaging camera, the Discovery NM 750 b, with pixelated cadmium zinc telluride crystals, semiconductor photoelements and an extrinsic resolution of 3.5 mm at 3 cm. The Society of Nuclear Medicine has issued guidelines for BSG camera image interpretation recommendations and clinical indications. Different crystals and camera architectures are under investigation to further improve resolution for both PEM and BSG imaging. PMID:21440698

  6. Breast Cancer Statistics

    Cancer.gov

    The maps show a pattern of elevated mortality rates for female breast cancer extending from the Mid-Atlantic through the Northeastern states has persisted for many years. Established risk factors are believed to be largely responsible, but the remaining reasons are unknown.

  7. Pertuzumab, Trastuzumab, and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With HER2-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-25

    HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Breast Adenocarcinoma; Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma

  8. Treatment of Breast Cancer during Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topic What should you ask your doctor about breast cancer? Treatment of breast cancer during pregnancy Breast cancer is diagnosed in about ... and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Breast Cancer Talking ... Treatment What`s New in Breast Cancer Research? Other Resources ...

  9. Breast Cancer Among Asian Women

    Cancer.gov

    A study of breast cancer among Asian populations, including mainland China, Hong Kong, and Malaysia, with the aim of identifying distinct molecular alterations in tumors and adjacent normal tissues, and examining the associations of these molecular changes with risk factors (genetic and environmental), breast tissue composition and density, and breast cancer subtypes.

  10. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Harry Mahtani analyzes the gas content of nutrient media from Bioreactor used in research on human breast cancer. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  11. Who may benefit from preoperative breast MRI? A single-center analysis of 1102 consecutive patients with primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Debald, Manuel; Abramian, Alina; Nemes, Lisa; Döbler, Michael; Kaiser, Christina; Keyver-Paik, Mignon-Denise; Leutner, Claudia; Höller, Tobias; Braun, Michael; Kuhl, Christiane; Kuhn, Walther; Schild, Hans H

    2015-10-01

    Several authors question the potential benefit of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) against the background of possible overdiagnosis, false-positive findings, and unnecessary resections in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. In order to reveal a better selection of patients who should undergo preoperative MRI after histological confirmed breast cancer, the present analysis was implemented. We aimed to evaluate the influence of preoperative breast MRI in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer to find subgroups of patients that are most likely to benefit from preoperative MRI by the detection of occult malignant foci. A total of 1102 consecutive patients who underwent treatment for primary breast cancer between 2002 and 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent triple assessment by breast ultrasound, mammography, and bilateral breast MRI. MRI findings not seen on conventional imaging that suggested additional malignant disease was found in 344 cases (31.2 %). Histological confirmed malignant foci were found in 223 patients (20.2 %) within the index breast and in 28 patients (2.5 %) in the contralateral breast. The rate of false-negative biopsies was 31 (2.8 %) and 62 (5.6 %), respectively. Premenopausal women (p = 0.024), lobular invasive breast cancer (p = 0.02) as well as patients with high breast density [American College of Radiology (ACR) 3 + 4; p = 0.01] were significantly associated with additional malignant foci in the index breast. Multivariate analysis confirmed lobular histology (p = 0.041) as well as the co-factors "premenopausal stage" and "high breast density (ACR 3+4)" (p = 0.044) to be independently significant. Previous studies revealed that breast MRI is a reliable tool for predicting tumor extension as well as for the detection of additional ipsilateral and contralateral tumor foci in histological confirmed breast cancer. In the present study, we demonstrate that especially premenopausal patients with high breast density as well as patients with lobular histology seem to profit from preoperative MRI. PMID:26323190

  12. Azacitidine in Treating Patients With Triple Negative Stage I-IV Invasive Breast Cancer That Can Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-05

    Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  13. Pharmacokinetically Guided Everolimus in Patients With Breast Cancer, Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors, or Kidney Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-14

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Insulinoma; Mucositis; Oral Complications; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Somatostatinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer

  14. Triple negative breast cancer: an Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Murtaza; Dasgupta, Subhrajit; Rangwala, Murtuza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in the world. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a recently identified biological variant with aggressive tumor behavior and poor prognosis. Data of hormonal status from the Indian population is scarce due to financial constraints in performing immunohistochemistry evaluation. The present study aims to prospectively analyze receptor status of all breast cancer patients and identify TNBC and compare their clinical profile and short term survival with other non-TNBC group. Materials and methods All cytologically and histopathologically confirmed cases of carcinoma breast were prospectively enrolled. In a longitudinal study at tertiary care hospital in central India based on the hormonal status, they were further divided into TNBC and other groups. Comparison of risk factors, clinical profile and short-term survival was carried out. Results A total 85 patients were enrolled and of them 37 (43.7%) were TNBC. On comparing risk factors ie, age, age at menarche, total reproductive age, age at first child birth, and menopausal status – no statistical significance was observed between the TNBC and non-TNBC groups. But on comparison of clinical profile TNBC tumors were significantly large with majority of patients presenting as locally advanced breast cancer (83%). No statistical difference was observed in axillary lymph node status between two groups. TNBC tumors were histologically more aggressive (grade 3) compared to other groups. No statistically significant difference was observed in short term overall survival but all three deaths were observed in the TNBC group only and two local recurrences after surgery were observed in the TNBC group. Conclusion TNBC forms a large proportion of carcinoma breast patients in a central Indian scenario and needs more research to identify appropriate treatment planning considering aggressive histology and advanced presentation. PMID:26316816

  15. Breast-Feeding May Reduce Risk of Aggressive Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 155450.html Breast-Feeding May Reduce Risk of Aggressive Breast Cancer: Study Researchers call for removing obstacles ... feeding and a woman's reduced risk for an aggressive form of breast cancer called hormone-receptor-negative ...

  16. More Men with Breast Cancer Having Second Breast Removed

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_154440.html More Men With Breast Cancer Having Second Breast Removed Trend ... been sharp rise in the number of American men with cancer in one breast who have surgery ...

  17. Breast cancer stem cells: implications for therapy of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Brian J; Schmidt, Chris W; Lakhani, Sunil R; Reynolds, Brent A; Lopez, J Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    The concept of cancer stem cells responsible for tumour origin, maintenance, and resistance to treatment has gained prominence in the field of breast cancer research. The therapeutic targeting of these cells has the potential to eliminate residual disease and may become an important component of a multimodality treatment. Recent improvements in immunotherapy targeting of tumour-associated antigens have advanced the prospect of targeting breast cancer stem cells, an approach that might lead to more meaningful clinical remissions. Here, we review the role of stem cells in the healthy breast, the role of breast cancer stem cells in disease, and the potential to target these cells. PMID:18671830

  18. You, Your Teenage Daughter and Breast Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brateman, Libby

    1991-01-01

    Discusses breast cancer and teenagers, focusing on how parents can introduce the subject and encourage breast self-examination. The article provides information on breast cancer statistics, mammography, and American Cancer Society services. (SM)

  19. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone ... be conducted to determine whether having an induced abortion, or a miscarriage (also known as spontaneous abortion), ...

  20. FastStats: Mammography/Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Mammography and Breast Cancer Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Department Summary Tables, table 15 [PDF - 330 KB] Breast cancer mortality Number of breast cancer deaths for females: ...

  1. Breast and Ovarian Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, Atsuko; Lendorf, Maria E.; Couchman, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Tumor markers are widely used in pathology not only for diagnostic purposes but also to assess the prognosis and to predict the treatment of the tumor. Because tumor marker levels may change over time, it is important to get a better understanding of the molecular changes during tumor progression. Occurrence of breast and ovarian cancer is high in older women. Common known risk factors of developing these cancers in addition to age are not having children or having children at a later age, the use of hormone replacement therapy, and mutations in certain genes. In addition, women with a history of breast cancer may also develop ovarian cancer. Here, the authors review the different tumor markers of breast and ovarian carcinoma and discuss the expression, mutations, and possible roles of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans during tumorigenesis of these carcinomas. The focus is on two groups of proteoglycans, the transmembrane syndecans and the lipid-anchored glypicans. Both families of proteoglycans have been implicated in cellular responses to growth factors and morphogens, including many now associated with tumor progression. PMID:22205677

  2. Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-12-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  3. Breast Cancer Distress in Childhood

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Cancer_Distress_101915.html Breast Cancer Distress in Childhood HealthDay News Video - October 20, ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Play video: Breast Cancer Distress in Childhood For closed captioning, click the ...

  4. Breast Cancer Stage and Survival

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Cancer_Stage_100715.html Breast Cancer Stage and Survival HealthDay News Video - October 8, ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Play video: Breast Cancer Stage and Survival For closed captioning, click the ...

  5. Cancer statistics: Breast cancer in situ.

    PubMed

    Ward, Elizabeth M; DeSantis, Carol E; Lin, Chun Chieh; Kramer, Joan L; Jemal, Ahmedin; Kohler, Betsy; Brawley, Otis W; Gansler, Ted

    2015-11-01

    An estimated 60,290 new cases of breast carcinoma in situ are expected to be diagnosed in 2015, and approximately 1 in 33 women is likely to receive an in situ breast cancer diagnosis in her lifetime. Although in situ breast cancers are relatively common, their clinical significance and optimal treatment are topics of uncertainty and concern for both patients and clinicians. In this article, the American Cancer Society provides information about occurrence and treatment patterns for the 2 major subtypes of in situ breast cancer in the United States-ductal carcinoma in situ and lobular carcinoma in situ-using data from the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and the 13 oldest Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries. The authors also present an overview of in situ breast cancer detection, treatment, risk factors, and prevention and discuss research needs and initiatives. CA Cancer J Clin 2015;65:481-495. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:26431342

  6. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Robert Richmond extracts breast cell tissue from one of two liquid nitrogen dewars. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  7. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Breast tissue specimens in traditional sample dishes. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  8. CRN - Cancer Care & Treatment: Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Breast cancer is a disease primarily of older women. The incidence of breast cancer reaches its maximum in the ninth decade of life. It is a serious disease in older women. Care of older women is further complicated by the fact that age is not only a major risk factor for breast cancer, but also for an increased burden of co-morbid disease and functional disability.

  9. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    High magnification view of human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. The arrow points to bead surface indicating breast cancer cells (as noted by the staining of tumor cell intermediate filaments). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  10. Metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cha, C H; Kennedy, G D; Niederhuber, J E

    1999-10-01

    The unfortunate reality of metastatic breast cancer is that all treatment is palliative in nature. This is a disease that currently has no cure and for which therapy is directed towards accentuating survival and relieving symptoms. Current technology allows the prediction and detection of metastases earlier and with greater accuracy. These achievements need to be consolidated by the discovery of innovative therapies that can alter the inevitable outcome of this disease. PMID:10572554

  11. Breast cancer risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ciszewski, Tomasz; ?opacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miot?a, Pawe?; Staros?awska, El?bieta

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  12. Parametrization histological grade white adipose tissue of the breast by the cubic spline interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Leslie A.; Narea, Freddy J.; Cedeño, Fernando; Muñoz, Aaron A.; Reigosa, Aldo; Bravo, Kelly

    2013-11-01

    The noninvasive optical techniques have attracted considerable interest in recent years, because these techniques provide lot of information on the structure and composition of biological tissues more quickly and painlessly, in this study classifies the degrees of histological differentiation of neoplastic tissue of the breast in white adipose tissue samples through numerical pametrización of the diffuse reflection spectra using the Fourier series approximation. The white adipose tissue is irradiated with the spectrophotometer MiniScan XEplus and it from a mastectomy of patients with aged 38 and 50 who have a cancer lesion in the breast. The samples were provided by the pathologist with theirs medical report, it which we indicate the histological grade of tumor. We performed a parameterization algorithm where the classification criterion is the modulus of the minimum difference between the numerical approximation coefficients ai and average numerical approximation coefficients obtained for each histological grade ¯ al. Is confirmed that the cubic spline interpolation this low-power computing lets classified into histological grades with 91% certainty the tissues under study from |ai - ¯ al|

  13. Diversity of Breast Carcinoma: Histological Subtypes and Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Makki, Jaafar

    2015-01-01

    Mammary carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor in women, and it is the leading cause of mortality, with an incidence of >1,000,000 cases occurring worldwide annually. It is one of the most common human neoplasms, accounting for approximately one-quarter of all cancers in females worldwide and 27% of cancers in developed countries with a Western lifestyle. They exhibit a wide scope of morphological features, different immunohistochemical profiles, and unique histopathological subtypes that have specific clinical course and outcome. Breast cancers can be classified into distinct subgroups based on similarities in the gene expression profiles and molecular classification.

  14. Survivorship care in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sally L.; Murchison, Sonja; Singh-Carlson, Savitri; Alexander, Cheryl; Wai, Elaine S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To compare the perceptions of breast cancer survivors and primary care physicians (PCPs) about PCPs’ ability to deliver survivorship care in breast cancer. Design Mailed survey. Setting British Columbia. Participants A total of 1065 breast cancer survivors who had completed treatment of nonmetastatic breast cancer within the previous year, and 587 PCPs who had patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer discharged to their care within the preceding 18 months. Main outcome measures Breast cancer survivors’ and PCPs’ confidence ratings of PCPs’ ability to deliver the following aspects of care: screening for recurrence; managing osteoporosis, lymphedema, endocrine therapy, menopausal symptoms, and anxiety about or fear of recurrence; and providing nutrition and exercise counseling, sex and body image counseling, and family counseling. Response options for each question included low, adequate, or good. Responses were summarized as frequencies and compared using ?2 tests. Results Response rates for breast cancer survivors and PCPs were 47% and 59%, respectively. Responses were statistically different in all categories (P < .05). Both groups were most confident in the ability of PCPs to screen for recurrence, but breast cancer survivors were 10 times as likely to indicate low confidence (10% of breast cancer survivors vs 1% of PCPs) in this aspect of care. More breast cancer survivors (23%) expressed low confidence in PCPs’ ability to provide counseling about fear of recurrence compared with PCPs (3%). Aspects of care in which both breast cancer survivors and PCPs were most likely to express low confidence included sex and body image counseling (35% of breast cancer survivors vs 26% of PCPs) and family counseling (33% of breast cancer survivors vs 24% of PCPs). Primary care physicians (24%) described low confidence in their ability to manage lymphedema. Conclusion Breast cancer survivors and PCPs are reasonably confident in a PCP-based model of survivorship care. Primary care physicians are confident in their ability to manage physical effects related to breast cancer, with the exception of lymphedema. Low confidence ratings among both groups in psychosocial aspects of care suggest an area for improvement.

  15. Fusion genes in breast cancer

    E-print Network

    Batty, Elizabeth

    2012-02-07

    and lung cancer suggests that fusion genes may play an important role in epithelial carcinogenesis, and that they have been previously under-reported due to the difficulties of cytogenetic analysis of solid tumours. In particular, breast cancers often...

  16. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  17. Vascular and Cognitive Assessments in Patients With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy After Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-27

    Cognitive/Functional Effects; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  18. Rosuvastatin in Treating Women With Cardiovascular Complications Who Are Undergoing Chemotherapy For Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-17

    Cardiovascular Complications; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  19. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Older Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-02

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  20. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  1. Hormonal Contraceptive Use and Breast Cancer in Thai Women

    PubMed Central

    Poosari, Arisara; Promthet, Supannee; Kamsa-ard, Siriporn; Suwanrungruang, Krittika; Longkul, Jirapat; Wiangnon, Surapon

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. We investigated the association of hormonal contraceptive use and breast cancer in Thai women. Methods A cohort study was conducted in Khon Kaen, Thailand. There were 70 cases of histologically confirmed breast cancer among 11 414 women aged 30 to 69 years who were recruited as participants in the cohort study during the period from 1990 through 2001. The study population was followed-up until December 31, 2011. To identify factors associated with incidence of breast cancer, hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results The 11 414 women provided a total observation time of 157 200 person-years. Breast cancer risk among women with a history of hormonal contraceptive use was 1.31 times that of women without such a history, but the difference was not statistically significant (95% CI, 0.65–2.65). No type of hormonal contraceptive was associated with a significant increase in breast cancer risk as compared with women who had never used hormonal contraceptives (oral contraception: HR = 1.35, 95% CI, 0.65–2.78; injection contraception: HR = 1.25, 95% CI, 0.56–2.80), and there was no relationship between duration of hormonal contraceptive use and breast cancer. Conclusions There was no association between hormonal contraceptive use and breast cancer; however, this finding should be viewed with caution due to the small number of cases. PMID:24614914

  2. Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-09

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  3. Progesterone in Breast Cancer Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Botelho, Monica C.; Soares, Raquel; Alves, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of steroid hormones in breast carcinogenesis is well established. Recent evidence suggests that angiogenesis can be regulated by hormones. Both oestrogen and progesterone have been implicated in the angiogenic process of hormone-dependent cancers, such as breast cancer. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is a growth factor involved in angiogenesis in breast cancer that is up-regulated by estrogens. In our study we evaluated the role of progesterone in the expression of this angiogenic growth factor commonly up-regulated in breast cancer. Our findings indicate that progesterone activates an angiogenic pathway involving VEGF stimulation. The elucidation of specific angiogenic pathways promoted by progesterone can raise new therapeutic targets at least in a subset of breast cancers responsive to progesterone.

  4. Breast cancer update.

    PubMed

    Kuter, I

    2000-01-01

    The large number of excellent presentations on breast cancer at this year's ASCO meeting reflects the enormous interest in clinical trials of this common disease. In the reports of adjuvant hormonal therapy, the most interesting included Abstract 273 by Boccardo et al., who reported that postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor positive (ER(+)) cancers who had already completed three years of tamoxifen experienced better overall survival if treated with two years of subsequent aminoglutethimide (a first-generation aromatase inhibitor) rather than another two years of tamoxifen. This whets our appetite for studies currently under way to define the role of third-generation aromatase inhibitors in the adjuvant setting. A report by FISHER: from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-23 study (Abstract 277) provided confirmation of what is rapidly becoming accepted, that the addition of tamoxifen to chemotherapy does not benefit breast cancer patients with negative lymph nodes who have ER(-) cancers. In premenopausal women, another report of the benefit of hormonal therapy, this time by the French Adjuvant Study Group using complete hormonal blockade with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist and tamoxifen (Abstract 279) showed that hormonal therapy can be at least as good as, if not better, than six cycles of 5-fluorouracil 500 mg/m(2), epirubicin 50 mg/m(2), cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m(2) in terms of disease-free survival and overall survival. Among the papers on adjuvant chemotherapy, a controversial paper from the German Adjuvant Breast Cancer Group reported that three cycles of CMF (a dose-intense regimen with all three drugs being given on days 1 and 8) were as good as six cycles (Abstract 283). Another report, from the International Breast Cancer Study Group, raised the controversial question of whether there really is much added benefit from the addition of chemotherapy to tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with negative lymph nodes if their tumors have ERs (Abstract 281). A second study (the first was the CALGB study reported at ASCO in 1998) showing a benefit to the addition of Taxol to an anthracycline-based adjuvant regimen, was reported from the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (Abstract 285), giving further impetus to the inclusion of Taxol in standard adjuvant treatment. Finally, there were a number of interesting presentations on HER-2. Reported here are three of these, all addressing the effect of HER-2 overexpression on the response to hormonal therapy. Taken together, they uphold the emerging concern that women with ER(+) cancers may not benefit significantly from endocrine treatment if the tumors also overexpress HER-2. Observations such as these will afford us the ability to predict more accurately which women will benefit from specific treatments. PMID:10964995

  5. [Stages of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Savran, V R; Fetsych, T H; Savran, V V; Tril', O V; Myshakivs'ky?, O M

    2006-01-01

    A comparative analysis of several systems of the assessment of the degree of spreading of malignant process is presented in the article. Stage principles of malignant neoplasms, which are used by the National Cancer Register do not respond current requirements as these principles do not single out preinvasive carcinoma and even more patients with I and II stages malignant neoplasms are brought into one group. Last reduction of the International TNM breast cancer classification (2002, TNM-6) reflects further progress in understanding biology of this localization and possibilities of the diagnostics. This classification differs considerably from previous reductions (TNM-4 and TNM-5) and especially Soviet classification dated 1985. The study carried out by the authors showed importance of differential approach to the assessment of regional lymphatic nodes lesion on depending their quantity (in diapason from 1 to 3; 4-9; 10 and more). The authors stated in the article that there is a certain discrepancy of some clinical and pathohistological parameters (N not equal to pN) in the last reduction of TNM classification of breast cancer and interpretation of some categories of the system is over-complex. PMID:17100177

  6. Diet and breast cancer in Shanghai and Tianjin, China.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, J. M.; Wang, Q. S.; Ross, R. K.; Henderson, B. E.; Yu, M. C.

    1995-01-01

    Various aspects of adult diet have been linked to breast cancer development. These include intake of fat (risk factor), and intake of fibre, soy protein and vitamins A, C and E (protective factors). Results of previous studies have been inconsistent. We examined the possible associations between breast cancer and various indices of nutrient and food intake in two Chinese populations who are at relatively low risk for breast cancer (one-fifth the rate in US white women). Two case-control studies of breast cancer were conducted in the cities of Shanghai and Tianjin, China. In Shanghai, 534 women aged 20-69 years with histologically confirmed breast cancer were recruited, whereas in Tianjin 300 women aged 20-55 years with histologically confirmed breast cancer were interviewed. All controls were community controls who were individually matched to the cases by sex and age (case-control ratio = 1:1). All interviews were conducted in person. Findings from the two studies were similar, although the diets in Shanghai and Tianjin were different in many respects. Cases and controls were similar in their consumption of soy protein, measured either in absolute levels or as percentages of total protein. Overall, all components of dietary fat (saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat) showed a modest, non-significant association with breast cancer after adjustment for energy intake and other non-dietary risk factors for breast cancer. Intake of crude fibre, carotene and vitamin C, on the other hand, exhibited strong, statistically significant inverse associations with breast cancer risk. The last three indices were highly correlated, rendering it impossible to disentangle their individual effects; they were closely associated with intake of green vegetables in the two study populations. Vitamin E intake was unrelated to breast cancer risk in Shanghai and Tianjin. In the multivariate logistic regression model which included all non-dietary risk factors for breast cancer and energy intake, Shanghai women in the lowest tertile of crude fibre intake and highest tertile of fat intake had a 2.9-fold increased risk for breast cancer relative to those in the highest tertile of crude fibre intake and lowest tertile of fat intake. The comparable relative risk in Tianjin women was 2.4. Our data indicate a strong protective effect against breast cancer development with intake of foods rich in fibre, vitamin C and carotene. Our results are also compatible with dietary fat having a modest, positive effect on breast cancer risk within the range of exposure experienced by women in China.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7779738

  7. Breast Cancer and Genetic Testing Mari Suzuki

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    Breast Cancer and Genetic Testing Mari Suzuki BIOCHEM 118Q Professor Doug Brutlag Spring 2005 #12, which is often referred to as the breast cancer gene. My mother had fought off breast cancer and she the mutation means it's almost certain that I will develop breast cancer at some point in my life. It also

  8. Lifestyle Changes After Breast Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for breast cancer stops working Lifestyle changes after breast cancer treatment You can't change the fact that you ... and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Breast Cancer Talking With Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Breast Cancer Research? Other Resources ...

  9. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    PubMed

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community - pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers - to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way. PMID:26283037

  10. Addition of Carboplatin to Neoadjuvant Therapy for Triple-negative and HER2-positive Early Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-06

    Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II; Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II; Breast Cancer Female NOS; Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III; HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer Stage IV; Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  11. Carboplatin and Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Veliparib in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IIIC Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-12

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  12. CANCER GENETICS & PREVENTION HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER

    E-print Network

    Liu, Xiaole Shirley

    CANCER GENETICS & PREVENTION HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME (HBOC) ­ BRCA1 PATIENT INFORMATION What is Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer syndrome? Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer syndrome (HBOC) is the most common hereditary form of breast and ovarian cancer. About 2% of women

  13. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Treated With Zoledronic Acid

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-23

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  14. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Time-lapse exposure depicts Bioreactor rotation. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  15. International nursing and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yarbro, Connie Henke

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide and its incidence is increasing in most countries. Nurses involved in breast cancer care have an impact on early detection of breast cancer, treatment, and symptom management, and they serve as advocates for women with the disease. In many countries nurses are far more numerous than physicians, and nurses are in an ideal position to influence breast cancer care. The International Society of Nurses in Cancer Care (ISNCC) is an organization representing more than 50,000 oncology nurses in 25 countries. The society provides a communication network for national and regional cancer nursing societies and communication on developments in cancer nursing to nurses working in countries where a national cancer nursing group does not exist. The society also acts as a resource for nurses in practice, education, research, and management, and it serves as a link for other international, regional, national, and local organizations in promoting collaboration to achieve ISNCC's goals. In collaboration with the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation, the society developed a 2-day "train-the-trainer" workshop for a selected group of cancer nurses from around the world. The workshop includes didactic presentations, skills instruction, and demonstrations that cover the continuum of breast cancer care. Participants have represented the countries of Brazil, Colombia, China, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Turkey, Pakistan, Australia, Germany, South Africa, Greece, and India. They have subsequently developed educational programs for nurses and the public in their countries, started support groups, published educational materials on breast cancer, and participated in political activities. These advances indicate that despite challenges such as nursing shortages and a lack of resources, cancer nurses are making a difference internationally. PMID:12713505

  16. [Breast cancer: the unspeakable].

    PubMed

    Winaver, D; Slama, L

    1993-04-01

    The drama with the language is that "putting in words" creates an uncrossable chasm between the felt and the expressed. There are moments where the impossibility to communicate cuts the links between doctor and patient. And this often happens in a consultation after the breast cancer has been announced. The unspeakable then, stands between the two protagonists, as the spectral appearance of death. For the patients, the medical revelation then becomes an anathema. The doctor who says the word, becomes the one who overturns a destiny for ever. One knows from greek mythology that confronted to the tragic of his destiny, man hears the ineluctability of the oracle but cannot accepts it. It is the role of the psyche to divert the prophecy so as to have space for hope, for a project of live. To tell, not to tell, how to tell: there is no rule. The misunderstanding is inexorable: it sighs the discordance between the medical reality of the breast cancer, the subject desire and the implication of the doctor who is wedged between the one and the other. PMID:7951637

  17. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. A cross-section of a construct, grown from surgical specimens of brease cancer, stained for microscopic examination, reveals areas of tumor cells dispersed throughout the non-epithelial cell background. The arrow denotes the foci of breast cancer cells. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  18. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Human primary breast tumor cells after 49 days of growth in a NASA Bioreactor. Tumor cells aggregate on microcarrier beads (indicated by arrow). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  19. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    High magnification of view of tumor cells aggregate on microcarrier beads, illustrting breast cells with intercellular boundaires on bead surface and aggregates of cells achieving 3-deminstional growth outward from bead after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida.

  20. Breast Cancer In Women Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This infographic shows the Breast Cancer Subtypes in Women. It’s important for guiding treatment and predicting survival. Know the Science: HR = Hormone receptor. HR+ means tumor cells have receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone, which can promote the growth of HR+ tumors. Hormone therapies like tamoxifen can be used to treat HR+ tumors. HER2 = Human epidermal growth Factor receptor, HER2+ means tumor cells overexpress (make high levels of) a protein, called HE2/neu, which has been shown to be associated with certain aggressive types of breast cancer. Trastuzumab and some other therapies can target cells that overexpress HER2. HR+/HER2, aka “LuminalA”. 73% of all breast cancer cases: best prognosis, most common subtype for every race, age, and poverty level. HR-/HER2, aka “Triple Negative”: 13% of all breast cancer cases, Worst prognosis, Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest rate of this subtype at every age and poverty level. HR+/HER2+, aka “Luminal B”, 10% of all breast cancer cases, little geographic variation by state. HR-/HER2+, aka”HER2-enriched”, 5% of all breast cancer cases, lowest rates for all races and ethnicities. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  1. Breast Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2011 January 31â??February 1, 2011 Funding: Increasing Awareness and Support Among Young Women with Breast Cancer ... Combined Cervical Colorectal (Colon) HPV-Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity ...

  2. Breast Cancer and Women with Disabilities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Breast Cancer and Women with Disabilities Language: English Español (Spanish) ... years old, get a mammogram every two years. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. And ...

  3. BCSC Grants: Breast Cancer, Breast Density & Admixture Among Latinas

    Cancer.gov

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality vary substantially among different racial and ethnic groups in the United States. Caucasian women have the highest incidence of breast cancer, while Native American women are reported to have the lowest incidence and mortality from breast cancer. Latinas, an admixed population of mixed European Native American and African descent, have an incidence of breast cancer that is higher than Native Americans but lower than Caucasians in the United States.

  4. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast

  5. About Breast Cancer Family Registries

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast CFR includes lifestyle, medical history, and family history data collected from more than 55,000 women and men from 14,000 families with and without breast cancer. The Breast CFR began recruiting families in 1996, and all participants are followed up 10 years after recruitment to update personal and family histories and expand recruitment if new cases have occurred since baseline.

  6. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Cyclophosphamide, and Filgrastim Followed By Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer Previously Treated With Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-07

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  7. SUMOylation proteins in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Alshareeda, Alaa T; Negm, Ola H; Green, Andrew R; Nolan, Christopher; Tighe, Paddy; Albarakati, Nada; Sultana, Rebeka; Madhusudan, Srinivasan; Ellis, Ian O; Rakha, Emad A

    2014-04-01

    Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier proteins (or SUMO) modify the function of protein substrates involved in various cellular processes including DNA damage response (DDR). It is becoming apparent that dysregulated SUMO contribute to carcinogenesis by affecting post-transcriptional modification of key proteins. It is hypothesised that SUMO contributes to the aggressive nature of breast cancer particularly those associated with features similar to breast carcinoma arising in patients with BRCA1 germline mutations. This study aims to assess the clinical and biological significance of three members of SUMO in a well-characterised annotated series of BC with emphasis on DDR. The study cohort comprised primary operable invasive BC including tumours from patients with known BRCA1 germline mutations. SUMO proteins PIAS1, PIAS4 and UBC9 were assessed using immunohistochemistry utilising tissue microarray technology. Additionally, their expression was assessed using reverse phase protein microarray utilising different cell lines. PIAS1 and UBC9 showed cytoplasmic and/or nuclear expression while PIAS4 was detected only in the nuclei. There was a correlation between subcellular localisation and expression of the nuclear transport protein KPNA2. Tumours showing positive nuclear/negative cytoplasmic expression of SUMO featured good prognostic characteristics including lower histologic grade and had a good outcome. Strong correlation with DDR-related proteins including BRCA1, Rad51, ATM, CHK1, DNA-PK and KU70/KU80 was observed. Correlation with ER and BRCA1 was confirmed using RPPA on cell lines. SUMO proteins seem to play important role in BC. Not only expression but also subcellular location is associated with BC phenotype. PMID:24584753

  8. Familial Breast Cancer Julie Saffarian

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    (MRI) Ultrasonic Imagery Genetic Testing (relatively new) Blood Test CT scans Chest X-rays #12;The of the cancerous cells." #12;The Classical Diagnosis Methods Breast Self Examination The Triple Test: - Breast now be used to determine mutations in the gene BRAC-1 Genetic testing Online genetic testing - BRCA1

  9. Can Breast Cancer in Men Be Found Early?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and symptoms of breast cancer in men Can breast cancer in men be found early? Early detection improves ... Differences affecting early detection of male and female breast cancers There are many similarities between breast cancer in ...

  10. Association of breast cancer risk loci with breast cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindström, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N; Ziegler, Regina G; Buring, Julie E; Chanock, Stephen J; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Giles, Graham G; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J; Joshi, Amit D; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I-Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L; Southey, Melissa C; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, María-José; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2015-12-15

    The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of evidence suggest that alleles influencing breast cancer risk might also be associated with breast cancer survival. We examined the associations between 35 breast cancer susceptibility loci and the disease over-all survival (OS) in 10,255 breast cancer patients from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) of which 1,379 died, including 754 of breast cancer. We also conducted a meta-analysis of almost 35,000 patients and 5,000 deaths, combining results from BPC3 and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and performed in silico analyses of SNPs with significant associations. In BPC3, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was significantly associated with improved OS (HRper-allele =0.70; 95% CI: 0.58-0.85; ptrend ?=?2.84 × 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes ?=?0.71; 95% CI: 0.55-0.92; HRhomozygotes ?=?0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.76; p2DF ?=?1.45 × 10(-3) ). In silico, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was predicted to increase expression of the tumor suppressor cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C). In the meta-analysis, TNRC9-rs3803662 was significantly associated with increased death hazard (HRMETA =1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.15; ptrend ?=?6.6 × 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes ?=?0.96 95% CI: 0.90-1.03; HRhomozygotes ?=?1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.35; p2DF =1.25 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, we show that there is little overlap between the breast cancer risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified so far and the SNPs associated with breast cancer prognosis, with the possible exceptions of LSP1-rs3817198 and TNRC9-rs3803662. PMID:25611573

  11. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medical literature, the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) trial was started in 1998. That study enrolled ... in the BCPT. Studies, such as BCPT and STAR, involve women who have not had breast cancer, ...

  12. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are also shown. Radiation exposure, high levels of estrogen, and a family history of breast cancer can ... Having a disease linked to high levels of estrogen in the body, such as cirrhosis ( liver disease) ...

  13. Your Body After Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York City. “Most of us have a way we like ... later reconstructed. She also received radiation therapy. Having lost her hair and breasts and having gained weight, ...

  14. Palbociclib for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.

  15. The TAILORx Breast Cancer Trial

    Cancer.gov

    A collection of material about the Trial Assigning IndividuaLized Options for Treatment (Rx), or TAILORx, which will examine whether a molecular test can assign women with early-stage breast cancer to the most appropriate and effective treatment.

  16. Fostering early breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, Judy A; Weyhenmeyer, Diana P; Mabus, Linda K

    2014-12-01

    This article examines how faith community nurses (FCNs) fostered early breast cancer detection for those at risk in rural and African American populations throughout nine counties in midwestern Illinois to decrease breast cancer disparities. Flexible methods for breast cancer awareness education through FCNs, effective strategies for maximizing participation, and implications for practice were identified. In addition, networking within faith communities, connecting with complementary activities scheduled in those communities, and offering refreshments and gift items that support educational efforts were identified as effective ways of maximizing outcomes and reinforcing learning. Flexible educational programming that could be adapted to situational and learning needs was important to alleviate barriers in the project. As a result, the number of participants in the breast cancer awareness education program exceeded the grant goal, and the large number of African American participants and an unexpected number of Hispanic and Latino participants exceeded the target. PMID:25427713

  17. Tumour markers in breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cove, D. H.; Woods, K. L.; Smith, S. C.; Burnett, D.; Leonard, J.; Grieve, R. J.; Howell, A.

