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1

Histological Classifications of Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principles of some modern classification systems for breast neoplasms based on cell growth rather than on a formal descriptive listing of them as seen in classical oncology are discussed. Particular note is made of the merits and disadvantages of the ...

D. I. Golovin

1974-01-01

2

A prognostic score in histological node negative breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between October 1977 and December 1983, 379 consecutive patients have been treated for unilateral, non-metastatic breast cancer, either with conservative (n = 205) or radical surgery (n = 174), with axillary dissection in all the cases. None of them had histologically proved lymph node involvement. Oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) levels were measured on each tumour. Levels greater

B Chevallier; V Mosseri; JP Dauce; P Bastit; JP Julien; B Asselain

1990-01-01

3

Histologic review of breast cancer cases in survivors of atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A panel of Japanese and American pathologists reviewed existing histologic material used to study breast cancer risk among the A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a population in which incidence studies have found a strong relationship between breast cancer risk and radiation dose. The primary charge to the panel was to define a body of confirmed cases in the Life

Shoji Tokuoka; Masahide Asano; Tsutomu Yamamoto; Masayoshi Tokunaga; Goi Sakamoto; William H. Hartmann; Robert V. P. Hutter; Charles E. Land; Donald E. Henson

1984-01-01

4

Breast cancer histology in Caucasians, African Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and pacific islanders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objectives. To investigate the association between race\\/ethnicity and histologic types of breast cancer.Design. Cross?sectional study.Setting. Population?based data from the Northern California Tumor Registry, which is part of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program.Participants. A total of 2759 breast cancer cases diagnosed in 1988.Main results. Tumors were classified as ductal, lobular, and mixed\\/unspecified carcinoma. Ductal carcinoma

Laura B. Schaffroth; Sharon L. Edelstein; Craig Molgaard; Sidney L. Saltzstein

1998-01-01

5

Prognostic relevance of histological grade and its components in node-negative breast cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available results highlight the lack of good level of evidence studies on the pure prognostic value of histological grade. In the present study, the prognostic relevance of histological grade and of its three components, tubule formation, nuclear pleomorphism and mitotic count, was analyzed in a series of 372 patients with node-negative breast cancer treated with locoregional therapy alone until early

Annalisa Volpi; Francesco Bacci; Angelo Paradiso; Luca Saragoni; Emanuela Scarpi; Monica Ricci; Mirella Aldi; Simonetta Bianchi; Pietro Muretto; Fiorella Nuzzo; Gianni Simone; Anita Mangia; Francesco Schittulli; Dino Amadori

2004-01-01

6

Genetic Reclassification of Histologic Grade Delineates New Clinical Subtypes of Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histologic grading of breast cancer defines morphologic subtypes informative of metastatic potential, although not without considerable interobserver disagreement and clinical heterogeneity particularly among the moderately differen- tiated grade 2 (G2) tumors. We posited that a gene expression signature capable of discerning tumors of grade 1(G1 ) and grade 3 (G3) histology might provide a more objective measure of grade with

Anna V. Ivshina; Joshy George; Oleg Senko; Benjamin Mow; Thomas C. Putti; Johanna Smeds; Thomas Lindahl; Yudi Pawitan; John E. L. Wong; Edison T. Liu; Jonas Bergh; Vladimir A. Kuznetsov; Lance D. Miller

7

N-cadherin Expression in Breast Cancer: Correlation with an Aggressive Histologic Variant – Invasive Micropapillary Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Upregulation of N-cadherin in epithelial tumor cells has been shown to contribute to the invasive\\/metastatic phenotype. It\\u000a remains however to be determined whether N-cadherin is increased in human breast cancers with enhanced malignant potential.\\u000a We examined a large number of invasive breast cancer specimens (n=114) for N- and E-cadherin. These specimens compared invasive duct carcinomas (IDCs) of varying histologic grades

Chandandeep Nagi; Mitchell Guttman; Shabnam Jaffer; Rui Qiao; Rinat Keren; Aymara Triana; Maomi Li; James Godbold; Ira J. Bleiweiss; Rachel B. Hazan

2005-01-01

8

Correlation of Immunoglobulin G Expression and Histological Subtype and Stage in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recently, growing evidence indicates that immunoglobulins (Igs) are not only produced by mature B lymphocytes or plasma cells, but also by various normal cells types at immune privileged sites and neoplasm, including breast cancer. However, the association of breast cancer derived IgG with genesis and development of the disease has not yet been established. Methods In this study we examined the expression of IgG in 186 breast cancers, 20 benign breast lesions and 30 normal breast tissues. Both immunohistochemistry with antibodies to Ig? (immunoglobulin G ? light chain) and Ig? (immunoglobulin G heavy chain) and in situ hybridization with an antisense probe to IgG1 heavy chain constant region gene were performed. Various clinicopathological features were also analyzed. Results We found that IgG is specifically expressed in human breast cancer cells. Both infiltrating ductal carcinoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma had significantly greater numbers of Ig? and Ig? positive cancer cells as compared with medullary carcinoma, carcinoma in situ, and benign lesions (all p<0.05). In addition, IgG expression was correlated with breast cancer histological subtypes (p<0.01) and AJCC stages (p<0.05), with more abundance of IgG expression in more malignant histological subtypes or in more advanced stage of the disease. Conclusions IgG expression in breast cancer cells is correlated with malignancy and AJCC stages of the cancers. This suggests that breast cancer derived IgG may be associated with genesis, development and prognosis of the cancer.

Chen, Zhengshan; Yi, Weining; McNutt, Michael A.; Wang, Yun; Korteweg, Christine; Gu, Jiang

2013-01-01

9

Preservation of biomolecules in breast cancer tissue by a formalin-free histology system  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The potential problems associated with the use of formalin in histology, such as health hazards, degradation of RNA and cross-linking of proteins are well recognized. We describe the utilization of a formalin-free fixation and processing system for tissue detection of two important biopredictors in breast cancer – estrogen receptor and HER2 – at the RNA and protein levels. METHODS:

Mehdi Nassiri; Sharon Ramos; Hajir Zohourian; Vladimir Vincek; Azorides R Morales; Mehrdad Nadji

2008-01-01

10

Epidermal growth factor receptor status of histological sub-types of breast cancer.  

PubMed Central

The histological breakdown of a consecutive series of 264 surgically resected malignant lesions of the breast was studied. Oestrogen and epidermal growth factor receptor status was quantified and presented along with size and lymph node status of the non-ductal lesions. Those non-ductal tumours containing EGF receptors have all recurred within two years of resection. Twenty-one percent of the lobular carcinomas contained EGF receptors compared to 34% of ductal carcinomas. EGF receptor status appeared to be associated with an increased risk of early recurrence and death whatever the histological sub-type of the breast cancer.

Sainsbury, J. R.; Nicholson, S.; Angus, B.; Farndon, J. R.; Malcolm, A. J.; Harris, A. L.

1988-01-01

11

Breast cancer epidemiology in blacks and whites: disparities in incidence, mortality, survival rates and histology  

PubMed Central

Background This study presents black-white breast cancer statistics, tumor histology and receptor status, and treatment patterns for all ages and by age groups (under 40, between ages 40 and 49, and age 50 and over). Methods The study used data from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program for the time period 1995–2004. Age-adjusted incidence, mortality, relative survival rates, tumor grade, histology and receptor status, and treatment patterns for invasive breast cancer were calculated for nine SEER cancer registries for 1995–2004. Results Invasive breast cancer age-adjusted incidence for black women age <40 was significantly higher than those for white women (rate ratio=1.16, 95% confidence interval=1.10–1.23). Age-adjusted mortality rate for black women age <40 was twice that for white women. Compared to white women, black women were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with regional or distant disease, have lower relative five-year survival rate, and have higher likelihood of being diagnosed with tumors with poorer prognosis. Black women were less likely to receive breast cancer surgery as part of the treatment plan. Conclusions Race/ethnic disparities in invasive breast cancer epidemiology, prognostic indicators, and treatment patterns exist between black and white women. The study findings support the need for innovative research, especially on the multifaceted determinants of the differential epidemiology of breast cancer. Equally importantly, there is a need for evidence-guided equal delivery of quality care to eliminate breast cancer disparities among black women.

Baquet, Claudia R.; Mishra, Shiraz I.; Commiskey, Patricia; Ellison, Gary L.; DeShields, Mary

2013-01-01

12

Gene expression profiles of estrogen receptor positive and estrogen receptor negative breast cancers are detectable in histologically normal breast epithelium  

PubMed Central

Purpose Previously, we found that gene expression in histologically normal breast epithelium (NlEpi) from women at high breast cancer risk can resemble gene expression in NlEpi from cancer-containing breasts. Therefore, we hypothesized that gene expression characteristic of a cancer subtype might be seen in NlEpi of breasts containing that subtype. Experimental Design We examined gene expression in 46 cases of microdissected NlEpi from untreated women undergoing breast cancer surgery. From 30 age-matched cases (15 estrogen receptor (ER)+, 15 ER-) we used Affymetryix U133A arrays. From 16 independent cases (9 ER+, 7 ER-), we validated selected genes using qPCR. We then compared gene expression between NlEpi and invasive breast cancer using 4 publicly available datasets. Results We identified 198 genes that are differentially expressed between NlEpi from breasts with ER+ (NlEpiER+) compared to ER- cancers (NlEpiER-). These include genes characteristic of ER+ and ER- cancers (e.g., ESR1, GATA3, and CX3CL1, FABP7). QPCR validated the microarray results in both the 30 original cases and the 16 independent cases. Gene expression in NlEpiER+ and NlEpiER- resembled gene expression in ER+ and ER- cancers, respectively: 25-53% of the genes or probes examined in 4 external datasets overlapped between NlEpi and the corresponding cancer subtype. Conclusions Gene expression differs in NlEpi of breasts containing ER+ compared to ER- breast cancers. These differences echo differences in ER+ and ER- invasive cancers. NlEpi gene expression may help elucidate subtype-specific risk signatures, identify early genomic events in cancer development and locate targets for prevention and therapy.

Graham, Kelly; Ge, Xijin; de las Morenas, Antonio; Tripathi, Anusri; Rosenberg, Carol L.

2010-01-01

13

Breast Cancer Classification From Histological Images with Multiple Features and Random Subspace Classifier Ensemble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Histological image is important for diagnosis of breast cancer. In this paper, we present a novel automatic breaset cancer classification scheme based on histological images. The image features are extracted using the Curvelet Transform, statistics of Gray Level Co-occurence Matrix (GLCM) and Completed Local Binary Patterns (CLBP), respectively. The three different features are combined together and used for classification. A classifier ensemble approach, called Random Subspace Ensemble (RSE), are used to select and aggregate a set of base neural network classifiers for classification. The proposed multiple features and random subspace ensemble offer the classification rate 95.22% on a publically available breast cancer image dataset, which compares favorably with the previously published result 93.4%.

Zhang, Yungang; Zhang, Bailing; Lu, Wenjin

2011-06-01

14

Endometrial pathology in breast cancer patients: Effect of different treatments on ultrasonographic, hysteroscopic and histological findings  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer patients have an increased risk of endometrial pathology. To investigate whether the incidence of endometrial abnormalities and their clinicopathological features were affected by receiving tamoxifen (TAM), non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors (AIs) or no treatment (NT), 333 peri/postmenopausal breast cancer patients, who were referred to the Department of Gynecological, Obstetrical Sciences and Reproductive Medicine for gynecological assessment, were reviewed retrospectively. Transvaginal ultrasonographic (TVUS), hysteroscopic and histological findings were investigated. Endometrial histological findings included: atrophy in 61, 94.3 and 55.6% of cases in the TAM, AIs and NT groups, respectively; polyps in 30.9, 31.4 and 42.2% of cases in the TAM, AIs and NT groups, respectively; hyperplasia in 3% of patients in the TAM group and 11.1% of patients in the NT group; and cancer in 3.8% of cases in the TAM group and 11.1% of cases in the NT group. There was a significant correlation between the duration of TAM treatment and the severity of endometrial pathology. In all groups, there was a significant correlation between hysteroscopic and histological findings with regard to the diagnosis of endometrial atrophy, polyps, hyperplasia and cancer (P<0.001). In conclusion, these data revealed that there was a higher incidence of endometrial pathology in the NT group compared with the TAM group, which was significant for endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. The chance of developing high-risk histological subtypes of endometrial cancer was independent of TAM use. Lastly, although there was no significant difference in recurrent vaginal bleeding and mean endometrial thickness between the TAM and AIs groups, patients receiving AIs did not exhibit hyperplastic, dysplastic or neoplastic changes in the endometrium. This study indicates that breast cancer patients require screening for endometrial pathology; TVUS alone is useful in asymptomatic patients, however, in patients where the endometrial line is irregular or its thickness is >3 mm, hysteroscopy with directed biopsy is the appropriate diagnostic method.

LE DONNE, MARIA; ALIBRANDI, ANGELA; CIANCIMINO, LEONARDA; AZZERBONI, ANDREA; CHIOFALO, BENITO; TRIOLO, ONOFRIO

2013-01-01

15

Risk for contralateral breast cancers in a population covered by mammography: effects of family history, age at diagnosis and histology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Improved survival for breast cancer is increasing the likelihood of contralateral tumors. Mammographic screening is partially\\u000a contributing to the survival advantage, while changing many aspects of breast cancer presentation, including age at diagnosis,\\u000a histology and familial risk. As mammography has become widely used, it is important to quantify the risks for contralateral\\u000a breast cancer in a population with a national

Jianguang Ji; Kari Hemminki

2007-01-01

16

Histology and immunophenotype of invasive lobular breast cancer. daily practice and pitfalls.  

PubMed

Invasive lobular carcinomas (ILC) represent the most common subtype of invasive breast cancer and account for about 5-15% of all breast cancer cases. Invasive lobular carcinoma is often accompanied by in situ lesions, by lobular neoplasia (LN). Invasive lobular carcinomas display diverse histologic patterns varying from classical through solid to pleomorphic subtypes. When analyzing histological subtypes, the classical variant is reported to have a more favorable outcome. The majority of invasive lobular carcinomas are hormone receptor positive, overexpression and/or amplification of the Her2 gene is lower than in carcinomas of invasive ductal type. Loss of heterozygosity of the 16q chromosomal regions and the consequent lack of E-Cadherin expression are common findings in invasive lobular carcinomas. Intra-operative evaluation of resection margins in ILC is often unsatisfactory due to the diffuse nature of the tumor. Size estimation of the invasive component poses a similar challenge in daily practice. PMID:19850991

Varga, Zsuzsanna; Mallon, Elizabeth

17

Nectin-4 is a new histological and serological tumor associated marker for breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease at the molecular level. Evolution is difficult to predict according to classical histoclinical prognostic factors. Different studies highlight the importance of large-scale molecular expression analyses to improve taxonomy of breast cancer and prognostic classification. Identification of new molecular markers that refine this taxonomy and improve patient management is a priority in the field of breast cancer research. Nectins are cell adhesion molecules involved in the regulation of epithelial physiology. We present here Nectin-4/PVRL4 as a new histological and serological tumor associated marker for breast carcinoma. Methods Expression of Nectin-4 protein was measured on a panel of 78 primary cells and cell lines from different origins and 57 breast tumors by FACS analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively. mRNA expression was measured by quantitative PCR. Serum Nectin-4 was detected by ELISA and compared with CEA and CA15.3 markers, on panels of 45 sera from healthy donors, 53 sera from patients with non-metastatic breast carcinoma (MBC) at diagnosis, and 182 sera from patients with MBC. Distribution of histological/serological molecular markers and histoclinical parameters were compared using the standard Chi-2 test. Results Nectin-4 was not detected in normal breast epithelium. By contrast, Nectin-4 was expressed in 61% of ductal breast carcinoma vs 6% in lobular type. Expression of Nectin-4 strongly correlated with the basal-like markers EGFR, P53, and P-cadherin, and negatively correlated with the luminal-like markers ER, PR and GATA3. All but one ER/PR-negative tumors expressed Nectin-4. The detection of Nectin-4 in serum improves the follow-up of patients with MBC: the association CEA/CA15.3/Nectin-4 allowed to monitor 74% of these patients compared to 67% with the association CEA/CA15.3. Serum Nectin-4 is a marker of disease progression, and levels correlate with the number of metastases (P = 0.038). Serum Nectin-4 is also a marker of therapeutic efficiency and correlates, in 90% of cases, with clinical evolution. Conclusion Nectin-4 is a new tumor-associated antigen for breast carcinoma. Nectin-4 is a new bio-marker whose use could help refine breast cancer taxonomy and improve patients' follow-up. Nectin-4 emerges as a potential target for breast cancer immunotherapy.

Fabre-Lafay, Stephanie; Monville, Florence; Garrido-Urbani, Sarah; Berruyer-Pouyet, Carole; Ginestier, Christophe; Reymond, Nicolas; Finetti, Pascal; Sauvan, Richard; Adelaide, Jose; Geneix, Jeannine; Lecocq, Eric; Popovici, Cornel; Dubreuil, Patrice; Viens, Patrice; Goncalves, Anthony; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Birnbaum, Daniel; Lopez, Marc

2007-01-01

18

Glucose Metabolism of Breast Cancer Assessed by 18F-FDG PET: Histologic and Immunohistochemical Tissue Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is characterized by elevated glucose consump- tion resulting in increased uptake of 18F-FDG. However, tracer uptake varies considerably among tumors imaged with PET. This study compared histologic and immunohistochemical tis- sue analysis of breast carcinomas with preoperative FDG up- take assessed by PET to identify tumor characteristics that define the degree of tracer accumulation. Methods: FDG up- take

Norbert Avril; Manuela Menzel; Jorg Dose; Marcus Schelling; Wolfgang Weber; Fritz Janicke; Walter Nathrath; Markus Schwaiger

19

Breast cancer histology and receptor status characterization in Asian Indian and Pakistani women in the U.S. - a SEER analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest increase in estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) negative breast cancer yet little is known about histology or receptor status of breast cancer in Indian\\/Pakistani women.in the U.S. METHODS: We examined the United States National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Cancer program to assess: a) frequency of breast cancer by age, b) histologic

Madhuri Kakarala; Laura Rozek; Michele Cote; Samadhi Liyanage; Dean E Brenner

2010-01-01

20

Familial breast cancer. Part II: Relationships with histology, staging, steroid receptors and serum tumor markers.  

PubMed

Purpose: To identify differences in clinical characteristics, histological features, hormone receptor status, and tumor marker expression between patients with sporadic and familial breast cancer. Patients and methods: As in the previous Part I of this study, two groups of women with breast cancer were compared. The first group (group I) included 504 patients with a family history of breast cancer. The second (control) group (group II) consisted of 300 patients not reporting such a history in their relatives. The examined parameters in this report were stage and axillary lymph node involvement at the time of the initial diagnosis, treatment methods, hormone receptor status, and serum levels of the tumor markers CEA and CA 15.3. The data were processed and analysed using the SPSS statistical package. The statistical significance of differences between groups and subgroups was evaluated by x(2) Pearson's test and Student's paired t-test. Results: Compared to sporadic cases, patients with familial breast cancer were more often diagnosed at an advanced III or IV stage; metastatic involvement of the regional lymph nodes was more frequent in group I patients. In the same group more radical surgical procedures combined with chemotherapy and local irradiation were performed. In group I the percentage of negative hormone receptors was higher (35.3% versus 22.6%; p <0.0001) for estrogen receptors (ER), and 47.6% versus 32.6% (p <0.0001) for progesterone receptors (PR). Also, in group I raised serum levels of CA 15.3 were significantly more frequent compared with group II (48% versus 35.5%, p <0.0789), and this applied also for CEA values above 50 ng/ml (10.6% versus 1.5%, p <0.0002). Conclusion: Familial breast cancer displays particular clinical characteristics, distinguishing it from the sporadic type of the disease. Patients with familial breast cancer are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. Commonly, the hormone receptors are negative and the serum concentrations of tumor markers elevated. The steroid receptor status represents the most reliable predictor of response to hormonotherapy and an important prognostic factor of the patient's outcome. As a result of their particular characteristics, these patients require more radical surgical techniques combined with pre- or postoperative local radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy. PMID:17577263

Gavrilov, I; Nacheva, M; Tzingilev, D

21

Reproductive factors and specific histological types of breast cancer: prospective study and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Little is known about how reproductive factors affect the risk of breast cancers of different histology. In an analysis of prospective data on 1.2 million middle-aged UK women, we used proportional hazards models to estimate the relative risks of six histological types in relation to menarche, childbearing and menopause. During 8.7 million person-years of follow-up, 17?923 ductal, 3332 lobular, 1062 tubular, 944 mixed ductal lobular, 330 mucinous and 117 medullary cancers were diagnosed. The effect of both age at menarche and age at first birth was greatest for lobular tumours; relative risks per 5-year increase in age at menarche for ductal, lobular, and tubular cancers were 0.93 (0.87–0.99), 0.65 (0.56–0.76), and 0.75 (0.57–0.98), respectively (P-value for heterogeneity=0.0001); and the relative risks per 5-year increase in age at first birth were 1.10 (1.07–1.12), 1.23 (1.17–1.29), and 1.13 (1.03–1.23), respectively (P-value for heterogeneity=0.0006). Increasing parity reduced the risk of each tumour type, except medullary cancers, but the reduction in risk was greater for mucinous cancers than for any other subtype considered (P<0.05 for comparison with each other subtype in turn). The effect of menopause did not vary significantly by tumour histology. Meta-analysis of published results on the effects of age at menarche and age at first birth on ductal and lobular cancers were in keeping with our findings.

Reeves, G K; Pirie, K; Green, J; Bull, D; Beral, V

2009-01-01

22

The Role of Axillary Lymph Node Fine Needle Aspiration in Breast Cancer Staging prior to Chemotherapy with Histological Correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Axillary lymph node (LN) sampling is important for breast cancer staging and can be performed using fine needle aspiration (FNA). The aim of this study is to review the axillary LN FNAs performed at our institution prior to treatment, and to correlate their results with the available LN histology in order to evaluate the diagnostic utility of FNA. Study

Sara E. Monaco; Amy Colaizzi; Anisa Kanbour; Ahmed S. Ibrahim; Amal Kanbour-Shakir

2012-01-01

23

Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Breast Cancer What is Breast Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... tumors form in the breast tissue. Who Gets Breast Cancer? Breast cancer is one of the most common ...

24

Optical spectral fingerprints of tissues from patients with different breast cancer histologies using a novel fluorescence spectroscopic device.  

PubMed

The fluorescence of paired human breast malignant and normal tissue samples was investigated using a novel fluorescence spectroscopic (S3-LED) ratiometer unit with no moving parts. This device can measure the emission spectra of key native organic biomolecules such as tryptophan, tyrosine, collagen and elastin within tissues by using LED (light emitting diode) excitation sources coupled to an optical fiber. With this device, the spectral profiles of 11 paired breast cancerous and normal samples from 11 patients with breast carcinoma were obtained. In each of the 11 cases, marked increases in the tryptophan levels were found in the breast carcinoma samples when compared to the normal breast tissues. In the breast cancer samples, there were also consistently higher ratios of the 340 to 440 nm and the 340 to 460 nm intensity peaks after 280 nm excitation, likely representing an increased tryptophan to NADH ratio in the breast cancer samples. This difference was seen in the spectral profiles of the breast cancer patients regardless of whether they were HER2 positive or negative or hormone receptor positive or negative, and was found regardless of menopausal status, histology, stage, or tumor grade. PMID:23547972

Sordillo, L A; Pu, Y; Sordillo, P P; Budansky, Y; Alfano, R R

2013-03-26

25

High Preoperative CA 15-3 Concentrations Predict Adverse Outcome in Node-Negative and Node-Positive Breast Cancer: Study of 600 Patients with Histologically Confirmed Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: CA 15-3 is the most widely used serum marker in breast cancer. Currently, its main uses are in the surveillance of patients with diagnosed disease and monitoring the treatment of patients with advanced disease. Methods: Preoperative CA 15-3 concentrations were measured prospectively in 600 patients with histologi- cally confirmed breast cancer. Marker concentrations were related to patient outcome by

Michael J. Duffy; Catherine Duggan; Rachel Keane; Arnold D. K. Hill; Enda McDermott; John Crown; Niall O'Higgins

26

Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. Breast cancer kills more women in the United States than ... cancer. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are a number of risk factors. ...

27

Differences in oestrogen receptor status and histological grade of breast cancer in different religious communities in Bombay.  

PubMed

The various religious communities in India viz.Hindu, Muslim, Christian, Parsi have different breast cancer incidence rate. It is not known whether there might also exist differences in biological properties of breast cancer between these communities. To investigate this possibility we have studied the distribution of oestrogen receptor (ER) status and histological grade of tumour in these four communities. Significant differences were observed in the overall distribution of ER positivity and histological grade between the communities P less than for both parameters). Christians had the highest incidence of ER +ve (65.2%) and grade I + II tumours (16.0%), while Muslims had the lowest incidence of ER +ve (35.8%) and Grade I + II tumours (4.7%). In general, we found a significant positive relationship between ER status and age of the patient (p less than 0.0.1). The mean age of the christians was slightly but significantly higher than that of the Hindus and Muslim. The difference ER positivity between the communities might, therefore, be partly (but probably not wholly) explained by difference in age of the patients. However, the difference with respect to grade of tumour cannot be explained as a function of age since no significant association was found between grade of the tumour and age of the patient. Further investigation with respect to difference in the biology of the breast cancer between the communities are warranted. PMID:1786978

Redkar, A A; Sampat, M B; Chinoy, R F; Kabre, S S; Mittra, I

1991-09-01

28

Tumour vascularity and basement membrane structure in breast cancer as related to tumour histology and prognosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of 202 breast cancer biopsy specimens were analysed immunohistochemically for collagen IV to demonstrate basement membrane (BM) structures and blood vessels within tumour tissue. Integrity of the BM was graded into four categories and the number of vascular channels per square millimetre of tumour tissue were counted. Defective BM structures were significantly related to high grade, lack of

P. Lipponen; H. Ji; S. Aaltomaa; K. Syrjänen

1994-01-01

29

Breast cancer histology and receptor status characterization in Asian Indian and Pakistani women in the U.S. - a SEER analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Recent reports suggest increase in estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) negative breast cancer yet little is known about histology or receptor status of breast cancer in Indian/Pakistani women.in the U.S. Methods We examined the United States National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Cancer program to assess: a) frequency of breast cancer by age, b) histologic subtypes, c) receptor status of breast cancer and, d) survival in Indians/Pakistanis compared to Caucasians. There were 360,933 breast cancer cases diagnosed 1988-2006. Chi-Square analyses and Cox proportional hazards models, to estimate relative risks for breast cancer mortality after adjusting for confounders, were performed using Statistical Analysis Software 9.2. Results Among Asian Indian/Pakistani breast cancer patients, 16.2% were < 40 yrs. old compared to 6.23% in Caucasians (p < 0.0001). Asian Indian women had more invasive ductal carcinoma (69.1 vs. 65.7%, p < 0.0001), inflammatory cancer (1.4% vs. 0.8, p < 0.0001) and less invasive lobular carcinoma (4.2% vs. 8.1%, p < 0.0001) than Caucasians. Asian Indian/Pakistani women had more ER/PR negative breast cancer (30.6% vs. 21.8%, p = 0.0095) than Caucasians. Adjusting for stage at diagnosis, age, tumor grade, nodal status, and histology, Asian Indian/Pakistani women's survival was similar to Caucasians, while African Americans' was worse. Conclusions Asian Indian/Pakistani women have higher frequency of breast cancer (particularly in age < 40), ER/PR negative invasive ductal and inflammatory cancer than Caucasians.

2010-01-01

30

Markers of fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition demonstrate field cancerization in histologically normal tissue adjacent to breast tumors.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that a field of genetically altered but histologically normal tissue extends 1 cm or more from the margins of human breast tumors. The extent, composition and biological significance of this field are only partially understood, but the molecular alterations in affected cells could provide mechanisms for limitless replicative capacity, genomic instability and a microenvironment that supports tumor initiation and progression. We demonstrate by microarray, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry a signature of differential gene expression that discriminates between patient-matched, tumor-adjacent histologically normal breast tissues located 1 cm and 5 cm from the margins of breast adenocarcinomas (TAHN-1 and TAHN-5, respectively). The signature includes genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, wound healing, fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Myofibroblasts, which are mediators of wound healing and fibrosis, and intra-lobular fibroblasts expressing MMP2, SPARC, TGF-?3, which are inducers of EMT, were both prevalent in TAHN-1 tissues, sparse in TAHN-5 tissues, and absent in normal tissues from reduction mammoplasty. Accordingly, EMT markers S100A4 and vimentin were elevated in both luminal and myoepithelial cells, and EMT markers ?-smooth muscle actin and SNAIL were elevated in luminal epithelial cells of TAHN-1 tissues. These results identify cellular processes that are differentially activated between TAHN-1 and TAHN-5 breast tissues, implicate myofibroblasts as likely mediators of these processes, provide evidence that EMT is occurring in histologically normal tissues within the affected field and identify candidate biomarkers to investigate whether or how field cancerization contributes to the development of primary or recurrent breast tumors. PMID:21105047

Trujillo, Kristina A; Heaphy, Christopher M; Mai, Minh; Vargas, Keith M; Jones, Anna C; Vo, Phung; Butler, Kimberly S; Joste, Nancy E; Bisoffi, Marco; Griffith, Jeffrey K

2011-02-11

31

Markers of fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition demonstrate field cancerization in histologically normal tissue adjacent to breast tumors  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that a field of genetically altered but histologically normal tissue extends 1 cm or more from the margins of human breast tumors. The extent, composition and biological significance of this field are only partially understood, but the molecular alterations in affected cells could provide mechanisms for limitless replicative capacity, genomic instability and a microenvironment that supports tumor initiation and progression. We demonstrate by microarray, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry a signature of differential gene expression that discriminates between patient-matched, tumor-adjacent histologically normal breast tissues located 1 cm and 5 cm from the margins of breast adenocarcinomas (TAHN-1 and TAHN-5, respectively). The signature includes genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, wound healing, fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Myofibroblasts, which are mediators of wound healing and fibrosis, and intra-lobular fibroblasts expressing MMP2, SPARC, TGF-?3, which are inducers of EMT, were both prevalent in TAHN-1 tissues, sparse in TAHN-5 tissues, and absent in normal tissues from reduction mammoplasty. Accordingly, EMT markers S100A4 and vimentin were elevated in both luminal and myoepithelial cells, and EMT markers ?-smooth muscle actin and SNAIL were elevated in luminal epithelial cells of TAHN-1 tissues. These results identify cellular processes that are differentially activated between TAHN-1 and TAHN-5 breast tissues, implicate myofibroblasts as likely mediators of these processes, provide evidence that EMT is occurring in histologically normal tissues within the affected field and identify candidate biomarkers to investigate whether or how field cancerization contributes to the development of primary or recurrent breast tumors.

Trujillo, Kristina A.; Heaphy, Christopher M.; Mai, Minh; Vargas, Keith M.; Jones, Anna C.; Vo, Phung; Butler, Kimberly S.; Joste, Nancy E.; Bisoffi, Marco; Griffith, Jeffrey K

2011-01-01

32

Telomere DNA content and allelic imbalance demonstrate field cancerization in histologically normal tissue adjacent to breast tumors.  

PubMed

Cancer arises from an accumulation of mutations that promote the selection of cells with progressively malignant phenotypes. Previous studies have shown that genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer cells, is a driving force in this process. In the present study, two markers of genomic instability, telomere DNA content and allelic imbalance, were examined in two independent cohorts of mammary carcinomas. Altered telomeres and unbalanced allelic loci were present in both tumors and surrounding histologically normal tissues at distances at least 1 cm from the visible tumor margins. Although the extent of these genetic changes decreases as a function of the distance from the visible tumor margin, unbalanced loci are conserved between the surrounding tissues and the tumors, implying cellular clonal evolution. Our results are in agreement with the concepts of "field cancerization" and "cancer field effect," concepts that were previously introduced to describe areas within tissues consisting of histologically normal, yet genetically aberrant, cells that represent fertile grounds for tumorigenesis. The finding that genomic instability occurs in fields of histologically normal tissues surrounding the tumor is of clinical importance, as it has implications for the definition of appropriate tumor margins and the assessment of recurrence risk factors in the context of breast-sparing surgery. PMID:16450377

Heaphy, Christopher M; Bisoffi, Marco; Fordyce, Colleen A; Haaland, Christina M; Hines, William C; Joste, Nancy E; Griffith, Jeffrey K

2006-07-01

33

Breast Histology Rules Matrix  

Cancer.gov

NOS (8010) and a specific carcinoma in situ or Adenocarcinoma in situ, NOS (8140) and a specific adenocarcinoma in situ or Intraductal carcinoma, NOS (8500) and a specific intraductal carcinoma (Table 1) The specific histology may be identified as type, subtype, predominantly, with features of, major, or with ____ differentiation, architecture or pattern.

34

Breast Field Cancerization: Isolation and Comparison of Telomerase-Expressing Cells in Tumor and Tumor Adjacent, Histologically Normal Breast Tissue  

PubMed Central

Telomerase stabilizes chromosomes by maintaining telomere length, immortalizes mammalian cells, and is expressed in more than 90% of human tumors. However, the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is not restricted to tumor cells. We have previously shown that a subpopulation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) in tumor-adjacent, histologically normal (TAHN) breast tissues expresses hTERT mRNA at levels comparable with levels in breast tumors. In the current study, we first validated a reporter for measuring levels of hTERT promoter activity in early-passage HMECs and then used this reporter to compare hTERT promoter activity in HMECs derived from tumor and paired TAHN tissues 1, 3, and 5 cm from the tumor (TAHN-1, TAHN-3, and TAHN-5, respectively). Cell sorting, quantitative real-time PCR, and microarray analyses showed that the 10% of HMECs with the highest hTERT promoter activity in both tumor and TAHN-1 tissues contain more than 95% of hTERT mRNA and overexpress many genes involved in cell cycle and mitosis. The percentage of HMECs within this subpopulation showing high hTERT promoter activity was significantly reduced or absent in TAHN-3 and TAHN-5 tissues. We conclude that the field of normal tissue proximal to the breast tumors contains a population of HMECs similar in hTERT expression levels and in gene expression to the HMECs within the tumor mass and that this population is significantly reduced in tissues more distal to the tumor.

Trujillo, Kristina A.; Hines, William C.; Vargas, Keith M.; Jones, Anna C.; Joste, Nancy E.; Bisoffi, Marco; Griffith, Jeffrey K.

2011-01-01

35

Breast field cancerization: isolation and comparison of telomerase-expressing cells in tumor and tumor adjacent, histologically normal breast tissue.  

PubMed

Telomerase stabilizes chromosomes by maintaining telomere length, immortalizes mammalian cells, and is expressed in more than 90% of human tumors. However, the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is not restricted to tumor cells. We have previously shown that a subpopulation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) in tumor-adjacent, histologically normal (TAHN) breast tissues expresses hTERT mRNA at levels comparable with levels in breast tumors. In the current study, we first validated a reporter for measuring levels of hTERT promoter activity in early-passage HMECs and then used this reporter to compare hTERT promoter activity in HMECs derived from tumor and paired TAHN tissues 1, 3, and 5 cm from the tumor (TAHN-1, TAHN-3, and TAHN-5, respectively). Cell sorting, quantitative real-time PCR, and microarray analyses showed that the 10% of HMECs with the highest hTERT promoter activity in both tumor and TAHN-1 tissues contain more than 95% of hTERT mRNA and overexpress many genes involved in cell cycle and mitosis. The percentage of HMECs within this subpopulation showing high hTERT promoter activity was significantly reduced or absent in TAHN-3 and TAHN-5 tissues. We conclude that the field of "normal tissue" proximal to the breast tumors contains a population of HMECs similar in hTERT expression levels and in gene expression to the HMECs within the tumor mass and that this population is significantly reduced in tissues more distal to the tumor. PMID:21775421

Trujillo, Kristina A; Hines, William C; Vargas, Keith M; Jones, Anna C; Joste, Nancy E; Bisoffi, Marco; Griffith, Jeffrey K

2011-07-20

36

Sexuality After Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... breast cancer treatment Emotional aspects of breast cancer Body image after breast cancer treatment Sexuality after breast cancer ... treatment for breast cancer stops working Previous Topic Body image after breast cancer treatment Next Topic Pregnancy after ...

