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Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is the second most reported type of breastcancer in the Danish BreastCancer Cooperative Group (DBCG). Several histological subtypes exist, with reports of different prognosis. The aim was to present the incidence of ILC in DBCG from 1977-2004, and evaluate tumours regarding diagnosis, histological subtype and grade, and relate to prognosis. Eight hundred and sixty tumours from patients with a diagnosis of ILC or ILC/non-ILC, who underwent breastcancer surgery in the period of 1990-1998, were evaluated. The impact of histological malignancy grade on disease-free survival and overall survival was analysed using a multivariate analysis adjusting for tumour size, hormone receptor status, axillary lymph node status and patient age. The incidence of pure ILC has risen from 5 to 12%, the ILC/non-ILC is constant at 2% of all reported breastcancers in DBCG. Most of the tumours were classical ILC grade II. The majority of the grade III tumours were among the non-classical subtypes, showing a statistically significant worse disease-free and overall survival compared to grade II, regardless of type. The prognosis was the same for grade I and grade II tumours. The number of positive axillary lymph nodes and hormone receptor negative tumours increased among grade III tumours. We conclude that histological malignancy grade has an independent significant impact on the prognosis of ILC, and it should be taken into consideration when planning the postoperative treatment in this group of patients. PMID:17653904
Talman, Maj-Lis Møller; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Rank, Fritz
Background AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as a cellular fuel gauge that responds to energy stress by suppressing cell growth and biosynthetic processes, thus ensuring that energy-consuming processes proceed only if there are sufficient metabolic resources. Malfunction of the AMPK pathway may allow cancer cells to undergo uncontrolled proliferation irrespective of their molecular energy levels. The aim of this study was to examine the state of AMPK phosphorylation histologically in primary breastcancer in relation to clinical and pathological parameters. Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies to phospho-AMPK (pAMPK), phospho-Acetyl Co-A Carboxylase (pACC) an established target for AMPK, HER2, ER?, and Ki67 on Tissue Micro-Array (TMA) slides of two cohorts of 117 and 237 primary breastcancers. The quick score method was used for scoring and patterns of protein expression were compared with clinical and pathological data, including a minimum 5 years follow up. Results Reduced signal, compared with the strong expression in normal breast epithelium, using a pAMPK antibody was demonstrated in 101/113 (89.4%) and 217/236 (91.9%) of two cohorts of patients. pACC was significantly associated with pAMPK expression (p = 0.007 & p = 0.014 respectively). For both cohorts, reduced pAMPK signal was significantly associated with higher histological grade (p = 0.010 & p = 0.021 respectively) and axillary node metastasis (p = 0.061 & p = 0.039 respectively). No significant association was found between pAMPK and any of HER2, ER?, or Ki67 expression, disease-free survival or overall survival. Conclusion This study extends in vitro evidence through immunohistochemistry to confirm that AMPK is dysfunctional in primary breastcancer. Reduced signalling via the AMPK pathway, and the inverse relationship with histological grade and axillary node metastasis, suggests that AMPK re-activation could have therapeutic potential in breastcancer.
Metaplastic breastcancer (MBC) is a rare subtype of invasive breastcancer that tends to have an aggressive clinical presentation as well as a variety of distinct histologic designations. Few systemic treatment options are available for MBC, as it has consistently shown a suboptimal response to standard chemotherapy regimens. These characteristics result in a worse overall prognosis for patients with MBC compared to those with standard invasive breastcancer. Due to its rarity, data focusing on MBC is limited. This review will discuss the clinical presentation, breast imaging findings, histologic and molecular characteristics of MBC as well as potential future research directions.
100 cases of breastcancer treated preoperatively with colchicine (extracted from the Chinese herb Iphigenia indica A. Grey) preparations are studied and compared with 100 other cases treated without preoperative chemotherapy as control. Tissue changes we...
A panel of Japanese and American pathologists reviewed existing histologic material used to study breastcancer risk among the A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a population in which incidence studies have found a strong relationship between breastcancer risk and radiation dose. The primary charge to the panel was to define a body of confirmed cases in the Life
Shoji Tokuoka; Masahide Asano; Tsutomu Yamamoto; Masayoshi Tokunaga; Goi Sakamoto; William H. Hartmann; Robert V. P. Hutter; Charles E. Land; Donald E. Henson
Data from a recent study support the hypothesis that axillary lymph node metastases frequently localize near the inflow junction of the afferent lymphatic vessel. Our goal was to evaluate the microscopic location of axillary sentinel lymph node metastases in a prospective study of breastcancer patients. A total of 305 axillary sentinel lymph nodes from 213 breastcancer patients undergoing surgery at our institution were evaluated. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy using technetium-labeled sulfur colloid and intraoperative isosulfan blue dye injection were used for identifying the sentinel lymph node. Intraoperatively, the surgeon placed a suture either at the point of entry of isosulfan blue dye or at the area with the highest radioactive counts, and this area was inked at the grossing bench before processing. Metastases were identified in 55 of the 305 lymph nodes examined. Thirty-four nodes contained metastases in both the inked half and the opposite half. Metastatic tumor was identified in the inked half alone in 18 lymph nodes. Only three nodes contained metastatic tumor in the opposite half with no tumor in the inked half (p <0.001). Similar results were found when nodes tagged at the point of blue dye entry and nodes tagged at the area with the highest radioactive counts were analyzed separately. Our findings suggest that metastatic tumor has a higher probability of being present in the region of the inflow junction of the afferent lymphatic vessel. This information may be useful in determining the optimal method for evaluating axillary sentinel lymph node specimens from breastcancer patients. PMID:12604895
Introduction Recently, growing evidence indicates that immunoglobulins (Igs) are not only produced by mature B lymphocytes or plasma cells, but also by various normal cells types at immune privileged sites and neoplasm, including breastcancer. However, the association of breastcancer derived IgG with genesis and development of the disease has not yet been established. Methods In this study we examined the expression of IgG in 186 breastcancers, 20 benign breast lesions and 30 normal breast tissues. Both immunohistochemistry with antibodies to Ig? (immunoglobulin G ? light chain) and Ig? (immunoglobulin G heavy chain) and in situ hybridization with an antisense probe to IgG1 heavy chain constant region gene were performed. Various clinicopathological features were also analyzed. Results We found that IgG is specifically expressed in human breastcancer cells. Both infiltrating ductal carcinoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma had significantly greater numbers of Ig? and Ig? positive cancer cells as compared with medullary carcinoma, carcinoma in situ, and benign lesions (all p<0.05). In addition, IgG expression was correlated with breastcancerhistological subtypes (p<0.01) and AJCC stages (p<0.05), with more abundance of IgG expression in more malignant histological subtypes or in more advanced stage of the disease. Conclusions IgG expression in breastcancer cells is correlated with malignancy and AJCC stages of the cancers. This suggests that breastcancer derived IgG may be associated with genesis, development and prognosis of the cancer.
Numerous studies have evaluated the association between factors related to maturation and reproduction and breastcancer risk, but few have assessed how these factors are related to different histologic types of breastcancer among postmenopausal women. We used polytomous logistic regression to assess the effect of age at maximum height and reproductive factors on risk of invasive breastcancer by histologic type in three case groups (524 ductal, 324 lobular, 196 ductal-lobular) and 469 controls enrolled in a population-based case-control study of women aged 55–74 years residing in the Seattle-Puget Sound region of Washington State (2000–2004). Histologic type was determined by a centralized tissue review for 83% of cases. Age at menarche and age at maximum height were inversely associated with risk of ductal-lobular carcinoma (p-value for trend=0.04 for both exposures), but not ductal or lobular carcinoma. Relative to nulliparous women, parous women had a 50% reduced risk of all histologic types of breastcancer. We observed similar increases in risk across histologic types associated with having a first live birth at ?30 years of age compared to ?19 years of age. Compared to parous women who never breastfed, those who breastfed had a reduced risk of ductal carcinoma (odds ratio=0.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.5–0.9), but not lobular or ductal-lobular carcinoma. Further exploration of breastcancer risk by histology is merited in order to understand differences in the etiology of ductal, lobular, and ductal-lobular carcinoma.
Beaber, Elisabeth F.; Holt, Victoria L.; Malone, Kathleen E.; Porter, Peggy L.; Daling, Janet R.; Li, Christopher I.
Purpose Previously, we found that gene expression in histologically normal breast epithelium (NlEpi) from women at high breastcancer risk can resemble gene expression in NlEpi from cancer-containing breasts. Therefore, we hypothesized that gene expression characteristic of a cancer subtype might be seen in NlEpi of breasts containing that subtype. Experimental Design We examined gene expression in 46 cases of microdissected NlEpi from untreated women undergoing breastcancer surgery. From 30 age-matched cases (15 estrogen receptor (ER)+, 15 ER-) we used Affymetryix U133A arrays. From 16 independent cases (9 ER+, 7 ER-), we validated selected genes using qPCR. We then compared gene expression between NlEpi and invasive breastcancer using 4 publicly available datasets. Results We identified 198 genes that are differentially expressed between NlEpi from breasts with ER+ (NlEpiER+) compared to ER- cancers (NlEpiER-). These include genes characteristic of ER+ and ER- cancers (e.g., ESR1, GATA3, and CX3CL1, FABP7). QPCR validated the microarray results in both the 30 original cases and the 16 independent cases. Gene expression in NlEpiER+ and NlEpiER- resembled gene expression in ER+ and ER- cancers, respectively: 25-53% of the genes or probes examined in 4 external datasets overlapped between NlEpi and the corresponding cancer subtype. Conclusions Gene expression differs in NlEpi of breasts containing ER+ compared to ER- breastcancers. These differences echo differences in ER+ and ER- invasive cancers. NlEpi gene expression may help elucidate subtype-specific risk signatures, identify early genomic events in cancer development and locate targets for prevention and therapy.
Graham, Kelly; Ge, Xijin; de las Morenas, Antonio; Tripathi, Anusri; Rosenberg, Carol L.
Background Improved survival for breastcancer is increasing the likelihood of contralateral tumors. Mammographic screening is partially\\u000a contributing to the survival advantage, while changing many aspects of breastcancer presentation, including age at diagnosis,\\u000a histology and familial risk. As mammography has become widely used, it is important to quantify the risks for contralateral\\u000a breastcancer in a population with a national
This is a clinical study of the histological changes induced in human primary breastcancer by single-session pre-operative\\u000a interstitial irradiation using a medium-power Nd-YAG laser (1064 nm, 1–6 W, 20 pulse s-1, 100 ?s). Changes were studied in 15 tumours resected at an interval of 1–11 days after laser treatment, and in four biopsy\\u000a samples from three tumours treated conservatively
Introduction Breastcancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease at the molecular level. Evolution is difficult to predict according to classical histoclinical prognostic factors. Different studies highlight the importance of large-scale molecular expression analyses to improve taxonomy of breastcancer and prognostic classification. Identification of new molecular markers that refine this taxonomy and improve patient management is a priority in the field of breastcancer research. Nectins are cell adhesion molecules involved in the regulation of epithelial physiology. We present here Nectin-4/PVRL4 as a new histological and serological tumor associated marker for breast carcinoma. Methods Expression of Nectin-4 protein was measured on a panel of 78 primary cells and cell lines from different origins and 57 breast tumors by FACS analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively. mRNA expression was measured by quantitative PCR. Serum Nectin-4 was detected by ELISA and compared with CEA and CA15.3 markers, on panels of 45 sera from healthy donors, 53 sera from patients with non-metastatic breast carcinoma (MBC) at diagnosis, and 182 sera from patients with MBC. Distribution of histological/serological molecular markers and histoclinical parameters were compared using the standard Chi-2 test. Results Nectin-4 was not detected in normal breast epithelium. By contrast, Nectin-4 was expressed in 61% of ductal breast carcinoma vs 6% in lobular type. Expression of Nectin-4 strongly correlated with the basal-like markers EGFR, P53, and P-cadherin, and negatively correlated with the luminal-like markers ER, PR and GATA3. All but one ER/PR-negative tumors expressed Nectin-4. The detection of Nectin-4 in serum improves the follow-up of patients with MBC: the association CEA/CA15.3/Nectin-4 allowed to monitor 74% of these patients compared to 67% with the association CEA/CA15.3. Serum Nectin-4 is a marker of disease progression, and levels correlate with the number of metastases (P = 0.038). Serum Nectin-4 is also a marker of therapeutic efficiency and correlates, in 90% of cases, with clinical evolution. Conclusion Nectin-4 is a new tumor-associated antigen for breast carcinoma. Nectin-4 is a new bio-marker whose use could help refine breastcancer taxonomy and improve patients' follow-up. Nectin-4 emerges as a potential target for breastcancer immunotherapy.
Invasive lobular breastcancer (ILC) is less common than invasive ductal breastcancer (IDC) and appears to have a distinct biology. Inconsistent findings regarding disease-free survival (DFS) are probably due to the fact that histologic type is related to hormone receptor status. This study aims to determine whether the type of the primary breastcancerhistology is an independent prognostic factor for DFS, the risk pattern of loco-regional recurrences and distant metastases (DM), and whether it is a prognostic factor for the site of DM. All Dutch women diagnosed between 2003 and 2005 with ILC (n = 2,949) or IDC (n = 22,378) were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. DFS was assessed using proportional hazard regression analysis. Compared to patients with IDC, those with ILC were significantly older and more likely to have more than three positive lymph nodes and have larger, better differentiated, more multifocal, and hormone receptor positive tumors (all P < 0.001). ILC was more likely to metastasize to the gastrointestinal organs and bones and less likely to the lung, central nervous system, and lymph nodes. Within the ER+PR+ and ER+PR- subgroups ILC was still more likely to metastasize to gastrointestinal organs and less likely to the lung. The timing of recurrence was correlated to hormone receptor status, independent of histological type. Highest risks were observed among ER-PR- patients within 2 years of surgery. Multivariable analysis showed that histological type is not an independent significant prognostic factor of DFS for the first 3 years post-surgery and thereafter (<3 years HR 0.91, 95 % CI 0.78-1.06, >3 years HR 1.07, 95 % CI 0.88-1.30). Histological type should not be considered an important prognostic factor for the risk and risk pattern of recurrences. PMID:22810087
Kwast, Annemiek B G; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Karin C G M; Grandjean, Ilse; Ho, Vincent K Y; Voogd, Adri C; Menke-Pluymers, Marian B E; van der Sangen, Maurice J C; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C G; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Siesling, Sabine
BACKGROUND: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as a cellular fuel gauge that responds to energy stress by suppressing cell growth and biosynthetic processes, thus ensuring that energy-consuming processes proceed only if there are sufficient metabolic resources. Malfunction of the AMPK pathway may allow cancer cells to undergo uncontrolled proliferation irrespective of their molecular energy levels. The aim of this study
Sirwan M Hadad; Lee Baker; Philip R Quinlan; Katherine E Robertson; Susan E Bray; George Thomson; David Kellock; Lee B Jordan; Colin A Purdie; David G Hardie; Stewart Fleming; Alastair M Thompson
Breastcancer is characterized by elevated glucose consump- tion resulting in increased uptake of 18F-FDG. However, tracer uptake varies considerably among tumors imaged with PET. This study compared histologic and immunohistochemical tis- sue analysis of breast carcinomas with preoperative FDG up- take assessed by PET to identify tumor characteristics that define the degree of tracer accumulation. Methods: FDG up- take
Norbert Avril; Manuela Menzel; Jorg Dose; Marcus Schelling; Wolfgang Weber; Fritz Janicke; Walter Nathrath; Markus Schwaiger
Cyclin A has in some studies been associated with poor breastcancer survival, although all studies have not confirmed this. Its prognostic significance in breastcancer needs evaluation in larger studies. Tissue microarray (TMA) technique allows a simultaneous analysis of large amount of tumours on a single microscopic slide. This makes a rapid screening of molecular markers in large amount
K Aaltonen; C Ahlin; R-M Amini; L Salonen; M-L Fjällskog; P Heikkilä; H Nevanlinna; C Blomqvist
Oncotype DX, a gene-expression profiling assay, provides stratification of patients with estrogen-receptor positive, lymph-node-negative early breastcancer into risk groups based on recurrence score, which are associated with distant recurrence and response to chemotherapy. This study aims to determine whether Oncotype DX influences clinicians' treatment decisions, and whether assay results correlate with histologic assessment. Fifty patients with estrogen-receptor positive, node-negative early breastcancer analyzed by Oncotype DX and operated on by two breast surgeons were included. To assess effect on treatment decisions, clinical vignettes were created by retrospective chart review. Physicians were then presented with the clinical vignettes and instructed to make a treatment decisions (i.e., hormone therapy alone versus hormone therapy combined with chemotherapy) both before and after knowledge of the recurrence score. To assess correlation with histologic assessment, a prospective, blinded review of tumor slides was performed by two pathologists. Based on this review, tumors were placed into low, intermediate and high risk groups for comparison with Oncotype DX assay results. Treatment decisions were changed based on Oncotype DX results in 36 and 18% of cases by breast surgeons and medical oncologists, respectively. All tumors categorized as high risk by Oncotype DX were categorized as high risk based on histologic assessment, and 96% of cases categorized as low risk by recurrence score were categorized as low or intermediate risk by histologic assessment. Oncotype DX significantly influences management of estrogen-receptor positive, lymph-node-negative early breastcancer. Further studies are needed to assess association of histologic categorization to assay results. PMID:23614365
Biroschak, Julianne R; Schwartz, Gordon F; Palazzo, Juan P; Toll, Adam D; Brill, Kristin L; Jaslow, Rebecca J; Lee, Sun Yong
... BreastCancer Overview What is breastcancer? Breastcancer begins in breast tissue. Most of the tumors that develop in breast tissue are benign (not cancerous). Some breast tumors are cancerous, but have ... body. This type of breastcancer is called "in situ," and it can almost ...
We use deep max-pooling convolutional neural networks to detect mitosis in breasthistology images. The networks are trained to classify each pixel in the images, using as context a patch centered on the pixel. Simple postprocessing is then applied to the network output. Our approach won the ICPR 2012 mitosis detection competition, outperforming other contestants by a significant margin. PMID:24579167
Cire?an, Dan C; Giusti, Alessandro; Gambardella, Luca M; Schmidhuber, Jürgen
Little is known about the association between alcohol and breastcancer by different tumor characteristics. The study consisted of 184,418 postmenopausal women aged 50–71 years in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study (1995–2003). Alcohol use, diet, and potential risk factors for cancer were assessed with a mailed questionnaire at baseline. The relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards regression. Breastcancer cases and estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status were identified through linkage to state cancer registries. During an average of 7 years of follow-up, 5,461 breastcancer cases were identified. Alcohol was significantly positively associated with total breastcancer: Even a moderate amount of alcohol (>10 g/day) significantly increased breastcancer risk. In a comparison of >35 g versus 0 g/day, the multivariate relative risks were 1.35 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17, 1.56) for total breastcancer, 1.46 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.75) for ductal tumors, and 1.52 (95% CI: 0.95, 2.44) for lobular tumors. The multivariate relative risks for estrogen receptor-positive/progesterone receptor-positive, estrogen receptor-positive/progesterone receptor-negative, and estrogen receptor-negative/progesterone receptor-negative tumors were 1.46 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.91) for >35 g versus 0 g/day, 1.13 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.77) for >20 g versus 0 g/day, and 1.21 (95% CI: 0.79, 1.84) for >20 g versus 0 g/day, respectively. Moderate consumption of alcohol was associated with breastcancer, specifically hormone receptor-positive tumors.
Lew, Jasmine Q.; Freedman, Neal D.; Leitzmann, Michael F.; Brinton, Louise A.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Schatzkin, Arthur
Breastcancer is really one from tumor with highest mortality in this country as well as in the word. For early detection of the loco-regional breastcancer and disease confirmation, many diagnostic procedures were recommended with aims to help in decision for surgery treatment. This comparative study reported data by clinical analyses, ultra-sonography, mammography and histological findings obtained after ex tempore biopsy, in 59 women with breastcancer aged from 16 to 69. The highest incidence of cancer was obtained in women over 61 years of age, although high rate of breastcancer was found in aging between 21 to 50 years. The fibroadenoma were founded in 40.68%, while malignant carcinoma ductale in 13.55% of all cases. Correlation between applied analyses for fibroadenoma was found in 86.05% cases, while in malignant lesions this percentage was highest (93.33%). Apart of these methods applied for early diagnosis in general hospital and obtained statistical significance in diagnosis, new techniques based on molecular level (hormone receptor status) must be used. PMID:19245139
Stojaci?-Djeni?, S; Kerkez, M; Jovi?, D; Maksimovi?, Z; Jeftovi?, I; Mili?, Z; Perisi?, M; Jurisi?, V
Purpose To evaluate the expression of stem cell-related markers at the cellular level in human breast tumors of different subtypes and histologic stage. Experimental design We performed immunohistochemical analyses of 12 proteins [CD44, CD24, ALDH1, vimentin, osteonectin, EPCR, caveolin 1, connexin 43, cytokeratin 18 (CK18), MUC1, claudin 7, and GATA3] selected based on their differential expression in breastcancer cells with more differentiated and stem cell-like characteristics in 47 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) only, 135 cases of IDC with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), 35 cases of DCIS with microinvasion, and 58 cases of pure DCIS. We also analyzed 73 IDCs with adjacent DCIS to determine the differences in the expression of markers by histology within individual tumors. CD44+/CD24? and CD44?/CD24+ cells were detected using double immunohistochemistry. Results CD44 and EPCR expression was different among the four histologic groups and was lower in invasive compared to in situ tumors, especially in luminal A subtype. The expression of vimentin, osteonectin, connexin 43, ALDH1, CK18, GATA3, and MUC1 differed by tumor subtype in some histologic groups. ALDH1 positive cells were more frequent in basal-like and HER2+ than in luminal tumors. CD44+/CD24? cells were detected in 69 % of all tumors with 100% of the basal-like and 52% of HER2+ tumors having some of these cells. Conclusions Our findings suggest that in breastcancer the frequency of tumor cells positive for stem cell-like and more differentiated cell markers varies according to tumor subtype and histologic stage.
Park, So Yeon; Lee, Hee Eun; Li, Hailun; Shipitsin, Michail; Gelman, Rebecca; Polyak, Kornelia
Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) has been reported to be less responsive to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) than invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). We sought to determine whether ILC histology indeed predicts poor response to NAC by analyzing tumor characteristics such as protein expression, gene expression, and imaging features, and by comparing NAC response rates to those seen in IDC after adjustment for these factors. We combined datasets from two large prospective NAC trials, including in total 676 patients, of which 75 were of lobular histology. Eligible patients had tumors ?3 cm in diameter or pathologic documentation of positive nodes, and underwent serial biopsies, expression microarray analysis, and MRI imaging. We compared pathologic complete response (pCR) rates and breast conservation surgery (BCS) rates between ILC and IDC, adjusted for clinicopathologic factors. On univariate analysis, ILCs were significantly less likely to have a pCR after NAC than IDCs (11 vs. 25 %, p = 0.01). However, the known differences in tumor characteristics between the two histologic types, including hormone receptor (HR) status, HER2 status, histological grade, and p53 expression, accounted for this difference with the lowest pCR rates among HR+/HER2- tumors in both ILC and IDC (7 and 5 %, respectively). ILC which were HR- and/or HER2+ had a pCR rate of 25 %. Expression subtyping, particularly the NKI 70-gene signature, was correlated with pCR, although the small numbers of ILC in each group precluded significant associations. BCS rate did not differ between IDC and ILC after adjusting for molecular characteristics. We conclude that ILC represents a heterogeneous group of tumors which are less responsive to NAC than IDC. However, this difference is explained by differences in molecular characteristics, particularly HR and HER2, and independent of lobular histology. PMID:22961065
Lips, Esther H; Mukhtar, Rita A; Yau, Christina; de Ronde, Jorma J; Livasy, Chad; Carey, Lisa A; Loo, Claudette E; Vrancken-Peeters, Marie-Jeanne T F D; Sonke, Gabe S; Berry, Donald A; Van't Veer, Laura J; Esserman, Laura J; Wesseling, Jelle; Rodenhuis, Sjoerd; Shelley Hwang, E
Background Tumour size in breastcancer influences therapeutic decisions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate sizing of primary breastcancer using mammography, sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and thereby establish which imaging method most accurately corresponds with the size of the histological result. Methods Data from 121 patients with primary breastcancer were analysed in a retrospective study. The results were divided into the groups “ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)”, invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC)?+?ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)”, “invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC)”, “invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC)” and “other tumours” (tubular, medullary, mucinous and papillary breastcancer). The largest tumour diameter was chosen as the sizing reference in each case. Bland-Altman analysis was used to determine to what extent the imaging tumour size correlated with the histopathological tumour sizes. Results Tumour size was found to be significantly underestimated with sonography, especially for the tumour groups IDC?+?DCIS, IDC and ILC. The greatest difference between sonographic sizing and actual histological tumour size was found with invasive lobular breastcancer. There was no significant difference between mammographic and histological sizing. MRI overestimated non-significantly the tumour size and is superior to the other imaging techniques in sizing of IDC?+?DCIS and ILC. Conclusions The histological subtype should be included in imaging interpretation for planning surgery in order to estimate the histological tumour size as accurately as possible.
Fifty-seven breastcancers were diagnosed among indigenous Greenlandic women from 1950 to 1974. An additional 22 cases registered between 1975 and 1979 represent a minimum number and were only used as basis for minimum incidence rates. Changes in age-adjusted rate, age-specific incidence pattern, and relative risk were consistent with an upward shift from a population of low risk between 1950
Axillary lymph nodes obtained from 37 patients with cancer of the breast were used in a microcytotoxicity assay against a human mammary cancer cell line, ALAB. Cell suspensions made from 60 individual lymph nodes and 51 lymph node pools were tested. Each lymph node was graded for the extent of the histologic changes of sinus histiocytosis (SH), paracortical hyperplasia (PCH), and germinal center hyperplasia (GCH). High levels of cytotoxicity correlated significantly with the presence of SH and PCH. When multiple lymph nodes of individual patients were pooled and tested, a high intensity of GCH correlated with a low degree of cytototoxicity. The cytotoxic activity of pooled lymph nodes from different axillary regions was studied in 20 patients. In 7 of these patients, low axillary lymph node cells were more cytotoxic than high axillary node cells. The reverse was found for 7 patients, and there was no difference in cytotoxicity between axillary regions in 6. Cytotoxic lymph node pools had high SH and low GCH whether they were obtained from the low or high region. Noncytotoxic lymph node pools from the high axillary region had a low intensity of all three histologic reactions. In contrast, noncytotoxic lymph node pools from the low axillary regions had high intensities of SH, PCH, and GCH. These results suggest that germinal center hyperplasia in the lymph nodes nearest an advancing tumor is associated with a local suppression of cytotoxic cell activity.
... ma-STEK-tuh-mee), which removes the whole breast. This surgery is done when cancer cells have spread through ... woman and her family. A woman who has breastcancer surgery or treatment may not feel well for a ...
Background: Breastcancer (BC) is one of the most common malignancies and a foremost health issue throughout world. BC accounted for 23.1% of cancer cases diagnosed in Oman in 2009. BC is a heterogeneous disease, and immuno-histochemical (IHC) markers are used to further classify it into distinct subtypes, which are biologically discrete and display different behaviors. IHC testing of the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (Her-2); can sub-classify BC into 4 principal molecular subtypes. These subtypes are luminal A (ER+ and/or PR+, HER2-), luminal B (ER+ and/or PR+, HER2+), basal like (BCL - ER-, PR-, HER2-), and Her2/neu (ER-, PR-, HER2+). Previous studies have shown preliminary evidence and high probabilities of molecular differences across ethnic and geographic groups which may be responsible for disparities in presentation, biological behavior, treatment response and outcome. Patients and Methods: BC data from 2006-2010 at the National Oncology Center - The Royal Hospital, Oman were retrospectively retrieved from the electronic patient record system (Al-Shifa). Data were analyzed with respect to ER, PR, and Her-2 status and tumours were classified on molecular basis. Molecular subtypes were correlated with age, histology and treatment outcome. The results were compared with published regional and international data. Results: There were 542 cases of BC accessible for evaluation. Luminal A subtype was the most common and the BCL subtype was highest among Omani females. Age was a significant factor in basal-like (63.8% younger than 50 years vs. 36.2% older than 50 years) and Her2 +ve tumours (60.9% vs. 39.1%). High grade tumors were mostly observed (41%) in basal tumors and were lowest in luminal A (19%). A higher stage at presentation (Stage III and IV) was observed in Her2+ tumours (59%), and a higher (22.4%) mortality was detected in basal like/TN tumours. Conclusions: The molecular classification and sub-typing of BC have revealed ethnic and geographic variation. Luminal A subtype is the most common among Omani female breastcancers but it is less common than in Western females. BCL subtype is highest among Omani females compared with Western females. These differences may have diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic implications. Large scale and multi-centre studies may confirm these findings and can be translated and incorporated to pertinent management strategies. Key Words: Molecular subtypes, breastcancer, Oman, Royal Hospital. PMID:24610287
Mehdi, I; Monem, A A; Al Bahrani, B; Ramadhan, F A
... Next Topic Types of breastcancers What is breastcancer? Breastcancer is a malignant tumor that ... our document, BreastCancer in Men . The normal breast To understand breastcancer, it helps to have ...
Breast Multiple Primary Rules – Matrix C500 – C509 (Excludes lymphoma and leukemia M9590 – 9989 and Kaposi sarcoma M9140) * Prepare one abstract. Use the histology coding rules to assign the appropriate histology code. ** Prepare two or more abstracts.