    1979-01-01

    The clinical usefulness of 8 potential tumour markers has been evaluated in 69 patients with Stage I and II breast cancer and 57 patients with Stage III and IV. Serum CEA concentrations were raised in 13% of patients with local and 65% of those with advanced breast cancer. In patients with clinical evidence of progression or regression of tumour, serum CEA levels changed appropriately in 83% of cases. Taking 4 of the markers (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), lactalbumin, alpha subunit and haptoglobin) serum concentrations of one or more were raised in 33% of patients with local disease and 81% of those with advanced breast cancer. However, marker concentrations were often only marginally raised, and are unlikely to provide sensitive guide to tumour burden. CEA, lactalbumin and alpha subunit were detectable in 68%, 43% and 40% respectively of extracts of primary breast cancers. PMID:92331

  18. Soy Isoflavones Supplementation in Treating Women at High Risk For or With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-20

    BRCA1 Mutation Carrier; BRCA2 Mutation Carrier; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer

  19. Metals and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Celia; Divekar, Shailaja D.; Storchan, Geoffrey B.; Parodi, Daniela A.; Martin, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    Metalloestrogens are metals that activate the estrogen receptor in the absence of estradiol. The metalloestrogens fall into two subclasses: metal/metalloid anions and bivalent cationic metals. The metal/metalloid anions include compounds such as arsenite, nitrite, selenite, and vanadate while the bivalent cations include metals such as cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, nickel, chromium, lead, mercury, and tin. The best studied metalloestrogen is cadmium. It is a heavy metal and a prevalent environmental contaminant with no known physiological function. This review addresses our current understanding of the mechanism by which cadmium and the bivalent cationic metals activate estrogen receptor-?. The review also summarizes the in vitro and in vivo evidence that cadmium functions as an estrogen and the potential role of cadmium in breast cancer. PMID:23338949

  20. Diagnosis delay in Libyan female breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aims To study the diagnosis delay and its impact on stage of disease among women with breast cancer on Libya. Methods 200 women, aged 22 to 75 years with breast cancer diagnosed during 2008–2009 were interviewed about the period from the first symptoms to the final histological diagnosis of breast cancer. This period (diagnosis time) was categorized into 3 periods: <3 months, 3–6 months, and >6 months. If diagnosis time was longer than 3 months, the diagnosis was considered delayed (diagnosis delay). Consultation time was the time taken to visit the general practitioner after the first symptoms. Retrospective preclinical and clinical data were collected on a form (questionnaire) during an interview with each patient and from medical records. Results The median of diagnosis time was 7.5 months. Only 30.0% of patients were diagnosed within 3 months after symptoms. 14% of patients were diagnosed within 3–6 months and 56% within a period longer than 6 months. A number of factors predicted diagnosis delay: Symptoms were not considered serious in 27% of patients. Alternative therapy (therapy not associated with cancer) was applied in 13.0% of the patients. Fear and shame prevented the visit to the doctor in 10% and 4.5% of patients, respectively. Inappropriate reassurance that the lump was benign was an important reason for prolongation of the diagnosis time. Diagnosis delay was associated with initial breast symptom(s) that did not include a lump (p?breast cancer awareness and training of general practitioners to reduce breast cancer mortality by promoting early detection. The treatment guidelines should pay more attention to the early phases of breast cancer. Especially, guidelines for good practices in managing detectable of tumors are necessary. PMID:22909280

  1. Targeting autophagy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maycotte, Paola; Thorburn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Macroautophagy (referred to as autophagy here) is an intracellular degradation pathway enhanced in response to a variety of stresses and in response to nutrient deprivation. This process provides the cell with nutrients and energy by degrading aggregated and damaged proteins as well as compromised organelles. Since autophagy has been linked to diverse diseases including cancer, it has recently become a very interesting target in breast cancer treatment. Indeed, current clinical trials are trying to use chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, alone or in combination with other drugs to inhibit autophagy during breast cancer therapy since chemotherapy and radiation, regimens that are used to treat breast cancer, are known to induce autophagy in cancer cells. Importantly, in breast cancer, autophagy has been involved in the development of resistance to chemotherapy and to anti-estrogens. Moreover, a close relationship has recently been described between autophagy and the HER2 receptor. Here, we discuss some of the recent findings relating autophagy and cancer with a particular focus on breast cancer therapy. PMID:25114840

  2. Prognosis of Breast Cancer using Genetic Programming

    E-print Network

    Ludwig, Simone

    Prognosis of Breast Cancer using Genetic Programming Simone A. Ludwig and Stefanie Roos Department of Computer Science, University of Saskatchewan, Canada ludwig@cs.usask.ca Abstract. Worldwide, breast cancer. In 2004, breast cancer caused 519,000 deaths worldwide. In order to reduce the cancer deaths and thereby

  3. Survivorship Clinic Breast Cancer Following Treatment

    E-print Network

    Brent, Roger

    Survivorship Clinic Breast Cancer Following Treatment You have successfully been treated for cancer breast cancer. It is important to understand that risk, so that you can take steps to protect your health for cancer during childhood, adolescence, or young adulthood have an increased risk of developing breast

  4. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  5. Breast cancer and the environment.

    PubMed

    Sasco, Annie J

    2003-01-01

    The most recent estimate of the overall worldwide burden of cancer is that in the year 2000 more than 10 million new cancer cases occurred and approximately 6 million cancer deaths. Breast cancer accounts for about 1 in 10 cancers and is the most frequent cancer affecting women. Since 10% of all cancers in the world are breast cancer (only affecting half of the population as breast cancer almost exclusively concerns only women), it is being considered an epidemic. In terms of the absolute number of incident cases, breast cancer now ranks first not only in the industrialized world but also in the developing world. The worldwide mortality figure for the year 2000 was 370,000. However, there are marked geographical differences, with Africa and Asia currently having incidence rates some 10 times lower than those of North America and northern Europe. Studies of migrant populations have long indicated that the genetic background only plays a tiny, if any, role in these differences. Over time, clear increases have been seen in the global number of cases: from 572,000 in 1980 to 1,050,000 in 2000. This corresponds not only to a modest increase in incidence rates in countries with a long history of frequent breast cancer but also to marked increases in countries with previously low rates. The reasons for these increases are currently unexplained and a possible hypothesis relates to environmental factors. By contrast, in a number of countries in the western world mortality rates are stable, and, in the USA and the United Kingdom, even decreasing slightly. The aetiology of breast cancer has been the subject of hundreds of studies since the pioneering investigation of Lane Claypon in 1926. Risk factors belong to different domains: reproductive life, hormonal factors, diet, genetics (BRCA1, BRCA2) and exposure to radiation and selected chemicals. Yet, much breast cancer remains unexplained and new aetiological links must be sought such as occupational factors and exposure to pesticides and other endocrine disrupters. A recent international summit on breast cancer and the environment outlined the need for more research to be conducted into the effects of exposure in the vicinity of nuclear power plants or chemical landfill sites and, more generally, into contaminants in food, air, water and soil. This is particularly relevant in some parts of the world such as Africa. PMID:14671396

  6. Environmental pollutants and breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer death among women 35-54 years of age. Rising incidence, increased risk among migrants to higher risk regions, and poor prediction of individual risk have prompted a search for additional modifiable factors. Risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive characteristics associated with estrogen and other hormones, pharmaceutical hormones, and activities such as alcohol use and lack of exercise that affect hormone levels. As a result, investigation of hormonally active compounds in commercial products and pollution is a priority. Compounds that cause mammary tumors in animals are additional priorities. Animal models provide insight into possible mechanisms for effects of environmental pollutants on breast cancer and identify chemical exposures to target in epidemiologic studies. Although few epidemiologic studies have been conducted for chemical exposures, occupational studies show associations between breast cancer and exposure to certain organic solvents and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Population-based studies have been limited to a few organochlorine compounds and PAHs and have been mostly negative. A variety of challenges in studies of breast cancer and the environment may have contributed to negative findings. Lack of exposure assessment tools and few hypothesis-generating toxicologic studies limit the scope of epidemiologic studies. Issues of timing with respect to latency and periods of breast vulnerability, and individual differences in susceptibility pose other challenges. Substantial work is needed in exposure assessment, toxicology, and susceptibility before we can expect a pay-off from large epidemiologic studies of breast cancer and environment. PMID:12826474

  7. Natural Products for Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Eun-Yi; Moon, Aree

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the primary cause of cancer death in women. Although current therapies have shown some promise against breast cancer, there is still no effective cure for the majority of patients in the advanced stages of breast cancer. Development of effective agents to slow, reduce, or reverse the incidence of breast cancer in high-risk women is necessary. Chemoprevention of breast cancer by natural products is advantageous, as these compounds have few side effects and low toxicity compared to synthetic compounds. In the present review, we summarize natural products which exert chemopreventive activities against breast cancer, such as curcumin, sauchinone, lycopene, denbinobin, genipin, capsaicin, and ursolic acid. This review examines the current knowledge about natural compounds and their mechanisms that underlie breast cancer chemopreventive activity both in vitro and in vivo. The present review may provide information on the use of these compounds for the prevention of breast cancer.

  8. Correlation between PET/CT results and histological and immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinomas*

    PubMed Central

    Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Lima, Eduardo Nóbrega Pereira; Chojniak, Rubens; Marques, Elvira Ferreira; de Souza, Juliana Alves; Graziano, Luciana; Andrade, Wesley Pereira; Osório, Cynthia Aparecida Bueno de Toledo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To correlate the results of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) performed with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts with histological/immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinoma patients. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional study with prospective data collection, where patients with biopsy-confirmed breast carcinomas were studied. The patients underwent PET/CT examination in prone position, with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts. PET/CT findings were compared with histological and immunohistochemical data. Results The authors identified 59 malignant breast lesions in 50 patients. The maximum diameter of the lesions ranged from 6 to 80 mm (mean: 32.2 mm). Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most common histological type (n = 47; 79.7%). At PET/CT, 53 (89.8%) of the lesions demonstrated anomalous concentrations of 18F-FDG, with maximum SUV ranging from 0.8 to 23.1 (mean: 5.5). A statistically significant association was observed between higher values of maximum SUV and histological type, histological grade, molecular subtype, tumor diameter, mitotic index and Ki-67 expression. Conclusion PET/CT performed with specific protocol for assessment of breasts has demonstrated good sensitivity and was associated with relevant histological/immunohistochemical factors related to aggressiveness and prognosis of breast carcinomas. PMID:25741051

  9. What Breast Cancer Survivors Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... browser. Home Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Other Conditions What Breast Cancer Survivors Need to Know About Osteoporosis Publication available ... Imperfecta Prostate Cancer Rheumatoid Arthritis Smoking Partner Resources Breast Cancer (NIH Senior Health) Breast Cancer FAQs (OWH) Cancer ...

  10. Molecular apocrine differentiation is a common feature of breast cancer in patients with germline PTEN mutations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Breast carcinoma is the main malignant tumor occurring in patients with Cowden disease, a cancer-prone syndrome caused by germline mutation of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN characterized by the occurrence throughout life of hyperplastic, hamartomatous and malignant growths affecting various organs. The absence of known histological features for breast cancer arising in a PTEN-mutant background prompted us to explore them for potential new markers. Methods We first performed a microarray study of three tumors from patients with Cowden disease in the context of a transcriptomic study of 74 familial breast cancers. A subsequent histological and immunohistochemical study including 12 additional cases of Cowden disease breast carcinomas was performed to confirm the microarray data. Results Unsupervised clustering of the 74 familial tumors followed the intrinsic gene classification of breast cancer except for a group of five tumors that included the three Cowden tumors. The gene expression profile of the Cowden tumors shows considerable overlap with that of a breast cancer subgroup known as molecular apocrine breast carcinoma, which is suspected to have increased androgenic signaling and shows frequent ERBB2 amplification in sporadic tumors. The histological and immunohistochemical study showed that several cases had apocrine histological features and expressed GGT1, which is a potential new marker for apocrine breast carcinoma. Conclusions These data suggest that activation of the ERBB2-PI3K-AKT pathway by loss of PTEN at early stages of tumorigenesis promotes the formation of breast tumors with apocrine features. PMID:20712882

  11. Organochlorine Compounds and Risk of Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Tongzhang Zheng, of Yale University, New Haven, CT, and colleagues conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Connecticut to investigate risk for breast cancer associated with exposure to organochlorine compounds. Levels of organochlorine compounds are being measured in breast adipose (fatty) tissue and blood serum obtained from women who had surgery or biopsies for breast cancer or benign breast disease.

  12. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  13. Honoring Pioneers in Breast Cancer Research

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Honoring Pioneers in Breast Cancer Research Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... the Distinguished Medical Service Award for their pioneering breast cancer research. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson, NIH In ...

  14. Do We Know What Causes Breast Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Next Topic Can breast cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes breast cancer? Many risk factors ... genes—the instructions for how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are ...

  15. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer in Men

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topic Targeted therapy for breast cancer in men Hormone therapy for breast cancer in men Hormone therapy ... fatigue, and pain at the injection site. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs and anti-androgens LHRH ...

  16. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  17. Antiperspirants/Deodorants and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Overview–for health professionals Research Antiperspirants/Deodorants and Breast Cancer On This Page Can antiperspirants or deodorants cause breast cancer? What do scientists know about the ingredients in ...

  18. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Isolate of long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from outgrowth of duct element; cells shown soon after isolation and early in culture in a dish. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  19. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Same long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), but after 3 weeks in concinuous culture. Note attempts to reform duct elements, but this time in two dimensions in a dish rather that in three demensions in tissue. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  20. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneously die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  1. Veliparib, Cisplatin, and Vinorelbine Ditartrate in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-05

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer - BRCA1; Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer - BRCA2; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  2. Minocycline Hydrochloride in Reducing Chemotherapy Induced Depression and Anxiety in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-24

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  3. Heavy Metal Exposure in Predicting Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-01

    Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  4. Insurance and Other Financial Issues Related to Breast Cancer Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resources View Tools & Resources Breast Cancer Glossary Interactive Learning Komen Educational Materials Questions to Ask Your Doctor Translated Materials Website Resources Breast Cancer Education Toolkits The Breast Cancer Journey View The Breast ...

  5. The Epidemiology of Male Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferzoco, Raina M; Ruddy, Kathryn J

    2016-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease, accounting for only 1 % of breast cancer diagnoses in the USA. The current literature suggests that genetic factors including BRCA2 mutations, family history, age, androgen/estrogen imbalance, and environmental exposures may predispose to male breast cancer. In this manuscript, we will review known and possible risk factors for male breast cancer, as well as describe the clinical patterns of the disease. PMID:26694922

  6. Multicenter breast cancer collaborative registry.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Simon; Shats, Oleg; Fleissner, Elizabeth; Bascom, George; Yiee, Kevin; Copur, Mehmet; Crow, Kate; Rooney, James; Mateen, Zubeena; Ketcham, Marsha A; Feng, Jianmin; Sherman, Alexander; Gleason, Michael; Kinarsky, Leo; Silva-Lopez, Edibaldo; Edney, James; Reed, Elizabeth; Berger, Ann; Cowan, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Breast Cancer Collaborative Registry (BCCR) is a multicenter web-based system that efficiently collects and manages a variety of data on breast cancer (BC) patients and BC survivors. This registry is designed as a multi-tier web application that utilizes Java Servlet/JSP technology and has an Oracle 11g database as a back-end. The BCCR questionnaire has accommodated standards accepted in breast cancer research and healthcare. By harmonizing the controlled vocabulary with the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) or Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT), the BCCR provides a standardized approach to data collection and reporting. The BCCR has been recently certified by the National Cancer Institute's Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology (NCI CBIIT) as a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG(®)) Bronze Compatible product.The BCCR is aimed at facilitating rapid and uniform collection of critical information and biological samples to be used in developing diagnostic, prevention, treatment, and survivorship strategies against breast cancer. Currently, seven cancer institutions are participating in the BCCR that contains data on almost 900 subjects (BC patients and survivors, as well as individuals at high risk of getting BC). PMID:21918596

  7. Loss of primary cilia occurs early in breast cancer development

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles that protrude from the cell surface. Primary cilia play a critical role in development and disease through regulation of signaling pathways including the Hedgehog pathway. Recent mouse models have also linked ciliary dysfunction to cancer. However, little is known about the role of primary cilia in breast cancer development. Primary cilia expression was characterized in cancer cells as well as their surrounding stromal cells from 86 breast cancer patients by counting cilia and measuring cilia length. In addition, we examined cilia expression in normal epithelial and stromal cells from reduction mammoplasties as well as histologically normal adjacent tissue for comparison. Results We observed a statistically significant decrease in the percentage of ciliated cells on both premalignant lesions as well as in invasive cancers. This loss of cilia does not correlate with increased proliferative index (Ki67-positive cells). However, we did detect rare ciliated cancer cells present in patients with invasive breast cancer and found that these express a marker of basaloid cancers that is associated with poor prognosis (Cytokeratin 5). Interestingly, the percentage of ciliated stromal cells associated with both premalignant and invasive cancers decreased when compared to stromal cells associated with normal tissue. To understand how cilia may be lost during cancer development we analyzed the expression of genes required for ciliogenesis and/or ciliary function and compared their expression in normal versus breast cancer samples. We found that expression of ciliary genes were frequently downregulated in human breast cancers. Conclusions These data suggest that primary cilia are lost early in breast cancer development on both the cancer cells and their surrounding stromal cells. PMID:24987519

  8. Breast Cancer, Version 3.2013

    PubMed Central

    Theriault, Richard L.; Carlson, Robert W.; Allred, Craig; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Burstein, Harold J.; Edge, Stephen B.; Farrar, William B.; Forero, Andres; Giordano, Sharon Hermes; Goldstein, Lori J.; Gradishar, William J.; Hayes, Daniel F.; Hudis, Clifford A.; Isakoff, Steven J.; Ljung, Britt-Marie E.; Mankoff, David A.; Marcom, P. Kelly; Mayer, Ingrid A.; McCormick, Beryl; Pierce, Lori J.; Reed, Elizabeth C.; Schwartzberg, Lee S.; Smith, Mary Lou; Soliman, Hatem; Somlo, George; Ward, John H.; Wolff, Antonio C.; Zellars, Richard; Shead, Dorothy A.; Kumar, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates specific to the management of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer in the 2013 version of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Breast Cancer. These include new first-line and subsequent therapy options for patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. PMID:23847214

  9. Breast Cancer Awareness Day October 7, 2009

    E-print Network

    Kihara, Daisuke

    Breast Cancer Awareness Day October 7, 2009 All are welcome to the different events organized by the Purdue Breast Cancer Discovery Group. Sigma Xi Distinguished Lecture "Genes and the microenvironment: the two faces of breast cancer" Deans Auditorium (PFEN241) Pfendler Hall ­ Purdue University 12

  10. Breast Cancer Research Finding Answers. Finding Cures.

    E-print Network

    Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

    Breast Cancer Research Finding Answers. Finding Cures. Thanks to improvements in treatment and early detection, more and more women are surviving breast cancer. In fact, the five-year survival rate for women with breast cancer today is 90%, up from only 63% in the 1960s. While progress has clearly been

  11. Evaluate Risk/Benefit of Nab Paclitaxel in Combination With Gemcitabine and Carboplatin Compared to Gemcitabine and Carboplatin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer (or Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-21

    Breast Tumor; Breast Cancer; Cancer of the Breast; Estrogen Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; HER2- Negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  12. Understanding Lymphedema (For Cancers Other Than Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Saved Articles » My ACS » Understanding Lymphedema -- For Cancers Other Than Breast Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » Lymphedema can be caused ... Find Support Programs and Services in Your Area Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms ...

  13. CANCER GENETICS & PREVENTION HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER

    E-print Network

    Liu, Xiaole Shirley

    CANCER GENETICS & PREVENTION HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME (HBOC) ­ BRCA2 PATIENT INFORMATION What is Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer syndrome? People with BRCA2 alterations have a genetic condition called Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer syndrome (HBOC). HBOC is caused by an error

  14. Psychiatric problems in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Silberfarb, P M

    1984-02-01

    The author discusses the prevalence of psychiatric problems in cancer, and highlights five emotional problems common to all cancer patients: the emotionally charged nature of the word cancer, the patient's perceived lack of control, the uncertainty about outcome, the discordant treatment mode, and the debilitating nature of cancer treatments. The author then divides the problems faced by breast cancer patients into three categories needing clinical intervention: (1) the psychosocial, (2) the somatic, and (3) the psychiatric. Diagnosis and treatment of the two psychiatric problems of depression and delirium is emphasized. PMID:6692281

  15. Far Beyond the Usual Biomarkers in Breast Cancer: A Review

    PubMed Central

    dos Anjos Pultz, Brunna; da Luz, Felipe Andrés Cordero; de Faria, Paulo Rogério; Oliveira, Ana Paula Lima; de Araújo, Rogério Agenor; Silva, Marcelo José Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Research investigating biomarkers for early detection, prognosis and the prediction of treatment responses in breast cancer is rapidly expanding. However, no validated biomarker currently exists for use in routine clinical practice, and breast cancer detection and management remains dependent on invasive procedures. Histological examination remains the standard for diagnosis, whereas immunohistochemical and genetic tests are utilized for treatment decisions and prognosis determinations. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive review of literature published in PubMed on breast cancer biomarkers between 2009 and 2013. The keywords that were used together were breast cancer, biomarkers, diagnosis, prognosis and drug response. The cited references of the manuscripts included in this review were also screened. We have comprehensively summarized the performance of several biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and predicted drug responses of breast cancer. Finally, we have identified 15 biomarkers that have demonstrated promise in initial studies and several miRNAs. At this point, such biomarkers must be rigorously validated in the clinical setting to be translated into clinically useful tests for the diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of drug responses of breast cancer. PMID:25057307

  16. Tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, V.C.

    1995-02-01

    The case for tamoxifen to be tested as a preventive for breast cancer has merit. Animal studies demonstrate that tamoxifen prevents mammary carcinogenesis and clinical studies now confirm that adjuvant tamoxifen therapy is the only systemic treatment that will prevent contralateral breast cancer. Developing clinical studies confirm the laboratory data that tamoxifen will maintain post-menopausal bone density in the lumbar spine and the neck of the femur; two important skeletal sites for the ultimate prevention of osteoporosis. However, a most important target site-specific effect of tamoxifen is the decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women. This positive property of tamoxifen may be responsible for the recorded decreases in hospital visits for the treatment of cardiac conditions and the significant decrease in fatal myocardial infarction for women treated with 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen. These data provide the scientific basis to undertake randomized, placebocontrolled clinical trials to test the worth of tamoxifen to prevent breast cancer.

  17. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues. Here, two High-Aspect Ratio Vessels turn at about 12 rmp to keep breast tissue constructs suspended inside the culture media. Syringes allow scientists to pull for analysis during growth sequences. The tube in the center is a water bubbler that dehumidifies the air to prevent evaporation of the media and thus the appearance of destructive bubbles in the bioreactor.

  18. Postpartum Remodeling, Lactation, and Breast Cancer Risk: Summary of a National Cancer Institute–Sponsored Workshop

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The pregnancy–lactation cycle (PLC) is a period in which the breast is transformed from a less-developed, nonfunctional organ into a mature, milk-producing gland that has evolved to meet the nutritional, developmental, and immune protection needs of the newborn. Cessation of lactation initiates a process whereby the breast reverts to a resting state until the next pregnancy. Changes during this period permanently alter the morphology and molecular characteristics of the breast (molecular histology) and produce important, yet poorly understood, effects on breast cancer risk. To provide a state-of-the-science summary of this topic, the National Cancer Institute invited a multidisciplinary group of experts to participate in a workshop in Rockville, Maryland, on March 2, 2012. Topics discussed included: 1) the epidemiology of the PLC in relation to breast cancer risk, 2) breast milk as a biospecimen for molecular epidemiological and translational research, and 3) use of animal models to gain mechanistic insights into the effects of the PLC on breast carcinogenesis. This report summarizes conclusions of the workshop, proposes avenues for future research on the PLC and its relationship with breast cancer risk, and identifies opportunities to translate this knowledge to improve breast cancer outcomes. PMID:23264680

  19. Postpartum remodeling, lactation, and breast cancer risk: summary of a National Cancer Institute-sponsored workshop.

    PubMed

    Faupel-Badger, Jessica M; Arcaro, Kathleen F; Balkam, Jane J; Eliassen, A Heather; Hassiotou, Foteini; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Michels, Karin B; Palmer, Julie R; Schedin, Pepper; Stuebe, Alison M; Watson, Christine J; Sherman, Mark E

    2013-02-01

    The pregnancy-lactation cycle (PLC) is a period in which the breast is transformed from a less-developed, nonfunctional organ into a mature, milk-producing gland that has evolved to meet the nutritional, developmental, and immune protection needs of the newborn. Cessation of lactation initiates a process whereby the breast reverts to a resting state until the next pregnancy. Changes during this period permanently alter the morphology and molecular characteristics of the breast (molecular histology) and produce important, yet poorly understood, effects on breast cancer risk. To provide a state-of-the-science summary of this topic, the National Cancer Institute invited a multidisciplinary group of experts to participate in a workshop in Rockville, Maryland, on March 2, 2012. Topics discussed included: 1) the epidemiology of the PLC in relation to breast cancer risk, 2) breast milk as a biospecimen for molecular epidemiological and translational research, and 3) use of animal models to gain mechanistic insights into the effects of the PLC on breast carcinogenesis. This report summarizes conclusions of the workshop, proposes avenues for future research on the PLC and its relationship with breast cancer risk, and identifies opportunities to translate this knowledge to improve breast cancer outcomes. PMID:23264680

  20. Clinical Proteomics of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bask?n, Y.; Yi?itba??, T.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the lifetimes that increased in breast cancers due to the the early screening programs and new therapeutic strategies, many cases still are being lost due to the metastatic relapses. For this reason, new approaches such as the proteomic techniques have currently become the prime objectives of breast cancer researches. Various omic-based techniques have been applied with increasing success to the molecular characterisation of breast tumours, which have resulted in a more detailed classification scheme and have produced clinical diagnostic tests that have been applied to both the prognosis and the prediction of outcome to the treatment. Implementation of the proteomics-based techniques is also seen as crucial if we are to develop a systems biology approach in the discovery of biomarkers of the early diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of the outcome of the breast cancer therapies. In this review, we discuss the studies that have been conducted thus far, for the discovery of diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers, and evaluate the potential of the discriminating proteins identified in this research for clinical use as breast cancer biomarkers. PMID:21532837

  1. Intensity Modulated Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Before Surgery in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Stage 0-I Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-15

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  2. Lifestyle changes for prevention of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Seyed Hesam Bani; Karimi, Samieh; Mahboobi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer among women. Lifestyle changes are shown to be important in the prevention of breast cancer. Diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, and vitamin and mineral use are key factors influencing the risk of breast cancer among women. Because these factors are related to each other, it is difficult to assess their individual roles in breast cancer. Some of these factors are alterable, meaning that women can decrease their risk for breast cancer by changing their behavior. Breast cancer is associated with a high rate of mortality and morbidity among women. Therefore, it is logical to try to find ways to decrease the risk of developing breast cancer. Lifestyle changes seem to be an easy, effective, and economical way to help prevention breast cancer. In women with a confirmed breast cancer diagnosis who are under radiotherapy treatment after undergoing a mastectomy, lifestyle changes are still very important. Some factors, such as smoking cessation and prevention of weight gain, may improve the long-term survival chances of these patients. Therefore, ways to increase women’s knowledge about the role of lifestyle changes in the prevention of breast cancer and in the survival of patients with diagnosed breast cancer should be considered and studied. PMID:25763165

  3. Estrogen metabolism and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Samavat, Hamed; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2015-01-28

    There is currently accumulating evidence that endogenous estrogens play a critical role in the development of breast cancer. Estrogens and their metabolites have been studied in both pre- and postmenopausal women with more consistent results shown in the latter population, in part because of large hormonal variations during the menstrual cycle and far fewer studies having been performed in premenopausal women. In this review we describe in detail estrogen metabolism and associated genetic variations, and provide a critical review of the current literature regarding the role of estrogens and their metabolites in breast cancer risk. PMID:24784887

  4. 19p13.1 is a triple-negative-specific breast cancer susceptibility locus.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Kristen N; Fredericksen, Zachary; Vachon, Celine M; Wang, Xianshu; Margolin, Sara; Lindblom, Annika; Nevanlinna, Heli; Greco, Dario; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Vrieling, Alina; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Nickels, Stefan; Brauch, Hiltrud; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Schmutzler, Rita K; Meindl, Alfons; Bartram, Claus R; Schott, Sarah; Engel, Christoph; Godwin, Andrew K; Weaver, Joellen; Pathak, Harsh B; Sharma, Priyanka; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Miron, Penelope; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Stavropoulou, Alexandra; Fountzilas, George; Gogas, Helen J; Swann, Ruth; Dwek, Miriam; Perkins, Annie; Milne, Roger L; Benítez, Javier; Zamora, María Pilar; Pérez, José Ignacio Arias; Bojesen, Stig E; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Menegaux, Florence; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marmé, Frederick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Peto, Julian; Johnson, Nichola; Fletcher, Olivia; Dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Hartmann, Arndt; Ekici, Arif B; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Muir, Kenneth; Puttawibul, Puttisak; Wiangnon, Surapon; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Braaf, Linde M; Rosenberg, Efraim H; Hopper, John L; Apicella, Carmel; Park, Daniel J; Southey, Melissa C; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Bernstein, Leslie; Dur, Christina Clarke; Shen, Chen-Yang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Hamann, Ute; Dünnebier, Thomas; Rüdiger, Thomas; Ulmer, Hans Ulrich; Pharoah, Paul P; Dunning, Alison M; Humphreys, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcom W; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Ambrosone, Christine B; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Hwang, Helena; Eccles, Diana M; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine D; Sherman, Mark E; Lissowska, Jolanta; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Hooning, Maartje J; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; John, Esther M; Miron, Alexander; Alnæs, Grethe Grenaker; Kristensen, Vessela; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Giles, Graham G; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona A; Severi, Gianluca; Kosel, Matthew L; Pankratz, V S; Slager, Susan; Olson, Janet E; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Lambrechts, Diether; Hatse, Sigrid; Dieudonne, Anne-Sophie; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Soini, Ylermi; Easton, Douglas F; Couch, Fergus J

    2012-04-01

    The 19p13.1 breast cancer susceptibility locus is a modifier of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers and is also associated with the risk of ovarian cancer. Here, we investigated 19p13.1 variation and risk of breast cancer subtypes, defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) status, using 48,869 breast cancer cases and 49,787 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Variants from 19p13.1 were not associated with breast cancer overall or with ER-positive breast cancer but were significantly associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk [rs8170 OR, 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.15; P = 3.49 × 10(-5)] and triple-negative (ER-, PR-, and HER2-negative) breast cancer (rs8170: OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.13-1.31; P = 2.22 × 10(-7)). However, rs8170 was no longer associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk when triple-negative cases were excluded (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.89-1.07; P = 0.62). In addition, a combined analysis of triple-negative cases from BCAC and the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC; N = 3,566) identified a genome-wide significant association between rs8170 and triple-negative breast cancer risk (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.18-1.33; P = 3.31 × 10(-13)]. Thus, 19p13.1 is the first triple-negative-specific breast cancer risk locus and the first locus specific to a histologic subtype defined by ER, PR, and HER2 to be identified. These findings provide convincing evidence that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer varies by tumor subtype and that triple-negative tumors and other subtypes likely arise through distinct etiologic pathways. PMID:22331459

  5. 19p13.1 is a triple negative-specific breast cancer susceptibility locus

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Kristen N.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Vachon, Celine M.; Wang, Xianshu; Margolin, Sara; Lindblom, Annika; Nevanlinna, Heli; Greco, Dario; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Vrieling, Alina; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Nickels, Stefan; Brauch, Hiltrud; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Meindl, Alfons; Bartram, Claus R.; Schott, Sarah; Engel, Christof; Godwin, Andrew K.; Weaver, JoEllen; Pathak, Harsh B.; Sharma, Priyanka; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Miron, Penelope; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Stavropoulou, Alexandra; Fountzilas, George; Gogas, Helen J.; Swann, Ruth; Dwek, Miriam; Perkins, Annie; Milne, Roger L.; Benítez, Javier; Zamora, M Pilar; Pérez, José Ignacio Arias; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Menegaux, Florence; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marmé, Frederick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Peto, Julian; Johnson, Nichola; Fletcher, Olivia; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Hartmann, Arndt; Ekici, Arif B.; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Muir, Kenneth; Puttawibul, Puttisak; Wiangnon, Surapon; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Braaf, Linde M; Rosenberg, Efraim H; Hopper, John L.; Apicella, Carmel; Park, Daniel J.; Southey, Melissa C.; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Bernstein, Leslie; Dur, Christina Clarke; Shen, Chen-Yang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Hamann, Ute; Dünnebier, Thomas; Rüdiger, Thomas; Ulmer, Hans Ulrich; Pharoah, Paul P.; Dunning, Alison M; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcom W.; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Hwang, Helena; Eccles, Diana M.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Sherman, Mark E.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Tollenaar, R.A.E.M.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; John, Esther M.; Miron, Alexander; Alnæs, Grethe Grenaker; Kristensen, Vessela; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona A; Severi, Gianluca; Kosel, Matthew L.; Pankratz, V.S.; Slager, Susan; Olson, Janet E.; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Lambrechts, Diether; Hatse, Sigrid; Dieudonne, Anne-Sophie; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Soini, Ylermi; Easton, Douglas F.; Couch, Fergus J.

    2012-01-01

    The 19p13.1 breast cancer susceptibility locus is a modifier of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers and is also associated with risk of ovarian cancer. Here we investigated 19p13.1 variation and risk of breast cancer subtypes, defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) status, using 48,869 breast cancer cases and 49,787 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Variants from 19p13.1 were not associated with breast cancer overall or with ER-positive breast cancer but were significantly associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk [rs8170 Odds Ratio (OR)=1.10, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.05 – 1.15, p=3.49 × 10-5] and triple negative (TN) (ER, PR and HER2 negative) breast cancer [rs8170 OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.13 – 1.31, p=2.22 × 10-7]. However, rs8170 was no longer associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk when TN cases were excluded [OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.89 – 1.07, p=0.62]. In addition, a combined analysis of TN cases from BCAC and the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC) (n=3,566) identified a genome-wide significant association between rs8170 and TN breast cancer risk [OR=1.25, 95% CI 1.18 – 1.33, p=3.31 × 10-13]. Thus, 19p13.1 is the first triple negative-specific breast cancer risk locus and the first locus specific to a histological subtype defined by ER, PR, and HER2 to be identified. These findings provide convincing evidence that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer varies by tumor subtype and that triple negative tumors and other subtypes likely arise through distinct etiologic pathways. PMID:22331459

  6. Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Breast: A Rare Breast Cancer Subtype – Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ratti, Vilma; Pagani, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Background Glycogen-rich clear cell breast carcinoma is a rare histological breast cancer subtype. Its prognosis may vary depending on specific clinical and pathological characteristics such as low grade, strong positivity of estrogen receptor (ER) expression and early diagnosis. Case Presentation We present the case of a 53-year-old woman with a bleeding 10-cm-diameter mass in the left breast. The histological examination showed a poorly differentiated tumor with malignant cells characterized by abundant clear cytoplasm. The diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma was based on the histological characteristics of the tumor, and a nonmammary origin was initially ruled out. The tumor was triple negative [i.e. ER, progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 negative]. Four months after the initial locoregional treatment, the patient developed lung and distant lymph node metastases. Conclusions Glycogen-rich clear cell carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor. Early diagnosis, absence of lymph node metastases and ER/PR positivity are associated with a better prognosis, as in other common breast cancer subtypes. PMID:26600782

  7. Five new cases of breast cancer in transsexual persons.

    PubMed

    Gooren, L; Bowers, M; Lips, P; Konings, I R

    2015-12-01

    Cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual people may be associated with the induction and growth stimulation of hormone-related malignancies. We report here five cases of breast cancer, three in female-to-male (FtoM) transsexual subjects and two in male-to-female (MtoF) transsexual subjects. In the general population the incidence of breast cancer increases with age and with duration of exposure to sex hormones. This pattern was not recognised in these five transsexual subjects. Tumours occurred at a relatively young age (respectively, 48, 41, 41, 52 and 46 years old) and mostly after a relatively short span of time of cross-sex hormone treatment (9, 9-10 but in one after 30 years). Occurrence of breast cancer was rare. As has been reported earlier, breast tumours may occur in residual mammary tissue after breast ablation in FtoM transsexual people. For adequate treatment and decisions on further cross-sex hormone treatment it is important to have information on the staging and histology of the breast tumour (type, grade and receptor status), with an upcoming role for the androgen receptor status, especially in FtoM transsexual subjects with breast cancer who receive testosterone administration. This information should be taken into account when considering further cross-sex hormone treatment. PMID:25611459

  8. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Broeders, M J; Verbeek, A L

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in our summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point in time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women. PMID:9274126

  9. Respective Prognostic Value of Genomic Grade and Histological Proliferation Markers in Early Stage (pN0) Breast Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Reyal, Fabien; Bollet, Marc A.; Caly, Martial; Gentien, David; Carpentier, Sabrina; Peyro-Saint-Paul, Hélène; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Cottu, Paul; Dieras, Véronique; Sigal-Zafrani, Brigitte; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Sastre-Garau, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Background Genomic grade (GG) is a 97-gene signature which improves the accuracy and prognostic value of histological grade (HG) in invasive breast carcinoma. Since most of the genes included in the GG are involved in cell proliferation, we performed a retrospective study to compare the prognostic value of GG, Mitotic Index and Ki67 score. Methods A series of 163 consecutive breast cancers was retained (pT1–2, pN0, pM0, 10-yr follow-up). GG was computed using MapQuant Dx(R). Results GG was low (GG-1) in 48%, high (GG-3) in 31% and equivocal in 21% of cases. For HG-2 tumors, 50% were classified as GG-1, 18% as GG-3 whereas 31% remained equivocal. In a subgroup of 132 ER+/HER2? tumors GG was the most significant prognostic factor in multivariate Cox regression analysis adjusted for age and tumor size (HR?=?5.23, p?=?0.02). Conclusions In a reference comprehensive cancer center setting, compared to histological grade, GG added significant information on cell proliferation in breast cancers. In patients with HG-2 carcinoma, applying the GG to guide the treatment scheme could lead to a reduction in adjuvant therapy prescription. However, based on the results observed and considering (i) the relatively close prognostic values of GG and Ki67, (ii) the reclassification of about 30% of HG-2 tumors as Equivocal GG and (iii) the economical and technical requirements of the MapQuant micro-array GG test, the availability in the near future of a PCR-based Genomic Grade test with improved performances may lead to an introduction in clinical routine of this test for histological grade 2, ER positive, HER2 negative breast carcinoma. PMID:22529987

  10. Study Comparing Nanoparticle-based Paclitaxel With Solvent-based Paclitaxel as Part of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Patients With Early Breast Cancer (GeparSepto)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-10

    Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II; Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II; Breast Cancer Female NOS; Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III; HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer Stage IV; Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  11. Combination Chemotherapy and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant Followed By Aldesleukin and Sargramostim in Treating Patients With Inflammatory Stage IIIB or Metastatic Stage IV Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-07-08

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  12. Breast Cancer Death Rates Down 34% Since 1990

    MedlinePLUS

    ... News » Filed under: Breast Cancer Report: Breast Cancer Death Rates Down 34% Since 1990 Article date: October ... report from the American Cancer Society finds that death rates from breast cancer in the United States ...