37

The clinical significance of androgen receptors in breast cancer and their relation to histological and cell biological parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

To analyse the clinical significance of the presence of androgen receptors (AR) in breast carcinomas, clinical and histological parameters of 153 primary breast carcinomas (median follow-up 46 months) were examined. Oestrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) levels were determined in cytosol preparations using enzyme immunoassay assays and in cryostat sections by immunohistochemistry. AR and Ki-67 levels were only determined immunohistochemically.

V. Kuenen-Boumeester; T. H. Van der Kwast; C. C. Claassen; M. P. Look; G. S. Liem; J. G. M. Klijn; S. C. Henzen-Logmans

1996-01-01

38

Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... to get breast cancer. Diet and lifestyle choices: Women who smoke , eat high-fat diets, drink alcohol , and don't get enough exercise may be more at risk for developing breast cancer. What Are the Signs ... lump in her breast. If women examine their breasts monthly, they can help find ...

39

Breast cancer and primary systemic therapy. Results of the Consensus Meeting on the recommendations for pathological examination and histological report of breast cancer specimens in the Marche Region.  

PubMed

Primary systemic therapy (PST) adds some practical problems to the pathologic examination of neoplastic breast tissue obtained from patients before and after chemotherapy. Pathologists, oncologists, breast surgeons, radiotherapists and radiologists in the Marche Region held a Consensus Meeting in Ancona on May 13, 2010, in which 15 statements dealing with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were approved by all participants. The first two statements are related to the pre-PST phase and concern the technical procedures and the histological report of the core biopsy. The other statements deal with similar issues of the post-PST surgical specimen. PMID:22393685

Santinelli, A; De Nictolis, M; Mambelli, V; Ranaldi, R; Bearzi, I; Battellpi, N; Mariotti, C; Fabbietti, L; Baldassarre, S; Giuseppetti, G M; Fabris, G

2011-10-01

40

Discrepancy between Ultrasonography and Hysteroscopy and Histology of Endometrium in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Patients Using Tamoxifen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.The increased risk of endometrial carcinoma following the use of tamoxifen has stimulated studies on endometrial diagnostic screening methods. In tamoxifen users the endometrial thickening observed with transvaginal ultrasonography (TVU) frequently cannot be confirmed by hysteroscopy or histology.Objective.The aim was to investigate the relationship between TVU and hysteroscopic and histologic endometrial findings in postmenopausal patients using tamoxifen.Methods.Fifty-three asymptomatic postmenopausal tamoxifen-using

Marian J. E Mourits; Ate G. J Van der Zee; Pax H. B Willemse; Klaske A Ten Hoor; Harry Hollema; Elisabeth G. E De Vries

1999-01-01

41

Learning about Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... for Genetic Risk of Breast . . . 2005 Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

42

Endoscopic Breast Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

2012-03-10

43

Cancer of the male breast.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological behavior of male breast cancer. We evaluated 11 cases of male breast cancer with respect to tumor growth, extent of disease, hormone receptor status, and histological grade of the malignancy, in comparison with 241 cases of female breast cancer. The duration of symptoms was 8.6 +/- 9.1 months in males and 8.5 +/- 18.6 months in females. The incidences of stages I, II, and III were 46%, 27%, and 27%, respectively, in male breast cancer, and 38%, 49%, and 13% in female breast cancer. Metastasis to the lymph node was negative in 60% of the male patients and 54% of the female patients. All cases of male breast cancer were histologically grade I according to Bloom's classification; the histological grades were as follows for the female breast cancer cases: grade I in 99 patients, grade II in 87, and grade III in 55. The rates of hormone receptor positively were 89% for ER and 86% for PgR in male breast cancer, and 64% for ER and 44% for PgR in female breast cancer. Therefore, there was no significant difference in the growth of male breast cancer and female breast cancer, but in male breast cancer the rate of hormone receptor positivity was high, endocrine therapy was effective, and the histological grade was low. Accordingly, the result following appropriate treatment of male breast cancer should be at least comparable to the results with female breast cancer. PMID:2370802

Morimoto, T; Komaki, K; Yamakawa, T; Tanaka, T; Oomine, Y; Konishi, Y; Mori, T; Monden, Y

1990-07-01

44

The Prognostic Effect of the Number of Histologically Examined Axillary Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer: Stage Migration or Age Association?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The number of pathologically examined axillary nodes has been associated with breast cancer survival, and examination of ?10\\u000a nodes has been advocated for reliable axillary staging. The considerable variation observed in axillary staging prompted this\\u000a population-based study, which evaluated the prognostic effect of a variable number of pathologically examined nodes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In total, 5314 consecutive breast cancer patients who underwent mastectomy

Michael Schaapveld; Elisabeth G. E. de Vries; Renée Otter; Jakob de Vries; Pax H. B. Willemse

2006-01-01

45

A comparison between flow cytometric assessment of S-phase fraction and Nottingham histologic grade as prognostic instruments in breast cancer.  

PubMed

Flow cytometric DNA analysis with assessment of S-phase fraction and DNA ploidy was compared to Nottingham histologic grade. The study population consisted of 654 patients who presented between 1987 and 1996 with primary operable breast cancer and whose tumours had been analysed for S-phase fraction and DNA ploidy at the time of surgery. Grade, tumour size, node status, steroid receptor status, age, S-phase fraction and DNA ploidy were analysed univariately and multi-variately in a Cox proportional hazard analysis. In the univariate analyses all parameters were statistically significantly associated with breast cancer mortality during the follow-up period of 2-11 years. The most powerful predictor of death from breast cancer in the multiple regression analysis was grade. Patients with grade 1 tumours have excellent prognosis. We conclude that tumour grade is a strong prognostic indicator applicable to all breast cancer patients, regardless of size and nodal status, and advocate its general use. PMID:11079154

Sundquist, M; Thorstenson, S; Brudin, L; Stål, O; Nordenskjöld, B

2000-09-01

46

Early detection of second breast cancers improves prognosis in breast cancer survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The impact of early detection of second breast cancers in women who have survived a primary breast 10 cancer is unknown. We examined the prognostic effect of detection of ipsilateral breast relapse (IBR) or contralateral breast cancer (CBC) in the asymptomatic relative to symptomatic phase. Patients and methods: Subjects were women with histology-verified second (invasive or in situ) breast

N. Houssami; S. Ciatto; F. Martinelli; R. Bonardi; S. W. Duffy

2009-01-01

47

[Histological classification of malignant breast neoplasms. Recent concepts].  

PubMed

The recent histological classifications of breast malignant epithelial tumours place increased emphasis on several concepts: in situ carcinoma, difference of lobular carcinoma from other forms of breast cancer and histological factors of prognosis. The authors propose to discriminate: non infiltrating duct carcinoma (intraductal carcinoma); lobular carcinoma (in situ and infiltrating); infiltrating duct carcinoma in their usual form (80 p. 100 about of all breast carcinoma); among them, histological types with a less ominous prognosis, although relatively rare, are stressed (infiltrating papillary and comedo-carcinomas, tubular carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, colloid carcinoma, cylindroma, certain metaplastic variants, Paget's disease of the nipple); some features in unusual hosts are related. They mention the criteria of the Scarff and Bloom's "grading" and its importance from the point of view of prognosis, mainly for the usual infiltrating forms. Other malignant tumours of the breast (malignant cystosarcoma phyllodes, sarcomas, mammary metastases) are more scarcely seen (I p. 100 of the mammary neoplasms): their classification is succinctly recalled. PMID:172553

Hébert, H; Gentile-Fradet, A

1975-01-01

48

Breast cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... given to the women in the 1940s - 1960s. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) -- You have a higher risk of breast cancer if you have received hormone replacement therapy with estrogen for several years or more. Obesity -- ...

49

Breast Cancer -- Inflammatory  

MedlinePLUS

... Editorial Board , 4/2010 Overview Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer - Inflammatory Overview Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Symptoms ... Questions to Ask the Doctor Additional Resources Inflammatory breast cancer is a rare form of breast cancer. The ...

50

Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the centuries, the breast cancer literature has contained numerous references to the role of psychological factors in the etiology of the disease. Theories and research findings pertaining to this work are reviewed, with a focus on twentieth century work. The specific hypotheses examined in each historic period can be seen in the context of views held about women in

Janet E. Hiller

1989-01-01

51

E-cadherin status in breast cancer correlates with histologic type but does not correlate with established prognostic parameters.  

PubMed

Our objective was to assess the loss of E-cadherin (EC) as a diagnostic marker or a predictor of prognosis. We stained 276 breast carcinomas with monoclonal antibodies to EC (invasive lobular carcinomas [ILC] and variants, 59; invasive ductal carcinoma and ductal special types [IDC], 204; tubulolobular carcinoma [TLC], 4; and invasive carcinoma [IC], uncertain whether lobular or ductal type, 9). The results were as follows: EC+IDCs, 99.5%; EC-ILCs, 90%; EC+ILCs, 10%; EC+pleomorphic ILCs, 20%; EC-ICs, 44%. All 4 TLCs showed positive tubules while cords were negative. Statistically a correlation of EC loss with a positive diagnosis of ILC was found but there was no correlation with any prognostic tumor variables. A negative EC stain confirms the diagnosis of ILC (specificity, 97.7%; negative predictive value, 96.8%; sensitivity, 88.1%; positive predictive value, 91.2%). EC is helpful in classifying cases with indeterminate histologic features. EC loss is uncommon in nonlobular carcinomas with no correlation to currently established prognostic variables. PMID:16613340

Qureshi, Hina S; Linden, Michael D; Divine, George; Raju, Usha B

2006-03-01

52

Fibrocystic Breast Changes: Linked to Breast Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... noncommercial use only. Fibrocystic breast changes: Linked to breast cancer? By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www. ... Sign up Question Fibrocystic breast changes: Linked to breast cancer? Do fibrocystic breast changes increase my risk of ...

53

Immunohistochemical analysis of medullary breast carcinoma autoantigens in different histological types of breast carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Background On the past decade a plethora of investigations were directed on identification of molecules involved in breast tumorogenesis, which could represent a powerful tool for monitoring, diagnostics and treatment of this disease. In current study we analyzed six previously identified medullary breast carcinoma autoantigens including LGALS3BP, RAD50, FAM50A, RBPJ, PABPC4, LRRFIP1 with cancer restricted serological profile in different histological types of breast cancer. Methods Semi-quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of 20 tissue samples including medullary breast carcinoma, invasive ductal carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma and non-cancerous tissues obtained from patients with fibrocystic disease (each of five) was performed using specifically generated polyclonal antibodies. Differences in expression patterns were evaluated considering percent of positively stained cells, insensitivity of staining and subcellular localization in cells of all tissue samples. Results All 6 antigens predominantly expressed in the most cells of all histological types of breast tumors and non-cancerous tissues with slight differences in intensity of staining and subcellular localization. The most significant differences in expression pattern were revealed for RAD50 and LGALS3BP in different histological types of breast cancer and for PABPC4 and FAM50A antigens in immune cells infiltrating breast tumors. Conclusions This pilot study made possible to select 4 antigens LGALS3BP, RAD50, PABPC4, and FAM50A as promising candidates for more comprehensive research as potential molecular markers for breast cancer diagnostics and therapy. Virtual slides The virtual slides’ for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1860649350796892

2012-01-01

54

Basic Information about Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... state or territory Cancer Home Basic Information About Breast Cancer On This Page What Is a Normal Breast? ... can develop in the breast. Common Kinds of Breast Cancer There are different kinds of breast cancer. The ...

55

Endocrine management of breast cancer—biology and current practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer frequency is related to age. There are impressive advances in the diagnostic armament and surgical techniques of breast cancer, and yet, it has continued its deadly impact. In women with operable breast cancer, the histologic status of the axillary lymphnodes remains the most useful prognostic information. Today, breast cancer is viewed as a systemic disease with spreads to

Hermann P. G. Schneider; Christian Jackisch

2005-01-01

56

Breast Cancer and Sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer among women today. With early detection and advanced treatment options, survival rates are continuing to improve, but not without some long-term physical and emotional side effects. This article reviews the effects of breast cancer in general and breast cancer treatment specifically on sexuality in cancer survivors. How the cancer and its

Helene K. Henson

2002-01-01

57

Male Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBreast cancer is a rare disease in men representing nearly 1% of the total breast cancer cases worldwide. Due to the low incidence, there are no randomized clinical studies giving information on the optimal diagnostics and therapy for male breast cancer patients. Therefore, treatment recommendations are derived from established guidelines for breast cancer in women. However, the lack of awareness

Christian Rudlowski

2008-01-01

58

Breast Cancer Training Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Breast Cancer Training Program (BCTP) in the Eppley Cancer Institute of the University of Nebraska Medical Center offers predoctoral and postdoctoral trainees a comprehensive training environment in breast cancer by supporting, in part, an outstanding...

K. H. Cowan J. D. Shull

2002-01-01

59

Breast Cancer Training Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Breast Cancer Training Program (BCTP) in the Eppley Cancer Institute of the University of Nebraska Medical Center offers predoctoral and postdoctoral trainees a comprehensive training environment in breast cancer by supporting, in part, and outstandin...

K. H. Cowan

2003-01-01

60

Breast Cancer Trends  

MedlinePLUS

... Colorectal (Colon) Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Cancer Home Breast Cancer Trends Note: The word "significantly" below refers to ... to 2009 in the United States, incidence of breast cancer has— Decreased significantly by 0.9% per year ...

61

VIP and breast cancer.  

PubMed

VIP1 receptors are present in breast cancer cells. VIP elevates the cAMP and stimulates nuclear oncogene expression in MCF-7 cells. VIPhybrid is a VIP receptor antagonist that inhibits breast cancer proliferation. A VIP analog has been developed for imaging breast tumors. Therefore VIP1 receptors may be utilized for the early detection and treatment of breast cancer. PMID:9928023

Moody, T W; Leyton, J; Gozes, I; Lang, L; Eckelman, W C

1998-12-11

62

Dual Time Point 18F-FDG PET Imaging Detects Breast Cancer with High Sensitivity and Correlates Well with Histologic Subtypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective study was designed to assess the utility of the dual time point imaging technique by 18F-FDG PET in detecting primary breast cancer and to determine whether there is a rela- tionship between 18F-FDG uptake and its change over time and the histopathologic subtypes. Methods: One hundred fifty-two patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent 2 se- quential PET

Ayse Mavi; Muammer Urhan; Jian Q. Yu; Hongming Zhuang; Mohamed Houseni; Tevfik F. Cermik; Dhurairaj Thiruvenkatasamy; Brian Czerniecki; Mitchell Schnall; Abass Alavi

63

Living Beyond Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Those With MBC Read more Upcoming Events Metastatic Breast Cancer Part Two: Understanding Disability Rights 10/23/2013 ... disability rights. Read more News You Can Use: Breast Cancer Updates for Living Well 10/26/2013 Join ...

64

Breast Cancer Staging  

MedlinePLUS

Breast cancer Basics In-Depth Multimedia Expert Answers Expert Blog Resources What's New Reprints A single copy of ... may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Breast cancer staging By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http:// ...

65

Breast Cancer Information Clearinghouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NYSERNet's Breast Cancer Information Clearinghouse: an Internet accessible resource for breast cancer patients and their families. Current partners represent government health agencies, hospitals, libraries, hospice and non-profit agencies.

66

Breast Cancer Research Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs (CDMRP) was born in 1992 from a powerful grassroots effort led by the breast cancer advocacy community that resulted in a congressional appropriation of funds for breast cancer research....

2010-01-01

67

Male Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Male breast cancer represents with 1.5% of male malignancies a rare disease. Compared to the vast amount of data and knowledge in female breast cancer, male breast cancer is less well-researched and explored. Potential risk factors are oestrogen (exogenous or endogenous), gynaecomastia, radiation, exposure to heat and the Klinefelter’s syndrome. Whereas female breast cancer shows a double-peak risk distribution,

M. Schön; M. Zaiac; P. M. Schlag

1995-01-01

68

Breast Cancer and Bone Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer and Bone Loss Share: Questions and Answers Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

69

Markers of Breast Cancer Risk in Women with Benign Breast Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A history of benign breast disease (BBD) is associated with an approximate two-fold increase in risk of breast cancer, however, the risk differs according to the histological characteristics of the benign lesion and other factors. Although histopathology ...

M. Mandelson

2004-01-01

70

Hereditary breast cancer and family cancer syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary breast cancer (HBC) shows extant clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Clinically one finds the onset of breast cancer at an early age, an excess of bilaterality, and patterns of multiple primary cancer such as combinations of breast and ovarian carcinoma in the hereditary breast-ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome. In addition to HBOC, one sees a variety of putative breast cancer-prone genotypes

Henry T. Lynch; Jane Lynch; Theresa Conway; Patrice Watson; Jean Feunteum; Gilbert Lenoir; Steven Narod; Robert Fitzgibbons

1994-01-01

71

Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance among African American Breast Cancer Survivors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Breast cancer survivors are at elevated risk for developing a new breast cancer compared to healthy women; they also are at considerable risk for breast cancer recurrence. According to the American Society of Clinical Oncology, survivors should undergo ca...

H. Thompson

2005-01-01

72

Vasopressin and Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Previously we demonstrated expression of vasopressin and oxytocin gene-related products in breast cancer, but not benign fibrocystic breast disease, using the technique of immunohistochemistry. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that both of these hormo...

M. J. Fay

1997-01-01

73

Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Breast cancer is attributed to genetic alterations, the majority of which are yet to be characterized. Oncogenic alterations that give rise to breast tumors need to be identified to develop targeted treatment options and consequently, improve clinical out...

Y. Shrestha

2009-01-01

74

Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Breast cancer is attributed to genetic alterations, the majority of which are yet to be characterized. Oncogenic alterations that give rise to breast tumors need to be identified in order to drive development of more efficient targeted or personalized can...

Y. Shrestha

2010-01-01

75

Genetics Home Reference: Breast cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Breast cancer On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed August 2007 What is breast cancer? Breast cancer is a disease in which certain ...

76

Breast Cancer - Metaplastic  

MedlinePLUS

... lymph vessels connect to lymph nodes, the tiny, bean-shaped organs that ordinarily help fight infection. About metaplastic breast cancer Metaplastic breast cancer describes a cancer that begins in one type of cell (such as those from the glands of the ...

77

Breast Cancer Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early detection, combined with targeted and more effective therapies, has led to reductions in breast cancer related deaths.\\u000a Approximately 90% of women diagnosed with breast cancer in the US today are disease free 5 years after diagnosis. Despite\\u000a these successes, breast cancer remains a major cause of death, particularly among young women. In addition, chronic or prolonged\\u000a toxicities associated with

P. A. Thompson; A. T. Stopeck

78

Selection criteria for breast conservation in breast cancer.  

PubMed

Breast conservation, comprising limited excision of the breast and axillary lymphadenectomy followed by irradiation, yields survival equal to mastectomy with the advantage of preservation of the breast for properly selected patients. When breast conservation therapy is competently done it achieves highly satisfactory cosmetic results and acceptably low rates of local recurrence. However, numerous controversies surround the selection criteria, the relative importance of some of them, and the treatment. Four critical elements in selecting patients for breast conservation therapy are: history and physical examination, careful mammographic evaluation, histological assessment of the resected specimen, and assessment of the patient's needs and expectations. Today, it is estimated that breast conservation can be recommended to 50%-75% of all women with operable breast cancer. However, this treatment is not widely used. In this article we review the generally accepted principles and controversies about the selection of patients for breast conservation. PMID:11097148

Sakorafas, G H; Tsiotou, A G

2000-11-01

79

[Diagnosis of minimal breast cancers].  

PubMed

Design: This is a retrospective study evaluating the minimum detection cancers in the group of women mammographically examined in our department. The study covers the period from 1. 1. 2012 to 31. 12. 2012. Interestingly we introduced several interesting case studies.Objective: 1. Confirmation upward trend in the number of minimal breast cancers, stage T1. 2. The need for multidisciplinary cooperation for quick minimal surgical intervention and effective cancer treatment.Setting: Department of Radiology, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Third Faculty of Medicine Charles University, Faculty Hospital KV, Prague.Methods: The methodology is based on a retrospective evaluation of the number of participants, regardless of age, that come for examination the workplace Breast Radiologists in 2012. Of all the tests are then evaluated the number and types of histological proven cancer, focusing on cancer detection stage T1 and other solutions from surgery after cancer treatment. Results: In 2012 it was made in 6700 FNKV screening mammography, of this number, 45 were confirmed malignant tumors in asymptomatic women. In 2012 it was simultaneously performed 2276 diagnostic mammography in women with clinically palpable resistance, and malignant tumors was confirmed in 122 women. Overall, mammographically and ultrasonographically examined 10 146 women for the year 2012. Of the 167 women with histologically confirmed malignant tumor. Brest carcinoma, stage T1, was diagnosed in 34% of patients and 66% of patients were malignant bearing greater than 10mm. The most common histological type of breast cancer in our department during the period from 1. 1. 2012 to 31. 12. 2012 was invasive ductal carcinoma (DIC) and in 82% of invasive lobular carcinoma (LIC) was diagnosed in 10%, mixed DIC and LIC in 4% and other cancers represented 4%.Conclusion: The diagnosis mode, core cut biopsy with histological conclusion, preoperative marking bearings in the presence of the surgeon, assessment resection, definitive histology, mammary team, cancer treatment, subsequent postoperative control at one workplace, is in terms of the patient not only effective, individualized and complex, but also cost effective. Keywords: mammography - ultrasound - screening - core cut biopsy - intraoperative mammography - minimal breast carcinoma. PMID:24040977

Ve?e?ová, L; Bendová, M

2013-08-01

80

Age distribution of histologic types of breast carcinoma.  

PubMed

The large number of cases in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program of the US National Cancer Institute allowed a detailed analysis of the age distribution of the histologic types of invasive breast carcinoma. Between ages 50 and 85 years in females, the age-specific incidence rate shows little change for medullary, inflammatory and apocrine carcinomas; is about doubled for Paget's disease and for ductal, lobular, tubular and metaplastic carcinomas; and increases to 4 to 8 times the menopausal level for mucinous, papillary and signet-ring-cell carcinomas. The peri-menopausal break on the age-incidence curve is most marked for carcinomas of predominantly lobular origin and virtually absent for carcinomas of predominantly ductal origin. In males, the age distribution of papillary carcinoma is similar to that of all types combined, whereas that of mucinous carcinoma is skewed towards older ages, as in females. PMID:8478135

Stalsberg, H; Thomas, D B

1993-04-22

81

Clinical management of women at increased risk for breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of women in the population are at risk for the development of breast cancer. Methods now exist to accurately assess risk and to provide quantitative estimates of the chance of a woman developing breast cancer in her lifetime. Histologic assessment of premalignant breast pathology aids in the evaluation of risk. The availability of primary chemoprevention clinical trials

Victor G. Vogel; Anita Yeomans; Eric Higginbotham

1993-01-01

82

Origins of breast cancer subtypes and therapeutic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Review summarizes and evaluates the current evidence for the cellular origins of breast cancer subtypes identified by different approaches such as histology, molecular pathology, genetic and gene-expression analysis. Emerging knowledge of the normal breast cell types has led to the hypothesis that the subtypes of breast cancer might arise from mutations or genetic rearrangements occurring in different populations of

Andrew H Sims; Anthony Howell; Sacha J Howell; Robert B Clarke

2007-01-01

83

Breast cancer statistics, 2011.  

PubMed

In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 230,480 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,520 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2011. Breast cancer incidence rates were stable among all racial/ethnic groups from 2004 to 2008. Breast cancer death rates have been declining since the early 1990s for all women except American Indians/Alaska Natives, among whom rates have remained stable. Disparities in breast cancer death rates are evident by state, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. While significant declines in mortality rates were observed for 36 states and the District of Columbia over the past 10 years, rates for 14 states remained level. Analyses by county-level poverty rates showed that the decrease in mortality rates began later and was slower among women residing in poor areas. As a result, the highest breast cancer death rates shifted from the affluent areas to the poor areas in the early 1990s. Screening rates continue to be lower in poor women compared with non-poor women, despite much progress in increasing mammography utilization. In 2008, 51.4% of poor women had undergone a screening mammogram in the past 2 years compared with 72.8% of non-poor women. Encouraging patients aged 40 years and older to have annual mammography and a clinical breast examination is the single most important step that clinicians can take to reduce suffering and death from breast cancer. Clinicians should also ensure that patients at high risk of breast cancer are identified and offered appropriate screening and follow-up. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population. PMID:21969133

DeSantis, Carol; Siegel, Rebecca; Bandi, Priti; Jemal, Ahmedin

2011-10-03

84

Carboplatin and Eribulin Mesylate in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

2013-05-14

85

BREAST CANCER AND EXERCISE  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

2008-03-19

86

Seaweed Prevents Breast Cancer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the chemopreventive effects of seaweed on breast cancer, we have been studying the relationship between iodine and breast cancer. We found earlier that the seaweed, wakame, showed a suppressive effect on the proliferation of DMBA (dimethylbenz(a)anthracene)-induced rat mam- mary tumors, possibly via apoptosis induction. In the present study, powdered mekabu was placed in distilled water, and left to

Hiroomi Funahashi; Tsuneo Imai; Takahiro Mase; Masanori Sekiya; Kazuki Yokoi; Hiromichi Hayashi; Arihiro Shibata; Takako Hayashi; Mikiko Nishikawa; Namiko Suda; Yatsuka Hibi; Yutaka Mizuno; Kyosuke Tsukamura; Akemi Hayakawa; Seiichi Tanuma

2001-01-01

87

The globalisation of breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is the commonest form of cancer in women worldwide; there were an estimated 1.4 million cases world wide in 2008 [1] and there is no part of the world where breast cancer is now a rare form of cancer [2]. In all major regions of the world, breast cancer is the commonest, or second commonest, cancer in women

Peter Boyle; Antony Howell

2010-01-01

88

Breast Cancer: The Orphan Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Cancer Society estimates that 178,000 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer annually. Estimates of between 1% and 5% of these women will be diagnosed with a more aggressive and less well understood form, inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). Women are often unaware that breast cancer can present without a lump, but with a red rash and swollen breast.

Barbara E. Bond

2008-01-01

89

Dietary factors and breast cancer risk in Vaud, Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between dietary factors and the risk of breast cancer was investigated in a case?control study conducted in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland as a pilot phase for a larger cooperative study within the SEARCH Programme of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (Lyon, France). A total of 107 incident, histologically confirmed cases of breast cancer and 318

Fabio Levi; Carlo La Vecchia; Cristina Gulie; Eva Negri

1993-01-01

90

Triple negative breast cancers: Clinical and prognostic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triple negative breast cancers are defined by the absence of oestrogen, progesterone and HER2 expression. Most triple negative cancers display distinct clinical and pathological characteristics with a high proportion of these tumours occurring at a younger age of onset and in African–American women. Triple negative tumours typically demonstrate high histological grade and are the most common breast cancer subtype in

S. J. Dawson; E. Provenzano; C. Caldas

2009-01-01

91

Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in breast cancer screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a six year period up to the end of December 1985 fine needle aspiration cytology specimens of the breast were obtained from 562 apparently healthy women invited to participate in a breast cancer screening programme. Of these, 397 had a biopsy and 173 cancers were confirmed histologically. For the diagnosis of cancer, the procedure was less successful than in

J Lamb; T J Anderson; M J Dixon; P A Levack

1987-01-01

92

Breast cancer stem cells.  

PubMed

Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumors are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breast cancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarize what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically. PMID:23986719

Owens, Thomas W; Naylor, Matthew J

2013-08-27

93

Recurrent thyroid cancer with changing histologic features  

PubMed Central

We present the case of a 57-year-old woman diagnosed with breast cancer and a thyroid mass that was suspicious for cancer. The breast cancer was estrogen and progesterone receptor negative, HER2/neu borderline, with a high proliferative index. Treatment of this cancer took precedence. Nine months later, a total thyroidectomy was done for papillary thyroid cancer with metastases to 2 of 8 perithyroid lymph nodes. Postoperative radioactive iodine ablation was given. Recurrent thyroid disease was found in the right neck 1 year later and was resected; no radioactive iodine was given at that time. After 2½ years, the cancer recurred as a more highly aggressive, undifferentiated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Treatment is discussed.

Konduri, Kartik; Harshman, Leeanne K.; Welch, Brian J.; O'Brien, John C.

2010-01-01

94

CISNET: Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

However, there are very limited data on the population effects of these novel cancer control approaches. Population modeling is a unique comparative effectiveness paradigm to fill this gap by translating advances from the laboratory and clinical trials to understanding their net effects on US breast cancer mortality. The CISNET Breast Working Group has collaborated over the past nine years to apply independent population models to evaluate cancer control practices and use results to inform clinical and public health guidelines.

95

Screening for Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Context Breast cancer screening in community practices may be different from that in randomized controlled trials. New screening modalities are becoming available. Objectives To review breast cancer screening, especially in the community and to examine evidence about new screening modalities. Data Sources and Study Selection English-language articles of randomized controlled trials assessing effectiveness of breast cancer screening were reviewed, as well as meta-analyses, systematic reviews, studies of breast cancer screening in the community, and guidelines. Also, studies of newer screening modalities were assessed. Data Synthesis All major US medical organizations recommend screening mammography for women aged 40 years and older. Screening mammography reduces breast cancer mortality by about 20% to 35% in women aged 50 to 69 years and slightly less in women aged 40 to 49 years at 14 years of follow-up. Approximately 95% of women with abnormalities on screening mammograms do not have breast cancer with variability based on such factors as age of the woman and assessment category assigned by the radiologist. Studies comparing full-field digital mammography to screen film have not shown statistically significant differences in cancer detection while the impact on recall rates (percentage of screening mammograms considered to have positive results) was unclear. One study suggested that computer-aided detection increases cancer detection rates and recall rates while a second larger study did not find any significant differences. Screening clinical breast examination detects some cancers missed by mammography, but the sensitivity reported in the community is lower (28% to 36%) than in randomized trials (about 54%). Breast self-examination has not been shown to be effective in reducing breast cancer mortality, but it does increase the number of breast biopsies performed because of false-positives. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound are being studied for screening women at high risk for breast cancer but are not recommended for screening the general population. Sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging in high-risk women has been found to be much higher than that of mammography but specificity is generally lower. Effect of the magnetic resonance imaging on breast cancer mortality is not known. A balanced discussion of possible benefits and harms of screening should be undertaken with each woman. Conclusions In the community, mammography remains the main screening tool while the effectiveness of clinical breast examination and self-examination are less. New screening modalities are unlikely to replace mammography in the near future for screening the general population.

Elmore, Joann G.; Armstrong, Katrina; Lehman, Constance D.; Fletcher, Suzanne W.

2011-01-01

96

Breast cancer and obesity.  

PubMed

Epidemiological evidence links breast cancer, a typical endocrine-related tumor, with western lifestyle, in particular eating habits. Yet, it's necessary to distinguish premenopausal from postmenopausal breast cancer. Visceral obesity and body weight gain are considered responsible for the increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. In fact, the mammary gland is sensitive to the level of circulating estrogens, visceral obesity is usually associated with higher levels of free steroid hormones, and the adipose tissue performs important endocrine function (clearance and aromatisation of androgens, regulation of free testoterone/DHEAS molar ratio). Before menopause, ovarian polycystosis is often seen with android obesity, and breast cancer risk could arise; however, as visceral obesity is generally less frequent, genetic factors are more important than nutritional ones. Furthermore, variations have been recorded in the secretion of insulin and insulin-like growth factors, involved in the genesis of the breast cancer. High body weight and male fat distribution negatively influence prognosis of breast cancer, too; this association is linked with the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in tumoral cells. Links between diet quality and breast cancer risk are shown: increased use of saturated fats and animal proteins, and a consequently decreased use of vegetables, legumes and fruit, constituting the so-called Mediterranean diet, are considered responsible for the increased risk of breast cancer. Lower fat and alcohol ingestion, the use of dietary fibre and a higher use of complex carbohydrates could reduce breast cancer risk. Finally, starting from the results of our previous animal researches, we suggest using a tryptophan devoid diet for a few days for premenopausal women with male obesity and alterations to the menstrual cycle. PMID:11449184

La Guardia, M; Giammanco, M

2001-06-01

97

Colorectal cancer in hereditary breast cancer kindreds  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This study compared characteristics of colorectal cancer between families with dominant breast cancer inheritance and the general population. The cumulative incidence of colorectal cancer was also studied in genetically determined breast cancer syndrome subjects with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and compared with the general population. METHODS: Subjects included 42 patients with colorectal cancer from 32 clinically determined hereditary breast

Kevin M. Lin; Charles A. Ternent; Dean R. Adams; Alan G. Thorson; Garnet J. Blatchford; Mark A. Christensen; Patrice Watson; Henry T. Lynch

1999-01-01

98

Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preventing Recurrence in Breast Cancer Survivors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

2013-08-19

99

Breast cancer screening update.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most common non-skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in North American women. Mammography is the only screening test shown to reduce breast cancer-related mortality. There is general agreement that screening should be offered at least biennially to women 50 to 74 years of age. For women 40 to 49 years of age, the risks and benefits of screening should be discussed, and the decision to perform screening should take into consideration the individual patient risk, values, and comfort level of the patient and physician. Information is lacking about the effectiveness of screening in women 75 years and older. The decision to screen women in this age group should be individualized, keeping the patient's life expectancy, functional status, and goals of care in mind. For women with an estimated lifetime breast cancer risk of more than 20 percent or who have a BRCA mutation, screening should begin at 25 years of age or at the age that is five to 10 years younger than the earliest age that breast cancer was diagnosed in the family. Screening with magnetic resonance imaging may be considered in high-risk women, but its impact on breast cancer mortality is uncertain. Clinical breast examination plus mammography seems to be no more effective than mammography alone at reducing breast cancer mortality. Teaching breast self-examination does not improve mortality and is not recommended; however, women should be aware of any changes in their breasts and report them promptly. PMID:23418799

Tria Tirona, Maria

2013-02-15

100

[Breast cancer screening].  

PubMed

Since 1989, several breast cancer screening mammography programs have been established. The purpose of this chapter is to provide the history and the main results of the previous programs. Furthermore, special attention is given to the new rules established in 2001 with emphasis of the general principles as well as the ethical principles of breast screening. PMID:12075156

Haehnel, P

2002-04-01

101

Inflammatory Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer include a rapid increase in breast size; sensations of heaviness, burning, or tenderness in the breast; or a nipple that is inverted (facing inward). Swollen lymph nodes may also be present under the arm, near the collarbone, or in both places. It is important to note that these symptoms ...

102

What Is Breast Cancer in Men?  

MedlinePLUS

... statistics about breast cancer in men? What is breast cancer in men? A breast cancer is a malignant ... women but are very rare in men. General breast cancer terms Here are some of the key words ...

103

Breast and Gynecologic Cancer  

Cancer.gov

This group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of breast, cervix, endometrial, and ovarian cancers. Clinical trials and the evaluation of new agents, surrogate biomarkers, and new technologies to identify premalignant

104

Male Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The aim of studying the epidemiology of breast cancer is to identify risk factors that could be eliminated or inhibited. Unfortunately,\\u000a the two major risk factors are gender and increasing age, neither of which can be avoided. Nevertheless, the relative rarity\\u000a of male breast cancer (MBC) has prompted investigations in the hope that the disease in men can give clues

Ian S. Fentiman

105

PKC and Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a PKC expression is intimately associated with breast cancer initiation, progression, and therapy responsiveness, and these\\u000a effects are highly isozyme-specific. PKC isozymes play key roles in proliferation and apoptosis of breast cancer cells and\\u000a exert important modulatory roles in cell cycle progression. A close relationship exists between specific PKC isozymes and\\u000a estrogen signaling.