In the era of mass screening for breastcancer with mammography, it has been noted that conventional tumor attributes and mammographic appearance are insufficient to account for the better prognosis of screen-detected tumors. Such prognostication may require additional updated pathological information regarding tumor phenotype (e.g., basal status) and histological tumor distribution (focality). We investigated this hypothesis using a Bayesian approach to analyze breastcancer data from Dalarna County, Sweden. We used data for tumors diagnosed in the Swedish Two-County Trial and early service screening period, 1977-1995, and from the mature service screening period, 1996-1998. In the early period of mammographic screening (1977-1995), the crude hazard ratio (HR) of breastcancer death for screen-detected cases compared with symptomatic ones was 0.22 (95% CI: 0.17-0.29) compared with 0.53 (95% CI: 0.34-0.76) when adjusted for conventional tumor attributes only. Using the data from the mature service screening period, 1996-1998, the HR was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.08-0.44) unadjusted and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.26-1.47) after adjustment for tumor phenotype, mammographic appearance, histological tumor distribution, and conventional tumor attributes. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the prediction of breastcancer deaths using these variables without the detection mode was 0.82, only slightly less than that observed when additionally including the detection mode (AUC = 0.83). Using Freedman statistics, conventional tumor attributes and mammographic appearances explained 58% (95% CI: 57.5-58.6%) of the difference of breastcancer survival between the screen-detected and the clinically detected breastcancers, whereas the corresponding figure was increased to 77% (95% CI: 75.6-77.6%) when adding the two information on tumor phenotype and histological tumor distribution. The results indicated that conventional tumor attributes and mammographic appearance are not sufficient to be interim markers for explaining the survival difference between screen-detected and clinically detected cancers in the era marked by the widespread use of mammography. Additional information on tumor phenotype and histological distribution may be added as effective interim markers for explaining the benefit of the early detection of breastcancer with mammography. PMID:25046200
Chuang, Shu-Lin; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Yu, Cheng-Ping; Chang, King-Jen; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Tabár, László; Stephen, Duffy W; Smith, Robert A; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi
. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether regressive changes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breastcancer affect\\u000a the accuracy of preoperative MRI measurements of tumor size. Thirty-one patients with breastcancer underwent MRI before and\\u000a after neoadjuvant treatment. Besides pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted MRI, dynamic MRI with high temporal resolution (turbo-FLASH)\\u000a was performed. Contrast enhancement in dynamic MRI
K. Wasser; H. Sinn; C. Fink; S. Klein; H. Junkermann; H. Lüdemann; I. Zuna; S. Delorme
Background. Study of tumor molecular characteristics is necessary to understand both the risk of breastcancer recurrence and the response to therapy. Aims. To evaluate p53, HoxD10, and E-cadherin status in breastcancer and to correlate with histological grade and other prognostic factors. Material and Methods. The study was conducted in 60 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma NOS with 20 cases belonging to each grade and evaluation of p53 was done by IHC and that of HoxD10 and E Cadherin status by PCR and correlation was done with histological grade and other prognostic factors. Result. p53 expression was seen in 71.67% (43/60) of the tumors. HoxD10 gene was downregulated in 46.67% (28/60) of the tumors. p53 overexpression and lower HoxD10 mRNA levels showed statistically significant association higher histological grade of the tumor (P < 0.05). CDH1 gene mutation was seen in 60% (15/25) of the tumors. No significant association was found between p53 expression, HoxD10 gene, CDH1 gene mutation, and other prognostic factors. Conclusion. p53 over expression and lower HoxD10 mRNA levels were found to be significantly associated with higher grade tumours. This suggests that p53 and HoxD10 gene play an important tumor suppressor role and the loss of which results in breastcancer progression.
This study was performed to investigate the relationship between histological type and grade, with the uptake and washout of 99mTc-hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-sestamibi, 99mTc-MIBI) and 99mTcV-dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTcV-DMSA) in breastcancer. Forty-five patients with histologically proven breastcancer had previously been referred for 99mTcV-DMSA and/or 99mTc-MIBI scintimammography. Twenty-five of them underwent both 99mTcV-DMSA and 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy in a double phase study. Lateral prone and anterior supine images were acquired at 15 and 60 min after administration of 740-925 MBq of each radiotracer. Uptake ratios and retention index were calculated and correlated with histology and grade of malignancy. Histology showed eight different histotypes: 77.7% were infiltrating ductal or lobular carcinomas. Mammography was definitely positive in 32/45, indeterminate in 10 and negative in three cases (sensitivity 71%). 99mTcV-DMSA was true positive in 37/40 (sensitivity 92.5%) and 99mTc-MIBI in 28/30 (sensitivity 93.3%) breastcancers. Uptake ratios were significantly higher in ductal than in lobular carcinomas on 99mTcV-DMSA and 99mTc-MIBI scintigrams at early and delayed phases. Grade II carcinomas had significantly lower values of retention index (rapid washout) than grade III carcinomas. This finding was statistically significant only on 99mTc-MIBI scans and was observed in ductal and lobular carcinomas. The retention index did not show any significant difference between ductal and lobular carcinomas. Uptake ratios were also not statistically different between grade II and III cancers. It is concluded that 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTcV-DMSA uptake in breastcancer is probably related to histological type and may distinguish ductal from lobular carcinomas. To a certain degree, the washout rate may reflect the histological grade, but since grade is not the only factor influencing this phenomenon it should be explored further in conjunction with other parameters by multivariate analysis in order to clarify eventual indirect correlations. PMID:11973487
Papantoniou, V; Christodoulidou, J; Papadaki, E; Valotassiou, V; Souvatzoglou, M; Louvrou, A; Feida, H; Sotiropoulou, M; Pampouras, G; Michalas, S; Zerva, C
... surgery removes the entire breast. Lumpectomy (also called breast conserving surgery) is rarely used because of the small size ... the fact sheets on BreastCancer Detection and BreastCancer Surgery. Resources While breastcancer is rare among men, ...
Background Same-day diagnosis based on histology is increasingly being offered to patients suspected of breastcancer. We evaluated to which extent same-day diagnosis affected diagnostic accuracy and patients' anxiety levels during the diagnostic phase. Patients and methods All 759 women referred for same-day evaluation of suspicious breast lesions between November 2011–March 2013 were included. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by linking all patients to the national pathology database to identify diagnostic discrepancies, in which case slides were reviewed. Patients' anxiety was measured in 127 patients by the State Trait and Anxiety Inventory on six moments during the diagnostic workup and changes over time (=?1 week) were analyzed by mixed effect models. Results Core-needle biopsy was indicated in 374/759 patients (49.3%) and in 205/759 (27%) patients, invasive or in situ cancer was found. Final diagnosis on the same day was provided for 606/759 (79.8%) patients. Overall, 3/759 (0.4%) discordant findings were identified. Anxiety levels decreased significantly over time from 45.2 to 30.0 (P?=?<0.001). Anxiety levels decreased from 44.4 to 25.9 (P?=?<0.001) for patients with benign disease, and remained unchanged for patients diagnosed with malignancies (48.6 to 46.7, P?=?0.933). Time trends in anxiety were not affected by other patient or disease characteristics like age, education level or (family) history of breastcancer. Conclusion Same-day histological diagnosis is feasible in the vast majority of patients, without impairing diagnostic accuracy. Patients' anxiety rapidly decreased in patients with a benign diagnosis and remained constant in patients with malignancy.
Barentsz, Maarten W.; Wessels, Hester; van Diest, Paul J.; Pijnappel, Ruud M.; van der Pol, Carmen C.; Witkamp, Arjen J.; van den Bosch, Maurice A. A. J.; Verkooijen, Helena M.
The relationship between brassière size, as an indicator of breast size, and breastcancer risk was considered in a case--control study conducted between 1991 and 1994 in six Italian centres. Cases were 2,557 women, below age 75, with histologically confirmed breastcancer, and controls were 2,566 women admitted to hospital for a wide spectrum of acute, non-neoplastic, non-hormone-related diseases. Odds ratio (ORs) of breastcancer and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained from multiple logistic regression equations including terms for study centre and age, as well as main breastcancer risk factors. A slight inverse relationship was observed between breast size and the risk of breastcancer, with an OR of 1.37 (95% CI 1.05-1.80) for the smallest brassière size compared with the largest; the increase in risk disappeared after adjustment for main recognized breastcancer risk factors, with an OR of 1.16 (95% CI 0.87-1.54) for brassière size < or = 1 compared with > or = 5. No significant heterogeneity in risk of breastcancer with breast size was found in strata of age at diagnosis, parity, age at first birth, age at menopause, family history of breastcancer, benign breast disease, ever use of oral contraceptives and/or hormone replacement therapy. Thus, this study, based on large number of caucasian women, provides conclusive evidence of a lack of appreciable association between breast size and breastcancer risk in this Italian population. PMID:8972252
Tavani, A; Pregnolato, A; La Vecchia, C; Negri, E; Favero, A; Franceschi, S
Breastcancer will continue to be a major health problem for women as long as there is a lack of prevention strategies and underuse of early detection programs. The role of the nurse in health promotion must focus on educating women about the ambiguity surrounding risk factors and the importance of participating in early detection practices. PMID:1448358
During the preceding year, the Duke BreastCancer Tissue Repository collected breastcancer tissue from 124 patients undergoing surgery for pflmary breastcancer at Duke Hospital. In 119 patients, tumor tissue was also embedded in gelatin for special appl...
Breastcancer is the most common malignancy among females in the world. In Iran, age and family history are the major risk\\u000a factors for the development of this disease. Mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with a greatly increased risk\\u000a for familial breastcancer. The frequency of BRCA mutations was identified in familial breastcancers (FBCs) and nonfamilial
H. Rassi; N. G. Gorovenko; M. Houshmand; S. V. Podolskaya; M. Hashemi; K. Majidzadeh; M. H. Hosseini Akbari; M. Shafa Shariat Panahi
Global gene expression profiles, consisting mainly of genes associated with proliferation, have been shown to subdivide histological grade 2 breastcancers into groups with different prognosis. We raised the question whether this subdivision could be done using a single proliferation marker, cyclin A. Furthermore, we combined cyclin A (CA), histological grade (G), and estrogen receptor--ER (E) into a new variable, CAGE. Our aim was to investigate not only the prognostic importance of cyclin A alone but also the value of the combination variable CAGE. In 219 premenopausal node-negative patients, cyclin A was assessed using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. High cyclin A was defined as above the seventh decile of positive cells. Only 13% of the patients received adjuvant systemic therapy. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model the impact of the factors on distant disease-free survival (DDFS). Cyclin A divided histological grade 2 tumors into two groups with significantly different DDFS (hazard ratio [HR]: 15, P < 0.001). When stratifying for ER status, cyclin A was a prognostic factor only in the ER positive subgroup. We found that CAGE was an independent prognostic factor for DDFS in multivariate analysis (HR: 4.1, P = 0.002), together with HER2. CAGE and HER2 identified 53% as low-risk patients with a 5-year DDFS of 95%. A new prognostic variable was created by combining cyclin A, histological grade, and ER (CAGE). CAGE together with HER2 identified a large low-risk group for whom adjuvant chemotherapy will have limited efficacy and may be avoided. PMID:21331623
... AM to 10 PM EST. FACTS FOR LIFE BreastCancer Surgery The goal of breastcancer surgery is to remove the tumor from the breast. ... therapy. This helps to increase survival. Types of breastcancer surgery There are two main types of breastcancer ...
Imaging of breastcancer is multimodal. Mammography uses X-rays, the development of digital mammography has improved its quality and enabled implementations of new technologies such astomosynthesis (3D mammography) or contrast-enhanced digital mammography. Ultrasound is added to mammography when there is need to improve detection in high-density breast, to characterize an image, or guide apuncture or biopsy. Breast MRI is the most sensitive imaging modality. It detects a possible tumor angiogenesis by highlighting an early and intense contrast uptake. This method has an excellent negative predictive value, but its lack of specificity (false positives) can be problematic, thus it has to be prescribed according to published standards. An imaging breast screening report must be concluded by the BI-RADS lexicon classification of the ACR and recommendations about monitoring or histological verification. PMID:24579332
Breastcancer frequency is related to age. There are impressive advances in the diagnostic armament and surgical techniques of breastcancer, and yet, it has continued its deadly impact. In women with operable breastcancer, the histologic status of the axillary lymphnodes remains the most useful prognostic information. Today, breastcancer is viewed as a systemic disease with spreads to
Previous cancer in one breast is a strong known risk factor for cancer in the contralateral breast. Differences in tumor histology and nuclear grading are applied to distinguish between a metastatic spread and a second primary cancer, although cancers of the breast often share the same histological features. Comparison of genetic alterations in paired tumors may provide the most reliable
Elisabeth Janschek; Daniela Kandioler-Eckersberger; Carmen Ludwig; Sonja Kappel; Brigitte Wolf; Susanne Taucher; Margaretha Rudas; Michael Gnant; Raimund Jakesz
This article provides sex and marital therapists with detailed, multifaceted descriptions of sexuality after breastcancer based on survey responses from 863 breastcancer survivors. One third of women reported that breastcancer had had a negative impact on her sex life, and most reported negative changes in at least some areas. Nonetheless, breastcancer survivors did not differ from
Beth E. Meyerowitz; Katherine A. Desmond; Julia H. Rowland; Gail E. Wyatt; Patricia A. Ganz
Sentinel lymph node (SLN) provides accurate nodal staging for breastcancer. This technique has been introduced in Siriraj Hospital since 1998. The goal of this study is to assess its accuracy in predicting the state of the axilla, and compare the results of standard examination and multilevel sectioning. A retrospective analysis of 195 breastcancer patients who underwent both SLN biopsy (using dye alone as the lymphatic mapping) and axillary node dissection during 1998-2002 were analyzed. All slides including SLNs and the non-SLNs (NSLNs) were reviewed and multilevel study was performed on all SLNs and NSLNs [four levels of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) at 200 µm interval and keratin stains on the first and fourth levels]. Of 195 patients, 30% of cases were SLN-positive (32 NSLN-positive and 27 NSLN-negative). Additional study could detect positive axillary nodes 10.8% (4 SLN-positive and 5 NSLN-positive) more than standard HE stain. The false negative rate increased from 20.3% to 24.1%. The concordance between SLN and NSLN statuses was 89.7%. The sensitivity was 75.9%. By multivariate analysis, the significant predictors for axillary node metastasis were tumor size of more than 2.2 cm, histologic type of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), not otherwise specified (NOS) and lymphovascular invasion (LVI). By univariable analysis, the significant predictors of NSLN metastasis after positive-SLN were outer location of the tumor, LVI and perinodal extension. In conclusion, use of multilevel and immunohistochemistry increased detection of positive-SLNs. Caution should be kept in accepting SLN biopsy using peritumoral dye technique alone as the procedure for staging due to a high false-negative rate. The concordance rate of 89.7% confirmed the reliability of SLN. Outer location of tumor, LVI and perinodal extension is significant predictors of positive-NSLN after positive-SLN.
... Helping Rural Counties Access Screening Cancer Home Basic Information About BreastCancerCancer is a disease in ... General Information About Male BreastCancer. Share this information Previous: BreastCancer Home Next: What Is Breast ...
... breastcancer (IBC) is a rare and very aggressive disease in which cancer cells block lymph vessels ... difficult. Also, because inflammatory breastcancer is so aggressive, it can arise between scheduled screening mammograms and ...
The BreastCancer Intergroup (TBCI) began its transition to the NCI BreastCancer Steering Committee (BCSC) at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) BreastCancer Symposium in September 2008 in Washington DC. The TBCI and the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) came together along with the Correlative Science Committee chair of the TBCI to form the BCSC.
The Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) is an integrated prognostic index used to predict patient survival for women with invasive breastcancer. The index is based on invasive tumour size, histological lymph node stage and tumour grade. The value of such an index has been questioned in small invasive breastcancers and it has been suggested that size is the only
J Kollias; C. A Murphy; C. W Elston; I. O Ellis; J. F. R Robertson; R. W Blamey
Grant consists of separate projects; The first aims at assessing the association between lifestyle factors (hormone use) and breastcancer; the second aims at elucidating the role of estrogen metabolism in the development of breastcancer; the third aims ...
During the preceding year, the Duke BreastCancer Tissue Repository collected breastcancer tissue from 126 patients undergoing surgery for a primary breastcancer. This compares to 124 entries in the first year of the repository. As before, nearly all of...
... DCIS) is the most common type of in situ breastcancer, but it is uncommon in men. Inflammatory breast ... common sites of distant metastasis are the bones, lungs, and liver. Less commonly, breastcancer may spread to the brain. The cancer can ...
A history of benign breast disease (BBD) is associated with an approximate two-fold increase in risk of breastcancer, however, the risk differs according to the histological characteristics of the benign lesion and other factors. Although histopathology ...
Tibolone is a synthetic steroid marketed for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. A cohort study of women with no history of breastcancer showed that tibolone was associated with an increased risk of breastcancer. In women with a history of breastcancer, a placebo-controlled trial showed a higher risk of breastcancer recurrence with tibolone. A placebo-controlled trial of half the standard dose of tibolone showed no increased risk of breastcancer but was interrupted due to an increased risk of stroke. In practice, it is better simply not to use tibolone. PMID:21355381
... 7852 www.astro.org • www.rtanswers.org TREATING BREASTCANCER Surgery The main curative treatment for breastcancer is ... of the lymph nodes is performed with the breast surgery of choice. Both mastectomy and breast conserving therapy ( ...
... Burden by County Helping Rural Counties Access Screening Trends for Other Types of Cancer Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Cancer Home BreastCancer Trends Note: The word "significantly" below refers to statistical ...
This grant consisted of 4 separate projects; Projects 1 and 4 aimed at assessing the association between lifestyle factors (exogenous hormone use) and breastcancer. The other two projects aimed at elucidating the role of estrogen metabolism in breast can...
Breastcancer is attributed to genetic alterations, the majority of which are yet to be characterized. Oncogenic alterations that give rise to breast tumors need to be identified to develop targeted treatment options and consequently, improve clinical out...
This papers reports on methodologies and outcome of a study aiming at developing robust tool to evaluate and classify histology images of cervical cancer. Using the histology images acquired from the pathology laboratories in an Indonesian hospital, this study aims to classify cervical biopsy images based on four well known discriminatory features a) the ratio of nuclei to cytoplasm b)
Rahmadwati; G. Naghdy; M. Ross; C. Todd; E. Norachmawati
... standard treatment are used to treat men with breastcancer: Surgery Surgery for men with breastcancer is usually ... the chest wall muscle may also be removed. Breast-conserving surgery , an operation to remove the cancer but not ...
... to 10 PM EST. FACTS FOR LIFE Triple Negative BreastCancer Who gets triple negative breastcancer? About 15-20 percent of all ... Women who have BRCA1 mutations What makes triple negative cancer unique? TNBC is less likely to be ...
... Cervical Cancer Burden by County Helping Rural Counties Access Screening Cancer Home BreastCancer in Young Women Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. When cancer starts in the breast, it is ...
This Review summarizes and evaluates the current evidence for the cellular origins of breastcancer subtypes identified by different approaches such as histology, molecular pathology, genetic and gene-expression analysis. Emerging knowledge of the normal breast cell types has led to the hypothesis that the subtypes of breastcancer might arise from mutations or genetic rearrangements occurring in different populations of
Andrew H Sims; Anthony Howell; Sacha J Howell; Robert B Clarke
Seven breastcancer specimens were examined with diffraction-enhanced imaging at 18 keV with a silicon crystal with use of the silicon 333 reflection in Bragg mode. Images were compared with digital radiographs of the specimen, and regions of increased detail were identified. Six of the seven cases (86%) showed enhanced visibility of surface spiculation that correlated with histopathologic information, including extension of tumor into surrounding tissue. PMID:10715065
Pisano, E D; Johnston, R E; Chapman, D; Geradts, J; Iacocca, M V; Livasy, C A; Washburn, D B; Sayers, D E; Zhong, Z; Kiss, M Z; Thomlinson, W C
\\u000a A significant amount of evidence has accumulated from randomized clinical trials supporting the use of pharmacologic agents\\u000a for breastcancer risk reduction. All of these trials have capitalized on the known expression of estrogen receptors on many\\u000a breastcancer cells, and the demonstrated efficacy of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) to treat breastcancer.\\u000a Two SERMs, tamoxifen and raloxifene, have
This study, based in a psychiatric hospital, reviews the incidence of breastcancer in 93 patients who had received phenothiazines prior to developing breastcancer compared with a control group of 28 patients who did not receive phenothiazines. The results indicate no significant difference in the incidence of breastcancer between those patients receiving phenothiazines and those that did not. The retrospective study covered a period of 21 years. The overall incidence of breastcancer in 63,000 female patients was found to be 1.85/1,000 as compared with 2/1,000 in the general population.
Kanhouwa, Suryabala; Gowdy, John M.; Solomon, James D.
The health burden of cancer is increasing in China, with more than 1·6 million people being diagnosed and 1·2 million people dying of the disease each year. As in most other countries, breastcancer is now the most common cancer in Chinese women; cases in China account for 12·2% of all newly diagnosed breastcancers and 9·6% of all deaths from breastcancer worldwide. China's proportional contribution to global rates is increasing rapidly because of the population's rising socioeconomic status and unique reproductive patterns. In this Review we present an overview of present control measures for breastcancer across China, and emphasise epidemiological and socioeconomic diversities and disparities in access to care for various subpopulations. We describe demographic differences between China and high-income countries, and also within geographical and socioeconomic regions of China. These disparities between China and high-income countries include younger age at onset of breastcancer; the unique one-child policy; lower rates of provision and uptake for screening for breastcancer; delays in diagnosis that result in more advanced stage of disease at presentation; inadequate resources; and a lack of awareness about breastcancer in the Chinese population. Finally, we recommend key measures that could contribute to improved health outcomes for patients with breastcancer in China. PMID:24872111
Fan, Lei; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Li, Jun-Jie; St Louis, Jessica; Finkelstein, Dianne M; Yu, Ke-Da; Chen, Wan-Qing; Shao, Zhi-Ming; Goss, Paul E
... the lump is cancerous, other more specialized pathological tests may be done on the tissue. Your surgeon ... may also ask you to have more radiological tests. Some of the pathological tests can determine how ...
Breast tissue is heterogeneous, associating connective and glandular structures, which grow and change cyclically under hormonal regulation. Hormones are also thought to be the main determinant of the major benign and malignant pathologies encountered in the breast. Benign lesions are more frequent and fibrocystic changes are by far the most common among them. They usually associate different entities, (adenosis, fibrosis,
J. M. Guinebretière; E. Menet; A. Tardivon; P. Cherel; D. Vanel
National Cancer Institute (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) scientists have released a dataset of proteins and phophorylated phosphopeptides identified through deep proteomic and phosphoproteomic analysis of breast tumor samples, previously genomically analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).
... decreases the amount of estrogen made by the body and lowers the risk of breastcancer. However, it is very important to have a cancer risk assessment and counseling before making this decision. The sudden ...
Tumor progression and prognosis in breastcancer patients are difficult to assess using current clinical and laboratory parameters, where a pathological grading is indicative of tumor aggressiveness. This grading is based on assessments of nuclear grade, tubule formation, and mitotic rate. We report here the first protein signatures associated with histological grades of breastcancer, determined using a novel affinity proteomics approach. We profiled 52 breastcancer tissue samples by combining nine antibodies and label-free LC-MS/MS, which generated detailed quantified proteomic maps representing 1,388 proteins. The results showed that we could define in-depth molecular portraits of histologically graded breastcancer tumors. Consequently, a 49-plex candidate tissue protein signature was defined that discriminated between histological grades 1, 2, and 3 of breastcancer tumors with high accuracy. Highly biologically relevant proteins were identified, and the differentially expressed proteins indicated further support for the current hypothesis regarding remodeling of the tumor microenvironment during tumor progression. The protein signature was corroborated using meta-analysis of transcriptional profiling data from an independent patient cohort. In addition, the potential for using the markers to estimate the likelihood of long-term metastasis-free survival was also indicated. Taken together, these molecular portraits could pave the way for improved classification and prognostication of breastcancer.
Olsson, Niclas; Carlsson, Petter; James, Peter; Hansson, Karin; Waldemarson, Sofia; Malmstrom, Per; Ferno, Marten; Ryden, Lisa; Wingren, Christer; Borrebaeck, Carl A. K.
Since the initial discovery of leukemia stem cells nearly a decade ago, a great deal of cancer research has focused on the\\u000a identification of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in many types of solid tumors, including breastcancer. Through analysis of cell\\u000a surface markers and xenotransplant models, a subpopulation of putative human breastcancer stem cells (BCSCs) that is CD24-negative\\/CD44-positive\\u000a (CD24?\\/CD44+)
Male breastcancer (MaleBC) is a rare disease, accounting for <1% of all male tumors. During the last few years, there has been an increase in the incidence of this disease, along with the increase in female breastcancer (FBC). Little is known about the etiology of MaleBC: hormonal, environmental and genetic factors have been reported to be involved in
Laura Ottini; Domenico Palli; Sergio Rizzo; Mario Federico; Viviana Bazan; Antonio Russo
The current extension of the indications for adjuvant chemotherapy, which predisposes to early menopause, and the media coverage of the benefits of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have led patients with a history of breastcancer to seek treatments for estrogen deprivation. In breastcancer survivors, most physicians avoid HRT because of concern regarding the potential promotion of growth of occult
A De la Rochefordiere; K Clough; A Fourquet; H Magdelenat
Male breastcancer, which represents only 1% of all breastcancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breastcancer. Sporadic male breastcancers presenting with another primary breastcancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breastcancer and without a family history of breastcancer. PMID:24319497
Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez
Each year, 50,000 new cases of breastcancer are diagnosed in France and 11,000 women die from it. After a sharp increase, partly explained by the screening program implementation, the incidence rate has decreased for few years. Since the 2000s, the mortality rate has been declining steadily. Many risk factors for breastcancer are known or suspected. Endogenous hormonal factors (age at menarche, menopause, first pregnancy, lactation, number of children) and exogenous (hormone replacement therapy, contraception...) are known risk factors. The lifestyle (weight, diet, physical activity, night work), the family past history as well as environmental pollution may also play a role in breastcancer development. Even if all these factors have individually only a low impact on the occurrence of breastcancer, their effects are additive. However, many patients who will develop breastcancer do not present currently known risk factors. PMID:24579329
Histopathologic recognition is the gold standard in breastcancer diagnoses and is a primary determinant tool for cancer research. Unfortunately, the manual nature of histopathologic recognition leads to low throughput analysis, delays in decision-making and errors. Here, we present an automated means to accurate histologic recognition using mid-infrared molecular spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging is combined with statistical
A study of 501 new breastcancers in patients seen in a consulting surgical practice revealed that 87% were in patients 45 years of age or older. The patients had found 83% of the cancers. The distributions of size and stage were the same for the tumours found by the patients and those found by the referring physicians. Two thirds of the cancers had an associated visible clinical sign, demonstrating the importance of inspection in the examination of the breast. Dimpling, sometimes apparent only on manipulation of the tumour, was present with 264 of the cancers and was often associated with "minimal" lesions. Mammography was done for 63 of the breastcancers but it missed 27. Of the physician-found cancers 15 were in patients who had already had breastcancer, 4 were in patients presenting with symptomatic metastases and 14 were in women presenting with other disorders. Of the 52 cancers found by periodic examination 3 were locally advanced and 21 had axillary metastases, while among the 28 "early" cancers 12 were in women who were senile, mentally defective or psychotic. Only four of the cancers found by the physicians were in women under age 45; two were rapidly fatal, one had an axillary metastasis, and the fourth was in a woman who had had cancer of the opposite breast. The remaining 284 lesions found by periodic or routine examination in women under age 45 were benign. Thus, periodic or routine examination for unsuspected breastcancer in women under age 45 seems unjustified except in those who have already had breastcancer. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2
Most human invasive breastcancers (IBCs) appear to develop over long periods of time from certain pre-existing benign lesions. Of the many types of benign lesions in the human breast, only a few appear to have significant premalignant potential. The best characterized of these include atypical hyperplasias and in situ carcinomas and both categories are probably well on along the
Three independent sets of normal breast tissues without evidence of cancer, either obtained from patients undergoing reduction mammoplasty or in women at time of autopsy, have been analyzed. The postdoctoral trainee has shown that moderate to dramatic tel...
Radiographic imaging of the breast began in the early years of the twentieth century. Continuous advances in film quality, energy sources, targets, grids, and filters have all contributed to superior image resolution. Federal quality standards now regulate screening mammography, and mass screening for breastcancer has become widely accepted in the United States. Wider application of screening has resulted in
The potential role of smoking in breastcancer risk has been the subject of over 100 publications, numerous scientific reviews, and animated debate. Tobacco exposure is a well-established cause of lung cancer, and is thought to account for nearly one third of all cancer deaths. Tobacco smoke contains thousands of chemicals, many of which are known to be mammary carcinogens. Although not initially thought to be a tobacco-related cancer, over the last several decades evidence has been accumulating on the role of both active smoking and secondhand smoking in the etiology of breastcancer. The human health evidence has been systematically evaluated not only by several independent researchers but also by several expert agency panels including those of the U.S. Surgeon General, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the California Environmental Protection Agency, and a coalition of Canadian health agencies. Although the assessments have varied with time and across reviewers, the most recent weight of the evidence has suggested a potentially casual role for active smoking and breastcancer, particularly for long-term heavy smoking and smoking initiation at an early age. The role of secondhand smoking and breastcancer is less clear, although there has been some suggestion for an increased risk for premenopausal breastcancer. Recent studies evaluating the possible modifying role of polymorphisms in genes involved in the metabolism of tobacco products, particularly NAT2, have contributed another dimension to these assessments, although to date that evidence remains equivocal. PMID:23179580
Background The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyze the overall survival of patients with brain metastases due to breast\\u000a cancer and to identify prognostic factors that affect clinical outcome. Methods Of the 7,872 breastcancer patients histologically diagnosed with breastcancer between January 1990 and July 2006 at the\\u000a Asan Medical Center, 198 patients with solitary or multiple
Sung Sook Lee; Jin-Hee Ahn; Min Kyoung Kim; Sun Jin Sym; Gyungyub Gong; Seung Do Ahn; Sung-Bae Kim; Woo Kun Kim
Breastcancer is the most common tumor in childbearing women. In the last decades, considerable improvement in breastcancer-related death has been achieved with adjuvant therapies (chemotherapy, endocrine and targeted therapies, radiotherapy) but at cost of significant long-term sequels, including infertility. Reproductive issues are of great importance to young women, in particular for those who did not complete their families before breastcancer diagnosis: patients should be adequately informed at the time of diagnosis about the risk of infertility and the available methods for fertility preservation. This review will focus on incidence and impact of infertility secondary to breastcancer treatment, the available options for ovarian function preservation, including embryo and oocyte cryopreservation, ovarian tissue cryopreservation, and ovarian suppression with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists. We will also discuss the optimal time of subsequent pregnancy, the potential risks for the mother and the fetus, and the impact of therapies on breastfeeding. PMID:23020991
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... called lymph and help fight infection and disease. Clusters of lymph nodes are found near the breast ... the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller. Small clusters of cancer cells (larger than 0.2 millimeter ...