  13. What Happens After Treatment for Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... breast cancer in men? For many men with breast cancer, treatment may remove or destroy the cancer. Completing treatment ... buildup of fluid, can happen any time after breast cancer treatment. Any treatment that removes axillary (underarm) lymph nodes ...

  14. Gastric cancer: Classification, histology and application of molecular pathology

    PubMed Central

    El Hajj, Nassim; Sittler, Scott; Lammert, Nancy; Barnes, Robert; Meloni-Ehrig, Aurelia

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains one of the deadly diseases with poor prognosis. New classification of gastric cancers based on histologic features, genotypes and molecular phenotypes helps better understand the characteristics of each subtype, and improve early diagnosis, prevention and treatment. The objective of this article is to review the new classification of gastric cancers and the up-to-date guidance in the application of molecular testing. PMID:22943016

  15. Interactive Gentle Yoga in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-03

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Fatigue; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  16. BCSC Grants: Mammographic Breast Density and Breast Cancer Prognosis

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Home   |   Data   |   Statistics   |   Tools   |   Collaborations   |   Work with Us   |   Publications   |   About   |   Links Ongoing Collaborations CISNET ACS FAVOR Comprehensive Cancer Centers Ancillary Studies Mammographic Breast

  17. BRCA 1/2-Mutation Related and Sporadic Breast and Ovarian Cancers: More Alike than Different

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Melissa; Puhalla, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    No longer is histology solely predictive of cancer treatment and outcome. There is an increasing influence of tumor genomic characteristics on therapeutic options. Both breast and ovarian cancers are at higher risk of development in patients with BRCA 1/2-germline mutations. Recent data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and others have shown a number of genomic similarities between triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) and ovarian cancers. Recently, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have shown promising activity in hereditary BRCA 1/2-mutated and sporadic breast and ovarian cancers. In this review, we will summarize the current literature regarding the genomic and phenotypic similarities between BRCA 1/2-mutation related cancers, sporadic TNBCs, and sporadic ovarian cancers. We will also review Phase I, II, and III data using PARP inhibitors for these malignancies and compare and contrast the results with respect to histology. PMID:24579064

  18. Nanotechnology for breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takemi; Decuzzi, Paolo; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Sakamoto, Jason H; Tasciotti, Ennio; Robertson, Fredika M; Ferrari, Mauro

    2009-02-01

    Breast cancer is the field of medicine with the greatest presence of nanotechnological therapeutic agents in the clinic. A pegylated form of liposomally encapsulated doxorubicin is routinely used for treatment against metastatic cancer, and albumin nanoparticulate chaperones of paclitaxel were approved for locally recurrent and metastatic disease in 2005. These drugs have yielded substantial clinical benefit, and are steadily gathering greater beneficial impact. Clinical trials currently employing these drugs in combination with chemo and biological therapeutics exceed 150 worldwide. Despite these advancements, breast cancer morbidity and mortality is unacceptably high. Nanotechnology offers potential solutions to the historical challenge that has rendered breast cancer so difficult to contain and eradicate: the extreme biological diversity of the disease presentation in the patient population and in the evolutionary changes of any individual disease, the multiple pathways that drive disease progression, the onset of 'resistance' to established therapeutic cocktails, and the gravity of the side effects to treatment, which result from generally very poor distribution of the injected therapeutic agents in the body. A fundamental requirement for success in the development of new therapeutic strategies is that breast cancer specialists-in the clinic, the pharmaceutical and the basic biological laboratory-and nanotechnologists-engineers, physicists, chemists and mathematicians-optimize their ability to work in close collaboration. This further requires a mutual openness across cultural and language barriers, academic reward systems, and many other 'environmental' divides. This paper is respectfully submitted to the community to help foster the mutual interactions of the breast cancer world with micro- and nano-technology, and in particular to encourage the latter community to direct ever increasing attention to breast cancer, where an extraordinary beneficial impact may result. The paper initiates with an introductory overview of breast cancer, its current treatment modalities, and the current role of nanotechnology in the clinic. Our perspectives are then presented on what the greatest opportunities for nanotechnology are; this follows from an analysis of the role of biological barriers that adversely determine the biological distribution of intravascularly injected therapeutic agents. Different generations of nanotechnology tools for drug delivery are reviewed, and our current strategy for addressing the sequential bio-barriers is also presented, and is accompanied by an encouragement to the community to develop even more effective ones. PMID:18663578

  19. [Psychosocial aspects of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Tassin, S; Bragard, I; Thommessen, M; Pitchot, W

    2011-01-01

    In occidental countries, breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women. In the last 30 years, the therapeutical progresses have improved the prognosis and the survival rate. However, despite this hope of recovering, women continue to face the fear of death and vulnerability. Moreover, treatments can induce cognitive, emotional and behavioral reactions in patients but also in their relatives. Therefore, the treatments are associated with physical and psychosocial dysfunctioning influencing quality of life. PMID:21826969

  20. Caloric Restriction in Treating Patients With Stage 0-I Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-11

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer

  1. Breast Cancer Startup Challenge winners

    Cancer.gov

    Ten winners of a world-wide competition to bring emerging breast cancer research technologies to market faster were announced today by the Avon Foundation for Women, in partnership with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI). Avon is providing

  2. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue; A: Duct element recovered from breast tissue digest. B: Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneousely die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. C: Isolate of long-term frowth HMEC from outgrowth of duct element; cells shown soon after isolation and in early full-cell contact growth in culture in a dish. D: same long-term growth HMEC, but after 3 weeks in late full-cell contact growth in a continuous culture in a dish. Note attempts to reform duct elements but this in two demensions in a dish rather than in three dimensions in tissue. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  3. Breast Cancer Family Registries Publications

    Cancer.gov

    Le Calvez-Kelm F, Lesueur F, Damiola F, Vallee M, Voegele C, Babikyan D, Durand G, Forey N, McKay-Chopin S, Robinot N, Nguyen-Dumont T, Thomas A, Byrnes GB, Breast Cancer Family Registry T, Hopper JL, Southey MC, Andrulis IL, John EM, Tavtigian SV.

  4. CISNET: Breast Cancer Model Profiles

    Cancer.gov

    Model profiles are standardized documents that facilitate the comparison of models and their results. The Joint Profile provided includes profiles for all breast cancer models. Individual profiles for each model are also provided and may be more current than the joint profile document.

  5. Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC)

    Cancer.gov

    Established in 1994 in response to the 1992 Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA), the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) develops and conducts collaborative research projects that use common data elements contributed by its network of seven mammography registries across the United States.

  6. [Breast cancer detection and medicalization of public health].

    PubMed

    Junod, B; Massé, R

    2003-06-01

    The aim of reducing breast cancer mortality announced in the report on health in France published in 1994 strongly implicated the promotion of screening and early surgical treatment. However, this mortality has not evolved significantly in France, although more and more cancers have been found and operated upon. The increased prevalence rates of histological diagnoses of breast cancer obtained from the studies of autopsies published has shown that the screening has discovered non-terminal, benign cancers. It has been estimated that 120 of the surgical operations conducted per day in France in 1999 have been carried out to remove non-terminal, benign cancers. Public health has an ethical responsibility to face in terms of the allocation of resources and must remain vigilant in order to avoid excessive screening and unnecessary interventions. PMID:12891811

  7. HSP90 Inhibitor AT13387 and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Advanced Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-14

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  8. BCSC - Hormone Therapy & Breast Cancer Incidence Data

    Cancer.gov

    This dataset may be useful to people interested in exploring the relationship between postmenopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer incidence. The dataset includes information from 603,411 screening mammograms performed on women included in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium from January 1997 to December 2003. Results of an analysis of breast cancer incidence were published by Kerlikowske et al. in the September 2007 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  9. Paclitaxel and Cyclophosphamide With or Without Trastuzumab Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-12-12

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  10. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Cancer.gov

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  11. FLT PET in Measuring Treatment Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-01

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  12. Histopathological Features of Non-Neoplastic Breast Parenchyma Do Not Predict BRCA Mutation Status of Patients with Invasive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bayraktar, Soley; Qiu, Hongming; Liu, Diane; Shen, Yu; Gutierrez-Barrera, Angelica M; Arun, Banu K; Sahin, Aysegul A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Several studies have evaluated histologic features of non-neoplastic breast parenchyma in patients with BRCA1/2 mutations, but the results are conflicting. The limited data suggest a much higher prevalence of high-risk precursor lesions in BRCA carriers. Therefore, we designed this study to compare the clinicopathological characteristics of peritumoral benign breast tissue in patients with and without deleterious BRCA mutations. METHODS Women with breast cancer (BC) who were referred for genetic counseling and underwent BRCA genetic testing in 2010 and 2011 were included in the study. RESULTS Of the six benign histological features analyzed in this study, only stromal fibrosis grade 2/3 was found to be statistically different, with more BRCA noncarriers having stromal fibrosis grade 2/3 than BRCA1/2 carriers (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION There is no significant association between mutation risk and the presence of benign histologic features of peritumoral breast parenchyma. PMID:26327783

  13. Adjuvant and Neoadjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... therapy deprives breast cancer cells of the hormone estrogen , which many breast tumors need to grow. A ... hormonal treatment is the drug tamoxifen , which blocks estrogen's activity in the body. Studies have shown that ...

  14. Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is easiest to treat and before it is big enough to feel or cause symptoms. If breast ... women’s health specialist, radiologist, physician’s assistant, or other healthcare professional. Resources CDC's Campaign: "Breast Cancer Screening: The ...

  15. Treating Male Breast Cancer by Stage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as: When the breast tumor is causing an open wound in the breast (or chest) To treat a small number of metastases in a certain area To prevent bone fractures When an area of cancer spread is pressing ...

  16. Triciribine Phosphate, Paclitaxel, Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IV Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-25

    Breast Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  17. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride and Cyclophosphamide Followed by Paclitaxel With or Without Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-04

    Breast Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  18. Common germline polymorphisms associated with breast cancer specific survival

    E-print Network

    Pirie, A.; Guo, Q.; Kraft, P.; Canisius, S.; Eccles, D. M.; Rahman, N.; Nevanlinna, H.; Chen, C.; Khan, S.; Tyrer, J.; Bolla, M. K.; Wang, Q.; Dennis, J.; Michailidou, K.; Lush, M.; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, M.; Czene, K.; Darabi, H.; Eriksson, M.; Lambrechts, D.; Weltens, C.; Leunen, K.; van Ongeval, C.; Nordestgaard, B. G.; Nielsen, S. F.; Flyger, H.; Rudolph, A.; Seibold, P.; Flesch-Janysm, D.; Blomqvist, C.; Aittomaki, K.; Fagerholm, R.; Muranen, T. A.; Olsen, J. E.; Hallberg, E.; Vachon, C.; Knight, J. A.; Glendon, G.; Mulligan, A. M.; Broeks, A.; Cornelissen, S.; Haiman, C. A.; Henderson, B. E.; Schumacher, F.; Le Marchand, L.; Hopper, J. L.; Tsimiklis, H.; Apicella, C.; Southey, M. C.; Cross, S. S.; Reed. M. W.; Giles, G. G.; Milne, R. L.; McLean, C.; Winqvist, R.; Pylkas, K.; Jukkola-Vuorinen, A.; Grip, M.; Hooning, M. J.; Hollestelle, A.; Martens, J. W.; van den Ouweland, A. M.; Marme, F.; Schneeweiss, A.; Yang, R.; Burwinkel, B.; Figueroa, J.; Chanock, S. J.; Lissowska, J.; Sawyer, E. J.; Tomlinson, I.; Kerin, M. J.; Miller, N.; Brenner, H.; Butterbach, K.; Holleczek, B.; Kataja, V.; Kosma, V. M.; Hartikainen, J. M.; Li, J.; Brand, J. S.; Humphreys, K.; Devilee, P.; Tollenaar, R. A.; Seynaeve, C.; Radice, P.; Peterlongo, P.; Manoukian, S.; Ficarazzi, F.; Beckmann, M. W.; Hein, A.; Ekici, A. B.; Balleine, R.; Phillips, K. A.; Benitez, J.; Zamora, M. P.; Perez, J. I.; Menendez, P.; Jakubowska, A.; Lubinski, J.; Gronwald, J.; Durda, K.; Hamann, U.; Kabisch, M.; Ulmer, H. U.; Rudiger, T.; Margolin, S.; Kristensen, V.; Nord, S.; Evans, D. G.; Abraham, J.; Earl, H.; Poole, C. J.; Hiller, L.; Dunn, J. A.; Bowden, S.; Yang, R.; Campa, D.; Diver, W. R.; Gapstur, S. M.; Gaudet, M. M.; Hankinson, S.; Hoover, R. N.; Husing, A.; Kaaks, R.; Machiela, M. J.; Willett, W.; Barrdahl, M.; Canzian, F.; Chin, S. F.; Caldas, C.; Hunter, D. J.; Lindstrom, S.; Garcia-Closas, M.; Couch, F. J.; Chenevix-Trench, G.; Mannermaa, A.; Andrulis, I. L.; Hall, P.; Chang-Claude, J.; Easton, Douglas F.; Bojesen, S. E.; Cox, A.; Fasching, P. A.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Schmidt, M. K.

    2015-04-22

    of previously reported SNPs with breast cancer specific survival using data from a pooled analysis of eight breast cancer survival genome-wide association studies (GWAS) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Methods A literature review was conducted...

  19. 77 FR 60605 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ...8874 of October 1, 2012 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2012 By the...States of America A Proclamation Breast cancer touches the lives of Americans...000 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer this year, and tens of...

  20. 78 FR 61805 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ...Proclamation 9028 of September 30, 2013 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2013 By the President of...America stands in solidarity with those battling breast cancer and those at risk for breast cancer. This disease touches every corner of...

  1. 75 FR 62297 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ...8572 of October 1, 2010 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2010 By the...been made in the fight against breast cancer, it remains the most frequently...will be claimed. During National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, we...

  2. 76 FR 62285 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ...8724 of October 3, 2011 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2011 By the...commitment to preventing and treating breast cancer, and to supporting those courageously...early detection, and treatment of breast cancer. Still, this year,...

  3. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  4. Coding Instructions for Breast Cancer Chart Audit (DETECT)

    Cancer.gov

    CODING INSTRUCTIONS FOR BREAST CANCER CHART AUDIT ? DETECT ? I. GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS About this study: Study period. Chart audits will be conducted among women diagnosed with breast cancer. The Breast Cancer Audit will capture the clinical experience

  5. Selected National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Research Topics | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sciences are jointly funding three Breast Cancer and Environment Research Centers (BCERCs) to conduct interdisciplinary research on the effects of early environmental exposures on breast development and breast cancer risk. The Breast Cancer Surveillance ...

  6. Electric power, melatonin, and breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.G.

    1987-08-01

    In this paper, the epidemiology of breast cancer will be discussed, followed by a brief description of the effect of electric fields on melatonin and the relation of melatonin to mammary cancer in rats. Finally, there will be a consideration of factors such as alcohol that affect melatonin and their relation to breast cancer risk. 55 refs.

  7. Using Near-Infrared Light To Detect Breast Cancer

    E-print Network

    Fantini, Sergio

    Using Near-Infrared Light To Detect Breast Cancer Using Near-Infrared Light To Detect Breast Cancer News 25 T he idea of using light to non- invasively detect breast cancer has been revisited in the past of selectively labeling breast tumors may open new opportunities in the optical detection of breast cancer

  8. 78 FR 61805 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9028 of September 30, 2013 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2013 By... solidarity with those battling breast cancer and those at risk for breast cancer. This disease touches every... with breast cancer, and tens of thousands will die from it. As we observe National Breast...

  9. Differentiating cancerous from normal breast tissue by redox imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, He N.; Tchou, Julia; Feng, Min; Zhao, Huaqing; Li, Lin Z.

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal metabolism can be a hallmark of cancer occurring early before detectable histological changes and may serve as an early detection biomarker. The current gold standard to establish breast cancer (BC) diagnosis is histological examination of biopsy. Previously we have found that pre-cancer and cancer tissues in animal models displayed abnormal mitochondrial redox state. Our technique of quantitatively measuring the mitochondrial redox state has the potential to be implemented as an early detection tool for cancer and may provide prognostic value. We therefore in this present study, investigated the feasibility of quantifying the redox state of tumor samples from 16 BC patients. Tumor tissue aliquots were collected from both normal and cancerous tissue from the affected cancer-bearing breasts of 16 female patients (5 TNBC, 9 ER+, 2 ER+/Her2+) shortly after surgical resection. All specimens were snap-frozen with liquid nitrogen on site and scanned later with the Chance redox scanner, i.e., the 3D cryogenic NADH/oxidized flavoprotein (Fp) fluorescence imager. Our preliminary results showed that both NADH and Fp (including FAD, i.e., flavin adenine dinucleotide) signals in the cancerous tissues roughly tripled to quadrupled those in the normal tissues (p<0.05) and the redox ratio Fp/(NADH+Fp) was about 27% higher in the cancerous tissues than in the normal ones (p<0.05). Our findings suggest that the redox state could differentiate between cancer and non-cancer breast tissues in human patients and this novel redox scanning procedure may assist in tissue diagnosis in freshly procured biopsy samples prior to tissue fixation. We are in the process of evaluating the prognostic value of the redox imaging indices for BC.

  10. Carboplatin, Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, and Mifepristone in Treating Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer or Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-09

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  11. Educational Counseling in Improving Communication and Quality of Life in Spouses and Breast Cancer Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  12. CISNET: Simulating Breast Cancer in Wisconsin

    Cancer.gov

    This project will update and extend a previously developed model simulating breast cancer age- and stage-specific incidence and age-specific mortality in Wisconsin. The model was developed and validated in 1992-93 and was used to explain breast cancer trends in Wisconsin from 1982-1992. We will reprogram the macrosimulation model as a discrete event microsimulation, updating inputs to account for demographic, and breast cancer detection and treatment changes since 1992.

  13. Typhoid Vaccine in Testing Response to Immune Stress in Patients With Stage I-IIIA Breast Cancer Who Received Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-13

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Depression; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  14. Endocrine therapy of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalli, F.

    1986-01-01

    This book results from a meeting of the ESO (European School of Oncology) Task Force on endocrine aspects of breast cancer. The contributions stem from some of the most outstanding researchers in Europe and highlight mainly methodological issues and new avenues for future research. The chapters on basic research deal primarily with experimental strategies for studying the relationship between steroid hormones, growth factors, and oncongenes. The clinically oriented chapters treat the methodology of clinical trials. Provocative questions are raised, such as: What are the pitfalls in endocrine trials. What does statistical proof mean. How can we consider a quality of life endpoint in the adjuvant setting. Two special reports deal with the controversial issues of chemoprevention in high-risk normal women and the optimization of the hormonal contribution to the adjuvant therapy of breast cancer. Topics considered included oncogenic transformations, radiotherapy, steroid hormones, cell proliferation, tamoxifen, and preventive medicine.

  15. Psychosocial aspects of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Oktay, J S

    1998-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the psychosocial aspects of breast cancer. Common psychologic reactions during detection, diagnosis, and treatment include anxiety, denial, anger, and depression. Suggestions for primary care provider interventions such as providing education and support, are discussed. Many treatments for the disease seriously challenge a woman's self-image and sexuality. Family issues are equally important including relationships with children and spouses or partners. Social support can be a powerful force which facilitates successful coping with these challenges. The advent of genetic testing poses a whole set of psychologic and social issues which primary care providers will need to be aware of in the future. Primary care providers have an important role in determining the psychological outcome of breast cancer. By being aware of the common psychologic and social problems, they can be prepared to contribute to a successful outcome. PMID:9727111

  16. Breast Cancer, Version 1.2016.

    PubMed

    Gradishar, William J; Anderson, Benjamin O; Balassanian, Ron; Blair, Sarah L; Burstein, Harold J; Cyr, Amy; Elias, Anthony D; Farrar, William B; Forero, Andres; Giordano, Sharon Hermes; Goetz, Matthew; Goldstein, Lori J; Hudis, Clifford A; Isakoff, Steven J; Marcom, P Kelly; Mayer, Ingrid A; McCormick, Beryl; Moran, Meena; Patel, Sameer A; Pierce, Lori J; Reed, Elizabeth C; Salerno, Kilian E; Schwartzberg, Lee S; Smith, Karen Lisa; Smith, Mary Lou; Soliman, Hatem; Somlo, George; Telli, Melinda; Ward, John H; Shead, Dottie A; Kumar, Rashmi

    2015-12-01

    These NCCN Guideline Insights highlight the important updates to the systemic therapy recommendations in the 2016 NCCN Guidelines for Breast Cancer. In the most recent version of these guidelines, the NCCN Breast Cancer Panel included a new section on the principles of preoperative systemic therapy. In addition, based on new evidence, the panel updated systemic therapy recommendations for women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in the adjuvant and metastatic disease settings and for patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. This report summarizes these recent updates and discusses the rationale behind them. PMID:26656517

  17. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor expression in breast cancer tissue and mammographic density

    PubMed Central

    SUN, WOO-YOUNG; YUN, HYO-YOUNG; SONG, YOUNG-JIN; KIM, HEON; LEE, OK-JUN; NAM, SEOK-JIN; KOO, JA-SEUNG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) expression in breast cancer tissue and mammographic density and the clinical significance of IGF-1R overexpression. A total of 167 patients with primary invasive breast cancer were analyzed. Mammographic breast density and IGF-1R overexpression were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and analyzed by overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Increased breast tissue density was significantly associated with age, body mass index, menopausal status, histological grade and IGF-1R overexpression in the univariate analysis and with age (P=0.001), histological grade (P=0.045) and IGF-1R overexpression (P=0.021) in the multivariate analysis. IGF-1R overexpression was significantly associated with dense breast tissue in patients aged >40 years (P=0.002). IGF-1R overexpression in breast cancer in premenopausal women was associated with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) positivity (P=0.016) and worse DFS (P=0.0414). There was no significant difference in OS and DFS between dense and non-dense breast tissue. IGF-1R expression in breast cancer tissue was significantly associated with mammographic breast tissue density in patients aged >40 years. It appears that IGF-1R expression in breast cancer tissue plays an important role in breast cancer in patients with dense breast tissue. In premenopausal women, IGF-1R overexpression in breast cancer tissue was significantly associated with HER-2 positivity and poor DFS. PMID:26137269

  18. CISNET: Breast Cancer Landmark Study

    Cancer.gov

    After remaining relatively constant for many years, breast cancer mortality in the United States decreased by a dramatic 24% from 1989 to 2000. CISNET investigators initiated a joint comparative modeling effort among seven groups to determine the contributions of mammography and adjuvant therapy to this decline. While the benefits of adjuvant therapy were more settled, controversy regarding the benefits of mammography screening persisted due to uneven results and continuing criticism of the controlled trials on which the mortality benefits had been based.

  19. Adolescent meat intake and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y; Eliassen, A Heather; Willett, Walter C

    2015-04-15

    The breast is particularly vulnerable to carcinogenic influences during adolescence due to rapid proliferation of mammary cells and lack of terminal differentiation. We investigated consumption of adolescent red meat and other protein sources in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. We followed prospectively 44,231 women aged 33-52 years who, in 1998, completed a detailed questionnaire about diet during adolescence. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. We documented 1132 breast cancer cases during 13-year follow-up. In multivariable Cox regression models with major breast cancer risk factors adjustment, greater consumption of total red meat in adolescence was significantly associated with higher premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintiles, RR, 1.43; 95%CI, 1.05-1.94; Ptrend ?=?0.007), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. Adolescent intake of poultry was associated with lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.76; 95%CI, 0.60-0.97; for each serving/day). Adolescent intakes of iron, heme iron, fish, eggs, legumes and nuts were not associated with breast cancer. Replacement of one serving/day of total red meat with one serving of combination of poultry, fish, legumes, and nuts was associated with a 15% lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.85; 95%CI, 0.74-0.96) and a 23% lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer (RR, 0.77; 95%CI, 0.64-0.92). In conclusion, higher consumption of red meat during adolescence was associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Substituting other dietary protein sources for red meat in adolescent diet may decrease premenopausal breast cancer risk. PMID:25220168

  20. Breast Cancer Marker Link to Aggressive Rarer Cancer Development

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists have identified a group of surface markers on cells linked to an aggressive type of breast cancer called estrogen receptor-negative cancer. The research, conducted by scientists at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Insti

  1. Iron homeostasis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Marques, Oriana; da Silva, Berta Martins; Porto, Graça; Lopes, Carlos

    2014-05-28

    Iron is an essential element and a critical component of molecules involved in energy production, cell cycle and intermediate metabolism. However, the same characteristic chemistry that makes it so biologically versatile may lead to iron-associated toxicity as a consequence of increased oxidative stress. The fact that free iron accumulates with age and generates ROS led to the hypothesis that it could be involved in the etiogenesis of several chronic diseases. Iron has been consistently linked to carcinogenesis, either through persistent failure in the redox balance or due to its critical role in cellular proliferation. Several reports have given evidence that alterations in the import, export and storage of cellular iron may contribute to breast cancer development, behavior and recurrence. In this review, we summarize the basic mechanisms of systemic and cellular iron regulation and highlight the findings that link their deregulation with breast cancer. To conclude, progresses in iron chelation therapy in breast cancer, as a tool to fight chemotherapy resistance, are also reviewed. PMID:24486738

  2. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Epithelial and fibroblast cell coculture: Long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) admixed in coculture with fibroblast from the same initial breast tissue grown as 3-dimenstional constructions in the presence of attachment beads in the NASA Bioreactor. A: A typical constrct about 2.0 mm in diameter without beads on the surface. The center of these constrcts is hollow, and beads are organized about the irner surface. Although the coculture provides smaller constructs than the monoculture, the metabolic of the organized cells is about the same. B, C, D: Closer views of cells showing that the shape of cells and cell-to-cell interactions apprear different in the coculture than in the monoculture constructs. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  3. Breast Cancer 2012 – New Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Kolberg, H.-C.; Lüftner, D.; Lux, M. P.; Maass, N.; Schütz, F.; Fasching, P. A.; Fehm, T.; Janni, W.; Kümmel, S.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment options as well as the characteristics for therapeutic decisions in patients with primary and advanced breast cancer are increasing in number and variety. New targeted therapies in combination with established chemotherapy schemes are broadening the spectrum, however potentially promising combinations do not always achieve a better result. New data from the field of pharmacogenomics point to prognostic and predictive factors that take not only the properties of the tumour but also inherited genetic properties of the patient into consideration. Current therapeutic decision-making is thus based on a combination of classical clinical and modern molecular biomarkers. Also health-economic aspects are more frequently being taken into consideration so that health-economic considerations may also play a part. This review is based on information from the recent annual congresses. The latest of these are the 34th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium 2011 and the ASCO Annual Meeting 2012. Among their highlights are the clinically significant results from the CLEOPATRA, BOLERO-2, EMILIA and SWOG S0226 trials on the therapy for metastatic breast cancer as well as further state-of-the-art data on the adjuvant use of bisphosphonates within the framework of the ABCSG-12, ZO-FAST, NSABP-B34 and GAIN trials. PMID:25324576

  4. Radiation Therapy in Treating Post-Menopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-02

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Cribriform Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  5. [THE EFFECT OF PREGNANCY ON BREAST CANCER].

    PubMed

    Matalon, Shelly Tartakover; Shochet, Gali Epstein; Drucker, Liat; Lishner, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Cancer and pregnancy coincide in about one in 1,000 pregnancies. One of the most common malignancies associated with pregnancy is breast cancer. Women with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) have a higher likelihood of being diagnosed with metastatic disease and estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumors than do non-pregnant women. Controversies exist regarding the effect of pregnancy on breast cancer prognosis. Some researchers suggest that pregnancy does not affect breast cancer prognosis, whereas others claim the opposite. Although PABC is usually discovered in an advanced stage, breast cancer metastasis on the placenta is a rare event. During cancer progression, the surrounding microenvironment co-evolves into an activated state through continuous communication with the malignant cells, thereby promoting tumor growth. The effect of pregnancy and placental environment on breast cancer biology is the issue of this review. Placental and cancer cells implantation processes share similar molecular pathways. This suggests that placental factors may affect breast cancer cells biology. Previously, we analyzed the effect of first trimester human placenta on breast cancer cells. Breast cancer cells were co-cultured with placental explants during their implantation on matrigel substrate. We found that the placenta reduced ER expression on the cancer cells and induced their migration and invasion abilities. As a result of it, breast cancer cells migrated away from the placental implantation sites. Hormonal pathways were involved in these phenomena. These results may explain the high incidence of metastases during pregnancy in on the one hand and the rarity of metastases on the placenta on the other hand. PMID:26480621

  6. Immunohistochemical Expression of CXCR4 on Breast Cancer and Its Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Okuyama Kishima, Marina; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Coral; Banin-Hirata, Bruna Karina; Losi-Guembarovski, Roberta; Brajão de Oliveira, Karen; Amarante, Marla Karine; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara

    2015-01-01

    Many tumor cells express chemokines and chemokine receptors, and, for this reason, these molecules can affect the tumor progression. It is known that breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous neoplasia comprising distinct diseases, histological characteristics, and clinical outcomes. The most studied role for CXCL12 chemokine and its receptor CXCR4 in breast cancer pathogenesis is the metastasis event, although several reports have demonstrated its involvement in other processes, such as angiogenesis and tumor growth. It has been found that CXCR4 is required for breast cancer cell migration to other sites such as lung, bone, and lymph nodes, which express high levels of CXCL12 chemokine. Therefore, CXCR4 is being considered a prognostic marker in breast cancer. Within this context, this review summarizes established studies involving expression of CXCR4 on breast cancer, focusing on its clinical significance. PMID:26161302

  7. Intraoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Norman R.; Pigott, Katharine H.; Brew-Graves, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Intra-operative radiotherapy (IORT) as a treatment for breast cancer is a relatively new technique that is designed to be a replacement for whole breast external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in selected women suitable for breast-conserving therapy. This article reviews twelve reasons for the use of the technique, with a particular emphasis on targeted intra-operative radiotherapy (TARGIT) which uses X-rays generated from a portable device within the operating theatre immediately after the breast tumour (and surrounding margin of healthy tissue) has been removed. The delivery of a single fraction of radiotherapy directly to the tumour bed at the time of surgery, with the capability of adding EBRT at a later date if required (risk-adaptive technique) is discussed in light of recent results from a large multinational randomised controlled trial comparing TARGIT with EBRT. The technique avoids irradiation of normal tissues such as skin, heart, lungs, ribs and spine, and has been shown to improve cosmetic outcome when compared with EBRT. Beneficial aspects to both institutional and societal economics are discussed, together with evidence demonstrating excellent patient satisfaction and quality of life. There is a discussion of the published evidence regarding the use of IORT twice in the same breast (for new primary cancers) and in patients who would never be considered for EBRT because of their special circumstances (such as the frail, the elderly, or those with collagen vascular disease). Finally, there is a discussion of the role of the TARGIT Academy in developing and sustaining high standards in the use of the technique. PMID:25083504

  8. Breast cancer-related lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Thomas-MacLean, Roanne; Miedema, Baukje; Tatemichi, Sue R.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE One distressing health problem facing breast cancer patients is breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). This incurable condition can occur many years after treatment is completed and often causes pain and disability and interferes with work and activities of daily living. Patients at risk of BCRL are those who have received radiation therapy or axillary node dissection; higher incidence is reported among patients who have had both radiation and dissection. Our objective was to explore New Brunswick women’s experiences of BCRL and its treatment. DESIGN A focus group and 15 individual in-depth interviews. SETTING Province of New Brunswick. PARTICIPANTS A diverse sample of 22 women with BCRL was obtained using age, location, time after breast cancer diagnosis, and onset of BCRL symptoms as selection criteria. METHOD The focus group discussion guided development of a semistructured interview guide that was used for 15 individual interviews exploring women’s experiences with BCRL. MAIN FINDINGS Four themes emerged from the interviews. First, participants thought they were poorly informed about the possibility of developing BCRL. Eleven women reported receiving very little or no information about BCRL. Second, triggers and symptoms varied. Participants used words such as numb, heavy, tingling, aching, seeping fluid, hard, tight, limited mobility, and burning to describe symptoms. They reported a variety of both aggravating and alleviating factors for their symptoms. Some actions, such as applying heat, were thought to both exacerbate and reduce symptoms. Third, in New Brunswick, access to treatment is poor, compression garments are costly, and accessing physiotherapists is difficult. Last, the effect of BCRL on daily life is profound: 12 of the 15 women reported that it interfered with work and day-to-day activities. CONCLUSION Participants were unaware of the risk factors and treatment options for BCRL. Family physicians should discuss BCRL with their breast cancer patients routinely. They should be vigilant for the possible onset of BCRL and, if it is diagnosed, should manage it aggressively to minimize the severe effect it has on the lives of breast cancer patients. PMID:16926934

  9. Phospho-TCTP as a therapeutic target of dihydroartemisinin for aggressive breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lucibello, Maria; Adanti, Sara; Antelmi, Ester; Dezi, Dario; Ciafrè, Stefania; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Zonfrillo, Manuela; Nicotera, Giuseppe; Sica, Lorenzo; De Braud, Filippo; Pierimarchi, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Upregulation of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) is associated with poorly differentiated aggressive tumors, including breast cancer, but the underlying mechanism(s) are still debated. Here, we show that in breast cancer cell lines TCTP is primarily localized in the nucleus, mostly in the phosphorylated form. The effects of Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), an anti-malaria agent that binds TCTP, were tested on breast cancer cells. DHA decreases cell proliferation and induces apoptotic cell death by targeting the phosphorylated form of TCTP. Remarkably, DHA enhances the anti-tumor effects of Doxorubicin in triple negative breast cancer cells resulting in an increased level of apoptosis. DHA also synergizes with Trastuzumab, used to treat HER2/neu positive breast cancers, to induce apoptosis of tumor cells. Finally, we present new clinical data that nuclear phospho-TCTP overexpression in primary breast cancer tissue is associated with high histological grade, increase expression of Ki-67 and with ER-negative breast cancer subtypes. Notably, phospho-TCTP expression levels increase in trastuzumab-resistant breast tumors, suggesting a possible role of phospho-TCTP as a new prognostic marker. In conclusion, the anti-tumor effect of DHA in vitro with conventional chemotherapeutics suggests a novel therapeutic strategy and identifies phospho-TCTP as a new promising target for advanced breast cancer. PMID:25779659

  10. Phospho-TCTP as a therapeutic target of Dihydroartemisinin for aggressive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lucibello, Maria; Adanti, Sara; Antelmi, Ester; Dezi, Dario; Ciafrè, Stefania; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Zonfrillo, Manuela; Nicotera, Giuseppe; Sica, Lorenzo; De Braud, Filippo; Pierimarchi, Pasquale

    2015-03-10

    Upregulation of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) is associated with poorly differentiated aggressive tumors, including breast cancer, but the underlying mechanism(s) are still debated. Here, we show that in breast cancer cell lines TCTP is primarily localized in the nucleus, mostly in the phosphorylated form.The effects of Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), an anti-malaria agent that binds TCTP, were tested on breast cancer cells. DHA decreases cell proliferation and induces apoptotic cell death by targeting the phosphorylated form of TCTP. Remarkably, DHA enhances the anti-tumor effects of Doxorubicin in triple negative breast cancer cells resulting in an increased level of apoptosis. DHA also synergizes with Trastuzumab, used to treat HER2/neu positive breast cancers, to induce apoptosis of tumor cells.Finally, we present new clinical data that nuclear phospho-TCTP overexpression in primary breast cancer tissue is associated with high histological grade, increase expression of Ki-67 and with ER-negative breast cancer subtypes. Notably, phospho-TCTP expression levels increase in trastuzumab-resistant breast tumors, suggesting a possible role of phospho-TCTP as a new prognostic marker.In conclusion, the anti-tumor effect of DHA in vitro with conventional chemotherapeutics suggests a novel therapeutic strategy and identifies phospho-TCTP as a new promising target for advanced breast cancer. PMID:25779659

  11. Optical spectra analysis for breast cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkov, S. A.; Kochemasov, G. G.; Lyubynskaya, T. E.; Maslov, N. V.; Nuzhny, A. S.; da Silva, L. B.; Rubenchik, A.

    2011-11-01

    Minimally invasive probe and optical biopsy system based on optical spectra recording and analysis seem to be a promising tool for early diagnostics of breast cancer. Light scattering and absorption spectra are generated continuously as far as the needle-like probe with one emitting and several collecting optical fibers penetrates through the tissues toward to the suspicious area. That allows analyzing not only the state of local site, but also the structure of tissues along the needle trace. The suggested method has the advantages of automated on-line diagnosing and minimal tissue destruction and in parallel with the conventional diagnostic procedures provides the ground for decision-making. 165 medical trials were completed in Nizhny Novgorod Regional Oncology Centre, Russia. Independent diagnoses were the results of fine biopsy and histology. Application of wavelet expansion and clasterization techniques for spectra analysis revealed several main spectral types for malignant and benign tumors. Automatic classification algorithm demonstrated specificity ˜90% and sensitivity ˜91%. Large amount of information, fuzziness in criteria and data noisiness make neural networks to be an attractive analytic tool. The model based on three-layer perceptron was tested over the sample of 29 `cancer' and 29 `non-cancer' cases and demonstrated total separation.