Sofia D. Merajver; Devin T. Rosenthal; Lauren Van Wassenhove

106

Progestin and breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a   The previous assumption that progestin does not promote breast cancer development needs to be re-examined since a growing\\u000a body of evidence indicates the opposite. Data from recent experimental trials and results from clinical and epidemiological\\u000a studies on hormonal contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have been confronted with breast cancer cases known\\u000a from the German database of adverse drug

Cecylia Giersig

2008-01-01

107

Diet and breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clarification of the role of diet in breast cancer pathogenesis is important in order to identify modifiable risk factors\\u000a on which to focus prevention efforts. Excess weight and weight gain in adult life are related to higher risk of postmenopausal\\u000a breast cancer, and weight loss after menopause is associated with substantially reduced risk. Even moderate alcohol consumption\\u000a contributes considerably to

Eleni Linos; Michelle D. Holmes; Walter C. Willett

2007-01-01

108

Cellular Consequences of Telomere Shortening in Histologically Normal Breast Tissues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three independent sets of normal breast tissues without evidence of cancer, either obtained from patients undergoing reduction mammoplasty or in women at time of autopsy, have been analyzed. The postdoctoral trainee has shown that moderate to dramatic tel...

A. K. Meeker C. M. Heaphy P. Argani

2012-01-01

109

Brain metastases in breast cancer: prognostic factors and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyze the overall survival of patients with brain metastases due to breast\\u000a cancer and to identify prognostic factors that affect clinical outcome. Methods Of the 7,872 breast cancer patients histologically diagnosed with breast cancer between January 1990 and July 2006 at the\\u000a Asan Medical Center, 198 patients with solitary or multiple

Sung Sook Lee; Jin-Hee Ahn; Min Kyoung Kim; Sun Jin Sym; Gyungyub Gong; Seung Do Ahn; Sung-Bae Kim; Woo Kun Kim

2008-01-01

110

Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Chinese Women in Shanghai  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five hundred thirty-four histologically confirmed incident cases of breast cancer in Chinese women of Shanghai and an equal number of age and sex-matched population controls were interviewed as part of an epidemiológica! study of breast cancer risk factors. Early age at menarche was positively associated with breast cancer risk whereas early age at first full term pregnancy, high parity, and

Jian-Min Yuan; Mimi C. Vu; Ronald K. Ross; Yu-Tang Gao; Brian E. Henderson

1988-01-01

111

Contralateral breast cancer risk.  

PubMed

The use of breast-conserving treatment approaches for breast cancer has now become a standard option for early stage disease. Numerous randomized studies have shown medical equivalence when mastectomy is compared to lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy for the local management of this common problem. With an increased emphasis on patient involvement in the therapeutic decision making process, it is important to identify and quantify any unforeseen risks of the conservation approach. One concern that has been raised is the question of radiation- related contralateral breast cancer after breast radiotherapy. Although most studies do not show statistically significant evidence that patients treated with breast radiotherapy are at increased risk of developing contralateral breast cancer when compared to control groups treated with mastectomy alone, there are clear data showing the amount of scattered radiation absorbed by the contralateral breast during a routine course of breast radiotherapy is considerable (several Gy) and is therefore within the range where one might be concerned about radiogenic contralateral tumors. While radiation related risks of contralateral breast cancer appear to be small enough to be statistically insignificant for the majority of patients, there may exist a smaller subset which, for genetic or environmental reasons, is at special risk for scatter related second tumors. If such a group could be predicted, it would seem appropriate to offer either special counseling or special prevention procedures aimed at mitigating this second tumor risk. The use of genetic testing, detailed analysis of breast cancer family history, and the identification of patients who acquired their first breast cancer at a very early age may all be candidate screening procedures useful in identifying such at- risk groups. Since some risk mitigation strategies are convenient and easy to utilize, it makes sense to follow the classic 'ALARA' (as low as reasonably achievable) principles and to minimize scattered radiation for these special risk groups and perhaps for all patients undergoing breast radiotherapy. This paper reviews the literature on the risk of radiation- related second contralateral breast cancers. PMID:11514003

Unnithan, J; Macklis, R M

2001-09-01

112

The histological diagnosis of metastases to the breast from extramammary malignancies  

PubMed Central

This study aims to review histological and immunohistochemical features that are useful in the diagnosis of metastases to the breast. Histological features were compared between non?haematological metastases to the breast and 100 consecutive core biopsy specimens of primary invasive carcinomas of the breast. 18 non?haematological metastases to the breast were diagnosed over a 10?year period (0.3% of malignant mammary tumours). Elastosis and carcinoma in situ were seen only in primary mammary cancers. Two?thirds of tumours had features raising the possibility of metastasis, such as clear cell carcinoma suggestive of renal origin and small cell carcinoma suggestive of pulmonary origin. The features observed in haematological metastases are also described. Immunohistochemical panels to distinguish mammary carcinoma (oestrogen receptor, gross cystic fluid protein?15) from common metastases to the breast, including carcinoma of the lung (thyroid transcription factor?1), malignant melanoma (S100, HMB45, melan?A) and ovarian serous papillary carcinoma (Wilms' tumour 1), are discussed. The pathologist has a key role in considering the diagnosis of metastasis to the breast if the histological features are unusual for a primary mammary tumour. The clinical history is vital in some cases. Immunohistochemistry plays a useful supplementary role.

Lee, Andrew H S

2007-01-01

113

Breast cancer prevention strategies.  

PubMed

The ultimate goal of breast cancer prevention strategies is to reduce the incidence of this disease in populations. Greater understanding of recently identified associations of lactation, alcohol, exercise, and diet with breast cancer is necessary to bring these to bear favorably on the behavior of populations. As a hormonally related process, breast cancer incidence is associated with two major physiologic mechanisms: (1) extent of lobular maturation, which is profoundly influenced by the occurrence of a full-term pregnancy, and (2) hormonal exposure of the breast epithelium, which is influenced by a spectrum of lifestyle factors. Manipulation of these processes by technologically simple and practical means is a major goal of research. Modulation of preclinical growth of breast cancers by chemopreventive means poses significant challenges, due to the absence of target-organ specificity and frequent toxicity. With the emergence of well-supported models of breast cancer development, behavioral and social strategies are likely to be key to achieving the ultimate goal. PMID:9057173

Love, R R; Vogel, V G

1997-02-01

114

Breast cancer in women who have taken contraceptive steroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prognosis and clinical and pathological findings in 93 patients with breast cancer who had taken contraceptive steroids before diagnosis (study group) were compared with those in 93 control patients, also with breast cancer, matched for age and parity. The tumours in the women in the study group were found to have more favourable clinical and histological features than those

P N Matthews; R R Millis; J L Hayward

1981-01-01

115

Alcoholic beverage consumption and risk of breast cancer in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between alcoholic beverage consumption and risk of breast cancer was examined. We used data from a population-based, case-control study that included almost all incident cases occurring in five Spanish regions from February 1990 to July 1991. A total of 762 women between 18 and 75 years of age, with a histologically confirmed, first diagnosis of breast cancer, were

Jose M. Martin-Moreno; Peter Boyle; Lydia Gorgojo; Walter C. Willett; Jesus Gonzalez; Fernando Viliar; Patrick Maisonneuve

1993-01-01

116

Aromatase and breast cancer susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on experimental and epidemiological evidence it is hypothesized that estrogen increases breast cancer risk by increasing mitotic activity in breast epithelial cells. Aromatase is crucial to the biosynthesis of estrogens and may therefore play a role in breast cancer development. Supporting data for an etiological role of aromatase in breast tumor biology are several-fold. First, the association between weight

N M Probst-Hensch; S A Ingles; A T Diep; R W Haile; F Z Stanczyk; L N Kolonel; B E Henderson

1999-01-01

117

Sialyltransferase in Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alterations in sialylation are well documented in breast cancer as well as other epithelial cancers. A principal enzyme implicated in this process is the sialyltransferase ST6Gal, which mediates the synthesis of the sialyl a2, 6-anomeric linkage to termin...

J. T. Lau

2002-01-01

118

Sialyltransferase in Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alterations in sialylation are well documented in breast cancer as well as other epithelial cancers. A principal enzyme implicated in this process is the sialyltransferase ST6Gal, which mediates the synthesis of the sialyl a2, 6-anomeric linkage to termin...

J. T. Lau

2001-01-01

119

Melatonin, Aging and Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An increasing percentage of elderly women, particularly in industrialized countries, are developing breast cancer. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain this dramatic increase in breast cancer incidence in the later stages of life. However, an...

S. M. Hill

2001-01-01

120

Breast Cancer Center Support Contract.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document represents the final report for our Breast Cancer Center Support Grant. Our grant consisted of five areas, three projects and two cores. Projects included: Project 1 - Impact of Genetic Testing for Breast Cancer Susceptibility; Project 2 - A...

K. J. Cullen

2001-01-01

121

Computer Aided Breast Cancer Diagnosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The long range goal of this project is to improve the accuracy and consistency of breast cancer diagnosis by developing a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system for early prediction of breast cancer from the patients' mammographic findings and medical hist...

C. E. Floyd

1996-01-01

122

Epidemiology of breast cancer.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the commonest cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Rates vary about five-fold around the world, but they are increasing in regions that until recently had low rates of the disease. Many of the established risk factors are linked to oestrogens. Risk is increased by early menarche, late menopause, and obesity in postmenopausal women, and prospective studies have shown that high concentrations of endogenous oestradiol are associated with an increase in risk. Childbearing reduces risk, with greater protection for early first birth and a larger number of births; breastfeeding probably has a protective effect. Both oral contraceptives and hormonal therapy for menopause cause a small increase in breast-cancer risk, which appears to diminish once use stops. Alcohol increases risk, whereas physical activity is probably protective. Mutations in certain genes greatly increase breast-cancer risk, but these account for a minority of cases. PMID:11902563

Key, T J; Verkasalo, P K; Banks, E

2001-03-01

123

Azacitidine and Entinostat in Treating Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

2013-08-19

124

Hereditary breast cancer in Jews  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family history of breast cancer poses higher risks for Jewish versus non-Jewish women, particularly for early-onset breast cancer. This appears to be due in large part to the high prevalence (2.5%) of three BRCA1 and BRCA2 founder mutations in Ashkenazi Jews. About 4 to 8% of non-Jewish male breast cancer cases versus 19% of Jewish male breast cancer cases

Wendy S. Rubinstein

2004-01-01

125

Pathology of breast cancer in women with constitutional CHEK2 mutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power of association studies between polymorphic genetic variants and breast cancer may be enhanced if the cancer subjects are subclassified by histologic subgroup. In this study we classified 482 unselected breast cancers from Szczecin, Poland by histology (ductal, lobular, medullary, other). All women were genotyped for three founder mutations in the CHEK2 gene (1100delC, IVS2 + 1G > A

Tomasz Huzarski; Cezary Cybulski; Wenancjusz Domaga?a; Jacek Gronwald; Tomasz Byrski; Marek Szwiec; Stanis?aw Woyke; Steven A Narod; Jan Lubi?ski

2005-01-01

126

Seaweed prevents breast cancer?  

PubMed

To investigate the chemopreventive effects of seaweed on breast cancer, we have been studying the relationship between iodine and breast cancer. We found earlier that the seaweed, wakame, showed a suppressive effect on the proliferation of DMBA (dimethylbenz(a)anthracene)-induced rat mammary tumors, possibly via apoptosis induction. In the present study, powdered mekabu was placed in distilled water, and left to stand for 24 h at 4 degrees C. The filtered supernatant was used as mekabu solution. It showed an extremely strong suppressive effect on rat mammary carcinogenesis when used in daily drinking water, without toxicity. In vitro, mekabu solution strongly induced apoptosis in 3 kinds of human breast cancer cells. These effects were stronger than those of a chemotherapeutic agent widely used to treat human breast cancer. Furthermore, no apoptosis induction was observed in normal human mammary cells. In Japan, mekabu is widely consumed as a safe, inexpensive food. Our results suggest that mekabu has potential for chemoprevention of human breast cancer. PMID:11376555

Funahashi, H; Imai, T; Mase, T; Sekiya, M; Yokoi, K; Hayashi, H; Shibata, A; Hayashi, T; Nishikawa, M; Suda, N; Hibi, Y; Mizuno, Y; Tsukamura, K; Hayakawa, A; Tanuma, S

2001-05-01

127

CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR November 2012 Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast Cancer Than Other Women On this Page Problem U.S. ... to Top U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

128

Breast cancer in young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Although uncommon, breast cancer in young women is worthy of special attention due to the unique and complex issues that are raised. This article reviews specific challenges associated with the care of younger breast cancer patients, which include fertility preservation, management of inherited breast cancer syndromes, maintenance of bone health, secondary prevention, and attention to psychosocial issues.

Courtney A Gabriel; Susan M Domchek

2010-01-01

129

Clinical proteomics in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer imposes a significant healthcare burden on women worldwide. Early detection is of paramount importance in reducing mortality, yet the diagnosis of breast cancer is hampered by a lack of adequate detection methods. In addition, better breast cancer prognostication may improve selection of patients eligible for adjuvant therapy. Hence, new markers for diagnosis and prognosis are warranted to improve

M. C. W. Gast

2009-01-01

130

Screening of Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the randomized controlled trials carried out in the late 1970s and the 1980s, mammographic screening was demonstrated to\\u000a have an impact in decreasing mortality from breast cancer. The evaluation of mammographic service screening programmes implemented\\u000a in several Western European countries in the late 1980s and the 1990s demonstrated that these programmes may have an even\\u000a higher effect on breast

Per Skaane

131

Challenges to Developing Proteomic-Based Breast Cancer Diagnostics  

PubMed Central

Abstract Over the past decade, multiple genetic and histological approaches have accelerated development of new breast cancer diagnostics and treatment paradigms. Multiple distinct genetic subtypes of breast cancers have been defined, and this has progressively led toward more personalized medicine in regard to treatment options. There still remains a deficiency in the development of molecular diagnostic assays that can be used for breast cancer detection and pretherapy clinical decisions. In particular, the type of cancer-specific biomarker typified by a serum or tissue-derived protein. Progress in this regard has been minimal, especially in comparison to the rapid advancements in genetic and histological assays for breast cancers. In this review, some potential reasons for this large gap in developing protein biomarkers will be discussed, as well as new strategies for improving these approaches. Improvements in the study design of protein biomarker discovery strategies in relation to the genetic subtypes and histology of breast cancers is also emphasized. The current successes in use of genetic and histological assays for breast cancer diagnostics are summarized, and in that context, the current limitations of the types of breast cancer-related clinical samples available for protein biomarker assay development are discussed. Based on these limitations, research strategies emphasizing identification of glycoprotein biomarkers in blood and MALDI mass spectrometry imaging of tissues are described.

Cazares, Lisa H.; Jones, E. Ellen; Fuller, Thomas W.; Semmes, O. John; Laronga, Christine

2011-01-01

132

Diet and breast cancer.  

PubMed

The preponderance of evidence suggests a role for fat and alcohol as risk factors for breast cancer. The role of milk is more controversial with some studies suggesting that milk is a risk factor and others that consumption of milk is protective against breast cancer. No other major nutrient appears to play a significant role in increasing breast cancer risk. On the other hand, there is increasing evidence that a variety of micronutrients and hormones appear to have significant anticancer activity. These range from steroids such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its analysis to indoles, isothiocyanates, and isoflavone derivatives. These compounds act directly by interfering with cyclins and promoting apoptosis as well as indirectly by altering estrogen metabolism in a favorable direction. These effects are not merely theoretical actions in cell culture and tissue explants; they have been demonstrated in human patients as a range of studies have demonstrated. PMID:12095951

Bradlow, H Leon; Sepkovic, Daniel W

2002-06-01

133

MRI and Mammography Before Surgery in Patients With Stage I-II Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

2013-09-24

134

A comparison of tumor-related antigens in male and female breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A retrospective analysis was undertaken in which 15 female and 15 male breast cancers were matched by age, stage, estrogen receptor status, and histologic type. Our protocol compares male and female breast cancers for reactivity with antibodies against tumor-associated antigens known to be present on female breast cancer cells. Formalin-fixed sections of each primary tumor were reacted in the

Joel Lundy; Yousri Mishriki; Michael V. Viola; Sylvia Chao; Barbara Kasa; Sheila Oravez; Allan Schuss

1986-01-01

135

The accuracy of preoperative core biopsy in determining histologic grade, hormone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status in invasive breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundProper determination of histologic type and biomarkers in a core biopsy specimen is important before preoperative systemic therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of preoperative core biopsy through comparative analysis of histologic grade (HG), hormone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) status in both the core biopsy and surgical specimens.

So Yeon Park; Ku Sang Kim; Taek-Gu Lee; Sung-Shin Park; Sun Mi Kim; Wonshik Han; Dong-Young Noh; Sung-Won Kim

2009-01-01

136

Knowledge about breast cancer risk factors and hereditary breast cancer among early-onset breast cancer survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about knowledge levels regarding hereditary breast cancer among breast cancer survivors. This study explored, among women with early-onset breast cancer (<50 years): 1) knowledge regarding breast cancer risk factors and hereditary breast cancer; and 2) differences in knowledge based on risk for hereditary disease. Participants recruited from 34 Virginia hospitals responded to two questionnaires. The Family History

Susan Miesfeldt; Wendy Cohn; Mary Ropka; Susan Jones

2001-01-01

137

Subareolar breast cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite the high rate of pathologic involvement of the nipple-areola complex (NAC) with subareolar cancers and the suboptimal cosmetic results when lumpectomy removes the NAC, breast conservation surgery has been extended to include these patients.Methods: Ninety-five patients with subareolar cancers operated on between 1979 and 1998 were identified and the relationships between the pathologic findings, treatment, and outcome were

Csaba Gajdos; Paul Ian Tartter; Ira J Bleiweiss

2000-01-01

138

Breast Cancer Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) constitute a subpopulation of tumor cells that express stem cell-associated markers and have a high capacity for tumor generation in vivo. Identification of BCSCs from tumor samples or breast cancer cell lines has been based mainly on CD44+/CD24?/low or ALDH+ phenotypes. BCSCs isolation has allowed the analysis of the molecular mechanisms involved in their origin, self-renewal, differentiation into tumor cells, resistance to radiation therapy and chemotherapy, and invasiveness and metastatic ability. Molecular genetic analysis using knockout animals and inducible transgenics have identified NF-?B, c-Jun, p21CIP1, and Forkhead-like-protein Dach1 in BCSC expansion and fate. Clinical analyses of BCSCs in breast tumors have found a correlation between the proportion of BCSCs and poor prognosis. Therefore, new therapies that specifically target BCSCs are an urgent need. We summarize recent evidence that partially explain the biological characteristics of BCSCs.

Velasco-Velazquez, Marco A.; Homsi, Nora; De La Fuente, Marisol; Pestell, Richard G.

2012-01-01

139

Recurrent Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... t usually recommended because of the risk of side effects. Drug therapy (chemotherapy). If your recurrent breast cancer is the ... stamina and your ability to cope with the side effects of treatments. But eating ... includes chemotherapy or radiation therapy. For times when you don' ...

140

Breast Cancer Statistics  

Cancer.gov

The maps show a pattern of elevated mortality rates for female breast cancer extending from the Mid-Atlantic through the Northeastern states has persisted for many years. Established risk factors are believed to be largely responsible, but the remaining reasons are unknown.

141

Sexuality after breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer (BC) may affect three main domains of women's sexuality: sexual identity, sexual function and sexual relationship. Age, lymphedema, side-effects of surgery, radio-, chemo- and hormonotherapy, pregnancy-related problems, infertility, iatrogenic premature menopause, with its cohort of symptoms secondary to the chronic loss of estrogens on the brain, on the sensory organs, on the pathophysiology of sexual response and on

A. Graziottin; V. Rovei

2007-01-01

142

Breast Cancer (PDQ): Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site . Three tests are used by health care providers to screen ... ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site . Risks of Breast Cancer Screening Screening tests have risks. Decisions about screening tests can be ...

143

Breast-conserving surgery in breast cancer.  

PubMed

The breast cancer treatment is based nowadays on new surgical options: breast-conserving surgery, which applies at least for the first and second stage cancer, with radical intention. We have been practicing breast-conserving surgery for the last 16 years and we have performed 303 breast conserving operations from a total of 673. We recorded 12 local recurrences (3,96%) and 2 deaths due to cancer progression. Our protocol includes removal of the primary tumor with enough surrounding tissue to ensure negative margins of the resectable specimen, associated with axillary lymph-node dissection and postoperative breast irradiation. Our oncologist indicated chemotherapy on different postoperative conditions: tumor size, axillary lymph node involvement, patient's age, etc. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize our modest experience, nevertheless to draw the attention on important results, obtained by long-term monitoring of the patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery, in a two prospective protocols, and demonstrate the importance and applicability of breast conserving therapy. The conclusion of this study is that breast-conserving surgery followed by breast irradiation is reliable, as the results are similar with radical mastectomies; the main objective is to obtain a good cosmetic result, which depends on tumor size / breast size. PMID:23116836

Tenea Cojan, T S; Vidrighin, C D; Ciobanu, M; Paun, I; Teodorescu, M; Mogos, G; Tenovici, M; Florescu, M; Mogos, D

144

Familial breast cancer and genes involved in breast carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer has often been reported to run in families, and the most important risk factor for the disease is a family history of breast cancer. Numerous pedigrees and segregation analyses have suggested an autosomal dominant transmitted susceptibility to breast cancer. Familial breast cancer occurs alone or associated with other cancers in clinically distinguishable syndromes. Such cases may be characterized

Annika Lindblom

1995-01-01

145

Loss of Heterozygosity in Bilateral Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women who develop bilateral breast cancer at an early age are likely to harbour germline mutations in breast cancer susceptibility genes. The aim of this study was to test for concordant genetic changes in left and right breast cancer of young women (age <50) with bilateral breast cancer that may suggest an inherited breast cancer predisposition. Microsatellite markers were used

J. Kollias; S. Man; M. Marafie; K. Carpenter; S. Pinder; I. O. Ellis; R. W. Blamey; G. Cross; J. D. Brook

2000-01-01

146

Lactation and Breast Cancer Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is a common disease with few practical preventive measures. The recent evidence that lactation, like other reproductive experiences, is associated with a modest reduction in breast cancer risk is therefore of great interest. Overall, the reduction in risk appears to be about 20% for ever breast feeding and is even greater for women with histories of prolonged lactation,

Polly A. Newcomb

1997-01-01

147

MK2206 in Treating Patients With Stage I, Stage II, or Stage III Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

2013-06-03

148

Relationship between reflection spectra of breast adipose tissue with histologic grade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical spectroscopy allows the characterization, recognition and differentiation of subcutaneous tissues healthy and no-healthy, to facilitate the diagnosis or early detection for breast cancer are studied white adipose tissue by the subcutaneous region with the help of the diffuse reflection spectroscopy in the visible areas (400 to 700 nm) of electromagnetic spectrum for them using a spectrometer portable of integrating sphere, Hunter lab Model Mini-Scan. The problem to be solved for cancer detection by optical techniques is to find the solution to the inverse problem of scattering of radiation in tissue where it is necessary to solve the equation of energy transfer. us through the trigonometric interpolation and by the data adjustment by least squares using Fourier series expansion to parameterize the spectral response curves of each sample of breast adipose tissue then correlated with histological grades established by the optical biopsy for each one of the samples, allowing use this technique to the study of anomalies in White Adipose Tissue Breast, changes are evident in the spectral response for Breast Adipose Tissue carcinogens with respect to healthy tissues and for the different histological grades.

Muñoz Morales, Aarón; Vázquez Y Montiel, Sergio; Reigosa, Aldo

2011-08-01

149

Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Treated With Zoledronic Acid  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer

2013-07-17

150

Heterogeneity in breast cancer.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease. There is a high degree of diversity between and within tumors as well as among cancer-bearing individuals, and all of these factors together determine the risk of disease progression and therapeutic resistance. Advances in technologies such as whole-genome sequencing and functional viability screens now allow us to analyze tumors at unprecedented depths. However, translating this increasing knowledge into clinical practice remains a challenge in part due to tumor evolution driven by the diversity of cancer cell populations and their microenvironment. The articles in this Review series discuss recent advances in our understanding of breast tumor heterogeneity, therapies tailored based on this knowledge, and future ways of assessing and treating heterogeneous tumors. PMID:21965334

Polyak, Kornelia

2011-10-03

151

Inflammatory breast cancer: high risk of contralateral breast cancer compared to comparably staged non-inflammatory breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC), the most lethal form of breast cancer, has characteristics linked to higher risk of contralateral\\u000a breast cancer. However, no large studies have examined risk of contralateral breast cancer following IBC. We calculated absolute\\u000a risk of invasive contralateral breast cancer among 5,631 IBC and 174,634 comparably staged non-IBC first breast cancer cases\\u000a who survived at least 2 months

Catherine SchairerLinda; Linda M. Brown; Phuong L. Mai

2011-01-01

152

Birth weight, breast cancer susceptibility loci, and breast cancer risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  There is considerable evidence that birth weight is positively associated with breast cancer risk, and seven single-nucleotide\\u000a polymorphisms (SNPs) have been conclusively associated with this risk. We have hypothesized that breast cancer susceptibility\\u000a loci may have a greater influence on breast cancer risk among women with higher birth weight, who are expected to have a larger\\u000a pool of mammary stem

Rulla M. Tamimi; Pagona Lagiou; Kamila Czene; Jianjun Liu; Anders Ekbom; Chung-Cheng Hsieh; Hans-Olov Adami; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Per Hall

2010-01-01

153

Mastalgia and breast cancer: a protective association?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast pain (mastalgia) is a common complaint, with a potentially important relationship to breast cancer risk. We have examined the association between mastalgia and breast cancer in the patient population of the Breast Care Center of University Hospital, Syracuse, New York. Of 5463 women with complete breast cancer risk factor information, 1532 (28%) reported breast pain as an incidental complaint

Seema A Khan; A. Vania Apkarian

2002-01-01

154

Mastalgia and breast cancer: a protective association?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast pain (mastalgia) is a common complaint, with a potentially important relationship to breast cancer risk. We have examined the association between mastalgia and breast cancer in the patient population of the Breast Care Center of University Hospital, Syracuse, New York. Of 5463 women with complete breast cancer risk factor information, 1532 (28%) reported breast pain as an incidental complaint

Seema A. Khan; A. Vania Apkarian

155

Wrap Up: Innovations in Breast Cancer Workshop  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... breast cancer and metastatic breast cancer are different ... positive breast cancer, where the EFS improvement is already high? ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/newsevents

156

Breast cancer personalized medicine: challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed

This Guest Editorial introduces this month's special Breast Cancer Theme Issue, a series of reviews that highlight the molecular pathogenesis of breast cancer and implications for personalized breast cancer therapy. PMID:23978519

Coleman, William B

2013-08-23

157

Diet, Stem Cells, and Breast Cancer Prevention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy of women in the Western world. Many risk factors are associated with the development and progression of breast cancer; however, diet/nutrition constitutes a highly modifiable risk. Breast cancer is considered to...

R. C. Simmen

2011-01-01

158

You, Your Teenage Daughter and Breast Cancer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses breast cancer and teenagers, focusing on how parents can introduce the subject and encourage breast self-examination. The article provides information on breast cancer statistics, mammography, and American Cancer Society services. (SM)|

Brateman, Libby

1991-01-01

159

You, Your Teenage Daughter and Breast Cancer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses breast cancer and teenagers, focusing on how parents can introduce the subject and encourage breast self-examination. The article provides information on breast cancer statistics, mammography, and American Cancer Society services. (SM)

Brateman, Libby

1991-01-01

160

Breast and Ovarian Cancers  

PubMed Central

Tumor markers are widely used in pathology not only for diagnostic purposes but also to assess the prognosis and to predict the treatment of the tumor. Because tumor marker levels may change over time, it is important to get a better understanding of the molecular changes during tumor progression. Occurrence of breast and ovarian cancer is high in older women. Common known risk factors of developing these cancers in addition to age are not having children or having children at a later age, the use of hormone replacement therapy, and mutations in certain genes. In addition, women with a history of breast cancer may also develop ovarian cancer. Here, the authors review the different tumor markers of breast and ovarian carcinoma and discuss the expression, mutations, and possible roles of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans during tumorigenesis of these carcinomas. The focus is on two groups of proteoglycans, the transmembrane syndecans and the lipid-anchored glypicans. Both families of proteoglycans have been implicated in cellular responses to growth factors and morphogens, including many now associated with tumor progression.

Yoneda, Atsuko; Lendorf, Maria E.; Couchman, John R.

2012-01-01

161

Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

2011-12-07

162

Proteomic Approach to Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women worldwide. Despite tremendous advances in screening, diagnosis, and treatment, the causes of this disease remain elusive and complex. Proteomics is a rapidly developing field that can explore the heterogeneity of breast cancer and supplement the wealth of information gained from genomics. Methods: This article serves as an overview of the

Christine Laronga; Richard R. Drake

2007-01-01

163

Breast cancer susceptibility loci and mammographic density  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Recently, the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study and identified 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer risk. Given the high degree of heritability of mammographic density and its strong association with breast cancer, it was hypothesised that breast cancer susceptibility loci may also be associated with breast density and provide insight

Rulla M. Tamimi; David Cox; Peter Kraft; Graham A. Colditz; Susan E. Hankinson; David J. Hunter

2008-01-01

164

Evaluation of the histological size of the sentinel lymph node metastases using RT-PCR assay: a rapid tool to estimate the risk of non-sentinel lymph node invasion in patients with breast cancer.  

PubMed

A RT-PCR assay (GeneSearch™, Veridex, LLC), FDA approved and CE marked to detect metastases > 0.2 mm in sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) is used intra-operatively for the management of patients with breast cancer. The assay provides qualitative results by applying cut-off values to cycle times (Ct) for mammaglobin (MG) and cytokeratin-19 (CK19) genes. Aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of the quantitative Ct values to estimate the size of nodal metastases and the risk of additional disease in non-SLNs. SLNs from 367 patients were clinically processed using both BLN assay and post-operative histology. Complementary axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was performed concurrently in case of BLN assay positivity or tumour size > 2 cm. BLN positivity was reported in 19.6% of the patients for a sensitivity of 89%. BLN specificity (94.5%) and negative predictive value (97.5%) clearly demonstrated its reliability to guide ALND decision. All, except one, residual axillary metastases were found in BLN-positive patients. Considering the 78 patients with SLN positivity or discordant status according to both criteria, the metastases histological size was significantly correlated to the expression level of MG (? = 0.62) and CK19 (? = 0.64) genes (P < 10E-6). Moreover, ALND status positivity was significantly associated to Ct value of MG (z = 2.4; P = 0.018) and CK19 (z = 3.2; P = 0.001). The high intra-operative quality performance of the BLN assay minimizes the need for second surgeries for ALND. Results from this investigational study suggest that markers Ct value may provide, intra-operatively, valuable metastases size data and a risk prediction of additional disease in non-SLNs. PMID:19779817

Veys, I; Majjaj, S; Salgado, R; Noterman, D; Schobbens, J C; Manouach, F; Bourgeois, P; Nogaret, J M; Larsimont, D; Durbecq, V

2009-09-25

165

Breast cancer treatment and chemoprevention.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To outline modern principles of surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic treatment of breast cancer, and to review preliminary data on breast cancer prevention. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search was conducted from 1966 to the beginning of 1999; most of the studies reviewed are randomized clinical trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Breast conservation surgery should be offered to all women with early breast cancer because studies demonstrate survival rates equivalent to those with mastectomy. If mastectomy is chosen, breast reconstruction should be offered. Most women with breast cancer are treated systemically with either chemotherapy or tamoxifen, or both, and mortality is substantially reduced. Data indicating that tamoxifen prevents breast cancer are promising; more studies with both tamoxifen and raloxifene are under way. All women should be strongly encouraged to enter clinical trials. CONCLUSIONS: Because many issues face women recently diagnosed with breast cancer, they often seek out family physicians as advisors to help negotiate a complex treatment path. The possibility of preventing breast cancer will undoubtedly raise questions among family members of women with breast cancer that should appropriately be answered and referred, if necessary, by family physicians.

Kotwall, C. A.

1999-01-01

166

Exercise and breast cancer prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic research continues to confirm a strong inverse association between physical activity and breast cancer risk.\\u000a New studies suggest that activity during adolescence is most important for premenopausal breast cancer. Long-term activity\\u000a patterns are clearly important for postmenopausal breast cancer, although recent activity often highly correlates with long-term\\u000a activity, accounting for its influence on risk. Whether physical activity has greater

Leslie Bernstein

2009-01-01

167

Mammographic Screening for Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

A 44-year-old woman who is a new patient has no known current health problems and no family history of breast or ovarian cancer. Eighteen months ago, she had a normal screening mammogram. She recently read that mammograms may not help to prevent death from breast cancer and that “the patient should decide.” But she does not think she knows enough. She worries that there is a breast-cancer epidemic. What should her physician advise?

Fletcher, Suzanne W.; Elmore, Joann G.

2011-01-01

168

[Scintimammography in breast cancer imaging].  

PubMed

Scintimammography is a rarely used method of breast cancer imaging. The aim of the study was to find its place among other radiological methods. Routine methods of breast cancer detection were compared considering their advantages and disadvantages. Scintimammography seems to be a promising complementary method. Indications for scintimammography are considered and suggestion of a diagnostic algorithm in breast cancer, including of this method is proposed. PMID:12666455

Pilecki, Stanis?aw; Bandurski, Tomasz; Lasek, W?adys?aw; Purzycka-Jazdon, Anna; Lass, Piotr

2002-12-01

169

Global Burden of Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Breast cancer in women is a major public health problem throughout the world. It is the most common cancer among women both\\u000a in developed and developing countries. One in ten of all new cancers diagnosed worldwide each year is a cancer of the female\\u000a breast. It is also the principal cause of death from cancer among women globally. More than

Jacques Ferlay; Clarisse Héry; Philippe Autier; Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan

170

Regional Breast Cancer Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in technology and the increase in screening for breast cancer that identifies tumors at earlier stages have made\\u000a it possible to destroy tumors in situ without surgery. This can also be used to treat locally advanced tumors. These locoregional\\u000a ablative techniques include minimally invasive surgical as well as noninvasive ablative modalities, new radiation technologies,\\u000a and regional chemotherapy. New developments

Moshe Z. Papa; Siegal Sadetzki

171

Screening for breast cancer.  

PubMed Central

The feasibility of mass population screening for breast cancer by clinical examination and x-ray mammography was studied. The results indicate that such a programme could be conducted effectively by non-medical staff and be safe from the dangers of irradiation. The response rate of women invited for screening suggests that such a service is acceptable to the general public. The additional work load produced by screening would not overburden the existing surgical services.

George, W D; Gleave, E N; England, P C; Wilson, M C; Sellwood, R A; Asbury, D; Hartley, G; Barker, P G; Hobbs, P; Wakefield, J

1976-01-01

172

Breast cancer -- one term, many entities?  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer, rather than constituting a monolithic entity, comprises heterogeneous tumors with different clinical characteristics, disease courses, and responses to specific treatments. Tumor-intrinsic features, including classical histological and immunopathological classifications as well as more recently described molecular subtypes, separate breast tumors into multiple groups. Tumor-extrinsic features, including microenvironmental configuration, also have prognostic significance and further expand the list of tumor-defining variables. A better understanding of the features underlying heterogeneity, as well as of the mechanisms and consequences of their interactions, is essential to improve targeting of existing therapies and to develop novel agents addressing specific combinations of features.