Clarification of the role of diet in breastcancer pathogenesis is important in order to identify modifiable risk factors\\u000a on which to focus prevention efforts. Excess weight and weight gain in adult life are related to higher risk of postmenopausal\\u000a breastcancer, and weight loss after menopause is associated with substantially reduced risk. Even moderate alcohol consumption\\u000a contributes considerably to
Eleni Linos; Michelle D. Holmes; Walter C. Willett
\\u000a The aim of studying the epidemiology of breastcancer is to identify risk factors that could be eliminated or inhibited. Unfortunately,\\u000a the two major risk factors are gender and increasing age, neither of which can be avoided. Nevertheless, the relative rarity\\u000a of male breastcancer (MBC) has prompted investigations in the hope that the disease in men can give clues
Breastcancer incidence is rising worldwide with an increase in aggressive neoplasias in young women. Suspected factors responsible for the global increase include lifestyle changes, notably diet. Currently accepted risk factors directly linked to diet are greater body weight and alcohol consumption. Weight gain in adulthood is associated with increased risk of breastcancer in post-menopausal women, suggesting that weight gain before and around menopausal age may be determinant for breastcancer development among postmenopausal women. Numerous studies also show an impact of specific diets and nutrients - fatty acids, carbohydrates, vitamins B, D, carotenoids, phytoestrogens, fiber - on breastcancer risk, and evidence supports a mechanistic basis for an influence of specific nutrients. However, these studies are plagued with conflicting results. In this review, a new examination of the relationship between nutrition and breastcancer is proposed in light of recent epidemiological studies. Successful development of breastcancer prevention strategies will require identification of biological markers of dietary exposure, and to coordinate worldwide research to discern the effects of diet. PMID:24215727
Tibolone is a relatively new drug for postmenopausal women, which is structurally related to 19?nortestosterone derivatives and exhibits weak oestrogenic, progestogenic and androgenic activities. The effect of tibolone on breast tissue is still obscure. In vitro studies have shown conflicting results regarding the effects of tibolone on breast cells. On the other hand, although epidemiological studies show an increase in the risk of breastcancer among women treated with tibolone, accumulation of data obtained from radiological studies presents promising results. However, the safety of tibolone with regard to breast tissue needs to be investigated further, especially through well?designed, large?scale, randomised?controlled trials.
A case of a 48-year-old male with an inflammatory breastcancer is used to illustrate this uncommon malignancy. The physical examination of thickening and erythema made the clinical diagnosis. Mammographic findings of increased density in the right breast with coarsened stroma and an underlying mass confirmed the clinical findings. The sonographic evaluation revealed a 2-cm ill-defined hypoechoic mass. The pathologic examination of the mastectomy specimen showed an infiltrating duct cell carcinoma with lobular features. Male breastcancer afflicts 1500 men each year. Clinically it must be differentiated from gynecomastia, a much more common and benign condition. PMID:11899787
Spigel, J J; Evans, W P; Grant, M D; Langer, T G; Krakos, P A; Wise, D K
In man, somatostatin is a hormone mostly produced by hypothalamus. It plays different parts in hormonal regulation through many specific receptors in human body. It has also two interesting actions such as an anti-secretory activity, mostly on the gastrointestinal system and an antiproliferative action on tumor cells. Many synthetic somatostatin analogues, more stable than the natural one, have been developed and are already used in digestive surgery to treat postoperative digestive fistula. Also, the development of specific polyclonal antibodies allowed the identification of five specific somatostatin receptors and their localization in different cell species. The presence of the five receptors in breastcancer cells has than been demonstrated. The purpose of this literature review is to clarify the potential antitumor effect of somatastatin analogues in breastcancer; its use as a preventive agent on lymphorrhea after breast surgery and its employment in imaging for early breastcancer detection. PMID:21896402
Preinvasive breastcancer accounts for approximately one-third of all newly diagnosed breastcancer cases in the United States and constitutes a spectrum of neoplastic lesions with varying degrees of differentiation and clinical behavior. High-throughput genetic, epigenetic, and gene-expression analyses have enhanced our understanding of the relationship of these early neoplastic lesions to normal breast tissue, and they strongly suggest that preinvasive breastcancer develops and evolves along two distinct molecular genetic and biological pathways that correlate with tumor grade. Although unique epigenetic and gene-expression changes are not observed in the tumor epithelial compartment during the transition from preinvasive to invasive disease, distinct molecular alterations are observed in the tumor-stromal and myoepithelial cells. This suggests that the stromal and myoepithelial microenvironment of preinvasive breastcancer actively participates in the transition from preinvasive to invasive disease. An improved understanding of the transition from preinvasive to invasive breastcancer will pave the way for novel preventative and therapeutic strategies.
Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using strain-encoded (SENC) breast magnetic resonance images (MRI) for breastcancer detection by examining the compression and relaxation response properties in phantoms and ex vivo breast samples. Methods: A tissue phantom was constructed to mimic different sizes of breast masses and tissue stiffness. In addition, five human ex vivo whole breast specimens with and without masses were studied. MR data was acquired on a 3T scanner consisting of T1-weighted, fat suppressed spin echo T2-weighted, and SENC breast images. Mechanical tissue characteristics (strain) of the phantoms and breast tissue samples were measured using SENC imaging in both compression and relaxation modes. The breast tissue specimens were sectioned and stained in the same plane as the MRI for histological evaluation. Results: For the phantom, SENC images showed soft masses with quantitative strain values between 35% and 50%, while harder masses had strain values between 0% and 20%. Combined compression (CMP) and relaxation (REX) breast SENC images separately categorized all masses into three different groups. For breast SENC, the signal intensities between ex vivo breast mass and breast glandular tissue were significantly different (?7.6 ± 2.6 verses ?20.6 ± 5.4 for SENC-CMP, and 4.2 ± 1.5 verses 22.6 ± 5 for SENC-REX, p < 0.05). Conclusions: We have demonstrated that SENC breast MRI can be used to obtain mechanical tissue properties and give quantitative estimates of strain in tumors. This feasibility study provides the basis for future clinical studies.
Haruoni, Ahmed A.; Hossain, Jakir; El Khouli, Riham; Matsuda, Kant M.; Bluemke, David A.; Osman, Nael F.; Jacobs, Michael A.
Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent BreastCancer; Stage IA BreastCancer; Stage IB BreastCancer; Stage II BreastCancer; Stage IIIA BreastCancer; Stage IIIB BreastCancer; Stage IIIC BreastCancer; Stage IV BreastCancer
Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breastcancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breastcancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.
Based on experimental and epidemiological evidence it is hypothesized that estrogen increases breastcancer risk by increasing mitotic activity in breast epithelial cells. Aromatase is crucial to the biosynthesis of estrogens and may therefore play a role in breastcancer development. Supporting data for an etiological role of aromatase in breast tumor biology are several-fold. First, the association between weight
N M Probst-Hensch; S A Ingles; A T Diep; R W Haile; F Z Stanczyk; L N Kolonel; B E Henderson
... Regarding Genetic Testing Cancers Diagnosed at Late Stages African American Women and Mass Media Campaign Public Service Announcements Public ... Differences in knowledge of breastcancer screening among African American, Arab American, and Latina ... of survey responses and black-white disparity ...
Programs and Projects BreastCancer Prevention Clinical Trials Ongoing Phase I/II Prevention Trials Funded and Monitored by the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group (BGCRG) Principal Investigator Funding Mechanism Title of Award
The long range goal of this project is to improve the accuracy and consistency of breastcancer diagnosis by developing a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system for early prediction of breastcancer from patients' mammographic findings and medical history....
... is available from the NCI Web site . Three tests are used by health care providers to screen for breastcancer: Mammogram Mammography is the most common screening test for breastcancer . A mammogram is an x- ...
Abstract Over the past decade, multiple genetic and histological approaches have accelerated development of new breastcancer diagnostics and treatment paradigms. Multiple distinct genetic subtypes of breastcancers have been defined, and this has progressively led toward more personalized medicine in regard to treatment options. There still remains a deficiency in the development of molecular diagnostic assays that can be used for breastcancer detection and pretherapy clinical decisions. In particular, the type of cancer-specific biomarker typified by a serum or tissue-derived protein. Progress in this regard has been minimal, especially in comparison to the rapid advancements in genetic and histological assays for breastcancers. In this review, some potential reasons for this large gap in developing protein biomarkers will be discussed, as well as new strategies for improving these approaches. Improvements in the study design of protein biomarker discovery strategies in relation to the genetic subtypes and histology of breastcancers is also emphasized. The current successes in use of genetic and histological assays for breastcancer diagnostics are summarized, and in that context, the current limitations of the types of breastcancer-related clinical samples available for protein biomarker assay development are discussed. Based on these limitations, research strategies emphasizing identification of glycoprotein biomarkers in blood and MALDI mass spectrometry imaging of tissues are described.
Cazares, Lisa H.; Jones, E. Ellen; Fuller, Thomas W.; Semmes, O. John; Laronga, Christine
Over the past decade, multiple genetic and histological approaches have accelerated development of new breastcancer diagnostics and treatment paradigms. Multiple distinct genetic subtypes of breastcancers have been defined, and this has progressively led toward more personalized medicine in regard to treatment options. There still remains a deficiency in the development of molecular diagnostic assays that can be used for breastcancer detection and pretherapy clinical decisions. In particular, the type of cancer-specific biomarker typified by a serum or tissue-derived protein. Progress in this regard has been minimal, especially in comparison to the rapid advancements in genetic and histological assays for breastcancers. In this review, some potential reasons for this large gap in developing protein biomarkers will be discussed, as well as new strategies for improving these approaches. Improvements in the study design of protein biomarker discovery strategies in relation to the genetic subtypes and histology of breastcancers is also emphasized. The current successes in use of genetic and histological assays for breastcancer diagnostics are summarized, and in that context, the current limitations of the types of breastcancer-related clinical samples available for protein biomarker assay development are discussed. Based on these limitations, research strategies emphasizing identification of glycoprotein biomarkers in blood and MALDI mass spectrometry imaging of tissues are described. PMID:21332380
Drake, Richard R; Cazares, Lisa H; Jones, E Ellen; Fuller, Thomas W; Semmes, O John; Laronga, Christine
In this study we estimated the efficacy of contralateral breast biopsy as a subsidiary method of early detection of bilateral breastcancer. We performed blind biopsies in the upper outer quadrant of the opposite breast in 195 patients undergoing surgical treatment for primary breastcancer. The histologic examination of the biopsy specimens showed 12 malignant lesions, which accounts for an incidence of 6.1%. In detail, we had two infiltrating ductal cancers, two infiltrating lobular cancers, three ductal in situ cancers, and five lobular in situ cancers. The overall incidence of invasive disease was 2.05%. We concluded that contralateral breast biopsy should be reconsidered as a method for enhancing early detection of contralateral breastcancer in high-risk groups, especially when it meets the emotional needs of patients. Permission given, it is included in the main surgical treatment of patients, avoiding the cost and complications of anesthesia, and it is cosmetically acceptable, without being an emotional burden for the woman. PMID:11348361
In a prospective follow-up study, attention was focused on adjustment to disease in breastcancer patients one year after diagnosis. Prebioptic data was collected in the original patient group consisting of 95 women with mammary tissue findings that required clarification. Twenty-nine women with histological confirmation of breastcancer and 37 patients of the control group with benign histological findings were recontacted after an interval of one year. Data was collected by means of psychological test questionnaires (STAI, SVF, FPI, CIP-DS), the patients with breastcancer were given an additional problem-oriented questionnaire about coping with disease, compiled by the author. Most denied having disease-related fears-progression of the disease, premature death; instead, marked sleep disturbances, regularly, recurring nightmares, and depressed states of mind characterized the psychosomatic correlate of the mental burden. The psychological consequences of cancer are related to some extent to the stage of tumour growth at the time of diagnosis; the process of social reintegration appears to be facilitated in women whose biopsy operation did not involve removal of a breast. An clear characterization of breastcancer patients could not be established using psychological testing procedures one year after diagnosis of the disease. PMID:8001753
Adiponectin, an adipose tissue-derived hormone, has been studied intensively for the past decade because of its anti-inflammatory,\\u000a anti-atherogenic, and anti-diabetic properties. Recent advances suggest that adiponectin also plays an important role in the\\u000a development and progression of various cancers, especially obesity-related cancers. In this review, the authors focus on the\\u000a potential role of adiponectin in breastcancer, an obesity- and
The role of diet for the risk of breastcancer is of great interest as a potentially modifiable risk factor. The evidence from prospective observational studies was reviewed and summarized on selected dietary factors, gene-diet interactions, and breastcancer incidence. Dietary factors were considered that, based on their nutritional constituents, are of particular interest in the context of breastcancer:
Karin B. Michels; Anshu P. Mohllajee; Edith Roset-Bahmanyar; Gregory P. Beehler; Kirsten B. Moysich
Breastcancer is the second most common cause of brain metastases, diagnosed in 10 to 15% of breastcancer patients and found at autopsy in 20 to 30%. Relatively little is known about how breastcancer cells metastasize to the brain, and what phenotypes c...
ABSTRACT: Although uncommon, breastcancer in young women is worthy of special attention due to the unique and complex issues that are raised. This article reviews specific challenges associated with the care of younger breastcancer patients, which include fertility preservation, management of inherited breastcancer syndromes, maintenance of bone health, secondary prevention, and attention to psychosocial issues.
Although uncommon, breastcancer in young women is worthy of special attention due to the unique and complex issues that are raised. This article reviews specific challenges associated with the care of younger breastcancer patients, which include fertility preservation, management of inherited breastcancer syndromes, maintenance of bone health, secondary prevention, and attention to psychosocial issues.
Breastcancer imposes a significant healthcare burden on women worldwide. Early detection is of paramount importance in reducing mortality, yet the diagnosis of breastcancer is hampered by a lack of adequate detection methods. In addition, better breastcancer prognostication may improve selection of patients eligible for adjuvant therapy. Hence, new markers for diagnosis and prognosis are warranted to improve
Background Women are more likely to develop cancer in the left breast than the right. Such laterality may influence subsequent management, especially in elderly patients with heart disease who may require radiation therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore possible factors for such cancer laterality. Methods In this work, clinical data for consecutive patients with histologically confirmed breastcancer were reviewed, with emphasis on clinical presentation and family history. Results Between 2005 and 2012, 687 patients with breastcancer were seen. Two women with incomplete data and eleven men were excluded. In total, 343 (50.9%) patients presented with left breastcancer, 311 (46.1%) with right breastcancer, and 20 (3.0%) with simultaneous bilateral malignancy. There were no significant differences between the three groups, especially in regards to clinical presentation and tumor characteristics. A total of 622 (92.3%) patients had unilateral primary, 20 (3.0%) had simultaneous bilateral, and 32 (4.7%) had metachronous primary breastcancer with subsequent contralateral breastcancer after 7.5–236 months. The worst 10-year survival was for bilateral simultaneous (18%) compared with unilateral (28%) and metachronous primaries (90%). There were no differences in survival in relation to breastcancer laterality, handedness, and presence or absence of a family history of cancer. There were significant similarities between patients and first-degree relatives in regards to breastcancer laterality, namely same breast (30/66, 45.5%), opposite breast (9/66, 13.6%), and bilateral cancer (27/66, 40.9, P=0.01163). This was more evident among patients and their sisters (17/32, 53.1%) or mothers (11/27, 40.7%, P=0.0689). There were also close similarities in relation to age at initial diagnosis of cancer for patients and their first-degree relatives for age differences of ?5 years (48/166, 28.9%), 6–10 years (34/166, 20.5%), and >11 years (84/166, 50.6%, P=0.12065). Conclusion High similarities between patients and their first-degree relatives in regards to cancer laterality and possibly age at initial diagnosis of cancer may suggest an underlying inherited genetic predisposition.
Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Male BreastCancer; Stage IA BreastCancer; Stage IB BreastCancer; Stage II BreastCancer; Stage IIIA BreastCancer; Stage IIIB BreastCancer; Stage IIIC BreastCancer
Summary A retrospective analysis was undertaken in which 15 female and 15 male breastcancers were matched by age, stage, estrogen receptor status, and histologic type. Our protocol compares male and female breastcancers for reactivity with antibodies against tumor-associated antigens known to be present on female breastcancer cells. Formalin-fixed sections of each primary tumor were reacted in the
Joel Lundy; Yousri Mishriki; Michael V. Viola; Sylvia Chao; Barbara Kasa; Sheila Oravez; Allan Schuss
With recent improvements in breast imaging, the ability to identify small breast tumors is markedly improved, prompting significant interest in the use of cryoablation without surgical excision to treat early-stage breastcancer. The cryoablation is often performed using ultrasound-guided tabletop argon-gas-based cryoablation system with a double freeze/thaw cycle. Recent studies have demonstrated that, as a primary therapy for small breastcancer, cryoablation is safe and effective with durable results, and can successfully destroy all cancers <1.0 cm and tumors between 1.0 and 1.5 cm without a significant ductal carcinoma-in-situ (DCIS) component. Presence of noncalcified DCIS is the cause of most cryoablation failures. At this time, cryoablation should be limited to patients with invasive ductal carcinoma <1.5 cm and with <25% DCIS in the core biopsy. For unresectable advanced breastcancer, cryoablation is a palliation modality and may be used as complementary for subsequent resection or other therapies.
Optical spectroscopy allows the characterization, recognition and differentiation of subcutaneous tissues healthy and no-healthy, to facilitate the diagnosis or early detection for breastcancer are studied white adipose tissue by the subcutaneous region with the help of the diffuse reflection spectroscopy in the visible areas (400 to 700 nm) of electromagnetic spectrum for them using a spectrometer portable of integrating sphere, Hunter lab Model Mini-Scan. The problem to be solved for cancer detection by optical techniques is to find the solution to the inverse problem of scattering of radiation in tissue where it is necessary to solve the equation of energy transfer. us through the trigonometric interpolation and by the data adjustment by least squares using Fourier series expansion to parameterize the spectral response curves of each sample of breast adipose tissue then correlated with histological grades established by the optical biopsy for each one of the samples, allowing use this technique to the study of anomalies in White Adipose Tissue Breast, changes are evident in the spectral response for Breast Adipose Tissue carcinogens with respect to healthy tissues and for the different histological grades.
Muñoz Morales, Aarón; Vázquez Y Montiel, Sergio; Reigosa, Aldo
Little is known about knowledge levels regarding hereditary breastcancer among breastcancer survivors. This study explored, among women with early-onset breastcancer (<50 years): 1) knowledge regarding breastcancer risk factors and hereditary breastcancer; and 2) differences in knowledge based on risk for hereditary disease. Participants recruited from 34 Virginia hospitals responded to two questionnaires. The Family History
Susan Miesfeldt; Wendy Cohn; Mary Ropka; Susan Jones
We recently demonstrated that telomere lengths were shorter in more aggressive breastcancer subtypes, such as luminal B, HER-2 positive and triple- negative tumors, suggesting tumor telomere length may have clinical utility as a prognostic and/or risk ma...
... ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site . Three tests are used by health care providers to screen ... ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site . Risks of BreastCancer Screening Screening tests have risks. Decisions about screening tests can be ...
The maps show a pattern of elevated mortality rates for female breastcancer extending from the Mid-Atlantic through the Northeastern states has persisted for many years. Established risk factors are believed to be largely responsible, but the remaining reasons are unknown.
... often used after breast-conserving surgeries (lumpectomy or partial mastectomy) to help reduce the risk of the cancer coming back. The high doses of radiation used for this can harm the fetus any time during pregnancy. It may cause miscarriage, birth defects, slow fetal growth, or a higher risk of ...
... ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site . Three tests are used by health care providers to screen ... ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site . Risks of BreastCancer Screening Screening tests have risks. Decisions about screening tests can be ...
X-rays go digital, computers read film, and chemicals mark tumors, but will these new technologies make it in the clinic? The imaging technologies considered for breastcancer include film-screen mammography, full field digital mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, scintimammography, thermography, electrical impedance imaging, optical imaging, electric potential measurement, positron emission tomography, novel ultrasound techniques, elastography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, thermoacoustic computed
Summary We studied 52 patients with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) of the breast, tissue being available from both breasts in 46 patients. Detailed histological examination of the tissue was combined with specimen radiography. By this technique, six invasive cancers were detected within 2 years of the primary diagnosis. Five of these six carcinomas were clinically occult and were not
A. H. Tulusan; H. Egger; M. L. Schneider; F. Willgeroth
Women who develop bilateral breastcancer at an early age are likely to harbour germline mutations in breastcancer susceptibility genes. The aim of this study was to test for concordant genetic changes in left and right breastcancer of young women (age <50) with bilateral breastcancer that may suggest an inherited breastcancer predisposition. Microsatellite markers were used
J. Kollias; S. Man; M. Marafie; K. Carpenter; S. Pinder; I. O. Ellis; R. W. Blamey; G. Cross; J. D. Brook
Cancer progression is mediated by processes that are also important in wound repair. As a result, cancers have been conceptualized as overhealing wounds or wounds that do not heal, and gene expression signatures reflective of wound repair have shown value as predictors of breastcancer survival. Despite the widespread acknowledgment of commonalities between host responses to wounds and host responses to cancer, the gene expression responses of normal tissue adjacent to cancers have not been well characterized. Using RNA extracted from histologically normal breast tissue from 107 patients, including 60 reduction mammoplasty patients and 47 cancer patients, we measured whole genome expression profiles and identified a gene expression signature that is induced in response to breastcancer. This signature represents an in vivo wound response signature that is differentially expressed in the normal tissue of breastcancer patients compared to those without disease and is highly accurate (at least 92% sensitivity and 98% specificity) in distinguishing diseased and nondiseased. The in vivo wound response signature is highly prognostic of breastcancer survival and there is a strong association between the groups identified by this signature and those identified using serum-treated fibroblasts and other microenvironment-derived or -related signatures. The prevalence of the wound response signature in histologically normal tissue adjacent to breastcancer suggests that microenvironment response is an important variable in breastcancer progression and may be an important target for clinical interventions.
Lee, Myung Hee; Carter, Matthew; Fan, Cheng; Cowan, David W.; Perez, Erick Roman; Pirone, Jason R.; Perou, Charles M.; Jerry, D. Joseph; Schneider, Sallie Smith
Dr. Harry Mahtani analyzes the gas content of nutrient media from Bioreactor used in research on human breastcancer. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breastcancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breastcancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.
Histopathologic recognition is the gold standard in breastcancer diagnoses and is a primary determinant tool for cancer research. Unfortunately, the manual nature of histopathologic recognition leads to low throughput analysis, delays in decision-making and errors. Here, we present an automated means to accurate histologic recognition using mid-infrared molecular spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging is combined with statistical pattern recognition and high throughput sampling to provide automated tissue segmentation into constituent cell types. The method does not need dyes or probes and dispenses with human input. Results demonstrate that the technique is capable of accurate histologic segmentation that can potentially become competitive with that attained by conventional immunohistochemical analyses.
Background: There is increasing evidence that high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) is involved in cancers in addition to cervical cancer. For example, it is generally accepted that HPV has a role in a significant proportion of head and neck tumours, and it has long been hypothesised that hormone dependent oncogenic viruses, such as HPV may have causal roles in some human breastcancers. A number of reports have identified HPV DNA in breast tissue and breastcancer specimens, but these rely on standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is criticised for its propensity for contamination. Methods: We have used two different technologies, in situ and standard PCR (with sequencing), and histology based on light microscopy. Results: We unambiguously demonstrate the presence of high-risk HPV in the cells of breastcancer specimens and breastcancer cell lines. In addition, we also show that the oncogenic characteristics of HPV associated breastcancer are very similar to HPV-associated cervical cancer. Specifically, that putative koilocytes are present in some HPV associated breastcancers. Interpretation: The above observations indicate a likely causal role for high-risk HPV in human breastcancer and offer the possibility of primary prevention of some breastcancers by vaccination against HPV.
Heng, B; Glenn, W K; Ye, Y; Tran, B; Delprado, W; Lutze-Mann, L; Whitaker, N J; Lawson, J S
It has become apparent that estrogen receptor (ER) -?positive and -?negative breast lesions are completely distinct diseases. Precursors of low-grade breastcancer are low-grade premalignant lesions, usually ER and progesterone receptor (PR) positive and HER2 negative. On the other hand, precursors of high-grade breastcancer are high-grade premalignant lesions, usually ER and PR negative and HER2 positive. Lobular neoplasia (LN) and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are important from the clinical point of view. LN increases the risk of bilateral breastcancer. This is why the recommendation for the treatment of LN is very different -? from just following?up up to bilateral mastectomy. The complete surgical excision of the lesion with negative margins is the usual treatment of DCIS. Several big randomized clinical trials showed the benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). Some of them suppose that there is a group of patients who do not need adjuvant treatment. The benefit of adjuvant tamoxifen is clear only for patients with ER positive disease. The UK/?ANZ study showed the benefit of tamoxifen only in patients without RT. PMID:24325156
Norwegian health care for women at risk of inherited breastcancer conforms with the European consensus guidelines published in 1999 and the Norwegian legislation regulating the use of predictive genetic testing. This paper represents a consensus between all medical genetic institutions in Norway handling inherited breastcancer through the Norwegian Group on Inherited Cancer. It is an update based on new knowledge, the structure of our health service and locally available technology and health care resources. The indications for referring patients to genetic testing are maintained. The demonstration of local founder BRCA1 mutations has been used to develop a high capacity for testing for these mutations. Mutation carriers should be offered annual MRI of the breasts for early diagnosis. Oophorectomy at end of childbearing ages is advocated in BRCA mutation carriers and breast-ovarian kindreds. The clinical geneticists have the role of coordinating health service to those in need, and are required to collaborate to present the empirical results of the effects of the interventions. PMID:16299574
Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative BreastCancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive BreastCancer; HER2-negative BreastCancer; HER2-positive BreastCancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male BreastCancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative BreastCancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive BreastCancer; Stage I BreastCancer; Stage II BreastCancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma
In the last years there has been an extraordinary development in the synthesis of new progestins. These compounds are classified, in agreement with their structure, in various groups which include progesterone, retroprogesterones, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterones, 19-norprogesterones, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone derivatives, androstane and estrane derivatives. The action of progestins is a function of many factors: its structure, affinity to the progesterone receptor or to other steroid receptors, the target tissue considered, the biological response, the experimental conditions, dose, and metabolic transformation. The information on the action of progestins in breastcancer patients is very limited. Positive response with the progestins: medroxyprogesterone acetate and megestrol acetate was obtained in post-menopausal patients with advanced breastcancer. However, extensive information on the effect of progestins was obtained in in vitro studies using hormone-dependent and hormone-independent human mammary cancer cell lines. It was demonstrated that in the hormone-dependent breastcancer cells, various progestins (nomegestrol acetate, tibolone, medrogestone, promegestone) are potent sulfatase inhibitory agents. The progestins can also involve the inhibition of mRNA of this enzyme. In another series of studies it was also demonstrated that various progestins are very active in inhibiting the 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase for the conversion of estrone to estradiol. More recently it was observed that the progestins promegestone or medrogestone stimulate the sulfotransferase for the formation of estrogen sulfates. Consequently, the blockage in the formation of estradiol via sulfatase, or the stimulatory effect on sulfotransferase activity, by progestins can open interesting and new possibilities in clinical applications in breastcancer. PMID:9699877
Breast tissue specimens in traditional sample dishes. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breastcancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breastcancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.
Dr. Robert Richmond extracts breast cell tissue from one of two liquid nitrogen dewars. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breastcancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breastcancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.
An estimated 178,480 people in the United States will be diagnosed with and 40,460 will die from breastcancer in 2007.With\\u000a the institution of screening mammography guidelines between 1980 and 1987, there was a doubling in the incidence of small\\u000a breastcancers (? 2 cm) with a concomitant decrease by 27% in the incidence of larger breastcancers (? 3
Stress enhances glucocorticoid (GC) synthesis, which alters inflammation and immune responses, as well as cellular proliferation\\u000a and apoptosis in a number of tissues. Increasingly, stress has been associated with cancer progression, and in particular\\u000a in breastcancer. Consequently, an operational glucocorticoid receptor system in breast tissue influences breastcancer development.\\u000a In this review, we summarize the data on the GC\\/GR
\\u000a Breastcancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. While it is highly treatable during\\u000a the primary stages, the disease is often lethal if it successfully metastasizes. Breastcancer stem cells (CSCs) show distinct\\u000a similarities to normal breast stem cells, have been shown to be the driving force behind primary tumorigenesis, and are postulated\\u000a to
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the single most prevalent cancer in US men whose gold standard of diagnosis is histologic assessment of biopsies. Manual assessment of stained tissue of all biopsies limits speed and accuracy in clinical practice and research of prostate cancer diagnosis. We sought to develop a fully-automated multimodal microscopy method to distinguish cancerous from non-cancerous tissue samples. METHODS:
Jin sTae Kwak; Stephen M Hewitt; Saurabh Sinha; Rohit Bhargava
The clinical expression of in situ cancer varies widely but is usually occult. Diagnosis can be made by a variety of minimally invasive techniques. Treatment of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is patient-directed but generally requires only close follow-up. Mastectomy is the gold standard for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and is associated with low recurrence rates. Breast conservation therapy (BCT) has become an acceptable alternative. This choice of definitive therapy for DCIS depends largely on the ability to obtain negative margins. Any attempt at BCT should be coupled with the caveat of close postoperative long-term follow-up. Patients diagnosed with LCIS or who have a history of DCIS should be given the options for the use of tamoxifen for the reduction of subsequent development of invasive breastcancer. Risk versus benefits should be clearly defined. PMID:12057162
High magnification view of human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. The arrow points to bead surface indicating breastcancer cells (as noted by the staining of tumor cell intermediate filaments). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breastcancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breastcancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida
... area of the missing breast is more visible. Breast surgery or radiation to the breasts does not physically ... chest or arms may help. If you had breast-conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy, the breast may be ...