  12. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.C.; Lippman, M.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  13. Breast Cancer Prevention Trial - April 30, 1998

    Cancer.gov

    "Breast Cancer Prevention Trial" Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health Statement of Leslie Ford, M.D. Associate Director for Early Detection and Community Oncology National Cancer Institute Before the Congressional

  14. Development of Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Model

    Cancer.gov

    Development of Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Model Mano S. Selvan, Joe Ensor, John Cook, Constance Johnson, Christopher Amos, Melissa Bondy, Therese Bevers, Donald A. Berry. The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd.,

  15. Lgr4 in Breast Cancer Stem Cells 

    E-print Network

    Zeng, Li

    2014-12-11

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among American women. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) comprise a huge family protein with almost 800 members. GPCRs sense molecules or other stimuli outside the cell, and activate intracellular...

  16. Etiology of breast cancer I. Genetic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Vakil, Damodar V.; Morgan, Robert W.

    1973-01-01

    The subject of breast cancer is reviewed with particular emphasis on the genetic aspect of its etiology. A number of studies using various approaches gave the same results: the familial form occurs earlier and there is a higher risk in female members of the breast-cancer families. An association between breast cancer and cancer of certain other sites among women is reported. Cytogenetic studies of “cancer families” revealed increased frequency of aneuploidy in some members. However, the role of chromosome abnormalities in carcinogenesis is still not clear. PMID:4577599

  17. Molecular homology and difference between spontaneous canine mammary cancer and human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Deli; Xiong, Huan; Ellis, Angela E.; Northrup, Nicole C.; Rodriguez, Carlos O.; O'Regan, Ruth M.; Dalton, Stephen; Zhao, Shaying

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneously occurring canine mammary cancer (MC) represents an excellent model of human breast cancer but is greatly understudied. To better utilize this valuable resource, we performed whole genome sequencing, whole exome sequencing, RNA-seq and/or high density arrays on 12 canine MC cases, including 7 simple carcinomas and four complex carcinomas. Canine simple carcinomas, which histologically match human breast carcinomas, harbor extensive genomic aberrations, many of which faithfully recapitulate key features of human breast cancer. Canine complex carcinomas, which are characterized by proliferation of both luminal and myoepithelial cells and are rare in human breast cancer, appear to lack genomic abnormalities. Instead, these tumors have about 35 chromatin-modification genes downregulated, and are abnormally enriched with active histone modification H4-acetylation while aberrantly depleted with repressive histone modification H3K9me3. Our findings indicate the likelihood that canine simple carcinomas arise from genomic aberrations whereas complex carcinomas originate from epigenomic alterations, reinforcing their unique value. Canine complex carcinomas offer an ideal system to study myoepithelial cells, the second major cell lineage of the mammary gland. Canine simple carcinomas, which faithfully represent human breast carcinomas at the molecular level, provide indispensable models for basic and translational breast cancer research. PMID:25082814

  18. Breast Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has come up with a technique to decrease exposure to harmful x-rays in mammographies or breast radiography. Usually, physicians make more than one exposure to arrive at an x-ray film of acceptable density. Now the same solar cells used to convert sunlight into electricity on space satellites can make a single exposure sufficient. When solar cell sensor is positioned directly beneath x-ray film, it can determine exactly when film has received sufficient radiation and has been exposed to optimum density. At that point associated electronic equipment sends signal to cut off x-ray source. Reduction of mammography to single exposures not only reduced x-ray hazard significantly, but doubled the number of patient examinations handled by one machine. The NASA laboratory used this control system at the Huntington Memorial Hospital with overwhelming success.

  19. Male breast cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Fentiman, IS

    2009-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is rare, with the peak age of onset at 71 years. BRCA2 mutations are more frequent than BRCA1 with 20% of cases giving a family history. Risk factors for MBC are poorly understood and include working in high-ambient temperatures and exhaust fume exposure. MBC is associated with hyperoestrogenic states found in liver disease, Klinefelter’s syndrome, gonadal dysfunction or obesity. Most information on treatment of MBC is derived from large randomized trials carried out in female patients. The small numbers of MBC seen in any unit annually has precluded significant trials being carried out. Diagnosis and treatment of MBC is similar to that of female patients, but men tend to be treated with mastectomy rather than breast-conserving surgery. The mainstay of adjuvant therapy or palliative treatment for advanced disease is endocrine, mostly tamoxifen. Prognosis of male patients is equal to that of stage-matched women, but men tend to fare worse because of delay in presentation, leading to a large proportion of patients presenting with stage III or IV disease. Increased input is needed for psychological support for male breast cancer patients. Specific therapeutic questions about MBC need international trials to obtain meaningful answers. PMID:22276005

  20. Physiologic, Metabolic, and Structural Alterations in Breast Cancer

    E-print Network

    Ramanujam, Nimmi

    to surviving breast cancer Sources: American Cancer Society, National Cancer Institute #12;MOTIVATIONPhysiologic, Metabolic, and Structural Alterations in Breast Cancer: Assessment via Optical Society of America Annual Meeting Frontiers in Optics 2006 / Laser Science XXII October 11, 2006 #12

  1. Lymphedema: What Every Woman with Breast Cancer Should Know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services Breast Cancer Support TLC Hair Loss & Mastectomy Products Hope Lodge® Lodging Rides To Treatment Online Support Communities ACS Events Making Strides Against Breast Cancer Walks Coaches vs. Cancer Relay For Life Events ...

  2. BREAST IMAGING The majority of breast cancers found in the United States today are picked up

    E-print Network

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    BREAST IMAGING The majority of breast cancers found in the United States today are picked up different types of radiological studies available to evaluate the breast for the possibility that a cancer history of early breast cancer. The breast tissue is compressed (squeezed) from two different directions

  3. BCSC Grants: Hormone Replacement Therapy & Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    The overarching goal of this proposal is to improve women's health through enhanced understanding of the role of prescription and over-the-counter postmenopausal hormone therapy use and obesity on breast cancer screening, breast cancer risk, and health-related quality of life.

  4. Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR) Cohort

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR) Cohort is an international resource of multi-generational families, data, and biospecimens established in 1995 for interdisciplinary collaborative research on the genetic epidemiology of breast cancer. Questionnaire data, clinical data and (when available) biospecimens have been collected for over 30,000 women and men from nearly 12,000 families.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility
    Suzanne. E. Fenton
    US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  6. THE LONG ISLAND BREAST CANCER STUDY (LIBCSP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NIEHS and the NCI are collaborating on the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP), which is designed to conduct epidemiologic research on the role of environmental factors in the etiology of breast cancer in women who live in Nassau and Suffolk counties, New York. T...

  7. Industrialization, electromagnetic fields, and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kheifets, L I; Matkin, C C

    1999-01-01

    The disparity between the rates of breast cancer in industrialized and less-industrialized regions has led to many hypotheses, including the theory that exposure to light-at-night and/or electromagnetic fields (EMF) may suppress melatonin and that reduced melatonin may increase the risk of breast cancer. In this comprehensive review we consider strengths and weaknesses of more than 35 residential and occupational epidemiologic studies that investigated the association between EMF and breast cancer. Although most of the epidemiologic data do not provide strong support for an association between EMF and breast cancer, because of the limited statistical power as well as the possibility of misclassification and bias present in much of the existing data, it is not possible to rule out a relationship between EMF and breast cancer. We make several specific recommendations for future studies carefully designed to test the melatonin-breast cancer and EMF-breast cancer hypotheses. Future study designs should have sufficient statistical power to detect small to moderate associations; include comprehensive exposure assessments that estimate residential and occupational exposures, including shift work; focus on a relevant time period; control for known breast cancer risks; and pay careful attention to menopausal and estrogen receptor status. PMID:10229714

  8. DDT, endocrine disruption and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Ana M.; Sonnenschein, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Developmental exposure to endocrine disruptors is suspected to be one of the main factors responsible for the increased incidence of breast cancer in industrialized countries. New data published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism show that exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane during fetal life is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. PMID:26239610

  9. Improving Breast Cancer Care for Older Women

    Cancer.gov

    Earlier diagnosis, improved treatment, and the overall increase in average lifespan continue to expand the number of breast cancer survivors who are aged 65 and older. This population is already estimated to be one million of the total 2.3 million breast cancer survivors.

  10. CISNET: Comparative Analyses in Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    While the results of the New England Journal of Medicine paper, described as a landmark study, considered the benefits of what might be termed “first generation” chemotherapy and tamoxifen, new chemotherapy regimens, including anthracycline-based regimens and taxanes, aromatase inhibitors for ER positive breast cancers, and trastuzumab for HER-2 positive tumors, have dramatically improved prognosis for breast cancer patients.

  11. KeraStat Skin Therapy in Treating Radiation Dermatitis in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage 0-IIIA Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-28

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Skin Reactions Secondary to Radiation Therapy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  12. Trastuzumab Emtansine in Treating Older Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-11

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2 Positive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  13. GDC-0941 and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Androgen Receptor-Negative Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-17

    Estrogen Receptor Negative Breast Cancer; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  14. The Changing World of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Christiane K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Compared with other fields of medicine, there is hardly an area that has seen such fast development as the world of breast cancer. Indeed, the way we treat breast cancer has changed fundamentally over the past decades. Breast imaging has always been an integral part of this change, and it undergoes constant adjustment to new ways of thinking. This relates not only to the technical tools we use for diagnosing breast cancer but also to the way diagnostic information is used to guide treatment. There is a constant change of concepts for and attitudes toward breast cancer, and a constant flux of new ideas, new treatment approaches, and new insights into the molecular and biological behavior of this disease. Clinical breast radiologists and even more so, clinician scientists, interested in breast imaging need to keep abreast with this rapidly changing world. Diagnostic or treatment approaches that are considered useful today may be abandoned tomorrow. Approaches that seem irrelevant or far too extravagant today may prove clinically useful and adequate next year. Radiologists must constantly question what they do, and align their clinical aims and research objectives with the changing needs of contemporary breast oncology. Moreover, knowledge about the past helps better understand present debates and controversies. Accordingly, in this article, we provide an overview on the evolution of breast imaging and breast cancer treatment, describe current areas of research, and offer an outlook regarding the years to come. PMID:26083829

  15. Cancer Detection and Prevention 26 (2002) 192196 Mastalgia and breast cancer: a protective association?

    E-print Network

    Apkarian, A. Vania

    2002-01-01

    Cancer Detection and Prevention 26 (2002) 192­196 Mastalgia and breast cancer: a protective to breast cancer risk. We have examined the association between mastalgia and breast cancer in the patient breast cancer risk factor information, 1532 (28%) reported breast pain as an incidental complaint

  16. Claudin 1 in Breast Cancer: New Insights

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bowen; Moodie, Amanda; Blanchard, Anne A. A.; Leygue, Etienne; Myal, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Claudin 1 is a small transmembrane protein responsible for maintaining the barrier function that exists between epithelial cells. A tight junction protein that regulates the paracellular transport of small ions across adjacent cells, claudin 1 maintains cellular polarity and plays a major role in cell-cell communication and epithelial cell homeostasis. Long considered to be a putative tumor suppressor in human breast cancer, new studies suggest a role much more complex. While most invasive breast cancers exhibit a down regulation or absence of claudin 1, some aggressive subtypes that exhibit high claudin 1 levels have now been described. Furthermore, a causal role for claudin 1 in breast cancer progression has recently been demonstrated in some breast cancer cell lines. In this review we highlight new insights into the role of claudin 1 in breast cancer, including its involvement in collective migration and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). PMID:26633531

  17. Cancer and fertility preservation: fertility preservation in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Maltaris, Theodoros; Weigel, Michael; Mueller, Andreas; Schmidt, Marcus; Seufert, Rudolf; Fischl, Franz; Koelbl, Heinz; Dittrich, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    Aggressive chemotherapy has improved the life expectancy for reproductive-age women with breast cancer, but it often causes infertility or premature ovarian failure due to destruction of the ovarian reserve. Many questions concerning fertility preservation in breast cancer patients remain unanswered – for example, whether fertility preservation methods interfere with chemotherapy, and whether subsequent pregnancy has negative effects on the prognosis. Fertility preservation is a critical factor in decision-making for younger breast cancer patients, however, and clinicians should address this. The present article reviews the incidence of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea, and discusses fertility-preservation options and the prognosis for patients who become pregnant after breast cancer. PMID:18492214

  18. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Epithelial cell monoculture: Long-term growth of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) grown in monoculture as 3-dimensional constructions in the presence of attachment beads in the NASA Bioreactor. A: A typical construct about 3.5 mm (less than 1/8th inch) in diameter with slightly dehydrted, crinkled beads contained on the surface as well as within the 3-dimensional structure. B: The center of these constructs is hollow. Crinkling of the beads causes a few to fall out, leaving crater-like impressiions in the construct. The central impression shows a small hole that accesses the hollow center of the construct. C: A closeup view of the cells and the hole the central impression. D: Closer views of cells in the construct showing sell-to-cell interactions. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  19. DDT Exposure in Utero and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    La Merrill, Michele; Krigbaum, Nickilou Y.; Yeh, Gregory; Park, June-Soo; Zimmermann, Lauren; Cirillo, Piera M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Currently no direct evidence links in utero dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exposure to human breast cancer. However, in utero exposure to another xenoestrogen, diethylstilbestrol, predicts an increased breast cancer risk. If this finding extends to DDT, it could have far-reaching consequences. Many women were heavily exposed in utero during widespread DDT use in the 1960s. They are now reaching the age of heightened breast cancer risk. DDT exposure persists and use continues in Africa and Asia without clear knowledge of the consequences for the next generation. Hypothesis: In utero exposure to DDT is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Design: This was a case-control study nested in a prospective 54-year follow-up of 9300 daughters in the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort (n = 118 breast cancer cases, diagnosed by age 52 y and 354 controls matched on birth year). Setting and Participants: Kaiser Foundation Health Plan members who received obstetric care in Alameda County, California, from 1959 to 1967, and their adult daughters participated in the study. Main Outcome Measure: Daughters' breast cancer diagnosed by age 52 years as of 2012 was measured. Results: Maternal o,p?-DDT predicted daughters' breast cancer (odds ratio fourth quartile vs first = 3.7, 95% confidence interval 1.5–9.0). Mothers' lipids, weight, race, age, and breast cancer history did not explain the findings. Conclusions: This prospective human study links measured DDT exposure in utero to risk of breast cancer. Experimental studies are essential to confirm results and discover causal mechanisms. Findings support classification of DDT as an endocrine disruptor, a predictor of breast cancer, and a marker of high risk. PMID:26079774

  20. Breast implants following mastectomy in women with early-stage breast cancer: prevalence and impact on survival

    PubMed Central

    Le, Gem M; O'Malley, Cynthia D; Glaser, Sally L; Lynch, Charles F; Stanford, Janet L; Keegan, Theresa HM; West, Dee W

    2005-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the effect of breast implants after mastectomy on long-term survival in breast cancer patients, despite growing public health concern over potential long-term adverse health effects. Methods We analyzed data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Breast Implant Surveillance Study conducted in San Francisco–Oakland, in Seattle–Puget Sound, and in Iowa. This population-based, retrospective cohort included women younger than 65 years when diagnosed with early or unstaged first primary breast cancer between 1983 and 1989, treated with mastectomy. The women were followed for a median of 12.4 years (n = 4968). Breast implant usage was validated by medical record review. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard rate ratios for survival time until death due to breast cancer or other causes for women with and without breast implants, adjusted for relevant patient and tumor characteristics. Results Twenty percent of cases received postmastectomy breast implants, with silicone gel-filled implants comprising the most common type. Patients with implants were younger and more likely to have in situ disease than patients not receiving implants. Risks of breast cancer mortality (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.43–0.67) and nonbreast cancer mortality (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.41–0.85) were lower in patients with implants than in those patients without implants, following adjustment for age and year of diagnosis, race/ethnicity, stage, tumor grade, histology, and radiation therapy. Implant type did not appear to influence long-term survival. Conclusions In a large, population-representative sample, breast implants following mastectomy do not appear to confer any survival disadvantage following early-stage breast cancer in women younger than 65 years old. PMID:15743498

  1. Chapter 27 -- Breast Cancer Genomics, Section VI, Pathology and Biological Markers of Invasive Breast Cancer

    E-print Network

    Spellman, Paul T.

    2011-01-01

    evolution underlying  development of asynchronous metastasis in human breast cancer.  cancer (31,111).  These reconstructions may aid  in understanding tumor evolution and Darwinian evolution (2, 3).  In the case  of cancer, the 

  2. Questionnaires in Identifying Upper Extremity Function and Quality of Life After Treatment in Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-24

    Musculoskeletal Complication; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Therapy-Related Toxicity

  3. Breast Cancer Research and ISSN 0167-6806

    E-print Network

    1 23 Breast Cancer Research and Treatment ISSN 0167-6806 Breast Cancer Res Treat DOI 10.1007/s10549-012-2266-3 Cognitive function and breast cancer: promise and potential insights from functional brain imaging Patricia function and breast cancer: promise and potential insights from functional brain imaging Patricia A. Reuter

  4. Estrogen receptor prevents p53-dependent apoptosis in breast cancer

    E-print Network

    Liu, Xiaole Shirley

    Estrogen receptor prevents p53-dependent apoptosis in breast cancer Shannon T. Baileya,b,c,1) More than two-thirds of breast cancers express the estrogen receptor (ER) and depend on estrogen in the treatment of ER+ breast cancers of all stages. In contrast to ER- breast cancers, which frequently harbor

  5. BCSC Grants: Risk factors for Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes

    Cancer.gov

    Recently, gene expression profiling has identified molecular subtypes that classify invasive breast cancers into distinct categories that vary in their clinical behavior and response to treatment. These subtypes highlight the many possible biologically and clinically distinct types of breast cancer. With such heterogeneity within breast cancer, we might expect that risk factors influence specific subtypes of breast cancer through different etiologic pathways.

  6. Contact Details Journeying Beyond Breast Cancer

    E-print Network

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    Home About Contact Details Facebook Search Journeying Beyond Breast Cancer making sense of the cancer experience Feeds: Posts Comments Cancer-fighting fountain pen May 20, 2009 by JBBC A research team be used both as a research tool in the development of next-generation cancer treatments

  7. Antipsychotic treatment in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Tahir; Clevenger, Charles V; Kaklamani, Virginia; Lauriello, John; Campbell, Austin; Malwitz, Kari; Kirkland, Robert S

    2014-06-01

    Special consideration is required when prescribing antipsychotic drugs for patients with an existing diagnosis of breast cancer. The package inserts of all approved antipsychotics contain precautions regarding their administration in this patient group. These drugs are well known to elevate serum prolactin levels to varying degrees. Overexpression of the prolactin receptor is seen in more than 95% of human breast cancers. Many genes that are activated by the prolactin receptor are associated with tumorigenesis and cancer cell proliferation. The authors discuss the pathophysiology, clinical implications, and pertinent preclinical data and make specific recommendations regarding the use of antipsychotics in patients with breast cancer. PMID:24880509

  8. Image-Based Histologic Grade Estimation Using Stochastic Geometry Analysis

    E-print Network

    Breen, David E.

    Image-Based Histologic Grade Estimation Using Stochastic Geometry Analysis Sokol Petushia Jasper of histologic grading of breast carcinoma due to its subjectivity has tradi- tionally diminished the prognostic value of histologic breast cancer grading. The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness

  9. Diabetes, diabetes treatment and breast cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Virnig, Beth; Hendryx, Michael; Wen, Sijin; Chelebowski, Rowan; Chen, Chu; Rohan, Tomas; Tinker, Lesley; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Lessin, Lawrence; Margolis, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to assess the impact of pre-existing diabetes and diabetes treatment on breast cancer prognosis. 8,108 women with centrally confirmed invasive breast cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative diagnosed between 1998 and 2013 were followed through the date of death or September 20, 2013. Information on diabetes and diabetes therapy were obtained via self-report and face-to-face review of current medication containers, respectively. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate adjusted relative hazard ratios for overall mortality. The proportional subdistribution hazard model was used to estimate hazard ratios for breast cancer-specific mortality. Compared with women without diabetes, women with diabetes had significantly increased risk of overall mortality (HR 1.26 95 % CI 1.06–1.48), especially among those who took insulin or had longer duration of diabetes. However, diabetes was not associated with increased risk of breast cancer-specific mortality, regardless of type of treatment and duration of diabetes, despite the significant association of diabetes with unfavorable tumor characteristics. Our large prospective cohort study provides additional evidence that pre-existing diabetes increases risk of total mortality among women with breast cancer. The increased total mortality associated with diabetes was mainly driven by increased risk of dying from diseases other than breast cancer. Thus, the continuum of care for breast cancer patients with diabetes should include careful attention to CVD risk factors and other non-cancer conditions. PMID:25261292

  10. Breast cancer version 3.2014.

    PubMed

    Gradishar, William J; Anderson, Benjamin O; Blair, Sarah L; Burstein, Harold J; Cyr, Amy; Elias, Anthony D; Farrar, William B; Forero, Andres; Giordano, Sharon Hermes; Goldstein, Lori J; Hayes, Daniel F; Hudis, Clifford A; Isakoff, Steven J; Ljung, Britt-Marie E; Marcom, P Kelly; Mayer, Ingrid A; McCormick, Beryl; Miller, Robert S; Pegram, Mark; Pierce, Lori J; Reed, Elizabeth C; Salerno, Kilian E; Schwartzberg, Lee S; Smith, Mary Lou; Soliman, Hatem; Somlo, George; Ward, John H; Wolff, Antonio C; Zellars, Richard; Shead, Dorothy A; Kumar, Rashmi

    2014-04-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. The overall management of breast cancer includes the treatment of local disease with surgery, radiation therapy, or both, and the treatment of systemic disease with cytotoxic chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, biologic therapy, or combinations of these. The NCCN Guidelines specific to management of large clinical stage II and III tumors are discussed in this article. These guidelines are the work of the members of the NCCN Breast Cancer Panel. Expert medical clinical judgment is required to apply these guidelines in the context of an individual patient to provide optimal care. Although not stated at every decision point of the guidelines, patient participation in prospective clinical trials is the preferred option of treatment for all stages of breast cancer. PMID:24717572

  11. Activity of the kinesin spindle protein inhibitor ispinesib (SB-715992) in models of breast cancer

    E-print Network

    Purcell, James W

    2011-01-01

    in patients with breast cancer, support the continuedin breast cancer. Our findings support the ongoing clinicalsupport further clinical exploration of KSP inhibitors for the treatment of breast cancer.

  12. Influence of increasing breast meat yield on muscle histology and meat quality in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Rémignon, H; Desrosiers, V; Marche, G

    1996-01-01

    The histological characteristics, ie, myofibre types and cross-sectional areas (CSA), of pectoralis major and sartorius muscles of 20 male chickens from two lines (ten birds from each line) divergently selected for breast meat yield were compared. Moreover, some quality parameters (ie, drip loss, ultimate pH value and meat colour) of the breast muscle were recorded. The animals from both lines displayed identical pectoralis major myofibre types and CSA. A slight difference in typology, but not in myofibre CSA, was observed in the sartorius muscle: animals with the highest breast meat yield tended to have a more pronounced glycolytic character. No significant difference was observed in the quality of breast meat (pH, colour and drip loss). PMID:8987104

  13. Overexpression of the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) in breast cancer and its clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Aihua; Dang, Yiwu; Chen, Gang; Mo, Zengnan

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Incidence of breast cancer is increasing and seems to be associated with fatty foods, metabolism, and so on. The fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) has been intensively investigated in diabetes, obesity and the other diseases. Previous studies have reported that FTO SNPs are associated with breast cancer risk. Here, we investigated the expression of FTO in human breast cancer tissues and its relationship with the clinicopathological features. Methods: In this retrospective study, tissues from 79 patients with breast cancer were collected, as well as 43 cases of adjacent breast tissues. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of FTO. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the association between FTO expression and the clinicopathological features of breast cancer. Results: FTO was expressed in both mammary epithelial and breast cancer tissues, but with different degree. The expression level of FTO in breast cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in the adjacent breast tissues (P < 0.001). The percentage of FTO-positive expression in cases with hormone receptor (HR) negative and HER2 amplification was significantly higher than that in those with HR positive and HER2 negative (P = 0.001, P < 0.001). The positivity rate of FTO in breast cancer with P53 positive and histological grade 3 seemed to be higher than that with P53 negative and histological grade 1 or 2, respectively (P = 0.077, P = 0.082). There was no association between FTO expression and age, T stage, LN status, TNM stage, Ki67, and BMI in breast cancer. Besides, FTO expression in HER2-overexpressed subtype was significantly higher than that in Triple-negative and Luminal A/B1 subtypes (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study suggests that FTO expression may have a vital role in the carcinogenesis of breast cancer, especially in HER2-overexpressed breast cancer. PMID:26722548

  14. Cancer Stem Cells in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Ryou-u; Takeshita, Fumitaka; Fujiwara, Tomohiro; Ono, Makiko; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) theory is generally acknowledged as an important field of cancer research, not only as an academic matter but also as a crucial aspect of clinical practice. CSCs share a variety of biological properties with normal somatic stem cells in self-renewal, the propagation of differentiated progeny, the expression of specific cell markers and stem cell genes, and the utilization of common signaling pathways and the stem cell niche. However, CSCs differ from normal stem cells in their chemoresistance and their tumorigenic and metastatic activities. In this review, we focus on recent reports regarding the identification of CSC markers and the molecular mechanism of CSC phenotypes to understand the basic properties and molecular target of CSCs. In addition, we especially focus on the CSCs of breast cancer since the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy can lead to the enrichment of CSCs in patients with that disease. The identification of CSC markers and an improved understanding of the molecular mechanism of CSC phenotypes should lead to progress in cancer therapy and improved prognoses for patients with cancer. PMID:24212663

  15. Analysis of gene expression of secreted factors associated with breast cancer metastases in breast cancer subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Fertig, Elana J.; Lee, Esak; Pandey, Niranjan B.; Popel, Aleksander S.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, having multiple subtypes with different malignant phenotypes. The triple-negative breast cancer, or basal breast cancer, is highly aggressive, metastatic, and difficult to treat. Previously, we identified that key molecules (IL6, CSF2, CCL5, VEGFA, and VEGFC) secreted by tumor cells and stromal cells in basal breast cancer can promote metastasis. It remains to assess whether these molecules function similarly in other subtypes of breast cancer. Here, we characterize the relative gene expression of the five secreted molecules and their associated receptors (GP130, GMRA, GMRB, CCR5, VEGFR2, NRP1, VEGFR3, NRP2) in the basal, HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) positive, luminal A, and luminal B subtypes using high throughput data from tumor samples in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC). IL6 and CCL5 gene expression are basal breast cancer specific, whereas high gene expression of GP130 was observed in luminal A/B. VEGFA/C and CSF2?mRNA are overexpressed in HER2 positive breast cancer, with VEGFA and CSF2 also overexpressed in basal breast cancer. Further study of the specific protein function of these factors within their associated cancer subtypes may yield personalized biomarkers and treatment modalities. PMID:26173622

  16. Adoption of Hypofractionated Whole-Breast Irradiation for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A National Cancer Data Base Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Elyn H.; Mougalian, Sarah S.; Soulos, Pamela R.; Rutter, Charles E.; Evans, Suzanne B.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Gross, Cary P.; Yu, James B.

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship of patient, hospital, and cancer characteristics with the adoption of hypofractionation in a national sample of patients diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study of breast cancer patients in the National Cancer Data Base from 2004-2011 who were treated with radiation therapy and met eligibility criteria for hypofractionation. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with receipt of hypofractionation (vs conventional fractionation). Results: We identified 13,271 women (11.7%) and 99,996 women (88.3%) with early-stage breast cancer who were treated with hypofractionation and conventional fractionation, respectively. The use of hypofractionation increased significantly, with 5.4% of patients receiving it in 2004 compared with 22.8% in 2011 (P<.001 for trend). Patients living ?50 miles from the cancer reporting facility had increased odds of receiving hypofractionation (odds ratio 1.57 [95% confidence interval 1.44-1.72], P<.001). Adoption of hypofractionation was associated with treatment at an academic center (P<.001) and living in an area with high median income (P<.001). Hypofractionation was less likely to be used in patients with high-risk disease, such as increased tumor size (P<.001) or poorly differentiated histologic grade (P<.001). Conclusions: The use of hypofractionation is rising and is associated with increased travel distance and treatment at an academic center. Further adoption of hypofractionation may be tempered by both clinical and nonclinical concerns.

  17. Co-existent breast and renal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Üreyen, Orhan; Dadal?, Emrah; Akdeniz, F?rat; ?ahin, Tamer; Tekeli, Mehmet Tahsin; Eliyatk?n, Nuket; Postac?, Hakan; ?lhan, Enver

    2015-01-01

    The concomitant presence of breast cancer with one or more other types of cancer such as colon, vulva, lung, larynx, liver, uterus and kidneys has been presented in the literature. However, synchronous breast and renal cancer is very uncommon. Herein we present a woman with synchronous breast and renal cancer, and review the literature. A 77-year-old post-menopausal woman was admitted to our clinic complaining of left sided breast mass. On physical examination, there was a 3 cm palpable mass in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast along with a conglomerate of lymph nodes in the left axilla. Ultrasonography and mammography showed a 3 cm solid, hypoechoic mass in the upper outer quadrant and left axillary lymphadenopathy. The tru-cut biopsy of the lesion revealed invasive ductal carcinoma. The bone scintigraphy, thoracic and cranial computerized tomographies were normal. The abdominal computerized tomography identified a 3×3 cm solid renal mass with heterogeneous contrast enhancement in the posterior segment of the lower pole, which was suspicious for renal cell carcinoma. Breast conserving surgery and axillary lymph node dissection was performed, and the pathology specimen demonstrated invasive ductal carcinoma. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 5. Three weeks later partial nephrectomy was performed by urology department for the solid renal mass, and the pathology result showed clear cell-renal carcinoma with Fuhrman grade 3. The patient is being followed-up for renal carcinoma, and underwent radiotherapy for breast cancer. Hormonotherapy for breast cancer is still continuing.

  18. CISNET: Mechanistic Modeling of Breast Cancer Surveillance

    Cancer.gov

    The model will be validated with data on breast cancer from the Utah Population Data Base and the Utah Cancer registry. Using these resources we will obtain initial parameter values for a pertinent estimation algorithm designed for grouped data on breast cancer mortality provided by the National Center for Health Statistics. This two-step estimation procedure will be tested by computer simulations and analyses of epidemiological data.

  19. Circulating testosterone and prostate-specific antigen in nipple aspirate fluid and tissue are associated with breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Edward R; Tichansky, David S; Chervoneva, Inna; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary evidence has associated testosterone and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) with breast cancer. Our objective was to determine whether a) testosterone levels in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF), serum, or breast tissue are associated with breast cancer; b) testosterone levels in serum are associated with levels in NAF; c) PSA in NAF, serum, or breast tissue is associated with breast cancer; and d) serum PSA is associated with NAF PSA levels. We obtained 342 NAF specimens from 171 women by means of a modified breast pump. Additionally, we collected 201 blood samples from 99 women and 51 tissue samples from 41 subjects who underwent surgical resection for suspected disease. Women currently using birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy were excluded from the study. Controlling for age and menopausal status, serum testosterone was significantly increased in women with breast cancer (p = 0.002). NAF and serum testosterone levels were not associated. Neither NAF nor tissue testosterone was associated with breast cancer. Controlling for menopausal status and age, NAF PSA was significantly decreased in women with breast cancer (p < 0.001). We did not find serum PSA to be associated with breast cancer, although we found an indication that, in postmenopausal women, its levels were lower in women with cancer. Serum PSA was associated with NAF PSA in postmenopausal women (p < 0.001). PSA levels in cancerous tissue were significantly lower than in benign breast specimens from subjects without cancer (p = 0.011), whereas levels of PSA in histologically benign specimens from subjects with cancer were intermediate. Our results suggest that serum testosterone is increased and NAF PSA is decreased in women with breast cancer, with PSA expression being higher in normal than in cancerous breast tissues. NAF and serum PSA levels in postmenopausal women are correlated, suggesting that as laboratory assessment of PSA becomes more sensitive, serum PSA may become useful in identifying women with breast cancer. PMID:11882474

  20. Main controversies in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zervoudis, Stephane; Iatrakis, George; Tomara, Eirini; Bothou, Anastasia; Papadopoulos, George; Tsakiris, George

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we have reviewed available evidence for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up in female breast cancer (BC). Into daily clinical practice some controversies are occurred. Especially, in the diagnosis field, despite the fact that the optimal age in which screening mammography should start is a subject of intense controversy, there is a shift toward the beginning at the age of 40 although it is suggested that the net benefit is small for women aged 40 to 49 years. In addition, a promising tool in BC screening seems to be breast tomosynthesis. Other tools such as 3D ultrasound and shear wave elastography (SWE) are full of optimism in BC screening although ultrasonography is not yet a first-line screening method and there is insufficient evidence to recommend the systemic use of the SWE for BC screening. As for breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), even if it is useful in BC detection in women who have a strong family history of BC, it is not generally recommended as a screening tool. Moreover, based on the lack of randomized clinical trials showing a benefit of presurgical breast MRI in overall survival, it’s integration into breast surgical operations remains debatable. Interestingly, in contrast to fine needle aspiration, core biopsy has gained popularity in presurgical diagnosis. Furthermore, after conservative surgery in patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes, the recent tendency is the shift from axillary dissection to axillary conserving strategies. While the accuracy of sentinel lymph node after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and second BC surgery remains controversial, more time is needed for evaluation and for determining the optimal interval between the two surgeries. Additionally, in the decision between immediate or delayed breast reconstruction, there is a tendency in the immediate use. In the prevention of BC, the controversial issue between tamoxifen and raloxifene becomes clear with raloxifene be more profitable through the toxicities of tamoxifen. However, the prevention of bone metastasis with bisphosphonates is still conflicting. Last but not least, in the follow-up of BC survivors, mammography, history and physical examination are the means of an early detection of BC recurrence. ed. PMID:25114851

  1. Second breast cancers in a Tuscan case series: characteristics, prognosis, and predictors of survival

    PubMed Central

    Ciatto, S; Houssami, N; Martinelli, F; Bonardi, R; Cafferty, F H; Duffy, S W

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about long-term outcomes following a second breast cancer diagnosis. We describe the epidemiology, characteristics and prognosis of second breast cancers in an Italian cohort. We identified women with two breast cancer diagnoses from 24?278 histology records at a Tuscan breast cancer service between 1980 and 2005, and determined their survival status. Disease-specific survival from second diagnosis was examined using Cox regression analyses. Second cancers were identified in 1044 women with a median age of 60 years. In all 455 were ipsilateral relapses and 589 were contralateral cancers. Median time between first and second diagnosis was 63.4 months. The majority of second cancers was small invasive or in situ tumours. Estimated 10-year survival from a second cancer diagnosis was 78%. Survival was poorest when the second cancer was large (HR=2.26) or node-positive (HR=3.43), when the time between the two diagnoses was <5 years (HR=1.45), or when the diagnosis was in an earlier epoch (HR=2.20). Second tumours were more likely to be large or node-positive if the first breast cancer had these features. Prognosis following a second breast cancer in this cohort was generally good. However, large or node-positive second tumours, and shorter intervals between diagnoses were indicators of poorer survival. PMID:18628762

  2. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cassano, E; Rizzo, S; Bozzini, A; Menna, S; Bellomi, M

    2006-01-01

    The importance of ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of breast cancer has been widely demonstrated. During the last few years, the introduction of ultrasound contrast media has been considered a promising tool for studying the vascular pattern of focal lesions within the breast. Our purpose was to assess whether contrast-enhanced (CE) ultrasound examination, performed using specific contrast imaging modes, can be helpful for detection and characterization of breast lesions, and for prediction of the response of breast cancer to therapy. PMID:16478698

  3. Psychooncologic Aspects of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Neises, Mechthild

    2008-01-01

    Summary Around one third of all patients reveal signs of stress disorder and adaptation difficulties following breast cancer or during the course of the illness, often manifested clinically as fear and depression. Supportive treatment should be made available to all patients in the form of psycho-educative group sessions introducing information and assistance to help overcome the illness. The indication for extensive treatment, e.g. psychotherapy, can be deduced from the somatopsychic disorders presented. Individual or group therapy will be offered to the patient corresponding to her diagnostics and motivation. The aim of therapy should be discussed openly with the patient, that is, an improvement in the quality of life and the possibility to overcome the situation. In general, the various intervention programmes have proved to be beneficial for patients with cancer. These include relaxation therapy and stress management as well as behavioural therapy and supportive psychotherapy. Patients have high expectations of the therapy offered and this should be taken into careful consideration by all physicians, psychologists and others responsible for administering treatment. The aim of this work is mainly to present the clinical experience gained in a breast centre. PMID:20824031

  4. Chemotherapy With or Without Trastuzumab After Surgery in Treating Women With Invasive Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-07

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Positive; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  5. Exercise Interventions in Breast Cancer Survivors - Office of Cancer Survivorship

    Cancer.gov

    Earlier studies have shown that women who are overweight at the time of breast cancer diagnosis are twice as likely to experience recurrence and death as lighter women. Additionally, women who gained weight (approximately 5 lbs.) after breast cancer diagnosis had a 60-percent increased risk of death compared to women who did not gain weight.