Bertos, Nicholas R.; Park, Morag

2011-01-01

173

Correlation between Duffy blood group phenotype and breast cancer incidence  

PubMed Central

Background Different ethnicities have different distribution of Duffy blood group (DBG) phenotypes and different breast cancer morbidity. A study in our lab demonstrated that Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC, also known as DBGP, the Duffy protein phenotype), led to the inhibition of tumorigenesis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that DBGP is correlated with breast cancer occurrence. Methods DBGP proteins were examined by indirect antiglobulin testing with anti-FYa and anti-FYb antibodies. The phenotypes were classified into four groups according to the agglutination reactions: FYa + FYb+, FYa + FYb-, FYa-FYb + and FYa-FYb-. The phenotypes and pathological diagnosis of consecutively hospitalized female patients (n = 5,022) suffering from breast cancer at the Shanghai Cancer Hospital and Henan Province Cancer Hospital were investigated. The relationships between DBGP expression with breast cancer occurrence, axillary lymph status, histological subtype, tumor size pathological grade and overall survival were analyzed. Results The incidence of breast cancer was significantly different between FYa + FYb + (29.8%), FYa + FYb- (33.2%), FYa-FYb + (45.6%) and FYa-FYb- (59.1%; P = 0.001). Significant different numbers of breast cancer patients had metastases to the axillary lymph nodes in the FYa + FYb + group (25.1%), FYa + FYb- (36.9%), FYa-FYb + (41.0%) and FYa-FYb- (50.0%, (P = 0.005). There was a statistical significance (p = 0.022) of the overall survival difference between patients with difference phenotypes. No significant difference was observed in cancer size (t-test, p > 0.05), histological cancer type (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05) or histological grade (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05) between every each DBGP group. Conclusions DBGP is correlated with breast cancer incidence and axillary lymph node metastasis and overall survival. Further investigations are required to determine the underlying mechanism of Duffy blood group phenotype on breast cancer risk.

2012-01-01

174

Breast Cancer: Screening for a Cure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2006, an estimated 275,000 women in the United States were diagnosed with breast cancer and 41,000 patients died of this disease. 1 Because breast cancer is a common disease and early stage cancers detected by mammography are more successfully treated, mam- mogram screening programs have been instrumental in reducing breast cancer mortality. The morbidity of breast cancer treatment has

Linda S. Haigh

2007-01-01

175

Breast cancer therapies weighed  

SciTech Connect

Even as the National Institutes of Health came under fire last week for giving short shrift to women in the institute's basic and clinical research programs, the report of a recent NIH consensus conference points up the need for more research on how to treat early breast cancer. Although the experts were able to agree on the best surgical treatment for women with early breast cancer, they couldn't resolve the more controversial issue of whether the patients should subsequently receive systemic treatment - chemotherapy or hormone therapy - to prevent recurrence of their disease. The panel reaffirmed that the removal of the lump and nearby lymph nodes, followed by irradiation, is just as effective as a mastectomy. But then came the contentious question: should women with early breast cancer, especially those without detectable lymph node metastases, receive drug therapy to prevent recurrence of the disease Currently, 70% of such cancers are successfully treated with surgery and radiation alone. For this reason, about 2 years ago, the National Cancer Institute issued a clinical alert saying that addition treatment with drugs or hormones is a credible therapeutic option worthy of careful attention for all early stage patients. This pronouncement engendered a storm of criticism. A consensus panel concluded that in cases where tumors are 1 centimeter or less in diameter and no lymph nodes are affected, the likelihood of recurrence is so small that the benefits of adjuvant therapy would be insignificant. But for the patients with larger tumors, the panel concluded that the decision is an individual one that depends on personal preferences and a variety of prognostic factors that can help to indicate whether a woman is at high risk of having a recurrence and should therefore have adjuvant therapy.

Holden, C.

1990-06-29

176

Imaging techniques in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiology, along with clinical examination and the pathological results, is a fundamental aspect of the triple assessment of patients with breast disease, particularly those with breast cancer. In addition to long established imaging techniques such as mammography and breast ultrasound in the symptomatic patient, there are now many developing technologies which assist in making and confirming the diagnosis (eg digital

Gaurav Jyoti Bansal; Kate Gower Thomas

2010-01-01

177

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Facilitates Breast Conservation for Occult Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Occult primary breast cancer, i.e., isolated axillary adenocarcinoma without detectable tumor in the breast by either physical exam or mammography, represents up to 1% of operable breast cancer. Modified radical mastectomy (MRM) is generally the accepted treatment for this condition although tumor is identified in only two-thirds of mastectomy specimens. Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can identify occult breast

John A. Olson; Elizabeth A. Morris; Kimberly J. Van Zee; David C. Linehan; Patrick I. Borgen

2000-01-01

178

Vascular and Cognitive Assessments in Patients With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy After Surgery  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cognitive/Functional Effects; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

2013-07-29

179

Rosuvastatin in Treating Women With Cardiovascular Complications Who Are Undergoing Chemotherapy For Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cardiovascular Complications; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

2013-03-21

180

Trametinib and Akt Inhibitor GSK2141795 in Treating Patients With Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

2013-10-15

181

Genetics of Hereditary Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The identification and clinical management of patients at inherited risk for breast cancer has become an integral part of\\u000a the practice of preventative medicine and oncology. Although only about 5–10% of all cases of breast cancer are attributable\\u000a to a highly penetrant cancer predisposition gene, individuals who carry a cancer susceptibility gene mutation have a significantly\\u000a higher risk of developing

Paula D. Ryan

182

Pathology of breast cancer: Present and prospect in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer among Japanese females is characterized by its relatively low incidence and better prognosis than among Caucasian\\u000a females. The annual mortality due to breast cancer among Japanese is about one-fifth that among Caucasians. Comparison of\\u000a case distribution by histological type indicates that the ratio of well-differentiated carcinoma is slightly higher among\\u000a Japanese, while the ratio of poorly differentiated carcinoma

Goi Sakamoto; Haruo Sugano

1991-01-01

183

Adjuvant Bisphosphonates for Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Drugs called bisphosphonates may be able to prevent bone metastases in women with early breast cancer. With this trial, researchers are comparing a bisphosphonate called clodronate with two newer, more-potent bisphosphonates--zoledronate and ibandronate--in women with stage I-III breast cancer.

184

Immunological enhancement of breast cancer.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is a complex disease. Its aetiology is multifactorial, its period of development can span decades, and its clinical course is highly variable. Evaluation of the role of the immune response in either the development or control of breast cancer is also complex. Nevertheless, there is substantial information that in this disease, the immune response is not a host defence reaction and may even serve to facilitate cancer development. This evidence comes from a variety of sources including clinical-pathological investigations in women that show a correlation between the intensity of lymphocytic infiltration into the tumour mass with poor prognosis, studies in breast cancer patients that demonstrate a similar correlation between delayed hypersensitivity reactivity or in vitro assays of immune reactivity to tumour cell membranes or non-specific antigens and poor prognosis, and analyses of cancer incidence in chronically immunosuppressed, kidney transplant recipients who develop an unexpectedly low incidence of breast cancer. The overall conclusions from these human studies are corroborated by observations in mouse mammary tumour models that also demonstrate immune enhancement of breast cell proliferation in vitro and of breast cancer development in vivo. Potential mechanisms for these effects include production, by inflammatory cell infiltrates, of direct or indirect modulators of breast cell growth, e.g. cytokines, peptide or steroid hormones, enzymes involved in steroid metabolism, as well as of antibodies to growth factors or their receptors. These immune facilitatory mechanisms must be overcome if immune-based therapies are to be applied successfully in breast cancer. PMID:9571699

Stewart, T H; Heppner, G H

1997-01-01

185

Radiation therapy for breast cancer.  

PubMed

Over the past five decades, radiotherapy (RT) has become an integral part in the combined modality management of breast cancer. Although its significant effect on local control has been long demonstrated, only recently has adjuvant RT been shown to have a significant effect on breast cancer mortality and overall survival. This article summarizes the adjuvant role of RT after mastectomy and lumpectomy, as well as the rationale and techniques for partial-breast irradiation. PMID:16730294

Bellon, Jennifer R; Katz, Angela; Taghian, Alphonse

2006-04-01

186

Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

2013-10-08

187

Radiation-induced breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

Between 1975 and 1983, sixteen patients with a history of irradiation at an early age to the head, neck, or chest areas for a variety of conditions in whom breast cancer subsequently developed were seen at out institute. The median latent period between the irradiation and the development of breast cancer was 420 months. The distribution of patients by stage of the disease and the median age at diagnosis of this subgroup was similar to the breast cancer observed in the general population. The subsequent course of this disease was also similar to the breast cancer observed in the general population. A substantial number of women have been exposed to irradiation at a young age, and these women are at a higher risk of having breast cancer develop. These women should be closely observed to discover the disease in an early curable stage.

Finnerty, N.A.; Buzdar, A.U.; Blumenschein, G.R.

1984-06-01

188

Factors Predicting the Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Breast Cancer: Is Axillary Node Clearance Indicated in Every Breast Cancer Patient?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was carried out to find out predictors of axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer and to evaluate its significance\\u000a in selecting the group of patients in whom axillary dissection could be avoided. Ninety-five breast cancer patients who underwent\\u000a mastectomy and axillary dissection were included in the study. Factors like patient’s age, tumor size, histopathological type,\\u000a histological grade

Amrut V. Ashturkar; Gayatri S. Pathak; Sanjay D. Deshmukh; Harshal T. Pandave

189

Breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and esophageal cancer.  

PubMed

This is the second of a six-part series on metastatic spread and natural history of 18 common tumors. Part one summarized symptom/problem anticipation, cancer metastasis, and the 18 tumors that each cause more than 6,000 deaths per year in the United States. Bladder and brain cancer were discussed, with information given on tumor types, metastatic spread and invasion, and common symptoms. Part two charts the natural histories of breast, colorectal, and esophageal cancers. Each of these cancers is presented separately, with information given on mortality rates, the most common tumor types, sites of metastases, common problems, and common oncologic emergencies. Sites of spread, resulting problems (including site-specific symptoms), and assessment parameters are presented as tables. Material is presented so that clinicians will be able to anticipate the spread of these cancers and thus identify problems early in their development so that the problems are more easily managed. PMID:10085798

Kemp, C

190

Male breast cancer: is the scenario changing  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The overall incidence of male breast cancer is around 1% of all breast cancers and is on the rise. In this review we aim to present various aspects of male breast cancer with particular emphasis on incidence, risk factors, patho-physiology, treatment, prognostic factors, and outcome. METHODS: Information on all aspects of male breast cancer was gathered from available relevant

Kaiyumars B Contractor; Kanchan Kaur; Gabriel S Rodrigues; Dhananjay M Kulkarni; Hemant Singhal

2008-01-01

191

Bilateral Synchronous Breast Cancer in a Male  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer in males is rare, accounting for less than 1% of all cases. Bilateral male breast cancer is reported to occur in fewer than 2% of all the diagnosed cases of male breast cancer, and synchronous tumors are exceedingly rare. The authors report a case of male breast cancer that is bilateral and syn- chronous, and review the literature

PETER B. KAHLA; SEBASTIANO CASSARO; FELIX G. VLADIMIR; MICHAEL G. WAYNE; ANGELO CAMMARATA

192

[The combined magnetoradiotherapy of breast cancer].  

PubMed

Preoperative magnetoradiation therapy of stage II-III breast cancer patients was followed by pronounced regression of tumor and axillary lymph node metastases in all cases. The treatment modality had been previously substantiated by establishing the optimal sequence and time intervals for magnetic and radiation fields. Complete regression of primary tumor and metastases verified by histologic and cytologic examination of surgical and biopsy material was observed in 20%. The best results were obtained for edematous-infiltrative form of cancer. In the control group (radiation alone), regression of tumor was only slight, nor did lymph node metastases regress. Magnetoradiation therapy did not involve either immediate or delayed adverse side-effects. PMID:1300786

Akhmetov, E D; Liu, B N; Dzhamaldinov, D D; Musin, T B; Ismailov, B I

1992-01-01

193

Molecular changes in primary breast tumors and the Nottingham Histologic Score.  

PubMed

Pathological grade is routinely used to stratify breast cancer patients into favorable and less favorable outcome groups. Mechanisms by which genomic changes in breast tumors specifically contribute to the underlying components of tumor grade - tubule formation, nuclear pleomorphism, and mitoses - are unknown. This study examined 26 chromosomal regions known to be altered in breast cancer in 256 invasive breast carcinomas. Differences in overall levels and patterns of allelic imbalance (AI) at each chromosomal region were compared for tumors with favorable (=1) and unfavorable (=3) scores for tubule formation, nuclear pleomorphism and mitotic count. Levels of AI were significantly different between samples with high and low scores for tubule formation (P < 0.001), nuclear pleomorphism (P < 0.001) and mitotic count (P < 0.05). Significantly higher levels of AI were detected at regions 11q23 and 13q12 for tumors with reduced tubule formation, chromosomes 9p21, 11q23, 13q14, 17p13 and 17q12 for those with high levels of nuclear atypia, and chromosomes 1p36, 11q23, and 13q14 for those with high mitotic counts. Region 16q11-q22 showed significantly more AI events in samples with low nuclear atypia. Patterns of genetic changes associated with poorly-differentiated breast tumors were recapitulated by the individual components of the Nottingham Histologic Score. While frequent alteration of 11q23 is common for reduced tubule formation, high nuclear atypia and high mitotic counts, suggesting that this is an early genetic change in the development of poorly-differentiated breast tumors, alterations at the other seven loci associated with poorly-differentiated tumors may specifically influence cell structure, nuclear morphology and cellular proliferation. PMID:19194786

Ellsworth, Rachel E; Hooke, Jeffrey A; Love, Brad; Ellsworth, Darrell L; Shriver, Craig D

2009-02-05

194

Histological analysis of silicone breast implant capsules and correlation with capsular contracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A study was undertaken to investigate long-term histological changes in the environment of breast implants and their correlation with complains at the time of capsular contracture defined by the Baker score.Method: The collagenous capsules of 53 silicone breast implants from 43 patients (23 smooth and 30 textured devices) were evaluated histologically for capsular thickness, the presence of histiocytes, the

Wulf Siggelkow; Andre Faridi; Katrin Spiritus; Uwe Klinge; Werner Rath; Bernd Klosterhalfen

2003-01-01

195

Incidence of female breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascertainment of breast cancer incidence among the cohort of the RERF Life Span Study extended sample identified 574 breast cancers among 564 cases diagnosed during 1950-1980 of which 412 cancers were reviewed microscopically. There were no dose-dependent differences with respect to diagnostic certainty or histological type. As in previous studies, the dose response appeared to be roughly linear and did

M. Tokunaga; C. E. Land; T. Yamamoto; M. Asano; S. Tokuoka; H. Ezaki; I. Nishimori

1987-01-01

196

Is PCR testing of sentinel lymph nodes ready for clinical application in breast cancer ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the majority of breast cancer patients with histologically lymph node-negative cancers are cured by local therapy alone, approximately 25% will develop recurrent breast cancer and die of their disease in the absence of systemic adjuvant chemotherapy [1]. Cytotoxic chemotherapy markedly improves outcome for some of these patients. Assays that could better distinguish those nodenegative patients who are more likely

Benjamin O. Anderson; Ira J. Bleiweiss

2011-01-01

197

Carboplatin and Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Veliparib in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IIIC Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

2013-06-20

198

Multi-resolution wavelet-transformed image analysis of histological sections of breast carcinomas.  

PubMed

Multi-resolution images of histological sections of breast cancer tissue were analyzed using texture features of Haar- and Daubechies transform wavelets. Tissue samples analyzed were from ductal regions of the breast and included benign ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and invasive ductal carcinoma (CA). To assess the correlation between computerized image analysis and visual analysis by a pathologist, we created a two-step classification system based on feature extraction and classification. In the feature extraction step, we extracted texture features from wavelet-transformed images at 10x magnification. In the classification step, we applied two types of classifiers to the extracted features, namely a statistics-based multivariate (discriminant) analysis and a neural network. Using features from second-level Haar transform wavelet images in combination with discriminant analysis, we obtained classification accuracies of 96.67 and 87.78% for the training and testing set (90 images each), respectively. We conclude that the best classifier of carcinomas in histological sections of breast tissue are the texture features from the second-level Haar transform wavelet images used in a discriminant function. PMID:16308473

Hwang, Hae-Gil; Choi, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Byeong-Il; Yoon, Hye-Kyoung; Nam, Sang-Hee; Choi, Heung-Kook

2005-01-01

199

Dietary Intake of Soy Protein and Tofu in Association With Breast Cancer Risk Based on a Case-Control Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soy food and its constituents may protect against breast cancer, but the association between soy intake and decreased breast cancer risk is inconsistent. We evaluated the relationship between breast cancer risk and the dietary intake of soy protein as measured by total soy food and tofu intake. Histologically confirmed cases (n = 362) were matched to controls by age (within

Mi Kyung Kim; Jin Hee Kim; Seok Jin Nam; Seungho Ryu; Gu Kong

2008-01-01

200

Retinoids and breast cancer prevention.  

PubMed

Preclinical models suggest that retinoids inhibit mammary carcinogenesis. Induction of apoptosis is a unique feature of fenretinide, the most studied retinoid in clinical trials of breast cancer chemoprevention due to its selective accumulation in breast tissue and its favorable toxicological profile. In a phase III breast cancer prevention trial, fenretinide showed a very strong trend of reduction of incidence of second breast malignancies in premenopausal women, which was confirmed by the 15-year follow-up. Interestingly, ovarian cancer incidence appeared reduced during treatment in the same trial. This warrants further research on fenretinide mechanisms of action and potential efficacy and provides the rationale for a phase III primary prevention trial in young women at high risk for breast cancer. PMID:19213560

Bonanni, Bernardo; Lazzeroni, Matteo

2009-01-01

201

Epigenetic Therapy in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Breast carcinogenesis is a multistep process involving both genetic and epigenetic changes. Epigenetics is defined as reversible changes in gene expression, not accompanied by alteration in gene sequence. DNA methylation, histone modification, and nucleosome remodeling are the major epigenetic changes that are dysregulated in breast cancer. Several genes involved in proliferation, anti-apoptosis, invasion, and metastasis have been shown to undergo epigenetic changes in breast cancer. Because epigenetic changes are potentially reversible processes, much effort has been directed toward understanding this mechanism with the goal of finding effective therapies that target these changes. Both demethylating agents and the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are under investigation as single agents or in combination with other systemic therapies in the treatment of breast cancer. In this review, we discuss the role of epigenetic regulation in breast cancer, in particular focusing on the clinical trials using therapies that modulate epigenetic mechanisms.

Lustberg, Maryam B.

2012-01-01

202

Adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in Western Europe and the U.S. Adjuvant chemotherapy reduces the rate\\u000a of cancer recurrence, thereby contributing to the recent decline of breast cancer mortality. Notably, a number of important\\u000a developments occurred over the past decades. Starting with first generation regimens like CMF, the next step was the introduction\\u000a of anthracyclines into

R. Bartsch; G. G. Steger

2008-01-01

203

Pathology of hereditary breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are predisposed to breast cancer. The BRCA1-associated breast cancers have distinct morphology, being more often medullary-like, triple negative and showing a ‘basal’ phenotype. On the other hand, BRCA2 and BRCAX cancers are a heterogeneous group without a specific phenotype. When incorporated into risk assessment models, pathology data improves prediction of carrier

Leonard Da Silva; Sunil R Lakhani

2010-01-01

204

Histo-biological comparative analysis of bilateral breast cancer.  

PubMed

Bilateral breast cancer occurs in approximately 7 % of surviving breast cancer patients. However, a dilemma exists concerning the notion of whether this represents a de novo second primary tumor versus a breast metastasis. We analyzed 81 patients with bilateral breast cancer, 47 (58 %) synchronous tumors and 34 (42 %) metachronous tumors. Additionally, charts were reviewed for age, family history, full histology data and biological receptors. We found there were no significant differences in concordance between the first and second primary tumors (in both synchronous and metachronous bilateral breast cancer) with respect to histology; grade; T-category; N-category; ER, PR and HER-2 status. In addition, there was no significant difference in the strength of correlation between ER and PR in the first and secondary primary tumors. Our findings suggest that the differentiation of the origin of contralateral breast cancer based on routine histological and biological concordance is inconclusive. Furthermore, the dilemma will continue to exist until additional molecular approaches are applied routinely for research purposes to resolve the debate. PMID:24062258

Baker, Bilal; Morcos, Basem; Daoud, Faiez; Sughayyer, Maher; Shabani, Hisham; Salameh, Habeeb; Almasri, Mahmoud

2013-09-24

205

Triple-negative breast cancer.  

PubMed

Perou's molecular classification defines tumors that neither express hormone receptors nor overexpress HER2 as triple-negative (TN) tumors. These tumors account for approximately 15% of breast cancers. The so-called basaloid tumors are not always synonymous with TN tumors; they differ in the fact that they express different molecular markers, have a higher histologic grade, and have a worse prognosis. Clinically they occur in younger women as interval cancer, and the risk of recurrence is higher within the first 3 years. Distant recurrences in the brain and visceral metastases are more common than in hormone receptor-positive tumors. Therapeutically, despite being highly chemosensitive, their progression-free time is generally short. In terms of chemotherapeutic treatment, anthracyclines and taxanes are useful drugs, and high response rates have been described for the combination of ixabepilone-capecitabine and platinums. The combination with antiangiogenic drugs has also proven useful. A group of new drugs, poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase inhibitors, showed favorable results in TN tumors with BRCA mutation. There are currently several ongoing studies with new drugs including epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, c-kit inhibitors, Raf/Mek/Map kinase inhibitors and mTOR inhibitors. PMID:21050424

Chacón, Reinaldo D; Costanzo, María V

2010-10-22

206

Breast cancer local recurrence after breast reconstruction.  

PubMed

The primary aim of surgery in breast cancer is to achieve local control of disease. Secondly, improving quality of life and patient satisfaction is of utmost importance. While the positive effect of postmastectomy reconstruction on the psychological well-being of women with breast cancer has been demonstrated, evidence-based data on its oncological safety remain sparse. There is concern that the presence of autologous tissue or an implant may mask locoregional recurrence. Furthermore, there is little agreement on the appropriateness of routine radiological surveillance of these patients as well as on the surgical treatment of locoregional recurrence. We attempt to review the impact of breast reconstruction on the incidence and detection of locoregional recurrence and discuss treatment options. PMID:18716989

Kropf, N; McCarthy, C M; Disa, J J

2008-08-20

207

Hedgehog signalling in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer death among women worldwide. In order to improve the treatment of this disease, a more complete understanding of its biological basis is necessary. Since the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway was recently found to be required for growth and propagation of a number of different cancers, we discuss here the possible involvement of this pathway in the normal biology and development of cancer in the mammary gland. The use of mouse mammary cancer models has assisted the process of dissecting the mechanisms behind Hh-driven mammary tumour formation and growth. Based on recent studies, we conclude that the inhibition of Hh signalling in breast tumours may interfere with the maintenance of a putative cancer stem cell compartment and the abnormal stimulation of tumour stroma. Therefore, the components of the Hh signalling cascade may provide a set of drug targets, which could be implemented into novel combinatorial strategies for the treatment of breast cancer.

Kasper, Maria; Jaks, Viljar; Fiaschi, Marie; Toftgard, Rune

2009-01-01

208

New Models of Breast Cancer Risk Focus on Breast Density  

Cancer.gov

Two new models for assessing a patient's risk of developing breast cancer focus on breast density as an important predictor. The two studies are reported in the September 6, 2006, Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

209

Targeted therapy for breast cancer.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is a heterogeneous group of diseases that are clinically subdivided as hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2(+)), and triple-negative breast cancer, to guide therapeutic interventions. Agents that target estrogen receptor (ER) and HER2 are among the most successful cancer therapeutics. However, de novo or acquired resistance is common, despite the development of newer agents against these pathways. As our understanding of tumor biology improves, novel targets are being identified. Notably, inhibitors against several pathways [including, among others, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/mTOR), cell-cycle regulation, heat shock protein, and epigenetic pathways] have demonstrated promising activity in clinical trials, and the mTOR-inhibitor everolimus has been approved for advanced or metastatic aromatase inhibitor-resistant ER(+) breast cancer. At present, there are no established targeted agents for triple-negative breast cancer (negative ER, progesterone receptor, and HER2). Although poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors have shown promising activity in BRCA-related cancers, its value in the treatment of triple-negative breast cancers remains to be demonstrated. In this Review, we present a basic understanding of the major targeted agents in current practice and under development for the treatment of breast cancer in the context of the three clinical subgroups. PMID:23988612

Mohamed, Ali; Krajewski, Kenneth; Cakar, Burcu; Ma, Cynthia X

2013-08-27

210

Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia  

PubMed Central

Purpose Data on international variation in breast cancer incidence may help to identify additional risk factors. Substantially lower breast cancer rates in Asia than in North America and Western Europe are established, but differences within Asia have been largely ignored despite heterogeneity in lifestyles and environments. Mongolia’s breast cancer experience is of interest because of its shared genetics but vastly different diet compared with other parts of Asia. Methods Age-standardized breast cancer incidence and mortality rates obtained from the International Association of Cancer Registries are presented for several Asian countries. Mongolian incidence rates obtained from its cancer registry describe incidence within the country. Results Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia (age standardized 8.0/100,000) is almost a third of rates in China (21.6/100,000), and over five times that of Japan (42.7/100,000) and Russia (43.2/100,000). Rates within Mongolia appear to have increased slightly over the last decade and are higher in urban than rural areas (annual percentage increase of age-standardized rates from 1998 to 2005 was 3.60 and 2.57%, respectively). The increase in breast cancer incidence with age plateaus at menopause, as in other Asian populations. Conclusions Mongolia’s low breast cancer incidence is of particular interest because of their unusual diet (primarily red meat and dairy) compared with other Asian countries. More intensive study of potential dietary, reproductive and lifestyle factors in Mongolia with comparison to other Asian populations may provide more clarity in what drives the international breast cancer rate differences.

Altantsetseg, Dalkhjav; Davaasambuu, Ganmaa; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Tretli, Steinar; Hoover, Robert N.; Frazier, A. Lindsay

2013-01-01

211

Breast cancer: a global perspective.  

PubMed

The 2001 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) International Symposium, Breast Cancer: A Global Perspective, was conducted by members of the ASCO International Committee and additional speakers from around the world. An interactive format was chosen to: (1) learn how patterns of incidence, epidemiology, and causal biology relate to breast cancer around the world; (2) discuss the challenges in screening, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer, as well as its socioeconomic impact in various regions; (3) describe international differences in approach to and management of advanced breast cancer; and (4) discuss treatment in terms of hormone response, clinical research, and drug metabolism. After a brief introduction, each speaker gave an overview of breast cancer challenges and issues in their country, and discussed how the following case might be diagnosed and treated: A 44-year-old mother who presents with a finding of a painless breast lump and no prior history of breast masses, trauma, or surgery. Comments from a patient perspective were then presented, followed by a panel discussion and closing remarks. Co-chairs of this Symposium included Deborah Collyar (President, PAIR-Patient Advocates in Research) and Elizabeth Eisenhauer, MD (Director, Investigational New Drug Program, National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Speakers included Gilberto Schwartsmann, MD (South America), Monica Morrow, MD (North America), Daniel Vorobiof, MD (South Africa), Rakesh Chopra, MD (India), Klaus Hoeffken, MD (Eastern Europe), Russell Basser, MD (Australia), Susan Matsuko Shinigawa (patient perspective), and Larry Norton, MD (closing remarks). PMID:11560983

Collyar, D E

2001-09-15

212

Miscellaneous syndromes and their management: occult breast cancer, breast cancer in pregnancy, male breast cancer, surgery in stage IV disease.  

PubMed

Surgical therapy for occult breast cancer has traditionally centered on mastectomy; however, breast conservation with whole breast radiotherapy followed by axillary lymph node dissection has shown equivalent results. Patients with breast cancer in pregnancy can be safely and effectively treated; given a patient's pregnancy trimester and stage of breast cancer, a clinician must be able to guide therapy accordingly. Male breast cancer risk factors show strong association with BRCA2 mutations, as well as Klinefelter syndrome. Several retrospective trials of surgical therapy in stage IV breast cancer have associated a survival advantage with primary site tumor extirpation. PMID:23464700

Colfry, Alfred John

2013-02-07

213

Estrogen and progesterone receptor levels in nonneoplastic breast epithelium of breast cancer cases versus benign breast biopsy controls  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies and biological mechanisms of carcinogenesis suggest that the steroid receptor content of benign breast epithelium may be related to breast cancer risk. The objective in this study was to compare the levels of estrogen receptor-? (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in nonneoplastic breast epithelium between breast cancer cases and biopsy controls. Methods Between 1995 and 1997 at two sites (Women's College Hospital in Toronto and Kingston General Hospital), 667 women who were scheduled for diagnostic excisional breast biopsies completed a questionnaire providing personal information and agreed to allow analysis of routinely resected tissue. Histological slides with nonneoplastic epithelium were available for 101 cancer cases and 200 biopsy controls in Toronto and for 105 cancer cases and 119 controls in Kingston. Nonneoplastic epithelium was examined with immunohistochemical assays to determine the percent of epithelial cells staining for ER and PR. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) stratified by study site. Results The ER content of nonneoplastic tissue was higher in cases than biopsy controls in unadjusted analyses; after adjustment for age, however, a weak association remained in only one of the study sites. After adjustment for age, the PR content of nonneoplastic tissue was slightly lower in breast cancer cases than controls in one study site. Furthermore, this inverse association was confined to women with PR negative breast cancer in comparison to the controls. No interaction between ER and PR content of nonneoplastic tissue was observed in relation to the odds of having breast cancer. Conclusion The results of this study are consistent with only a slight indication of increased ER levels in nonneoplastic tissue in breast cancer cases relative to controls. This study contributes to the understanding of breast cancer by examining both ER and PR in nonneoplastic tissue. Limitations remain, however, such as the necessity of using as controls women with benign breast changes, difficulties in selecting the appropriate tissue for analysis, and tissue sampling concurrent to diagnosis.

Woolcott, Christy G; SenGupta, Sandip K; Hanna, Wedad M; Aronson, Kristan J

2008-01-01

214

Imaging in breast cancerbreast cancer imaging revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2000, Breast Cancer Research published a series of articles describing the state-of-the-art of breast cancer imaging, edited by James Basilion [1-6]. This series reviewed developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), radionuclide imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomogrophy (PET), and optical imaging, including optical computed tomography and near infra-red imaging fluorescence.

David Mankoff

2005-01-01

215

Breast Cancer Ablation: Imaging and Early Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of minimally invasive therapy for breast cancer is to eradicate cancer cells with minimal damage to the underlying normal breast parenchyma or skin. Tumor ablation is seen as a means of obtaining local control of breast cancer without surgery. Breast imaging is a critical component of therapy to (1) detect the primary tumor, (2) demonstrate the anatomical extent

Hernan I. Vargas

216

Histological Analysis of Benign Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System Categories 4c and 5 Breast Lesions in Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose The objective of this study was to analyze the histology of breast lesions categorized as Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 4c or 5 breast lesions during the imaging evaluation, but diagnosed as benign during the histological evaluation. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 71 breast lesions categorized as BI-RADS 4c or 5 during imaging study, but diagnosed as benign upon histological evaluation. Results Breast lesions were classified into six groups upon histological analysis: intraductal papilloma (18 cases), inflammatory group (15 cases), fibroepithelial tumor (14 cases), clustered microcalcification (10 cases), minimal histological alteration (10 cases), and adenosis (4 cases). Sclerosis and architectural complexity were associated with most of the biopsies that were morphologically similar to malignancy. Conclusion Among 71 cases categorized as 4c or 5 during the imaging study, but diagnosed as benign upon histological examination, intraductal papilloma was the most frequently identified histological lesion. These 71 cases exhibited histological characteristics of sclerosis and/or complex/complicated features that should be histologically differentiated from malignancy during evaluation.

Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Dokyung; Jung, WooHee

2012-01-01

217

Metastatic renal cell carcinoma presenting as a breast lump in a treated breast cancer patient.  

PubMed

Metastatic malignancy in the breast is uncommon. A 68-year-old woman with a past medical history of breast cancer presented with a lump in the opposite breast. A mammogram suggested a possible benign lump. An ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy was taken to complete the triple assessment. The histology on the breast core biopsy showed it to be a metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Subsequent computed tomography of the abdomen confirmed a renal primary tumour. The patient was referred to the renal oncologist for palliative treatment. PMID:19710958

Durai, R; Ruhomauly, S N; Wilson, E; Hoque, H

2009-08-01

218

Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is an important component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. We describe existing clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents and the challenges facing the clinical development and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use

Dorte Lisbet Nielsen; Michael Andersson; Jon Lykkegaard Andersen; Claus Kamby

2010-01-01

219

Radiation Therapy in Treating Post-Menopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

2013-10-16

220

FLT PET in Measuring Treatment Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Stage I-III Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

2013-08-20

221

Consumer Health Education. Breast Cancer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This short booklet is designed to be used by health educators when teaching women about breast cancer and its early detection and the procedure for breast self-examination. It includes the following: (1) A one-page teaching plan consisting of objectives, subject matter, methods (including titles of films and printed materials), target audience,…

Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville, Cooperative Extension Service.

222

Problems and prospects of cancer of the breast in India.  

PubMed

Breast cancer accounts for about 5-8% of cancer in India. It is second to cancer of the cervix in order of frequency. Parsee women have a higher incidence of breast cancer than Hindu women. The unmarried, lately married, and nullipara women are at higher risk than early married and multiparous women. Sometimes cancer affects women of the same family. Women with family histories of cancer should not use estrogen. 50-70% of all breast cancers, when detected, are in their later stages when the chances of a cure are practically nonexistent. 20% of breast cancer patients may live up to 5 years with the disease without receiving treatment. Following radical treatment of curable cases, metastases can remain dormant for many years, up to 18-20, before it develops. Management of breast cancer is biologically, immunologically, and histologically heterogeneous in character and requires multidisciplinary treatment: surgery, radiotherapy, hormone, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. About 20-40% of late stage cases respond to hormones. Metastatic bone pain is alleviated by local radiotherapy. The management of breast cancer is a controversial topic including such questions as the value of postoperative radiotherapy following radical mastectomy; prophylactic versus therapeutic oopherectomy, and the place of adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:501120

Chandra, A B

1979-01-16

223

Can Breast Cancer in Men Be Found Early?  

MedlinePLUS

... and symptoms of breast cancer in men Can breast cancer in men be found early? Early detection improves ... Differences affecting early detection of male and female breast cancers There are many similarities between breast cancer in ...

224

Insulin and Breast Cancer Risk.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is evidence suggesting that life-style factors play a significant role in breast cancer (BC) development. Insulin, which secretion is influenced by life-style factors, might represent the possible etiological linkage between lifestyle characteristic...

P. Muti

2000-01-01

225

How Is Breast Cancer Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... 1+, 2+, or 3+. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH): This test uses fluorescent pieces of DNA that ... special microscope. Many breast cancer specialists feel the FISH test is more accurate than IHC. However, it ...

226

Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... used therapy is a female hormone blocker called tamoxifen. A newer therapy uses a pill (anastrozole, letrozole, ... are at high risk for developing breast cancer, tamoxifen or raloxifene can also be taken to prevent ...

227

Cellular Senescene and Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aging is the single largest risk factor for developing breast cancer and is thought to be due the convergence of the accumulation of mutations together with the accumulation of senescent cells. Our working hypothesis is that senescent epithelial cells can...

J. Campisi

2006-01-01

228

Young Women and Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... can talk with your health care provider about genetic testing, screening tests, like MRI, or risk reduction options that might be right for you. Diagnosing breast cancer in young women can be more difficult because ...

229

Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A controversy in the treatment of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers is whether an aromatase inhibitor, e.g., letrozole (LET) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durati...

R. Clarke

2009-01-01

230

Melvalonates, Ras and Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents progress on studies of the effects on breast cancer cell proliferation of reagents that inhibit mevalonate synthesis (lovastatin) or metabolism (6-fluoromevalonate (Fmev), a mevalonate analogue). In our initial year we have establish...

J. A. Cuthbert

1998-01-01

231

Vitamin D and Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the proposed data analysis project is to assess whether high exposure to vitamin D from sunlight exposure, diet, and dietary supplements is associated with reduced breast cancer risk. We will perform a retrospective cohort analysis based ...

J. L. Kelsey

1996-01-01

232

Metals and breast cancer.  