Opinion statement Treatments for men with breastcancer are based largely on accepted regimens for women with the disease. Surgical treatment\\u000a of the primary tumor should be a mastectomy. Lymph node assessment can be done by conventional axillary node dissection or,\\u000a similar to selected women with small primary tumors, by sentinel node dissection. Decisions regarding adjuvant systemic treatment\\u000a should be made
Opinion statement The clinical expression of in situ cancer varies widely but is usually occult. Diagnosis can be made by a variety of minimally\\u000a invasive techniques. Treatment of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is patient-directed but generally requires only close followup.\\u000a Mastectomy is the gold standard for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and is associated with low recurrence rates. Breast conservation
Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breastcancer. Interleukin- (IL-) 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breastcancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breastcancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breastcancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breastcancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.
Even as the National Institutes of Health came under fire last week for giving short shrift to women in the institute's basic and clinical research programs, the report of a recent NIH consensus conference points up the need for more research on how to treat early breastcancer. Although the experts were able to agree on the best surgical treatment for women with early breastcancer, they couldn't resolve the more controversial issue of whether the patients should subsequently receive systemic treatment - chemotherapy or hormone therapy - to prevent recurrence of their disease. The panel reaffirmed that the removal of the lump and nearby lymph nodes, followed by irradiation, is just as effective as a mastectomy. But then came the contentious question: should women with early breastcancer, especially those without detectable lymph node metastases, receive drug therapy to prevent recurrence of the disease Currently, 70% of such cancers are successfully treated with surgery and radiation alone. For this reason, about 2 years ago, the National Cancer Institute issued a clinical alert saying that addition treatment with drugs or hormones is a credible therapeutic option worthy of careful attention for all early stage patients. This pronouncement engendered a storm of criticism. A consensus panel concluded that in cases where tumors are 1 centimeter or less in diameter and no lymph nodes are affected, the likelihood of recurrence is so small that the benefits of adjuvant therapy would be insignificant. But for the patients with larger tumors, the panel concluded that the decision is an individual one that depends on personal preferences and a variety of prognostic factors that can help to indicate whether a woman is at high risk of having a recurrence and should therefore have adjuvant therapy.
Breastcancer remains a deadly disease, even with all the recent technological advancements. Early intervention has made an impact, but an overwhelmingly large number of breastcancer patients still live under the fear of “recurrent” disease. Breastcancer recurrence is clinically a huge problem and one that is largely not well understood. Over the years, a number of factors have been studied with an overarching aim of being able to prognose recurrent disease. This paper attempts to provide an overview of our current knowledge of breastcancer recurrence and its associated challenges. Through a survey of the literature on cancer stem cells (CSCs), epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), various signaling pathways such as Notch/Wnt/hedgehog, and microRNAs (miRNAs), we also examine the hypotheses that are currently under investigation for the prevention of breastcancer recurrence.
The study was carried out to find out predictors of axillary lymph node metastasis in breastcancer and to evaluate its significance\\u000a in selecting the group of patients in whom axillary dissection could be avoided. Ninety-five breastcancer patients who underwent\\u000a mastectomy and axillary dissection were included in the study. Factors like patient’s age, tumor size, histopathological type,\\u000a histological grade
Amrut V. Ashturkar; Gayatri S. Pathak; Sanjay D. Deshmukh; Harshal T. Pandave
Drugs called bisphosphonates may be able to prevent bone metastases in women with early breastcancer. With this trial, researchers are comparing a bisphosphonate called clodronate with two newer, more-potent bisphosphonates--zoledronate and ibandronate--in women with stage I-III breastcancer.
BACKGROUND: Male breastcancer is a rare but aggressive and devastating disease. This disease presents at a later stage and in a more advanced fashion than its female counterpart. The immunophenotype also appears to be distinct when compared to female breastcancer. Angiogenesis plays a permissive role in the development of a solid tumor and provides an avenue for nutrient
Background Breastcancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. We investigated the association of hormonal contraceptive use and breastcancer in Thai women. Methods A cohort study was conducted in Khon Kaen, Thailand. There were 70 cases of histologically confirmed breastcancer among 11 414 women aged 30 to 69 years who were recruited as participants in the cohort study during the period from 1990 through 2001. The study population was followed-up until December 31, 2011. To identify factors associated with incidence of breastcancer, hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results The 11 414 women provided a total observation time of 157 200 person-years. Breastcancer risk among women with a history of hormonal contraceptive use was 1.31 times that of women without such a history, but the difference was not statistically significant (95% CI, 0.65–2.65). No type of hormonal contraceptive was associated with a significant increase in breastcancer risk as compared with women who had never used hormonal contraceptives (oral contraception: HR = 1.35, 95% CI, 0.65–2.78; injection contraception: HR = 1.25, 95% CI, 0.56–2.80), and there was no relationship between duration of hormonal contraceptive use and breastcancer. Conclusions There was no association between hormonal contraceptive use and breastcancer; however, this finding should be viewed with caution due to the small number of cases.
... muscles under the breast. Possible side effects of breast surgery Aside from pain after the surgery and the ... to one of these volunteers. Chronic pain after breast surgery After breast surgery, some women have pain that ...
Breastcancer is a complex disease that develops from epithelial lesions confined to breast ducts and lobules and progresses rapidly to become locally invasive and finally metastatic. Our recent studies show that breastcancer cells undergo asymmetric eve...
Breastcancer is a complex disease that develops from epithelial lesions confined to breast ducts and lobules and progresses rapidly to become locally invasive and finally metastatic. Our recent studies show that breastcancer cells undergo asymmetric eve...
Breastcancer is a complex disease that develops from epithelial lesions confined to breast ducts and lobules and progresses rapidly to become locally invasive and finally metastatic. Our recent studies show that breastcancer cells undergo asymmetric eve...
Ectopic ACTH secretion in the setting of breastcancer is extremely rare but when present affects both the tumor’s behavior and the incidence of complications. The patient, a 58-year-old woman, first presented with a mass in her left breast as well as multiple osseous metastases and a right femur fracture. Laboratory data revealed a hypokalemic alkalosis. Her plasma ACTH level was elevated. She was diagnosed with breastcancer with ectopic ACTH secretion, and underwent a left mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection. Histological examination demonstrated a poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma with ectopic ACTH secretion. Although the signs and symptoms of ectopic ACTH secretion from a breastcancer are frequently subtle, the recognition of ectopic ACTH secretion from breastcancer is important for patient management.
BreastCancer Steering Committee Roster Co-chairs Thomas Buchholz, M.D.MD Anderson Cancer CenterUniversity of TexasHouston, TX Nancy Davidson, M.D.University of Pittsburgh Cancer InstituteUniversity of Pittsburgh Cancer CentersPittsburgh, PA Members William
Purpose The objective of this study was to analyze the histology of breast lesions categorized as Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 4c or 5 breast lesions during the imaging evaluation, but diagnosed as benign during the histological evaluation. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 71 breast lesions categorized as BI-RADS 4c or 5 during imaging study, but diagnosed as benign upon histological evaluation. Results Breast lesions were classified into six groups upon histological analysis: intraductal papilloma (18 cases), inflammatory group (15 cases), fibroepithelial tumor (14 cases), clustered microcalcification (10 cases), minimal histological alteration (10 cases), and adenosis (4 cases). Sclerosis and architectural complexity were associated with most of the biopsies that were morphologically similar to malignancy. Conclusion Among 71 cases categorized as 4c or 5 during the imaging study, but diagnosed as benign upon histological examination, intraductal papilloma was the most frequently identified histological lesion. These 71 cases exhibited histological characteristics of sclerosis and/or complex/complicated features that should be histologically differentiated from malignancy during evaluation.
AIMS: To assess c-erbB-2 immunostaining in relation to morphological type of in situ and invasive breast carcinoma. METHODS: Formalin fixed, wax embedded archival tissue was used. Invasive carcinomas comprised 50 infiltrating ductal (NOS); seven medullary, 10 tubular, 15 mucinous and 24 classic invasive lobular. In situ carcinomas comprised 48 ductal (DCIS) and 10 cases of lobular (LCIS). The antibodies used were pAB1 (polyclonal) which stains cell lines that over express the c-erbB-2 oncogene, and ICR 12 (monoclonal) which stains sections of breast carcinoma known to show c-erbB-2 amplification. RESULTS: Immunostaining consistent with c-erbB-2 overexpression was found in 10 out of 50 cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma (NOS), one of 24 infiltrating lobular carcinomas and one of seven medullary carcinomas only. Seventy per cent of ICR 12 positive cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma also had extratumoral DCIS. Forty six per cent of pure DCIS lesions also showed strong membrane staining for c-erbB-2 protein, confined to large cell types. CONCLUSIONS: Immunostaining for c-erb B-2 oncoprotein occurs mainly in large cell DCIS and infiltrating ductal carcinoma NOS, especially those with an extratumoral DCIS component. There is a low incidence in other types of breastcancer, including those associated with a better prognosis. Different biological mechanisms may be responsible for histologically distinct types of breast carcinoma. Images
Perou's molecular classification defines tumors that neither express hormone receptors nor overexpress HER2 as triple-negative (TN) tumors. These tumors account for approximately 15% of breastcancers. The so-called basaloid tumors are not always synonymous with TN tumors; they differ in the fact that they express different molecular markers, have a higher histologic grade, and have a worse prognosis. Clinically they occur in younger women as interval cancer, and the risk of recurrence is higher within the first 3 years. Distant recurrences in the brain and visceral metastases are more common than in hormone receptor-positive tumors. Therapeutically, despite being highly chemosensitive, their progression-free time is generally short. In terms of chemotherapeutic treatment, anthracyclines and taxanes are useful drugs, and high response rates have been described for the combination of ixabepilone-capecitabine and platinums. The combination with antiangiogenic drugs has also proven useful. A group of new drugs, poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase inhibitors, showed favorable results in TN tumors with BRCA mutation. There are currently several ongoing studies with new drugs including epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, c-kit inhibitors, Raf/Mek/Map kinase inhibitors and mTOR inhibitors.
Time-lapse exposure depicts Bioreactor rotation. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breastcancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breastcancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.
Background The aim of this present study was to examine duration of breastfeeding in relation to the risk of different subgroups of breastcancer. A prospective cohort, The Malmö Diet and Cancer study, including 14092 parous women, were followed during a mean of 10.2 years and a total of 424 incident breastcancers were diagnosed. Methods Tumours were classified regarding invasiveness, tumour size, axillary lymph node status, Nottingham grade, tumour proliferation (Ki67), HER2, cyclin D1 and p27, WHO histological type and hormone receptor status. Duration of breastfeeding was measured using total time of breastfeeding, categorized in quartiles using the lowest as the reference group (<4.0, ?4.0-?8.0, ?8.0-?13.0 and ?13.0 months). Average duration of breastfeeding per child and breastfeeding duration of the first child were also used as exposures in separate analyses. Relative risks, with 95% confidence intervals, were obtained using a Cox’s proportional hazards analysis adjusted for potential confounders. Results Overall risk for breastcancer was similar in all quartiles of breastfeeding. No strong results regarding breastfeeding duration and breastcancer subgroups were seen. A few results indicated an association between a relatively long duration of breastfeeding and tumours with high proliferation (Ki67) and grade III histological grade. Conclusions Breastfeeding duration was not associated with breastcancer risk and no strong results were seen with regard to breastcancer subgroups.
Primary cilia (PC) are solitary, sensory organelles that are critical for several signaling pathways. PC were detected by immunofluorescence of cultured cells and breast tissues. After growth for 7 days in vitro, PC were detected in ?70% of breast fibroblasts and in 7–19% of epithelial cells derived from benign breast (184A1 and MCF10A). In 11 breastcancer cell lines, PC were present at a low frequency in four (from 0.3% to 4% of cells), but were absent in the remainder. The cancer cell lines with PC were all of the basal B subtype, which is analogous to the clinical triple-negative breastcancer subtype. Furthermore, the frequency of PC decreased with increasing degree of transformation/progression in the MCF10 and MDA-MB-435/LCC6 isogenic models of cancer progression. In histologically normal breast tissues, PC were frequent in fibroblasts and myoepithelial cells and less common in luminal epithelial cells. Of 26 breastcancers examined, rare PC were identified in cancer epithelial cells of only one cancer, which was of the triple-negative subtype. These data indicate a decrease or loss of PC in breastcancer and an association of PC with the basal B subtype. This manuscript contains online supplemental material at http://www.jhc.org. Please visit this article online to view these materials. (J Histochem Cytochem 58:857–870, 2010)
Yuan, Kun; Frolova, Natalya; Xie, Yi; Wang, Dezhi; Cook, Leah; Kwon, Yeon-Jin; Steg, Adam D.; Serra, Rosa; Frost, Andra R.
The purpose of the research supported by this award is to determine if targeting the hedgehog signaling pathway in breastcancer can reduce breastcancer recurrence. Two specific facts about breastcancer recurrence highlight the need for better treatment...
Research supported by this award aims to determine if targeting the hedgehog signaling pathway in breastcancer can reduce breastcancer recurrence. In the United States and other countries with access to advanced cancer care, local and distant breast can...
Tumor dormancy describes a prolonged quiescent state in which tumor cells are present, but disease progression is not yet clinically apparent. Breastcancer is especially known for long asymptomatic periods, up to 25 years, with no evidence of the disease, followed by a relapse. Factors that determine the cell’s decision to enter a dormant state and that control its duration remain unclear. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in understanding how tumor cells circulating in the blood interact and extravasate into secondary sites and which factors might determine whether these cells survive, remain dormant, or become macrometastases. The mechanisms of tumor cell dormancy are still not clear. Two different hypotheses are currently discussed: tumor cells persist either by completely withdrawing from the cell cycle or by continuing to proliferate at a slow rate that is counterbalanced by cell death. Because dormant disseminated tumor cells may be the founders of metastasis, one hypothesis is that dormant tumor cells, or at least a fraction of them, share stem cell-like characteristics that may be responsible for their long half-lives and their suggested resistance to standard chemotherapy. Therefore, knowledge of the biology of tumor cell dormancy may be the basis from which to develop innovative targeted therapies to control or eliminate this tumor cell fraction. In this review, we discuss biological mechanisms and clinical implications of tumor dormancy in breastcancer patients.
Banys, Malgorzata; Hartkopf, Andreas D; Krawczyk, Natalia; Kaiser, Tatjana; Meier-Stiegen, Franziska; Fehm, Tanja; Neubauer, Hans
Mammographic breast density is one of the strongest known risk factors for breastcancer, and a marker of cancer risk for both breasts. Women with dense tissue in more than 75% of the breast have been shown to be at a 4-5 fold increased risk of breast can...
Human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. A cross-section of a construct, grown from surgical specimens of brease cancer, stained for microscopic examination, reveals areas of tumor cells dispersed throughout the non-epithelial cell background. The arrow denotes the foci of breastcancer cells. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breastcancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breastcancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida
In April 1992, the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project and the National Cancer Institute launched the BreastCancer Prevention Trial. This is the largest cancer prevention trial ever attempted. The BreastCancer Prevention Trial will involve 16,000 high-risk women in the United States and Canada. Half will receive tamoxifen and half placebo. Currently, over 5,000 women have been enrolled in the BreastCancer Prevention Trial. The Ochsner Community Clinical Oncology Program in New Orleans is coordinating the trial in Louisiana and Mississippi. Other participating centers in this area are located in Baton Rouge, Houma, and New Orleans East in Louisiana, and Biloxi, Gulfport, Hattiesburg, and Jackson in Mississippi. PMID:8486986
High magnification of view of tumor cells aggregate on microcarrier beads, illustrting breast cells with intercellular boundaires on bead surface and aggregates of cells achieving 3-deminstional growth outward from bead after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breastcancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breastcancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida.
Human primary breast tumor cells after 49 days of growth in a NASA Bioreactor. Tumor cells aggregate on microcarrier beads (indicated by arrow). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breastcancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breastcancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida
Breastcancer is a heterogeneous group of diseases that are clinically subdivided as hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2(+)), and triple-negative breastcancer, to guide therapeutic interventions. Agents that target estrogen receptor (ER) and HER2 are among the most successful cancer therapeutics. However, de novo or acquired resistance is common, despite the development of newer agents against these pathways. As our understanding of tumor biology improves, novel targets are being identified. Notably, inhibitors against several pathways [including, among others, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/mTOR), cell-cycle regulation, heat shock protein, and epigenetic pathways] have demonstrated promising activity in clinical trials, and the mTOR-inhibitor everolimus has been approved for advanced or metastatic aromatase inhibitor-resistant ER(+) breastcancer. At present, there are no established targeted agents for triple-negative breastcancer (negative ER, progesterone receptor, and HER2). Although poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors have shown promising activity in BRCA-related cancers, its value in the treatment of triple-negative breastcancers remains to be demonstrated. In this Review, we present a basic understanding of the major targeted agents in current practice and under development for the treatment of breastcancer in the context of the three clinical subgroups. PMID:23988612
Mohamed, Ali; Krajewski, Kenneth; Cakar, Burcu; Ma, Cynthia X
Results of studies for the association of BRCA1 genotypes and haplotypes with sporadic breastcancer have been inconsistent. Therefore, a candidate SNP approach was used in a breastcancer case-control study to explore genotypes and haplotypes that have the potential to affect protein functions or levels. In a breastcancer case-control study, genotyping of BRCA1 polymorphisms Q356R, D693N, and E1038G was performed on 1005 cases and 1765 controls. Unconditional, polytomous logistic regression and chi square tests were used to examine the associations of breastcancer with genotypes and haplotypes. Additionally, interactions between genotype and smoking, benign breast disease, family history of breastcancer, BMI, alcohol consumption, and hormonal risk factors, hormone receptor status, and breastcancer pathology were calculated also using logistic regression and chi square. While, sporadic breastcancer was not associated with BRCA1 genotypes or haplotypes overall or by menopausal status, there was evidence of an interaction between the E1038G BRCA1 genotype, smoking, and BMI among premenopausal women (p for interaction=0.01 and 0.045, respectively) and between E1038G and D693N BRCA1 genotypes and hormone therapy use among postmenopausal women (p for interaction=0.01 and 0.02, respectively). There were no other associations found between BRCA1 genotypes and stage, histologic grade, or nuclear grade. However, the D693N SNP was associated with the risk of triple negative breastcancer (OR=2.31 95% CI: 1.08–4.93). The BRCA1 variants studied may play a role in the etiology of triple negative breastcancer and may interact with environmental factors such as hormone therapy or smoking and increase sporadic breastcancer risk.
Ricks-Santi, Luisel J.; Nie, Jing; Marian, Catalin; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Trevisan, Maurizio; Edge, Stephen B.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Shields, Peter G.
A survey was administered to 400 breastcancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breastcancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breastcancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…
Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini
The Breast CFR includes lifestyle, medical history, and family history data collected from more than 55,000 women and men from 14,000 families with and without breastcancer. The Breast CFR began recruiting families in 1996, and all participants are followed up 10 years after recruitment to update personal and family histories and expand recruitment if new cases have occurred since baseline.
ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is an important component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. We describe existing clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents and the challenges facing the clinical development and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breastcancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use
Dorte Lisbet Nielsen; Michael Andersson; Jon Lykkegaard Andersen; Claus Kamby
In this trial, doctors will use a test called the Oncotype DX BreastCancer Assay, which measures the activity of a set of genes in breast tumor tissue, to determine which women will receive adjuvant chemotherapy in addition to hormone therapy.
Little is known about the role of birth weight and other prenatal factors in the etiology of breastcancer in Asian-Americans.\\u000a We investigated the relation between birth weight and other prenatal factors and breastcancer risk in a population-based\\u000a case–control study in Los Angeles County that included 2,259 Asian-American women with incident, histologically confirmed\\u000a breastcancer and 2,019 control women,
Anna H. WuRoberta; Roberta McKean-Cowdin; Chiu-Chen Tseng
Data from a multicenter case-control study on breastcancer conducted in Italy have been used to analyze the relationship of olive oil and other dietary fats to breastcancer risk. Cases were 2,564 women hospitalized with histologically confirmed, incident breastcancer. Controls were 2,588 women admitted to the same network of hospitals for acute, non-neoplastic, non-hormone related, on-digestive tract disorders.
Carlo La Vecchia; Eva Negri; Silvia Franceschi; Adriano Decarli; Attilio Giacosa; Loren Lipworth
Background: 1% of breastcancers occur in men.The etiology is obscure. An elevated BMI has been postulated to be a cause.\\u000a Methods: All male breastcancer patients operated from January 1990 to May 2001 were retrospectively reviewed. Relation between\\u000a BMI and male breastcancer was examined. Results: 43 males underwent breast surgery for breastcancer during this period.\\u000a 3 patients
Introduction Previous studies have suggested an inverse relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and breastcancer incidence. The primary objective of this study was to assess whether BMD is associated with risk of subsequent breastcancer occurrence in the female population of southern Israel. Methods The electronic medical charts of women who underwent BMD at the Soroka Medical Center (SMC) between February 2003 and March 2011 were screened for subsequent breastcancer diagnoses. Women were divided by tertiles of BMD at 3 skeletal sites: lumbar spine (LS, L1–4), total hip (TH) and femoral neck (FN). The incidence of breastcancer was calculated. Results Of 15268 women who underwent BMD testing, 86 were subsequently diagnosed with breastcancer. Most women in the study were older than 50 years (94.2% and 92.7%, respectively; p?=?0.597). Women who subsequently developed breastcancer had a higher mean body-mass index (BMI) (30.9±5.5 vs. 29.1±5.7 p?=?0.004) and the mean BMD Z-score was significantly higher than in those without breastcancer for all 3 skeletal sites (LS: 0.36±1.58 vs. ?0.12±1.42, p?=?0.002; TH: 0.37±1.08 vs. 0.03±1.02, p?=?0.002; FN: 0.04±0.99 vs. ?0.18±0.94; p?=?0.026). Women in the highest Z-score tertiles at the FN and TH had a higher chance of developing breastcancer compared to the lowest tertile; odds ratio of 2.15, 2.02, respectively (P?=?0.004 and 0.01 respectively). No association was found between the BMD Z-score and the stage, histology, grade or survival from breastcancer. Conclusions This study provides additional support for an inverse association between BMD and the risk of breastcancer.
Fraenkel, Merav; Novack, Victor; Liel, Yair; Koretz, Michael; Siris, Ethel; Norton, Larry; Shafat, Tali; Shany, Shraga; Geffen, David B.
A collection of material about the Trial Assigning IndividuaLized Options for Treatment (Rx), or TAILORx, which will examine whether a molecular test can assign women with early-stage breastcancer to the most appropriate and effective treatment.
We are continuing our investigation of mechanisms underlying the maintenance of genomic stability and breastcancer development. Our analyses on BRCA1 and DNA damage response have resulted in the identification of several new components involved in DNA da...
Objective: To draw together in a common environment doctoral students from different basic science disciplines and provide them with a strong multidisciplinary background in breastcancer research. Approach: (1) Provide future basic scientists (predoctora...
... Provider Near You About the Program The NBCCEDP Conceptual Framework Social Ecological Model Screening Program Data Screening Program Summaries Training BreastCancer Self-Study Modules Workplans Introduction Case Study Goals Measures of Success Objectives Activities Data Time Frame ...
This report documents progress on studies of the effects on breastcancer cell proliferation of reagents that inhibit mevalonate synthesis (lovastatin) or metabolism (6-fluoromevalonate (Fmev), a mevalonate analogue). In our initial year we have establish...
Metalloestrogens are metals that activate the estrogen receptor in the absence of estradiol. The metalloestrogens fall into two subclasses: metal/metalloid anions and bivalent cationic metals. The metal/metalloid anions include compounds such as arsenite, nitrite, selenite, and vanadate while the bivalent cations include metals such as cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, nickel, chromium, lead, mercury, and tin. The best studied metalloestrogen is cadmium. It is a heavy metal and a prevalent environmental contaminant with no known physiological function. This review addresses our current understanding of the mechanism by which cadmium and the bivalent cationic metals activate estrogen receptor-?. The review also summarizes the in vitro and in vivo evidence that cadmium functions as an estrogen and the potential role of cadmium in breastcancer.
This is the last article in this 3-part series on breastcancer. The previous two articles have outlined the principles behind breast awareness and breast health, detailing common benign breast diseases, types of breastcancer and staging, and treatment for breastcancer, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine treatment. The series concludes by giving information on advanced disease, including when a patient presents late with a fungating breast lesion, or if the disease has metastasized from the breast to other organs. Lymphoedema is also described and discussed, and the latter half of this article discusses psychological implications of breastcancer, from diagnosis through the individual treatments. PMID:19186363
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging is an emerging technique that provides both spatially and chemically resolved information. The rich chemical content of data may be utilized for computer-aided determinations of structure and pathologic state (cancer diagnosis) in histological tissue sections for Prostate and BreastCancer. Recent results show that tissue type (histological) classification can be performed to an accuracy
Rohith Reddy; Brynmor Davis; Paul Scott Carney; Rohit Bhargava
Breastcancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease. Gene expression profiling has contributed significantly to our understanding of this heterogeneity at a molecular level, refining taxonomy based on simple measures such as histological type, tumour grade, lymph node status and the presence of predictive markers like oestrogen receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) to a more sophisticated classification comprising luminal A, luminal B, basal-like, HER2-positive and normal subgroups. In the laboratory, breastcancer is often modelled using established cell lines. In the present review we discuss some of the issues surrounding the use of breastcancer cell lines as experimental models, in light of these revised clinical classifications, and put forward suggestions for improving their use in translational breastcancer research. PMID:21884641
Breastcancer is the most common female malignancy and it frequently metastasizes to bone. Metastatic breastcancer continues to be the primary cause of death for women in East and Southeast Asia. Psoralen is a furocoumarin that can be isolated from the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia L. Psoralen exhibits a wide range of biological properties and has been demonstrated as an antioxidant, antidepressant, anticancer, antibacterial, and antiviral agent. Additionally, it is involved in the formation and regulation of bone. This study investigated whether psoralen can inhibit metastasis of breastcancer to bone in vivo. Histological, molecular biological, and imaging analyses revealed that psoralen inhibits bone metastases in mice. Psoralen may function to inhibit breastcancer cell growth in the bone microenvironment and regulate the function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in tumor-bearing mice. The results of this study suggest that psoralen is a bone-modifying agent and a potential therapeutic to treat patients with bone metastases. PMID:24060909
The management of male breastcancer is still under discussion due to lack of information from prospective, randomized clinical\\u000a trials and low incidence of this disease. Current management is based largely on extrapolation from data related to treatment\\u000a of female breastcancer. Over the last two decades, several review articles have discussed mainly retrospective and anecdotal\\u000a data related to hormonal
Nikolay V. Dimitrov; Sunil Nagpal; Shalini Chitneni
Recently, lipofilling is being performed either as a part of oncoplastic technique or alone by itself for correction of defects and asymmetry after oncologic breastcancer surgery. Its efficacy, safety and technical procedures are varying among institutions and individual surgeon’s experiences. We provide a literature review and view point focus on this novel technique which emphasize on the application on breastcancer reconstruction.