  6. ?-Blockers Reduce Breast Cancer Recurrence and Breast Cancer Death: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Childers, W Kurtis; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Cheriyath, Pramil

    2015-12-01

    The normal physiologic stress mechanism, mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, causes a release of the neurotransmitters epinephrine and norepinephrine. Preclinical data have demonstrated an effect on tumor progression and metastasis via the sympathetic nervous system mediated primarily through the ?-adrenergic receptor (?-AR) pathway. In vitro data have shown an increase in tumor growth, migration, tumor angiogenesis, and metastatic spread in breast cancer through activation of the ?-AR. Retrospective cohort studies on the clinical outcomes of ?-blockers in breast cancer outcomes showed no clear consensus. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of ?-blockers on breast cancer outcomes. A systematic review was performed using the Cochrane library and PubMed. Publications between the dates of January 2010 and December 2013 were identified. Available hazard ratios (HRs) were extracted for breast cancer recurrence, breast cancer death, and all-cause mortality and pooled using a random effects meta-analysis. A total of 7 studies contained results for at least 1 of the outcomes of breast cancer recurrence, breast cancer death, or all-cause mortality in breast cancer patients receiving ?-blockers. In the 5 studies that contained results for breast cancer recurrence, there was no statistically significant risk reduction (HR, 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-1.13). Breast cancer death results were contained in 4 studies, which also suggested a significant reduction in risk (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.32-0.80). Among the 4 studies that reported all-cause mortality, there was no significant effect of ?-blockers on risk (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.75-1.37). Results of this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that the use of ?-blockers significantly reduced risk of breast cancer death among women with breast cancer. PMID:26516037

  7. BCSC Grants: Commonly Used Medications and Breast Cancer Recurrence

    Cancer.gov

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women and it is the second most common cause of cancer mortality. Breast cancer incidence rates have continued to rise since 1980, while mortality rates have declined. As a result, more women are at risk for breast cancer recurrences. Recurrences have important negative consequences requiring a variety of palliative treatments and often lead to death.

  8. Diffusion MRI Methods for Improved Treatment Monitoring in Breast Cancer

    E-print Network

    Aliu, Sheye

    2009-01-01

    K. , Breast cancer: origins and evolution. J Clin Invest,evolution of human premalignant breast disease. Endocr Relat Cancer,cancer involves progression through stages, beginning with ductal hyper-proliferation, subsequent evolution

  9. Computer-Aided Assessment of Tumor Grade for Breast Cancer in Ultrasound Images

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study involved developing a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for discriminating the grades of breast cancer tumors in ultrasound (US) images. Histological tumor grades of breast cancer lesions are standard prognostic indicators. Tumor grade information enables physicians to determine appropriate treatments for their patients. US imaging is a noninvasive approach to breast cancer examination. In this study, 148 3-dimensional US images of malignant breast tumors were obtained. Textural, morphological, ellipsoid fitting, and posterior acoustic features were quantified to characterize the tumor masses. A support vector machine was developed to classify breast tumor grades as either low or high. The proposed CAD system achieved an accuracy of 85.14% (126/148), a sensitivity of 79.31% (23/29), a specificity of 86.55% (103/119), and an AZ of 0.7940. PMID:25810750

  10. A Radial Sclerosing Lesion Mimicking Breast Cancer on Mammography in a Young Woman

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Masashi; Taira, Naruto; Iha, Shigemichi; Nogami, Tomohiro; Shien, Tadahiko; Omori, Masako; Doihara, Hiroyoshi

    2012-01-01

    A spiculated mass on a mammogram is highly suggestive of malignancy. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with a radial sclerosing lesion that mimicked breast cancer on mammography. She visited her physician after palpating a lump in her left breast. Mammography showed architectural distortion in the upper inner quadrant of the left breast. Ultrasonography showed a low echoic area with an ambiguous boundary. Core needle biopsy was performed because of the suspicion of malignancy. Histological examination did not reveal any malignant cells. After 6 months, the breast lump became larger and the patient was referred to our hospital. Mammography performed in our hospital showed a spiculated mass, and therefore mammotome biopsy was performed. Histological examination revealed dense fibroelastic stroma with a wide variety of mastopathic changes, leading to a diagnosis of a radial sclerosing lesion. One year after the biopsy, the lump on her left breast had disappeared and mammography showed no spiculated mass. PMID:22539921

  11. Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preventing Recurrence in Breast Cancer Survivors | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase II trial studies how well docosahexaenoic acid works in preventing recurrence in breast cancer survivors. Docosahexaenoic acid supplement may prevent recurrence in breast cancer survivors.

  12. Metabolic profiling of breast cancer: Differences in central metabolism between subtypes of breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Willmann, Lucas; Schlimpert, Manuel; Halbach, Sebastian; Erbes, Thalia; Stickeler, Elmar; Kammerer, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    Although the concept of aerobic glycolysis in cancer was already reported in the 1930s by Otto Warburg, the understanding of metabolic pathways remains challenging especially due to the heterogeneity of cancer. In consideration of four different time points (1, 2, 4, and 7 days of incubation), GC-MS profiling of metabolites was performed on cell extracts and supernatants of breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, -453, BT-474) with different sub classification and the breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A. To the exclusion of trypsinization, direct methanolic extraction, cell scraping and cell disruption was executed to obtain central metabolites. Major differences in biochemical pathways have been observed in the breast cancer cell lines compared to the breast epithelial cell line, as well as between the breast cancer cell lines themselves. Characteristics of breast cancer subtypes could be correlated to their individual metabolic profiles. PLS-DA revealed the discrimination of breast cancer cell lines from MCF-10A based on elevated amino acid levels. The observed metabolic signatures have great potential as biomarker for breast cancer as well as an improved understanding of subtype specific phenomenons of breast cancer. PMID:26218769

  13. The psychological impact of immediate breast reconstruction for women with early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Stevens, L A; McGrath, M H; Druss, R G; Kister, S J; Gump, F E; Forde, K A

    1984-04-01

    Twenty-five patients were evaluated, 13 who had immediate breast reconstruction and 12 who had delayed breast reconstruction for early breast cancer. Data were elicited about the psychological impact of the cancer, the mastectomy, and the reconstruction. Our results support the conclusion that immediate breast reconstruction is accompanied by a lower incidence of psychological morbidity postoperatively, and we recommend that immediate breast reconstruction be offered as an alternative to women with early breast cancer. PMID:6709743

  14. African American breast cancer survivors participating in a breast cancer support group: Translating research into practice

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Anjanette A.; Gulbas, Lauren; Sanders-Thompson, Vetta; Shon, En-Jung; Kreuter, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite an overall decline in mortality, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death among African American women. As such, clinicians should prepare to address the unique sociocultural and psychological concerns encountered by African American women breast cancer survivors. Objective To examine, using qualitative methods, the main coping facilitators used by African American women as they transition across the cancer continuum. The identification of these facilitators was then aligned with culturally sensitive interventions most useful with women coping with cancer, along the cancer continuum. Methods This was a secondary analysis of 20 video-taped stories of African American breast cancer survivors collected as a part of the Washington University Center for Excellence in Cancer Communications project. The interview began with a discussion of how the survivor first became aware she had breast cancer, followed by a series of open-ended probes used to explore the following themes: coping, relationships, health care system experiences, follow up care, and quality of life living with breast cancer. Results Survivors discussed their experiences and advice for targeting needs at each cancer stage, from screening to diagnosis, treatment, and then survivorship. Survivor narratives point to key evidence-based clinical intervention strategies at each stage of the cancer trajectory. Conclusion This study found that survivors see a cyclical cancer course, whereby African American breast cancer survivors serve an important role in the lives of unscreened women, newly diagnosed women, and women in treatment. PMID:24326669

  15. COMPUTERIZED BREAST CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS FROM FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATES

    E-print Network

    Street, Nick

    1 COMPUTERIZED BREAST CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS FROM FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATES William H. Wolberg methods based on linear programming that were applicable to breast cancer diagnosis and prognostic), and 2) improve breast cancer prognostic estimations. The diagnostic accuracy of FNA to diagnose breast

  16. Ultra-Wideband Imaging Systems for Breast Cancer Detection

    E-print Network

    Genov, Roman

    Ultra-Wideband Imaging Systems for Breast Cancer Detection Hossein Kassiri Bidhendi, Hamed Mazhab system design and its advantages for breast cancer detection after reading this chapter. Keywords Breast cancer detection · Breast imaging · Ultra-wideband imaging · UWB transceiver · UWB pulses · UWB

  17. www.yalecancercenter.org Breast Cancer Awareness

    E-print Network

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    of the medical groups such as the American Cancer Society recommend starting at age 40, and every year after thatwww.yalecancercenter.org Breast Cancer Awareness Month Update Guest Expert: Baiba Grube, MD.wnpr.org #12;Welcome to Yale Cancer Center Answers with Drs. Edward Chu and Dr. Ken Miller. I am Bruce Barber

  18. Cryotherapy in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy and Nail Toxicity in Patients With Breast Cancer Who Are Receiving Paclitaxel

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-06

    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Pain; Peripheral Neuropathy; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Therapy-related Toxicity

  19. Radiation-induced sarcoma of the breast in a female adolescent. Case report with histologic and therapeutic considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, R.; Bianchi, A.; Jakate, S.M.

    1988-06-15

    A 14-year-old girl developed a radiation-induced sarcoma of the left breast after successful combined surgical and radiation therapy of a left adrenal carcinoma when she was 9 months old. The breast lesion was histologically described as a stromal sarcoma with fibrosarcomatous and myxosarcomatous areas. The second primary lesion and local recurrence of this was treated with surgery. At each recurrence the tumor became more aggressive both clinically and histologically, and eventually proved fatal.

  20. Managing breast cancer in the older patient.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Tracey; Shinde, Arvind; Doan, Caroline; Katheria, Vani; Hurria, Arti

    2013-06-01

    Breast cancer is a disease that is associated with aging, with almost one-half of all new breast cancer cases diagnosed annually in the United States occurring in women ages 65 and older. Recent data suggest that although breast cancer outcomes in younger women have shown substantial improvement as a result of advances in treatment and screening, the benefits in older women have been less pronounced. Although older patients have been underrepresented in cancer clinical trials, there is an emerging body of literature to help guide treatment decisions. For early-stage breast cancer, the discussion regarding treatment options involves balancing the reduction in risk of recurrence gained by specific therapies with the potential for increased treatment-related toxicity, potentially exacerbated by physiological decline or comorbidities that often co-exist in the older population. A key component of care is the recognition that chronologic age alone cannot guide the management of an older patient with breast cancer. Rather, treatment decisions must also take into account a patient's functional status, estimated life expectancy, the risks and benefits of the therapy, potential barriers to treatment, and patient preference. This article reviews the available evidence for therapeutic management of early-stage breast cancer in older patients, and highlights data from the geriatric oncology literature that provide a basis on which to facilitate evidence-based treatment. PMID:24472802

  1. Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Screening Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vahabi, Mandana

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess young women's breast health knowledge and explore its relation to the use of screening mammography. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women aged 25-45 residing in Toronto, Canada, with no history of breast cancer and mammography received an information brochure and four questionnaires which assessed their knowledge of…

  2. Optical imaging for breast cancer prescreening

    PubMed Central

    Godavarty, Anuradha; Rodriguez, Suset; Jung, Young-Jin; Gonzalez, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer prescreening is carried out prior to the gold standard screening using X-ray mammography and/or ultrasound. Prescreening is typically carried out using clinical breast examination (CBE) or self-breast examinations (SBEs). Since CBE and SBE have high false-positive rates, there is a need for a low-cost, noninvasive, non-radiative, and portable imaging modality that can be used as a prescreening tool to complement CBE/SBE. This review focuses on the various hand-held optical imaging devices that have been developed and applied toward early-stage breast cancer detection or as a prescreening tool via phantom, in vivo, and breast cancer imaging studies. Apart from the various optical devices developed by different research groups, a wide-field fiber-free near-infrared optical scanner has been developed for transillumination-based breast imaging in our Optical Imaging Laboratory. Preliminary in vivo studies on normal breast tissues, with absorption-contrasted targets placed in the intramammary fold, detected targets as deep as 8.8 cm. Future work involves in vivo imaging studies on breast cancer subjects and comparison with the gold standard X-ray mammography approach. PMID:26229503

  3. Optical Microscope Software for Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers at NCI have developed computer software able to analyze optical microscopic images of human breast tissue sections for diagnosing cancer by using the differences in spatial positioning of certain genes.

  4. Adjuvant Bisphosphonates for Postmenopausal Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of a meta-analysis of randomized trials of bisphosphonates as adjuvant therapy for women with early-stage breast cancer that shows the drugs can reduce the rate of disease recurrence in bone.

  5. ALND for Women with Breast Cancer Micrometastases

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from a randomized clinical trial that compared axillary lymph node dissection versus no axillary lymph node dissection in women with breast cancer and only micrometastases in their sentinel lymph nodes.

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are also shown. Radiation exposure, high levels of estrogen, and a family history of breast cancer can ... Having a disease linked to high levels of estrogen in the body, such as cirrhosis ( liver disease) ...

  7. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Estrogen-alone hormone therapy does not increase the risk ...

  8. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are also shown. Radiation exposure, high levels of estrogen, and a family history of breast cancer can ... Having a disease linked to high levels of estrogen in the body, such as cirrhosis ( liver disease) ...

  9. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are also shown. Radiation exposure, high levels of estrogen, and a family history of breast cancer can ... Having a disease linked to high levels of estrogen in the body, such as cirrhosis ( liver disease) ...

  10. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer Fact Sheet

    Cancer.gov

    A fact sheet that describes hormone therapy (including antiestrogens, LH-RH agonists, aromatase inhibitors, and SERMs) and its role in preventing and treating breast cancer. Includes information about possible side effects.

  11. Investigation into taxane resistant breast cancer 

    E-print Network

    Kenicer, Juliet Elisabeth Margaret

    2011-11-25

    One group of chemotherapeutics that are used successfully to treat breast cancer, alone or in combination with other agents, are the taxanes; paclitaxel and docetaxel. They act by interfering with the spindle microtubule ...

  12. Bringing Breast Cancer Technologies to Market | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    CCR research is recognized in novel competition to encourage the commercialization of breast cancer inventions. Editor’s note: This article was originally published in CCR Connections (Volume 8, No. 1). The Breast Cancer Startup Challenge was named one of six finalists in the HHS Innovates Award Competition, and was one of three finalists recognized by HHS Secretary Sylvia Mathews Burwell and Deputy Secretary Bill Corr. For more information on the Challenge, see previous article on the Poster website.  Start-up companies are instrumental in bringing the fruits of scientific research to market. Recognizing an opportunity to bring entrepreneurial minds to bear on the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, the Avon Foundation for Women partnered with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation to launch the Breast Cancer Startup Challenge.

  13. Platinum Based Chemotherapy or Observation in Treating Patients With Residual Triple-Negative Basal-Like Breast Cancer Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-14

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  14. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Metastatic Breast Cancer, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, or Prostate Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-05

    Male Breast Carcinoma; Prostate Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  15. Molecular imaging using PET for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Chikako; Miyakita, Yasuji; Yoshida, Masayuki; Hamada, Akinobu; Kanayama, Yousuke; Yonemori, Kan; Hashimoto, Jun; Tani, Hitomi; Kodaira, Makoto; Yunokawa, Mayu; Yamamoto, Harukaze; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging can visualize the biological processes at the molecular and cellular levels in vivo using certain tracers for specific molecular targets. Molecular imaging of breast cancer can be performed with various imaging modalities, however, positron emission tomography (PET) is a sensitive and non-invasive molecular imaging technology and this review will focus on PET molecular imaging of breast cancer, such as FDG-PET, FLT-PET, hormone receptor PET, and anti-HER2 PET. PMID:25917108

  16. Modern Breast Cancer Detection: A Technological Review

    PubMed Central

    Nover, Adam B.; Jagtap, Shami; Anjum, Waqas; Yegingil, Hakki; Shih, Wan Y.; Shih, Wei-Heng; Brooks, Ari D.

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is a serious threat worldwide and is the number two killer of women in the United States. The key to successful management is screening and early detection. What follows is a description of the state of the art in screening and detection for breast cancer as well as a discussion of new and emerging technologies. This paper aims to serve as a starting point for those who are not acquainted with this growing field. PMID:20069109

  17. Association of PKC? expression with clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jian; Liu, Zhipei; Li, Haixin; Sun, Jingyan; Chang, Xinzhong; Liu, Jing; He, Shanshan; Li, Binghui

    2014-01-01

    The protein kinase C (PKC) family has been functionally linked to cancer. It has been suggested that atypical PKCs contribute to cell proliferation and cancer progression. With respect to breast cancer, PKC? has been found to play a key role in intracellular transduction of mitogenic and apoptotic signals using mammary cell lines. However, little is known about its function in vivo. Here we examined the correlation between PKC? protein levels and important clinicopathologic factors in breast cancer using patient samples. To conduct the study, 30 invasive ductal carcinoma cases and their paired normal tissues were used for tissue microarray analysis (TMA) and 16 were used for western blot analysis. In addition, the correlation between PKC? expression levels and clinicopathologic characteristics was determined in 176 cases with relevant clinical data. Finally, the correlation between PKC? and epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expressions was determined using three breast cancer cell lines by western blot analysis. Both TMA and western blot results showed that PKC? protein was highly expressed in primary tumors but not in paired normal tissue. The correlation study indicated that high PKC? levels were associated with premenopausal patients (p?=?0.019) and worse prognostic factors, such as advanced clinical stage, more lymph node involvement and larger tumor size. Both disease-free survival and overall survival rates were lower in the high PKC? group than those in the low PKC? group. No correlation was observed between PKC? levels and age, histological grade, or estrogen or progesterone receptor expression status. A positive correlation between PKC? and HER2 levels was observed in both tumor samples and cell lines. Our observations link PKC? expression with factors pointing to worse prognosis, higher HER2 levels and a lower survival rate. This suggests that PKC? protein levels may serve as a prognostic marker of breast cancer. PMID:24603690

  18. Adherence to cancer prevention guidelines and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Catsburg, Chelsea; Miller, Anthony B; Rohan, Thomas E

    2014-11-15

    Healthy eating patterns and keeping physically active are potentially more important for chronic disease prevention than intake or exclusion of specific food items or nutrients. To this end, many health organizations routinely publish dietary and lifestyle recommendations aimed at preventing chronic disease. Using data from the Canadian National Breast Screening Study, we investigated the association between breast cancer risk and adherence to two sets of guidelines specific for cancer prevention, namely the American Cancer Society (ACS) Guidelines and the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) Recommendations. At baseline, 49,613 women completed dietary and lifestyle questionnaires and height and weight measurements were taken. During a mean follow-up of 16.6 years, 2,503 incident cases of breast cancer were ascertained. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of meeting each guideline, and number of guidelines met, with breast cancer risk. The two sets of guidelines yielded similar results. Specifically, adherence to all six ACS guidelines was associated with a 31% reduction in breast cancer risk when compared to subjects adhering to at most one guideline (HR=0.69; 95% CI=0.49-0.97); similarly, adherence to six or seven of the WCRF/AICR guidelines was also associated with a 31% reduction in breast cancer risk (HR=0.69; 95% CI=0.47-1.00). Under either classification, meeting each additional guideline was associated with a 4-6% reduction in breast cancer risk. These results suggest that adherence to cancer prevention guidelines is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. PMID:24723234

  19. Breast Cancer Version 2.2015.

    PubMed

    Gradishar, William J; Anderson, Benjamin O; Balassanian, Ron; Blair, Sarah L; Burstein, Harold J; Cyr, Amy; Elias, Anthony D; Farrar, William B; Forero, Andres; Giordano, Sharon Hermes; Goetz, Matthew; Goldstein, Lori J; Hudis, Clifford A; Isakoff, Steven J; Marcom, P Kelly; Mayer, Ingrid A; McCormick, Beryl; Moran, Meena; Patel, Sameer A; Pierce, Lori J; Reed, Elizabeth C; Salerno, Kilian E; Schwartzberg, Lee S; Smith, Karen Lisa; Smith, Mary Lou; Soliman, Hatem; Somlo, George; Telli, Melinda; Ward, John H; Shead, Dorothy A; Kumar, Rashmi

    2015-04-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. The overall management of breast cancer includes the treatment of local disease with surgery, radiation therapy, or both, and the treatment of systemic disease with cytotoxic chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, biologic therapy, or combinations of these. This portion of the NCCN Guidelines discusses recommendations specific to the locoregional management of clinical stage I, II, and IIIA (T3N1M0) tumors. PMID:25870381

  20. Mammographic features of early breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sickles, E.A.

    1984-09-01

    Mammographic detection of breast cancer at the earliest possible stage requires optimal radiographic technique and a full knowledge of the subtle features with which very small cancers can present. Although some early cancers are identified as characteristic clusters of calcifications or as spiculated or multinodular (knobby) masses, others demonstrate less typical and sometimes much less obvious mammographic signs: the single dilated duct, focal architectural distortion, asymmetry, and the developing density sign. Although these indirect signs are nonspecific, they provide mammographers with the important opportunity to discover breast cancer at a very early stage, when the likelihood for cure is great.

  1. Hypofractionated Image Guided Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IV Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-22

    Central Nervous System Metastases; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma With Predominant in Situ Component; Liver Metastases; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lung Metastases; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Tumors Metastatic to Brain

  2. Autophagy Inhibition to Increase Radiosensitization in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Diana Hwang; El-Zein, Randa; Dave, Bhuvanesh

    2015-01-01

    Currently, many breast cancer patients with localized breast cancer undergo breast-conserving therapy, consisting of local excision followed by radiation therapy. Following radiation therapy, breast cancer cells are noted to undergo induction of autophagy, development of radioresistance, and enrichment of breast cancer stem cell subpopulations. It is hypothesized that inhibition of the cytoprotective autophagy that arises following radiation therapy increases radiosensitivity and confers longer relapse-free survival by eliminating tumor-initiating breast cancer stem cells. Therefore, we reviewed the controversial role of autophagy in breast cancer tumorigenesis and progression, autophagy induction by radiotherapy, and utilization of autophagy inhibitors to increase radiosensitivity of breast cancer and to target radioresistant breast cancer stem cells.

  3. www.yalecancercenter.org Coping with a Breast Cancer

    E-print Network

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    www.yalecancercenter.org Coping with a Breast Cancer Diagnosis Guest Expert: Michael DiGiovanna, MD School of Medicine and Yale Cancer Center, specializing in the treatment of breast cancer. Here is Ed Chu. Chu Why don't we start off by first defining what breast cancer is and then maybe you can share

  4. Breast Cancer Prognosis via Gaussian Mixture Regression Tiago H. Falk

    E-print Network

    Shatkay, Hagit

    Breast Cancer Prognosis via Gaussian Mixture Regression Tiago H. Falk Electrical and Computer Eng. Keywords--Prognosis prediction, breast cancer, time-to-recur, auto- matic feature selection, Gaussian, breast cancer continues to be the most common cancer among Canadian women. According to the Canadian Can

  5. Breast Cancer: Modelling and Detection D.J. GAVAGHANa

    E-print Network

    Maini, Philip K.

    Breast Cancer: Modelling and Detection D.J. GAVAGHANa , J.M. BRADYb , C.P. BEHRENBRUCHb , R cancer, breast carcinoma, to illustrate how the modelling can be used in aiding detection. We to meet some of the major challenges in cancer detection. Keywords: Breast cancer; Tumour; Image

  6. 75 FR 62297 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8572 of October 1, 2010 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2010 By the... fight against breast cancer, it remains the most frequently diagnosed type of non-skin cancer and the... will be diagnosed and nearly 40,000 lives will be claimed. During National Breast Cancer...

  7. High Throughput Analysis of Breast Cancer Specimens on the Grid

    E-print Network

    High Throughput Analysis of Breast Cancer Specimens on the Grid Lin Yang1,2 , Wenjin Chen2 , Peter Breast cancer is a malignant neoplasm that can affect both women and men. It is the leading cancer/Alaska Native women [1,2]. The incidence of breast cancer among women has increased gradually from one in 20

  8. Raising the bar for early breast cancer treatment

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    Raising the bar for early breast cancer treatment www.ohsuhealth.com/irreplaceable O H S U I S I R R E P L A C E A B L E OHSU/Knight Cancer Institute is an innovator in early breast cancer treatment to employ the Intrabeam Radiotherapy System for the targeted delivery of early breast cancer treatment. Impa

  9. New Technologies in Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Thill, Marc; Baumann, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Since breast-conserving surgery has become the gold standard for early breast cancer, the development of less radical or less burdensome technologies has been pressed for in order to preserve the patient from unnecessary harm through the operative procedure. Different technical approaches are under evaluation, and some of them are already being used in the clinical setting. The aim of this article is to present a perspective on future breast cancer surgery by shedding light on the current innovative and new techniques. PMID:24647775

  10. Breast Tissue Composition and Immunophenotype and Its Relationship with Mammographic Density in Women at High Risk of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Jia-Min B.; Byrne, David J.; Takano, Elena A.; Jene, Nicholas; Petelin, Lara; McKinley, Joanne; Poliness, Catherine; Saunders, Christobel; Taylor, Donna; Mitchell, Gillian; Fox, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate the cellular and immunophenotypic basis of mammographic density in women at high risk of breast cancer. Methods Mammograms and targeted breast biopsies were accrued from 24 women at high risk of breast cancer. Mammographic density was classified into Wolfe categories and ranked by increasing density. The histological composition and immunophenotypic profile were quantified from digitized haematoxylin and eosin-stained and immunohistochemically-stained (ER?, ER?, PgR, HER2, Ki-67, and CD31) slides and correlated to mammographic density. Results Increasing mammographic density was significantly correlated with increased fibrous stroma proportion (rs (22) = 0.5226, p = 0.0088) and significantly inversely associated with adipose tissue proportion (rs (22) = -0.5409, p = 0.0064). Contrary to previous reports, stromal expression of ER? was common (19/20 cases, 95%). There was significantly higher stromal PgR expression in mammographically-dense breasts (p=0.026). Conclusions The proportion of stroma and fat underlies mammographic density in women at high risk of breast cancer. Increased expression of PgR in the stroma of mammographically dense breasts and frequent and unexpected presence of stromal ER? expression raises the possibility that hormone receptor expression in breast stroma may have a role in mediating the effects of exogenous hormonal therapy on mammographic density. PMID:26110820

  11. Sexuality after breast cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Emilee; Emilee, Gilbert; Ussher, J M; Perz, J

    2010-08-01

    It is widely recognised that women's sexuality can be particularly complex after breast cancer, with sexual changes often becoming the most problematic aspect of a woman's life. The impact of such changes can last for many years after successful treatment, and can be associated with serious physical and emotional side-effects. The objective of this paper is to review research on breast cancer and sexuality from the years 1998 to 2010. Research has documented a range of physical changes to a woman's sexuality following breast cancer, including disturbances to sexual functioning, as well as disruptions to sexual arousal, lubrication, orgasm, sexual desire, and sexual pleasure, resulting from chemotherapy, chemically induced menopause, tamoxifen, and breast cancer surgery. Women's intrapsychic experience of changes to sexuality includes a fear of loss of fertility, negative body image, feelings of sexual unattractiveness, loss of femininity, depression and anxiety, as well as alterations to a sense of sexual self. The discursive construction of femininity and sexuality shapes the way women construct and experience their illness and their body - leading many women to try to appear 'normal' to others post-breast surgery. Finally, the quality of a woman's partnered relationship consistently predicts sexual health post-breast cancer - reinforcing the importance of recognising the intersubjective nature of issues surrounding breast cancer and sexuality. It is concluded that analyses of sexuality in the context of breast cancer cannot conceptualise the physical body separately from women's intrapsychic negotiation, her social and relational context, and the discursive constructions of sexuality and femininity: a material-discursive-intrapsychic interaction. PMID:20439140

  12. Exemestane With or Without Entinostat in Treating Patients With Recurrent Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer That is Locally Advanced or Metastatic

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-07

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  13. Breast metastasis from lung cancer: a report of two cases and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Wang, Shu-Ling; Shen, Hong-Hong; Niu, Feng-Ting; Niu, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Breast metastasis from extra-mammary malignancy is rare. An incidence of 0.4% to 1.3% has been reported in literature. The primary malignancies that most commonly metastasize to the breast are leukemia, lymphoma, and malignant melanoma. In this report, two cases of pulmonary metastasis to the breast were presented. A 40-year-old female manifested a right breast mass of 2-month duration. After physical examination was performed, a poorly defined mass was noted in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast. Another 49-year-old female manifested right breast mass of 5-day duration. A poorly defined mass was noted in the lower inner quadrant of the right breast. Mammography results also revealed breast cancer. The patients underwent local excision. After histological and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted, a primary lung carcinoma that metastasized to the breast was diagnosed. An accurate differentiation of metastasis to the breast from primary breast cancer is very important because the treatment and prognosis of the two differ significantly. PMID:25364582

  14. Ectopic Male Breast Cancer: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Dipti Rani; Bose, Chaitali; Upadhyay, Ashish; Sheet, Saikat; Senapati, Surendra Nath

    2015-08-01

    Carcinoma of male breast constitutes 1% of total breast malignancy. Carcinoma arising from ectopic breast tissue in male is an extremely rare entity and can be misdiagnosed. Ectopic breast tissue may be supernumerary or aberrant one. Despite morphologic difference, ectopic breast tissue presents characteristics analogous to orthoptic breast in terms of functional and pathologic degeneration. Most of the ectopic breast tissue occurs in thoracic or abdominal portion of milk line. If found in a location outside the milk line, it proves a diagnostic dilemma. We are reporting a case of 60-year-old male who presented with a fixed mass of size 10cm×8cm, in right chest wall infraclavicular area of 6 months duration. Histopathology of the mass revealed invasive duct carcinoma. He had no evidence of malignant or occult primary lesion in the bilateral mammary glands. Due to the paucity of the literature, incidence of ectopic male breast cancer and its management is not well understood. There is high probability of misdiagnosis of this disease. To the best of our knowledge this is the first described case of ectopic male breast cancer in the chest wall, not along the milk line, which is being reported here for documentation. PMID:26436033

  15. Ectopic Male Breast Cancer: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Dipti Rani; Upadhyay, Ashish; Sheet, Saikat; Senapati, Surendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma of male breast constitutes 1% of total breast malignancy. Carcinoma arising from ectopic breast tissue in male is an extremely rare entity and can be misdiagnosed. Ectopic breast tissue may be supernumerary or aberrant one. Despite morphologic difference, ectopic breast tissue presents characteristics analogous to orthoptic breast in terms of functional and pathologic degeneration. Most of the ectopic breast tissue occurs in thoracic or abdominal portion of milk line. If found in a location outside the milk line, it proves a diagnostic dilemma. We are reporting a case of 60-year-old male who presented with a fixed mass of size 10cm×8cm, in right chest wall infraclavicular area of 6 months duration. Histopathology of the mass revealed invasive duct carcinoma. He had no evidence of malignant or occult primary lesion in the bilateral mammary glands. Due to the paucity of the literature, incidence of ectopic male breast cancer and its management is not well understood. There is high probability of misdiagnosis of this disease. To the best of our knowledge this is the first described case of ectopic male breast cancer in the chest wall, not along the milk line, which is being reported here for documentation. PMID:26436033

  16. General Information about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  17. Attitudes and Stereotypes in Lung Cancer versus Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, N.