PubMed

Metalloestrogens are metals that activate the estrogen receptor in the absence of estradiol. The metalloestrogens fall into two subclasses: metal/metalloid anions and bivalent cationic metals. The metal/metalloid anions include compounds such as arsenite, nitrite, selenite, and vanadate while the bivalent cations include metals such as cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, nickel, chromium, lead, mercury, and tin. The best studied metalloestrogen is cadmium. It is a heavy metal and a prevalent environmental contaminant with no known physiological function. This review addresses our current understanding of the mechanism by which cadmium and the bivalent cationic metals activate estrogen receptor-?. The review also summarizes the in vitro and in vivo evidence that cadmium functions as an estrogen and the potential role of cadmium in breast cancer. PMID:23338949

Byrne, Celia; Divekar, Shailaja D; Storchan, Geoffrey B; Parodi, Daniela A; Martin, Mary Beth

2013-01-22

233

Familial breast cancer.  

PubMed

Since the localization and discovery of the first high-risk breast cancer (BC) genes in 1990, there has been a substantial progress in unravelling its familial component. Increasing numbers of women at risk of BC are coming forward requesting advice on their risk and what they can do about it. Three groups of genetic predisposition alleles have so far been identified with high-risk genes conferring 40-85% lifetime risk including BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53. Moderate risk genes (20-40% risk) including PALB1, BRIP, ATM and CHEK2, and a host of low-risk common alleles identified largely through genome-wide association studies. Currently, only BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53 are used in clinical practice on a wide scale, although testing of up to 50-100 gene loci may be possible in the future utilizing next-generation technology. PMID:22356477

Lalloo, F; Evans, D G

2012-04-13

234

Obesity and breast cancer risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Being overweight appears to be associated with a higher risk of post-menopausal breast cancer in most studies. Although the relative risk of breast cancer related to Quetelet's index is generally weak (range 1.1-1.9 in the major cohort studies), some studies have found that timing of weight gain and body fat distribution could be more significant factors of an increased risk.

Pascal Pujol; Florence Galtier-Dereure; Jacques Bringer

235

Antiangiogenesis Therapy in Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a poor prognostic factor in breast cancer, indicating\\u000a that antiangiogenic therapies may improve outcomes. Novel antiangiogenic agents targeting the proangiogenic VEGF ligand and\\u000a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed. Of these, bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against\\u000a VEGF, is very promising in breast cancer. A large phase 3

Arvinder Bhinder; Sarah Carothers; Bhuvaneswari Ramaswamy

2010-01-01

236

Lymphnode dissection in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Along with the ongoing modifications in treatment of primary breast cancer, the purpose and extent of lymph-node dissection\\u000a has changed. The following is an overview of the current knowledge and practice of lymph-node dissection in breast cancer,\\u000a with special regard to expected developments in the near future. Axillary dissection is described as a ten-step procedure,\\u000a including dissection of level-I

A. Bembenek; P. M. Schlag

2000-01-01

237

Is breast cancer prognosis inherited?  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: A genetic component is well established in the etiology of breast cancer. It is not well known, however, whether genetic traits also influence prognostic features of the malignant phenotype. METHODS: We carried out a population-based cohort study in Sweden based on the nationwide Multi-Generation Register. Among all women with breast cancer diagnosed from 1961 to 2001, 2,787 mother-daughter pairs

Mikael Hartman; Linda Lindström; Paul W Dickman; Hans-Olov Adami; Per Hall; Kamila Czene

2007-01-01

238

Aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine therapy is a mainstay for the many women who develop in situ or invasive steroid receptor-positive breast cancer.\\u000a The use of tamoxifen has reduced mortality in such women. Recently estrogen deprivation strategies have come under scrutiny.\\u000a Here the use of aromatase inhibitors for treatment of postmenopausal endocrine-responsive breast cancer in the metastatic,\\u000a adjuvant, and preoperative settings is reviewed.

Susanne Briest; Nancy E. Davidson

2007-01-01

239

NUCKS overexpression in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: NUCKS (Nuclear, Casein Kinase and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate) is a nuclear, DNA-binding and highly phosphorylated protein. A number of reports show that NUCKS is highly expressed on the level of mRNA in several human cancers, including breast cancer. In this work, NUCKS expression on both RNA and protein levels was studied in breast tissue biopsies consisted of invasive carcinomas,

Yiannis Drosos; Mirsini Kouloukoussa; Anne Carine Østvold; Kirsten Grundt; Nikos Goutas; Dimitrios Vlachodimitropoulos; Sophia Havaki; Panagoula Kollia; Christos Kittas; Evangelos Marinos; Vassiliki Aleporou-Marinou

2009-01-01

240

Association between Bone Mineral Density and Incidence of Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Previous studies have suggested an inverse relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and breast cancer incidence. The primary objective of this study was to assess whether BMD is associated with risk of subsequent breast cancer occurrence in the female population of southern Israel. Methods The electronic medical charts of women who underwent BMD at the Soroka Medical Center (SMC) between February 2003 and March 2011 were screened for subsequent breast cancer diagnoses. Women were divided by tertiles of BMD at 3 skeletal sites: lumbar spine (LS, L1–4), total hip (TH) and femoral neck (FN). The incidence of breast cancer was calculated. Results Of 15268 women who underwent BMD testing, 86 were subsequently diagnosed with breast cancer. Most women in the study were older than 50 years (94.2% and 92.7%, respectively; p?=?0.597). Women who subsequently developed breast cancer had a higher mean body-mass index (BMI) (30.9±5.5 vs. 29.1±5.7 p?=?0.004) and the mean BMD Z-score was significantly higher than in those without breast cancer for all 3 skeletal sites (LS: 0.36±1.58 vs. ?0.12±1.42, p?=?0.002; TH: 0.37±1.08 vs. 0.03±1.02, p?=?0.002; FN: 0.04±0.99 vs. ?0.18±0.94; p?=?0.026). Women in the highest Z-score tertiles at the FN and TH had a higher chance of developing breast cancer compared to the lowest tertile; odds ratio of 2.15, 2.02, respectively (P?=?0.004 and 0.01 respectively). No association was found between the BMD Z-score and the stage, histology, grade or survival from breast cancer. Conclusions This study provides additional support for an inverse association between BMD and the risk of breast cancer.

Fraenkel, Merav; Novack, Victor; Liel, Yair; Koretz, Michael; Siris, Ethel; Norton, Larry; Shafat, Tali; Shany, Shraga; Geffen, David B.

2013-01-01

241

Body mass index and waist circumference are predictor biomarkers of breast cancer risk in Iranian women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both obesity and breast cancer incidence increased dramatically during two recent decades in a rapidly changing society in\\u000a northern Iran. In this study, we examined the ability of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) as predictor biomarkers\\u000a of breast cancer risk in Iranian women. In a case–control study of 100 new cases of histological confirmed breast cancer and

K. O. Hajian-Tilaki; A. R. Gholizadehpasha; S. Bozorgzadeh; E. Hajian-Tilaki

242

Birth weight and other prenatal factors and risk of breast cancer in Asian-Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the role of birth weight and other prenatal factors in the etiology of breast cancer in Asian-Americans.\\u000a We investigated the relation between birth weight and other prenatal factors and breast cancer risk in a population-based\\u000a case–control study in Los Angeles County that included 2,259 Asian-American women with incident, histologically confirmed\\u000a breast cancer and 2,019 control women,

Anna H. WuRoberta; Roberta McKean-Cowdin; Chiu-Chen Tseng

243

Olive oil, other dietary fats, and the risk of breast cancer (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a multicenter case-control study on breast cancer conducted in Italy have been used to analyze the relationship of olive oil and other dietary fats to breast cancer risk. Cases were 2,564 women hospitalized with histologically confirmed, incident breast cancer. Controls were 2,588 women admitted to the same network of hospitals for acute, non-neoplastic, non-hormone related, on-digestive tract disorders.

Carlo La Vecchia; Eva Negri; Silvia Franceschi; Adriano Decarli; Attilio Giacosa; Loren Lipworth

1995-01-01

244

Heat fixation of cancer cells ablated with high-intensity–focused ultrasound in patients with breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHigh-intensity–focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a noninvasive thermal ablation technique. This study reports the use of histological techniques for the pathological assessment of HIFU effects in patients with breast cancer.

Feng Wu; Zhi-Biao Wang; You-De Cao; Zhong-Lin Xu; Qiang Zhou; Hui Zhu; Wen-Zhi Chen

2006-01-01

245

Diagnosis delay in Libyan female breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Aims To study the diagnosis delay and its impact on stage of disease among women with breast cancer on Libya. Methods 200 women, aged 22 to 75 years with breast cancer diagnosed during 2008–2009 were interviewed about the period from the first symptoms to the final histological diagnosis of breast cancer. This period (diagnosis time) was categorized into 3 periods: <3 months, 3–6 months, and >6 months. If diagnosis time was longer than 3 months, the diagnosis was considered delayed (diagnosis delay). Consultation time was the time taken to visit the general practitioner after the first symptoms. Retrospective preclinical and clinical data were collected on a form (questionnaire) during an interview with each patient and from medical records. Results The median of diagnosis time was 7.5 months. Only 30.0% of patients were diagnosed within 3 months after symptoms. 14% of patients were diagnosed within 3–6 months and 56% within a period longer than 6 months. A number of factors predicted diagnosis delay: Symptoms were not considered serious in 27% of patients. Alternative therapy (therapy not associated with cancer) was applied in 13.0% of the patients. Fear and shame prevented the visit to the doctor in 10% and 4.5% of patients, respectively. Inappropriate reassurance that the lump was benign was an important reason for prolongation of the diagnosis time. Diagnosis delay was associated with initial breast symptom(s) that did not include a lump (p?breast cancer awareness and training of general practitioners to reduce breast cancer mortality by promoting early detection. The treatment guidelines should pay more attention to the early phases of breast cancer. Especially, guidelines for good practices in managing detectable of tumors are necessary.

2012-01-01

246

The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 1990s, breast cancer advocates petitioned the United States Congress to investigate the high rates of breast cancer on Long Island in the state of New York. The resulting law led to the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP) — more than ten research projects designed to study the possible causes of this increased incidence of cancer.

Deborah M. Winn

2005-01-01

247

Risk factors and epidemiology of breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the principal cause of death from cancer among women worldwide. Risk factors for breast cancer are manifold. Certain risk factors, such as age and family history are well established. Research in the past decade has further elucidated disease aetiology, in particular the role of hormones and the discovery of breast

Elinor Washbrook

2006-01-01

248

Psoralen inhibits bone metastasis of breast cancer in mice.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most common female malignancy and it frequently metastasizes to bone. Metastatic breast cancer continues to be the primary cause of death for women in East and Southeast Asia. Psoralen is a furocoumarin that can be isolated from the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia L. Psoralen exhibits a wide range of biological properties and has been demonstrated as an antioxidant, antidepressant, anticancer, antibacterial, and antiviral agent. Additionally, it is involved in the formation and regulation of bone. This study investigated whether psoralen can inhibit metastasis of breast cancer to bone in vivo. Histological, molecular biological, and imaging analyses revealed that psoralen inhibits bone metastases in mice. Psoralen may function to inhibit breast cancer cell growth in the bone microenvironment and regulate the function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in tumor-bearing mice. The results of this study suggest that psoralen is a bone-modifying agent and a potential therapeutic to treat patients with bone metastases. PMID:24060909

Wu, Chunyu; Sun, Zhenping; Ye, Yiyi; Han, Xianghui; Song, Xiaoyun; Liu, Sheng

2013-09-20

249

Pilot Implementation of Breast Cancer Early Detection Programs in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBreast cancer is increasing in developing countries, and Colombia has a double burden from cervical and breast cancer. Suitable guidelines for breast cancer early detection are needed, and the Breast Health Global Initiative provides a favorable framework for breast cancer control in low resource nations. The Colombian National Cancer Institute developed evidence-based guidelines for breast cancer early detection in which

Raúl Murillo; Sandra Díaz; Oswaldo Sánchez; Fernando Perry; Marion Piñeros; César Poveda; Edgar Salguero; Dimelza Osorio

2008-01-01

250

[Mammary implants and breast cancer].  

PubMed

Many publications deal with the impact of cosmetic breast implants to increase the breast cancer occurence or to delay its diagnosis. We first try to express the clinical and radiological differences in the implanted breast. The diagnostical and therapeutical difficulties were developped to the different technics of imagery, biopsy and specific management of the treatment. On one hand, the litterature revue does not show any significant difference in tumoral stage and nodal status between augmented and nonaugmented women eventhough the mammography sensibility is not as optimal. On the other hand, the global mortality of the augmented population is higher but it appears that this phenomenon could be link to their way of life and is totally independant of breast cancer. Finally, if the diagnosis and the treatment are more complex, the women survival is not altered by breast augmented surgery. PMID:16169139

Meunier, A; Tristant, H; Sinna, R; Delay, E

2005-10-05

251

Lipid profile in breast cancer patients from rural India.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the second commonest malignancy affecting half a million women worldwide each year. Dyslipidaemia can affect cell integrity in patients of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to find out status of lipid profile in patients of breast cancer in rural area. A hospital-based randomised case control study was done among 50 consented women with histologically diagnosed breast cancer and 50 control normal healthy women from same age group. Their fasting blood samples were analysed for serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The study showed significant increase in serum triglycerides (p = 0.06) in breast cancer patients as compared to controls. Significant decreased levels of total cholesterol (p = 0.043) and HDL cholesterol levels (p = 0.036) were observed in breast cancer patients compared to control group. The study has been come up with altered pattern of lipid profile in breast cancer. The reason for hypocholesterolaemia may be due to its increased utilisation by neoplastic cells for new membrane biogenesis. PMID:23785924

Asegaonkar, Shilpa; Chaudhari, S C; Bardapurkar, J S

2012-11-01

252

Management and Outcomes of Male Breast Cancer in Zaria, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Male breast cancer is an uncommon disease accounting for only 1% of all breast cancers. We present the evaluation, treatment and outcome of male patients seen with breast cancer in our institution. Male patients that had histological diagnosis of breast cancer from 2001 to 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. After evaluation patients were treated with modified radical mastectomy. Combination chemotherapy was given to patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. Radiotherapy and hormonal therapy were also employed. There were 57 male patients with breast cancer which accounted for 9% of all breast cancers seen during the study period. Their mean age was 59 ± 2.3 years. The mean tumor diameter was 13 ± 2.5?cm. Fifty three (93%) patients presented with advanced disease including 15 with distant metastasis. Four patients with stage II disease were treated with modified radical mastectomy, chemotherapy and tamoxifen. Of the 30 patients with sage III disease that had modified radical mastectomy, complete axillary clearance and tumor free margins were achieved in 25. Overall 21 (36.8%) patients were tumor free at one year. Overall 5-year survival was 22.8%. In conclusion, male patients with breast cancer present with advanced disease which is associated with poor outcome of treatment.

Ahmed, Adamu; Ukwenya, Yahaya; Abdullahi, Adamu; Muhammad, Iliyasu

2012-01-01

253

California Cancer Registry Enhancement for Breast Cancer Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project is to enhance the value of the California Cancer Registry as a research tool for clinicians and epidemiologists interested in conducting breast cancer research. The objectives of the project are to: (1) classify breast cancers ...

W. Wright

1997-01-01

254

Environmental pollutants and breast cancer.  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer death among women 35-54 years of age. Rising incidence, increased risk among migrants to higher risk regions, and poor prediction of individual risk have prompted a search for additional modifiable factors. Risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive characteristics associated with estrogen and other hormones, pharmaceutical hormones, and activities such as alcohol use and lack of exercise that affect hormone levels. As a result, investigation of hormonally active compounds in commercial products and pollution is a priority. Compounds that cause mammary tumors in animals are additional priorities. Animal models provide insight into possible mechanisms for effects of environmental pollutants on breast cancer and identify chemical exposures to target in epidemiologic studies. Although few epidemiologic studies have been conducted for chemical exposures, occupational studies show associations between breast cancer and exposure to certain organic solvents and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Population-based studies have been limited to a few organochlorine compounds and PAHs and have been mostly negative. A variety of challenges in studies of breast cancer and the environment may have contributed to negative findings. Lack of exposure assessment tools and few hypothesis-generating toxicologic studies limit the scope of epidemiologic studies. Issues of timing with respect to latency and periods of breast vulnerability, and individual differences in susceptibility pose other challenges. Substantial work is needed in exposure assessment, toxicology, and susceptibility before we can expect a pay-off from large epidemiologic studies of breast cancer and environment.

Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A

2003-01-01

255

Gene signatures of breast cancer progression and metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease. Patient outcome varies significantly, depending on prognostic features of patients and their tumors, including patient age, menopausal status, tumor size and histology, nodal status, and so on. Response to treatment also depends on a series of predictive factors, such as hormone receptor and HER2 status. Current treatment guidelines use these features to determine

David I Rodenhiser; Joseph D Andrews; Theodore A Vandenberg; Ann F Chambers

2011-01-01

256

Differentiation between Cancerous and Normal Hyperplastic Lobules in Breast Lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining the risk that a particular area of hyperplastic breast tissue will progress to cancer is difficult and is currently expressed only as a general risk factor within the population. Using an antibody against the apoptotic purinergic receptor P2X7, we examined 40 cases each of the following histological categories: normal, moderate, florid and atypical hyperplasia, lobular carcinoma in situ, ductal

Michael Slater; Suzanne Danieletto; Margaret Pooley; Liew Cheng Teh; Angus Gidley-Baird; Julian A. Barden

2004-01-01

257

Allele Imbalance or Loss of Heterozygosity, in Normal Appearing Breast Epithelium as a Novel Biomarker to Predict Future Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this study is to determine whether the occurrence of AI/LOH in the DNA of histologically normal epithelium from noncancerous breasts predicts future breast cancer development. If so, then AI/LOH would be an excellent candidate molecular marker...

C. L. Rosenberg

2011-01-01

258

'Omic approaches to preventing or managing metastatic breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Early detection of metastasis-prone breast cancers and characterization of residual metastatic cancers are important in efforts to improve management of breast cancer. Applications of genome-scale molecular analysis technologies are making these complementary approaches possible by revealing molecular features uniquely associated with metastatic disease. Assays that reveal these molecular features will facilitate development of anatomic, histological and blood-based strategies that may enable detection prior to metastatic spread. Knowledge of these features also will guide development of therapeutic strategies that can be applied when metastatic disease burden is low, thereby increasing the probability of a curative response.

2011-01-01

259

Novel Breast Tissue Feature Strongly Associated With Risk of Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Accurate, individualized risk prediction for breast cancer is lacking. Tissue-based features may help to stratify women into different risk levels. Breast lobules are the anatomic sites of origin of breast cancer. As women age, these lobular structures should regress, which results in reduced breast cancer risk. However, this does not occur in all women. Methods We have quantified the extent of lobule regression on a benign breast biopsy in 85 patients who developed breast cancer and 142 age-matched controls from the Mayo Benign Breast Disease Cohort, by determining number of acini per lobule and lobular area. We also calculated Gail model 5-year predicted risks for these women. Results There is a step-wise increase in breast cancer risk with increasing numbers of acini per lobule (P = .0004). Adjusting for Gail model score, parity, histology, and family history did not attenuate this association. Lobular area was similarly associated with risk. The Gail model estimates were associated with risk of breast cancer (P = .03). We examined the individual accuracy of these measures using the concordance (c) statistic. The Gail model c statistic was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.50 to 0.70); the acinar count c statistic was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.54 to 0.75). Combining acinar count and lobular area, the c statistic was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.78). Adding the Gail model to these measures did not improve the c statistic. Conclusion Novel, tissue-based features that reflect the status of a woman's normal breast lobules are associated with breast cancer risk. These features may offer a novel strategy for risk prediction.

McKian, Kevin P.; Reynolds, Carol A.; Visscher, Daniel W.; Nassar, Aziza; Radisky, Derek C.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Degnim, Amy C.; Boughey, Judy C.; Ghosh, Karthik; Anderson, Stephanie S.; Minot, Douglas; Caudill, Jill L.; Vachon, Celine M.; Frost, Marlene H.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Hartmann, Lynn C.

2009-01-01

260

Does multicentric\\/multifocal breast cancer differ from unifocal breast cancer? An analysis of survival and contralateral breast cancer incidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose we evaluated whether patients with multifocal\\/multicentric (M\\/M) breast cancer have different outcomes compared to unifocal\\u000a (U) disease in terms of survival and the development of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) disease. Methods women diagnosed with stage I–III breast cancer were classified as having U or M\\/M disease. Prognostic factors were prospectively\\u000a collected and obtained from the breast cancer outcome unit

Rinat Yerushalmi; Hagen Kennecke; Ryan Woods; Ivo A. Olivotto; Caroline Speers; Karen A. Gelmon

2009-01-01

261

The ‘other half’ of breast cancer: A review of male breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male breast cancer has always been shadowed by the attention received by its other half of the coin; female breast cancer. It is widely known to be 1% of all breast cancer, constituting also about 1% of all breast cancer literature. As a rare disease, it is fortunate that its female counterpart has provided it with the wealth of knowledge

Marcus W. L. Ying; Amit Agrawal; Kwok-Leung Cheung

2005-01-01

262

Bone Mineral Density and Risk of Breast Cancer Differences by Family History of Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have suggested that bone mineral density (BMD) is related to risk of breast cancer in elderly women. This study investigated whether the level of breast cancer risk associated with BMD in women with a positive family history of breast cancer is different from that in women without a family history of breast cancer. Radial and calcaneus BMD were

Frances Leslie Lucas; Jane A. Cauley; Roslyn A. Stone; Steven R. Cummings; Molly T. Vogt

263

The impact of breast cancer screening on breast cancer registrations in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To investigate the impact of the national breast cancer screening programme, BreastScreen Aotearoa, on breast cancer registrations in New Zealand. Methods Age-specific breast cancer incidence rates for women aged 50-64 years were compared before and after the establishment of BreastScreen Aotearoa. The degree of spread of breast cancers diagnosed at screening was compared with the degree of spread of

Ann Richardson; Brian Cox; Thelma Brown; Paul Smale

264

Breast cancer following augmentation mammoplasty (United States)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Although clinical reports have raised concern that breast implants may either increase the risk of breast cancer or delay its diagnosis, epidemiologic studies have generally shown implant recipients to be at a reduced risk of subsequent breast cancer. A large retrospective cohort study was undertaken to clarify effects of cosmetic breast implantation.

Louise A. Brinton; Jay H. Lubin; Mary Cay Burich; Theodore Colton; S. Lori Brown; Robert N. Hoover

2000-01-01

265

[Debate about breast cancer: "Cons: Intraoperative radiotherapy"].  

PubMed

Early breast cancer incidence increases owing to mammography screening. Hypofractionated radiotherapy is more and more proposed in women with low local relapse risk breast cancer, especially accelerated partial breast irradiation. Various irradiation modalities have been reported: brachytherapy, intraoperative irradiation, 3D-conformal accelerated partial breast irradiation. We describe limitations of intraoperative irradiation and the advantages of alternative techniques. PMID:21795091

Bourgier, C; Heymann, S; Verstraet, R; Biron, B; Marsiglia, H

2011-07-26

266

Metabolomics in noninvasive breast cancer.  

PubMed

Breast cancer remains the most leading cause of death among women worldwide. Common methods for diagnosis and surveillance include mammography, histopathology and blood tests. The major drawback of mammography is the high rate of false reports, aside from the risk from repeated exposure to harmful ionizing radiations; histopathology is time consuming and often prone to subjective interpretations; blood-based tests are attractive, but lack the sensitivity and specificity. Obviously, more sensitive biomarkers for early detection and molecular targets for better treating breast cancer are urgently needed. Fortunately, molecular level 'omics' diagnosis is becoming increasingly popular; metabolomics, diagnosis based on 'metabolic fingerprinting' may provide clinically useful biomarkers applied toward identifying metabolic alterations and has introduced new insights into the pathology of breast cancer. By applying advanced analytical and statistical tools, metabolomics involves the comprehensive profiling of the full complement of low molecular weight compounds in a biological system and could classify the basis of tumor biology of breast cancer, to identify new prognostic and predictive markers and discover new targets for future therapeutic interventions. This advanced bioanalytic methods may now open new avenues for diagnostics in cancer via discovery of biomarkers. In this review we take a closer look at the metabolomics used within the field of breast cancer diagnosis. Further, we highlight the most interesting metabolomics publications and discuss these in detail; additional studies are mentioned as a reference for the interested reader. A general trend is an increased focus on biological interpretation rather than merely the ability to classify samples. PMID:23669185

Zhang, Ai-Hua; Sun, Hui; Qiu, Shi; Wang, Xi-Jun

2013-05-10

267

What Breast Cancer Survivors Need to Know about Osteoporosis  

MedlinePLUS

... browser. Home Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Other Conditions What Breast Cancer Survivors Need to Know About Osteoporosis Publication available ... Imperfecta Prostate Cancer Rheumatoid Arthritis Smoking Partner Resources Breast Cancer (NIH Senior Health) Breast Cancer FAQs (OWH) Cancer ...

268

Tumor Suppressors and Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mutations in BRCA2 are responsible for about 35% of familial breast cancers and also a proportion of familial ovarian cancers. Both BRCA2 and BRCA1 proteins were shown to have transcriptional activation domains and also shown to be associated with RNA pol...

E. Shyam P. Reddy

2002-01-01

269

Breast Cancer and the Environment  

MedlinePLUS

... and Cancer Hazard Assessment Branch, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency While we have learned a lot about breast cancer and what increases risk, there are still many questions. New ... the nation to improve health. Established in 1970 under the charter of the ...

270

Familial cancer risks to offspring from mothers with 2 primary breast cancers: leads to cancer syndromes.  

PubMed

The nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database was used to analyse the risk of cancer among the offspring of bilateral breast cancer patients. We studied 4,734 such mothers who had 9,391 offspring, of whom 328 presented with a primary cancer in the years 1958-1996. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were increased for breast [SIR 3.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.57-3.59], ovarian (SIR 1.84, 95% CI 1.03-3.05) and anogenital (SIR 1.75, 95% CI 1.11-2.63) cancers and childhood sarcomas (SIR 9.39, 95% CI 1.93-29.13). Additionally, squamous-cell skin cancer was increased among sons and all childhood cancers among daughters. When analysed by histological type, adenocarcinomas of the breast and ovary, all squamous-cell carcinomas and tumours at glandular epithelium (seminomas and intestinal carcinoids) were increased. Mothers with bilateral breast cancer had an excess of 2 or more children with cancer. The increased risk of ovarian cancer is consistent with germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, while the risk of soft tissue and bone sarcomas may reflect the association of these tumours with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. The increases in squamous-cell carcinomas at many sites may reflect a new susceptibility syndrome. PMID:10962444

Hemminki, K; Vaittinen, P; Easton, D

2000-10-01

271

HER2/Leptin Crosstalk in Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with increased breast cancer risk, development of more aggressive tumors and resistance to certain anti-breast cancer treatments. These effects might be mediated by obesity hormone leptin. Here we investigated...

E. Surmacz

2009-01-01

272

Childbearing and Survival After Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An increase in breast cancer incidence among younger women has been observed, thus many young breast cancer patients are faced with questions concerning their reproductive futures. At present it is unclear whether attempting childbearing may increase thes...

B. A. Mueller

1997-01-01

273

Polyphosphate Affects on Breast Cancer Cell Survival.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Goals met during the first funding period of this grant include developing methodologies to measure cellular polyphosphosphate concentrations in breast cancer cells and the preparation of breast cancer cell lines with altered levels of polyphosphate. Spec...

C. L. Haakenson

2005-01-01

274

Undergraduate Training Program in Breast Cancer Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this Training Program is to direct talented undergraduates into careers in breast cancer research. The program, called Breast Cancer Undergraduate Research Experience (BCURE), is a joint program between The University of Maryland Baltimore Cou...

S. Ostrand-Rosenberg

2002-01-01

275

Undergraduate Training Program in Breast Cancer Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this Training Program is to direct talented undergraduates into careers in breast cancer research. The program, called Breast Cancer Undergraduate Research Experience (BCURE), is a joint program between The University of Maryland Baltimore Cou...

S. Ostrand-Rosenberg

2004-01-01

276

Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update  

MedlinePLUS

... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... hormone therapy does not increase the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, according to an updated analysis ...

277

Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk Introduction A woman’s hormone levels normally change ... that may influence a woman’s chances of developing breast cancer later in life. As a result, over several ...

278

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility Suzanne. E. Fenton US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

279

How Is Breast Cancer in Men Staged?  

MedlinePLUS

... in men survival rates, by stage How is breast cancer in men staged? Staging is the process of ... example, the lungs or bones. T categories for breast cancer TX: Primary tumor cannot be assessed. T0: No ...

280

Antiperspirants/Deodorants and Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... 2000; 92(18):1469–1471. [ PubMed Abstract ] Darbre PD. Underarm cosmetics and breast cancer. Journal of Applied ... 2003; 23(2):89–95. [ PubMed Abstract ] Darbre PD. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer. Journal of Inorganic ...

281

Chemo Resistance of Breast Cancer Stem Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is increasing evidence that breast cancers are driven by a small subcomponent that displays stem cell properties. We hypothesize that these breast cancer stem cells are resistant to chemotherapy and may contribute to tumor relapse. In order to provi...

M. S. Wicha

2007-01-01

282

Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Breast Cancer Research Training Program is to recruit and train potential future researchers in breast cancer research. During the 3-year grant, we recruited 75 applicants to the program, interviewed 22 candidates, and hired 15 students...

G. P. Zaloga K. L. Spear

2006-01-01

283

Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the breast cancer research-training program is to recruit and train potential future researchers in breast cancer research. We recruited 15 individuals, interviewed eight, and chose five for the program. During the 12-week program, trainees...

G. P. Zaloga

2004-01-01

284

Aromatase Overexpression and Breast Cancer Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

While the relevance of estrogen to established breast cancer is well documented, the role of estrogen in breast cancer initiation is still unclear. The carcinogenic effect of estrogen is mediated by its genotoxic metabolites. We hypothesized that increase...

W. Yue J. Wang Y. Li

2002-01-01

285

Pleiotrophin Signaling Through PTNR in Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Angiogenesis, formation of new blood vessels, plays a key role in breast cancer growth by providing a method for hematogenous spread of the tumor, as well as providing nutrients for tumor metastasis. Rational treatment strategies for breast cancer must ta...

A. H. Kuo

2002-01-01

286

Pleiotrophin Signaling Through PTNR in Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Angiogenesis, formation of new blood vessels, plays a key role in breast cancer growth by providing a method for hematogenous spread of the tumor, as well as providing nutrients for tumor metastasis. Rational treatment strategies for breast cancer must ta...

A. H. Kuo

2003-01-01

287

[Prognostic factors in breast cancer].  

PubMed

Prognostic factors are clinical and pathological features that give information in estimating the likely clinical outcome of an individual suffering from cancer. The author gives a short review of the most important prognostic factors in breast cancer. 376 breast cancer cases of a ten year interval in a county hospital are summarized. Traditional clinico-pathological parameters i.e. TNM and steroid receptor status are discussed. The more common karyotipic, oncogene and tumor suppressor gene alterations are outlined in the study. Methods for their detection are presented and their value in prognostication is reviewed. Emphasis was laid on steroid receptors, c-erpB-2, p53 and bcl-2 alterations. Genes responsible for heritable forms of increased breast cancer risk are briefly reviewed. PMID:9608769

Vajda, K

1998-05-01

288

Axillary Metastasis as the First Manifestation of Occult Breast Cancer in a Male Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic features of male breast cancer. Case Report: We present the clinicopathologic data of a 72year-old male patient with occult breast cancer, who was diagnosed and underwent surgery in our hospital. The diagnosis was confirmed by histological examination, and the patient underwent modified radical mastectomy and axillary dissection. The histological

Guo-Li Gu; Shi-Lin Wang; Xue-Ming Wei; Li Ren; Fu-Xian Zou

2009-01-01

289

Combining Gene Signatures Improves Prediction of Breast Cancer Survival  

PubMed Central

Background Several gene sets for prediction of breast cancer survival have been derived from whole-genome mRNA expression profiles. Here, we develop a statistical framework to explore whether combination of the information from such sets may improve prediction of recurrence and breast cancer specific death in early-stage breast cancers. Microarray data from two clinically similar cohorts of breast cancer patients are used as training (n?=?123) and test set (n?=?81), respectively. Gene sets from eleven previously published gene signatures are included in the study. Principal Findings To investigate the relationship between breast cancer survival and gene expression on a particular gene set, a Cox proportional hazards model is applied using partial likelihood regression with an L2 penalty to avoid overfitting and using cross-validation to determine the penalty weight. The fitted models are applied to an independent test set to obtain a predicted risk for each individual and each gene set. Hierarchical clustering of the test individuals on the basis of the vector of predicted risks results in two clusters with distinct clinical characteristics in terms of the distribution of molecular subtypes, ER, PR status, TP53 mutation status and histological grade category, and associated with significantly different survival probabilities (recurrence: p?=?0.005; breast cancer death: p?=?0.014). Finally, principal components analysis of the gene signatures is used to derive combined predictors used to fit a new Cox model. This model classifies test individuals into two risk groups with distinct survival characteristics (recurrence: p?=?0.003; breast cancer death: p?=?0.001). The latter classifier outperforms all the individual gene signatures, as well as Cox models based on traditional clinical parameters and the Adjuvant! Online for survival prediction. Conclusion Combining the predictive strength of multiple gene signatures improves prediction of breast cancer survival. The presented methodology is broadly applicable to breast cancer risk assessment using any new identified gene set.

Zhao, Xi; Naume, Bj?rn; Langer?d, Anita; Frigessi, Arnoldo; Kristensen, Vessela N.; B?rresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Lingjaerde, Ole Christian

2011-01-01

290

Prevention of ER-Negative Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful demonstration that the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) tamoxifen and raloxifene reduce the risk\\u000a of breast cancer has stimulated great interest in using drugs to prevent breast cancer in high-risk women. In addition, recent\\u000a results from breast cancer treatment trials suggest that aromatase inhibitors may be even more effective at preventing breast\\u000a cancer than are SERMs. However, while

Yuxin Li; Powel H. Brown

291

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenomics in breast cancer chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer is typically treated with chemotherapy. Multiple combinations of chemotherapy regimens are available, including anthracyclines, taxanes, antimetabolites, alkylating agents, platinum drugs and vinca alkaloids. This review discusses the pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenomic information available for commonly used breast cancer chemotherapy drugs. Pharmacogenomic associations for many drugs have yet to be identified or validated in breast cancer. Further work is needed to identify markers to screen breast cancer patients prior to therapy selection. PMID:19100797

Marsh, Sharon; Liu, Geoffrey

2008-12-03

292

Breast cancer (metastatic)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Median survival from metastatic breast cancer is 12 months without treatment, but young people can survive up to 20 years with the disease, whereas in other metastatic cancers this would be considered unusual. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of first-line hormonal treatment? What are the effects of second-line hormonal treatment in women who have not responded to tamoxifen? What are the effects of first-line chemotherapy? What are the effects of first-line chemotherapy in combination with a monoclonal antibody? What are the effects of second-line chemotherapy? What are the effects of treatments for bone metastases? What are the effects of treatments for spinal cord metastases? What are the effects of treatments for cerebral or choroidal metastases? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to June 2006 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 63 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: anthracycline-based non-taxane combination chemotherapy regimens; bisphosphonates; capecitabine or semisynthetic vinca alkaloids for anthracycline-resistant disease; chemotherapy plus monoclonal antibody (trastuzumab); classical non-taxane combination chemotherapy; combined gonadorelin analogues plus tamoxifen; hormonal treatment with antioestrogens (tamoxifen) or progestins; intrathecal chemotherapy; non-anthracycline-based regimens; non-taxane combination chemotherapy; ovarian ablation; radiation sensitisers; radiotherapy (alone, or plus appropriate analgesia, or plus high-dose corticosteroids); selective aromatase inhibitors; chemotherapy (standard, or high dose); surgical resection; tamoxifen; and taxane-based combination chemotherapy.

2007-01-01

293

Multicenter breast cancer collaborative registry.  