BACKGROUND: NUCKS (Nuclear, Casein Kinase and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate) is a nuclear, DNA-binding and highly phosphorylated protein. A number of reports show that NUCKS is highly expressed on the level of mRNA in several human cancers, including breastcancer. In this work, NUCKS expression on both RNA and protein levels was studied in breast tissue biopsies consisted of invasive carcinomas,
In Western countries, breastcancer is the most common cancer in women but available interventions can reduce risk. The aim of the paper was to review the available evidence regarding breastcancer chemoprevention trials. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify all full?scale, randomized prospective chemoprevention trials as well as similarly conducted randomized trials with breastcancer as the primary monitoring endpoint. In full?scale, randomized chemoprevention trials, the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), tamoxifen and raloxifene, reduce breastcancer incidence. In a direct comparison, tamoxifen resulted in greater breastcancer reduction than raloxifene but with greater endometrial cancer risk. The aromatase inhibitors, exemestane and anastrozole, also reduce breastcancer incidence in breastcancer prevention trials. In the Women's Health Initiative hormone therapy trials, in postmenopausal women with no prior hysterectomy, estrogen plus progestin increased breastcancer incidence and deaths from breastcancer, while estrogen alone, in women with prior hysterectomy, reduced breastcancer incidence and reduced deaths from breastcancer. For premenopausal women at increased breastcancer risk, tamoxifen is a proven option with favorable side effect profile. For postmenopausal women, while no direct comparison of SERMs and aromatase inhibitors for chemoprevention are available, cross?study comparisons suggest greater efficacy and more favorable side effect profile for aromatase inhibitor use, especially for older women. The opposite effects of estrogen plus progestin compared with estrogen alone on breastcancer incidence and outcome should factor into risk?benefit consideration when these agents are considered for climacteric symptom management. PMID:24618912
The prognostic and treatment-predictive markers currently in use for breastcancer are commonly based on the protein levels of individual genes (e.g., steroid receptors) or aspects of the tumor phenotype, such as histological grade and percentage of cells in the DNA synthesis phase of the cell cycle. Microarrays have previously been used to classify binary classes in breastcancer such
Sofia K. Gruvberger-Saal; Patrik Eden; Markus Ringner; Bo Baldetorp; Gunilla Chebil; Carsten Peterson; Paul S. Meltzer
ABSTRACT: Breastcancer is a heterogeneous disease. Patient outcome varies significantly, depending on prognostic features of patients and their tumors, including patient age, menopausal status, tumor size and histology, nodal status, and so on. Response to treatment also depends on a series of predictive factors, such as hormone receptor and HER2 status. Current treatment guidelines use these features to determine
David I Rodenhiser; Joseph D Andrews; Theodore A Vandenberg; Ann F Chambers
Breastcancer is a complex disease characterized by many morphological, clinical and molecular features. For many years, this disease has been classified according to histopathologic criteria, known as the tumor, node and metastasis (TNM) staging system. Clinical criteria that include immunohistochemical markers, such as the estrogen receptor (ER), the progesterone receptor (PR), and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), provide a classification of breastcancer and dictates the optimal therapeutic approach for treatment. With genomic techniques, such as real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), microarrays, next-generation sequencing, and whole-exome sequencing, breastcancer diagnostics is going through a significant evolution. Genomic and transcriptomic technologies make the analysis of gene expression signatures and mutation status possible so that tumors may now be classified more accurately with respect to diagnosis and prognosis. The -omic era has also made the possible identification of new biomarkers involved in breastcancer development, survival and invasion that can be gradually incorporated either into clinical testing or clinical trials. Together, clinical and molecular criteria can contribute to a more personalized management of the breastcancer patient. This article will present the progress made in the diagnosis and management of breastcancer using molecular information provided by genomic and transcriptomic technologies. PMID:24635704
De Abreu, F B; Schwartz, G N; Wells, W A; Tsongalis, G J
Alterations in lipid metabolism have been reported in many types of cancer. Lipids have been implicated in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammation, autophagy, motility and membrane homeostasis. It is required that their biosynthesis is tightly regulated to ensure homeostasis and to prevent unnecessary energy expenditure. This review focuses on the emerging understanding of the role of lipids and lipogenic pathway regulation in breastcancer, including parallels drawn from the study of metabolic disease models, and suggestions on how these findings can potentially be exploited to promote gains in HER2/neu-positive breastcancer research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Lipid Metabolism in Cancer. PMID:23562840
Baumann, Jan; Sevinsky, Christopher; Conklin, Douglas S
Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 12 (PTPN12) is a recently identified tumor suppressor gene (TSG) that is frequently compromised in human triple-negative breastcancer. In the present study, we investigated the expression of PTPN12 protein by patients with breastcancer in a Chinese population and the relationship between PTPN12 expression levels and patient clinicopathological features and prognosis. Additionally, we explored the underlying down-regulation mechanism from the perspective of an epigenetic alteration. We examined PTPN12 mRNA expression in five breastcancer cell lines using semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, and detected PTPN12 protein expression using immunohistochemistry in 150 primary invasive breastcancer cases and paired adjacent non-tumor tissues. Methylation-specific PCR was performed to analyze the promoter CpG island methylation status of PTPN12. PTPN12 was significantly down-regulated in breastcancer cases (48/150) compared to adjacent noncancerous tissues (17/150; P < 0.05). Furthermore, low expression of PTPN12 showed a significant positive correlation with tumor size (P = 0.047), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001), distant metastasis (P = 0.009), histological grade (P = 0.012), and survival time (P = 0.019). Additionally, promoter CpG island hypermethylation occurs more frequently in breastcancer cases and breastcancer cell lines with low PTPN12 expression. Our findings suggest that PTPN12 is potentially a methylation-silenced TSG for breastcancer that may play an important role in breast carcinogenesis and could potentially serve as an independent prognostic factor for invasive breastcancer patients. PMID:23044628
Xunyi, Yuan; Zhentao, Yuan; Dandan, Jiang; Funian, Li
Approximately 5% of all breastcancers are due to one of the high-risk breastcancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, or possibly to a third or fourth moderate- to high-risk gene(s). A further proportion of cases arise in the presence of a less striking family history, with later average age at onset and lower penetrance: familial breastcancer. Bilaterality is a recognized feature of hereditary breastcancer. Cancers often present at an early age, with the contralateral risk high within 10 years. Proof that bilateral malignancies are separate primaries can be difficult histologically, however, especially within 3 years. The recent finding of specific pathological features related to BRCA1 and, to a lesser extent, BRCA2 mutations means that, in addition to bilaterality and family history, a pathological element can be entered into the risk calculation for the presence of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations. This will facilitate the targeting of mutation testing to families in which a positive result is most likely, and may subsequently influence the clinical management of these families.
There has been a growing Black-White disparity in breastcancer mortality after a period of relative equivalence. Literature shows that Black Americans with breastcancer are less likely to receive optimal care compared with White Americans. Tumors in Black Americans are more likely to be poorly differentiated and estrogen receptor negative and exhibit a high S-phase fraction compared with tumors from White Americans. Differences in dietary habits, breast-feeding, and obesity account for some of the population differences in outcome among Black Americans. PMID:24021254
The BreastCancer Family Registry (Breast CFR) and the Colon Cancer Family Registry (Colon CFR) were established by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) as a unique resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.
Breastcancer is the most common form of cancer and the principal cause of death from cancer among women worldwide. Risk factors for breastcancer are manifold. Certain risk factors, such as age and family history are well established. Research in the past decade has further elucidated disease aetiology, in particular the role of hormones and the discovery of breast
Early detection of metastasis-prone breastcancers and characterization of residual metastatic cancers are important in efforts to improve management of breastcancer. Applications of genome-scale molecular analysis technologies are making these complementary approaches possible by revealing molecular features uniquely associated with metastatic disease. Assays that reveal these molecular features will facilitate development of anatomic, histological and blood-based strategies that may enable detection prior to metastatic spread. Knowledge of these features also will guide development of therapeutic strategies that can be applied when metastatic disease burden is low, thereby increasing the probability of a curative response.
... oncologist and/or a medical oncologist. Types of breast surgery Most men with breastcancer have some type ... to find physical therapy helpful. Chronic pain after breast surgery Some patients have problems with nerve (neuropathic) pain ...
... whether she gets chemo before or after her breast surgery. Stage III For a cancer to be stage ... on their initial treatment. If the woman had breast-conserving surgery, a local recurrence in the breast is usually ...
Key words Abstract Breastcancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women, accounting for 25% of all new cases of cancer. Most BC are sporadic while 5-10% are estimated to be due to an inherited predisposition. Autosomal dominant alterations in two genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, are likely to account for most familial cases of early-onset BC and\\/or ovarian cancer
The purpose of this project is to enhance the value of the California Cancer Registry as a research tool for clinicians and epidemiologists interested in conducting breastcancer research. The objectives of the projects are to: (1) classify breastcancers...
Breastcancer is the most common cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer death among women 35-54 years of age. Rising incidence, increased risk among migrants to higher risk regions, and poor prediction of individual risk have prompted a search for additional modifiable factors. Risk factors for breastcancer include reproductive characteristics associated with estrogen and other hormones, pharmaceutical hormones, and activities such as alcohol use and lack of exercise that affect hormone levels. As a result, investigation of hormonally active compounds in commercial products and pollution is a priority. Compounds that cause mammary tumors in animals are additional priorities. Animal models provide insight into possible mechanisms for effects of environmental pollutants on breastcancer and identify chemical exposures to target in epidemiologic studies. Although few epidemiologic studies have been conducted for chemical exposures, occupational studies show associations between breastcancer and exposure to certain organic solvents and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Population-based studies have been limited to a few organochlorine compounds and PAHs and have been mostly negative. A variety of challenges in studies of breastcancer and the environment may have contributed to negative findings. Lack of exposure assessment tools and few hypothesis-generating toxicologic studies limit the scope of epidemiologic studies. Issues of timing with respect to latency and periods of breast vulnerability, and individual differences in susceptibility pose other challenges. Substantial work is needed in exposure assessment, toxicology, and susceptibility before we can expect a pay-off from large epidemiologic studies of breastcancer and environment.
Stage IV breastcancer refers to breastcancer that has already metastasized to distant regions when initially diagnosed. Treatment for stage IV is intended to “prolong survival and palliate symptoms”. Resection of a primary tumor is considered to be “effective only at alleviating chest symptoms and providing local control” in spite of the advances of imaging examination and medication for breastcancer. Molecular target and endocrine drugs are very effective and useful to tailor-make a treatment strategy according to breastcancer subtypes. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography can detect and diagnose the very small metastases and recurrences which can potentially be cured even if they are distant metastases. Recently, many retrospective studies have reported the survival benefit of surgery for breastcancer patients with metastases and some clinical trials which confirm the surgical prognostic benefit for them have started to enrol patients. The goal of treatment has to be clearly identified: increase the patient’s survival time, provide local control or perform histology to determine the cancer’s properties. The best evidence is absolutely essential to treat patients who need surgery at the right time. We need to evaluate the treatment strategy, including primary resection for stage IV breastcancer particularly, and find new evidence by prospective analysis.
Breastcancer pathology reports contain valuable information about the histologic diagnosis, prognostic factors and predictive indicators of therapeutic response. A second opinion may be requested by medical oncologists and surgeons, when a patient is referred from another institution for treatment. We report the experience with pathology second opinion in selected patients referred to the Breast Oncology Unit. 205 cases referred to the Breast Oncology Unit were selected for second opinion after clinical evaluation, between 2002 and 2012. The cases reviewed included 102 core needle biopsies, 88 surgical specimens from the breast and 18 lymphadenopathies, 14 from the axillary region. Pathology second opinion was based on a review of hematoxylin-eosin preparations, recuts of submitted paraffin blocks and written external pathology reports. Immunohistochemical studies for hormone receptors, HER2, myoepithelial cells, and other markers were performed in selected cases. A case was reclassified as showing major change when second opinion showed a potential for significant change in prognosis or treatment. Otherwise, it was considered to represent minor change or to be concordant. In 52 cases (25.4%), the pathology review showed changes. Thirty-three (16%) patients were reclassified for major changes and 19 (9.2%) as minor changes. In six patients, more than one major change was identified. The major discrepancies identified were related to the histologic classification (12 cases), the presence or absence of invasion in ductal carcinoma (15 cases), the results of hormone receptors (5 cases), and HER2 (7 cases). Major changes in histologic classification included two cases diagnosed as invasive ductal carcinoma and reclassified as benign, four cases with diagnosis of breastcancer reclassified as metastatic lung cancer, one case diagnosed as small cell carcinoma of lung metastatic in the breast, reclassified as primary carcinoma of the breast, and three cases with diagnosis of breastcancer in the axilla reclassified as primary cutaneous adnexal carcinomas (2) and metastatic melanoma (1), respectively. In two cases, the histologic type of the primary breast tumor was changed. Second opinion in breast pathology may uncover significant discrepancies that impact on patient management and prognosis. Major discrepancies are most frequently related to the assessment of the presence or absence of invasion in ductal carcinoma, the results of predictive makers of therapeutic response, and the differential diagnosis of breastcancer and nonmammary tumors in the breast, the axilla, and at distant sites. PMID:24689830
\\u000a Breast carcinoma develops in an environment of genetic alterations (a sick lobe) within the breast and already exhibits a\\u000a complex subgross morphology in the early stages of development in many cases. The conventional histology sampling technique\\u000a applied in most laboratories today is insufficient to document this complexity in operative breast specimens. This has necessitated\\u000a the special approach of using large-format
BACKGROUND: Although contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) reduced the risk of contralateral breastcancer in unilateral breastcancer patients, it was difficult to predict which patients were most likely to benefit from the procedure. The objective of this study was to identify the clinicopathologic factors that predict contralateral breastcancer and thereby inform decisions regarding performing CPM in unilateral breastcancer
Min Yi; Funda Meric-Bernstam; Lavinia P. Middleton; Banu K. Arun; Isabelle Bedrosian; Gildy V. Babiera; Rosa F. Hwang; Henry M. Kuerer; Wei Yang; Kelly K. Hunt
Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) using photosensitizer Photosense (PS) in dose 0.5 mg per kg of body weight have been provided in 24 patients with breastcancer. In 22 patients with T1-T2N0M0 primary tumor was treated as the preoperative treatment, radical mastectomy has been fulfilled 7-10 days after PDT with subsequent histological examination. 2 patients had recurrencies of breastcancer with lymph node metastases after radiotherapy. Fluorescent diagnostics of tumor, accumulation of PS in tumor, adjacent tissue, skin before and during PDT was fulfilled with spectranalyzer LESA-01. We used semiconductive laser for PDT - ? = 672+2nm, P=1,5 W, interstitial irradiation 2-24 hours after PS injection has been done in light dose 150-200 J/cm3, 1-3 irradiations with interval 24-48 hours and total light dose 400-600 J/cm3 depending mostly of size and fluorescent data. Partial regression of tumor with pathomorphosis of 2-4 degrees has been found in 19 cases. Our experience shows pronounced efficacy of PDT for treating breastcancer as preoperative modality and as palliation in cases of recurrencies.
Vakoulovskaya, Elena G.; Shental, Victor V.; Oumnova, Loubov V.; Vorozhcsov, Georgiu N.
Dr. Tongzhang Zheng, of Yale University, New Haven, CT, and colleagues conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Connecticut to investigate risk for breastcancer associated with exposure to organochlorine compounds. Levels of organochlorine compounds are being measured in breast adipose (fatty) tissue and blood serum obtained from women who had surgery or biopsies for breastcancer or benign breast disease.
Mammographic breast density is one of the strongest known risk factors for breastcancer, and a marker of cancer risk for both breasts. Information on the etiology of breast density is currently limited. To gain further insight into the role of inflammato...
Like all cancers, breastcancer is considered to result in part from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations leading to oncogene overexpression and tumor suppressor loss. More recently, the role of epigenetic change as a distinct and crucial mechanism to silence a varietyof methy lated tissue-specific and imprinted genes has emerged in manycancer ty pes. This review will briefly discuss
Breastcancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among American women, with over 170,000 new cases and 50,000 deaths each year. Despite advances in detection and treatment, mortality from these diseases remains high. Traditional modes of treatmen...
Objective To review the benefits of adjuvant systemic therapy given to women with breastcancer of reproductive age, its effects on fertility, and options for fertility preservation. Design Publications relevant to fertility preservation and breastcancer were identified through a PubMed database search. Conclusion(s) Most women who develop invasive breastcancer under age 40 will be advised to undergo adjuvant chemotherapy with or without extended antihormonal therapy to reduce the risk of recurrence and death from breastcancer. Adjuvant chemotherapy particularly with alkylating agents such as cyclophosphamide is gonadotoxic and markedly accelerates the rate of age-related ovarian follicle loss. Although loss of fertility is an important issue for young cancer survivors, there is often little discussion about fertility preservation before initiation of adjuvant therapy. Greater familiarity with prognosis and effects of different types of adjuvant therapy on the part of infertility specialists and fertility preservation options such cryopreservation of embryos, oocytes, and ovarian tissue on the part of oncologists would facilitate these discussions. Establishment of rapid fertility consultation links within cancer survivorship programs can help ensure that every young woman who is likely to undergo gonadotoxic cancer treatment is counseled about the effects of therapy and options available to her to increase the likelihood of childbearing after cancer treatment.
Mutations in BRCA2 are responsible for about 35% of familial breastcancers and also a proportion of familial ovarian cancers. Both BRCA2 and BRCAl proteins were shown to have transcriptional activation domains and also shown to be associated with RNA pol...
Mutations in BRCA2 are responsible for about 35% of familial breastcancers and also a proportion of familial ovarian cancers. Both BRCA2 and BRCAl proteins were shown to have transcriptional activation domains and also shown to be associated with RNA pol...
While biopsy is a sensitive and specific test for breastcancer, to achieve a high sensitivity for cancer, many women with mammographic findings due to benign processes undergo biopsy. To improve the specificity of the decision to recommend biopsy and red...
Our understanding of breastcancer heterogeneity at the protein level is limited despite proteins being the ultimate effectors of cellular functions. We investigated the heterogeneity of breastcancer (41 primary tumors and 15 breastcancer cell lines) at the protein and phosphoprotein levels to identify activated oncogenic pathways and developing targeted therapeutic strategies. Heterogeneity was observed not only across histological subtypes, but also within subtypes. Tumors of the Triple negative breastcancer (TNBC) subtype distributed across four different clusters where one cluster (cluster ii) showed high deregulation of many proteins and phosphoproteins. The majority of TNBC cell lines, particularly mesenchymal lines, resembled the cluster ii TNBC tumors. Indeed, TNBC cell lines were more sensitive than non-TNBC cell lines when treated with targeted inhibitors selected based on upregulated pathways in cluster ii. In line with the enrichment of the upregulated pathways with onco-clients of Hsp90, we found synergy in combining Hsp90 inhibitors with several kinase inhibitors, particularly Erk5 inhibitors. The combination of Erk5 and Hsp90 inhibitors was effective in vitro and in vivo against TNBC leading to upregulation of pro-apoptotic effectors. Our studies contribute to proteomic profiling and improve our understanding of TNBC heterogeneity to provide therapeutic opportunities for this disease.
Miranda, Mariska; Shi, Wei; Simpson, Peter T.; Song, Sarah; Vargas, Ana Cristina; Saunus, Jodi M.; Smart, Chanel E.; Mariasegaram, Mythily; Wiegmans, Adrian P.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Lakhani, Sunil R.
Breastcancer diagnosed during pregnancy is a challenging situation for the patient and her medical team. As women are delaying childbirth, the incidence is expected to increase. Most of the data surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of cancer during pregnancy is in case reports and small cohort studies. However, the data continues to expand regarding the safety of systemic treatments during the second and third trimesters for both the mother and the fetus. In this article, the use of diagnostic imaging, procedures, surgery and chemotherapy are reviewed as well as prognosis and future pregnancies after the treatment for breastcancer.
Litton, Jennifer K; Theriault, Richard L; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M
Angiogenesis, formation of new blood vessels, plays a key role in breastcancer growth by providing a method for hematogenous spread of the tumor, as well as providing nutrients for tumor metastasis. Rational treatment strategies for breastcancer must ta...
Angiogenesis, formation of new blood vessels, plays a key role in breastcancer growth by providing a method for hematogenous spread of the tumor, as well as providing nutrients for tumor metastasis. Rational treatment strategies for breastcancer must ta...
We are investigating a new approach to detection of breastcancer using optical vascular function imaging. Research on cancer therapy has revealed unusual properties of tumor vasculature produced through angiogenesis that have high promise for breast canc...
Metastasis is the major cause of death in breastcancer patients. To metastasize, breastcancer cells must degrade extracellular matrices (ECM) using specialized ECM-degrading proteases including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cathepsins. The purpos...
... cancer. Most often, a mastectomy is done. If breast-conserving surgery is done, it is followed by radiation therapy ... cancer. Although this is usually done by mastectomy, breast-conserving surgery such as a lumpectomy may also be an ...
The purpose of the breastcancer research-training program is to recruit and train potential future researchers in breastcancer research. We recruited 15 individuals, interviewed eight, and chose five for the program. During the 12-week program, trainees...
The purpose of the BreastCancer Research Training Program is to recruit and train potential future researchers in breastcancer research. During the 3-year grant, we recruited 75 applicants to the program, interviewed 22 candidates, and hired 15 students...
Prognostic factors are clinical and pathological features that give information in estimating the likely clinical outcome of an individual suffering from cancer. The author gives a short review of the most important prognostic factors in breastcancer. 376 breastcancer cases of a ten year interval in a county hospital are summarized. Traditional clinico-pathological parameters i.e. TNM and steroid receptor status are discussed. The more common karyotipic, oncogene and tumor suppressor gene alterations are outlined in the study. Methods for their detection are presented and their value in prognostication is reviewed. Emphasis was laid on steroid receptors, c-erpB-2, p53 and bcl-2 alterations. Genes responsible for heritable forms of increased breastcancer risk are briefly reviewed. PMID:9608769
Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breastcancer susceptible tissue. Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneously die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breastcancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breastcancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).
Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breastcancer susceptible tissue. Same long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), but after 3 weeks in concinuous culture. Note attempts to reform duct elements, but this time in two dimensions in a dish rather that in three demensions in tissue. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breastcancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breastcancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).
Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breastcancer susceptible tissue. Isolate of long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from outgrowth of duct element; cells shown soon after isolation and early in culture in a dish. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breastcancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breastcancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).
The International Agency on Research on Cancer (IARC) has recently classified "shiftwork that involves circadian disruption" as "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) on the basis of "limited evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of shift-work that involves nightwork", and "sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of light during the daily dark period (biological night)". The epidemiologic evidence of a relationship between shift and night work and breastcancer in women is based upon nine studies, six of which suggest a moderately increased risk to develop breastcancer after prolonged exposure to shift and night work. The aim of this paper is to summarize the possible physio-pathological mechanisms (internal disruption of biological circadian rhythms and clock genes, melatonin suppression through light by night, sleep deprivation) and the problems connected with a proper risk assessment of the risk for breastcancer risk in women shift workers. PMID:21086703
Male breastcancer arising in ectopic axillary breast tissue is a rare occurrence and few cases have been reported in the literature. Due to its rarity, male axillary breastcancer is easy to misdiagnose. As for adenocarcinoma in the axilla, it is difficult to identify whether the origin is the mammary tissue or the skin appendages, particularly in cases where there is a poor differentiation. The present study reports the case of a male patient with a right axillary lesion that had been present for 6 months. A histological evaluation revealed the features of a poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma with regards to the pathological report. The patient was diagnosed with a metastatic adenocarcinoma with unknown primary origin. However, following 4 cycles of intensive chemotherapy, the patient experienced bone metastasis while the local lesion was in partial remission. Further immunohistochemistry confirmed its mammary origin. There is limited literature relating to male ectopic axillary breastcancer, and a high probability of misdiagnosis of this disease.
Background Genomic grade (GG) is a 97-gene signature which improves the accuracy and prognostic value of histological grade (HG) in invasive breast carcinoma. Since most of the genes included in the GG are involved in cell proliferation, we performed a retrospective study to compare the prognostic value of GG, Mitotic Index and Ki67 score. Methods A series of 163 consecutive breastcancers was retained (pT1–2, pN0, pM0, 10-yr follow-up). GG was computed using MapQuant Dx(R). Results GG was low (GG-1) in 48%, high (GG-3) in 31% and equivocal in 21% of cases. For HG-2 tumors, 50% were classified as GG-1, 18% as GG-3 whereas 31% remained equivocal. In a subgroup of 132 ER+/HER2? tumors GG was the most significant prognostic factor in multivariate Cox regression analysis adjusted for age and tumor size (HR?=?5.23, p?=?0.02). Conclusions In a reference comprehensive cancer center setting, compared to histological grade, GG added significant information on cell proliferation in breastcancers. In patients with HG-2 carcinoma, applying the GG to guide the treatment scheme could lead to a reduction in adjuvant therapy prescription. However, based on the results observed and considering (i) the relatively close prognostic values of GG and Ki67, (ii) the reclassification of about 30% of HG-2 tumors as Equivocal GG and (iii) the economical and technical requirements of the MapQuant micro-array GG test, the availability in the near future of a PCR-based Genomic Grade test with improved performances may lead to an introduction in clinical routine of this test for histological grade 2, ER positive, HER2 negative breast carcinoma.
The San Antonio BreastCancer Symposium is considered by researchers and physicians involved in breastcancer management as one of the most important international events on the subject. A dense program of plenary presentations of novel findings, main lectures, poster discussions and displays, it encompasses all the aspects of the rapidly evolving field of breastcancer research and treatment. This article briefly summarises some of the presentations that are expected to have an impact on the medical treatment of breastcancer. PMID:24697336
The BreastCancer Collaborative Registry (BCCR) is a multicenter web-based system that efficiently collects and manages a variety of data on breastcancer (BC) patients and BC survivors. This registry is designed as a multi-tier web application that utilizes Java Servlet/JSP technology and has an Oracle 11g database as a back-end. The BCCR questionnaire has accommodated standards accepted in breastcancer research and healthcare. By harmonizing the controlled vocabulary with the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) or Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT), the BCCR provides a standardized approach to data collection and reporting. The BCCR has been recently certified by the National Cancer Institute’s Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology (NCI CBIIT) as a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) Bronze Compatible product. The BCCR is aimed at facilitating rapid and uniform collection of critical information and biological samples to be used in developing diagnostic, prevention, treatment, and survivorship strategies against breastcancer. Currently, seven cancer institutions are participating in the BCCR that contains data on almost 900 subjects (BC patients and survivors, as well as individuals at high risk of getting BC).
The BreastCancer Collaborative Registry (BCCR) is a multicenter web-based system that efficiently collects and manages a variety of data on breastcancer (BC) patients and BC survivors. This registry is designed as a multi-tier web application that utilizes Java Servlet/JSP technology and has an Oracle 11g database as a back-end. The BCCR questionnaire has accommodated standards accepted in breastcancer research and healthcare. By harmonizing the controlled vocabulary with the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) or Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT), the BCCR provides a standardized approach to data collection and reporting. The BCCR has been recently certified by the National Cancer Institute's Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology (NCI CBIIT) as a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG(®)) Bronze Compatible product.The BCCR is aimed at facilitating rapid and uniform collection of critical information and biological samples to be used in developing diagnostic, prevention, treatment, and survivorship strategies against breastcancer. Currently, seven cancer institutions are participating in the BCCR that contains data on almost 900 subjects (BC patients and survivors, as well as individuals at high risk of getting BC). PMID:21918596
The role of specific dietary factors in breastcancer causation is not completely resolved. Results from prospective studies do not support the concept that fat intake in middle life has a major relation to breastcancer risk. However, weight gain in middle life contributes substantially to breastcancer risk. Alcohol is the best established dietary risk factor, probably by increasing
The incidence of male breastcancer (MBC) is rising; however, mortality due to MBC has not changed, unlike female breastcancer. This lack of change is mostly attributable to a lack of major progress in the understanding and treatment of the disease. The treatment of MBC has been extrapolated from the knowledge of female breastcancer, despite the multiple differences
The majority of breastcancer patients succumb to metastatic disease. We summarize published and recent research concerning thenm23 gene in breastcancer metastasis. In a murine developmental study, nm23 expression increased with the functional differentiation of the mammary gland in nulliparous and pregnant animals. In human breastcancer, five studies have now demonstrated a significant association between reduced nm23 expression,
Patricia S. Steeg; Abel Rosa; Ursula Flatow; Nicholas J. MacDonald; Mary Benedict; Alvaro Leone
Epidemiological and experimental evidence implicates oestrogens in the aetiology of breastcancer. Most established risk factors for breastcancer in humans probably act through hormone-related pathways, and increased concentrations of circulating oestrogens have been found to be strongly associated with increased risk for breastcancer in postmenopausal women. This article explores the evidence for the hypothesis that oestrogen exposure is
These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates specific to the management of HER2-positive metastatic breastcancer in the 2013 version of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for BreastCancer. These include new first-line and subsequent therapy options for patients with HER2-positive metastatic breastcancer.
Theriault, Richard L.; Carlson, Robert W.; Allred, Craig; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Burstein, Harold J.; Edge, Stephen B.; Farrar, William B.; Forero, Andres; Giordano, Sharon Hermes; Goldstein, Lori J.; Gradishar, William J.; Hayes, Daniel F.; Hudis, Clifford A.; Isakoff, Steven J.; Ljung, Britt-Marie E.; Mankoff, David A.; Marcom, P. Kelly; Mayer, Ingrid A.; McCormick, Beryl; Pierce, Lori J.; Reed, Elizabeth C.; Schwartzberg, Lee S.; Smith, Mary Lou; Soliman, Hatem; Somlo, George; Ward, John H.; Wolff, Antonio C.; Zellars, Richard; Shead, Dorothy A.; Kumar, Rashmi
Background Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles that protrude from the cell surface. Primary cilia play a critical role in development and disease through regulation of signaling pathways including the Hedgehog pathway. Recent mouse models have also linked ciliary dysfunction to cancer. However, little is known about the role of primary cilia in breastcancer development. Primary cilia expression was characterized in cancer cells as well as their surrounding stromal cells from 86 breastcancer patients by counting cilia and measuring cilia length. In addition, we examined cilia expression in normal epithelial and stromal cells from reduction mammoplasties as well as histologically normal adjacent tissue for comparison. Results We observed a statistically significant decrease in the percentage of ciliated cells on both premalignant lesions as well as in invasive cancers. This loss of cilia does not correlate with increased proliferative index (Ki67-positive cells). However, we did detect rare ciliated cancer cells present in patients with invasive breastcancer and found that these express a marker of basaloid cancers that is associated with poor prognosis (Cytokeratin 5). Interestingly, the percentage of ciliated stromal cells associated with both premalignant and invasive cancers decreased when compared to stromal cells associated with normal tissue. To understand how cilia may be lost during cancer development we analyzed the expression of genes required for ciliogenesis and/or ciliary function and compared their expression in normal versus breastcancer samples. We found that expression of ciliary genes were frequently downregulated in human breastcancers. Conclusions These data suggest that primary cilia are lost early in breastcancer development on both the cancer cells and their surrounding stromal cells.