    2015-01-01

    Societal perceptions may factor into the high rates of nontreatment in patients with lung cancer. To determine whether bias exists toward lung cancer, a study using the Implicit Association Test method of inferring subconscious attitudes and stereotypes from participant reaction times to visual cues was initiated. Participants were primarily recruited from an online survey panel based on US census data. Explicit attitudes regarding lung and breast cancer were derived from participants’ ratings (n = 1778) regarding what they thought patients experienced in terms of guilt, shame, and hope (descriptive statements) and from participants’ opinions regarding whether patients ought to experience such feelings (normative statements). Participants’ responses to descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer were compared with responses to statements about breast cancer. Analyses of responses revealed that the participants were more likely to agree with negative descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer than breast cancer (P<0.001). Furthermore, participants had significantly stronger implicit negative associations with lung cancer compared with breast cancer; mean response times in the lung cancer/negative conditions were significantly shorter than in the lung cancer/positive conditions (P<0.001). Patients, caregivers, healthcare providers, and members of the general public had comparable levels of negative implicit attitudes toward lung cancer. These results show that lung cancer was stigmatized by patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals, and the general public. Further research is needed to investigate whether implicit and explicit attitudes and stereotypes affect patient care. PMID:26698307

  18. Genomic tumor evolution of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sato, Fumiaki; Saji, Shigehira; Toi, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    Owing to recent technical development of comprehensive genome-wide analysis such as next generation sequencing, deep biological insights of breast cancer have been revealed. Information of genomic mutations and rearrangements in patients' tumors is indispensable to understand the mechanism in carcinogenesis, progression, metastasis, and resistance to systemic treatment of breast cancer. To date, comprehensive genomic analyses illustrate not only base substitution patterns and lists of driver mutations and key rearrangements, but also a manner of tumor evolution. Breast cancer genome is dynamically changing and evolving during cancer development course from non-invasive disease via invasive primary tumor to metastatic tumor, and during treatment exposure. The accumulation pattern of base substitution and genomic rearrangement looks gradual and punctuated, respectively, in analogy with contrasting theories for evolution manner of species, Darwin's phyletic gradualism, and Eldredge and Gould's "punctuated equilibrium". Liquid biopsy is a non-invasive method to detect the genomic evolution of breast cancer. Genomic mutation patterns in circulating tumor cells and circulating cell-free tumor DNA represent those of tumors existing in patient body. Liquid biopsy methods are now under development for future application to clinical practice of cancer treatment. In this article, latest knowledge regarding breast cancer genome, especially in terms of 'tumor evolution', is summarized. PMID:25998191

  19. Breast cancer risk in MEN1 - a cancer genetics perspective.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Paul

    2015-03-01

    The tumour spectrum associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) has been known for many years. New data suggest that females with MEN1 may face an additional, hitherto unrecognized, risk of early-onset breast cancer. The menin protein is certainly known to have a role in regulating oestrogen receptor activity; but how robust are the data linking MEN1 to breast cancer? This article examines the published data from the viewpoint of a cancer geneticist and considers whether there really is a justifiable indication for enhanced breast surveillance in women with MEN1. PMID:25279812

  20. Leptin–cytokine crosstalk in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Gale; Gonzalez-Perez, Ruben Rene

    2013-01-01

    Despite accumulating evidence suggesting a positive correlation between leptin levels, obesity, post-menopause and breast cancer incidence, our current knowledge on the mechanisms involved in these relationships is still incomplete. Since the cloning of leptin in 1994 and its receptor (OB-R) 1 year later by Friedman’s laboratory (Zhang et al., 1994) and Tartaglia et al. (Tartaglia et al., 1995), respectively, more than 22,000 papers related to leptin functions in several biological systems have been published (Pubmed, 2012). The ob gene product, leptin, is an important circulating signal for the regulation of body weight. Additionally, leptin plays critical roles in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, reproduction, growth and the immune response. Supporting evidence for leptin roles in cancer has been shown in more than 1000 published papers, with almost 300 papers related to breast cancer (Pubmed, 2012). Specific leptin-induced signaling pathways are involved in the increased levels of inflammatory, mitogenic and pro-angiogenic factors in breast cancer. In obesity, a mild inflammatory condition, deregulated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF-? and leptin from adipose tissue, inflammatory and cancer cells could contribute to the onset and progression of cancer. We used an in silico software program, Pathway Studio 9, and found 4587 references citing these various interactions. Functional crosstalk between leptin, IL-1 and Notch signaling (NILCO) found in breast cancer cells could represent the integration of developmental, proinflammatory and pro-angiogenic signals critical for leptin-induced breast cancer cell proliferation/migration, tumor angiogenesis and breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). Remarkably, the inhibition of leptin signaling via leptin peptide receptor antagonists (LPrAs) significantly reduced the establishment and growth of syngeneic, xenograft and carcinogen-induced breast cancer and, simultaneously decreased the levels of VEGF/VEGFR2, IL-1 and Notch. Inhibition of leptin–cytokine crosstalk might serve as a preventative or adjuvant measure to target breast cancer, particularly in obese women. This review is intended to present an update analysis of leptin actions in breast cancer, highlighting its crosstalk to inflammatory cytokines and growth fact ors essential for tumor development, angiogenesis and potential role in BCSC. PMID:23562747

  1. Leptin-cytokine crosstalk in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Newman, Gale; Gonzalez-Perez, Ruben Rene

    2014-01-25

    Despite accumulating evidence suggesting a positive correlation between leptin levels, obesity, post-menopause and breast cancer incidence, our current knowledge on the mechanisms involved in these relationships is still incomplete. Since the cloning of leptin in 1994 and its receptor (OB-R) 1 year later by Friedman's laboratory (Zhang et al., 1994) and Tartaglia et al. (Tartaglia et al., 1995), respectively, more than 22,000 papers related to leptin functions in several biological systems have been published (Pubmed, 2012). The ob gene product, leptin, is an important circulating signal for the regulation of body weight. Additionally, leptin plays critical roles in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, reproduction, growth and the immune response. Supporting evidence for leptin roles in cancer has been shown in more than 1000 published papers, with almost 300 papers related to breast cancer (Pubmed, 2012). Specific leptin-induced signaling pathways are involved in the increased levels of inflammatory, mitogenic and pro-angiogenic factors in breast cancer. In obesity, a mild inflammatory condition, deregulated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF-? and leptin from adipose tissue, inflammatory and cancer cells could contribute to the onset and progression of cancer. We used an in silico software program, Pathway Studio 9, and found 4587 references citing these various interactions. Functional crosstalk between leptin, IL-1 and Notch signaling (NILCO) found in breast cancer cells could represent the integration of developmental, proinflammatory and pro-angiogenic signals critical for leptin-induced breast cancer cell proliferation/migration, tumor angiogenesis and breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). Remarkably, the inhibition of leptin signaling via leptin peptide receptor antagonists (LPrAs) significantly reduced the establishment and growth of syngeneic, xenograft and carcinogen-induced breast cancer and, simultaneously decreased the levels of VEGF/VEGFR2, IL-1 and Notch. Inhibition of leptin-cytokine crosstalk might serve as a preventative or adjuvant measure to target breast cancer, particularly in obese women. This review is intended to present an update analysis of leptin actions in breast cancer, highlighting its crosstalk to inflammatory cytokines and growth factors essential for tumor development, angiogenesis and potential role in BCSC. PMID:23562747

  2. The AURORA initiative for metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zardavas, D; Maetens, M; Irrthum, A; Goulioti, T; Engelen, K; Fumagalli, D; Salgado, R; Aftimos, P; Saini, K S; Sotiriou, C; Campbell, P; Dinh, P; von Minckwitz, G; Gelber, R D; Dowsett, M; Di Leo, A; Cameron, D; Baselga, J; Gnant, M; Goldhirsch, A; Norton, L; Piccart, M

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality among women in the Western world. To date most research efforts have focused on the molecular analysis of the primary tumour to dissect the genotypes of the disease. However, accumulating evidence supports a molecular evolution of breast cancer during its life cycle, with metastatic lesions acquiring new molecular aberrations. Recognising this critical gap of knowledge, the Breast International Group is launching AURORA, a large, multinational, collaborative metastatic breast cancer molecular screening programme. Approximately 1300 patients with metastatic breast cancer who have received no more than one line of systemic treatment for advanced disease will, after giving informed consent, donate archived primary tumour tissue, as well as will donate tissue collected prospectively from the biopsy of metastatic lesions and blood. Both tumour tissue types, together with a blood sample, will then be subjected to next generation sequencing for a panel of cancer-related genes. The patients will be treated at the discretion of their treating physicians per standard local practice, and they will be followed for clinical outcome for 10 years. Alternatively, depending on the molecular profiles found, patients will be directed to innovative clinical trials assessing molecularly targeted agents. Samples of outlier patients considered as ‘exceptional responders' or as ‘rapid progressors' based on the clinical follow-up will be subjected to deeper molecular characterisation in order to identify new prognostic and predictive biomarkers. AURORA, through its innovative design, will shed light onto some of the unknown areas of metastatic breast cancer, helping to improve the clinical outcome of breast cancer patients. PMID:25225904

  3. The AURORA initiative for metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zardavas, D; Maetens, M; Irrthum, A; Goulioti, T; Engelen, K; Fumagalli, D; Salgado, R; Aftimos, P; Saini, K S; Sotiriou, C; Campbell, P; Dinh, P; von Minckwitz, G; Gelber, R D; Dowsett, M; Di Leo, A; Cameron, D; Baselga, J; Gnant, M; Goldhirsch, A; Norton, L; Piccart, M

    2014-11-11

    Metastatic breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality among women in the Western world. To date most research efforts have focused on the molecular analysis of the primary tumour to dissect the genotypes of the disease. However, accumulating evidence supports a molecular evolution of breast cancer during its life cycle, with metastatic lesions acquiring new molecular aberrations. Recognising this critical gap of knowledge, the Breast International Group is launching AURORA, a large, multinational, collaborative metastatic breast cancer molecular screening programme. Approximately 1300 patients with metastatic breast cancer who have received no more than one line of systemic treatment for advanced disease will, after giving informed consent, donate archived primary tumour tissue, as well as will donate tissue collected prospectively from the biopsy of metastatic lesions and blood. Both tumour tissue types, together with a blood sample, will then be subjected to next generation sequencing for a panel of cancer-related genes. The patients will be treated at the discretion of their treating physicians per standard local practice, and they will be followed for clinical outcome for 10 years. Alternatively, depending on the molecular profiles found, patients will be directed to innovative clinical trials assessing molecularly targeted agents. Samples of outlier patients considered as 'exceptional responders' or as 'rapid progressors' based on the clinical follow-up will be subjected to deeper molecular characterisation in order to identify new prognostic and predictive biomarkers. AURORA, through its innovative design, will shed light onto some of the unknown areas of metastatic breast cancer, helping to improve the clinical outcome of breast cancer patients. PMID:25225904

  4. Dietary effects on breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.G. )

    1991-07-20

    Professor Lee and colleagues show a significant effect of dietary red meat intake, no effect of fat, and a protective effect of soya protein on the risk of breast cancer in young women in Singapore. They do not ascribe the red-meat effect to fat in the meat, and offer no alternative explanation. Red meat contains the most readily absorbed form of dietary iron, and there is evidence that increased body iron stores raise cancer risk, perhaps by one or both of two possible mechanisms: (1) boosting the availability of an essential nutrient for cancer cells, and (2) increasing the production of oxygen radicals. In addition, there is some evidence from studies in animals for a role for iron in mammary-tumor induction. Thompson et al administered 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea to groups of rats receiving normal rat chow, a low-iron diet, or an iron-supplemented diet. The group receiving dietary iron supplementation had the greatest mammary-tumor burden, whereas that receiving an iron-restricted diet had fewer tumors than the group on the normal diet (although this latter effect may have resulted merely from reduced body weight in the rats on an iron-restricted diet). The protective effect of soya protein seen by Lee et al may also be related to iron metabolism. Soy beans are a source of phytate, a constituent of most cereals, nuts, and legumes, that avidly binds iron in such a way that it is incapable of catalyzing the production of oxygen radicals. The protective effect of soya protein may be shared by increased intakes of other plant products that are high in phytate but either not consumed in quantity in Singapore or not assessed in the questionnaire Lee et al administered.

  5. MET deregulation in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Landi, Lorenza

    2015-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) is an oncogene encoding for a trans-membrane tyrosine kinase receptor activated by the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). MET has a normal function in organ development during embryogenesis and in tissue homeostasis during adult life. Deregulation of HGF/MET signaling pathway is frequently observed in many cancer types, conferring invasive growth and tendency to progression. MET deregulation is due to gene amplification or increased copy number, gene mutation, receptor over-expression or ligand autocrine loops activation. These events lead to migration, invasion, proliferation, metastatic spread and neo-angiogenesis of cancer cells, suggesting that anti-HGF/MET agents may represent a potential antitumor strategy. In breast cancer (BC), preclinical and clinical data demonstrated the role of HGF/MET signalling pathway in carcinogenesis, disease progression and resistance features. Methods For this review article, all published data on HGF/MET in BC were collected and analyzed. Results Several evidences underline that, in early BC, MET over-expression has an independent negative prognostic significance, regardless of method used for evaluation and BC subtypes. Available data suggest that MET is a relevant target particularly in basal-like (BL) and in triple negative BC. Moreover, preclinical and retrospective data support the critical role of MET deregulation in the development of resistance to target-agents, such as anti-HER2 strategies. Conclusions MET is a promising new target in BC. Several anti-MET agents are under investigation and ongoing clinical trials will clarify its relevance in BC treatment. PMID:26366398

  6. PIP breast implants: rupture rate and correlation with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    MOSCHETTA, M.; TELEGRAFO, M.; CORNACCHIA, I.; VINCENTI, L.; RANIERI, V.; CIRILLI, A.; RELLA, L.; IANORA, A.A. STABILE; ANGELELLI, G.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the incidence of Poly Implant Prosthése (PIP) rupture as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the prevalence of the detected signs and the potential correlation with breast carcinoma. Patients and methods 67 patients with silicone breast implants and clinical indications for breast MRI were evaluated for a total of 125 implants: 40 (32%) PIP in 21 patients and 85 non-PIP in 46 patients (68%), the latest considered as control group. A 1.5-T MR imaging device was used in order to assess implant integrity with dedicated sequences and in 6 cases a dynamic study was performed for characterizing breast lesions. Two radiologists with more than 5 years’ experience in the field of MRI evaluated in consensus all MR images searching for the presence of clear signs of intra or extra-capsular implant rupture. Results 20/40 (50%) PIP implants presented signs of intra-capsular rupture: linguine sign in 20 cases (100%), tear-drop sign in 6 (30%). In 12/20 cases (60%), MRI signs of extra-capsular rupture were detected. In the control group, an intra-capsular rupture was diagnosed in 12/85 cases (14%) associated with extra-capsular one in 5/12 cases (42%). Among the six cases with suspected breast lesions, in 2/21 patients with PIP implants (10%) a breast carcinoma was diagnosed (mucinous carcinoma, n=1; invasive ductal carcinoma, n=1). In 4/46 patients (9%) with non-PIP implants, an invasive ductal carcinoma was diagnosed. Conclusion The rupture rate of PIP breast implants is significantly higher than non-PIP (50% vs 14%). MRI represents the most accurate imaging tool for evaluating breast prostheses and the linguine sign is the most common MRI sign to be searched. The incidence of breast carcinoma does not significantly differ between the PIP and non-PIP implants and a direct correlation with breast cancer can not been demonstrated. PMID:25644728

  7. Genetically engineered ER?-positive breast cancer mouse models.

    PubMed

    Dabydeen, Sarah A; Furth, Priscilla A

    2014-06-01

    The majority of human breast cancers are estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), but this has proven challenging to model in genetically engineered mice. This review summarizes information on 21 mouse models that develop ER+ mammary cancer. Where available, information on cancer pathology and gene expression profiles is referenced to assist in understanding which histological subtype of ER+ human cancer each model might represent. ESR1, CCDN1, prolactin, TGF?, AIB1, ESPL1, and WNT1 overexpression, PIK3CA gain of function, as well as loss of P53 (Trp53) or STAT1 are associated with ER+ mammary cancer. Treatment with the PPAR? agonist efatutazone in a mouse with Brca1 and p53 deficiency and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene exposure in combination with an activated myristoylated form of AKT1 also induce ER+ mammary cancer. A spontaneous mutant in nude mice that develops metastatic ER+ mammary cancer is included. Age of cancer development ranges from 3 to 26 months and the percentage of cancers that are ER+ vary from 21 to 100%. Not all models are characterized as to their estrogen dependency and/or response to anti-hormonal therapy. Strain backgrounds include C57Bl/6, FVB, BALB/c, 129S6/SvEv, CB6F1, and NIH nude. Most models have only been studied on one strain background. In summary, while a range of models are available for studies of pathogenesis and therapy of ER+ breast cancers, many could benefit from further characterization, and opportunity for development of new models remains. PMID:24481326

  8. Life After Breast Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a mastectomy you may think about wearing a prosthesis. Or, you may think about having reconstructive surgery. ... fact sheets in this series: • Breast Reconstruction and Prosthesis • Chemotherapy and Side Effects • Follow-up After Breast ...

  9. Poor Physical Health Predicts Time to Additional Breast Cancer Events and Mortality in Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Saquib, Nazmus; Pierce, John P.; Saquib, Juliann; Flatt, Shirley W.; Natarajan, Loki; Bardwell, Wayne A.; Patterson, Ruth E.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Rock, Cheryl L.; Jones, Lovell A.; Gold, Ellen B.; Karanja, Njeri; Parker, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has been hypothesized to predict time to additional breast cancer events and all-cause mortality in breast cancer survivors. Methods Women with early stage breast cancer (n=2967) completed the SF-36 (mental and physical health-related quality of life) and standardized psychosocial questionnaires to assess social support, optimism, hostility, and depression prior to randomization into a dietary trial. Cox regression was performed to assess whether these measures of quality of life and psychosocial functioning predicted time to additional breast cancer events and all-cause mortality; hazard ratios were the measure of association. Results There were 492 additional breast cancer events and 301 deaths occurred over a median 7.3 years (range: 0.01–10.8 years) of follow-up. In multivariate models, poorer physical health was associated with both decreased time to additional breast cancer events and all-cause mortality (p trend=0.005 and 0.004, respectively), while greater hostility predicted additional breast cancer events only (p trend=0.03). None of the other psycho-social variables predicted either outcome. The hazard ratios comparing persons with poor (bottom two quintiles) to better (top three quintiles) physical health were 1.42 (95% CI: 1.16, 1.75) for decreased time to additional breast cancer events and 1.37 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.74) for all-cause mortality. Potentially modifiable factors associated with poor physical health included higher BMI, lower physical activity, lower alcohol consumption, and more insomnia (p<0.05 for all). Conclusion Interventions to improve physical health should be tested as a means to increase time to additional breast cancer events and mortality among breast cancer survivors. PMID:20878837

  10. BCSC Grants: Dense Breast Tissue Volume and Image Texture Features Assocation with Breast Cancer Risk

    Cancer.gov

    Mammography is an ideal time to assess risk of breast cancer because breast density, one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer, can be assessed from the patient's mammogram. Clinical risk factors are already assessed at the time of mammography. The combination of a qualitative measure of breast density and risk factors estimates a patient's risk of breast cancer more accurately than does either alone, but prediction is still modest.

  11. Chemotherapy of breast cancer in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Rossi, A; Colantuoni, G; Maione, P; Ferrara, C; Airoma, G; Barzelloni, M L; Castaldo, V; Gridelli, C

    2005-01-01

    Breast cancer arises in about 48% of patients older than 65 years and more than 30% occurs in those over 70 years being the leading cause of cancer-related death in women older than 65. Elderly patients tolerate chemotherapy poorly compared to their younger counterpart because of progressive reduction of organ function and comorbidities related to age. For this reason, the elderly have been excluded from or underrepresented in most cancer studies and, in clinical practice, they often receive inadequate and untested treatments. For adjuvant chemotherapy, a low percentage of patients over 70 years of age were included in few trials and always in a proportion much lower than the prevalence of cancer in that age group. Adjuvant chemotherapy, preferably including an anthracycline especially in patients with HER-2/neu-positive tumours, seems to be beneficial in older women who have substantial risk of dying of breast cancer. To date even if there is no specifically randomised study, single-agent chemotherapy probably might be considered a reasonable treatment for advanced breast cancer in the elderly. One of the actual main field of clinical research in the treatment of breast cancer is the role of targeted therapies. Chronologic age is a risk factor for toxicities such as myelosuppression and mucositis, and older patients may require more supportive care. In order to plan medical treatment in breast cancer elderly patients is mandatory to practice a comprehensive geriatric assessment that includes evaluation of comorbidities, functional dependence, socio-economic, emotional and cognitive conditions, an estimate of life expectancy and recognition of frailty. The authors review the literature regarding age-specific chemotherapeutic issues in the management of breast cancer elderly patients. PMID:15723620

  12. Obesity, cholesterol metabolism, and breast cancer pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Donald P; Park, Sunghee; Goulet, Matthew T; Jasper, Jeff; Wardell, Suzanne E; Chang, Ching-Yi; Norris, John D; Guyton, John R; Nelson, Erik R

    2014-09-15

    Obesity and altered lipid metabolism are risk factors for breast cancer in pre- and post-menopausal women. These pathologic relationships have been attributed in part to the impact of cholesterol on the biophysical properties of cell membranes and to the influence of these changes on signaling events initiated at the membrane. However, more recent studies have indicated that the oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC), and not cholesterol per se, may be the primary biochemical link between lipid metabolism and cancer. The enzyme responsible for production of 27HC from cholesterol, CYP27A1, is expressed primarily in the liver and in macrophages. In addition, significantly elevated expression of this enzyme within breast tumors has also been observed. It is believed that 27HC, acting through the liver X receptor in macrophages and possibly other cells, is involved in maintaining organismal cholesterol homeostasis. It has also been shown recently that 27HC is an estrogen receptor agonist in breast cancer cells and that it stimulates the growth and metastasis of tumors in several models of breast cancer. These findings provide the rationale for the clinical evaluation of pharmaceutical approaches that interfere with cholesterol/27HC synthesis as a means to mitigate the impact of cholesterol on breast cancer pathogenesis. Cancer Res; 74(18); 4976-82. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25060521

  13. Exercise after breast cancer treatment: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Dieli-Conwright, Christina M; Orozco, Breanna Z

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offset treatment-related side effects. Noticeable reductions in physical fitness (ie, cardiopulmonary fitness and muscular strength), negative changes in body composition (ie, increase in body mass, decrease in lean body mass, and increase in fat mass), increased fatigue, depression, or anxiety are some of the common side effects of cancer treatments that negatively impact overall quality of life and increase the risk for the development of comorbidities. Exercise plays a vital role in improving cardiopulmonary function, psychological events, muscular strength, and endurance in breast cancer survivors, and thus should be considered as a key factor of lifestyle intervention to reverse negative treatment-related side effects. The purpose of this review is to address current perspectives on the benefits of aerobic and resistance exercise after breast cancer treatments. This review is focused on the well-established benefits of exercise on physical and emotional well-being, bone health, lymphedema management, and the postulated benefits of exercise on risk reduction for recurrence of breast cancer. PMID:26543382

  14. Melatonin: an Inhibitor of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Steven M.; Belancio, Victoria P.; Dauchy, Robert T.; Xiang, Shulin; Brimer, Samantha; Mao, Lulu; Hauch, Adam; Lundberg, Peter W.; Summers, Whitney; Yuan, Lin; Frasch, Tripp; Blask, David E.

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses recent work on melatonin-mediated circadian regulation and metabolic and molecular signaling mechanisms involved in human breast cancer growth and associated consequences of circadian disruption by exposure to light at night (LEN). The anti-cancer actions of the circadian melatonin signal in human breast cancer cell lines and xenografts heavily involve MT1 receptor-mediated mechanisms. In estrogen receptor alpha (ER?)-positive human breast cancer, melatonin, via the MT1 receptor, suppresses ER? mRNA expression and ER? transcriptional activity. As well, melatonin regulates the transactivation of other members of the nuclear receptor super-family, estrogen metabolizing enzymes, and the expression of core clock and clock-related genes. Furthermore, melatonin also suppresses tumor aerobic metabolism (Warburg effect), and, subsequently, cell-signaling pathways critical to cell proliferation, cell survival, metastasis, and drug resistance. Melatonin demonstrates both cytostatic and cytotoxic activity in breast cancer cells that appears to be cell type specific. Melatonin also possesses anti-invasive/anti-metastatic actions that involve multiple pathways including inhibition of p38 MAPK and repression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Studies demonstrate that melatonin promotes genomic stability by inhibiting the expression of LINE-1 retrotransposons. Finally, research in animal and human models indicate that LEN induced disruption of the circadian nocturnal melatonin signal promotes the growth, metabolism, and signaling of human breast cancer to drive breast tumors to endocrine and chemotherapeutic resistance. These data provide the strongest understanding and support of the mechanisms underpinning the epidemiologic demonstration of elevated breast cancer risk in night shift workers and other individuals increasingly exposed to LEN. PMID:25876649

  15. Melatonin: an inhibitor of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hill, Steven M; Belancio, Victoria P; Dauchy, Robert T; Xiang, Shulin; Brimer, Samantha; Mao, Lulu; Hauch, Adam; Lundberg, Peter W; Summers, Whitney; Yuan, Lin; Frasch, Tripp; Blask, David E

    2015-06-01

    The present review discusses recent work on melatonin-mediated circadian regulation, the metabolic and molecular signaling mechanisms that are involved in human breast cancer growth, and the associated consequences of circadian disruption by exposure to light at night (LEN). The anti-cancer actions of the circadian melatonin signal in human breast cancer cell lines and xenografts heavily involve MT1 receptor-mediated mechanisms. In estrogen receptor alpha (ER?)-positive human breast cancer, melatonin suppresses ER? mRNA expression and ER? transcriptional activity via the MT1 receptor. Melatonin also regulates the transactivation of other members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, estrogen-metabolizing enzymes, and the expression of core clock and clock-related genes. Furthermore, melatonin also suppresses tumor aerobic metabolism (the Warburg effect) and, subsequently, cell-signaling pathways critical to cell proliferation, cell survival, metastasis, and drug resistance. Melatonin demonstrates both cytostatic and cytotoxic activity in breast cancer cells that appears to be cell type-specific. Melatonin also possesses anti-invasive/anti-metastatic actions that involve multiple pathways, including inhibition of p38 MAPK and repression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Studies have demonstrated that melatonin promotes genomic stability by inhibiting the expression of LINE-1 retrotransposons. Finally, research in animal and human models has indicated that LEN-induced disruption of the circadian nocturnal melatonin signal promotes the growth, metabolism, and signaling of human breast cancer and drives breast tumors to endocrine and chemotherapeutic resistance. These data provide the strongest understanding and support of the mechanisms that underpin the epidemiologic demonstration of elevated breast cancer risk in night-shift workers and other individuals who are increasingly exposed to LEN. PMID:25876649

  16. Black Women at Raised Risk of Carrying Breast Cancer Genes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health News on: African American Health Breast Cancer Genes and Gene Therapy Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics African American Health Breast Cancer Genes and Gene Therapy About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  17. Reducing Barriers to Use of Breast Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    Investigation to determine whether a telephone counseling intervention aimed at women who are known to underuse breast cancer screening can with, or without, an accompanying educational intervention for their physicians, increase use of breast cancer screening.

  18. Breast Cancer and the Environment on Long Island

    Cancer.gov

    The cornerstone of the LIBCSP is the Breast Cancer and the Environment on Long Island Study, which was undertaken to determine whether certain environmental contaminants increase risk of breast cancer among women on Long Island.

  19. More Evidence That Drinking May Raise Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 155372.html More Evidence That Drinking May Raise Breast Cancer Risk European study found odds for the disease ... the notion that drinking raises women's risk of breast cancer. Researchers from five Spanish universities looked at data ...

  20. Early Detection Still Key to Breast Cancer Survival

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_154995.html Early Detection Still Key to Breast Cancer Survival: Study Despite advances in treatment, finding smaller ... 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Even with recent strides in breast cancer treatment, a woman's chances of surviving the disease ...

  1. Breast Cancer Equally Common Now Among Blacks, Whites

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155419.html Breast Cancer Equally Common Now Among Blacks, Whites In years ... 29, 2015 THURSDAY, Oct. 29, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Breast cancer is now as common among black women as ...

  2. MRIs Before Breast Cancer Surgery on the Rise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_154801.html MRIs Before Breast Cancer Surgery on the Rise: Study Use of imaging ... HealthDay News) -- The use of MRI scans before breast cancer surgery has risen eightfold over the past decade, ...

  3. Mediterranean Diet with Olive Oil Might Cut Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Mediterranean Diet With Olive Oil Might Cut Breast Cancer Risk: Study Odds were reduced 68 percent in ... olive oil may also reduce the risk of breast cancer. Researchers randomly assigned more than 4,200 women, ...

  4. Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (Past Initiative)

    Cancer.gov

    The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project is a multistudy effort to investigate whether environmental factors are responsible for breast cancer in Suffolk and Nassau counties, NY, as well as in Schoharie County, NY, and Tolland County, CT.

  5. New breast cancer committee to establish federal agenda

    Cancer.gov

    A newly formed advisory committee will develop and coordinate a strategic federal research agenda on environmental and genetic factors related to breast cancer. The 19-member Interagency Breast Cancer and Environmental Research Coordinating Committee (IBC

  6. Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    Cancer.gov

    Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium collaborates with three genomic facilities, epidemiologists, population geneticists, and biostatisticians from multiple institutions to study hormone-related gene variants and environmental factors in breast and prostate cancers.

  7. Genetic Variants Offer Breast Cancer Risk Models Small Benefit

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists report that breast cancer risk assessment models, which predict a woman’s chance of developing breast cancer, do not perform better when they include common inherited genetic variants recently linked to the disease.

  8. Racial Differences in Breast Cancer Linked to Genes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on: African American Health Breast Cancer Genes and Gene Therapy Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics African American Health Breast Cancer Genes and Gene Therapy About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  9. New Genetic Clues to Which Breast Cancers Might Return

    MedlinePLUS

    ... More Health News on: Breast Cancer Genes and Gene Therapy Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Breast Cancer Genes and Gene Therapy About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  10. Breast Cancer Risk Assessment SAS Macro (Gail Model)

    Cancer.gov

    A SAS macro (commonly referred to as the Gail Model) that projects absolute risk of invasive breast cancer according to NCI’s Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) algorithm for specified race/ethnic groups and age intervals.

  11. [Public policies for the detection of breast cancer in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Montañez, Olga Georgina; Uribe-Zúñiga, Patricia; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    Breast Cancer is a significant public health problem associated with epidemiological and demographic transitions that are currently taking place in Mexico. Aging and increased exposure to risk factors are thought to increase breast cancer incidence, having great relevance for the society and health services. Under this scenario, the health system must respond to the growing needs for better breast cancer screening services. In this paper we present an update of breast cancer mortality, general international recommendations for breast cancer screening programs and key aspects of the Mexico Action Program for Breast Cancer Screening and Control 2007-2012. Breast cancer policies are aimed at organizing and increasing the infrastructure to develop a National Program for Detection, Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer with optimal quality, friendliness and respect for patient's rights. PMID:19967293

  12. What's New in Breast Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Next Topic Additional resources for breast cancer What`s new in breast cancer research and treatment? Research into ... can help some women avoid overly aggressive treatment. New laboratory tests Circulating tumor cells Researchers have found ...

  13. The Reproductive Factors Linked to Breast Cancer Risk

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    . Breastfeeding decreases breast cancer risk and is a good example of an established, modifiable risk factor affect the age of menarche. Breastfeeding and Other Reproductive Factors for Breast Cancer BCERFBriefs

  14. Incorporating tumour pathology information into breast cancer risk prediction algorithms

    E-print Network

    Mavaddat, Nasim; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Easton, Douglas F.; Antoniou, Antonis C.

    2010-05-18

    Abstract Introduction Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 confer high risks of breast cancer and ovarian cancer. The risk prediction algorithm BOADICEA (Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm) may be used...

  15. Psychological and social aspects of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Patricia A

    2008-05-01

    Breast cancer treatments today are likely to cause less physical deformity from surgery than a half-century ago, but are more complex and extend over a longer period of time. Women today are often well informed about the details of their cancer diagnosis and prognosis, and are increasingly involved in shared decision-making regarding treatment. Although serious depression is not seen in the majority of breast cancer patients and survivors, many will experience treatment-related distress, fear of recurrence, changes in body image and sexuality, as well as physical toxicities that result from adjuvant therapy. This paper discusses the importance of identifying the psychological and social concerns of breast cancer patients in the medical setting, and assisting them in obtaining appropriate psychosocial services. PMID:18561553

  16. A Proposal to Unify the Classification of Breast and Prostate Cancers Based on the Anatomic Site of Cancer Origin and on Long-term Patient Outcome.

    PubMed

    Tabár, László; Dean, Peter B; Yen, Amy M-F; Tarján, Miklós; Chiu, Sherry Y-H; Chen, Sam L-S; Fann, Jean C-Y; Chen, Tony H-H

    2014-01-01

    The similarity between the structure and function of the breast and prostate has been known for a long time, but there are serious discrepancies in the terminology describing breast and prostate cancers. The use of the large, thick-section (3D) histology technique for both organs exposes the irrationality of the breast cancer terminology. Pathologists with expertise in diagnosing prostate cancer take the anatomic site of cancer origin into account when using the terms AAP (acinar adenocarcinoma of the prostate) and DAP (ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate) to distinguish between the prostate cancers originating primarily from the fluid-producing acinar portion of the organ (AAP) and the tumors originating either purely from the larger ducts (DAP) or from both the acini and the main ducts combined (DAP and AAP). Long-term patient outcome is closely correlated with the terminology, because patients with DAP have a significantly poorer prognosis than patients with AAP. The current breast cancer terminology could be improved by modeling it after the method of classifying prostate cancer to reflect the anatomic site of breast cancer origin and the patient outcome. The long-term survival curves of our consecutive breast cancer cases collected since 1977 clearly show that the non-palpable, screen-detected breast cancers originating from the milk-producing acini have excellent prognosis, irrespective of their histologic malignancy grade or biomarkers. Correspondingly, the breast cancer subtypes of truly ductal origin have a significantly poorer outcome, despite recent improvements in diagnosis and therapy. The mammographic appearance of breast cancers reflects the underlying tissue structure. Addition of these "mammographic tumor features" to the currently used histologic phenotypes makes it possible to distinguish the breast cancer cases of ductal origin with a poor outcome, termed DAB (ductal adenocarcinoma of the breast), from the more easily managed breast cancers of acinar origin, termed AAB (acinar adenocarcinoma of the breast), which have a significantly better outcome. This simple and easily communicable terminology could lead to better communication between the diagnostic and therapeutic team members and result in more rational treatment planning for the benefit of their patients. PMID:24653647

  17. Breast cancer and spaceflight: risk and management.

    PubMed

    Barr, Yael R; Bacal, Kira; Jones, Jeffrey A; Hamilton, Douglas R

    2007-04-01

    Spaceflight exposes astronauts to a host of environmental factors which could increase their risk for cancer. Epidemiological studies have shown an increased incidence of breast cancer in female commercial flight attendants, with occupational risk factors as one of the proposed mechanisms for the higher incidence in this cohort. Since female astronauts are exposed to similar occupational conditions as flight attendants, they too may be at an increased risk for breast cancer. With the planning of exploration class missions to the Moon and to Mars it is important to assess and minimize the risk for breast malignancy, and to have a well-defined protocol for the diagnosis and treatment of a breast mass discovered during a mission. Risk factors for development of breast cancer in the female astronaut include ionizing radiation, disrupted melatonin homeostasis secondary to circadian shifting, chemical exposure, and changes in immune function. Preflight, in-flight, and postflight screening and management modalities include imaging and fine needle aspiration (FNA). Employing such a strategy may provide a viable management approach in the case of a newly diagnosed breast mass inflight. PMID:17511296

  18. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Sickles, E.A. )

    1991-10-01

    Mammography is generally accepted as a useful problem-solving clinical tool in characterizing known breast lesions, so that appropriate and timely treatment can be given. However, it remains grossly underutilized at what it does best: screening. The major strengths of mammography are (a) its ability to detect breast cancer at a smaller, potentially more curable stage than any other examination, and (b) its proved efficacy in reducing breast cancer mortality in asymptomatic women aged 40-74. If, as has recently been estimated, screening with mammography and physical examination can be expected to lower breast cancer deaths by 40%-50% among those actually examined (13), then the lives of almost 20,000 U.S. women might be saved each year if screening were to become very widely used. The challenges of the next decade are clear, to mount much more effective campaigns to educate physicians and lay women about the life-saving benefits of breast cancer screening, to devise increasingly effective and lower cost screening strategies, to further improve the current high quality of mammographic imaging despite its increasing proliferation, and to train large numbers of breast imaging specialists to guarantee that the growing case load of screening and problem-solving mammograms is interpreted with a very high level of skill.

  19. Combination Chemotherapy and Filgrastim Before Surgery in Treating Patients With HER2-Positive Breast Cancer That Can Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-07

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  20. Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride and Carboplatin Followed by Surgery and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Triple Negative Stage II-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-10

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  1. A Phase III Trial Comparing Two Dose-dense, Dose-intensified Approaches (ETC and PM(Cb)) for Neoadjuvant Treatment of Patients With High-risk Early Breast Cancer (GeparOcto)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-30

    Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II; Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III; Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II; Breast Cancer Female NOS; Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer; HER2 Positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  2. Breast Cancer Basics and You: Detection and Diagnosis | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Basics and You: Detection and Diagnosis Past Issues / ... regular clinical breast exams and mammograms to find breast cancer early, when treatment is more likely to work ...

  3. Resolving breast cancer heterogeneity by searching reliable protein cancer biomarkers in the breast fluid secretome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the major goals in cancer research is to find and evaluate the early presence of biomarkers in human fluids and tissues. To resolve the complex cell heterogeneity of a tumor mass, it will be useful to characterize the intricate biomolecular composition of tumor microenvironment (the so called cancer secretome), validating secreted proteins as early biomarkers of cancer initiation and progression. This approach is not broadly applicable because of the paucity of well validated and FDA-approved biomarkers and because most of the candidate biomarkers are mainly organ-specific rather than tumor-specific. For these reasons, there is an urgent need to identify and validate a panel of biomarker combinations for early detection of human tumors. This is especially important for breast cancer, the cancer spread most worldwide among women. It is well known that patients with early diagnosed breast cancer live longer, require less extensive treatment and fare better than patients with more aggressive and/or advanced disease. Results In the frame of searching breast cancer biomarkers (especially using nipple aspirate fluid mirroring breast microenvironment), studies have highlighted an optimal combination of well-known biomarkers: uPA + PAI-1 + TF. When individually investigated they did not show perfect accuracy in predicting the presence of breast cancer, whereas the triple combination has been demonstrated to be highly predictive of pre-cancer and/or cancerous conditions, approaching 97-100% accuracy. Conclusion Despite the heterogeneous composition of breast cancer and the difficulties to find specific breast cancer biomolecules, the noninvasive analysis of the nipple aspirate fluid secretome may significantly improve the discovery of promising biomarkers, helping also the differentiation among benign and invasive breast diseases, opening new frontiers in early oncoproteomics. PMID:23849048

  4. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Cancer.gov

    One of the largest studies conducted to date pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer and confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia (excess breast tissue). These results appeared February 19, 2014 in the Journal of National Cancer Institute. Read the full NCI News Note on the study.