PubMed

The Breast Cancer Collaborative Registry (BCCR) is a multicenter web-based system that efficiently collects and manages a variety of data on breast cancer (BC) patients and BC survivors. This registry is designed as a multi-tier web application that utilizes Java Servlet/JSP technology and has an Oracle 11g database as a back-end. The BCCR questionnaire has accommodated standards accepted in breast cancer research and healthcare. By harmonizing the controlled vocabulary with the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) or Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT), the BCCR provides a standardized approach to data collection and reporting. The BCCR has been recently certified by the National Cancer Institute's Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology (NCI CBIIT) as a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG(®)) Bronze Compatible product.The BCCR is aimed at facilitating rapid and uniform collection of critical information and biological samples to be used in developing diagnostic, prevention, treatment, and survivorship strategies against breast cancer. Currently, seven cancer institutions are participating in the BCCR that contains data on almost 900 subjects (BC patients and survivors, as well as individuals at high risk of getting BC). PMID:21918596

Sherman, Simon; Shats, Oleg; Fleissner, Elizabeth; Bascom, George; Yiee, Kevin; Copur, Mehmet; Crow, Kate; Rooney, James; Mateen, Zubeena; Ketcham, Marsha A; Feng, Jianmin; Sherman, Alexander; Gleason, Michael; Kinarsky, Leo; Silva-Lopez, Edibaldo; Edney, James; Reed, Elizabeth; Berger, Ann; Cowan, Kenneth

2011-08-31

294

Multicenter Breast Cancer Collaborative Registry  

PubMed Central

The Breast Cancer Collaborative Registry (BCCR) is a multicenter web-based system that efficiently collects and manages a variety of data on breast cancer (BC) patients and BC survivors. This registry is designed as a multi-tier web application that utilizes Java Servlet/JSP technology and has an Oracle 11g database as a back-end. The BCCR questionnaire has accommodated standards accepted in breast cancer research and healthcare. By harmonizing the controlled vocabulary with the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) or Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT), the BCCR provides a standardized approach to data collection and reporting. The BCCR has been recently certified by the National Cancer Institute’s Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology (NCI CBIIT) as a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) Bronze Compatible product. The BCCR is aimed at facilitating rapid and uniform collection of critical information and biological samples to be used in developing diagnostic, prevention, treatment, and survivorship strategies against breast cancer. Currently, seven cancer institutions are participating in the BCCR that contains data on almost 900 subjects (BC patients and survivors, as well as individuals at high risk of getting BC).

Sherman, Simon; Shats, Oleg; Fleissner, Elizabeth; Bascom, George; Yiee, Kevin; Copur, Mehmet; Crow, Kate; Rooney, James; Mateen, Zubeena; Ketcham, Marsha A.; Feng, Jianmin; Sherman, Alexander; Gleason, Michael; Kinarsky, Leo; Silva-Lopez, Edibaldo; Edney, James; Reed, Elizabeth; Berger, Ann; Cowan, Kenneth

2011-01-01

295

[Breast cancer. Individualized therapy concepts].  

PubMed

Personalized medicine in the sense of individualized therapy concepts plays an important role in breast cancer. In early breast cancer the molecular subtypes luminal A and B and basal-like are important for planning adjuvant systemic therapy. Prognostic and predictive markers, such as hormone receptor status, HER2, Ki-67, uPA/PAI-1 or multiple gene tests, such as Oncotype DX® currently allow avoidance of an over therapy or under therapy. In early and also advanced breast cancer there are an increasing number of new targeted therapies which represent an augmentation of standard endocrine and chemotherapy and in the future could at least partially replace them. As a whole the therapy regimens for breast cancer have become more complex due to the inclusion of molecular information, new therapies and the withdrawal of conventional treatment concepts. Decisive for the future will be the confirmation of this development by modern study concepts contemporarily with adequate evidence. It could then be expected that a personalized therapy for early breast cancer and in particular adjuvant chemotherapy would only be used for those patients for whom it is really necessary. In advanced stage disease there is justified hope that the survival time in the sense of a chronic disease can be improved by the use of targeted therapy. PMID:23371261

Harbeck, N; Wuerstlein, R

2013-02-01

296

Racial differences in breast cancer screening, knowledge and compliance.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States. Although the incidence of breast cancer is 13% higher in white women, mortality in black women is 28% higher, due to histological and socioeconomic factors. Existing research regarding racial differences in compliance with breast cancer screening recommendations has found conflicting results. METHODS: Data on more than 4,500 women were taken from the 1992 National Health Interview Survey, a nationally representative, population-based sample survey. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relative odds of knowledge of breast self-exam (BSE) and mammograms, and compliance with BSE, clinical breast exams (CBE), and mammograms. RESULTS: Black women were less likely than white women to be aware of and use breast cancer screening tests. However, among women who were aware of screening tests, compliance was higher among black women. Women with low educational attainment, low cancer knowledge, and no usual source of care were less likely to be CBE or mammogram compliant. Socioeconomic differences were larger for the two clinical tests than for BSE. CONCLUSIONS: Programs should inform women about cancer screening tests and remove barriers that hinder women from receiving clinical screening exams.

Harris, Dawne M.; Miller, Jane E.; Davis, Diane M.

2003-01-01

297

Male breast cancer arising in ectopic axillary breast tissue: A diagnostic dilemma  

PubMed Central

Male breast cancer arising in ectopic axillary breast tissue is a rare occurrence and few cases have been reported in the literature. Due to its rarity, male axillary breast cancer is easy to misdiagnose. As for adenocarcinoma in the axilla, it is difficult to identify whether the origin is the mammary tissue or the skin appendages, particularly in cases where there is a poor differentiation. The present study reports the case of a male patient with a right axillary lesion that had been present for 6 months. A histological evaluation revealed the features of a poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma with regards to the pathological report. The patient was diagnosed with a metastatic adenocarcinoma with unknown primary origin. However, following 4 cycles of intensive chemotherapy, the patient experienced bone metastasis while the local lesion was in partial remission. Further immunohistochemistry confirmed its mammary origin. There is limited literature relating to male ectopic axillary breast cancer, and a high probability of misdiagnosis of this disease.

XIE, YANGCHUN; HUANG, JIN; XIAO, DESHENG; ZHONG, MEIZUO

2013-01-01

298

The Basic Pathology of Human Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article illustrates the most common benign and malignant lesions in the breast, and is intended for the biologist working in the area of breast cancer and breast biology, not for the practicing pathologist. The atlas covers benign proliferative lesions, atypical lesions, variants of in situ cancer, the main types of invasive cancers, spindle cell lesions, and examples of vascular

Elizabeth Mallon; Pinchas Osin; Nasar Nasiri; Iain Blain; Beatrice Howard; Barry Gusterson

2000-01-01

299

Management of familial breast cancer risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women who are members of breast cancer families are at increased risk for breast cancer. The cloning of BRCA1 and BRCA2 has made it possible to identify mutation carriers within some of these families. Management of breast cancer risk in these families, which presents enormous challenges to patients and clinicians, is addressed. Management should begin with a full evaluation of

Pamela J. Goodwin

2000-01-01

300

The thyroid, iodine and breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A renewal of the search for a link between breast cancer and thyroid disease has once again demonstrated an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with breast cancer. This is the most recent of many studies showing an association between a variety of thyroid disorders and breast cancer. Such an association is not surprising as both diseases are

Peter PA Smyth

2003-01-01

301

Epidemiology of breast cancer in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mortality and incidence of breast cancer are high in Western industrialized countries and relatively low in developing countries in Asia and other parts of the world. In Japan the mortality of breast cancer has gradually been increasing, but is still much lower compared with that of Western countries. Within Japan the mortality of breast cancer is higher in urban

Suketami Tominaga; Tetsuo Kuroishi

1995-01-01

302

Can We Prevent Breast Cancer?  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the most common cancer in females accounting to 23% of all cases. Between January 1998 and December 2004–2004, 6,882 cases were reported from all GCC states accounting to 11.8% from all cancers and 22.7% from cancers in females. An ASR/100,000 woman was 46.4 from Bahrain, 44.3 from Kuwait, 35.5 from Qatar, 19.2 from UAE, 14.2 from Oman and 12.9 from KSA. Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in Arab women constituting 14–42% of all women cancers. Breast cancer in Arab countries presents almost 10 yrs younger than in USA and Europe. Median age at presentation is 48–52 and 50% of all cases are below the age of 50 where as only 25% of cases in industrialized nations are below the age of 50 yrs. What we need to fight this deadly disease is opening of screening centers with trained physicians equipped with ultrasound, x-ray unit, a pathology lab and most of all a system where a patient is seen urgently on referral to a secondary level care. Health education campaigns should be organized, female medical students should be encouraged to be general surgeons in a community where social customs still have value.

Saadat, Sabiha

2008-01-01

303

Veliparib and Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer or Metastatic Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

2013-07-01

304

Leukemia risk following radiotherapy for breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate further the relationship between high-dose radiotherapy and leukemia incidence, a nested case-control study was conducted in a cohort of 22,753 women who were 18-month survivors of invasive breast cancer diagnosed from 1935 to 1972. Women treated for breast cancer after 1973 were excluded to minimize the possible confounding influence of treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. The cases had histologically confirmed leukemia reported to the Connecticut Tumor Registry (CTR) between 1935 and 1984. A total of 48 cases of leukemia following breast cancer were included in the study. Two controls were individually matched to each leukemia case on the basis of age, calendar year when diagnosed with breast cancer, and survival time. Leukemia diagnoses were verified by one hematologist. Radiation dose to active bone marrow was estimated by medical physicists on the basis of the original radiotherapy records of study subjects. Local radiation doses to each of the 16 bone marrow components for each patient were reconstructed; the dose averaged over the entire body was 530 rad (5.3 Gy). Based on this dosage and assuming a linear relationship between dose and affect, a relative risk (RR) in excess of 10 would have been expected. However, there was little evidence that radiotherapy increased the overall risk of leukemia (RR = 1.16; 90% confidence interval (CI), 0.6 to 2.1). The risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, one of the few malignancies without evidence for an association with ionizing radiation, was not significantly increased (RR = 1.8; n = 10); nor was the risk for all other forms of leukemia (RR = 1.0; n = 38). There was no indication that risk varied over categories of radiation dose.

Curtis, R.E.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Stovall, M.; Flannery, J.T.; Moloney, W.C.

1989-01-01

305

The impact of bilateral breast cancer on the prognosis of breast cancer: a comparative study with unilateral breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The clinical significance of bilateral breast cancer is unclear and its influence on prognosis is controversial. We assessed\\u000a the impact of synchronous and metachronous bilateral breast cancer on the prognosis compared with unilateral breast cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Between January 1, 1960 and December 31, 2001, 1,214 women were treated for primary operable breast cancers. Thirteen (1.1%)\\u000a had synchronous bilateral breast cancer; 33

Hiromasa Takahashi; Kenichi Watanabe; Masato Takahashi; Kazunori Taguchi; Fumiaki Sasaki; Satoru Todo

2005-01-01

306

Large-Format Histology, a Prerequisite for Adequate Assessment of Early Breast Carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Breast carcinoma develops in an environment of genetic alterations (a sick lobe) within the breast and already exhibits a\\u000a complex subgross morphology in the early stages of development in many cases. The conventional histology sampling technique\\u000a applied in most laboratories today is insufficient to document this complexity in operative breast specimens. This has necessitated\\u000a the special approach of using large-format

Tibor Tot

307

Breast cancer detection training system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method, apparatus and a lifelike model of a human female breast form a breast cancer detection training system. The model closely simulates the feeding of the different tissues of the human breast and except for a tumor-free comparison model, contains at least one simulated tumor. When used in conjunction with the electronic training apparatus, the model also contains a pressure sensing means. The apparatus and method compare signals initiated by the trainee with stored signals representative of the number of simulated tumors in the model, their location, and the pressure required to feel them and provide feedback information to the trainee so as to improve the trainee's examination technique.

1979-01-16

308

DNA damage and breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Cancer is intimately related to the accumulation of DNA damage, and repair failures (including mutation prone repair and hyperactive repair systems). This article relates current clinical categories for breast cancer and their common DNA damage repair defects. Information is included on the potential for accumulation of DNA damage in the breast tissue of a woman during her lifetime and the role of DNA damage in breast cancer development. We then cover endogenous and exogenous sources of DNA damage, types of DNA damage repair and basic signal transduction pathways for three gene products involved in the DNA damage response system; namely BRCA1, BRIT1 and PARP-1. These genes are often considered tumor suppressors because of their roles in DNA damage response and some are under clinical investigation as likely sources for effective new drugs to treat breast cancers. Finally we discuss some of the problems of DNA damage repair systems in cancer and the conundrum of hyper-active repair systems which can introduce mutations and confer a survival advantage to certain types of cancer cells.

Davis, Jennifer D; Lin, Shiaw-Yih

2011-01-01

309

Tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention  

SciTech Connect

The case for tamoxifen to be tested as a preventive for breast cancer has merit. Animal studies demonstrate that tamoxifen prevents mammary carcinogenesis and clinical studies now confirm that adjuvant tamoxifen therapy is the only systemic treatment that will prevent contralateral breast cancer. Developing clinical studies confirm the laboratory data that tamoxifen will maintain post-menopausal bone density in the lumbar spine and the neck of the femur; two important skeletal sites for the ultimate prevention of osteoporosis. However, a most important target site-specific effect of tamoxifen is the decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women. This positive property of tamoxifen may be responsible for the recorded decreases in hospital visits for the treatment of cardiac conditions and the significant decrease in fatal myocardial infarction for women treated with 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen. These data provide the scientific basis to undertake randomized, placebocontrolled clinical trials to test the worth of tamoxifen to prevent breast cancer.

Jordan, V.C. [Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States)

1995-02-01

310

Tamoxifen Resistance in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Tamoxifen is a central component of the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer as a partial agonist of ER. It has been clinically used for the last 30 years and is currently available as a chemopreventive agent in women with high risk for breast cancer. The most challenging issue with tamoxifen use is the development of resistance in an initially responsive breast tumor. This review summarizes the roles of ER as the therapeutic target of tamoxifen in cancer treatment, clinical values and issues of tamoxifen use, and molecular mechanisms of tamoxifen resistance. Emerging knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of tamoxifen resistance will provide insight into the design of regimens to overcome tamoxifen resistance and discovery of novel therapeutic agents with a decreased chance of developing resistance as well as establishing more efficient treatment strategies.

Chang, Minsun

2012-01-01

311

Denosumab in breast cancer treatment.  

PubMed

The bone is the most common site to which breast cancer metastasises. Recently, denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds to receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) has been developed as a new targeted bone therapy. In a large randomized phase III study with a head-to-head comparison of denosumab to zoledronic acid in patients with bone metastases of breast cancer, denosumab significantly delayed the time to first skeletal related event. In the adjuvant setting denosumab significantly increased bone mineral density compared to placebo in a phase III study in patients treated with aromatase inhibitors. Preclinical data suggest an effect of denosumab on tumour growth and even on carcinogenesis. This review describes the current indications for denosumab in the various settings of breast cancer treatment, with special attention for efficacy, short and long term toxicity and other relevant issues for clinical practice. Furthermore possible and necessary future research questions are proposed. PMID:23545361

Drooger, Jan C; van der Padt, Annemieke; Sleijfer, Stefan; Jager, Agnes

2013-03-29

312

Tamoxifen Therapy for Breast Cancer and Endometrial Cancer Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Tamoxifen is effective in treating breast cancer, reduces breast cancer incidence among high-risk women, and is associated with increased endometrial cancer risk. This study was designed to examine the possible modifying effects of endometrial cancer risk factors on the tamoxifen- endometrial cancer association. Methods: We conducted a case-control study of endometrial cancer (324 case patients and 671 individually matched

Leslie Bernstein; Dennis Deapen; James R. Cerhan; Stephen M. Schwartz; Jonathan Liff; Jeffrey A. Perlman; Leslie Ford

1999-01-01

313

Advocacy groups for breast cancer patients.  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer patient advocacy groups emerged in the 1990s to support and empower women with breast cancer. Women with cancer and oncologists tend to have divergent perspectives on how breast cancer prevention should be defined and what the priorities for research should be. As their American counterparts have done, breast cancer patient advocates in Canada are seeking greater participation in decision making with respect to research. To date they have had more input into research policy decisions than into the planning of specific projects. In 1993 the National Forum on Breast Cancer recommended that women with breast cancer should have more input into the research process; breast cancer patient advocates will continue to actively pursue this objective.

Waller, M; Batt, S

1995-01-01

314

Mammographic density, MRI background parenchymal enhancement and breast cancer risk.  

PubMed

Mammographic density (MD), representing connective and epithelial tissue (fibroglandular tissue, FGT) is a major risk factor for breast cancer. In an analysis of an autopsy series (Bartow SA, Pathak DR, Mettler FA. Radiographic microcalcification and parenchymal patterns as indicators of histologic "high-risk" benign breast disease. Cancer 1990; 66: 1721-1725, Bartow SA, Pathak DR, Mettler FA et al. Breast mammographic pattern: a concatenation of confounding and breast cancer risk factors. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 142: 813-819), MD was found to be strongly correlated with the collagen and epithelial content of the breast (Li T, Sun L, Miller N et al. The association of measured breast tissue characteristics with MD and other risk factors for breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14: 343-349), and another report showed that breast epithelium was highly concentrated in the areas of collagen concentration (Hawes D, Downey S, Pearce CL et al. Dense breast stromal tissue shows greatly increased concentration of breast epithelium but no increase in its proliferative activity. Breast Cancer Res 2006; 8: R24). Collagen comprises the overwhelming majority of the FGT, occupying an area on the slides obtained from the autopsy series some 15 times the area of glandular tissue. The relationship of MD with breast cancer risk appears likely to be due to a major extent to increasing epithelial cell numbers with increasing MD. FGT is also seen in breast magnetic resonance imaging (breast MRI) and, as expected, it has been shown that this measure of FGT (MRI-FGT) is highly correlated with MD. A contrast-enhanced breast MRI shows that normal FGT 'enhances' (background parenchymal enhancement, BPE) after contrast agent is administered(Morris EA. Diagnostic breast MR imaging: current status and future directions. Radiol Clin North Am 2007; 45: 863-880, vii., Kuhl C. The current status of breast MR imaging. Part I. Choice of technique, image interpretation, diagnostic accuracy, and transfer to clinical practice. Radiology 2007; 244: 356-378), and a recent study suggests that BPE is also a major breast cancer risk factor, possibly as important as, and independent of MD (King V, Brooks JD, Bernstein JL et al. BPE at breast MR imaging and breast cancer risk. Radiology 2011; 260: 50-60). BPE is much more sensitive to the effects of menopause and tamoxifen than is FGT (King V, Gu Y, Kaplan JB et al. Impact of menopausal status on BPE and fibroglandular tissue on breast MRI. Eur Radiol 2012; 22: 2641-2647, King V, Kaplan J, Pike MC et al. Impact of tamoxifen on amount of fibroglandular tissue, BPE, and cysts on breast MRI. Breast J 2012; 18: 527-534). Changes in MD and BPE may be most useful in predicting response to chemopreventive agents aimed at blocking breast cell proliferation. More study of the biological basis of the effects of MD and BPE is needed if we are to fully exploit these factors in developing chemopreventive approaches to breast cancer. PMID:24131968

Pike, M C; Pearce, C L

2013-11-01

315

Epidemiology of breast cancer subtypes in two prospective cohort studies of breast cancer survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to describe breast tumor subtypes by common breast cancer risk factors and to determine correlates of subtypes using baseline data from two pooled prospective breast cancer studies within a large health maintenance organization. METHODS: Tumor data on 2544 invasive breast cancer cases subtyped by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor

Marilyn L Kwan; Lawrence H Kushi; Erin Weltzien; Benjamin Maring; Susan E Kutner; Regan S Fulton; Marion M Lee; Christine B Ambrosone; Bette J Caan

2009-01-01

316

Respective Prognostic Value of Genomic Grade and Histological Proliferation Markers in Early Stage (pN0) Breast Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Genomic grade (GG) is a 97-gene signature which improves the accuracy and prognostic value of histological grade (HG) in invasive breast carcinoma. Since most of the genes included in the GG are involved in cell proliferation, we performed a retrospective study to compare the prognostic value of GG, Mitotic Index and Ki67 score. Methods A series of 163 consecutive breast cancers was retained (pT1–2, pN0, pM0, 10-yr follow-up). GG was computed using MapQuant Dx(R). Results GG was low (GG-1) in 48%, high (GG-3) in 31% and equivocal in 21% of cases. For HG-2 tumors, 50% were classified as GG-1, 18% as GG-3 whereas 31% remained equivocal. In a subgroup of 132 ER+/HER2? tumors GG was the most significant prognostic factor in multivariate Cox regression analysis adjusted for age and tumor size (HR?=?5.23, p?=?0.02). Conclusions In a reference comprehensive cancer center setting, compared to histological grade, GG added significant information on cell proliferation in breast cancers. In patients with HG-2 carcinoma, applying the GG to guide the treatment scheme could lead to a reduction in adjuvant therapy prescription. However, based on the results observed and considering (i) the relatively close prognostic values of GG and Ki67, (ii) the reclassification of about 30% of HG-2 tumors as Equivocal GG and (iii) the economical and technical requirements of the MapQuant micro-array GG test, the availability in the near future of a PCR-based Genomic Grade test with improved performances may lead to an introduction in clinical routine of this test for histological grade 2, ER positive, HER2 negative breast carcinoma.

Reyal, Fabien; Bollet, Marc A.; Caly, Martial; Gentien, David; Carpentier, Sabrina; Peyro-Saint-Paul, Helene; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Cottu, Paul; Dieras, Veronique; Sigal-Zafrani, Brigitte; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Sastre-Garau, Xavier

2012-01-01

317

Breast cancer (non-metastatic)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Breast cancer affects at least 1 in 10 women in the UK, but most present with primary operable disease, which has an 80% 5-year survival rate overall. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions after breast-conserving surgery for ductal carcinoma in situ? What are the effects of treatments for primary operable breast cancer? What are the effects of interventions in locally advanced breast cancer (stage 3B)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 83 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: adding chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/fluorouracil and/or anthracycline and/or taxane-based regimens), or hormonal treatment to radiotherapy; adjuvant treatments (aromatase inhibitors, adjuvant anthracycline regimens, tamoxifen); axillary clearance; axillary dissection plus sentinel node dissection; axillary radiotherapy; axillary sampling; combined chemotherapy plus tamoxifen; chemotherapy plus monoclonal antibody (trastuzumab); extensive surgery; high-dose chemotherapy; hormonal treatment; less extensive mastectomy; less than whole-breast radiotherapy plus breast-conserving surgery; multimodal treatment; ovarian ablation; primary chemotherapy; prolonged adjuvant combination chemotherapy; radiotherapy (after breast-conserving surgery, after mastectomy, plus tamoxifen after breast-conserving surgery, to the internal mammary chain, and to the ipsilateral supraclavicular fossa, and total nodal radiotherapy); sentinel node biopsy; and standard chemotherapy regimens.

2011-01-01

318

Low salivary testosterone levels in patients with breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Correlation between circulating sex steroid levels and breast cancer has been controversial, with measurement of free, or bioavailable hormone rarely available. Salivary hormone levels represent the bioavailable fraction. To further elucidate the role of endogenous hormones in breast cancer, we aimed to assess correlation between salivary sex steroid levels and breast cancer prevalence. Methods Salivary hormone levels of testosterone (T), Estradiol (E2), Progesterone (P), Estriol (E3), Estrone (E1), DHEAS and Cortisol (C) were measured by Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) in 357 women with histologically verified breast cancer and 184 age-matched control women. Results Salivary T and DHEAS levels were significantly lower in breast cancer cases vs. controls (27.2+13.9 vs. 32.2+17.5 pg/ml, p < 0.001 for T and 5.3+4.3 vs. 6.4+4.5 ng/ml, p = 0.007 for DHEAS). E2 and E1 levels were elevated and E3 levels were lowered in cases vs. controls. Conclusions Salivary T levels, representing the bioavailable hormone, are significantly lower in women with breast cancer compared to age-matched control women. These findings support the protective role of biovailable testosterone in counteracting the proliferative effects of estrogens on mammary tissue.

2010-01-01

319

Breast cancer (metastatic)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Median survival from metastatic breast cancer is 12 months without treatment, but young people can survive up to 20 years with the disease, whereas in other metastatic cancers this would be considered unusual. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of first-line hormonal treatment? What are the effects of second-line hormonal treatment in women who have not responded to tamoxifen? What are the effects of first-line chemotherapy? What are the effects of first-line chemotherapy in combination with a monoclonal antibody? What are the effects of second-line chemotherapy? What are the effects of treatments for bone metastases? What are the effects of treatments for spinal cord metastases? What are the effects of treatments for cerebral or choroidal metastases? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 77 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: first-line hormonal treatment using anti-oestrogens (tamoxifen), ovarian ablation, progestins, selective aromatase inhibitors, or combined gonadorelin analogues plus tamoxifen; second-line hormonal treatment using progestins or selective aromatase inhibitors; first-line non-taxane combination chemotherapy; first-line taxane-based combination chemotherapy; first-line high- versus low-dose standard chemotherapy; first-line chemotherapy plus monoclonal antibody (bevacizumab, trastuzumab); first-line chemotherapy plus tyrosine kinase inhibitor (lapatinib); second-line taxane-based combination chemotherapy; second-line capecitabine or semi-synthetic vinca alkaloids for anthracycline-resistant disease; second-line chemotherapy plus tyrosine kinase inhibitor (lapatinib); and treatment for bone, spinal, or choroidal metastases using bisphosphonates, intrathecal chemotherapy, radiotherapy (alone or plus corticosteroids) radiation sensitisers, or surgical resection.

2010-01-01

320

Combination Chemotherapy and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant Followed By Aldesleukin and Sargramostim in Treating Patients With Inflammatory Stage IIIB or Metastatic Stage IV Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

2011-07-08

321

Breast Cancer Death Rates Down 34% Since 1990  

MedlinePLUS

... News » Filed under: Breast Cancer Report: Breast Cancer Death Rates Down 34% Since 1990 Article date: October ... report from the American Cancer Society finds that death rates from breast cancer in the United States ...

322

MRI Detects Cancers in the Opposite Breast of Women Newly Diagnosed with Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of women who were diagnosed with cancer in one breast detected over 90 percent of cancers in the other breast that were missed by mammography and clinical breast exam at initial diagnosis, according to a new study. Given the established rates of mammography and clinical breast exams for detecting cancer in the opposite, or contralateral breast, adding an MRI scan to the diagnostic evaluation effectively doubled the number of cancers immediately found in these women.

323

Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk among Chinese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The present study aimed to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and breast cancer risk among Chinese women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Four hundred and thirty-eight cases with histologically confirmed primary breast cancer and 438 controls were consecutively\\u000a recruited. Cases were frequency matched to controls on 5-year age group and rural–urban residence. A validated food frequency\\u000a questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake by

Cai-Xia Zhang; Suzanne C. Ho; Jian-Hua Fu; Shou-Zhen Cheng; Yu-Ming Chen; Fang-Yu Lin

2011-01-01

324

Epidemiology of breast cancer in young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is mainly a postmenopausal disease, but in younger women breast tumors often exhibit more aggressive features\\u000a and worse prognosis. Furthermore, high-risk and low-risk tumors present different age distributions suggesting that breast\\u000a cancer comprises a mixture of two different disease processes. In agreement with this hypothesis, breast cancer presents different\\u000a epidemiologic traits in pre- and postmenopausal women. Regarding racial

Marina Pollán

2010-01-01

325

California Cancer Registry Enhancement for Breast Cancer Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project was to enhance the value of the California Cancer Registry (CCR) as a research tool for clinicians and epidemiologists interested in conducting breast cancer research. The objectives of the project were to: (1) classify breast ...

W. Wright

1999-01-01

326

Common breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with triple negative breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Triple negative breast cancers are an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with poor survival, but there remains little known about the etiological factors which promote its initiation and development. Commonly inherited breast cancer risk factors identified through genome wide association studies (GWAS) display heterogeneity of effect among breast cancer subtypes as defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. In the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC), 22 common breast cancer susceptibility variants were investigated in 2,980 Caucasian women with triple negative breast cancer and 4,978 healthy controls. We identified six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with risk of triple negative breast cancer, including rs2046210 (ESR1), rs12662670 (ESR1), rs3803662 (TOX3), rs999737 (RAD51L1), rs8170 (19p13.11) and rs8100241 (19p13.11). Together, our results provide convincing evidence of genetic susceptibility for triple negative breast cancer.

Stevens, Kristen N.; Vachon, Celine M.; Lee, Adam M.; Slager, Susan; Lesnick, Timothy; Olswold, Curtis; Fasching, Peter A.; Miron, Penelope; Eccles, Diana; Carpenter, Jane E.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Ambrosone, Christine; Winqvist, Robert; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Sawyer, Elinor; Hartmann, Arndt; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Schulz-Wendtland, Rudiger; Ekici, Arif B.; Tapper, William J; Gerty, Susan M; Durcan, Lorraine; Graham, Nikki; Hein, Rebecca; Nickels, Stephan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Fostira, Florentia; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Dimopoulos, Athanasios M.; Fountzilas, George; Clarke, Christine L.; Balleine, Rosemary; Olson, Janet E.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Diasio, Robert B.; Pathak, Harsh; Ross, Eric; Weaver, JoEllen; Rudiger, Thomas; Forsti, Asta; Dunnebier, Thomas; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Kulkarni, Swati; Pylkas, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Van Limbergen, Erik; Janssen, Hilde; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; Verhoef, Senno; Tomlinson, Ian; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Beesley, Jonathan; Greco, Dario; Blomqvist, Carl; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Blows, Fiona M.; Dawson, Sarah-Jane; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W; Lambrechts, Diether; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Severi, Gianluca; Hamann, Ute; Pharoah, Paul; Easton, Douglas F.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Nevanlinna, Heli; Wang, Xianshu; Couch, Fergus J.

2012-01-01

327

Stage of breast cancer at diagnosis among women with cosmetic breast implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern has been raised about the potential delay in breast cancer diagnosis in the augmented breast. We linked a cohort of 2955 women, who received cosmetic breast implants in Denmark during the period 1973–1997 with the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register. We identified 23 incident cases of invasive breast cancer diagnosed subsequent to breast

L R Hölmich; L Mellemkjær; K A Gunnarsdóttir; U B Tange; C Krag; S Møller; J K McLaughlin; J H Olsen

2003-01-01

328

Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Identification of novel drivers of cancer is necessary to understand the mechanisms of transformation as well as reveal more efficient targets for cancer therapy. Various subtypes of human cancer show activation of the RAS- MAPK pathway however, activatin...

Y. Shrestha

2011-01-01

329

Breast Cancer Screening Rates  

MedlinePLUS

... of Interventions to Increase Cancer Screening Cancer Screening in the United States Physician Practices Regarding Genetic Testing Cancers Diagnosed at Late Stages African American Women and Mass Media Campaign Public Service Announcements Public Service Announcements Transcripts ...

330

Pregnancy and Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... and Families (also in Spanish) National organizations and Web sites* Along with the American Cancer Society, other ... 800-422-6237 TYY: 1-800-332-8615 Web site: www.cancer.gov Information about cancer and ...

331

Are Breast Cancer Survivors at Risk for Developing Other Cancers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Second primary cancers occur in ? 12% of women with an initial breast cancer diagnosis. This study assessed predictors of\\u000a the risk of developing a second primary cancer after breast cancer. The analysis included 335,191 females, registered in the\\u000a National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, who had been diagnosed with breast\\u000a cancer. Observed numbers of subsequent

Jaime S. Raymond; Carol J. Rowland Hogue

332

Breast cancer leptomeningeal metastasis: propensity of breast cancer subtypes for leptomeninges and the analysis of factors influencing survival.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to define biological subtypes of breast cancer that have the propensity to metastasize to the leptomeninges and to assess factors influencing survival from detection of leptomeningeal metastatis (LM). One hundred and eighteen consecutive breast cancer patients with LM were treated in one institution, between the years 1999 and 2009; 40.5 % of patients had triple-negative subtype, 37.5 % had luminal A subtype and 22 % had HER2-positive subtypes (luminal B and HER2). Of patients with LM, 35 % had lobular cancer. Median survival from the detection of LM was 18 weeks, and 1-year survival was 16 %. Cox multivariate analysis revealed that performance status and systemic treatment statistically significantly influenced survival of patients with LM. Triple-negative biological subtype and lobular histological type of breast cancer had the propensity to metastasize to the leptomeninges. Performance status and systemic treatment ordered after detection of LM statistically significantly influenced survival. PMID:23322521

Niwi?ska, Anna; Rudnicka, Halina; Murawska, Magdalena

2013-01-16

333

Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Angiogenesis is an important component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. We describe existing clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents and the challenges facing the clinical development and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria.

2010-01-01

334

Caloric Restriction in Treating Patients With Stage 0-I Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Radiation Therapy  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer

2013-07-15

335

The Genetic Epidemiology of Breast Cancer Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic susceptibility to breast cancer in women is conferred by a large number of genes, of which six have so far been identified. In the context of multiple-case families, BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the most important. Mutations in these genes confer high lifetime risks of breast cancer and ovarian cancer, and more moderate risks of prostate cancer and some other

Deborah Thompson; Douglas Easton

2004-01-01

336

Nanotechnology for breast cancer therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is the field of medicine with the greatest presence of nanotechnological therapeutic agents in the clinic. A\\u000a pegylated form of liposomally encapsulated doxorubicin is routinely used for treatment against metastatic cancer, and albumin\\u000a nanoparticulate chaperones of paclitaxel were approved for locally recurrent and metastatic disease in 2005. These drugs have\\u000a yielded substantial clinical benefit, and are steadily gathering

Takemi Tanaka; Paolo Decuzzi; Massimo Cristofanilli; Jason H. Sakamoto; Ennio Tasciotti; Fredika M. Robertson; Mauro Ferrari

2009-01-01

337

Solitary Small Bowel Metastasis from Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

The common sites of metastasis of breast cancer are bone, lung, and liver, but gastrointestinal metastasis from breast cancer is rare. We experienced a case of solitary ileal metastasis from breast cancer. A 45-years-old woman presented with melena for several weeks. She showed no other abdominal symptoms. Colonoscopy findings showed an ulcerative mucosal lesion in the terminal ileum, and biopsy was performed. Pathologic examination revealed metastatic carcinoma, originated from breast. The tumor cells were positive for estrogen receptor and negative for Cdx-2. She had had a previous medical history of bilateral breast cancer and undergone breast conserving surgery with sentinel lymph node biopsy for both breasts. The torso positron emission tomography scan at 19 months after surgery showed mildly increased uptake in the terminal ileum which was considered as inflammation. Finally, she was diagnosed with solitary ileal metastasis from breast cancer at 22 months after surgery.

Choi, Jung Eun; Park, Shin Young; Jeon, Myung Hoon; Kang, Su Hwan; Bae, Young Kyung; Kim, Min Kyoung

2011-01-01

338

Melatonin, Aging and Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have developed data demonstrating that the pineal gland, via its hormone melatonin, inhibits the proliferation of both human and animal models of breast cancer. As humans age there is the onset of disrupted sleep leading to a significant suppression in...

S. M. Hill

2002-01-01

339

Pictures of Breast Cancer Diagnoses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage by breastcancer.org, provides a number of diagrams relative to various methods of breast cancer diagnosis. The site also shows PET scan, mammogram, ultrasound, and MRI images from different perspectives; illustrations of abnormal lymph nodes are also shown. Lastly, webpage contains a link to additional information about screening and testing options.

2007-04-24

340

Male breast cancer: Austrian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data were collected on 169 men treated for breast cancer at 36 surgical departments in Austria between 1970 and 1991. We report here several of their clinical features and assess the importance of established prognostic factors. After a median observation period of 51 months 60 patients (35%) suffered a recurrence. The estimated 5-year recurrence-free survival for the entire group was

Michael Stierer; Harald Rosen; Wolfgang Weitensfelder; Hubert Hausmaninger; Bela Teleky; Raimund Jakesz; Hannes Fruhwirth; Martina Dtinser; Siegfried Beller; Anton Haid; Heinz Tüchler

1995-01-01

341

Oral contraceptives and breast cancer.  