We report here the development of an orthotopic-transplant model of human patient breastcancer in nude mice. Histologically-intact patient breast tumor tissue was transplanted as intact tissue to the mammary fat pad of nude mice where the tumor tissue grew extensively and metastasized to the lung. This is the first orthotopic-transplant metastatic model of human breastcancer. The potential clinical and basic-science uses of the model are discussed. PMID:8352558
Meningeal carcinomatosis (MC) occurs in up to 5% of breastcancer patients. Few studies have evaluated prognostic markers in breastcancer patients with MC. Our aim was to describe the treatment of breastcancer patients with MC, and identify prognostic factors related to survival. Sixty breastcancer patients that had a diagnosis of MC between January 2003 and December 2009 were included. The median age was 46 years (range 27-76). Most patients had invasive ductal carcinoma (78.3%) and high histological/nuclear grade (61.7/53.3%). Estrogen and progesterone receptors were positive in 51.7 and 43.3% of patients, respectively, and 15% were HER-2-positive. Symptoms at presentation were headache, cranial nerve dysfunction, seizures, and intracranial hypertension signals. Diagnosis was made by CSF cytology in 66.7% of cases and by MRI in 71.7%. Intrathecal (IT) chemotherapy was used in 68.3% of patients, and 21.6% received a new systemic treatment (chemo- or hormone therapy). Median survival was 3.3 months (range 0.03-90.4). There was no survival difference according to age, nuclear grade, hormonal and HER-2 status, CSF features, sites of metastasis, systemic and IT chemotherapy, or radiotherapy. However, histological grade and performance status had a significant impact on survival in the multivariate analysis. Only four papers have addressed prognostic factors in breastcancer patients with MC in the last two decades. The results of those reports are discussed here. High histological grade and poor performance status seem to impact survival of breastcancer patients with MC. Prospective studies are necessary to clarify the role of IT and systemic treatment in the treatment of those patients. PMID:21234642
de Azevedo, Carla Rameri Alexandre Silva; Cruz, Marcelo Rocha Sousa; Chinen, Ludmilla Thomé Domingos; Peres, Stela Verzinhasse; Peterlevitz, Marcos Aurélio; de Azevedo Pereira, Artur Eugênio; Fanelli, Marcello Ferretti; Gimenes, Daniel Luiz
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Background Hundreds of hypermethylated genes have been described in breastcancer, yet the nature and contribution of these genes in their methylated state to overall risk and prognosis is under-characterized in non-sporadic breastcancers. We therefore compared associations of DNA methylation with tumor stage, hormone/growth receptor status and clinical outcomes in a familial breastcancer cohort. Because few previous methylation studies have considered the oncogenic or tumor suppressor properties of their gene sets, this functional status was included as part of our correlative analysis. Results We found methylation of oncogenes was associated with better prognostic indicators, whereas tumor suppressor gene methylation was associated with a more severe phenotype in women that were either HER2+ or lymph node positive at diagnosis, and/or tended to recur or develop distant metastases. For example, the methylation of the tumor suppressor gene APC was strongly associated with a specific subset of tumors that were both ER+ and HER2+, while methylation of the TWIST oncogene was associated with breastcancers that did not metastasize. Methods This was a retrospective, hospital-based study of n = 99 archival breast tumors derived from women with a germline genetic BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation and/or familial breastcancer history. DNA methylation was quantified from formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tumors using the established protocol of quantitative multiplex-methylation specific PCR (QM-MSP). Non-parametric statistics were used to analyze candidate gene methylation in association with clinical outcomes. Conclusion We report several novel, positive associations between percent methylation of the APC, RASSF1A, TWIST, ER?, CDH1 and Cyclin D2 genes and key variables such as tumor stage, hormone and growth receptor status, and a history of recurrent or metastatic disease. Our data suggest the potential utility of parsing gene methylation by functional status and breast tumor subtype.
Vang, Russell; Blackford, Amanda; Fackler, Mary Jo
Mammographic density (MD), representing connective and epithelial tissue (fibroglandular tissue, FGT) is a major risk factor for breastcancer. In an analysis of an autopsy series (Bartow SA, Pathak DR, Mettler FA. Radiographic microcalcification and parenchymal patterns as indicators of histologic "high-risk" benign breast disease. Cancer 1990; 66: 1721-1725, Bartow SA, Pathak DR, Mettler FA et al. Breast mammographic pattern: a concatenation of confounding and breastcancer risk factors. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 142: 813-819), MD was found to be strongly correlated with the collagen and epithelial content of the breast (Li T, Sun L, Miller N et al. The association of measured breast tissue characteristics with MD and other risk factors for breastcancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14: 343-349), and another report showed that breast epithelium was highly concentrated in the areas of collagen concentration (Hawes D, Downey S, Pearce CL et al. Dense breast stromal tissue shows greatly increased concentration of breast epithelium but no increase in its proliferative activity. BreastCancer Res 2006; 8: R24). Collagen comprises the overwhelming majority of the FGT, occupying an area on the slides obtained from the autopsy series some 15 times the area of glandular tissue. The relationship of MD with breastcancer risk appears likely to be due to a major extent to increasing epithelial cell numbers with increasing MD. FGT is also seen in breast magnetic resonance imaging (breast MRI) and, as expected, it has been shown that this measure of FGT (MRI-FGT) is highly correlated with MD. A contrast-enhanced breast MRI shows that normal FGT 'enhances' (background parenchymal enhancement, BPE) after contrast agent is administered(Morris EA. Diagnostic breast MR imaging: current status and future directions. Radiol Clin North Am 2007; 45: 863-880, vii., Kuhl C. The current status of breast MR imaging. Part I. Choice of technique, image interpretation, diagnostic accuracy, and transfer to clinical practice. Radiology 2007; 244: 356-378), and a recent study suggests that BPE is also a major breastcancer risk factor, possibly as important as, and independent of MD (King V, Brooks JD, Bernstein JL et al. BPE at breast MR imaging and breastcancer risk. Radiology 2011; 260: 50-60). BPE is much more sensitive to the effects of menopause and tamoxifen than is FGT (King V, Gu Y, Kaplan JB et al. Impact of menopausal status on BPE and fibroglandular tissue on breast MRI. Eur Radiol 2012; 22: 2641-2647, King V, Kaplan J, Pike MC et al. Impact of tamoxifen on amount of fibroglandular tissue, BPE, and cysts on breast MRI. Breast J 2012; 18: 527-534). Changes in MD and BPE may be most useful in predicting response to chemopreventive agents aimed at blocking breast cell proliferation. More study of the biological basis of the effects of MD and BPE is needed if we are to fully exploit these factors in developing chemopreventive approaches to breastcancer. PMID:24131968
NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breastcancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breastcancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues. Here, two High-Aspect Ratio Vessels turn at about 12 rmp to keep breast tissue constructs suspended inside the culture media. Syringes allow scientists to pull for analysis during growth sequences. The tube in the center is a water bubbler that dehumidifies the air to prevent evaporation of the media and thus the appearance of destructive bubbles in the bioreactor.
Research investigating biomarkers for early detection, prognosis and the prediction of treatment responses in breastcancer is rapidly expanding. However, no validated biomarker currently exists for use in routine clinical practice, and breastcancer detection and management remains dependent on invasive procedures. Histological examination remains the standard for diagnosis, whereas immunohistochemical and genetic tests are utilized for treatment decisions and prognosis determinations. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive review of literature published in PubMed on breastcancer biomarkers between 2009 and 2013. The keywords that were used together were breastcancer, biomarkers, diagnosis, prognosis and drug response. The cited references of the manuscripts included in this review were also screened. We have comprehensively summarized the performance of several biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and predicted drug responses of breastcancer. Finally, we have identified 15 biomarkers that have demonstrated promise in initial studies and several miRNAs. At this point, such biomarkers must be rigorously validated in the clinical setting to be translated into clinically useful tests for the diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of drug responses of breastcancer.
dos Anjos Pultz, Brunna; da Luz, Felipe Andres Cordero; de Faria, Paulo Rogerio; Oliveira, Ana Paula Lima; de Araujo, Rogerio Agenor; Silva, Marcelo Jose Barbosa
Background Correlation between circulating sex steroid levels and breastcancer has been controversial, with measurement of free, or bioavailable hormone rarely available. Salivary hormone levels represent the bioavailable fraction. To further elucidate the role of endogenous hormones in breastcancer, we aimed to assess correlation between salivary sex steroid levels and breastcancer prevalence. Methods Salivary hormone levels of testosterone (T), Estradiol (E2), Progesterone (P), Estriol (E3), Estrone (E1), DHEAS and Cortisol (C) were measured by Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) in 357 women with histologically verified breastcancer and 184 age-matched control women. Results Salivary T and DHEAS levels were significantly lower in breastcancer cases vs. controls (27.2+13.9 vs. 32.2+17.5 pg/ml, p < 0.001 for T and 5.3+4.3 vs. 6.4+4.5 ng/ml, p = 0.007 for DHEAS). E2 and E1 levels were elevated and E3 levels were lowered in cases vs. controls. Conclusions Salivary T levels, representing the bioavailable hormone, are significantly lower in women with breastcancer compared to age-matched control women. These findings support the protective role of biovailable testosterone in counteracting the proliferative effects of estrogens on mammary tissue.
Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative BreastCancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive BreastCancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive BreastCancer; Stage IA BreastCancer; Stage IB BreastCancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma
Background Although having a family history of breastcancer is a well established breastcancer risk factor, it is not known whether it influences mortality after breastcancer diagnosis. Methods Subjects were 4,153 women with first primary incident invasive breastcancer diagnosed between 1991 and 2000, and enrolled in the BreastCancer Family Registry through population-based sampling in Northern California, USA; Ontario, Canada; and Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Cases were oversampled for younger age at diagnosis and/or family history of breastcancer. Carriers of germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 were excluded. Cases and their relatives completed structured questionnaires assessing breastcancer risk factors and family history of cancer. Cases were followed for a median of 6.5 years, during which 725 deaths occurred. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate associations between family history of breastcancer at the time of diagnosis and risk of all-cause mortality after breastcancer diagnosis, adjusting for established prognostic factors. Results The hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.84-1.15) for having at least one first- or second-degree relative with breastcancer, and 0.85 (95% CI=0.70-1.02) for having at least one first-degree relative with breastcancer, compared with having no such family history. Estimates did not vary appreciably when stratified by case or tumor characteristics. Conclusions Family history of breastcancer is not associated with all-cause mortality after breastcancer diagnosis for women without a known germline mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Therefore, clinical management should not depend on family history of breastcancer.
Chang, Ellen T.; Milne, Roger L.; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Sangaramoorthy, Meera; Keegan, Theresa H. M.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Hopper, John L.; Goodwin, Pamela J.; O'Malley, Frances P.; Weerasooriya, Nayana; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Friedlander, Michael L.; Giles, Graham G.; Whittemore, Alice S.; West, Dee W.; John, Esther M.
Although having a family history of breastcancer is a well established breastcancer risk factor, it is not known whether it influences mortality after breastcancer diagnosis. We studied 4,153 women with first primary incident invasive breastcancer diagnosed between 1991 and 2000, and enrolled in the BreastCancer Family Registry through population-based sampling in Northern California, USA; Ontario, Canada; and Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Cases were oversampled for younger age at diagnosis and/or family history of breastcancer. Carriers of germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 were excluded. Cases and their relatives completed structured questionnaires assessing breastcancer risk factors and family history of cancer. Cases were followed for a median of 6.5 years, during which 725 deaths occurred. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate associations between family history of breastcancer at the time of diagnosis and risk of all-cause mortality after breastcancer diagnosis, adjusting for established prognostic factors. The hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84-1.15) for having at least one first- or second-degree relative with breastcancer, and 0.85 (95% CI = 0.70-1.02) for having at least one first-degree relative with breastcancer, compared with having no such family history. Estimates did not vary appreciably when stratified by case or tumor characteristics. In conclusion, family history of breastcancer is not associated with all-cause mortality after breastcancer diagnosis for women without a known germline mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Therefore, clinical management should not depend on family history of breastcancer. PMID:19034644
Chang, Ellen T; Milne, Roger L; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Figueiredo, Jane C; Sangaramoorthy, Meera; Keegan, Theresa H M; Andrulis, Irene L; Hopper, John L; Goodwin, Pamela J; O'Malley, Frances P; Weerasooriya, Nayana; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C; Friedlander, Michael L; Giles, Graham G; Whittemore, Alice S; West, Dee W; John, Esther M
The pregnancy-lactation cycle (PLC) is a period in which the breast is transformed from a less-developed, nonfunctional organ into a mature, milk-producing gland that has evolved to meet the nutritional, developmental, and immune protection needs of the newborn. Cessation of lactation initiates a process whereby the breast reverts to a resting state until the next pregnancy. Changes during this period permanently alter the morphology and molecular characteristics of the breast (molecular histology) and produce important, yet poorly understood, effects on breastcancer risk. To provide a state-of-the-science summary of this topic, the National Cancer Institute invited a multidisciplinary group of experts to participate in a workshop in Rockville, Maryland, on March 2, 2012. Topics discussed included: 1) the epidemiology of the PLC in relation to breastcancer risk, 2) breast milk as a biospecimen for molecular epidemiological and translational research, and 3) use of animal models to gain mechanistic insights into the effects of the PLC on breast carcinogenesis. This report summarizes conclusions of the workshop, proposes avenues for future research on the PLC and its relationship with breastcancer risk, and identifies opportunities to translate this knowledge to improve breastcancer outcomes. PMID:23264680
Faupel-Badger, Jessica M; Arcaro, Kathleen F; Balkam, Jane J; Eliassen, A Heather; Hassiotou, Foteini; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Michels, Karin B; Palmer, Julie R; Schedin, Pepper; Stuebe, Alison M; Watson, Christine J; Sherman, Mark E
Breastcancer is a common malignancy for women in most parts of the world and the incidence in Iranian women is growing. The patients are relatively younger than their western counterparts. The aim of study was to investigate the roles of reproductive factors for breastcancer in Babol. In a case-control study in Babol, we recruited a total of 100 new patients with histologically confirmed breastcancer and 200 age-matched controls selected from outpatient clinics. Demographic and reproductive factors were ascertained by in-person interview using a constructed questionnaire. Several potential confounding factors were adjusted using multiple logistic model. The adjusted odds ratio showed that having higher age at first pregnancy and abortion were associated with increased breastcancer risk (the adjusted OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.3-13.2 and 2.93, 95% CI: 1.64-5.24, respectively). By increasing parity, the risk had reduced significantly; among women with parity ? 5, the adjusted OR was 0.09 (95% CI 0.01-0.7) compared with nulliparous women, and also for each additional parity, the risk reduced by 50% (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.34-0.71). The duration of breast feeding was inversely associated with breastcancer risk, while after additional adjustment for parity, no longer the protective effect of breast feeding was observed. Nulliparity, late age at first birth and abortion were the most important reproductive factors associated with breastcancer risk; therefore, it is recommended to women with these risk factors to perform breastcancer screening tests earlier. PMID:20364336
Nodular fasciitis is a benign proliferative lesion that is usually found in the soft tissue of the upper extremity and trunk in young to middle-aged persons. It has rarely been described in the breast. A 35-year-old woman had noticed a mass in her left breast. It was elastic-hard, 13?mm in size, and located mainly in the upper inner quadrant of the left breast. Mammography did not detect the mass. Ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic lesion with an irregular margin. Neither fine-needle aspiration cytology nor core needle biopsy established a definitive diagnosis. Excisional biopsy was therefore performed. Histologically, the excised tumor tissue results were consistent with a diagnosis of nodular fasciitis of the breast. We report a case of nodular fasciitis of the breast, a rare histological type of breast tumor.
Breastcancer screening and therapeutic advances have significantly decreased breastcancer mortality. Nearly 80% of patients with a localized disease will experience a prolonged survival and the organization of their monitoring is critical to early detection of local or metastatic relapse. Annual mammography is recommanded for the follow up and no further imaging examination is routinely necessary. Early diagnosis of metastatic relapse has not demonstrated evidence of survival benefit. However, treatments are not without toxicities and data about long-term complications are missing. The socio-economic consequences for these patients need to be evaluated and cardiovascular toxicities of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy are probably underestimated. PMID:24579341
Breastcancer screening programmes have been integrated in a systematic way into the public health policies of numerous countries. Breastcancer is indeed one of the (rare) health issues which answers the criteria necessary to organize a screening on a large scale. The different methods of diagnosis and the results of various strategies (based on randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis) are described and compared. This reveals that the Belgian policy in this matter is and remains founded today: a standardized mammotest every 2 years for all women from 50 to 69. PMID:19899372
Breastcancer screening programmes have been integrated in a systematic way into the public health policies of numerous countries. Breastcancer is indeed one of the (rare) health issues which answers the criteria necessary to organize a screening on a large scale. The different methods of diagnosis and the results of various strategies (based on randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis) are described and compared. This reveals that the Belgian policy in this matter is and remains founded today: a standardized mammotest every 2 years for all women from 50 to 69. PMID:18705598
Breastcancer is the most common type of cancer encountered in women and the second leading cause of death after lung cancer.\\u000a Thus, breastcancer is a serious health concern for all women. Fortunately, a high proportion of breastcancer patients are\\u000a diagnosed at an early stage due to an increase in the screening programs and the awareness of the
The investigator has shown that moderate telomere shortening occurs specifically in luminal epithelial cells, but not in myoepithelial cells, in the majority of histologically normal terminal ductal lobular units analyzed from patients undergoing reductio...
Background NUCKS (Nuclear, Casein Kinase and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate) is a nuclear, DNA-binding and highly phosphorylated protein. A number of reports show that NUCKS is highly expressed on the level of mRNA in several human cancers, including breastcancer. In this work, NUCKS expression on both RNA and protein levels was studied in breast tissue biopsies consisted of invasive carcinomas, intraductal proliferative lesions, benign epithelial proliferations and fibroadenomas, as well as in primary cultures derived from the above biopsies. Specifically, in order to evaluate the level of NUCKS protein in correlation with the histopathological features of breast disease, immunohistochemistry was employed on paraffin sections of breast biopsies of the above types. In addition, NUCKS expression was studied by means of Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR), real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western immunoblot analyses in the primary cell cultures developed from the same biopsies. Results The immunohistochemical Results showed intense NUCKS staining mostly in grade I and II breast carcinomas compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, NUCKS was moderate expressed in benign epithelial proliferations, such as adenosis and sclerosing adenosis, and highly expressed in intraductal lesions, specifically in ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS). It is worth noting that all the fibroadenoma tissues examined were negative for NUCKS staining. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR showed an increase of NUCKS expression in cells derived from primary cultures of proliferative lesions and cancerous tissues compared to the ones derived from normal breast tissues and fibroadenomas. This increase was also confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis. Although NUCKS is a cell cycle related protein, its expression does not correlate with Ki67 expression, neither in tissue sections nor in primary cell cultures. Conclusion The results show overexpression of the NUCKS protein in a number of non malignant breast lesions and cancerous tissues. In particular, the NUCKS overexpression in ADH and DCIS indicates a significant role of this protein in neoplastic progression.
The 19p13.1 breastcancer susceptibility locus is a modifier of breastcancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers and is also associated with risk of ovarian cancer. Here we investigated 19p13.1 variation and risk of breastcancer subtypes, defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) status, using 48,869 breastcancer cases and 49,787 controls from the BreastCancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Variants from 19p13.1 were not associated with breastcancer overall or with ER-positive breastcancer but were significantly associated with ER-negative breastcancer risk [rs8170 Odds Ratio (OR)=1.10, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.05 – 1.15, p=3.49 × 10-5] and triple negative (TN) (ER, PR and HER2 negative) breastcancer [rs8170 OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.13 – 1.31, p=2.22 × 10-7]. However, rs8170 was no longer associated with ER-negative breastcancer risk when TN cases were excluded [OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.89 – 1.07, p=0.62]. In addition, a combined analysis of TN cases from BCAC and the Triple Negative BreastCancer Consortium (TNBCC) (n=3,566) identified a genome-wide significant association between rs8170 and TN breastcancer risk [OR=1.25, 95% CI 1.18 – 1.33, p=3.31 × 10-13]. Thus, 19p13.1 is the first triple negative-specific breastcancer risk locus and the first locus specific to a histological subtype defined by ER, PR, and HER2 to be identified. These findings provide convincing evidence that genetic susceptibility to breastcancer varies by tumor subtype and that triple negative tumors and other subtypes likely arise through distinct etiologic pathways.
The 19p13.1 breastcancer susceptibility locus is a modifier of breastcancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers and is also associated with the risk of ovarian cancer. Here, we investigated 19p13.1 variation and risk of breastcancer subtypes, defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) status, using 48,869 breastcancer cases and 49,787 controls from the BreastCancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Variants from 19p13.1 were not associated with breastcancer overall or with ER-positive breastcancer but were significantly associated with ER-negative breastcancer risk [rs8170 OR, 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.15; P = 3.49 × 10(-5)] and triple-negative (ER-, PR-, and HER2-negative) breastcancer (rs8170: OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.13-1.31; P = 2.22 × 10(-7)). However, rs8170 was no longer associated with ER-negative breastcancer risk when triple-negative cases were excluded (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.89-1.07; P = 0.62). In addition, a combined analysis of triple-negative cases from BCAC and the Triple Negative BreastCancer Consortium (TNBCC; N = 3,566) identified a genome-wide significant association between rs8170 and triple-negative breastcancer risk (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.18-1.33; P = 3.31 × 10(-13)]. Thus, 19p13.1 is the first triple-negative-specific breastcancer risk locus and the first locus specific to a histologic subtype defined by ER, PR, and HER2 to be identified. These findings provide convincing evidence that genetic susceptibility to breastcancer varies by tumor subtype and that triple-negative tumors and other subtypes likely arise through distinct etiologic pathways. PMID:22331459
... News » Filed under: BreastCancer Report: BreastCancer Death Rates Down 34% Since 1990 Article date: October ... report from the American Cancer Society finds that death rates from breastcancer in the United States ...
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of women who were diagnosed with cancer in one breast detected over 90 percent of cancers in the other breast that were missed by mammography and clinical breast exam at initial diagnosis, according to a new study. Given the established rates of mammography and clinical breast exams for detecting cancer in the opposite, or contralateral breast, adding an MRI scan to the diagnostic evaluation effectively doubled the number of cancers immediately found in these women.
Despite extensive publications reviewing contralateral breastcancer (CBC), the role of screening and preventative measures for contralateral tumours is controversial and optimal clinical management remains undefined. This paper addresses the incidence, the predisposing factors, the prevention and the treatment of bilateral breastcancer based on a review of the literature. Risk factors for CBC include young age at primary breastcancer diagnosis, hereditary breastcancer (due to a germline mutation), familial breastcancer (one or more affected relatives), radiation exposure at a young age, lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), lobular invasive carcinoma and multicentricity. Retrospective studies suggest that contralateral mammographic surveillance results in the early detection of breastcancer, but no clear survival benefit has been demonstrated. Trials of adjuvant tamoxifen in breastcancer patients have shown a reduction in the incidence of CBC in both pre- and postmenopausal women. In addition, breastcancer patients treated with ovarian ablation and prednisone have significantly reduced CBC versus controls. In patients with primary breastcancer there is no evidence that contralateral breast biopsies or contralateral prophylactic mastectomy reduce mortality. Randomised, prospective trials to determine optimal surveillance, prevention and treatment strategies for the contralateral breast in breastcancer patients have not been conducted. Based on the published literature, contralateral breast surveillance in breastcancer patients reasonably includes breast self-examination, regular physical examinations and annual mammography. In women who have no evidence of distant metastasis at the time of CBC diagnosis, we recommend that the CBC be treated in the same manner as a first breastcancer, taking into account prior local and systemic therapy. PMID:10070301
The successful demonstration that the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) tamoxifen and raloxifene reduce the risk of breastcancer has stimulated great interest in using drugs to prevent breastcancer in high-risk women. In addition, recent results from breastcancer treatment trials suggest that aromatase inhibitors may be even more effective at preventing breastcancer than are SERMs. However, while SERMs and aromatase inhibitors do prevent the development of many estrogen-receptor (ER)-positive breastcancers, these drugs do not prevent the development of ER-negative breastcancer. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify agents that can prevent ER-negative breastcancer. We have studied the cancer preventative activity of several classes of drugs for their ability to prevent ER-negative breastcancer in preclinical models. Results from these studies demonstrate that rexinoids (analogs of retinoids that bind and activate RXR receptors), tyrosine kinase inhibitors (such as EGFR inhibitors and dual kinase inhibitors that block EGFR and HER2/neu signaling), and cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors all prevent ER-negative breastcancer in transgenic mice that develop ER-negative breastcancer. Other promising agents now under investigation include vitamin D and vitamin D analogs, drugs that activate PPAR-gamma nuclear receptors, and statins. Many of these agents are now being tested in early phase cancer prevention clinical trials to determine whether they will show activity in breast tissue and whether they are safe for use in high-risk women without breastcancer. The current status of these studies will be reviewed. It is anticipated that in the future, drugs that effectively prevent ER-negative breastcancer will be used in combination with hormonal agents such SERMs or aromatase inhibitors to prevent all forms of breastcancer.
The role of lifestyle modifications, antioestrogens, cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors and prophylactic mastectomy in reducing breastcancer is reviewed. It is concluded that avoiding postmenopausal obesity and regular physical activity are simple measures that seem to reduce breastcancer risk. There is no conclusive evidence that dietary modification and vitamin supplementation significantly reduce the risk of breastcancer. The evidence suggests that tamoxifen significantly reduces the risk of breastcancer in women at increased risk, but whether it reduces breastcancer mortality remains unknown. Ongoing clinical trials may prove that raloxifene is superior to tamoxifen in breastcancer prevention due to its anti-oestrogenic effects on the endometrium. Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy reduces the risk of breastcancer by 90% in high risk women. PMID:11268709
Breastcancer represents a major ongoing public health problem as the most common non-cutaneous malignancy among U.S. women. While significant progress has been made in improving loco-regional treatments for breastcancer, relatively little progress has been made in diagnosing and treating patients with metastatic breastcancer. At present there are limited curative options for patients with breastcancer metastatic beyond regional nodes. Emerging nanotechnologies promise new approaches to early detection and treatment of metastatic breastcancer. Fulfilling the promise of nanotechnologies for patients with metastatic breastcancer will require delivery of nanomaterials to sites of metastatic disease. Future translational approaches will rely on an ever increasing understanding of the biology of breastcancer subtypes and their metastases. These important concepts will be highlighted and elucidated in this manuscript. PMID:22640908
Grobmyer, Stephen R; Zhou, Guangyin; Gutwein, Luke G; Iwakuma, Nobutaka; Sharma, Parvesh; Hochwald, Steven N
Standard endocrine therapy and chemotherapy can induce long-term remission in breastcancer patients; however, breastcancer can recur at any site. Pulmonary nodules with lymphadenopathy in advanced cancer patients are likely to be assumed as metastases. A 44-year-old woman with a history of breastcancer was presented to our institution with abnormal findings on 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging, which suggested lung metastasis. She had previously been diagnosed with breastcancer (T1N2M0, Stage IIIa, intraductal carcinoma, triple negative cancer). Histological analysis of the mediastinal lymph node biopsy demonstrated sarcoidosis, showing a chronic, non-caseating, granulomatous inflammation. Our case highlights the need for non-malignant diagnoses in those with prior malignancies, and the need for histological evaluations in the event of first recurrence following potentially curative therapy. PMID:25038768
Kim, Hye Sook; Lee, Suk-Young; Oh, Sang Cheul; Choi, Chul Won; Kim, Jun Suk; Seo, Jae Hong
Identification of novel drivers of cancer is necessary to understand the mechanisms of transformation as well as reveal more efficient targets for cancer therapy. Various subtypes of human cancer show activation of the RAS- MAPK pathway however, activatin...
Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent BreastCancer; Stage IA BreastCancer; Stage IB BreastCancer
In the systemic therapy of breastcancer, the tumor itself has become the specific target. If possible the surgical excision of breast carcinoma is restricted to the tumor site and aims at an R0 resection of the invasive and preinvasive portions of the carcinoma. Only percutaneous whole-breast radiotherapy irradiates the whole breast. The additional boost irradiation is targeted and significantly improves local control in all age groups. Due to the increased detection of small breast carcinomas in postmenopausal patients by mammographic screening, it is necessary to consider a change of the existing therapeutic practice. Published results of partial irradiation of the breast (intra- as well as postoperatively) show a very high degree of local control with follow-ups of up to 11 years. At present prospective and randomized studies investigate for which patients an intraoperative radiotherapy is sufficient as the sole irradiation method after previous surgery. Intraoperative radiotherapy as a boost preceding percutaneous whole-breast irradiation should already be possible according to a relevant statement of the DEGRO. PMID:18431045
The objective of this study was to determine the influence of annual mammography on pathology features of breastcancers in an invited population. We conducted a randomized trial of 53,890 invited and 106,971 control United Kingdom women who were recruited only from those aged 40 years, with central review of cancerhistology. We compare the invasive cancer distribution for the
Thomas J. Anderson; Michael Waller; Ian O. Ellis; Lynda Bobrow; Susan Moss
... two plates. X-rays are used to take pictures of breast tissue. Ultrasound exam : A procedure in ... organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram . The picture ...
The Breast Tissue Respository at Duke University has completed its fourth1 year of flinding. This resource was designed to: (1)provide freshly frozen tumor tissue from primary and metastatic sites (lymph nodes) for exploratory research, (2) collect serum ...
Women suffering from breastcancer often succumb to incurable recurrent disease resulting from therapy-resistant cancer cells. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Alvarez and colleagues identify downregulation of the tumor suppressor Par-4 as the key determinant in apoptosis evasion, which leads to tumor recurrence in breastcancer. PMID:23845436
Shrestha-Bhattarai, Tripti; Hebbar, Nikhil; Rangnekar, Vivek M
Breastcancer is the field of medicine with the greatest presence of nanotechnological therapeutic agents in the clinic. A\\u000a pegylated form of liposomally encapsulated doxorubicin is routinely used for treatment against metastatic cancer, and albumin\\u000a nanoparticulate chaperones of paclitaxel were approved for locally recurrent and metastatic disease in 2005. These drugs have\\u000a yielded substantial clinical benefit, and are steadily gathering
Takemi Tanaka; Paolo Decuzzi; Massimo Cristofanilli; Jason H. Sakamoto; Ennio Tasciotti; Fredika M. Robertson; Mauro Ferrari
PURPOSE: Human invasive breastcancers (IBC) show enormous histologic and biological diversity. This study comprehensively evaluated diversity in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), the immediate precursors of IBCs. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The extent of diversity for conventional histologic grade and standard prognostic biomarkers assessed by immunohistochemistry was evaluated in a series of pure DCIS (n = 200) compared with a contemporaneous
D. C. Allred; Y. Wu; S. Mao; I. D. Nagtegaal; S. Lee; C. M. Perou; S. K. Mohsin; P. O'Connell; A. Tsimelzon; D. Medina
... breastcancer in men? What are the key statistics about breastcancer in men? The American Cancer ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services ...