  5. PET/MR in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tabouret-Viaud, Claire; Botsikas, Diomidis; Delattre, Bénédicte M A; Mainta, Ismini; Amzalag, Gaël; Rager, Olivier; Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Miralbell, Raymond; Ratib, Osman

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer is an international public health concern in which an optimal treatment plan requires a precise staging. Both MRI and PET imaging techniques have made significant progress in the last decades with constant improvements that made both modalities clinically relevant in several stages of breast cancer management and follow-up. On one hand, specific breast MRI permits high diagnostic accuracy for local tumor staging, and whole-body MRI can also be of great use in distant staging, eventually accompanied by organ-specific MRI sequences. Moreover, many different MRI sequences can be performed, including functional MRI, letting us foresee important improvements in breast cancer characterization in the future. On the contrary, (18)F-FDG-PET has a high diagnostic performance for the detection of distant metastases, and several other tracers currently under development may profoundly affect breast cancer management in the future with better determination of different types of breast cancers allowing personalized treatments. As a consequence PET/MR is a promising emerging technology, and it is foreseeable that in cases where both PET and MRI data are needed, a hybrid acquisition is justified when available. However, at this stage of deployment of such hybrid scanners in a clinical setting, more data are needed to demonstrate their added value beyond just patient comfort of having to undergo a single examination instead of two, and the higher confidence of diagnostic interpretation of these co-registered images. Optimized imaging protocols are still being developed and are prone to provide more efficient hybrid protocols with a potential improvement in diagnostic accuracy. More convincing studies with larger number of patients as well as cost-effectiveness studies are needed. This article provides insights into the current state-of-the-art of PET/MR in patients with breast cancer and gives an outlook on future developments of both imaging techniques and potential applications in the future. PMID:26050658

  6. Breast Cancer Survivorship Care: Targeting a Colorectal Cancer Education Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Homan, Sherri G.; Yun, Shumei; Stewart, Bob R.; Armer, Jane M.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer survivors are at risk of developing a second primary cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading second primary cancers, and it is often preventable. We developed a multi-component educational tool to inform and encourage women breast cancer survivors to engage in CRC screening. To assess the strengths and weakness of the tool and to improve the relevancy to the target audience, we convened four focus groups of women breast cancer survivors in Missouri. We also assessed the potential impact of the tool on the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding CRC and collected information on the barriers to CRC screening through pre- and post-focus groups’ questionnaires. A total of 43 women breast cancer survivors participated and provided very valuable suggestions on design and content to update the tool. Through the process and comparing pre- and post-focus group assessments, a significantly higher proportion of breast cancer survivors strongly agreed or agreed that CRC is preventable (78.6% vs. 96.9%, p = 0.02) and became aware that they were at a slightly increased risk for CRC (18.6% vs. 51.7%, p = 0.003). The most cited barrier was the complexity of preparation for colonoscopy. PMID:26258794

  7. Fine needle aspiration cytology of minimal breast cancer in Istria County.

    PubMed

    Besser-Silconi, Zana; Lozi?, Alex Anton Bruno; Misljenovi?, Nadia

    2010-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumour and leading cause of death in women aged 35 to 64 years in Istria County. The minimal invasive carcinoma and in situ carcinoma have a better prognosis so we try to find them during preventive exams. The aim of this study was to identify minimal breast cancers in fine needle aspiration biopsies of breast lesions made in Pula General Hospital between the years 2006 and 2008. There were 39 tumours with a maximal diameter of less than 10 mm in 1316 biopsies and 251 cytologically diagnosed breast cancers. In most cases, they were solitary, well differentiated neoplasms (48.7%). They were diagnosed in women aged 39 to 89 years and most frequently found in women aged 60 to 69 years. The most frequent histological type of operated minimal breast carcinomas was invasive ductal carcinoma. In that period, the minimal breast cancer percentage of all cytologically diagnosed breast cancers was 15.5% but in the first 6 months of 2009, the result was 48.7%. PMID:20698136

  8. Histone H1 Phosphorylation in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. The need for new clinical biomarkers in breast cancer is necessary to further predict prognosis and therapeutic response. In this article, the LC-MS histone H1 phosphorylation profiles were established for three distinct breast cancer cell lines. The results show that the extent of H1 phosphorylation can distinguish between the different cell lines. The histone H1 from the metastatic cell line, MDA-MB-231, was subjected to chemical derivitization and LC-MS/MS analysis. The results suggest that the phosphorylation at threonine 146 is found on both histone H1.2 and histone H1.4. Cell lines were then treated with an extracellular stimulus, estradiol or kinase inhibitor LY294002, to monitor changes in histone H1 phosphorylation. The data show that histone H1 phosphorylation can increase and decrease in response to extracellular stimuli. Finally, primary breast tissues were stained for the histone H1 phosphorylation at threonine 146. Variable staining patterns across tumor grades and subtypes were observed with pT146 labeling correlating with tumor grade. These results establish the potential for histone H1 phosphorylation at threonine 146 as a clinical biomarker in breast cancer. PMID:24601643

  9. Prevention of breast cancer in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Love, R R

    1994-01-01

    While all-inclusive complete models for breast cancer development are not available, four concepts are likely to be critical to creation of well-grounded breast cancer prevention efforts: 1) step-by-step progressive development, 2) involving multiple factors, 3) over several years, and 4) during a long period of which the process may be reversible. Interventions to prevent breast cancer must have a comprehensive biological rationale, an absence of serious toxic effects, and long-term acceptability by women. Prophylactic mastectomy may be beneficial in some women, but identification of individuals at very high risk for breast cancer remains elusive. At present, greater attention to four manipulable risk factors is appropriate: radiation, smoking, alcohol, and lactation. Clinical trials are in the process of studying a synthetic retinoid (4-hydroxyphenylretinamide), tamoxifen, and a low-fat diet. Other breast cancer prevention strategies in various phases of preclinical trial evaluation include: pseudopregnancy, an "ideal" combination oral contraceptive, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist oophorectomy, modification of estrogen metabolism, suppression of ornithine decarboxylase induction, and manipulation of growth factors. PMID:7999471

  10. Southeastern Cancer Study Group: breast cancer studies

    SciTech Connect

    Smalley, R.V.; Bartolucci, A.A.; Moore, M.

    1983-12-01

    During the past 10 years, the Southeastern Cancer Study Group (SECSG) has been engaged in one major adjuvant study and three major advanced disease studies for patients with adenocarcinoma of the breast. The adjuvant study is demonstrating that six months of adjuvant CMF is the therapeutic equivalent of 12 months and that post-operative irradiation is of no added therapeutic benefit. In patients with advanced disease, a low dose 5 drug combination of CMFVP induces more objective responses than single agent 5FU, but improves survival only for those patients with liver metastases when compared to the sequential use of the same 5 single agents. The three drug combination, CAF, utilizing doxorubicin, induces more objective responses than low dose CMFVP, but it does not improve overall survival. The addition of a phase active combination, CAMELEON, (i.e., sequentially alternating therapy) of CAF has not improved the duration of disease control and survival for patients with liver metastases, lymphangitic and nodular lung metastases compared to CAF. Aggressive combination chemotherapeutic approaches to patients with advanced disease provide better and longer disease and tumor control but only marginal improvements in overall survival. Adding additional agents to a maximally tolerable regimen has not improved the therapeutic outcome.

  11. Breast cancer prognosis predicted by nuclear receptor-coregulator networks.

    PubMed

    Doan, Tram B; Eriksson, Natalie A; Graham, Dinny; Funder, John W; Simpson, Evan R; Kuczek, Elizabeth S; Clyne, Colin; Leedman, Peter J; Tilley, Wayne D; Fuller, Peter J; Muscat, George E O; Clarke, Christine L

    2014-07-01

    Although molecular signatures based on transcript expression in breast cancer samples have provided new insights into breast cancer classification and prognosis, there are acknowledged limitations in current signatures. To provide rational, pathway-based signatures of disrupted physiology in cancer tissues that may be relevant to prognosis, this study has directly quantitated changed gene expression, between normal breast and cancer tissue, as a basis for signature development. The nuclear receptor (NR) family of transcription factors, and their coregulators, are fundamental regulators of every aspect of metazoan life, and were rigorously quantified in normal breast tissues and ER? positive and ER? negative breast cancers. Coregulator expression was highly correlated with that of selected NR in normal breast, particularly from postmenopausal women. These associations were markedly decreased in breast cancer, and the expression of the majority of coregulators was down-regulated in cancer tissues compared with normal. While in cancer the loss of NR-coregulator associations observed in normal breast was common, a small number of NR (Rev-ERB?, GR, NOR1, LRH-1 and PGR) acquired new associations with coregulators in cancer tissues. Elevated expression of these NR in cancers was associated with poorer outcome in large clinical cohorts, as well as suggesting the activation of ER? -related, but ER?-independent, pathways in ER? negative cancers. In addition, the combined expression of small numbers of NR and coregulators in breast cancer was identified as a signature predicting outcome in ER? negative breast cancer patients, not linked to proliferation and with predictive power superior to existing signatures containing many more genes. These findings highlight the power of predictive signatures derived from the quantitative determination of altered gene expression between normal breast and breast cancers. Taken together, the findings of this study identify networks of NR-coregulator associations active in normal breast but disrupted in breast cancer, and moreover provide evidence that signatures based on NR networks disrupted in cancer can provide important prognostic information in breast cancer patients. PMID:24785096

  12. BCSC Grants: Breast Cancer Treatment Effectiveness In Older Women

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Home   |   Data   |   Statistics   |   Tools   |   Collaborations   |   Work with Us   |   Publications   |   About   |   Links Ongoing Collaborations CISNET ACS FAVOR Comprehensive Cancer Centers Ancillary Studies Breast Cancer

  13. Breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms and endometrial cancer risk: a Collaborative Endometrial Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Shahana; O’Mara, Tracy A.; Ferguson, Kaltin; Lambrechts, Diether; Garcia-Dios, Diego A.; Vergote, Ignace; Amant, Frederic; Howarth, Kimberley; Gorman, Maggie; Hodgson, Shirley; Tomlinson, Ian; Yang, Hannah P.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise A.; Chanock, Stephen; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Hall, Per; Liu, Jianjun; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Thompson, Deborah J.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Strom, Brian L.; Dunning, Alison M.; Easton, Douglas F.; Spurdle, Amanda B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent large--scale association studies, both of genome-wide and candidate gene design, have revealed several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which are significantly associated with risk of developing breast cancer. As both breast and endometrial cancers are considered to be hormonally driven and share multiple risk factors, we investigated whether breast cancer risk alleles are also associated with endometrial cancer risk. We genotyped nine breast cancer risk SNPs in up to 4188 endometrial cases and 11?928 controls, from between three and seven Caucasian populations. None of the tested SNPs showed significant evidence of association with risk of endometrial cancer. PMID:21965274

  14. PRECLINICAL STUDY Prediction of lymph node involvement in breast cancer

    E-print Network

    PRECLINICAL STUDY Prediction of lymph node involvement in breast cancer from primary tumor tissue- ther lymph node involvement in breast cancer is influenced by gene or miRNA expression of the primary tissue from a group of 96 breast cancer patients balanced for lymph node involvement using Affymetrix

  15. Breast Cancer Detection Using Communications Technology Hacer Varol 1

    E-print Network

    Bouaynaya, Nidhal

    Breast Cancer Detection Using Communications Technology Hacer Varol 1 , Nidhal Bouaynaya 2 at Chicago Abstract. In this paper, we formulate the breast cancer diagnosis as a signal detection problem and compare both filters to cancerous and healthy ultrasound breast images. We show that the North filter

  16. METHODOLOGY ARTICLE Open Access A simple and reproducible breast cancer

    E-print Network

    Geman, Donald

    METHODOLOGY ARTICLE Open Access A simple and reproducible breast cancer prognostic test Luigi test for breast cancer based on a 70-gene expression signature. We provide all the software, Personalized medicine, Breast cancer, MammaPrint Background Currently, a number of molecular-based prognostic

  17. Predicting breast cancer using an expression values weighted clinical classifier

    E-print Network

    Predicting breast cancer using an expression values weighted clinical classifier Minta Thomas 1. Results: We compared and evaluated the proposed methods on five breast cancer case studies. Compared to LS Curve (AUC), on all breast cancer case studies. Conclusions: Thus a clinical classifier weighted

  18. www.yalecancercenter.org Choices in Breast Cancer

    E-print Network

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    www.yalecancercenter.org Choices in Breast Cancer Treatment Guest Expert: Kenneth Miller, MD Assistant Professor of Medical Oncology Author, Choices in Breast Cancer Treatment www.wnpr.org #12;Welcome to be sitting across from Dr. Ken Miller, holding his new, since January, book Choices in Breast Cancer

  19. 77 FR 60605 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8874 of October 1, 2012 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Breast cancer touches the lives of Americans from... combatting this devastating illness, more than 200,000 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer this...

  20. 76 FR 62285 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8724 of October 3, 2011 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2011 By the... of our commitment to preventing and treating breast cancer, and to supporting those courageously... recent decades in the prevention, early detection, and treatment of breast cancer. Still, this...

  1. Recent Progress in Ultra-Wideband Microwave Breast Cancer Detection

    E-print Network

    Coates, Mark

    Recent Progress in Ultra-Wideband Microwave Breast Cancer Detection Simone A. Winkler, Emily Porter in the field of breast cancer detection research carried out at McGill University. A low-cost time performance. Latest results are shown and presented in comparison to prior experiments. Keywords-breast cancer

  2. Quantitative ultrasound assessment of breast cancer using a multiparameter approach

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    Quantitative ultrasound assessment of breast cancer using a multiparameter approach Michael L set have been developed for classifying rodent models of breast cancer. The improvement in detection and diagnosis of breast cancer using QUS will have significant medical impact. Two kinds of mammary tumors

  3. EPIDEMIOLOGY Axillary lymph node status of operable breast cancers by

    E-print Network

    Gent, Universiteit

    EPIDEMIOLOGY Axillary lymph node status of operable breast cancers by combined steroid receptor of operable breast cancers by their combined oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER-2- tivethanthosewithanother steroidreceptorandHER-2status. How these findings correlate with breast cancer prognosis remains

  4. A methodology for automatic classification of breast cancer immunohistochemical data

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    A methodology for automatic classification of breast cancer immunohistochemical data using semi classes in the Nottingham Tenovus Breast Cancer dataset. 663 out of 1076 patients were classified on the survival curves is shown. Keywords Breast Cancer Fuzzy Clustering Molecular Classification 1 Introduction

  5. Dominant Negative ATM Mutations in Breast Cancer Families

    E-print Network

    Nyholt, Dale R.

    Dominant Negative ATM Mutations in Breast Cancer Families Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Amanda B that female heterozygotes have an increased risk of breast cancer compared with non- carriers. However in breast cancer predisposition. Nevertheless, two recurrent ATM mutations, T7271G and IVS10­6TG, reportedly

  6. Survival-Time Classification of Breast Cancer , O. L. Mangasarian

    E-print Network

    Meyer, Robert R.

    Survival-Time Classification of Breast Cancer Patients Y.-J. Lee , O. L. Mangasarian & W. H. Wolberg Keywords breast cancer, support vector machines, classification Dedication (Mangasarian of his 72nd birthday. Abstract The identification of breast cancer patients for whom chemother- apy could

  7. Easing scoring in ER and Ki67 breast cancer histopathological

    E-print Network

    stained breast cancer tissue samples. These samples are segmented to isolate the proliferating cells fromEasing scoring in ER and Ki­67 breast cancer histopathological images Gonzalo R. Ríos Muñoz Kongens.imm.dtu.dk IMM-M.Sc.-2012-91 #12;Summary (English) A technique for easing breast cancer scoring

  8. Dynamic modularity in protein interaction networks predicts breast cancer outcome

    E-print Network

    Morris, Quaid

    Dynamic modularity in protein interaction networks predicts breast cancer outcome Ian W Taylor1 associated with oncogenesis. Analysis of two breast cancer patient cohorts revealed that altered modularity of the human interactome may be useful as an indicator of breast cancer prognosis. Transcriptome analyses have

  9. PIK3CA and TP53 Gene Mutations in Human Breast Cancer Tumors Frequently Detected by Ion Torrent DNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hua; Nandakumar, Vijayalakshmi; Wang, Zhuo; Chen, Lihong; Tang, Chuanning; Li, Jianhui; Li, Huijin; Zhang, Wei; Han, Wei; Lou, Feng; Zhang, Dandan; Sun, Hong; Dong, Haichao; Zhang, Guangchun; Liu, Zhiyuan; Dong, Zhishou; Guo, Baishuai; Yan, He; Yan, Chaowei; Wang, Lu; Su, Ziyi; Li, Yangyang; Jones, Lindsey; Huang, Xue F.; Chen, Si-Yi; Gao, Jinglong

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy and the leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. While specific genetic mutations have been linked to 5–10% of breast cancer cases, other environmental and epigenetic factors influence the development and progression of the cancer. Since unique mutations patterns have been observed in individual cancer samples, identification and characterization of the distinctive breast cancer molecular profile is needed to develop more effective target therapies. Until recently, identifying genetic cancer mutations via personalized DNA sequencing was impractical and expensive. The recent technological advancements in next-generation DNA sequencing, such as the semiconductor-based Ion Torrent sequencing platform, has made DNA sequencing cost and time effective with more reliable results. Using the Ion Torrent Ampliseq Cancer Panel, we sequenced 737 loci from 45 cancer-related genes to identify genetic mutations in 105 human breast cancer samples. The sequencing analysis revealed missense mutations in PIK3CA, and TP53 genes in the breast cancer samples of various histologic types. Thus, this study demonstrates the necessity of sequencing individual human cancers in order to develop personalized drugs or combination therapies to effectively target individual, breast cancer-specific mutations. PMID:24918944

  10. Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Hai-Lin; Hong, Jisun

    2014-05-01

    Sonographic examination of the breast with state-of-the-art equipment has become an essential part of the clinical work-up of breast lesions and a valuable adjunct to mammographic screening and physical examination. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core-needle biopsy (CNB) are well-established, valuable techniques that are still used in most cases, whereas vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB) is a more recent technique. VABB has proven clinical value and can be used under sonographic, mammographic, and magnetic resonance imaging guidance. The main indication for the use of VABB is for biopsies of clustered microcalcifications, which are usually performed under stereotactic guidance. This method has been proven reliable and should replace surgical biopsies. The ultrasound-guided procedure is still more a matter of discussion, but it should also replace surgical biopsies for nodular lesions, and it should even replace surgery for the complete removal of benign lesions. This viewpoint is gradually gaining acceptance. Different authors have shown increased diagnostic accuracy of VABB compared to FNA and CNB. VABB particularly leads to less histological underestimation. The other indications for VABB are palpable or nonpalpable nodular lesions or American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System 3 and 4A lesions. For masses that are likely benign or indeterminate, we attempt to completely remove the lesion to eliminate uncertainty on later follow-up images. VABB offers the best possible histological sampling and aids avoidance of unnecessary operations. VABB complications include bleeding or pain during the procedure, as well as postoperative pain, hemorrhaging, and hematomas. But, these hemorrhaging could be controlled by the post-procedural compression and bed resting. Overall, VABB is a reliable sampling technique with few complications, is relatively easy to use, and is well-tolerated by patients. The larger amount of extracted tissue reduces sampling error. PMID:25083505

  11. pynk : Breast Cancer Program for Young Women.

    PubMed

    Ali, A; Warner, E

    2013-02-01

    CONSIDER THIS SCENARIO: A 35-year-old recently married woman is referred to a surgeon because of a growing breast lump. After a core biopsy shows cancer, she undergoes mastectomy for a 6-cm invasive lobular cancer that has spread to 8 axillary nodes. By the time she sees the medical oncologist, she is told that it is too late for a fertility consultation, and she receives a course of chemotherapy. At clinic appointments, she seems depressed and admits that her husband has been less supportive than she had hoped. After tamoxifen is started, treatment-related sexuality problems and the probability of infertility contribute to increasing strain on the couple's relationship. Their marriage ends two years after the woman's diagnosis.Six years after her diagnosis, this woman has completed all treatment, is disease-free, and is feeling extremely well physically. However, she is upset about being postmenopausal, and she is having difficulty adopting a child as a single woman with a history of breast cancer. Could this woman and her husband have been offered additional personalized interventions that might have helped them better cope with the breast cancer diagnosis and the effects of treatment?Compared with their older counterparts, young women with breast cancer often have greater and more complex supportive care needs. The present article describes the goals, achievements, and future plans of a specialized interdisciplinary program-the first of its kind in Canada-for women 40 years of age and younger newly diagnosed with breast cancer. The program was created to optimize the complex clinical care and support needs of this population, to promote research specifically targeting issues unique to young women, and to educate the public and health care professionals about early detection of breast cancer in young women and about the special needs of those women after their diagnosis. PMID:23443036

  12. Breast cancer messaging for younger women: gender, femininity, and risk.

    PubMed

    Haines, Rebecca J; Bottorff, Joan L; Barclay McKeown, Stephanie; Ptolemy, Erin; Carey, Joanne; Sullivan, Kelli

    2010-06-01

    Evidence linking both active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure to premenopausal breast cancer makes the development of health messages specific to younger women a pressing priority. To determine how to communicate information about this modifiable breast cancer risk to young women, we analyzed a selection of 32 recent English-language breast cancer messages and campaigns that targeted young women. In addition, we obtained young women's responses to three breast cancer campaign images during focus group discussions. A visual analysis of messages points to an explicitly gendered discourse within contemporary campaigns, one that entails conflicting messages regarding breast cancer, health, feminine beauty, and risk. Although the intent might be to educate and empower young women to "fight" against breast cancer, paradoxically, the messages employ imagery that sexually objectifies young women's breasts and bodies. Recommendations are made for messaging about tobacco and breast cancer risk to avoid reproducing one-dimensional or stereotypical presentations of gender and femininity. PMID:20354237

  13. ICSN Data - Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Breast Cancer: Mortality Rates | Screening

  14. Relationship Between Mammographic Density and Breast Cancer Death in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Women with elevated mammographic density have an increased risk of developing breast cancer. However, among women diagnosed with breast cancer, it is unclear whether higher density portends reduced survival, independent of other factors. Methods We evaluated relationships between mammographic density and risk of death from breast cancer and all causes within the US Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium. We studied 9232 women diagnosed with primary invasive breast carcinoma during 1996–2005, with a mean follow-up of 6.6 years. Mammographic density was assessed using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) density classification. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression; women with scattered fibroglandular densities (BI-RADS 2) were the referent group. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results A total of 1795 women died, of whom 889 died of breast cancer. In multivariable analyses (adjusted for site, age at and year of diagnosis, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, body mass index, mode of detection, treatment, and income), high density (BI-RADS 4) was not related to risk of death from breast cancer (HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.71 to 1.19) or death from all causes (HR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.68 to 1.02). Analyses stratified by stage and other prognostic factors yielded similar results, except for an increased risk of breast cancer death among women with low density (BI-RADS 1) who were either obese (HR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.37 to 2.97) or had tumors of at least 2.0cm (HR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.14 to 2.09). Conclusions High mammographic breast density was not associated with risk of death from breast cancer or death from any cause after accounting for other patient and tumor characteristics. Thus, risk factors for the development of breast cancer may not necessarily be the same as factors influencing the risk of death after breast cancer has developed. PMID:22911616

  15. Akt Inhibitor MK-2206 and Anastrozole With or Without Goserelin Acetate in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-19

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  16. Hormone Therapy With or Without Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Women Who Have Undergone Surgery for Node-Negative Breast Cancer (The TAILORx Trial)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-07

    Breast Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor and/or Progesterone Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer

  17. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tests Effectiveness of Interventions to Increase Cancer Screening Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors HPV-Associated Cancers Physicians Who Use Social Media Skin Cancer Risk Behaviors Among U.S. Adults Annual ...

  18. Advancing breast cancer survivorship among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven S; Yoo, Wonsuk; Whitehead, Mary S; Smith, Selina A

    2015-09-01

    Advances have occurred in breast cancer survivorship but, for many African-American women, challenges and gaps in relevant information remain. This article identifies opportunities to address disparities in breast cancer survival and quality of life, and thereby to increase breast cancer survivorship among African-American women. For breast cancer survivors, common side effects, lasting for long periods after cancer treatment, include fatigue, loss of strength, difficulty sleeping, and sexual dysfunction. For addressing physical and mental health concerns, a variety of interventions have been evaluated, including exercise and weight training, dietary interventions, yoga and mindfulness-based stress reduction, and support groups or group therapy. Obesity has been associated with breast cancer recurrence and poorer survival. Relative to white survivors, African-American breast cancer survivors are more likely to be obese and less likely to engage in physical activity, although exercise improves overall quality of life and cancer-related fatigue. Considerable information exists about the effectiveness of such interventions for alleviating distress and improving quality of life among breast cancer survivors, but few studies have focused specifically on African-American women with a breast cancer diagnosis. Studies have identified a number of personal factors that are associated with resilience, increased quality of life, and positive adaptation to a breast cancer diagnosis. There is a need for a better understanding of breast cancer survivorship among African-American women. Additional evaluations of interventions for improving the quality of life and survival of African-American breast cancer survivors are desirable. PMID:26303657

  19. Volatile Organic Metabolites Identify Patients with Breast Cancer, Cyclomastopathy, and Mammary Gland Fibroma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changsong; Sun, Bo; Guo, Lei; Wang, Xiaoyang; Ke, Chaofu; Liu, Shanshan; Zhao, Wei; Luo, Suqi; Guo, Zhigang; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Guowang; Li, Enyou

    2014-01-01

    The association between cancer and volatile organic metabolites in exhaled breaths has attracted increasing attention from researchers. The present study reports on a systematic study of gas profiles of metabolites in human exhaled breath by pattern recognition methods. Exhaled breath was collected from 85 patients with histologically confirmed breast disease (including 39 individuals with infiltrating ductal carcinoma, 25 individuals with cyclomastopathy and from 21 individuals with mammary gland fibroma) and 45 healthy volunteers. Principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis were used to process the final data. The volatile organic metabolites exhibited significant differences between breast cancer and normal controls, breast cancer and cyclomastopathy, and breast cancer and mammary gland fibroma; 21, 6, and 8 characteristic metabolites played decisive roles in sample classification, respectively (P < 0.05). Three volatile organic metabolites in the exhaled air, 2,5,6-trimethyloctane, 1,4-dimethoxy-2,3-butanediol, and cyclohexanone, distinguished breast cancer patients from healthy individuals, mammary gland fibroma patients, and patients with cyclomastopathy (P < 0.05). The identified three volatile organic metabolites associated with breast cancer may serve as novel diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:24947160

  20. Association of BRCA1 promoter methylation with sporadic breast cancers: Evidence from 40 studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Long, Xinghua

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) located at chromosome 17q12-21 is a classic tumor suppressor gene, and has been considered as a significant role in hereditary breast cancers. Moreover, numerous studies demonstrated the methylation status of CpG islands in the promoter regions of BRCA1 gene was aberrant in patients with sporadic breast tumors compared with healthy females or patients with benign diseases. However, these conclusions were not always consistent. Hence, a meta-analysis was performed to get a more precise estimate for these associations. Crude odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were used to assess the association of BRCA1 promoter methylation and the risk or clinicopathologic characteristics of breast cancers under fixed or random effect model. A total of 40 studies were eligible for this present study. We observed the frequency of BRCA1 promoter methylation was statistically significant higher in breast cancers than non-cancer controls. Furthermore, BRCA1 methylation was statistically associated with lymph node metastasis, histological grade 3, ER(-), PR(-), triple-negative phenotype, and decreased or lack levels of BRCA1 protein expression. In conclusion, this study indicated that BRCA1 promoter methylation appeared to be a useful predictive or prognostic biomarker for breast cancers in clinical assessment. PMID:26643130

  1. Cadmium exposure and the risk of breast cancer in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Chisato; Nagao, Yasuko; Nakamura, Kozue; Wada, Keiko; Tamai, Yuya; Tsuji, Michiko; Yamamoto, Satoru; Kashiki, Yoshitomo

    2013-02-01

    Non-occupational exposure to cadmium has been suspected to be a risk factor for breast cancer. The present study examined the association between urinary cadmium level and the risk of breast cancer in a case-control study among Japanese women. Cases were 153 women newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed with breast cancer at a general hospital in Gifu, Japan. A total of 431 controls individually matched to cases by age, menopausal status, and the period of urine sampling were selected from those who attended a breast cancer mass screening at this hospital. Urinary cadmium levels were measured using spot urine samples. Spot urine samples were collected from cases after surgery but before any cancer therapy. For controls, spot urine samples were obtained at the date of the screening visit. Information on known or suggested breast cancer risk factors was obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer according to the tertile of the creatinine-adjusted cadmium level were calculated using conditional logistic regression models. Women in the highest tertile of the creatinine-adjusted cadmium level (>2.620 ?g/g) had significantly elevated OR of breast cancer relative to those in the lowest tertile (<1.674 ?g/g) after controlling for covariates [OR = 6.05, (95 % CI 2.90, 12.62)]. The trend of increase in risk with increasing cadmium level was also statistically significant [OR = 1.67, (95 % CI 1.39, 2.01) for every 1.0 ?g/g increase in urinary cadmium level, P-trend <0.01]. These data suggested that exposure to cadmium was associated with a risk of breast cancer in Japanese women. PMID:23358902

  2. Evidence That Breast Tissue Stiffness Is Associated with Risk of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Norman F.; Li, Qing; Melnichouk, Olga; Huszti, Ella; Martin, Lisa J.; Gunasekara, Anoma; Mawdsley, Gord; Yaffe, Martin J.; Minkin, Salomon

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence from animal models shows that tissue stiffness increases the invasion and progression of cancers, including mammary cancer. We here use measurements of the volume and the projected area of the compressed breast during mammography to derive estimates of breast tissue stiffness and examine the relationship of stiffness to risk of breast cancer. Methods Mammograms were used to measure the volume and projected areas of total and radiologically dense breast tissue in the unaffected breasts of 362 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer (cases) and 656 women of the same age who did not have breast cancer (controls). Measures of breast tissue volume and the projected area of the compressed breast during mammography were used to calculate the deformation of the breast during compression and, with the recorded compression force, to estimate the stiffness of breast tissue. Stiffness was compared in cases and controls, and associations with breast cancer risk examined after adjustment for other risk factors. Results After adjustment for percent mammographic density by area measurements, and other risk factors, our estimate of breast tissue stiffness was significantly associated with breast cancer (odds ratio?=?1.21, 95% confidence interval?=?1.03, 1.43, p?=?0.02) and improved breast cancer risk prediction in models with percent mammographic density, by both area and volume measurements. Conclusion An estimate of breast tissue stiffness was associated with breast cancer risk and improved risk prediction based on mammographic measures and other risk factors. Stiffness may provide an additional mechanism by which breast tissue composition is associated with risk of breast cancer and merits examination using more direct methods of measurement. PMID:25010427

  3. Hyaluronan, Inflammation, and Breast Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Schwertfeger, Kathryn L.; Cowman, Mary K.; Telmer, Patrick G.; Turley, Eva A.; McCarthy, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer-induced inflammation in the tumor reactive stroma supports invasion and malignant progression and is contributed to by a variety of host cells including macrophages and fibroblasts. Inflammation appears to be initiated by tumor cells and surrounding host fibroblasts that secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and remodel the extracellular matrix (ECM) to create a pro-inflammatory “cancerized” or tumor reactive microenvironment that supports tumor expansion and invasion. The tissue polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) is an example of an ECM component within the cancerized microenvironment that promotes breast cancer progression. Like many ECM molecules, the function of native high-molecular weight HA is altered by fragmentation, which is promoted by oxygen/nitrogen free radicals and release of hyaluronidases within the tumor microenvironment. HA fragments are pro-inflammatory and activate signaling pathways that promote survival, migration, and invasion within both tumor and host cells through binding to HA receptors such as CD44 and RHAMM/HMMR. In breast cancer, elevated HA in the peri-tumor stroma and increased HA receptor expression are prognostic for poor outcome and are associated with disease recurrence. This review addresses the critical issues regarding tumor-induced inflammation and its role in breast cancer progression focusing specifically on the changes in HA metabolism within tumor reactive stroma as a key factor in malignant progression. PMID:26106384

  4. Comprehensive Molecular Portraits of Invasive Lobular Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ciriello, Giovanni; Gatza, Michael L; Beck, Andrew H; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Rhie, Suhn K; Pastore, Alessandro; Zhang, Hailei; McLellan, Michael; Yau, Christina; Kandoth, Cyriac; Bowlby, Reanne; Shen, Hui; Hayat, Sikander; Fieldhouse, Robert; Lester, Susan C; Tse, Gary M K; Factor, Rachel E; Collins, Laura C; Allison, Kimberly H; Chen, Yunn-Yi; Jensen, Kristin; Johnson, Nicole B; Oesterreich, Steffi; Mills, Gordon B; Cherniack, Andrew D; Robertson, Gordon; Benz, Christopher; Sander, Chris; Laird, Peter W; Hoadley, Katherine A; King, Tari A; Perou, Charles M

    2015-10-01

    Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is the second most prevalent histologic subtype of invasive breast cancer. Here, we comprehensively profiled 817 breast tumors, including 127 ILC, 490 ductal (IDC), and 88 mixed IDC/ILC. Besides E-cadherin loss, the best known ILC genetic hallmark, we identified mutations targeting PTEN, TBX3, and FOXA1 as ILC enriched features. PTEN loss associated with increased AKT phosphorylation, which was highest in ILC among all breast cancer subtypes. Spatially clustered FOXA1 mutations correlated with increased FOXA1 expression and activity. Conversely, GATA3 mutations and high expression characterized luminal A IDC, suggesting differential modulation of ER activity in ILC and IDC. Proliferation and immune-related signatures determined three ILC transcriptional subtypes associated with survival differences. Mixed IDC/ILC cases were molecularly classified as ILC-like and IDC-like revealing no true hybrid features. This multidimensional molecular atlas sheds new light on the genetic bases of ILC and provides potential clinical options. PMID:26451490

  5. COMMON TYPES OF BREAST CANCER DUCTAL CARCINOMA IN SITU (DCIS): This is the earliest type of breast

    E-print Network

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    COMMON TYPES OF BREAST CANCER DUCTAL CARCINOMA IN SITU (DCIS): This is the earliest type of breast. This is the most common type of breast cancer, accounting for 80% of invasive cancers. The term invasive does INFILTRATING) LOBULAR CANCER: These cancers begin in the sacs of the breast which produce the milk. Only 20

  6. Targeting breast cancer with CDK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Erica L

    2015-05-01

    Dysregulation of the cell cycle is a classic hallmark of cancer growth and metastatic potential. Re-establishing cell cycle control through CDK inhibition has emerged as an attractive option in the development of targeted cancer therapy. Three oral agents selectively targeting CDK4/6 have been developed: palbociclib, abemaciclib, and LEE011. Preclinical models show optimal activity in hormone receptor positive breast cancer, which may display biologic features suggesting particular dependence on the CDK4/cyclin D1/Rb interaction. Palbociclib has been studied in a randomized phase 2 clinical trial in metastatic hormone receptor positive breast cancer in which the combination of palbociclib and endocrine therapy significantly prolonged progression-free survival over endocrine therapy alone. The toxicity profile of palbociclib and the other CDK 4/6 inhibitors in early phase I and II trials has been predominantly hematologic, characterized by limited neutropenia, as well as variable gastrointestinal toxicity. Multiple phase II and III studies are ongoing with all three agents, and are designed to explore the role of CDK 4/6 inhibition in metastatic hormone receptor positive breast cancer. The next wave of studies will examine further clinical and scientific topics, including the role of CDK 4/6 inhibition in the neo/adjuvant setting, the combination of CDK 4/6 inhibitors with other targeted therapies, and the activity of CDK 4/6 inhibitors in the HER2 positive subset of breast cancer, as well as in other cancer subtypes. Should ongoing study confirm benefits and tolerability of CDK 4/6 inhibition, combination therapy with endocrine agents may become a new standard of care for hormone receptor positive breast cancer. PMID:25716100

  7. Proteomic maps of breast cancer subtypes.

    PubMed

    Tyanova, Stefka; Albrechtsen, Reidar; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Cox, Juergen; Mann, Matthias; Geiger, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Systems-wide profiling of breast cancer has almost always entailed RNA and DNA analysis by microarray and sequencing techniques. Marked developments in proteomic technologies now enable very deep profiling of clinical samples, with high identification and quantification accuracy. We analysed 40 oestrogen receptor positive (luminal), Her2 positive and triple negative breast tumours and reached a quantitative depth of >10,000 proteins. These proteomic profiles identified functional differences between breast cancer subtypes, related to energy metabolism, cell growth, mRNA translation and cell-cell communication. Furthermore, we derived a signature of 19 proteins, which differ between the breast cancer subtypes, through support vector machine (SVM)-based classification and feature selection. Remarkably, only three proteins of the signature were associated with gene copy number variations and eleven were also reflected on the mRNA level. These breast cancer features revealed by our work provide novel insights that may ultimately translate to development of subtype-specific therapeutics. PMID:26725330

  8. NASA SMART Probe: Breast Cancer Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert W.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    There is evidence in breast cancer and other malignancies that the physiologic environment within a tumor correlates with clinical outcome. We are developing a unique percutaneous Smart Probe to be used at the time of needle biopsy of the breast. The Smart Probe will simultaneously measure multiple physiologic parameters within a breast tumor. Direct and indirect measurements of tissue oxygen levels, blood flow, pH, and tissue fluid pressure will be analyzed in real-time. These parameters will be interpreted individually and collectively by innovative neural network techniques using advanced intelligent software. The goals are 1) develop a pecutaneous Smart Probe with multiple sensor modalities and applying advanced Information Technologies to provide real time diagnostic information of the tissue at tip of the probe, 2) test the percutaneous Smart Probe in women with benign and malignant breast masses who will be undergoing surgical biopsy, 3) correlate probe sensor data with benign and malignant status of breast masses, 4) determine whether the probe can detect physiologic differences within a breast tumor, and its margins, and in adjacent normal breast tissue, 5) correlate probe sensor data with known prognostic factors for breast caner, including tumor size, tumor grade, axillary lymph node metastases, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status.

  9. Genetic polymorphisms of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    E-print Network

    Canzian, Federico; Kaaks, Rudolf; Cox, David G.; Henderson, Katherine D.; Henderson, Brian E.; Berg, Christine; Bingham, Sheila; Boeing, Heiner; Buring, Julie; Calle, Eugenia E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dossus, Laure; Spencer Feigelson, Heather; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hoover, Robert; Hunter, David J.; Isaacs, Claudine; Lenner, Per; Lund, Eiliv; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Quiros, Jose R.; Riboli, Elio; Stram, Daniel O.; Thomas, GIlles; Thun, Michael J.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; van Gils, Carla H.; Ziegler, Regina G.

    2009-07-29

    by modulating production of ovarian steroid hormones. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and polymorphisms in genes that code for GNRH1 and its receptor (GNRHR) in the large National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort...

  10. Metastatic Breast Cancer, Version 1.2012

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Robert W.; Allred, D. Craig; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Burstein, Harold J.; Edge, Stephen B.; Farrar, William B.; Forero, Andres; Giordano, Sharon Hermes; Goldstein, Lori J.; Gradishar, William J.; Hayes, Daniel F.; Hudis, Clifford A.; Isakoff, Steven Jay; Ljung, Britt-Marie E.; Mankoff, David A.; Marcom, P. Kelly; Mayer, Ingrid A.; McCormick, Beryl; Pierce, Lori J.; Reed, Elizabeth C.; Smith, Mary Lou; Soliman, Hatem; Somlo, George; Theriault, Richard L.; Ward, John H.; Wolff, Antonio C.; Zellars, Richard; Kumar, Rashmi; Shead, Dorothy A.