PubMed

The possible relationship of oral contraception use to breast cancer is a concern to physicians and their patients. In this article, the authors present a review of the major studies conducted during the last 10 years, from an epidemiologic viewpoint. PMID:2259330

Gay, J W; Cardwell, M S

1990-10-01

342

Melatonin Aging and Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pineal gland, via its hormone melatonin, inhibits the proliferation of both human and animal models of breast cancer. As humans age there is the onset of disrupted sleep leading to a significant suppression in the nocturnal levels of melatonin after a...

S. M. Hill

2003-01-01

343

Aromatase inhibitors in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several compounds that selectively inhibit estrogen synthesis via aromatase have been developed. Steroidal substrate analogs, such as formestane and exemestane, inactivate aromatase by binding irreversibly to it. Non-steroidal inhibitors, such as the triazole compounds letrozole and anastrozole, are highly potent, reversible inhibitors with good specificity for aromatase. The intratumoral aromatase model for postmenopausal breast cancer has been used to investigate

Angela Brodie

2002-01-01

344

Breast Cancer Family Registries Publications  

Cancer.gov

Le Calvez-Kelm F, Lesueur F, Damiola F, Vallee M, Voegele C, Babikyan D, Durand G, Forey N, McKay-Chopin S, Robinot N, Nguyen-Dumont T, Thomas A, Byrnes GB, Breast Cancer Family Registry T, Hopper JL, Southey MC, Andrulis IL, John EM, Tavtigian SV.

345

Dietary Prevention of Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the project is to appraise critically the state of dietary prevention of breast cancer and to forge new avenues of investigation in the field of nutrition. A special emphasis is on the role of diet during fetal life, puberty, and pregnancy,...

L. A. Hilakivi-Clarke

2000-01-01

346

Personalized Therapy in Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Systemic treatment of non-metastatic breast cancer is based on endocrine therapy, cytotoxic chemotherapy, and molecular targeted therapy – with the major problems of immense overtreatment of patients who would not relapse without systemic therapy and the failure of treatment in others whose disease still recurs. These deficits can only be overcome by the identification of new and better prognostic

Frederik Marmé; Andreas Schneeweiss

2012-01-01

347

Dietary Folate Intake and Breast Cancer Risk: Results from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Folate is involved in DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. It has been hypothesized that high intake of folate may reduce the risk of human cancers, including cancer of the breast. Using data from a population- based case-control study of breast cancer conducted in urban Shanghai during 1996 -1998, we evaluated the association of dietary folate intake and breast cancer risk

Martha J. Shrubsole; Fan Jin; Qi Dai; Xiao-Ou Shu; John D. Potter; James R. Hebert; Yu-Tang Gao; Wei Zheng

2001-01-01

348

Male breast cancer in patients with a familial history of breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe herein the clinical characteristics of five male breast carcinoma (MBC) patients with a familial history of breast carcinoma (FHBC). Four of these patients suffered from multiple primary cancers, being gastric and prostate cancer in 1, gastric cancer in 1, and asynchronous bilateral breast cancers in 2. The average age of these patients at diagnosis was not lower than

Sadako Akashi-Tanaka; Takashi Fukutomi; Atsuo Fukami; Takehiro Fujiki

1996-01-01

349

Posttraumatic Stress Among Women With Breast Cancer and Their Daughters: Relationship With Daughters' Breast Cancer Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer-related posttraumatic stress (PTS) in women with breast cancer, perceived risk of cancer in these women's daughters, and daughters' PTS related to their mothers' breast cancer were tested for relationships to daughters' breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography activity. Daughters' mammography frequency was related to her own PTS, but not to her perceived risk or her mothers' PTS. In contrast, daughters

Bret A. Boyer; Roseanne K. Cantor

2005-01-01

350

Genome evolution during progression to breast cancer.  

PubMed

Cancer evolution involves cycles of genomic damage, epigenetic deregulation, and increased cellular proliferation that eventually culminate in the carcinoma phenotype. Early neoplasias, which are often found concurrently with carcinomas and are histologically distinguishable from normal breast tissue, are less advanced in phenotype than carcinomas and are thought to represent precursor stages. To elucidate their role in cancer evolution we performed comparative whole-genome sequencing of early neoplasias, matched normal tissue, and carcinomas from six patients, for a total of 31 samples. By using somatic mutations as lineage markers we built trees that relate the tissue samples within each patient. On the basis of these lineage trees we inferred the order, timing, and rates of genomic events. In four out of six cases, an early neoplasia and the carcinoma share a mutated common ancestor with recurring aneuploidies, and in all six cases evolution accelerated in the carcinoma lineage. Transition spectra of somatic mutations are stable and consistent across cases, suggesting that accumulation of somatic mutations is a result of increased ancestral cell division rather than specific mutational mechanisms. In contrast to highly advanced tumors that are the focus of much of the current cancer genome sequencing, neither the early neoplasia genomes nor the carcinomas are enriched with potentially functional somatic point mutations. Aneuploidies that occur in common ancestors of neoplastic and tumor cells are the earliest events that affect a large number of genes and may predispose breast tissue to eventual development of invasive carcinoma. PMID:23568837

Newburger, Daniel E; Kashef-Haghighi, Dorna; Weng, Ziming; Salari, Raheleh; Sweeney, Robert T; Brunner, Alayne L; Zhu, Shirley X; Guo, Xiangqian; Varma, Sushama; Troxell, Megan L; West, Robert B; Batzoglou, Serafim; Sidow, Arend

2013-04-08

351

Health Tip: Exercising After Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Health Tip: Exercising After Breast Cancer Get your doctor's OK, and don't overdo ... Kohnle Wednesday, October 16, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Page Breast Cancer (HealthDay News) -- Getting regular exercise can help breast ...

352

IGF-IR Signaling in Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is involved in the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro and may be important in breast cancer etiology and progression. The IGF-IR is overexpressed in breast ca...

E. Surmacz

1997-01-01

353

MicroRNA and Breast Cancer Progression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We hypothesized that certain miRNA species are differentially expressed in the normal breast epithelium and breast cancer cells. Our concept was that these miRNAs are involved in breast cancer progression by promoting either loss or alternatively an incre...

K. Galaktionov

2007-01-01

354

TOX3 Mutations in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

TOX3 maps to 16q12, a region commonly lost in breast cancers and recently implicated in the risk of developing breast cancer. However, not much is known of the role of TOX3 itself in breast cancer biology. This is the first study to determine the importance of TOX3 mutations in breast cancers. We screened TOX3 for mutations in 133 breast tumours and identified four mutations (three missense, one in-frame deletion of 30 base pairs) in six primary tumours, corresponding to an overall mutation frequency of 4.5%. One potentially deleterious missense mutation in exon 3 (Leu129Phe) was identified in one tumour (genomic DNA and cDNA). Whilst copy number changes of 16q12 are common in breast cancer, our data show that mutations of TOX3 are present at low frequency in tumours. Our results support that TOX3 should be further investigated to elucidate its role in breast cancer biology.

Jones, James Owain; Chin, Suet-Feung; Wong-Taylor, Li-An; Leaford, Donna; Ponder, Bruce A. J.; Caldas, Carlos; Maia, Ana-Teresa

2013-01-01

355

Cellular Consequences of Telomere Shortening in Histologically Normal Breast Tissues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The investigator has shown that moderate telomere shortening occurs specifically in luminal epithelial cells, but not in myoepithelial cells, in the majority of histologically normal terminal ductal lobular units analyzed from patients undergoing reductio...

C. Heaphy

2011-01-01

356

Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program  

Cancer.gov

The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program (BCERP), a joint effort co-funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), is the next phase of a program that began with the Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Centers (BCERC) in 2003. The BCERP supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

357

Breast cancer susceptibility loci and mammographic density  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recently, the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study and identified 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer risk. Given the high degree of heritability of mammographic density and its strong association with breast cancer, it was hypothesised that breast cancer susceptibility loci may also be associated with breast density and provide insight into the biology of breast density and how it influences breast cancer risk. Methods We conducted an analysis in the Nurses' Health Study (n = 1121) to assess the relation between 11 breast cancer susceptibility loci and mammographic density. At the time of their mammogram, 217 women were premenopausal and 904 women were postmenopausal. We used generalised linear models adjusted for covariates to determine the mean percentage of breast density according to genotype. Results Overall, no association between the 11 breast cancer susceptibility loci and mammographic density was seen. Among the premenopausal women, three SNPs (rs12443621 [TNRc9/LOC643714], rs3817198 [lymphocyte-specific protein-1] and rs4666451) were marginally associated with mammographic density (p < 0.10). All three of these SNPs showed an association that was consistent with the direction in which these alleles influence breast cancer risk. The difference in mean percentage mammographic density comparing homozygous wildtypes to homozygous variants ranged from 6.3 to 8.0%. None of the 11 breast cancer loci were associated with postmenopausal breast density. Conclusion Overall, breast cancer susceptibility loci identified through a genome-wide association study do not appear to be associated with breast cancer risk.

Tamimi, Rulla M; Cox, David; Kraft, Peter; Colditz, Graham A; Hankinson, Susan E; Hunter, David J

2008-01-01

358

Targeted Therapy for Breast Cancer Prevention  

PubMed Central

With a better understanding of the etiology of breast cancer, molecularly targeted drugs have been developed and are being testing for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Targeted drugs that inhibit the estrogen receptor (ER) or estrogen-activated pathways include the selective ER modulators (tamoxifen, raloxifene, and lasofoxifene) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) (anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane) have been tested in preclinical and clinical studies. Tamoxifen and raloxifene have been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer and promising results of AIs in breast cancer trials, suggest that AIs might be even more effective in the prevention of ER-positive breast cancer. However, these agents only prevent ER-positive breast cancer. Therefore, current research is focused on identifying preventive therapies for other forms of breast cancer such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC, breast cancer that does express ER, progesterone receptor, or HER2). HER2-positive breast cancers are currently treated with anti-HER2 therapies including trastuzumab and lapatinib, and preclinical and clinical studies are now being conducted to test these drugs for the prevention of HER2-positive breast cancers. Several promising agents currently being tested in cancer prevention trials for the prevention of TNBC include poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, vitamin D, and rexinoids, both of which activate nuclear hormone receptors (the vitamin D and retinoid X receptors). This review discusses currently used breast cancer preventive drugs, and describes the progress of research striving to identify and develop more effective preventive agents for all forms of breast cancer.

den Hollander, Petra; Savage, Michelle I.; Brown, Powel H.

2013-01-01

359

Identification of different subtypes of breast cancer using tissue microarray.  

PubMed

Breast cancer may be classified into luminal A, luminal B, HER2+/ER-, basal-like and normal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling or immunohistochemical (IHC) characteristics. The main aim of the present study was to classify breast cancer into molecular subtypes based on immunohistochemistry findings and correlate the subtypes with clinicopathological factors. Two hundred and seventeen primary breast carcinomas tumor tissues were immunostained for ER, PR, HER2, CK5/6, EGFR, CK8/18, p53 and Ki67 using tissue microarray technique. All subtypes were significantly associated with Malay ethnic background (p=0.035) compared to other racial origins. The most common subtypes of breast cancers were luminal A and was significantly associated with low histological grade (p<0.000) and p53 negativity (p=0.003) compared to HER2+/ER-, basal-like and normal-like subtypes with high histological grade (p<0.000) and p53 positivity (p=0.003). Luminal B subtype had the smallest mean tumor size (p=0.009) and also the highest mean number of lymph nodes positive (p=0.032) compared to other subtypes. All markers except EGFR and Ki67 were significantly associated with the subtypes. The most common histological type was infiltrating ductal carcinoma, NOS. Majority of basal-like subtype showed comedo-type necrosis (68.8%) and infiltrative margin (81.3%). Our studies suggest that IHC can be used to identify the different subtypes of breast cancer and all subtypes were significantly associated with race, mean tumor size, mean number of lymph node positive, histological grade and all immunohistochemical markers except EGFR and Ki67. PMID:21655659

Munirah, M A; Siti-Aishah, M A; Reena, M Z; Sharifah, N A; Rohaizak, M; Norlia, A; Rafie, M K M; Asmiati, A; Hisham, A; Fuad, I; Shahrun, N S; Das, S

2011-01-01

360

Are males with early breast cancer treated differently from females with early breast cancer in Australia and New Zealand?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer in males is much rare than in females so in practice, male breast cancer treatment is likely to follow the guidelines developed for female breast cancer patients. The objective of this study is to compare the characteristics and treatment pattern of male breast cancer patients with comparable subgroups of female breast cancer patients using data submitted to the

Jim Wang; James Kollias; Claire Marsh; Guy Maddern

2009-01-01

361

Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

Binukumar, Bhaskarapillai; Mathew, Aleyamma

2005-01-01

362

Epigenetic Therapy for Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Both genetic and epigenetic alterations can control the progression of cancer. Genetic alterations are impossible to reverse, while epigenetic alterations are reversible. This advantage suggests that epigenetic modifications should be preferred in therapy applications. DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylases have become the primary targets for studies in epigenetic therapy. Some DNA methylation inhibitors and histone deacetylation inhibitors are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, the uses of epigenetic targets are believed to have great potential as a lasting favorable approach in treating breast cancer.

Cai, Feng-Feng; Kohler, Corina; Zhang, Bei; Wang, Ming-Hong; Chen, Wei-Jie; Zhong, Xiao-Yan

2011-01-01

363

Breast Cancer -- Male  

MedlinePLUS

... information, explore these related items on Cancer.Net: ASCO Answers Fact Sheet : Read a one-page fact ... Video : View a short video led by an ASCO expert in this type of cancer that provides ...

364

Predictors of Lymphedema Following Breast Cancer Surgery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Surgery for breast cancer includes removal of the breast tumor along with axillary lymph nodes. Unfortunately, a relatively common side effect following axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is upper-extremity lymphedema. The purpose of this study is to i...

K. K. Swenson

2007-01-01

365

Notch and VEGF Interactions in Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposal objective is to define the interaction between Notch and VEGFR-3 in breast cancer. Thus, we proposed to investigate this relationship in four different settings: primary endothelial cell cultures, mouse embryos, human breast tumors, and mouse...

C. J. Shawber

2004-01-01

366

Breast carcinoma after cancer therapy in childhood  

SciTech Connect

Among 910 survivors of childhood cancer, four developed infiltrating carcinoma of the breast and another had noninfiltrating breast tumor. Expected frequency was 0.3 cases of breast cancer in the series. The affected women developed breast carcinoma at ages 20, 25 and 38 years, and the men at ages 38 and 39 years, respectively. Each patient had received orthovoltage chest irradiation for treatment of Wilms' tumor or bone sarcoma between seven and 34 years previously, and estimated radiation dose to the breast exceeded 300 rad in each instance. Four patients also received diverse forms of chemotherapy. Survivors of childhood cancer have increased risk of developing breast cancer and should undergo periodic screening, particularly after breast tissue had been irradiated. Individualized radiotherapy planning can help exclude the breasts from treatment fields for some thoracic neoplasms.

Li, F.P.; Corkery, J.; Vawter, G.; Fine, W.; Sallan, S.E.

1983-02-01

367

Early Life Factors and Breast Cancer Risk.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Introduction Breast development and structure is influenced most during the following stages of life - intrauterine, menarche, and pregnancy and lactation. The success of traditional breast cancer epidemiology has been to uncover the relationship of facto...

M. B. Terry

2003-01-01

368

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have developed a unique magnetic resonance imaging multi voxel pulse sequence unaffected by intravenous contrast producing spectroscopic images of key metabolites (choline) found in breast cancer, and validated our work in 22 breast lesions with in vit...

D. M. Ikeda

2002-01-01

369

Minimally Invasive Approaches for Diagnosis and Treatment of Early-Stage Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breastcancermanagementhasbeenevolvingtowardmin- imally invasive approaches. Image-guided percutaneous biopsy techniques provide accurate histologic diagnosis without the need for surgical biopsy. Breast conservation therapy has become the treatment standard for early- stage breast cancer. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a new procedure that can predict axillary lymph node status without the need of axillary lymph node dissection. The next challenge is to treat

ELENA M. VERKOOIJENb

370

Radiation Dose and Breast Cancer Risk in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to quantify the risk of breast cancer in relation to radiation dose and chemotherapy among survivors of childhood cancer. Methods We conducted a case-control study of breast cancer in a cohort of 6,647 women who were 5-year survivors of childhood cancer and who were treated during 1970 through 1986. One hundred twenty patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer were identified and were individually matched to four selected controls on age at initial cancer and time since initial cancer. Medical physicists estimated radiation dose to the breast tumor site and ovaries on the basis of medical records. Results The odds ratio for breast cancer increased linearly with radiation dose, and it reached 11-fold for local breast doses of approximately 40 Gy relative to no radiation (P for trend < .0001). Risk associated with breast irradiation was sharply reduced among women who received 5 Gy or more to the ovaries (P = .002). The excess odds ratio per Gy was 0.36 for those who received ovarian doses less than 5 Gy and was 0.06 for those who received higher doses. Radiation-related risk did not vary significantly by age at exposure. Borderline significantly elevated risks were seen for doxorubicin, dactinomycin, dacarbazine, and carmustine. Conclusion Results confirm the radiation sensitivity of the breast in girls age 10 to 20 years but do not demonstrate a strong effect of age at exposure within this range. Irradiation of the ovaries at doses greater than 5 Gy seems to lessen the carcinogenic effects of breast irradiation, most likely by reducing exposure of radiation-damaged breast cells to stimulating effects of ovarian hormones.

Inskip, Peter D.; Robison, Leslie L.; Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A.; Hammond, Sue; Mertens, Ann C.; Whitton, John A.; Diller, Lisa; Kenney, Lisa; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Meadows, Anna T.; Neglia, Joseph P.

2009-01-01

371

Prognostic factors and natural history in lymph node-negative breast cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The prognostic significance of clinical and histological factors as well as hormone receptors was analyzed in a population of 3,064 lymph node-negative breast cancer patients operated in the Stockholm region between 1976 and 1988. None of these patients received systemic adjuvant treatment. Multivariate analysis showed that only histological tumor size, number of examined axillary lymph nodes, and progesterone receptors

Rodrigo Arriagada; Lars Erik Rutqvist; Lambert Skoog; Hemming Johansson; Andrew Kramar

1992-01-01

372

Nuclear characteristics as indicators of prognosis in node negative breast cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine clinical, biologic and histologic variables were evaluated for their significance in predicting the metastasis free survival (MFS) and the overall survival (OS) of 650 histologic node negative breast cancer patients. The variables studied were: menopausal status, UICC clinical stage of disease, Scarff-Bloom and Richardson (SBR) grade and its 3 components, estrogen and progesterone receptors, and anatomic tumor size. Multivariate

V. le Doussal; M. Tubiana-Hulin; K. Hacene; S. Friedman; M. Brunet

1989-01-01

373

Breast Cancer and the Immune System  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the evidence that the functioning of both the innate and the adaptive immune system plays a role in preventing relapse in women with breast cancer. Lymphocytes, including T cells, T regulatory cells, and natural killer cells, and their cytokine release patterns are implicated in both primary prevention and recurrence of breast cancer. Cancer prognosis may be related to immune system functional status. The hypothesis that the immune system has a causal role in breast cancer etiology is supported by epidemiologic, preclinical, and clinical research. Empirical support for the concept that immune status and immunomodulatory therapy have important roles in comprehensive breast cancer treatment is provided.

Standish, Leanna J.; Sweet, Erin S.; Novack, Jeffrey; Wenner, Cynthia A.; Bridge, Carly; Nelson, Ana; Martzen, Mark; Torkelson, Carolyn

2009-01-01

374

Expression of MAGE-A11 in breast cancer tissues and its effects on the proliferation of breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

The melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE) genes are commonly expressed in tumors, but the function of many of these genes remains unknown. Here, we investigated the expression of one family member, MAGE-A11, in breast cancer tissues and corresponding adjacent normal tissues. MAGE-A11 expression was assessed in breast cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues from 100 women by immunohistochemistry. MAGE-A11 was significantly more highly expressed in breast tumors (56% of samples) compared to normal tissues (0%; P<0.05). Additionally, its expression in breast tumors was investigated in relation to various clinicopathological features, including patient age, tumor stage and volume, and lymph node metastasis. MAGE-A11 protein expression was correlated with expression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) and estrogen receptor (ER)-? (P<0.05), but not with age, pathological type, histological grade, clinical stage, tumor size or lymph node metastasis, or ER-?, progesterone receptor (PR) or amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB-1) expression. To determine how its expression affects cancer cell proliferation in vitro, MCF-7 human breast cancer cells were transfected with pCMV-AC-MAGE-A11-GFP. MTT colorimetry and colony-forming assays indicated that MAGE-A11 overexpression significantly increased breast cancer cell proliferation and the ability to form colonies (P<0.05). These findings indicate that MAGE-A11, similarly to HER-2 and ER-?, may be an important diagnostic or prognostic indicator in breast cancer and potentially promotes tumor proliferation. PMID:23064813

Xia, Li-Ping; Xu, Min; Chen, Yan; Shao, Wei-Wei

2012-10-12

375

Columnar cell lesions and subsequent breast cancer risk: a nested case-control study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Histologic and genetic evidence suggests that at least some columnar cell lesions (CCL) of the breast represent precursor lesions in the low-grade breast neoplasia pathway. However, the risk of subsequent breast cancer associated with the presence of CCL in a benign breast biopsy is poorly understood. Methods The authors examined the association between the presence of CCL and subsequent breast cancer risk in a nested case-control study of benign breast disease (BBD) and breast cancer within the Nurses' Health Studies (394 cases, 1,606 controls). Benign breast biopsy slides were reviewed by pathologists and CCL presence assessed. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between CCL and breast cancer risk. Results Women with CCL (140 cases, 448 controls) had an increased risk of breast cancer compared with those without CCL (OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.83), although this was attenuated and became non-significant after adjustment for the histologic category of BBD (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.94 to 1.54). CCL presence was associated with the greatest risk of breast cancer for those with nonproliferative BBD (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 0.79 to 2.37) and the lowest risk for those with atypical hyperplasia (AH) (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.65 to 1.87); however, this apparent heterogeneity in risk across BBD categories was not significant (P for interaction between CCL presence and BBD category = 0.77). Conclusions These results provide evidence that CCL may be an important marker of breast cancer risk in women with BBD but suggest that CCL do not increase breast cancer risk independently of concurrent proliferative changes in the breast.

2010-01-01

376

The Molecular Pathology of Hereditary Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary breast cancer arising in carriers of mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes differs from sporadic breast cancer and from non-BRCA1\\/2 familial breast carcinomas. Most BRCA1 carcinomas have the basal-like phenotype and are high-grade, highly proliferating, estrogen receptor-negative and HER2-negative breast carcinomas, characterized by the expression of basal markers such as basal keratins, P-cadherin and epidermal growth factor receptor.

J. Palacios; M. J. Robles Frías; M. A. Castilla; M. A. López-García; J. Benítez

2008-01-01

377

Metallothionein expression in human breast cancer.  

PubMed Central

Metallothioneins are ubiquitous low molecular weight proteins characterised by high cysteine content and affinity for binding heavy metals. Abnormal metallothionein function and expression have been implicated in various disease states, including neoplasia. The aim of this study was to investigate metallothionein expression in human breast carcinoma. Sections of routinely fixed and processed blocks of tumour from 100 consecutive cases of primary operable breast carcinoma were stained for metallothionein using a recently developed monoclonal antibody and a standard immunohistochemical technique. Expression was scored on the basis of microscopical assessment of percentage of tumour cells staining. One patient was lost to follow-up and excluded from the study. A significant association (P < 0.0001) was observed between metallothionein expression and tumour type, with low levels being observed in tumours of good prognostic type. There was also a significant association with local recurrence (P < 0.02) and a significant difference (P < 0.02) in both survival and disease-free interval between tumours showing low and high levels of expression, the latter indicating a poor prognosis. No relationship was observed with patient age, tumour size, lymph node stage, histological grade, vascular invasion, menopausal status or oestrogen receptor status. The assessment of metallothionein expression in human breast cancer appears to provide prognostic information and may have important implications for understanding its development. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Goulding, H.; Jasani, B.; Pereira, H.; Reid, A.; Galea, M.; Bell, J. A.; Elston, C. W.; Robertson, J. F.; Blamey, R. W.; Nicholson, R. A.

1995-01-01

378

Breast cancer screening behaviors among African American women with a strong family history of breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.Despite the importance of breast cancer screening to reduce morbidity and mortality, limited information is available on screening practices among African American women with a family history that is suggestive of hereditary breast cancer.

Chanita Hughes Halbert; Lisa Kessler; E. Paul Wileyto; Benita Weathers; Jill Stopfer; Susan Domchek; Aliya Collier; Kiyona Brewster

2006-01-01

379

Tamoxifen and Breast Density in Women at Increased Risk of Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although mammographic breast density is as- sociated with the risk of breast cancer and is influenced by hormone levels, the effects of tamoxifen on breast density in healthy women and whether tamoxifen-induced density changes are associated with breast cancer risk are unclear. We investigated mammographic breast density in healthy women with an increased risk of breast cancer at baseline

Jack Cuzick; Jane Warwick; Elizabeth Pinney; Ruth M. L. Warren; Stephen W. Duffy

380

[Diagnosis of breast cancer (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The authors draw attention to the frequency of breast carcinoma and the importance of its early detection. They critically evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of X-ray diagnosis, thermography, ultrasound, radioisotope diagnosis, cytology, and histological diagnosis. PMID:755123

Gorisek, B; Vlaisavljevi?, V; Ivanisevi?, V

381

Breast cancer screening: clinical, radiologic, and biochemical.  

PubMed

Breast cancer screening is a highly complex and more recently a controversial topic. Conventional screening includes breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and screening mammography. Several newer imaging modalities have been introduced into the screening armamentarium including breast magnetic resonance imaging and whole-breast automated ultrasound. Novel imaging techniques like positron emission mammography are currently under clinical investigation in the hopes of improving the sensitivity of breast cancer screening. In addition, the development of biochemical assays, which employ minimally invasive sampling are also promising. PMID:22828098

Feldman, Elizabeth D; Oppong, Bridget A; Willey, Shawna C

2012-09-01

382

Diagnosis of breast cancer by tissue analysis  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we propose a technique to locate abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test, when require. We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps. Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal/lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper. In fact, features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue. We also suggest the breast cancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some extent.

Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Bandyopadhyay, Samir Kumar

2013-01-01

383

Molecular Epidemiology of Breast Cancer in Korean Women.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project is testing the hypothesis that breast cancer in elderly women represents a disease different than breast cancer in young women The hypothesis is being tested using gene expression profiles as objective measures of breast cancer phenotypes. Th...

E. W. Gabrielson

2002-01-01

384

77 FR 60605 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...8874 of October 1, 2012 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2012 By the...States of America A Proclamation Breast cancer touches the lives of Americans...000 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer this year, and tens of...

2012-10-04

385

78 FR 61805 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 9028 of September 30, 2013 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2013 By the President of...America stands in solidarity with those battling breast cancer and those at risk for breast cancer. This disease touches every corner of...

2013-10-04

386

What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men?  

MedlinePLUS

... in men? What are the risk factors for breast cancer in men? A risk factor is anything that ... old when they are diagnosed. Family history of breast cancer Breast cancer risk is increased if other members ...

387

Effect of Ultrasonic Assisted Lipectomy (UAL) on Breast Tissue: Histological Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   As the use of ultrasound-assisted liposuction (UAL) increases, the technique grows more popular in breast surgery, especially\\u000a in reduction mammaplasty and treatment of gynecomastia. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of UAL on breast\\u000a tissue using histological examinations, and analyze the effect of this technique on a cellular level.\\u000a \\u000a Biopsies from 10 patients undergoing ultrasonically

Klaus-J. Walgenbach; Artjom W. Riabikhin; Thomas J. Galla; Holger Bannasch; Mathias Voigt; Christoph Andree; Raymund E. Horch; G. Björn Stark

2001-01-01

388

Personalized therapy in breast cancer.  

PubMed

Systemic treatment of non-metastatic breast cancer is based on endocrine therapy, cytotoxic chemotherapy, and molecular targeted therapy - with the major problems of immense overtreatment of patients who would not relapse without systemic therapy and the failure of treatment in others whose disease still recurs. These deficits can only be overcome by the identification of new and better prognostic and predictive markers. Currently, adjuvant treatment stratification is based on a limited number of established factors, namely locoregional tumour stage, age, grade, expression of hormone receptors, HER2, and Ki-67. Molecular profiling techniques, however, have revolutionized our understanding of breast cancer as a heterogeneous disease. Future results from even more comprehensive genetic analyses as part of the coordinated cancer genome projects will help to develop better treatment stratifications and new therapeutic approaches. Efforts to realize the dream of a personalized treatment for breast cancer will include drug development and intelligent design of trials for increasingly small subgroups of patients with specific host and disease characteristics. This will only be made possible by a strong cooperation between basic researchers and translational scientists, clinicians, as well as academia and industry. PMID:22286585

Marmé, Frederik; Schneeweiss, Andreas

2012-01-20

389

The After Breast Cancer Pooling Project: rationale, methodology, and breast cancer survivor characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The After Breast Cancer Pooling Project was established to examine the role of physical activity, adiposity, dietary factors,\\u000a supplement use, and quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer prognosis. This paper presents pooled and harmonized data on post-diagnosis\\u000a lifestyle factors, clinical prognostic factors, and breast cancer outcomes from four prospective cohorts of breast cancer\\u000a survivors (three US-based and one from

Sarah J. Nechuta; Bette J. Caan; Wendy Y. Chen; Shirley W. Flatt; Wei Lu; Ruth E. Patterson; Elizabeth M. Poole; Marilyn L. Kwan; Zhi Chen; Erin Weltzien; John P. Pierce; Xiao Ou Shu

2011-01-01

390

Endometrial cancer survival after breast cancer in relation to tamoxifen treatment: Pooled results from three countries  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tamoxifen is an effective treatment for breast cancer but an undesirable side-effect is an increased risk of endometrial cancer, particularly rare tumor types associated with poor prognosis. We investigated whether tamoxifen therapy increases mortality among breast cancer patients subsequently diagnosed with endometrial cancer. Methods We pooled case-patient data from the three largest case-control studies of tamoxifen in relation to endometrial cancer after breast cancer (1,875 patients: Netherlands, 765; United Kingdom, 786; United States, 324) and collected follow-up information on vital status. Breast cancers were diagnosed in 1972 to 2005 with endometrial cancers diagnosed in 1978 to 2006. We used Cox proportional hazards survival analysis to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results A total of 1,104 deaths occurred during, on average, 5.8 years following endometrial cancer (32% attributed to breast cancer, 25% to endometrial cancer). Mortality from endometrial cancer increased significantly with unfavorable non-endometrioid morphologies (P < 0.0001), International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics staging system for gynecological malignancy (FIGO) stage (P < 0.0001) and age (P < 0.0001). No overall association was observed between tamoxifen treatment and endometrial cancer mortality (HR = 1.17 (95% CI: (0.89 to 1.55)). Tamoxifen use for at least five years was associated with increased endometrial cancer mortality (HR = 1.59 (1.13 to 2.25)). This association appeared to be due primarily to the excess of unfavorable histologies and advanced stage in women using tamoxifen for five or more years since the association with mortality was no longer significant after adjustment for morphological type and FIGO stage (HR = 1.37 (0.97 to 1.93)). Those patients with endometrioid tumors, who stopped tamoxifen use at least five years before their endometrial cancer diagnosis, had a greater mortality risk from endometrial cancer than endometrioid patients with no tamoxifen exposure (HR = 2.11 (1.13 to 3.94)). The explanation for this latter observation is not apparent. Conclusions Patients with endometrial cancer after breast cancer who received tamoxifen treatment for five years for breast cancer have greater endometrial cancer mortality risk than those who did not receive tamoxifen. This can be attributed to non-endometrioid histological subtypes with poorer prognosis among long term tamoxifen users.

2012-01-01

391

Electric power, melatonin, and breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the epidemiology of breast cancer will be discussed, followed by a brief description of the effect of electric fields on melatonin and the relation of melatonin to mammary cancer in rats. Finally, there will be a consideration of factors such as alcohol that affect melatonin and their relation to breast cancer risk. 55 refs.

1987-01-01

392

Epidemiology of locally advanced breast cancer.  

PubMed

Locally advanced breast cancer refers to patients diagnosed with bulky primary cancers and/or regional adenopathy. It's frequency has diminished greatly because of screening mammography and early detection. However, impoverished and minority racial/ethnic communities continue to experience disproportionately high breast cancer mortality rates because of their high risk for being diagnosed with locally advanced disease. PMID:19732683

Newman, Lisa A

2009-10-01

393

Importance of mastalgia in operable breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of pain as a presenting symptom of breast cancer has been assessed in a series of 240 patients with operable breast cancer over four years. From an analysis of the case histories of 36 patients the diagnosis proved difficult in one-quarter of the cancers. This is explained by the high incidence of subclinical and lobular carcinoma in the

P E Preece; M Baum; R E Mansel; D J Webster; R W Fortt; I H Gravelle; L E Hughes

1982-01-01

394

Osteolytic bone metastasis in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastasis of breast cancer cells to bone consists of multiple sequential steps. To accomplish the process of metastasis to bone, breast cancer cells are required to intrinsically possess or acquire the capacities that are necessary for them to proliferate, invade, migrate, survive, and ultimately arrest in bone. These capacities are essential for any cancer cells to develop distant metastases in

Toshiyuki Yoneda; Akira Sasaki; Gregory R. Mundy

1994-01-01

395

Does breast cancer change patients’ dietary habits?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The results of epidemiological studies on diet and cancer are often difficult to interpret on an individual level and may influence patients’ beliefs, attitudes and behaviour. This study investigated the behaviour of breast cancer patients and their attitudes to dietary changes and the need of dietary advice during their disease.Patients and methods: The study population consisted of breast cancer

EK Salminen; HK Lagström; SP Heikkilä; SJ Salminen

2000-01-01

396

Electric power, melatonin, and breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the epidemiology of breast cancer will be discussed, followed by a brief description of the effect of electric fields on melatonin and the relation of melatonin to mammary cancer in rats. Finally, there will be a consideration of factors such as alcohol that affect melatonin and their relation to breast cancer risk. 55 refs.

Stevens, R.G.

1987-08-01

397

Screening for breast cancer with mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HIP trial was done in an era when the size of breast cancers was much larger than became usual in the subsequent two decades in North America. I recall no instance in which the masking of the allocation was compromised. The major difficulty for the reviewers was not whether the patient died of cancer, nor whether breast cancer had

Anthony B Miller; Peter Gøtzsche

2001-01-01

398

Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high rate of breast cancer (142.7 per 100,000 in Suffolk County) and in a representative sample of US women (NHANES 1999-2008, 92 with breast cancer and 2,884 without). In a multivariable logistic model, both samples showed a significant trend for increased odds of breast cancer across increasing UCd quartiles (NHANES, p=0.039 and LI, p=0.023). Compared to those in the lowest quartile, LI women in the highest quartile had increased risk for breast cancer (OR=2.69; 95% CI=1.07, 6.78) and US women in the two highest quartiles had increased risk (OR=2.50; 95% CI=1.11, 5.63 and OR=2.22; 95% CI=.89, 5.52, respectively). Further research is warranted on the impact of environmental cadmium on breast cancer risk in specific populations and on identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms.

Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

2010-01-01

399

Rates for Breast Cancer Characteristics by Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor Status in the Major Racial\\/Ethnic Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported that age-specific breast cancer rates vary by estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status. We report breast cancer rates for age-at-diagnosis, stage-at-diagnosis, histological grade and type by estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PgR) receptor status in six major racial\\/ethnic groups. The average annual age-adjusted rates for breast cancers with estrogen receptor positive (ER+), ER-, progesterone receptor positive (PgR+),

Kenneth C. Chu; William F. Anderson

2002-01-01

400

From the Cover: Prospective identification of tumorigenic breast cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in United States women, accounting for >40,000 deaths each year. These breast tumors are comprised of phenotypically diverse populations of breast cancer cells. Using a model in which human breast cancer cells were grown in immunocompromised mice, we found that only a minority of breast cancer cells had the ability to form new

Muhammad Al-Hajj; Max S. Wicha; Adalberto Benito-Hernandez; Sean J. Morrison; Michael F. Clarke

2003-01-01

401

How can grafted breast cancer models be optimized?  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the most frequent spontaneous malignancy diagnosed in women and is characterized by a broad histological diversity. Progression of the disease has a metastasizing trend and can be resistant to hormonal and chemotherapy. Animal models have provided some understanding of these features and have allowed new treatments to be proposed. However, these models need to be revised because they have some limitations in predicting the clinical efficacy of new therapies. In this review, we discuss the biological criteria to be taken into account for a realistic animal model of breast cancer graft (tumor implantation site, animal immune status, histological diversity, modern imaging). We emphasize the need for more stringent monitoring criteria, and suggest adopting the human RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) criteria to evaluate treatments in animal models.