Data were collected on 169 men treated for breastcancer at 36 surgical departments in Austria between 1970 and 1991. We report here several of their clinical features and assess the importance of established prognostic factors. After a median observation period of 51 months 60 patients (35%) suffered a recurrence. The estimated 5-year recurrence-free survival for the entire group was
Michael Stierer; Harald Rosen; Wolfgang Weitensfelder; Hubert Hausmaninger; Bela Teleky; Raimund Jakesz; Hannes Fruhwirth; Martina Dtinser; Siegfried Beller; Anton Haid; Heinz Tüchler
Phytoestrogens are natural plant substances. The three main classes are isoflavones, coumestans, and lignans. Phytoestrogens have anticarcinogenic potential, but they have also significant estrogenic properties. For an evaluation of the effect of phytoestrogens on breastcancer risk we reviewed the analytical epidemiological data. A total of 18 studies were included [1–18]. Up to now, there are 13 studies that have
P. H. M. Peeters; L. Keinan-Boker; Y. T. van der Schouw; D. E. Grobbee
The pineal gland, via its hormone melatonin, inhibits the proliferation of both human and animal models of breastcancer. As humans age there is the onset of disrupted sleep leading to a significant suppression in the nocturnal levels of melatonin after a...
A collection of material about the Adjuvant Lapatinib And/Or Trastuzumab Treatment Optimisation, or ALTTO, study that will compare the targeted agents lapatinib and trastuzumab alone, in sequence, or in combination as adjuvant therapy for HER2-positive breastcancer.
Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breastcancer susceptible tissue; A: Duct element recovered from breast tissue digest. B: Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneousely die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. C: Isolate of long-term frowth HMEC from outgrowth of duct element; cells shown soon after isolation and in early full-cell contact growth in culture in a dish. D: same long-term growth HMEC, but after 3 weeks in late full-cell contact growth in a continuous culture in a dish. Note attempts to reform duct elements but this in two demensions in a dish rather than in three dimensions in tissue. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breastcancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breastcancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).
The development of neoplasms is the result of the accumulation of genetic alterations. In breastcancer, large efforts have been dedicated to unravel these genetic alterations and to find associations between specific genetic alterations and the clinical and pathological characteristics of the tumour. There has been rapid advancement of the available techniques to identify new genetic alterations; technical advancement will
We are investigating the regulation of genomic stability and how the disruption of such regulation contributes to breastcancer development. We have performed in-depth studies of BRCA1 and the DNA damage response, which allow us to propose a new model of ...
... your feelings. It will help them understand the changes around them. Your parenting style may be different from someone else’s. But in your own way, try to share with your children what you are ... adjust to the changes. Talk about your breastcancer. It can help ...
We have developed data demonstrating that the pineal gland, via its hormone melatonin, inhibits the proliferation of both human and animal models of breastcancer. As humans age there is the onset of disrupted sleep leading to a significant suppression in...
No longer is histology solely predictive of cancer treatment and outcome. There is an increasing influence of tumor genomic characteristics on therapeutic options. Both breast and ovarian cancers are at higher risk of development in patients with BRCA 1/2-germline mutations. Recent data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and others have shown a number of genomic similarities between triple negative breastcancers (TNBCs) and ovarian cancers. Recently, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have shown promising activity in hereditary BRCA 1/2-mutated and sporadic breast and ovarian cancers. In this review, we will summarize the current literature regarding the genomic and phenotypic similarities between BRCA 1/2-mutation related cancers, sporadic TNBCs, and sporadic ovarian cancers. We will also review Phase I, II, and III data using PARP inhibitors for these malignancies and compare and contrast the results with respect to histology. PMID:24579064
No longer is histology solely predictive of cancer treatment and outcome. There is an increasing influence of tumor genomic characteristics on therapeutic options. Both breast and ovarian cancers are at higher risk of development in patients with BRCA 1/2-germline mutations. Recent data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and others have shown a number of genomic similarities between triple negative breastcancers (TNBCs) and ovarian cancers. Recently, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have shown promising activity in hereditary BRCA 1/2-mutated and sporadic breast and ovarian cancers. In this review, we will summarize the current literature regarding the genomic and phenotypic similarities between BRCA 1/2-mutation related cancers, sporadic TNBCs, and sporadic ovarian cancers. We will also review Phase I, II, and III data using PARP inhibitors for these malignancies and compare and contrast the results with respect to histology.
Folate is involved in DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. It has been hypothesized that high intake of folate may reduce the risk of human cancers, including cancer of the breast. Using data from a population- based case-control study of breastcancer conducted in urban Shanghai during 1996 -1998, we evaluated the association of dietary folate intake and breastcancer risk
Martha J. Shrubsole; Fan Jin; Qi Dai; Xiao-Ou Shu; John D. Potter; James R. Hebert; Yu-Tang Gao; Wei Zheng
Although breastcancer is uncommon in men, it can cause significant morbidity and mortality. The current review was undertaken to determine whether strategies applied for the evaluation and treatment of breastcancer in females are appropriate in male breastcancer. Male breastcancer has biological differences compared with female breastcancer, including a high prevalence in certain parts of Africa,
The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) has a serum and lymphocyte bank with specimens on more than 90% of the 33,000 women in the BreastCancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) and Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR). They also have tumor blocks on the majority of the breastcancers that have occurred in women on these studies.
Both parity and a young age at first pregnancy are associated with a reduction in breastcancer risk. The hormones involved in this process are not fully investigated. Human chorionic gonadotropin is a placental hormone, which in rats and in human breast cells in vitro has been shown to prevent against breastcancer. Hyperemesis, a severe nausea combined with vomiting
We hypothesized that certain miRNA species are differentially expressed in the normal breast epithelium and breastcancer cells. Our concept was that these miRNAs are involved in breastcancer progression by promoting either loss or alternatively an incre...
Despite extensive publications reviewing contralateral breastcancer (CBC), the role of screening and preventative measures for contralateral tumours is controversial and optimal clinical management remains undefined. This paper addresses the incidence, the predisposing factors, the prevention and the treatment of bilateral breastcancer based on a review of the literature. Risk factors for CBC include young age at primary breast
The increasing application of mammography, mainly in screening programs for the early detection of breastcancer, and the high technical standard of imaging has resulted in the detection of clinically occult breast tumors. Considering that only diagnosis at an early stage will be able to change the prognosis of breastcancer, this diagnostic challenge appears to be the most exciting
Mammographic density (MD) has been shown to be a strong risk predictor for breastcancer. Compared to subjective assessment by a radiologist, computer-aided analysis of digitized mammograms provides a quantitative and more reproducible method for assessing breast density. However, the current methods of estimating breast density based on the area of bright signal in a mammogram do not reflect the
Olga Pawluczyk; Martin J. Yaffe; Norman F. Boyd; Roberta A. Jong
Transition through telomere crisis is thought to be a crucial event in the development of most breast carcinomas. Our goal in this study was to determine where this occurs in the context of histologically defined breastcancer progression. To this end, we assessed genome instability (using fluorescence in situ hybridization) and other features associated with telomere crisis in normal ductal epithelium, usual ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive cancer. We modeled this process in vitro by measuring these same features in human mammary epithelial cell cultures during ZNF217-mediated transition through telomere crisis and immortalization. Taken together, the data suggest that transition through telomere crisis and immortalization in breastcancer occurs during progression from usual ductal hyperplasia to ductal carcinoma in situ. PMID:15300252
Chin, Koei; de Solorzano, Carlos Ortiz; Knowles, David; Jones, Arthur; Chou, William; Rodriguez, Enrique Garcia; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Ljung, Britt-Marie; Chew, Karen; Myambo, Kenneth; Miranda, Monica; Krig, Sheryl; Garbe, James; Stampfer, Martha; Yaswen, Paul; Gray, Joe W; Lockett, Stephen J
Case Study Amy is a 44-year-old woman with severe autism. She lives with her sister Susan, who is her caregiver and guardian. Amy is ambulatory and able to dress and feed herself. She is a healthy individual with no other significant comorbidities. She walks daily and enjoys her sister’s company. Amy’s life expectancy is greater than 10 years. However, she is difficult to care for medically, as she will not allow a physical examination and strikes out when strangers try to touch her. She is nonverbal and unable to participate in decision-making. INITIAL DIAGNOSIS Amy has a history of breastcancer diagnosed 2 years ago, originally presenting as a stage I lesion (T2N0) that was palpated by her caregiver while bathing. She underwent right simple mastectomy with sentinel lymph node resection. Susan recalls that the mastectomy was a very challenging ordeal, as Amy kept pulling out IV lines, drains, and dressings. Susan felt that Amy withdrew from her after the procedure as she most likely associated Susan with the cause of the pain, making her role as caregiver more difficult. Pathology confirmed an invasive ductal carcinoma, moderately differentiated, 2.4 cm, estrogen/progesterone receptor negative, HER2/neu negative, with negative surgical margins. Two right axillary sentinel lymph nodes were negative for disease. The standard of care for a patient with these tumor features is surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy (National Comprehensive Cancer Network [NCCN], 2012). According to the Adjuvant Online! database (2012), Amy’s risk for relapse was approximately 40% without adjuvant treatment; her risk for mortality was approximately 29%. After meeting with a medical oncologist, Amy did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. According to Susan, she was not offered the choice, and the decision was not explained to them. She was simply told that it was not necessary. Aside from pathology, previous records were unavailable for review. Medical assessment of Amy’s level of autism reveals marked impairments in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body posture, and gestures to regulate social interaction. She exhibits a total lack of development of spoken language, with no attempt to compensate through alternative modes of communication such as gesture. During the visit, she occupies herself with repetitive motor mannerisms. Susan believes that Amy struggles with overstimulation from tactile input. Therefore, she is combative with health-care providers and intolerant of invasive devices. Susan has an intimate understanding of Amy’s ability to communicate her needs and wants through nonverbal changes. RECURRENCE Approximately 2 months ago, Amy began favoring her right arm and appeared to be in pain when participating in various activities. Susan became aware of Amy’s pain issues by noticing that her posture was slightly altered and she was carrying herself differently. Further investigation with a CT scan showed concern for local disease recurrence involving the axillary lymph nodes. No distant metastases were seen. The standard of care for this diagnosis is surgical resection and consideration of radiation therapy, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy (NCCN, 2012). Susan does not want Amy to undergo further surgery and believes radiation would be too difficult to maneuver. The next best option would be a medical approach with chemotherapy as the main modality. DIFFICULT DECISIONS If treatment is pursued, the advanced practitioner will need to perform regular examinations and prescribe and monitor chemotherapy. The delivery of therapy, requiring frequent blood draws and IV access, will be a challenge for the health-care staff. The APN is apprehensive about the ability to accomplish these tasks safely given Amy’s limited capacity to participate. The APN is also concerned with how treatment will affect Amy’s life. The APN may have her own individual conflict of morals to contend with, given the limited understanding of the patient vs. nontreatmen
\\u000a Breastcancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide and occurs in nearly one out of eight women.\\u000a Currently there are three techniques to diagnose breastcancer: mammography, FNA (Fine Needle Aspirate) and surgical biopsy.\\u000a In this paper we develop an integrated expert system for diagnosis, prognosis and prediction for breastcancer using soft\\u000a computing techniques.
R. R. Janghel; Anupam Shukla; Ritu Tiwari; Rahul Kala
Triple-negative (TN) breastcancers, which are associated with a more aggressive clinical course and poorer prognosis, often present with benign imaging features on mammography and ultrasound. The purpose of this study was to compare the magnetic resonance imaging features of TN breastcancers with estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) negative cancers. Retrospective review identified 140 patients with TN breastcancer who underwent a preoperative breast MRI between 2003 and 2008. Comparison was made to 181 patients with ER+/PR+/HER2- cancer. Breast MRIs were independently reviewed by two radiologists blinded to the pathology. Discrepancies were resolved by a third radiologist. TN cancers presented with a larger tumor size (p = 0.002), higher histologic grade (<0.001), and were more likely to be unifocal (p = 0.018) compared with ER+/PR+/HER2- tumors. MRI features associated with TN tumors included mass enhancement (p = 0.026), areas of intratumoral high T2 signal intensity (p < 0.001), lobulated shape (p < 0.001), rim enhancement (p < 0.001), and smooth margins (p = 0.005). Among the TN tumors with marked necrosis, 26% showed a large central acellular zone of necrosis. PMID:24015869
Sung, Janice S; Jochelson, Maxine S; Brennan, Sandra; Joo, Sandra; Wen, Yong H; Moskowitz, Chaya; Zheng, Junting; Dershaw, D David; Morris, Elizabeth A
With a better understanding of the etiology of breastcancer, molecularly targeted drugs have been developed and are being testing for the treatment and prevention of breastcancer. Targeted drugs that inhibit the estrogen receptor (ER) or estrogen-activated pathways include the selective ER modulators (tamoxifen, raloxifene, and lasofoxifene) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) (anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane) have been tested in preclinical and clinical studies. Tamoxifen and raloxifene have been shown to reduce the risk of breastcancer and promising results of AIs in breastcancer trials, suggest that AIs might be even more effective in the prevention of ER-positive breastcancer. However, these agents only prevent ER-positive breastcancer. Therefore, current research is focused on identifying preventive therapies for other forms of breastcancer such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and triple-negative breastcancer (TNBC, breastcancer that does express ER, progesterone receptor, or HER2). HER2-positive breastcancers are currently treated with anti-HER2 therapies including trastuzumab and lapatinib, and preclinical and clinical studies are now being conducted to test these drugs for the prevention of HER2-positive breastcancers. Several promising agents currently being tested in cancer prevention trials for the prevention of TNBC include poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, vitamin D, and rexinoids, both of which activate nuclear hormone receptors (the vitamin D and retinoid X receptors). This review discusses currently used breastcancer preventive drugs, and describes the progress of research striving to identify and develop more effective preventive agents for all forms of breastcancer. PMID:24069582
den Hollander, Petra; Savage, Michelle I; Brown, Powel H
The present studies explore the response of breastcancer stem cells (BCSC's) to radiation and the implications for clinical cancer treatment. Current cancer therapy eliminates bulky tumor mass but may fail to eradicate a critical tumor initiating cell population termed \\
This paper informs about the diagnostical accuracy of clinical examination and mammography at the women's Hospital of the Städtische Klinikum Zwickau from 1989 to 1992 when pathological changes of breasts are diagnosed. A total of 508 diagnostical biopsies was performed during this study period. The histological examination resulted in 276 benign breast lesions and in 232 breastcancers. In 432 cases there was a lump palpable in the breast that was noticed at first by more than 60% of women themselves. 288 (56.7%) correct and 220 (43.3%) false diagnoses were established following the clinical examination. This resulted in a sensitivity of 100% with a specificity of 20.3% and an overall accuracy of 56.7%. However, with the help of mammography 386 (76.6%) pathological changes of breasts were found to be correct. 118 mammograms proved to be false. Out of these 90 (17.8%) had a false-positive diagnosis and 28 (5.6%) a false-negative one. The overall accuracy of mammography was 76.6% (sensitivity 87.9%, specificity 67%). PMID:9206920
Breastcancer in males is much rare than in females so in practice, male breastcancer treatment is likely to follow the guidelines developed for female breastcancer patients. The objective of this study is to compare the characteristics and treatment pattern of male breastcancer patients with comparable subgroups of female breastcancer patients using data submitted to the
Jim Wang; James Kollias; Claire Marsh; Guy Maddern
The trend in the prognosis of female patients with breastcancer has been investigated by comparing Kaplan-Meier survival curves of different patient cohorts diagnosed during the period 1948-87. The study is based on 71,448 patients from the Danish Cancer Registry. The cohorts were defined by age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis and residential area. The survival time from diagnosis to death nearly doubled from 1948-57 to 1978-87 with the most important improvement taking place after 1978. Patients diagnosed in 1948-77 in the Copenhagen area had a far better prognosis than patients during this period in the rest of the country. For patients diagnosed in 1978-87 the prognosis, however, reached an equal level in all parts of the country. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that the national programme introduced in 1977 by the Danish BreastCancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) has played an important role in these improvements. PMID:7825249
Andreasen, A H; Mouridsen, H T; Andersen, K W; Lynge, E; Madsen, M; Olesen, K P
The proposal objective is to define the interaction between Notch and VEGFR-3 in breastcancer. Thus, we proposed to investigate this relationship in four different settings: primary endothelial cell cultures, mouse embryos, human breast tumors, and mouse...
Introduction Breast development and structure is influenced most during the following stages of life - intrauterine, menarche, and pregnancy and lactation. The success of traditional breastcancer epidemiology has been to uncover the relationship of facto...
The objective of this proposal is to determine the effectiveness of tumor stromal targeting using radio labeled antibodies to deliver cytotoxic payloads to breastcancer stromal fibroblasts. The central hypothesis to be tested is that targeting the breast...
The proposal objective is to define Notch and VEGFR-3 in breastcancer. We investigated this relationship in primary endothelial cell cultures, mouse embryos, human breast tumors, and mouse mammary tumor xenografts. We demonstrate that Notch signaling pro...
Surgery for breastcancer includes removal of the breast tumor along with the axillary lymph nodes. The status of these nodes helps clinicians determine prognosis and guides treatment decisions. Unfortunately, a relatively common side effect following axi...
Surgery for breastcancer includes removal of the breast tumor along with the axillary lymph nodes. The status of these nodes helps clinicians determine the patient's prognosis and guides treatment decisions. Unfortunately, a relatively common side effect...
Surgery for breastcancer includes removal of the breast tumor along with axillarylymph nodes. Unfortunately, a relatively common side effect following axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is upper-extremity lymphedema. The purpose of this study is to id...
To evaluate 201Tl in the detection of the primary tumour, lymph node involvement and mediastinal spread we have studied a total of 188 patients with histologically proven lung cancer, breastcancer or malignant lymphoma. Ten patients with benign lung disease were also examined. Static images were performed 20 min after intravenous injection of 75 MBq of thallous (201Tl) chloride. The results were compared with those of standard staging procedures including CT scanning and mediastinal exploration. Thallium-201 imaging was highly sensitive in detecting the primary tumour (lung cancer 86%, breast carcinoma 100%, lymphoma 85%), but showed low sensitivity in detecting mediastinal spread or lymph node involvement. Thallium-201 uptake was also observed in active sarcoidosis (one case) and active TB (two cases). We conclude that 201Tl imaging is unlikely to have a clinically useful role in the diagnosis or staging of lung cancer, breastcancer or lymphoma. PMID:2163500
Sehweil, A M; McKillop, J H; Milroy, R; Sayed, M A; Ziada, G; Banham, S W; Davidson, K G; Ragib, A; Omar, Y T; Abdel-Dayem, H M
Subtyping of breastcancers by means of DNA microarray analyses has given rise to the new concept of the basal-like subtype;\\u000a this subtype is in effect the equivalent of so-called “triple-negative” breastcancer. Basal-like breastcancer has aggressive\\u000a characteristics, such as high histological grade, mutation of the TP53 gene, and negative hormone receptors. It tends to occur\\u000a in relatively young
In this article, the use of different types of thermotherapies to treat breastcancer is reviewed. While hyperthermia is most commonly used as an adjuvant in combination with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy or cryotherapy to enhance the therapeutic effect of these therapies, thermoablation is usually carried out alone to eradicate small breast tumors. A recently developed thermotherapy, called magnetic hyperthermia, which involves localized heating of nanoparticles under the application of an alternating magnetic field, is also presented. The advantages and drawbacks of these different thermotherapies are highlighted.
In this article, the use of different types of thermotherapies to treat breastcancer is reviewed. While hyperthermia is most commonly used as an adjuvant in combination with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy or cryotherapy to enhance the therapeutic effect of these therapies, thermoablation is usually carried out alone to eradicate small breast tumors. A recently developed thermotherapy, called magnetic hyperthermia, which involves localized heating of nanoparticles under the application of an alternating magnetic field, is also presented. The advantages and drawbacks of these different thermotherapies are highlighted. PMID:24959300
Parallel to its life-threatening nature, breastcancer can affect physical integrity, having a psychosocial impact on patients. Determining the optimal proportion of patients who should undergo breast reconstruction after cancer surgery represents a complex task. What seems to be unquestionable is that the ability to offer reconstruction and a wide range of surgical options plays an important role in current
C. A. Garcia-Etienne; D. Forcellini; A. Sagona; F. Caviggioli; E. Barbieri; G. Cornegliani; S. Giannasi; C. Tinterri
Breastcancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Despite recent advances in breastcancer research, a comprehensive set of genetic markers of increased breastcancer risk remain elusive. Recently mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been found in many types of cancer, including breastcancer. To investigate the possible role of mitochondrial genetics in breastcancer predisposition and biology we analyzed the D-loop sequence of cancer patients and assigned mitochondrial haplogroup using RFLP analysis. We detected a significantly greater incidence of mtDNA polymorphisms T239C, A263G and C16207T and a significant lower incidence of A73G, C150T, T16183C, T16189C, C16223T, T16362C in patients with breastcancer compared to database controls. The mitochondrial haplogroup distribution in patients with breastcancer differs from a group of cancer-free controls and the general Polish population in that haplogroup I is over-represented in individuals with cancer. These findings suggest that mitochondrial haplogroup I as well as other polymorphic variants defined by SNPs in the D-loop may be associated with an increased risk of developing breastcancer. PMID:21042748
Czarnecka, Anna M; Krawczyk, Tomasz; Plak, Katarzyna; Klemba, Aleksandra; Zdrozny, Marek; Arnold, Rebecca S; Kofler, Barbara; Golik, Pawel; Szybinska, Aleksandra; Lubinski, Jan; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Bartnik, Ewa; Petros, John A
To refine the analysis of gene amplification in breastcancer, the authors have developed sensitive methods that can be used to screen nucleic acid prepared from a variety of sources. In their analysis, Southern hybridization and DNA dot-blot analysis were used to screen 49 breastcancer DNAs for Myc, Neu, and Int-2 gene amplification. The analysis detected minimal one extra gene copy) as well as expanded (two or more extra gene copies) gene amplifications, and in addition, distinguished between gene amplification and aneuploidy as the cause of extra gene copies. These quantitative methods were adapted to patient specimens routinely available in the anatomic pathology laboratory, including fresh tumor tissue, tumor nuclei discarded during estrogen receptor analysis, and paraffin blocks. One minimal gene amplification was found in three cases of intraductal cancer. Of 25 cases of nonmetastatic invasive cancer, 28% had at least one extra Myc gene, whereas 24% had Neu, and 21% had Int-2 gene amplification. Of 21 cases of metastatic invasive cancer, 43% had Myc, 43% had Neu, and 40% had Int-2 gene amplification. Among the nonmetastatic cancers, 47% had one, 12% had two, and 4% had three amplified genes. Within the metastatic cancers, 48% had one, 28% had two, and 5% had three amplified genes. Our data suggest relationships between tumor progression and both incidence and size of Myc, Neu, and Int-2 gene amplification. PMID:1849359
Donovan-Peluso, M; Contento, A M; Tobon, H; Ripepi, B; Locker, J
To refine the analysis of gene amplification in breastcancer, the authors have developed sensitive methods that can be used to screen nucleic acid prepared from a variety of sources. In their analysis, Southern hybridization and DNA dot-blot analysis were used to screen 49 breastcancer DNAs for Myc, Neu, and Int-2 gene amplification. The analysis detected minimal one extra gene copy) as well as expanded (two or more extra gene copies) gene amplifications, and in addition, distinguished between gene amplification and aneuploidy as the cause of extra gene copies. These quantitative methods were adapted to patient specimens routinely available in the anatomic pathology laboratory, including fresh tumor tissue, tumor nuclei discarded during estrogen receptor analysis, and paraffin blocks. One minimal gene amplification was found in three cases of intraductal cancer. Of 25 cases of nonmetastatic invasive cancer, 28% had at least one extra Myc gene, whereas 24% had Neu, and 21% had Int-2 gene amplification. Of 21 cases of metastatic invasive cancer, 43% had Myc, 43% had Neu, and 40% had Int-2 gene amplification. Among the nonmetastatic cancers, 47% had one, 12% had two, and 4% had three amplified genes. Within the metastatic cancers, 48% had one, 28% had two, and 5% had three amplified genes. Our data suggest relationships between tumor progression and both incidence and size of Myc, Neu, and Int-2 gene amplification. Images Figure 1 Figure 2
Donovan-Peluso, M.; Contento, A. M.; Tobon, H.; Ripepi, B.; Locker, J.
The Breast Tissue Repository at Duke enters its fourth year of finding. The purpose of the Repository at Duke is to provide substantial quantities of frozen tissue for explorative molecular studies. The scope of our resource includes: (1) freshly frozen t...
The Breast Tissue Repository at Duke University completed its fourth and final year of funding and was granted a no-cost extension to continue its mission for the additional year (from 9/98-9/99). This report highlights work performed under this no-cost e...
Background: Currently breastcancer (BRCA) still remain the most commonly diagnosed female cancer globally with a significant geographic, racial and ethnical variations in its incidence. Aim: This article examines the frequency and histological types and grades of BRCA in a pioneer teaching Hospital in Delta State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: H and E stained-slides of breast biopsies diagnosed at the Central Hospital, Warri from 2005 to 2011 were archived and studied. Request forms were scrutinized for clinical bio-data, diagnosis and histological sections were analyzed. Data obtained were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 statistical package (SPSS) Incorporated, Chicago, Illinois, USA, and value presented descriptively. Results: During this period, 905 breast lesions were seen. Out of this, 261 were BRCAs, of which 260 cases were females and one case was a male. The peak age incidence for BRCA and its variants was 40-49 years accounting for (n = 94/261; 36%). The mean age of BRCA was 46 years (6.2). Invasive carcinoma of no special type (NST) was the most commonly encountered histological group of breast carcinoma constituting (n = 203/261, 77.7%) with the high grade invasive ductal carcinoma as the leading diagnosis. Conclusion: Majority of BRCAs encounter was invasive ductal carcinoma of NST with bulk of patients presenting in Stages III and IV.
In this paper, we propose a technique to locate abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test, when require. We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps. Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal/lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper. In fact, features of cancerousbreast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue. We also suggest the breastcancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some extent.
Breastcancer screening is a highly complex and more recently a controversial topic. Conventional screening includes breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and screening mammography. Several newer imaging modalities have been introduced into the screening armamentarium including breast magnetic resonance imaging and whole-breast automated ultrasound. Novel imaging techniques like positron emission mammography are currently under clinical investigation in the hopes of improving the sensitivity of breastcancer screening. In addition, the development of biochemical assays, which employ minimally invasive sampling are also promising. PMID:22828098
Feldman, Elizabeth D; Oppong, Bridget A; Willey, Shawna C
Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breastcancer and 52,000 men without breastcancer confirmed that risk factors for male breastcancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.
In many countries of the developed world, there is an increasing trend toward delay in childbearing from 30 to 40 years of age for various reasons. This is unfortunately concordant with an increasing incidence of breastcancer in women who have not yet completed their family. The current choice for premenopausal women with breastcancer is adjuvant therapy which includes cytotoxic chemotherapy, ovarian ablation (by surgery, irradiation, or chemical ovarian suppression), anti-estrogen therapy, or any combination of these. Although the use of adjuvant therapies with cytotoxic drugs can significantly reduce mortality, it raises issues of the long-term toxicity, such as induction of an early menopause and fertility impairment. The risk of infertility is a potential hardship to be faced by the patients following treatment of breastcancer. The offspring of patients who became pregnant after completion of chemotherapy have shown no adverse effects and congenital anomalies from the treatment, but sometimes high rates of abortion (29%) and premature deliveries with low birth weight (40%) have been demonstrated. Therefore, the issue of recent cytotoxic treatment remains controversial and further research is required to define a "safety period" between cessation of treatment and pregnancy. Preservation of fertility in breastcancer survivors of reproductive age has become an important issue regarding the quality of life. Currently, there are several potential options, including all available assisted technologies, such as in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, in vitro maturation, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. Because increased estrogen levels are thought to be potentially risky in breastcancer patients, recently developed ovarian stimulation protocols with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and tamoxifen appear to provide safe stimulation with endogenous estrogen. Embryo cryopreservation seems to be the most established fertility preservation strategy, providing a 25-35% chance of pregnancy. In addition, oocyte freezing can be considered as an alternative in patients who are single and in those who do not wish a sperm donor. Although ovarian tissue harvesting appears to be safe, experience regarding ovarian transplantation is still limited due to low utilization, so the true value of this procedure remains to be determined. Nevertheless, in clinical situations in which chemotherapy needs to be started in young patients facing premature ovarian failure, ovarian tissue preservation seems to be a promising option for restoring fertility, especially in conjunction with other options like immature oocyte retrieval, in vitro maturation of oocytes, oocyte vitrification, or embryo cryopreservation. It seems that in vitro maturation is a useful strategy because it improves oocyte or cryopreservation outcome in breastcancer patients undergoing ovarian stimulation for fertility preservation. PMID:24315568
Aim: The aim was to determine serum vitamin D levels in breastcancer patients and to assess its risk association with grade and stage of the tumor. Materials and Methods: Ninety breastcancer patients and equal number of age-matched healthy females were recruited into the study by consecutive sampling over a period of 6 months for this case control study. Serum 25(OH)2D levels and CT bone mineral density was done. Results: The mean age was 46±1.5 years. Age, marital status, menopausal, residential area, parda observing status, and body mass index were similar in distribution among cases and controls. The mean serum vitamin D level in the breastcancer patients was 9.3 ng/ml and in the control group was 14.9 ng/ml (P value <0.001). Vitamin D deficiency was seen in 95.6% (86) breastcancer patients and in 77% (69) of the control group (P value <0.001). Among the breastcancer patients the tumor characteristics (histology, grade, stage, and receptor status) did not show any significant associations with serum levels of vitamin D. Premenopausal breastcancer females had a mean serum vitamin D level of 10.5 ng/ml and postmenopausal females had a mean value of 13.5 ng/ml (P value 0.015). Low BMD did not correlate significantly with vitamin D deficiency (P value 0.787). Conclusion: Invariably almost all patients with breastcancer were vitamin D deficient. Tumor characteristics did not show any significant associations with serum levels of vitamin D. Bone mineral density did not correlate significantly with vitamin D deficiency.