    2013-01-01

    These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates/changes specific to the management of metastatic breast cancer in the 2012 version of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Breast Cancer. These changes/updates include the issue of retesting of biomarkers (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) on recurrent disease, new information regarding first-line combination endocrine therapy for metastatic disease, a new section on monitoring of patients with metastatic disease, and new information on endocrine therapy combined with an mTOR inhibitor as a subsequent therapeutic option. PMID:22773798

  11. Cardiovascular Toxicities from Systemic Breast Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuang; Wong, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular toxicity is unfortunately a potential short- or long-term sequela of breast cancer therapy. Both conventional chemotherapeutic agents such as anthracyclines and newer targeted agents such as trastuzumab can cause varying degrees of cardiac dysfunction. Type I cardiac toxicity is dose-dependent and irreversible, whereas Type II is not dose-dependent and is generally reversible with cessation of the drug. In this review, we discuss what is currently known about the cardiovascular effects of systemic breast cancer treatments, with a focus on the putative mechanisms of toxicity, the role of biomarkers, and potential methods of preventing and minimizing cardiovascular complications. PMID:25538891

  12. "Omic" landscapes of breast cancer - the end of the beginning

    E-print Network

    2010-09-24

    ” landscapes of breast cancer - the end of the beginning Carlos Caldas1,2,3 From 16th International Charles Heidelberger Symposium on Cancer Research Coimbra, Portugal. 26–28 September 2010 Breast cancer is the most common malignancy and the second cause... at the genomic, transcrip- tomic and epigenomic level. This constitutes the largest “omic” dataset ever gathered in human cancer and the molecular landscapes obtained provide unique insights into the biology and clinical behaviour of breast cancer. Our laboratory...

  13. Associations of adipokines & insulin resistance with sex steroids in patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Al Awadhi, Shafika A.; Al Khaldi, Rasha M.; Al Rammah, Tahani; Kapila, Kusum; Mojiminiyi, Olusegun A.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Several studies have suggested an important, but conflicting and controversial role for adipose tissue mass in breast cancer risk. Factors such as insulin-like growth factors, sex steroids, adipokines and obesity-related inflammatory markers have been postulated as potential effectors of the mechanisms by which obesity and associated metabolic disorders influence breast cancer risk. In this study we evaluated the associations between obesity indices, insulin resistance, circulating adipokines, sex steroids and breast cancer. Methods: Fasting adiponectin, leptin, insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment, HOMA-IR), testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), LH and FSH were determined in 144 newly-diagnosed histologically confirmed breast cancer patients and 77 controls. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to find the associations of these variables with each other, indices of obesity and with breast cancer. Results: BMI, waist circumference, HOMA-IR and leptin were significantly (P<0.001) higher in patients than in controls. Adiponectin level was also significantly (P<0.05) higher in patients compared to controls. Adiponectin and leptin showed significant correlations with insulin and HOMA-IR but only adiponectin was significantly correlated with estradiol and SHBG. Logistic regression analyses showed that factors associated with breast cancer were BMI [OR (95% CI) =2.8 (1.4-5.5), P=0.004]; high levels of adiponectin [5.1 (2.2-11.5), P<0.001); hyperinsulinaemia [1.1 (1.0-1.1), P=0.01], leptin [3.1 (1.7-5.7), P<0.0001], estradiol [2.5 (1.3-4.7), P=0.005] and testosterone [1.3 (1.03-1.7), P=0.03]. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings confirm that adipokines, insulin resistance and sex steroids are associated with breast cancer. The paradoxical association of increased adiponectin with breast cancer is a novel finding that deserves further investigation. PMID:22664497

  14. [Curcumin in chemoprevention of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Terlikowska, Katarzyna; Witkowska, Anna; Terlikowski, S?awomir

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant cancer among women, both in Poland and worldwide. Due to the constantly increasing number of breast cancer cases, it is vital to develop effective activities in primary and secondary prevention. One of the promising methods of best value, connecting both types of cancer prevention, appears to be chemoprevention. Chemoprevention uses natural or synthetic compounds to inhibit, delay or reverse the process of carcinogenesis. Among ingredients of natural origin, great attention is paid to curcumin - a broad-spectrum anti-cancer polyphenol derivative, extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. Curcumin has a number of chemopreventive properties such as anti-inflammatory activity, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis as well as tumor metastasis. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the mentioned anti-cancer effect in the epithelial breast cell line MCF-10A and in the epithelial breast cell lines MCF-7, BT-474, SK-BR-3-hr and MDA-MB-231. The main problem associated with the use of curcumin as a chemopreventive agent in humans is its low absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, poor solubility in body fluids and low bioavailability. Current studies are underway to increase the bioavailability and effectiveness of curcumin in vivo. Good results in the prevention and the treatment of breast cancer could be ensured by curcumin nanoparticles coated with albumin, known as nanocurcumin. The studies using nanocurcumin, however, are still in the preclinical stage, which is why there is a need to conduct extensive long-term randomized clinical trials to determine its effectiveness. PMID:24864107

  15. Thermal analysis of cancerous breast model

    PubMed Central

    Chanmugam, Arjun; Hatwar, Rajeev; Herman, Cila

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common and dangerous cancers. Subsurface breast cancer lesions generate more heat and have increased blood supply when compared to healthy tissue, and this temperature rise is mirrored in the skin surface temperature. The rise in temperature on the skin surface, caused by the cancerous lesion, can be measured noninvasively using infrared thermography, which can be used as a diagnostic tool to detect the presence of a lesion. However, its diagnostic ability is limited when image interpretation relies on qualitative principles. In this study, we present a quantitative thermal analysis of breast cancer using a 3D computational model of the breast. The COMSOL FEM software was used to carry out the analysis. The effect of various parameters (tumor size, location, metabolic heat generation and blood perfusion rate) on the surface temperature distribution (which can be measured with infrared thermography) has been analyzed. Key defining features of the surface temperature profile have been identified, which can be used to estimate the size and location of the tumor based on (measured) surface temperature data. In addition, we employed a dynamic cooling process, to analyze surface temperature distributions during cooling and thermal recovery as a function of time. In this study, the effect of the cooling temperature on the enhancement of the temperature differences between normal tissue and cancerous lesions is evaluated. This study demonstrates that a quantification of temperature distributions by computational modeling, combined with thermographic imaging and dynamic cooling can be an important tool in the early detection of breast cancer. PMID:25328914

  16. The breast cancer epidemic: 10 facts

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, A. Patrick; Zainer, Christine M.; Kubat, Christopher Kevin; Mullen, Nancy K.; Windisch, Amberly K.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer, affecting one in eight American women, is a modern epidemic. The increasing frequency of breast cancer is widely recognized. However, the wealth of compelling epidemiological data on its prevention is generally not available, and as a consequence, is largely unknown to the public. The purpose of this report is to review the epidemiological evidence of preventable causes of breast cancer. TABLE 1 Frequently used abbreviations and terms (listed alphabetically)AbbreviationsTermsABC linkAbortion–breast cancer linkCEE(s)Conjugated equine estrogen(s)CHDCoronary heart diseaseCHRTCombined hormone replacement therapyCIConfidence IntervalCOC(s)Combined oral contraceptive(s)ECEmergency contraceptionECP(s)Emergency contraception pill(s)ERTEstrogen replacement therapyFDAFood and Drug AdministrationFFTPFirst full-term pregnancyHRTHormone replacement therapyIA(s)Induced abortion(s)IARCInternational Agency for Research on CancerMPAMedroxyprogesterone acetateOC(s)Oral contraceptive(s)OROdds ratioOTCOver-the-counterPOC(s)Progestin-only contraceptive(s)RRRelative RiskWHIWomen's Health InitiativeWHOWorld Health Organization PMID:25249706

  17. Inherited and acquired alterations in development of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rizzolo, Piera; Silvestri, Valentina; Falchetti, Mario; Ottini, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, accounting for about 30% of all cancers. In contrast, breast cancer is a rare disease in men, accounting for less than 1% of all cancers. Up to 10% of all breast cancers are hereditary forms, caused by inherited germ-line mutations in "high-penetrance," "moderate-penetrance," and "low-penetrance" breast cancer susceptibility genes. The remaining 90% of breast cancers are due to acquired somatic genetic and epigenetic alterations. A heterogeneous set of somatic alterations, including mutations and gene amplification, are reported to be involved in the etiology of breast cancer. Promoter hypermethylation of genes involved in DNA repair and hormone-mediated cell signaling, as well as altered expression of micro RNAs predicted to regulate key breast cancer genes, play an equally important role as genetic factors in development of breast cancer. Elucidation of the inherited and acquired genetic and epigenetic alterations involved in breast cancer may not only clarify molecular pathways involved in the development and progression of breast cancer itself, but may also have an important clinical and therapeutic impact on improving the management of patients with the disease. PMID:23776375

  18. Breast Cancer Cause Beliefs: Chinese, Korean, and Mexican American Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Patricia; Lim, Jung-Won; Wang-Letzkus, Ming; Flores, Katrina F; Allen, Kristi M; Castañeda, Sheila F; Talavera, Gregory A

    2015-08-01

    This study examined causal attribution beliefs about breast cancer and the influence that these beliefs exert on health behavior change among breast cancer survivors (BCS). Focus groups with Chinese (n = 21), Korean (n = 11), and Mexican American (n = 9) BCS recruited through community- and hospital-based support groups were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English for thematic content analysis. Three themes concerning beliefs about breast cancer cause common to all three groups included (a) stress, (b) diet, and (c) fatalism. Causal beliefs corresponded to behavioral changes with women describing efforts to improve their diet and manage their stress. Ethnic minority BCS adhere to beliefs about what caused their cancer that influence their health behaviors. Providing quality health care to ethnically diverse cancer survivors requires cultural sensitivity to patients' beliefs about the causes of their cancer and awareness of how beliefs influence patients' health behaviors post diagnosis. PMID:25001237

  19. Breast Cancer Cause Beliefs: Chinese, Korean, and Mexican American Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Patricia; Lim, Jung-Won; Wang-Letzkus, Ming; Flores, Katrina F.; Allen, Kristi M.; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Talavera, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined causal attribution beliefs about breast cancer and the influence that these beliefs exert on health behavior change among breast cancer survivors (BCS). Focus groups with Chinese (n = 21), Korean (n = 11), and Mexican American (n = 9) BCS recruited through community- and hospital-based support groups were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English for thematic content analysis. Three themes concerning beliefs about breast cancer cause common to all three groups included (a) stress, (b) diet, and (c) fatalism. Causal beliefs corresponded to behavioral changes with women describing efforts to improve their diet and manage their stress. Ethnic minority BCS adhere to beliefs about what caused their cancer that influence their health behaviors. Providing quality health care to ethnically diverse cancer survivors requires cultural sensitivity to patients’ beliefs about the causes of their cancer and awareness of how beliefs influence patients’ health behaviors post diagnosis. PMID:25001237

  20. Prognostic Value of Cancer Stem Cells Markers in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Collina, Francesca; Di Bonito, Maurizio; Li Bergolis, Valeria; De Laurentiis, Michelino; Vitagliano, Carlo; Cerrone, Margherita; Nuzzo, Francesco; Cantile, Monica; Botti, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a significant clinical relevance of being associated with a shorter median time to relapse and death and does not respond to endocrine therapy or other available targeted agents. Increased aggressiveness of this tumor, as well as resistance to standard drug therapies, may be associated with the presence of stem cell populations within the tumor. Several stemness markers have been described for the various histological subtypes of breast cancer, such as CD44, CD24, CD133, ALDH1, and ABCG2. The role of these markers in breast cancer is not clear yet and above all there are conflicting opinions about their real prognostic value. To investigate the role of CSCs markers in TNBC cancerogenesis and tumor progression, we selected 160 TNBCs samples on which we detected protein expression of CD44, CD24, CD133, ALDH1, and ABCG2 by immunohistochemistry. Our results highlighted a real prognostic role only for CD44 in TNBCs. All other CSCs markers do not appear to be related to the survival of TNBC patients. In conclusion, despite the fact that the presence of the cancer stem cells in the tumor provides important information on its potential aggressiveness, today their detection by immunohistochemistry is not sufficient to confirm their role in carcinogenesis, because specific markers probably are not yet identified. PMID:26504780

  1. BME Master assignment Raman spectroscopic imaging of breast tissue and breast cancer: clinical possibilities for novel imaging

    E-print Network

    Twente, Universiteit

    BME Master assignment Title: Raman spectroscopic imaging of breast tissue and breast cancer, or a referral from the national breast cancer screening program, breast imaging and diagnostics are mandatory of breast cancer at surgery a second problem occurs, because it is often very difficult to see

  2. Breast cancer immunobiology driving immunotherapy: vaccines and immune checkpoint blockade

    PubMed Central

    Emens, Leisha A

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is immunogenic, and infiltrating immune cells in primary breast tumors convey important clinical prognostic and predictive information. Furthermore, the immune system is critically involved in clinical responses to some standard cancer therapies. Early breast cancer vaccine trials have established the safety and bioactivity of breast cancer immunotherapy, with hints of clinical activity. Novel strategies for modulating regulators of immunity, including regulatory T cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells and immune checkpoint pathways (monoclonal antibodies specific for the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 or programmed death), are now available. In particular, immune checkpoint blockade has enormous therapeutic potential. Integrative breast cancer immunotherapies that strategically combine established breast cancer therapies with breast cancer vaccines, immune checkpoint blockade or both should result in durable clinical responses and increased cures. PMID:23253225

  3. Canadian National Breast Screening Study: 1. Breast cancer detection and death rates among women aged 40 to 49 years.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A B; Baines, C J; To, T; Wall, C

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of the combination of annual screening with mammography, physical examination of the breasts and the teaching of breast self-examination in reducing the rate of death from breast cancer among women aged 40 to 49 years on entry. DESIGN: Individually randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Fifteen urban centres in Canada with expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. PARTICIPANTS: Women with no history of breast cancer and no mammography in the previous 12 months were randomly assigned to undergo either annual mammography and physical examination (MP group) or usual care after an initial physical examination (UC group). The 50,430 women enrolled from January 1980 through March 1985 were followed for a mean of 8.5 years. DATA COLLECTION: Derived from the participants by initial and annual self-administered questionnaires, from the screening examinations, from the patients' physicians, from the provincial cancer registries and by record linkage to the Canadian National Mortality Data Base. Expert panels evaluated histologic and death data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of referral from screening, rates of detection of breast cancer from screening and from community care, nodal status, tumour size, and rates of death from all causes and from breast cancer. RESULTS: Over 90% of the women in each group attended the screening sessions or returned the annual questionnaires, or both, over years 2 to 5. The characteristics of the women in the two groups were similar. Compared with the Canadian population, the participants were more likely to be married, have fewer children, have more education, be in a professional occupation, smoke less and have been born in North America. The rate of screen-detected breast cancer on first examination was 3.89 per 1000 in the MP group and 2.46 per 1000 in the UC group; more node-positive tumours were found in the MP group than in the UC group. During years 2 through 5 the ratios of observed to expected cases of invasive breast cancer were 1.26 in the MP group and 1.02 in the UC group. Of the women with invasive breast cancer through to 7 years, 191 and 157 women in the MP and UC groups respectively had no node involvement, 55 and 43 had one to three nodes involved, 47 and 23 had four or more nodes involved, and 38 and 49 had an unknown nodal status. There were 38 deaths from breast cancer in the MP group and 28 in the UC group. The ratio of the proportions of death from breast cancer in the MP group compared with those in the UC group was 1.36 (95% confidence interval 0.84 to 2.21). The survival rates were similar in the two groups. The highest survival rate occurred among women whose cancer had been detected by mammography alone. CONCLUSION: The study was internally valid, and there was no evidence of randomization bias. Screening with yearly mammography and physical examination of the breasts detected considerably more node-negative, small tumours than usual care, but it had no impact on the rate of death from breast cancer up to 7 years' follow-up from entry. PMID:1423087

  4. X chromosome gain in male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Di Oto, Enrico; Monti, Valentina; Cucchi, Maria C; Masetti, Riccardo; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Foschini, Maria P

    2015-12-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is an uncommon disease whose molecular profile is not well known. X chromosome gain has been described as a marker of aggressive behavior in female breast cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the X chromosome in male breast cancer. Twenty cases of male breast invasive ductal carcinoma were retrieved and compared with 10 cases of gynecomastia. Cases were tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization to assess a cytogenetic profile for the X chromosome. The X chromosome status was compared with histopathologic features and stage at presentation. All MBC cases harbored an X chromosome gain (100%) in a variable percentage of neoplastic cells, ranging from 31% to 85% (mean, 59%). On the contrary, all cases of gynecomastia showed wild X chromosome asset. The patients' age at surgery and tumor grading showed a statistically significant correlation (P = .0188-.04), with the percentages of neoplastic cells showing an X chromosome gain. These data suggest that this X chromosome gain plays a role in the neoplastic transformation of male breast epithelial cells. PMID:26475094

  5. Signal enhancement ratio (SER) quantified from breast DCE-MRI and breast cancer risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shandong; Kurland, Brenda F.; Berg, Wendie A.; Zuley, Margarita L.; Jankowitz, Rachel C.; Sumkin, Jules; Gur, David

    2015-03-01

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recommended as an adjunct to mammography for women who are considered at elevated risk of developing breast cancer. As a key component of breast MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) uses a contrast agent to provide high intensity contrast between breast tissues, making it sensitive to tissue composition and vascularity. Breast DCE-MRI characterizes certain physiologic properties of breast tissue that are potentially related to breast cancer risk. Studies have shown that increased background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), which is the contrast enhancement occurring in normal cancer-unaffected breast tissues in post-contrast sequences, predicts increased breast cancer risk. Signal enhancement ratio (SER) computed from pre-contrast and post-contrast sequences in DCE-MRI measures change in signal intensity due to contrast uptake over time and is a measure of contrast enhancement kinetics. SER quantified in breast tumor has been shown potential as a biomarker for characterizing tumor response to treatments. In this work we investigated the relationship between quantitative measures of SER and breast cancer risk. A pilot retrospective case-control study was performed using a cohort of 102 women, consisting of 51 women who had diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer and 51 matched controls (by age and MRI date) with a unilateral biopsy-proven benign lesion. SER was quantified using fully-automated computerized algorithms and three SER-derived quantitative volume measures were compared between the cancer cases and controls using logistic regression analysis. Our preliminary results showed that SER is associated with breast cancer risk, after adjustment for the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS)-based mammographic breast density measures. This pilot study indicated that SER has potential for use as a risk factor for breast cancer risk assessment in women at elevated risk of developing breast cancer.

  6. Breast cancer and aging: results of the U13 conference breast cancer panel

    PubMed Central

    Barginear, M. F.; Muss, H.; Kimmick, G.; Owusu, C.; Mrozek, E.; Shahrokni, A.; Ballman, K.; Hurria, A.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is predominantly a disease of older women, yet there is a knowledge gap due to the persisting misalignment between the age distribution of women with breast cancer and the age distribution of participants in clinical trials. The purpose of this report is to state the U13 conference breast cancer panel’s recommendations regarding therapeutic clinical trials that will fill gaps in knowledge regarding the care of older patients with breast cancer. The U13 conference was a collaboration between the Cancer and Aging Research Group and the National Institute on Aging and the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Clinical trials should be developed for frail and vulnerable patients who would not enroll on the standard phase III trials, as well as efforts need to be made to increase enrollment of fit older patients on standard phase III trials. As a result of this conference, panel members are working with the NCI and cooperative groups to address these knowledge gaps. With the aging population and increasing incidence of breast cancer with age, it is essential to study the feasibility, toxicity, and efficacy of cancer therapy in this at-risk population. PMID:24847891

  7. Breast cancer and aging: results of the U13 conference breast cancer panel.

    PubMed

    Barginear, M F; Muss, H; Kimmick, G; Owusu, C; Mrozek, E; Shahrokni, A; Ballman, K; Hurria, A

    2014-07-01

    Breast cancer is predominantly a disease of older women, yet there is a knowledge gap due to the persisting misalignment between the age distribution of women with breast cancer and the age distribution of participants in clinical trials. The purpose of this report is to state the U13 conference breast cancer panel's recommendations regarding therapeutic clinical trials that will fill gaps in knowledge regarding the care of older patients with breast cancer. The U13 conference was a collaboration between the Cancer and Aging Research Group and the National Institute on Aging and the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Clinical trials should be developed for frail and vulnerable patients who would not enroll on the standard phase III trials, as well as efforts need to be made to increase enrollment of fit older patients on standard phase III trials. As a result of this conference, panel members are working with the NCI and cooperative groups to address these knowledge gaps. With the aging population and increasing incidence of breast cancer with age, it is essential to study the feasibility, toxicity, and efficacy of cancer therapy in this at-risk population. PMID:24847891

  8. [Postoperative radiotherapy of breast cancer and cardiotoxicity].

    PubMed

    Nagykálnai, Tamás; Nagy, A Csaba; Landherr, László

    2014-06-01

    Cardiac complications may present a particular problem following radiation treatment applied to the mediastinum and thoracic wall (and especially to the left breast). Exposure of the heart during radiotherapy increases the risk of ischemic heart disease occurring generally years after the treatment. The incidence of radiation cardiotoxicity depends on various factors related to oncological therapies and the patient (details of radiotherapy, age, gender, comorbidities, smoking habits, etc.). Until recently the majority of clinical studies reported increased cardiac morbidity in patients receiving radiation treatment of the chest wall and the breast. Due to modern methods, however, postoperative chest wall and left breast irradiation is much safer today than previously. In order to avoid cardiotoxicity, adherence to clinical practice guidelines for chemo- and targeted therapy of breast cancer, use of the most advanced irradiation procedures, regular monitoring of patients, and close cooperation between cardiologists and oncologists are all recommended. PMID:24880968

  9. Study reveals genomic similarities between breast and ovarian cancers

    Cancer.gov

    A new study from The Cancer Genome Atlas captured a complete view of genomic alterations in breast cancer and classified them into four intrinsic subtypes, one of which shares many genetic features with high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Depicted are breast cancer cells with the HER2 protein, which can trigger cell growth responses, lit up in bright red. (Photo credit: NIST)

  10. Interval cancers in the Dutch breast cancer screening programme

    PubMed Central

    Fracheboud, J; Koning, H J de; Beemsterboer, P M M; Boer, R; Verbeek, A L M; Hendriks, J H C L; Ineveld, B M van; Broeders, M J M; Bruyn, A E de; Maas, P J van der

    1999-01-01

    The nationwide breast cancer screening programme in The Netherlands for women aged 50–69 started in 1989. In our study we assessed the occurrence and stage distribution of interval cancers in women screened during 1990–1993. Records of 0.84 million screened women were linked to the regional cancer registries yielding a follow-up of at least 2.5 years. Age-adjusted incidence rates and relative (proportionate) incidences per tumour size including ductal carcinoma in-situ were calculated for screen-detected and interval cancers, and cancers in not (yet) screened women, comparing them with published data from the UK regions North West and East Anglia. In total 1527 interval cancers were identified: 0.95 and 0.99 per 1000 woman-years of follow-up in the 2-year interval after initial and subsequent screens respectively. In the first year after initial screening interval cancers amounted to 27% (26% after subsequent screens) of underlying incidence, and in the second year to 52% (55%). Generally, interval cancers had a more favourable tumour size distribution than breast cancer in not (yet) screened women. The Dutch programme detected relatively less (favourable) invasive cancers in initial screens than the UK programme, whereas the number of interval cancers confirms UK findings. Measures should be considered to improve the detection of small invasive cancers and to reduce false-negative rates, even if this will lead to increasing referral rates. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10555768

  11. Radiotherapy in the management of early breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei

    2013-03-15

    Radiotherapy is an indispensible part of the management of all stages of breast cancer. In this article, the common indications for radiotherapy in the management of early breast cancer (stages 0, I, and II) are reviewed, including whole-breast radiotherapy as part of breast-conserving treatment for early invasive breast cancer and pre-invasive disease of ductal carcinoma in situ, post-mastectomy radiotherapy, locoregional radiotherapy, and partial breast irradiation. Key clinical studies that underpin our current practice are discussed briefly.

  12. FGF receptor genes and breast cancer susceptibility: results from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, D; Pineda, S; Michailidou, K; Herranz, J; Pita, G; Moreno, L T; Alonso, M R; Dennis, J; Wang, Q; Bolla, M K; Meyer, K B; Menéndez-Rodríguez, P; Hardisson, D; Mendiola, M; González-Neira, A; Lindblom, A; Margolin, S; Swerdlow, A; Ashworth, A; Orr, N; Jones, M; Matsuo, K; Ito, H; Iwata, H; Kondo, N; Hartman, M; Hui, M; Lim, W Y; T-C Iau, P; Sawyer, E; Tomlinson, I; Kerin, M; Miller, N; Kang, D; Choi, J-Y; Park, S K; Noh, D-Y; Hopper, J L; Schmidt, D F; Makalic, E; Southey, M C; Teo, S H; Yip, C H; Sivanandan, K; Tay, W-T; Brauch, H; Brüning, T; Hamann, U; Dunning, A M; Shah, M; Andrulis, I L; Knight, J A; Glendon, G; Tchatchou, S; Schmidt, M K; Broeks, A; Rosenberg, E H; van't Veer, L J; Fasching, P A; Renner, S P; Ekici, A B; Beckmann, M W; Shen, C-Y; Hsiung, C-N; Yu, J-C; Hou, M-F; Blot, W; Cai, Q; Wu, A H; Tseng, C-C; Van Den Berg, D; Stram, D O; Cox, A; Brock, I W; Reed, M W R; Muir, K; Lophatananon, A; Stewart-Brown, S; Siriwanarangsan, P; Zheng, W; Deming-Halverson, S; Shrubsole, M J; Long, J; Shu, X-O; Lu, W; Gao, Y-T; Zhang, B; Radice, P; Peterlongo, P; Manoukian, S; Mariette, F; Sangrajrang, S; McKay, J; Couch, F J; Toland, A E; Yannoukakos, D; Fletcher, O; Johnson, N; Silva, I dos Santos; Peto, J; Marme, F; Burwinkel, B; Guénel, P; Truong, T; Sanchez, M; Mulot, C; Bojesen, S E; Nordestgaard, B G; Flyer, H; Brenner, H; Dieffenbach, A K; Arndt, V; Stegmaier, C; Mannermaa, A; Kataja, V; Kosma, V-M; Hartikainen, J M; Lambrechts, D; Yesilyurt, B T; Floris, G; Leunen, K; Chang-Claude, J; Rudolph, A; Seibold, P; Flesch-Janys, D; Wang, X; Olson, J E; Vachon, C; Purrington, K; Giles, G G; Severi, G; Baglietto, L; Haiman, C A; Henderson, B E; Schumacher, F; Le Marchand, L; Simard, J; Dumont, M; Goldberg, M S; Labrèche, F; Winqvist, R; Pylkäs, K; Jukkola-Vuorinen, A; Grip, M; Devilee, P; Tollenaar, R A E M; Seynaeve, C; García-Closas, M; Chanock, S J; Lissowska, J; Figueroa, J D; Czene, K; Eriksson, M; Humphreys, K; Darabi, H; Hooning, M J; Kriege, M; Collée, J M; Tilanus-Linthorst, M; Li, J; Jakubowska, A; Lubinski, J; Jaworska-Bieniek, K; Durda, K; Nevanlinna, H; Muranen, T A; Aittomäki, K; Blomqvist, C; Bogdanova, N; Dörk, T; Hall, P; Chenevix-Trench, G; Easton, D F; Pharoah, P D P; Arias-Perez, J I; Zamora, P; Benítez, J; Milne, R L

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Genome-wide association studies have identified FGFR2 as a breast cancer susceptibility gene. Common variation in other fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors might also modify risk. We tested this hypothesis by studying genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and imputed SNPs in FGFR1, FGFR3, FGFR4 and FGFRL1 in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Methods: Data were combined from 49 studies, including 53?835 cases and 50?156 controls, of which 89?050 (46?450 cases and 42?600 controls) were of European ancestry, 12?893 (6269 cases and 6624 controls) of Asian and 2048 (1116 cases and 932 controls) of African ancestry. Associations with risk of breast cancer, overall and by disease sub-type, were assessed using unconditional logistic regression. Results: Little evidence of association with breast cancer risk was observed for SNPs in the FGF receptor genes. The strongest evidence in European women was for rs743682 in FGFR3; the estimated per-allele odds ratio was 1.05 (95% confidence interval=1.02–1.09, P=0.0020), which is substantially lower than that observed for SNPs in FGFR2. Conclusion: Our results suggest that common variants in the other FGF receptors are not associated with risk of breast cancer to the degree observed for FGFR2. PMID:24548884

  13. Pharmacogenetics in breast cancer: steps toward personalized medicine in breast cancer management

    PubMed Central

    Rofaiel, Sarah; Muo, Esther N; Mousa, Shaker A

    2010-01-01

    There is wide individual variability in the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerance to anticancer drugs within the same ethnic group and even greater variability among different ethnicities. Pharmacogenomics (PG) has the potential to provide personalized therapy based on individual genetic variability in an effort to maximize efficacy and reduce adverse effects. The benefits of PG include improved therapeutic index, improved dose regimen, and selection of optimal types of drug for an individual or set of individuals. Advanced or metastatic breast cancer is typically treated with single or multiple combinations of chemotherapy regimens including anthracyclines, taxanes, antimetabolites, alkylating agents, platinum drugs, vinca alkaloids, and others. In this review, the PG of breast cancer therapeutics, including tamoxifen, which is the most widely used therapeutic for the treatment of hormone-dependent breast cancer, is reviewed. The pharmacological activity of tamoxifen depends on its conversion by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) to its abundant active metabolite, endoxifen. Patients with reduced CYP2D6 activity, as a result of either their genotype or induction by the coadministration of other drugs that inhibit CYP2D6 function, produce little endoxifen and hence derive limited therapeutic benefit from tamoxifen; the same can be said about the different classes of therapeutics in breast cancer. PG studies of breast cancer therapeutics should provide patients with breast cancer with optimal and personalized therapy. PMID:23226048

  14. Breast cancer diagnosis: biographical disruption, emotional experiences and strategic management in Thai women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liamputtong, Pranee; Suwankhong, Dusanee

    2015-09-01

    In this article we draw on Bury's theory of biographical disruption to discuss the meanings of, and emotional experiences related to, being diagnosed with breast cancer among southern Thai women. Qualitative methods, including in-depth interviewing and drawing methods, were used to collect data from 20 women with breast cancer. The women perceived breast cancer to be a rhok raai; an evil or dread disease. They believed that breast cancer would lead to death. The disruption in their biography occurred when they detected abnormalities indicating breast cancer. The women's narratives revealed their chaotic lives upon this diagnosis and the news precipitated in them shock, fear, anxiety and loss of hope. Although they experienced chaos and disruption, the women cultivated strategies that helped them cope with their experiences by accepting their fate and adhering to Buddhist beliefs and practices. Through their narratives of biographical disruption, the women in our study offer healthcare providers knowledge that could lead to an appreciation of their needs and concerns. This knowledge is crucial for health professionals who wish to provide emotional support to women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer in Thailand and elsewhere. PMID:25922881

  15. Ongoing data from the breast cancer prevention trials: opportunity for breast cancer risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Victor G

    2015-01-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) reduce the risk of recurrence of invasive breast cancer and the incidence of first breast cancers in women who are at increased risk. Multiple, randomized clinical trials have shown both the efficacy and safety of SERMs in reducing the risk of breast cancer. Long-term follow-up as long as 20 years in the randomized trials shows persistent efficacy with acceptable safety. Hormone replacement therapy given concurrently with tamoxifen abrogates its preventive effect, but women with atypical hyperplasia derive particular benefit from SERM therapy. Aromatase inhibitors also reduce the risk of developing invasive breast cancer, but the experience with them for risk reduction is limited to few trials. National organizations have made recommendations to use SERMs and aromatase inhibitors to reduce the risk of breast cancer in high-risk women and additional efforts should be made to increase their use in clinical practice, where the number of women needed to treat to prevent one case of breast cancer conforms to accepted standards of preventive medicine. PMID:25888872

  16. Clinical Implications of T?RII Expression in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ningning; Zhai, Qixi; Li, Yinyan; Huang, Kun; Bian, Donglin; Wang, Xuemei; Liu, Caigang; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Teng

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between T?RII [type II TGF? (transforming growth factor ?) receptor] expression and clinicopathological characteristics, and to evaluate the prognostic significance of T?RII expression in breast cancer. Methods Clinicopathological data and prognostic information of 108 patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer who were surgically treated at China Medical University between January 2007 and September 2008 were reviewed and the association between the clinicopathological characteristics and T?RII expression was analyzed by chi-square test and multivariate analysis. The expression of T?RII was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results Of the 108 patients, 60 cases were T?RII positive and 48 cases were negative. There was no significant association between T?RII expression of the patients older than 40 years and that of the younger than 40 years (56.0% vs 50.0%; P = 0.742). The T?RII expression rate was significantly increased in patients with lymph node metastasis compared to those without lymph node metastasis (67.40% vs 46.8%; P = 0.033). Statistically significant relationships were found between increasing tumor clinical stage and high T?RII expression (P = 0.011). T?RII expression was not associated with the expression of ER(estrogen receptor)?PR, (progesterone receptor)?Her-2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) (P = 0.925,P = 0.861, and P = 0.840, respectively). Patients with high T?RII expression showed poorer 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) compared to those with low expression (66.7% vs 45.6%; P = 0.028) by univariate analysis. Survival analysis demonstrated that T?RII was associated with poor DFS (P = 0.011). Subgroup analysis revealed that T?RII expression was associated with shorter DFS in patients with lymph node metastasis, ER-positive, PR-positive or Her-2-negative tumors (P = 0.006, P = 0.016, P = 0.022, and P = 0.033, respectively). Cox regression analysis revealed that high T?RII expression was related to poor 5-year DFS, and it was an independent factor for predicting the poor outcome for breast cancer patients (P = 0.016). Conclusions High levels of T?RII expression were associated with lymph node metastasis, increasing tumor clinical stage, and poorer 5-year DFS in patients with breast cancer. T?RII may be a potential prognostic marker for breast cancer. PMID:26551005

  17. Phase II Etirinotecan Pegol in Refractory Brain Metastases & Advanced Lung Cancer / Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-04

    Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Tumors Metastatic to Brain; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  18. Lifestyle components and primary breast cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer primary prevention is a high research priority due to the high psychological and economic costs. The disease is a multistep process and several risk factors have been recognized. Over the past three decades numerous studies have investigated the association of lifestyle with breast cancer, showing independent effects of various factors. We report here a summary of the present state of knowledge on the role of lifestyle patterns, such as physical activity, diet, smoking, hormone therapy, and experience of psychological stress in the modulation of breast cancer in women, and discuss commonly accepted biological mechanisms hypothesized as responsible for the associations. The findings indicate that regular physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity is probably linked with the decreased breast cancer risk among postmenopausal females and suggestive for a decrease of the risk in premenopausal women. In contrast, the consumption of high-fat diet, alcohol intake, and use of combined estrogen and synthetic progestagen hormonal therapy may increase the risk. Epidemiological findings dealing with a role of smoking and experience of psychological stress are conflicting. PMID:25605138

  19. Cording following treatment for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Jean; Miller, Cynthia L; Specht, Michelle C; Skolny, Melissa N; Jammallo, Lauren S; Horick, Nora; Elliott, Krista; Niemierko, Andrzej; Taghian, Alphonse G

    2013-07-01

    Treatment for breast cancer may result in the formation of palpable cords in the axillary region. Our aim was to evaluate cording incidence, risk factors, and association with upper extremity functional impairment and measured arm volume change. We included 308 patients with unilateral breast cancer prospectively screened for upper extremity lymphedema, symptoms and function. Patients were assessed pre- and post-operatively and at 3-8-month intervals with perometer arm measurements and the LEFT-BC questionnaire. Cording was determined by patient self-report. The cumulative incidence of cording and its association with clinicopathologic factors, upper extremity functional impairment, and measured arm volume change were analyzed. 31.5 % (97/308) of patients reported cording, with a cumulative incidence of 36.2 % at 24 months post-operative. Clinicopathologic factors significantly associated with cording by multivariate analysis included axillary lymph node dissection (p < 0.0001) and younger age at diagnosis (p = 0.0005). Cording was associated with increased functional impairment (p = 0.0018) and an arm volume increase of ?5 % (p = 0.028). Cording following breast cancer treatment is common, and may occur beyond the post-operative period. Our findings emphasize the importance of identifying patients at high risk for cording, and developing strategies to minimize functional impairment and arm volume elevation associated with cording. Future studies should investigate the effectiveness of interventions for cording following breast cancer treatment. PMID:23813304

  20. Environmental Factors and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at the possible interplay between genetics and the environment in the development of this disease. The Sister Study includes diverse ... Program and women about the roles of the environment in breast cancer development, and the importance of reducing their exposures. The ...