Mollard, Severine; Mousseau, Yoanne; Baaj, Yasser; Richard, Laurence; Cook-Moreau, Jeanne; Monteil, Jacques; Funalot, Benoit

2011-01-01

402

Evolution of breast cancer screening in countries with intermediate and increasing incidence of breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Few studies have been published regarding the practice of breast cancer screening in Asian countries. Aims The present study illustrates how the health policy for breast cancer screening has evolved in Taiwan from selective mammographic screening within a high-risk group, firstly to a programme of physical examination by public health nurses, and finally to a two-stage breast cancer screening

Grace Hui-Min Wu; Li-Sheng Chen; King-Jen Chang; Ming-Feng Hou; Shin-Chen Chen; Tse-Jia Liu; Chiun-Sheng Huang; Giu-Cheng Hsu; Chih-Cheng Yu; Li-Li Jeng; Shou-Tung Chen

2006-01-01

403

CISNET: Simulating Breast Cancer in Wisconsin  

Cancer.gov

This project will update and extend a previously developed model simulating breast cancer age- and stage-specific incidence and age-specific mortality in Wisconsin. The model was developed and validated in 1992-93 and was used to explain breast cancer trends in Wisconsin from 1982-1992. We will reprogram the macrosimulation model as a discrete event microsimulation, updating inputs to account for demographic, and breast cancer detection and treatment changes since 1992.

404

Clinical proteomics in breast cancer: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer imposes a significant healthcare burden on women worldwide. Early detection is of paramount importance in reducing\\u000a mortality, yet the diagnosis of breast cancer is hampered by the lack of an adequate detection method. In addition, better\\u000a breast cancer prognostication may improve selection of patients eligible for adjuvant therapy. Hence, new markers for early\\u000a diagnosis, accurate prognosis and prediction

Marie-Christine W. Gast; Jan H. M. Schellens; Jos H. Beijnen

2009-01-01

405

Epidemiology of breast cancer in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mortality and incidence of breast cancer are high in Western industrialized countries and relatively low in developing\\u000a countries in Asia and other parts of the world. In Japan the mortality of breast cancer has gradually been increasing, but\\u000a is still much lower compared with those of Western countries. Within Japan the mortality of breast cancer is higher in urban

Suketami Tominaga; Tetsuo Kuroishi

1995-01-01

406

[To be cured of breast cancer].  

PubMed

Can we say the magic word "cured", "cancer free" for breast cancer patients or can we say only survivors? This litterature review was focused on what mean cured of breast cancer with the long term effects on quality of life of locoregional and systemic therapies and the role of breast reconstruction. Finally changes in the intimacy, sex and love live and psychosocial live were stressed. PMID:12135858

Bobin, Jean-Yves; Guiochet, Nicole; Saez, Simone

2002-06-01

407

Surgery for inoperable breast cancer.  

PubMed

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has the potential to convert inoperable breast cancer into operable disease; however, patients may remain inoperable by the classic criteria after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In such cases, palliative surgical therapy to promote comfort and hygiene and to control wound breakdown may need to be considered. This report documents this clinical scenario in a patient with a large exophytic breast cancer who had a partial response with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and required an extended radical mastectomy with extensive reconstruction for coverage. The decision to undertake such a surgical procedure is complicated when the patient's life expectancy may be extremely limited and both patient and treatment team must carefully weigh the risks and potential benefits of a highly complex but technically feasible operation. PMID:11918881

Kuerer, Henry M; Beahm, Elisabeth K; Swisher, Stephen G; Ross, Merrick I

2002-02-01

408

The global breast cancer burden.  

PubMed

Breast cancer now represents the most common female malignancy in both the developing and developed world, and is the primary cause of death among women globally. Despite well-documented reductions in mortality from breast cancer during the past two decades, incidence rates continue to increase and do so more rapidly in countries that historically had low rates. This has emphasized the importance of survivorship issues and optimal management of disease chronicity. This article reviews current trends of incidence and mortality in both a western and global context, and considers pertinent changes in underlying etiological risk factors. The latter not only offer clues regarding changes in incidence patterns, but also provides rationale and guidance for strategies that could potentially reduce the burden of this disease. The relevance of lifestyle adjustments and screening interventions for primary and secondary prevention, respectively, are discussed with reference to different healthcare resource settings. PMID:22764767

Benson, John R; Jatoi, Ismail

2012-06-01

409

Update on inflammatory breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is both the least frequent and the most severe form of epithelial breast cancer. The diagnosis is based on clinical inflammatory signs and is reinforced by pathological findings. Significant progress has been made in the management of IBC in the past 20 years. Yet survival among IBC patients is still only one-half that among patients with non-IBC. Identification of the molecular determinants of IBC would probably lead to more specific treatments and to improved survival. In the present article we review recent advances in the molecular pathogenesis of IBC. A more comprehensive view will probably be obtained by pan-genomic analysis of human IBC samples, and by functional in vitro and in vivo assays. These approaches may offer better patient outcome in the near future.

Lerebours, Florence; Bieche, Ivan; Lidereau, Rosette

2005-01-01

410

Update on inflammatory breast cancer.  

PubMed

Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is both the least frequent and the most severe form of epithelial breast cancer. The diagnosis is based on clinical inflammatory signs and is reinforced by pathological findings. Significant progress has been made in the management of IBC in the past 20 years. Yet survival among IBC patients is still only one-half that among patients with non-IBC. Identification of the molecular determinants of IBC would probably lead to more specific treatments and to improved survival. In the present article we review recent advances in the molecular pathogenesis of IBC. A more comprehensive view will probably be obtained by pan-genomic analysis of human IBC samples, and by functional in vitro and in vivo assays. These approaches may offer better patient outcome in the near future. PMID:15743511

Lerebours, Florence; Bieche, Ivan; Lidereau, Rosette

2005-01-20

411

Tumoral angiogenesis and breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer (BC) is the most common neoplasm in women in Western countries. Tumoral angiogenesis (TA) is essential for the\\u000a growth and spread of BC cells. There are at least 6 different angiogenic growth factors associated with TA in BC. The major\\u000a mediator of TA is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a homodimeric heparin-binding glycoprotein. VEGF signals through\\u000a VEGF receptor-2

Parham Khosravi Shahi; Alicia Soria Lovelle; Gumersindo Pérez Manga

2009-01-01

412

Metastatic breast cancer – ASCO 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  BACKGROUND: In the ASCO Annual Meeting, important recent developments in haematology and oncology were presented. In the 2010\\u000a ASCO meeting, interest in the field of metastatic breast cancer focused on Poly-(ADP-Ribose)-Polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitors\\u000a and novel treatment options in Her2-positive disease. METHODS: For this review article, authors searched proceedings of the\\u000a 2010 ASCO Annual Meeting. Abstracts providing important new insights were

R. Bartsch; R. Ziebermayr

2010-01-01

413

Presenting Painless Breast Cancer Detection!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson culminates the unit with the Go Public phase of the legacy cycle. In the associated activity, students must depict a tumor amidst healthy body tissue using a graph in Microsoft Excel. In addition, students will design a brochure advertising a new form of painless yet reliable breast cancer detection to both patients and doctors alike. Together, the in-class activity and the take-home assignment will function as an assessment of what the students have learned throughout the unit.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

414

Breast cancer: A revolutionary concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we trace the evolution of paradigms concerning the nature of breast cancer and their therapeutic consequences.\\u000a There is no doubt that the conceptual revolution of about 20 years ago has led to modest gains in survival following the use\\u000a of adjuvant systemic therapy and the quality of survival by demonstrating the safety of conservative surgical regimens. At

Michael Baum; Anthony Colletta

1995-01-01

415

Cathepsin D in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Cathepsin D is an acidic lysosomal protease present in all cells. In estrogen receptor positive and negative breast cancer cell lines, the mRNA coding for pro-cathepsin D is overexpressed and sorting and maturation of the pro-enzyme are altered, leading to accumulation of the active proteinase in large endosomes and to secretion of the precursor (52K protein). In MCF7 cells,

Henri Rochefort

1990-01-01

416

Association of paternal age at birth and the risk of breast cancer in offspring: a case control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Older paternal age may increase the germ cell mutation rate in the offspring. Maternal age may also mediate in utero exposure to pregnancy hormones in the offspring. To evaluate the association between paternal and maternal age at birth with the risk of breast cancer in female offspring, a case-control study was conducted in Korea. METHODS: Histologically confirmed breast cancer

Ji-Yeob Choi; Kyoung-Mu Lee; Sue Kyung Park; Dong-Young Noh; Sei-Hyun Ahn; Keun-Young Yoo; Daehee Kang

2005-01-01

417

Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in breast cancer screening.  

PubMed Central

In a six year period up to the end of December 1985 fine needle aspiration cytology specimens of the breast were obtained from 562 apparently healthy women invited to participate in a breast cancer screening programme. Of these, 397 had a biopsy and 173 cancers were confirmed histologically. For the diagnosis of cancer, the procedure was less successful than in symptomatic cases. The main factors influencing success were the aspirator, the small size of many cancers, and the occult nature of the lesions seen only on mammography. Retrospective analysis of the figures shows that combining the results of FNA cytology in a triple assessment with physical and mammographical findings for restricted selection means that the number of benign biopsy specimens could be reduced considerably.

Lamb, J; Anderson, T J; Dixon, M J; Levack, P A

1987-01-01

418

Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in breast cancer screening.  

PubMed

In a six year period up to the end of December 1985 fine needle aspiration cytology specimens of the breast were obtained from 562 apparently healthy women invited to participate in a breast cancer screening programme. Of these, 397 had a biopsy and 173 cancers were confirmed histologically. For the diagnosis of cancer, the procedure was less successful than in symptomatic cases. The main factors influencing success were the aspirator, the small size of many cancers, and the occult nature of the lesions seen only on mammography. Retrospective analysis of the figures shows that combining the results of FNA cytology in a triple assessment with physical and mammographical findings for restricted selection means that the number of benign biopsy specimens could be reduced considerably. PMID:3624497

Lamb, J; Anderson, T J; Dixon, M J; Levack, P A

1987-07-01

419

Breast cancer in the elderly.  

PubMed

The study population was derived from 482 patients with breast cancer treated at the Department of Oncology, University Hospital Center Zagreb, between 1992 and 1999. The main purpose of our study was to evaluate differences in breast cancer characteristics and treatment in a population of women with breast cancer older than 65 years compared to younger women group (less than 65 years). We have analyzed disease parameters (stage of the disease, size of primary tumor, tumor differentiation grade and steroid receptor status) and parameters associated to treatment modalities (surgery, radiotherapy, hormonal therapy and chemotherapy) in both age groups. In older women, we found significantly higher rates of tumors grade 1 (p = 0.0049), tumors > 2 cm and tumors with a high steroid receptor status (p = 0.0013). Evaluation of treatment modalities showed that in older women a significantly higher proportion were treated with hormonal therapy (p < 0.001) compared to younger patients. In evaluation of clinical outcome after a median follow-up of 58 months, in older women the cumulative 5-year disease-free survival rate was 65%, while cumulative 5-year survival was 83%, which was not significantly different from the younger women (p > 0.005). PMID:16285580

Podolski, P; Markulin Grgi?, L; Kukura, V; Budisi?, Z; Santek, F

2005-01-01

420

Mammographic density and risk of breast cancer.  

PubMed

The radiographic appearance of the breast on mammography varies among women, and reflects variations in breast tissue composition and the different X-ray attenuation characteristics of these tissues. Fat is radiologically lucent and appears dark on a mammogram. Connective and epithelial tissues are radiologically dense and appear light. These variations in appearance are commonly described as the percentage of the breast image that is radiologically dense, or as percent mammographic density (PMD). There is now extensive evidence that PMD is a risk factor for breast cancer, with a 4- to 6-fold gradient in risk between women with 75% or more PMD compared with those with 10% or less. However, the accuracy of risk prediction in individual women is modest. The extent of PMD is associated inversely with greater age, parity, and weight, and is reduced by the menopause and by tamoxifen. PMD is positively associated with greater height, a family history of breast cancer, and is increased by combined hormone therapy. The relative risk associated with density is substantially larger than the relative risk of breast cancer associated with a family history of the disease or any of the menstrual and reproductive risk factors. It is estimated that the risks of breast cancer attributable to density of 50% or more may be 16% for all breast cancers. Although combined hormone therapy and tamoxifen respectively increase a decrease both PMD and breast cancer risk, there is as yet insufficient evidence to use PMD as a surrogate marker for breast cancer. PMID:23714456

Boyd, Norman F

2013-01-01

421

Detecting Breast Cancer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to their task of developing a painless means of identifying cancerous tumors. Solving the challenge will depend on an understanding of the properties of stress and strain. After being introduced to the challenge question, students will generate ideas and consider the knowledge required to solve the challenge question. After which, students will read an expert's opinion on ultrasound imaging and the potentials for detecting cancerous tumors. This interview will help direct student research and learning toward solving the challenge.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

422

Time trend of female breast carcinoma In Situ by race and histology in Connecticut, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid increase of female breast cancer has been reported in many areas of the world and the reasons are not fully understood. While some have attributed the increase to the increasing detection of early stage breast cancer through mammography screening, few studies have directly examined the time trend of in situ breast cancer specifically. This study included all incident

T. Zheng; T. R. Holford; Y. Chen; B. A. Jones; J. Flannery; P. Boyle

1997-01-01

423

IGF-IR Signaling in Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Clinical and experimental evidence suggest that the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) is involved in breast cancer etiology. For instance, IGF-IR is overexpressed in breast tumors (relative to normal breast epithelium) and high levels of IGF-I ...

E. Surmacz

1998-01-01

424

Psychiatric morbidity after screening for breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and thirty two women with normal breast screening results were interviewed six months after their attendance at the Edinburgh Breast Screening Clinic. Eight percent of women said screening had made them more anxious about developing breast cancer. Thirty eight percent said they were more aware of the disease since screening but they regarded this as advantageous. Seventy percent

C Dean; M M Roberts; S Robinson

1986-01-01

425

Pulmonary metastasis from breast cancer with an 18-year disease-free interval: implication of the role of surgery.  

PubMed

Abstract The appearance of pulmonary metastasis more than 15 years after primary treatment for breast cancer is rare. We herein report the case of a breast cancer patient with solitary pulmonary metastasis, after an 18-year disease-free period, treated with resection. A 66-year-old Japanese woman was found to exhibit an abnormal shadow on a chest X-ray. She had undergone a left mastectomy for breast cancer 18 years previously. The nodule was suspected to be either metastatic or primary lung cancer, and thus thoracoscopic surgery was performed. The histologic diagnosis was metastasis from breast cancer. Pulmonary resection in breast cancer recurrence is an important diagnostic tool that allows for a differential diagnosis with primary lung cancer. The clinical implication of surgery for a solitary pulmonary metastasis from breast cancer is discussed in this report. PMID:23294064

Fujii, Takaaki; Yajima, Reina; Yamaki, Ei; Kohsaka, Takayuki; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Tsutsumi, Soichi; Mogi, Akira; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

426

Anastrozole in Treating Aromatase Inhibitor Musculoskeletal Symptoms in Female Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Musculoskeletal Complications; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

2013-07-11

427

UAB-Community Breast Cancer Network.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Clinical Trial Network was aimed at forming a collaborative linkage between the UAB Comprehensive Cancer Center, community-based oncology practices and pharmaceutical sponsors, and providing access to women with breast cancer within the community to ...

A. LoBuglio M. Saleh

2001-01-01

428

Role of Cell Senescence in Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cancer incidence rises exponentially with age. This project tests the hypothesis that cellular senescence of stromal fibroblasts contributes to the age-dependent increase in breast cancer by creating a more permissive environment for the expression of mal...

A. Krtolica J. Campisi

2000-01-01

429

Breast Cancer Prevention Trial - April 21, 1998  

Cancer.gov

"Breast Cancer Prevention Trial" Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health Statement of Richard D. Klausner, M.D. Director, National Cancer Institute Before the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Labor, Health, Human

430

Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

King, M.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Lippman, M. [Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)] [comps.

1992-12-31

431

Psychological Intervention for Women With Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Psychological research documents that the psychosocial burdens following breast cancer are notable in number, severity, and scope. A biobehavioral model of cancer stress and disease course has been proposed (see Andersen, Kiecolt-Claser, Claser, 1994) and...

B. L. Andersen

1995-01-01

432

Paclitaxel With or Without Carboplatin and/or Bevacizumab Followed By Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer That Can Be Removed by Surgery  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

2013-10-18

433

Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation After Conservative Surgery for Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective: To critically review the theoretical and actual risks and benefits of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) after breast-conserving surgery. Summary Background Data: Because of rapid evolution of radiation therapy techniques related to brachytherapy and three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, APBI has very recently come to the forefront as a potential local treatment option for women with breast cancer. This review aims to give an overview of the biologic rationale for APBI techniques, and benefits and limitations of APBI techniques. Methods: The authors reviewed the currently available published world medical literature on breast-conserving surgery with and without postoperative irradiation; all studies involving partial breast irradiation, including brachytherapy, for breast cancer; and currently accruing and planned APBI trials. The focus of this review was the early results of treatment in terms of toxicity, complications, cosmesis, and local control. Results: On average, approximately 3% of patients treated with breast-conserving surgery will have an in-breast local recurrence away from the original lumpectomy site with or without postoperative standard whole-breast irradiation. The results of phase I-II studies involving approximately 500 patients treated with APBI after breast-conserving surgery have been published. Although many of the studies have limited long-term follow-up and potential selection bias, early results suggest that toxicity, cosmesis, and local control are comparable to outcomes seen after breast-conserving surgery followed by standard whole-breast irradiation. Conclusions: Recent advances in radiation delivery and published series of partial breast irradiation support large randomized trials comparing APBI with standard whole-breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery.

Kuerer, Henry M.; Julian, Thomas B.; Strom, Eric A.; Lyerly, H Kim; Giuliano, Armando E.; Mamounas, Eleftherios P.; Vicini, Frank A.

2004-01-01

434

Mitochondria and Familial Predisposition to Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial genome and functional alterations are related to various diseases including cancer. In all cases, the role of these organelles is associated with defects in oxidative energy metabolism and control of tumor-induced oxidative stress. The present study examines the involvement of mitochondrial DNA in cancer and in particular in breast cancer. Furthermore, since mitochondrial DNA is maternally inherited, hereditary breast cancer has been focused on.

Weigl, Stefania; Paradiso, Angelo; Tommasi, Stefania

2013-01-01

435

Systemic Treatment Approaches in Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is the most conmlon malignant tumor among women, with an\\u000aestimated 135,000 new cases and 58,000 recorded deaths per year in the Europeau\\u000aCommunity in 1990. With respect to the Netherlands, the most recent data of The\\u000aNetherlands Cancer Registry show an incidence of nearly 10.000 new cases of primary\\u000abreast cancer and about 3500 breast cancer deaths

M. Bontenbal

1997-01-01

436

CTCs in metastatic breast cancer.  

PubMed

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs), enumerated by the Food and Drugs Administration-cleared CellSearch(®) system, are an independent prognostic factor of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients. Several published papers demonstrated the poor prognosis for MBC patients who presented basal CTC count ?5 in 7.5 mL of blood. Therefore, the enumeration of CTCs during treatment for MBC provides a tool with the ability to predict progression of disease earlier than standard timing of anatomical assessment using conventional radiological tests. Randomized clinical trials are ongoing to demonstrate whether CTCs detected by CellSearch(®) may help to guide treatments in MBC patients and improve prognosis. Moreover, the ability to perform molecular characterization of CTCs might identify a new druggable target in MBC patients. For example, the RT-PCR-based approach AdnaTest BreastCancerSelect(™) showed a high discordance rate in receptor expression between the primary tumors and CTCs. Theoretically, the phenotypic analysis of CTCs can represent a "liquid" biopsy of breast tumor that is able to identify a new potential target against the metastatic disease. PMID:22527507

Giordano, Antonio; Cristofanilli, Massimo

2012-01-01

437

Synthetic retinoid fenretinide in breast cancer chemoprevention.  

PubMed

Preclinical models suggest that retinoids inhibit mammary carcinogenesis. The induction of apoptosis is a unique feature of fenretinide, the most-studied retinoid in clinical trials of breast cancer chemoprevention, owing to its selective accumulation in breast tissue and its favorable toxicological profile. In a Phase III breast cancer prevention trial, fenretinide showed a strong trend of reduction of incidence of second breast malignancies in premenopausal women, which was confirmed by 15 years of follow-up. This warrants further research on the mechanisms of action and potential efficacy of fenretinide and provides the rationale for a Phase III primary prevention trial in young women at high risk for breast cancer. This review will highlight the role of fenretinide in breast cancer chemoprevention. PMID:17428163

Bonanni, Bernardo; Lazzeroni, Matteo; Veronesi, Umberto

2007-04-01

438

Radiologic Advances in the Diagnosis of Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer in females between the age of 15 and 54, and the second leading cause of death in women in the United States. Diagnosis begins with detection by breast examination (clinical breast examination or breast self-examination) or by radiologic studies, such as mammography. Many advances in the diagnosis of breast cancer have taken

J. Mari Beth Linder; Alan D. Schiska

2008-01-01

439

Breast cancer rescreening in low-income women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Routine mammography screening with clinical breast examination is effective in reducing breast cancer mortality. The Breast and Cervical Health Program (BCHP) in Washington State provides free breast and cervical cancer screening for low-income women, with an emphasis on women of color. This study examined initial breast cancer rescreening and factors associated with rescreening for women enrolled in BCHP in

Lin Song; Robert Fletcher

1998-01-01

440

Breast cancer tissue diagnosis at terahertz frequencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the feasibility of using terahertz pulsed imaging to detect breast cancer in a reflection imaging geometry. Spectroscopic terahertz data is used to simulate the reflected time domain response functions of healthy fibrous breast tissue and breast cancer tissue. Previously we have looked at the refractive index and absorption coefficient separately to characterize tissues. In this work we investigate their combined effects and identify parameters of the simulated reflected impulse response function and corresponding spectroscopic properties with a view to improving our ability to distinguish between the fibrous and cancer tissues in the breast.

Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma; Fitzgerald, Anthony J.; Wallace, Vincent P.

2012-02-01

441

Prognostic variables in invasive breast cancer: Contribution of comedo versus noncomedo in situ component  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Many invasive breast cancers are accompanied by a variety of noninvasive components. Histological distinctions have been made between these components, but to understand their importance, it is essential to examine their molecular biology.\\u000aMethods: Proliferative indices, oncoproteins, and steroid receptor expression were compared for invasive breast cancers containing comedo-type ductal carcinoma in situ (n=35), noncomedo-type ductal carcinoma in situ

Steven T. Brower; Sharmila Ahmed; Paul I. Tartter; Ira Bleiweiss; J. B. Amberson

1995-01-01

442

Analysis of menstrual, reproductive, and life-style factors for breast cancer risk in Turkish women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between menstrual, reproductive, and life-style factors and breast\\u000a cancer in Turkish women. In a hospital-based case-control study in Ankara, 622 patients with histologically confirmed breast\\u000a cancer were compared with 622 age-matched controls, admitted to the same hospital for acute and non-neoplastic diseases. Unconditional\\u000a logistic regression was used to estimate odds

Betul Oran; Ismail Celik; Mustafa Erman; Esmen Baltali; Nurullah Zengin; Figen Demirkazik; Sabahat Tezcan

2004-01-01

443

Gemcitabine plus Paclitaxel as First-Line Chemotherapy for Patients with Advanced Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of gemcitabine and paclitaxel as first-line treatment in advanced breast cancer. Methods: Patients with histologically confirmed metastatic or metastatic plus locally advanced breast cancer received gemcitabine 1,200 mg\\/m2 on days 1 and 8 and paclitaxel 175 mg\\/m2 on day 1 every 21 days for 8 cycles. Results: From December 1999 to August 2001,

Carlos Delfino; Graciela Caccia; Luis Riva Gonzáles; Elizabeth Mickiewicz; Jeannette Rodger; Luis Balbiani; Daniel Flores Morales; Alberto Zori Comba; Celia Brosio

2004-01-01

444

Chapter 27 -- Breast Cancer Genomics, Section VI, Pathology and Biological Markers of Invasive Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is predominantly a disease of the genome with cancers arising and progressing through accumulation of aberrations that alter the genome - by changing DNA sequence, copy number, and structure in ways that that contribute to diverse aspects of cancer pathophysiology. Classic examples of genomic events that contribute to breast cancer pathophysiology include inherited mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53,

Paul T. Spellman; Laura Heiser; Joe W. Gray

2009-01-01

445

Melatonin and Breast Cancer: A Prospective Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Experimental data from animals suggest a pro- tective role for the pineal hormone melatonin in the etiology of breast cancer, but results from the few retrospective case- control studies that examined the association in hu- mans have been inconsistent. To determine whether low levels of endogenous melatonin are associated with an in- creased risk for developing breast cancer, we

Ruth C. Travis; Diane S. Allen; Ian S. Fentiman; Timothy J. Key

2004-01-01

446

Estrogen replacement therapy in breast cancer survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) adversely affected outcome of breast cancer survivors. Method: A prospective descriptive study of all breast cancer survivors who requested ERT because of intractable menopausal symptoms. All patients presented voluntarily as gynecological outpatients and were all given oral continuous opposed ERT: 20 premarin and medroxyprogesterone and four tibolone. Results: Twenty-four patients who had

F Guidozzi

1999-01-01

447

Impaired ovulation and breast cancer risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conflicting results have been reported on the association between breast cancer risk and symptoms of luteal insufficiency, such as irregular or prolonged menstrual cycles and difficulty in becoming pregnant. Studies on the association between breast cancer risk and hormonal markers of impaired ovulation have also yielded conflicting results. Inadequate allowance for body mass and fat distribution may lead to inconsistent

B. A. Stoll

1997-01-01

448

New directions in breast cancer research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in breast cancer extends in many directions, stimulated by concerns related to the high incidence of the disease and the relative un- predictability of its clinical course. Examples of work in several directions are presented here arranged by four levels of analysis. 1) Molecular, intracellular events (molecular genetics). Recent identification of genes that predispose to breast cancer, and the

SANDRA R. WOLMAN; GLORIA H. HEPPNER; ERIC WOLMAN

449

Aromatase Inhibitors for Treatment of Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer remains the commonest malignancy amongst women and its incidence continues to increase worldwide. This inexorable rise in numbers of women suffering from the disease is particularly notable in those countries which previously had a relatively low incidence of breast cancer but have now adopted Western lifestyles with changes in reproductive behaviour and greater usage of the oral contraceptive

John R. Benson; Oduru Ravisekar

2007-01-01

450

The increasing efficacy of breast cancer treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy in women and although identification of this multi-system disease has increased, the survival rates have not dramatically altered over the past four decades. Optimium treatment of patients with breast cancer is a subject of great debate and traditionally may be divided into surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone manipulation.Halsted's radical mastectomy, although initially superseded by

A. Gordon

1997-01-01

451

Molecular Markers in Hereditary Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The promise of research into breast cancer genetics is that it will provide us with new insights into the etiology of breast cancer that can be translated to strategies for early diagnosis and treatment for the larger population of women who develop breas...

O. I. Olopade

2000-01-01

452

Taxanes, microtubules and chemoresistant breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The taxanes, paclitaxel and docetaxel are microtubule-stabilizing agents that function primarily by interfering with spindle microtubule dynamics causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. However, the mechanisms underlying their action have yet to be fully elucidated. These agents have become widely recognized as active chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer and early-stage breast cancer with benefits gained in

Barbara T. McGrogan; Breege Gilmartin; Desmond N. Carney; Amanda McCann

2008-01-01

453

Genetics of Breast Cancer in Blacks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Breast cancer in young Black women is more virulent, leading to a decrease in the overall survival rates for African Americans diagnosed with breast cancer when compared to Whites. Our studies provide the first concerted effort to seriously address the co...

O. I. Olopade

2001-01-01

454

Breast cancer activism: past lessons, future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer activism has become a fixture in the United States, where fundraising events are ubiquitous and government financing of research into the disease has skyrocketed. Activists in other countries are now reporting similar accomplishments. Here, predominantly using the United States as a case study, I analyse the recent successes of breast cancer activism. I also raise a series of

Barron H. Lerner

2002-01-01

455

[Family and genetic risk of breast cancer].  

PubMed

Screening for breast cancer should concern all women at some point in their life. In cases of a family history of breast cancer, an oncogenetic consultation may be offered. The identification of a genetic predisposition enables specific management strategies for the woman to be drawn up. PMID:23878882

De Pauw, Antoine; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique

2013-06-01

456

Management of triple negative breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for approximately 15% of breast cancer cases. TNBC is an immunohistochemically defined subtype, with significant diversity within the subtype. Generally TNBC occurs in younger women and is marked by high rates of relapse, visceral and CNS metastases, and early death. Current therapy fails to curtail the innate aggressive behaviour of TNBC in the majority

Catherine Oakman; Giuseppe Viale; Angelo Di Leo

2010-01-01

457

Pregnancy-associated breast cancer and metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnancy-associated breast cancer, which has a poor prognosis, is often overlooked by clinicians and researchers alike. With the trend towards delayed child-bearing, an increase in the occurrence of breast cancer complicated by pregnancy is anticipated. The mechanisms that have been proposed to account for this poor prognosis, including increased hormone exposure, might not contribute significantly to the observed increase in

Pepper Schedin

2006-01-01

458

Perinatal factors increase breast cancer risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging evidence suggests that breast cancer may originate during early life. In particular, offspring of mothers who during pregnancy exhibited behaviors that are associated with increased incidence of breast cancer, may be at risk. These behaviors include intake of high fat diet or alcohol, or stressful life style. We have found that neonatal exposure to handling that leads to improved

Leena Hilakivi-Clarke; Robert Clarke; Marc E. Lippman

1994-01-01

459

Editorial breast cancer treatment: Room for improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is an emotive disease as it is virtually confined to women, the incidence of cancer of the male breast being less than one percent. It is estimated that it will affect about one in twelve Irish women during the course of their lives. It is the commonest malignancy affecting women - and 4% of Irish women will die

Maurice A. Stokes; Thomas F. Gorey

1994-01-01

460

Training Program in Breast Cancer Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the City of Hope (COH) Breast Cancer Training Program is to develop a new generation of basic and clinical scientists trained to do research on breast cancer and its prevention. The Program will draw predoctoral trainees from the COH Grad...

S. E. Kane

2001-01-01

461

Training Program in Breast Cancer Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the City of Hope (COH) Breast Cancer Training Program is to develop a new generation of basic and clinical scientists trained to do research on breast cancer and its prevention. The Program will draw predoctoral trainees from the COH Grad...

S. E. Kane

2002-01-01

462

New PTEN Signal Pathway in Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Breast cancer is the second deadliest cancer in US women, with estimated 182,800 new cases yearly. PTEN has been characterized as a tumor suppressor gene and found deleted or mutated in many human tumors, including breast, and functions to negatively regu...

C. Chang

2004-01-01

463

Characterization and Treatment of Aggressive Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several groups have demonstrated that women with BRCA1 germline mutations are more likely to have breast cancers that are basal-like by gene expression profiling. While BRCA1 germline mutations are uncommon and contribute to fewer than 5% of breast cancer...

R. Nanda

2007-01-01

464

New PTEN Signal Pathway in Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Breast cancer is the second deadliest cancer in US women, with estimated 182,800 new cases yearly. PTEN has been characterized as a tumor suppressor gene and found deleted or mutated in many human tumors, including breast, and functions to negatively regu...

C. Chang

2003-01-01

465

Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project has two mayor goals: to design and conduct a pilot case- control breast cancer study among Puerto Rican women, and to train and develop researchers in breast cancer at the University of Puerto Rico. The case-control study will enroll women ag...

C. M. Nazario J. Freudenheim

2008-01-01

466

Pregnancy weight gain and breast cancer risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Elevated pregnancy estrogen levels are associated with increased risk of developing breast cancer in mothers. We studied whether pregnancy weight gain that has been linked to high circulating estrogen levels, affects a mother's breast cancer risk. METHODS: Our cohort consisted of women who were pregnant between 1954–1963 in Helsinki, Finland, 2,089 of which were eligible for the study. Pregnancy

Tarja I Kinnunen; Riitta Luoto; Mika Gissler; Elina Hemminki; Leena Hilakivi-Clarke

2004-01-01

467

Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the breast cancer research training program is to recruit and train potential future researchers in breast cancer research. From a total of 90 applications for summer research, we selected a total of five students. During the 12 week progra...

G. P. Zaloga

2005-01-01

468

Jewish religion and risk of breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground The excess risk of breast cancer among Jewish women has been attributed to the effects of difference in lifestyle and reproductive patterns, but there is now evidence that Jewish women may be more likely than other women to inherit mutations in breast-cancer genes. We investigated whether any excessive risk among Jewish women is confined to those with a family

K. M Egan; D Trichopoulos; M. J Stampfer; W. C Willett; P. A Newcomb; A Trentham-Dietz; M. P Longnecker; J. A Baron

1996-01-01

469

Atopy and primary lung cancer. Histology and sex distribution.  

PubMed

Atopy, defined as the ability to develop IgE antibodies to commonly encountered allergens under conditions of normal exposure, has an inherited component with pleiotropic effects. An inverse relationship between the occurrence of atopy, allergy-related diseases, and cancers at specific sites has been reported. The familial association of primary lung cancer is most evident among women, nonsmokers, and those with adenocarcinomas. In order to determine whether the relationship between a lower prevalence of atopy among patients with lung cancer compared to control subjects was consistent between histologic cell types, we used seven common allergens to allergy prick skin test 209 community control subjects (46 women), 109 cases with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (25 women), and 67 patients with primary adenocarcinomas of the lung (23 women). We have confirmed earlier reports of an inverse relationship between atopy and lung cancer risk. In analyses focusing on sex and histologic cell type, we found that women with adenocarcinomas were an exception and were as likely to be atopic as control subjects. The evidence does not support a protective role for atopy among these women. PMID:1989803

McDuffie, H H

1991-02-01

470

Breast cancer metastatic to the gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

The clinical course of patients with breast cancer is often protracted with metastases presenting a considerable time after initial diagnosis and surgical intervention. Whilst specific common patterns of tumour dissemination may be anticipated and readily recognised, more unusual sites may present with confusing symptoms seemingly unconnected to the breast primary. This report documents two cases of primary breast cancer metastatic to the gastrointestinal tract presenting to one surgical unit. PMID:21594419

Ostrowski, J; Quinn, C; Benson, E

1996-05-01

471

New Technologies in Breast Cancer Surgery  

PubMed Central

Since breast-conserving surgery has become the gold standard for early breast cancer, the development of less radical or less burdensome technologies has been pressed for in order to preserve the patient from unnecessary harm through the operative procedure. Different technical approaches are under evaluation, and some of them are already being used in the clinical setting. The aim of this article is to present a perspective on future breast cancer surgery by shedding light on the current innovative and new techniques.

Thill, Marc; Baumann, Kristin

2012-01-01

472

Screening for breast cancer.  

PubMed

To be successful, screening procedures must have certain properties: simplicity, acceptability, reasonable costs, and adequate sensitivity. The evolution of mammography over the past 10 years has allowed the examination to fall within accepted standards for these properties, and it has become a widely accepted procedure. Its expanded use has resulted in an increase in the detection of early stage disease with a profound effect upon the treatment of the disease. Survival continues to correla