A case-control study was conducted among Singapore Chinese women, comprised of 200 histologically confirmed cases of breastcancer and 420 hospital controls. Subjects were interviewed on family history of breastcancer, social and demographic characteristics, reproductive history, and diet one year prior to interview. Differences in risk factors were observed according to menopausal status. In the premenopausal group, the most
Hin Peng Lee; Lynn Gourley; Stephen W. Duffy; Jacques Estève; James Lee; Nicholas E. Day
The After BreastCancer Pooling Project was established to examine the role of physical activity, adiposity, dietary factors,\\u000a supplement use, and quality of life (QOL) in breastcancer prognosis. This paper presents pooled and harmonized data on post-diagnosis\\u000a lifestyle factors, clinical prognostic factors, and breastcancer outcomes from four prospective cohorts of breastcancer\\u000a survivors (three US-based and one from
Sarah J. Nechuta; Bette J. Caan; Wendy Y. Chen; Shirley W. Flatt; Wei Lu; Ruth E. Patterson; Elizabeth M. Poole; Marilyn L. Kwan; Zhi Chen; Erin Weltzien; John P. Pierce; Xiao Ou Shu
Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of breast and ovarian cancer, including information about specific genes and family cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about interventions that may influence the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer in individuals who may be genetically susceptible to these diseases. Psychosocial issues associated with genetic testing are also discussed.
Background: The management of patients with localized and advanced breastcancer continues to evolve. Chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, and trastuzumab are effective therapies but leave considerable room for improvement. As the cellular aberrations inherent to cancer cells in general and breastcancer cells specifically are better understood, therapies to target specific cellular pathways continue to be developed with the goal of
Timothy J. Hobday; Edith A. Perez; Bryan Murphy; Eli Lilly
Breastcancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women. X-ray mammography is the most widely used technique for early detection but has limitations. In this paper, an alternative approach for breastcancer detection using microwave imaging is presented. This is based upon a microwave holographic approach, central to which is the use of a synthetic reference
Breastcancer is the most common form of cancer in women. Over 75% of breastcancer patients are eligible for breast conserving therapy. Breast conserving therapy involves a lumpectomy to excise the gross tumour, followed by adjuvant radiation therapy to eradicate residual microscopic disease. Recent advances in the understanding of breastcancer biology and recurrence have presented the opportunity to
We report the case of a 63-year-old woman with occult breastcancer who presented with a hard metastatic nodule in the left axilla. Although histology identified a metastatic carcinoma in the lymph nodes, numerous tests failed to detect the primary tumor. Resected lymph node was positive for both estrogen and progesterone receptors, suggesting the breast as the site of the primary tumor. Left modified radical mastectomy was performed. Pathology revealed an invasive lobular carcinoma (2.5 x 2 mm in size) with extensive lymphatic involvement, which strongly expressed both vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) and VEGF-D. PMID:24576904
Background Lysozyme, one of the major protein components of human milk that is also synthesized by a significant percentage of breast carcinomas, is associated with lesions that have a favorable outcome in female breastcancer. Here we evaluate the expression and prognostic value of lysozyme in male breastcancer (MBC). Methods Lysozyme expression was examined by immunohistochemical methods in a series of 60 MBC tissue sections and in 15 patients with gynecomastia. Staining was quantified using the HSCORE (histological score) system, which considers both the intensity and the percentage of cells staining at each intensity. Prognostic value of lysozyme was retrospectively evaluated by multivariate analysis taking into account conventional prognostic factors. Results Lysozyme immunostaining was negative in all cases of gynecomastia. A total of 27 of 60 MBC sections (45%) stained positively for this protein, but there were clear differences among them with regard to the intensity and percentage of stained cells. Statistical analysis showed that lysozyme HSCORE values in relation to age, tumor size, nodal status, histological grade, estrogen receptor status, metastasis and histological type did not increase the statistical significance. Univariate analysis confirmed that both nodal involvement and lysozyme values were significant predictors of short-term relapse-free survival. Multivariate analysis, according to Cox's regression model, also showed that nodal status and lysozyme levels were significant independent indicators of short-term relapse-free survival. Conclusion Tumor expression of lysozyme is associated with lesions that have an unfavorable outcome in male breastcancer. This milk protein may be a new prognostic factor in patients with breastcancer.
Serra, Carlos; Vizoso, Francisco; Alonso, Lorena; Rodriguez, Juan C; Gonzalez, Luis O; Fernandez, Maria; Lamelas, Maria L; Sanchez, Luis M; Garcia-Muniz, Jose L; Baltasar, Aniceto; Medrano, Justo
The prevalence for breastcancer in males in Europe is estimated to be 1 or less per 100 000. Male breastcancer has a peak incidence at the age of 71 years.There are no randomized data giving information on the optimal therapy for male breastcancer patients, thereby limiting firmer conclusions.The preferred primary surgical therapy is modified radical\\/simple mastectomy, but
Czene Kamila; Bergqvist Jenny; Hall Per; Bergh Jonas
Breastcancer imposes a significant healthcare burden on women worldwide. Early detection is of paramount importance in reducing\\u000a mortality, yet the diagnosis of breastcancer is hampered by the lack of an adequate detection method. In addition, better\\u000a breastcancer prognostication may improve selection of patients eligible for adjuvant therapy. Hence, new markers for early\\u000a diagnosis, accurate prognosis and prediction
Marie-Christine W. Gast; Jan H. M. Schellens; Jos H. Beijnen
INTRODUCTION: Only a limited number of tumor markers for breastcancer are currently available. Antibodies to tumor-associated proteins may expand the number of available tumor markers for breastcancer and may be used together in a serum profile to enhance sensitivity and specificity. METHODS: In the present study, we interrogated a breastcancer cDNA T7 phage library for tumor-associated proteins
Li Zhong; Kun Ge; Jin-chi Zu; Long-hua Zhao; Wei-ke Shen; Jian-fei Wang; Xiao-gang Zhang; Xu Gao; Wanping Hu; Yun Yen; Kemp H Kernstine
A hospital-based case-control study was performed from August 2002 to November 2003 in Northeast Brazil. Eighty-nine women were recruited with histologically confirmed breastcancer (age 30-80 years), matched for age with 94 controls. Food consumption of cases and controls was evaluated by foods and food groups, categorized in consumption tertiles. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were obtained through unconditional logistic regression. Intake of fruits and juices, beans, and dairy products showed a strong association with reduced risk of breastcancer. Consumption of red and fried meat was positively associated with risk of breastcancer (red meat-OR=4.30; 95%CI: 1.74-10.67; p for trend=0.00). No association was observed in vegetable and sausage meat groups and breastcancer. Red and fried meat may be risk factors, and intake of fruit, beans, and dairy products may protect against breastcancer. PMID:18392359
Lima, Flávia Emília Leite de; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Costa, Maria José de Carvalho; Fisberg, Regina Mara
Tumor biomarker tests are critical to implementation of personalized medicine for patients at risk for or affected by breastcancer. A tumor biomarker test must have high analytical validity and clinical utility to be used to guide clinical care in standard practice. Few tumor biomarkers meet these high standards. These include germline DNA single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the BRCA1 and -2 genes to determine high risk in unaffected women, selected tissue-based markers to determine prognosis and predict benefit from therapy, and circulating MUC1, CEA and perhaps tumor cells to monitor patients with metastatic disease. Efforts to discover biomarkers that predict therapeutic toxicity are promising but not yet successful. Further research is needed to enhance the number of tumor biomarker tests so that patients with breastcancer can get the correct treatment at the appropriate time. PMID:24422569
Breastcancer diversity is histologically evident as various proliferative benign lesions, in situ carcinomas, and invasive carcinomas that may develop into distant metastases. Breast tumor molecular subtypes have been defined by genome-wide expression microarray technology and reveal associations between genetic alterations and the malignant phenotype. Early work has been conducted to use subtype-specific biomarkers to elucidate targeted treatment options early in the course of breastcancer progression. Additionally, DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that contributes to breastcancer progression by transcriptionally silencing certain tumor suppressor genes. Among the genes characterized as targets for silencing are well-established tumor suppressors such as RASSF1A, RARB, SFN, and TGM2. Measuring elevated gene copy number and aberrant gene promoter methylation can further facilitate characterization of breast tumor molecular subtype; however, profiling of breast tumors based on epigenetic criteria has yet to be established. Epigenomic analysis has been investigated for clinical applicability, and it has great promise when used in combination with minimally invasive techniques for both diagnostic and prognostic purposes.
Susceptibility to breastcancer is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Research is exploring which factors influence breastcancer risk, and by which mechanisms they exert their influence. Women should be informed about lifestyle factors influencing their life time breastcancer risk and encouraged by their physician to adapt changes in diet, physical activity, reproductive issues and use of hormone substitution after menopause, to minimize the risk. Patients identified as high risk to develop breastcancer can consider prophylactic surgery, chemo-preventive therapies and take part in personalized screening programs. PMID:21938984
Breastcancer causes mortality by metastasizing to a variety of vital organs, such as bone, lung, brain and liver. Effective\\u000a therapeutic intervention of this deadly process relies on a better mechanistic understanding of metastasis organotropism.\\u000a Recent studies have confirmed earlier speculations that metastasis is a non-random process and is dependent on intricate tumor-stroma\\u000a interactions at the target organ. Both the
Molecular profiling has provided biological evidence for the heterogeneity of breastcancer through the identification of\\u000a intrinsic subtypes like Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2+\\/ER? and basal-like. It has also led to the development of clinically applicable\\u000a gene expression-based prognostic panels like the Mammaprint® and Oncotype Dx™. The increasingly sophisticated understanding\\u000a allowed by this and similar technology promises future individualized therapy.
\\u000a Breastcancer (BC) is a complex and heterogeneous disease caused by interaction of both genetic and nongenetic risk factors.\\u000a The biological diversity of sporadic BCs consists in the development of several BC subtypes, which are systematically different\\u000a from one another and which present specific genetic and phenotypic features. Recently, with the advent of cDNA microarrays\\u000a it has been possible to
Antonio Russo; Valentina Agnese; Sergio Rizzo; Laura Paglia; Viviana Bazan
Metastasization of breastcancer involves various mechanisms responsible for progression from invasive lesion to dissemination\\u000a in distant organs. Regional lymph node metastasization was considered an initial step in this process, but it is now recognized\\u000a that hematogenous dissemination is a deviation from lymphatic circulation. The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC)\\u000a is an aim in several oncology areas. For this
Maria João Carvalho; Mafalda Laranjo; Margarida Abrantes; António S. Cabrita; Filomena Botelho; Carlos F. de Oliveira
Breastcancer (BC) is the most common neoplasm in women in Western countries. Tumoral angiogenesis (TA) is essential for the\\u000a growth and spread of BC cells. There are at least 6 different angiogenic growth factors associated with TA in BC. The major\\u000a mediator of TA is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a homodimeric heparin-binding glycoprotein. VEGF signals through\\u000a VEGF receptor-2
Parham Khosravi Shahi; Alicia Soria Lovelle; Gumersindo Pérez Manga
Summary BACKGROUND: In the ASCO Annual Meeting, important recent developments in haematology and oncology were presented. In the 2010\\u000a ASCO meeting, interest in the field of metastatic breastcancer focused on Poly-(ADP-Ribose)-Polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitors\\u000a and novel treatment options in Her2-positive disease. METHODS: For this review article, authors searched proceedings of the\\u000a 2010 ASCO Annual Meeting. Abstracts providing important new insights were
Sixty-two patients with breastcancer were evaluated as to the relationship between ultrasonographic images and the pathological findings. Gross configuration of breastcancer was evaluated; knobby type was revealed in 53 cases, stellate type in 7, and spiculate type in 2. Percentage of cellular component was measured histologically, and knobby type proved to be rich in cancer cell in the outer part (61.1 +/- 22.0%), but scarce in the inner part (13.5 +/- 17.3%, p less than 0.01). Also the dissociation between the diameter of hypoechoic area on ultrasonogram (1.84 +/- 0.91 cm) and that on the cut-surface of resected specimen (2.38 +/- 0.96 cm, p less than 0.01) was noted. Meanwhile, other types (stellate or spiculate type) had small number of cancer cells not only in the inner part (9.8 +/- 9.5%) but also in the outer part (28.4 +/- 17.2%). Besides, there was no difference between the diameter on ultrasonogram (1.71 +/- 0.71 cm) and that on the cut-surface (1.82 +/- 0.69 cm). These results suggest that ultrasonography can delineate the entirety of diffusely fibrous breastcancer, but can hardly depict the outer part of the lesion which is fibrous in the inner part and cellular in the outer part. Latter phenomenon can be a clue to diagnose breastcancer from the view point of its heterogeneity. PMID:1849610
Epithelial and fibroblast cell coculture: Long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) admixed in coculture with fibroblast from the same initial breast tissue grown as 3-dimenstional constructions in the presence of attachment beads in the NASA Bioreactor. A: A typical constrct about 2.0 mm in diameter without beads on the surface. The center of these constrcts is hollow, and beads are organized about the irner surface. Although the coculture provides smaller constructs than the monoculture, the metabolic of the organized cells is about the same. B, C, D: Closer views of cells showing that the shape of cells and cell-to-cell interactions apprear different in the coculture than in the monoculture constructs. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breastcancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breastcancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).
Summary Breastcancer and bone health are closely linked. Early menopause induced by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues or chemotherapy as well as aromatase inhibitors reduce oestrogen levels, thereby causing cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL). Furthermore, bone metastases are commonly found in advanced disease. Current treatment options for bone lesions comprise systemic anti-tumour therapy, irradiation, surgery and bisphosphonates. The main mechanism of osteolysis, osteoclast activation, is induced by the RANK ligand and suppressed by osteoprotegerin (OPG). A human antibody targeting the RANK ligand, denosumab, had superior activity compared to OPG and was therefore further developed in the clinical setting. This article reviews clinical data on denosumab. Data were obtained by searching the Medline database and abstracts from the ASCO annual meeting, ASCO breast meeting, ECCO, ESMO, and the San Antonio BreastCancer Symposium. Clinical trials have demonstrated that denosumab reduces markers of bone turnover, and suggest equal efficacy to bisphosphonates in reducing the rate of skeletal-related events. While overall fewer side effects were observed, a numerically increased rate of osteonecrosis of the jaw was reported. Denosumab was well tolerated, and clinical activity was similar to bisphosphonates in metastatic disease. Trials of denosumab in the prevention of CTIBL are ongoing.
1891 women given conjugated estrogens for the menopause were followed for 12 years (mean) for incidence of breastcancer. Overall, 49 cases were observed; 39.1 were expected on the basis of rates in the general population (relative risk = 1.3, P = 0.06). The relative risk increased with follow-up duration, progressing to 2.0 after 15 years (13/6.6, P = 0.01). The excess risk after 10 years was not due simply to prolonged estrogen use, since there was no clear dose-response relation to accumulated years of use. However, higher risk accrued to women using higher-dose tablets and those taking the medication on an other than daily basis. In addition, after 10 years of follow-up observation, two factors related to low risk of breastcancer, multiparity and oophorectomy, were no longer so related. Finally, estrogen use was related to an especially high risk of breastcancer among women in whom benign disease developed after they had started the drug. PMID:180409
BreastCancer is a heterogeneous disease, progressive, currently, are classified according to in pattern of gene expression luminal A, luminal B, basal and HER-2neu + and Triple-negative, 75% to 80% have receptors positive hormonal and 15% to 20% are positive for hER-2neu and 10% to 20% are triple negative, with hormone receptor negative and HER2-neu and their diagnostic is made by exclusion, the Metabolic Syndrome is related to a higher incidence of these cancers where the insulin-leptin axis-adiponectin are implicated in carcinogenesis.
Vargas-Aguilar, VM; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adanm; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo; Tovar-Rodriguez, JM
Intra-operative radiotherapy (IORT) as a treatment for breastcancer is a relatively new technique that is designed to be a replacement for whole breast external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in selected women suitable for breast-conserving therapy. This article reviews twelve reasons for the use of the technique, with a particular emphasis on targeted intra-operative radiotherapy (TARGIT) which uses X-rays generated from a portable device within the operating theatre immediately after the breast tumour (and surrounding margin of healthy tissue) has been removed. The delivery of a single fraction of radiotherapy directly to the tumour bed at the time of surgery, with the capability of adding EBRT at a later date if required (risk-adaptive technique) is discussed in light of recent results from a large multinational randomised controlled trial comparing TARGIT with EBRT. The technique avoids irradiation of normal tissues such as skin, heart, lungs, ribs and spine, and has been shown to improve cosmetic outcome when compared with EBRT. Beneficial aspects to both institutional and societal economics are discussed, together with evidence demonstrating excellent patient satisfaction and quality of life. There is a discussion of the published evidence regarding the use of IORT twice in the same breast (for new primary cancers) and in patients who would never be considered for EBRT because of their special circumstances (such as the frail, the elderly, or those with collagen vascular disease). Finally, there is a discussion of the role of the TARGIT Academy in developing and sustaining high standards in the use of the technique.
Williams, Norman R.; Pigott, Katharine H.; Brew-Graves, Chris
Adjuvant chemotherapy reduces the risk of relapse and mortality for women with early-stage breastcancer. However, many women diagnosed with early-stage breastcancer experience the toxic effects associated with adjuvant chemotherapy without any meaningful benefit. There are a variety of clinicopathological factors—including hormone receptor expression, histology, and proliferation markers such as Ki-67—that can be used to try to identify patients
Metastasis to the central nervous system (CNS) is a devastating neurological complication of systemic cancer. Brain metastases from breastcancer have been documented to occur in approximately 10%-16% of cases over the natural course of the disease with leptomeningeal metastases occurring in approximately 2%-5% of cases of breastcancer. CNS metastases among women with breastcancer tend to occur among those who are younger, have larger tumors, and have a more aggressive histological subtype such as the triple negative and HER2-positive subtypes. Treatment of CNS metastases involves various combinations of whole brain radiation therapy, surgery, stereotactic radiosurgery, and chemotherapy. We will discuss the progress made in the treatment and prevention of breastcancer-associated CNS metastases and will delve into the biological underpinnings of CNS metastases including evaluating the role of breast tumor subtype on the incidence, natural history, prognostic outcome, and impact of therapeutic efficacy. PMID:23740934
Metastasis to the central nervous system (CNS) is a devastating neurological complication of systemic cancer. Brain metastases from breastcancer have been documented to occur in approximately 10%–16% of cases over the natural course of the disease with leptomeningeal metastases occurring in approximately 2%–5% of cases of breastcancer. CNS metastases among women with breastcancer tend to occur among those who are younger, have larger tumors, and have a more aggressive histological subtype such as the triple negative and HER2-positive subtypes. Treatment of CNS metastases involves various combinations of whole brain radiation therapy, surgery, stereotactic radiosurgery, and chemotherapy. We will discuss the progress made in the treatment and prevention of breastcancer-associated CNS metastases and will delve into the biological underpinnings of CNS metastases including evaluating the role of breast tumor subtype on the incidence, natural history, prognostic outcome, and impact of therapeutic efficacy.
Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is an uncommon benign breast lesion. Diagnosis is a matter of exclusion from other inflammatory, infectious and granulomatous aetiologies. Here, we presented an atypical GM case, which had clinical and radiologic features overlapping with inflammatory breastcancer (IBC). The disease had multiple recurrences. The patient is a 40-year-old Caucasian woman with a sudden onset of left breast
Ahmet Bahadir Ergin; Massimo Cristofanilli; Hamed Daw; Gulgun Tahan; Yun Gong
... recommended for pregnant women with breastcancer. Since breast-conserving surgery (BCS) needs to be followed with radiation, BCS is only an option if radiation can be delayed until after the baby is delivered. But breast biopsy procedures and even mastectomy and lymph node ...
In the present study, we investigated the association of the serum levels of the tumour markers carcinoembryonic antigen and cancer antigen 15-3 with disease free survival and death from disease in 1046 women with breastcancer without metastases at the time of primary diagnosis in relation to age and the established prognostic factors tumour size, lymph node status, histological grading
F G Ebeling; P Stieber; M Untch; D Nagel; G E Konecny; U M Schmitt; A Fateh-Moghadam; D Seidel
While cancer research has been focused on tumor cells for many years, evidence is growing that the tumor stroma and in particular cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in particular play essential roles in the progression of human malignant disease. In human lung cancer, CAFs expressing the transmembrane protein podoplanin were shown to have significant influence on the patients' prognosis. In this study, we investigated the presence and prognostic role of podoplanin-expressing CAFs in a large series of patients with invasive breastcancer. Podoplanin expression was evaluated immunohistochemically in 367 breastcancers. Tumors with ?10% distinct podoplanin staining were considered as positive (CAF+). Cytoplasmic podoplanin expression of tumor cells was considered as positive when ?5% of tumor cells showed a distinct podoplanin expression. In normal breast tissue, no podoplanin-expressing fibrocytes were found. Thirty-three patients (9%) with breastcancer showed podoplanin expression in CAFs. In 28 patients (8%), a podoplanin expression in tumor cells was observed. A strong negative correlation of CAF+ with estrogen receptor status (p<0.001), and a significant association with higher histological grading (p<0.001) was seen. In multivariable analysis, CAFs+ was an independent prognostic factor for disease free (1.78 Hazard ratio; p=0.026) and overall survival (2.304 Hazard ratio; p=0.002) in patients with breastcancer. Podoplanin-expressing CAFs contribute to the prognosis of invasive breastcancer, indicating a highly aggressive subgroup. CAFs may present a highly selective target for anti-cancer therapies in patients with invasive breastcancer. PMID:22350732
Schoppmann, Sebastian F; Berghoff, Anna; Dinhof, Carina; Jakesz, Raimund; Gnant, Michael; Dubsky, Peter; Jesch, Bettina; Heinzl, Harald; Birner, Peter
Purpose Previous studies have suggested that migraineurs are at decreased risk for developing breastcancer. Further prospective studies are warranted to confirm these results. In addition, studies evaluating migraine characteristics (e.g. migraine subtypes and frequency) are lacking. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study among 39,696 participants in the Women's Health Study who were 45 years and older at study entry. Information on migraine was self-reported with good validation rates. Incident breastcancer cases were confirmed by medical record review. We distinguished the following major endpoints: any breastcancer, a combined endpoint of invasive and in situ cases, in situ breastcancer only and invasive breastcancer only. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate age- and multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results 7,318 (18.4%) women reported any migraine. During a mean-follow-up time of 13.6 years, 432 in situ and 1,846 invasive breastcancer cases occurred. Migraine was not associated with breastcancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 1.10 (0.99–1.22) for any breastcancer, 1.06 (0.83–1.35) for in situ breastcancer and 1.11 (0.99–1.25) for invasive breastcancer. The risk for developing breastcancer differed according to hormone receptor status with a suggestion of increased risks for hormone receptor negative tumors (HR ER?/PR?: 1.28, 95%CI: 0.96–1.71). We did not observe meaningful differences with regard to histologic subtype or according to migraine aura status or migraine attack frequency. Conclusions Results of our study do not support the hypothesis that migraineurs have a decreased risk for breastcancer.
Winter, Anke C.; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Lee, I-Min; Buring, Julie E.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Kurth, Tobias
Objective We used a nested case–control design within a large, multi-center cohort of women who underwent a biopsy for benign breast disease (BBD) to assess the association of broad histologic groupings and specific histologic entities with risk of breastcancer. Methods Cases were all women who had a biopsy for BBD and who subsequently developed breastcancer; controls were individually matched to cases and were women with a biopsy for BBD who did not develop breastcancer in the same follow-up interval as that for the cases. After exclusions, 1,239 records (615 cases and 624 controls) were available for analysis. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Relative to non-proliferative BBD/normal pathology, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for proliferative lesions without atypia was 1.45 (95% CI 1.10–1.90), and that for atypical hyperplasia was 5.27 (95% CI 2.29–12.15). The presence of multiple foci of columnar cell hyperplasia and of complex fibroadenoma without atypia was associated with a non-significantly increased risk of breastcancer, whereas sclerosing adenosis, radial scar, and papilloma showed no association with risk. Conclusion Our results indicate that, compared to women with normal pathology/non-proliferative disease, women with proliferative disease without atypia have a modestly increased risk of breastcancer, whereas women with atypical hyperplasia have a substantially increased risk.
Jones, Joan G.; Olson, Neal; Negassa, Abdissa; Duggan, Catherine; Ginsberg, Mindy; Kandel, Rita A.; Glass, Andrew G.; Rohan, Thomas E.
Risk factors allow us to define women who are at increased lifetime risk for breastcancer, and the most important factor is age. Benign breast disease increases risk, and the most important histologies are atypical lobular or ductal hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ. Family history of breastcancer among first-degree relatives (mother, sisters, daughters) also increases risk. Quantitative measures of risk give accurate predictions of breastcancer incidence for groups of women but not for individual subjects. Multiple published, randomized controlled trials, which employed selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulators (SERMs), have demonstrated consistent reductions of 35% or greater in the risk of ER-positive invasive and noninvasive breastcancer in postmenopausal women. Professional organizations in the US now recommend the use of SERMs to reduce the risk of breastcancer in high-risk, postmenopausal women. Raloxifene and tamoxifen reduce the risk of ER-positive invasive breastcancer with equal efficacy, but raloxifene is associated with a lower risk of thromboembolic disease, benign uterine conditions, and cataracts than tamoxifen in postmenopausal women. No evidence exists establishing whether a reduction in breastcancer risk from either agent translates into reduced breastcancer mortality. Overall quality of life is similar with raloxifene or tamoxifen, but the incidence of dyspareunia, weight gain, and musculoskeletal complaints is higher with raloxifene use, whereas vasomotor symptoms, bladder incontinence, gynecologic symptoms, and leg cramps were higher with tamoxifen use. PMID:24367182
Researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center have identified a type of mutation that develops after breastcancer patients take anti-estrogen therapies. The mutations explain one reason why patients often become resistant to this therapy.
A fact sheet that describes what is known about the relationship between pregnancy, miscarriage, abortion, and the risk of breastcancer. It also briefly describes what is known about reproductive history and the risk of other cancer types.
This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of BreastCancer.
The recognition and study of the BRCA genes associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer have led to the development of cancer genetics counseling as an important medical intervention. Knowledge about how to counsel and educate patients has lagged...
In patients with metastatic breastcancer, immune cells from a genetically matched donor can attack and shrink tumors, researchers from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) announced today at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology in Chicago.
The subject of breastcancer is reviewed with particular emphasis on the genetic aspect of its etiology. A number of studies using various approaches gave the same results: the familial form occurs earlier and there is a higher risk in female members of the breast-cancer families. An association between breastcancer and cancer of certain other sites among women is reported. Cytogenetic studies of “cancer families” revealed increased frequency of aneuploidy in some members. However, the role of chromosome abnormalities in carcinogenesis is still not clear.
Minimally invasive probe and optical biopsy system based on optical spectra recording and analysis seem to be a promising tool for early diagnostics of breastcancer. Light scattering and absorption spectra are generated continuously as far as the needle-like probe with one emitting and several collecting optical fibers penetrates through the tissues toward to the suspicious area. That allows analyzing not only the state of local site, but also the structure of tissues along the needle trace. The suggested method has the advantages of automated on-line diagnosing and minimal tissue destruction and in parallel with the conventional diagnostic procedures provides the ground for decision-making. 165 medical trials were completed in Nizhny Novgorod Regional Oncology Centre, Russia. Independent diagnoses were the results of fine biopsy and histology. Application of wavelet expansion and clasterization techniques for spectra analysis revealed several main spectral types for malignant and benign tumors. Automatic classification algorithm demonstrated specificity ˜90% and sensitivity ˜91%. Large amount of information, fuzziness in criteria and data noisiness make neural networks to be an attractive analytic tool. The model based on three-layer perceptron was tested over the sample of 29 `cancer' and 29 `non-cancer' cases and demonstrated total separation.
Belkov, S. A.; Kochemasov, G. G.; Lyubynskaya, T. E.; Maslov, N. V.; Nuzhny, A. S.; da Silva, L. B.; Rubenchik, A.
Women with BRCA1 or 2 mutations are at high risk for breastcancer. For BRCA1, a trend of increasing risk has been associated with increasing downstream (3') location for mutations compared to the upstream (5') mutations in the gene. For BRCA2, an increased risk of breastcancer has been associated with mutations outside of the ovarian cancer cluster region (OCCR). We sought to determine the mutation position in BRCA-associated breastcancers and whether or not there was a genotype-phenotype correlation. Breastcancer patients with BRCA1/2 mutations were identified by a search of a prospectively maintained data base. Mutation site, patient, and tumor characteristics were determined through retrospective review. One hundred and sixty-four patients with BRCA1-associated breastcancer and 109 patients with BRCA2-associated breastcancer were identified. Among patients with BRCA1-associated cancers, 86 (52%) had mutations in the 5' half of the gene. Among patients with BRCA2-associated breastcancers, 40 (37%) had OCCR mutations. Although BRCA1-associated tumors were more likely to be ER/PR- than BRCA2-associated cancers (p < 0.0001), there was no difference in the tumor characteristics among BRCA1 or BRCA2-associated cancers based on mutation location. In this single-institution study, over half of BRCA1-associated and over a third of BRCA2-associated breastcancers were associated with putative lower risk mutations. Although we cannot exclude the possibility that mutations in these regions confer a lower relative risk for breastcancer, vigilance in cancer screening and prevention remains necessary. Further studies in genotype/phenotype correlation are needed to individualize prevention strategies. PMID:23231005
Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Gutierrez-Barrera, Angelica M; Litton, Jennifer; Mellor-Crummey, Lauren; Ready, Kaylene; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana Maria; Lu, Karen H; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Arun, Banu K
Genetic factors related to cancer have been extensively studied and several polymorphisms have been associated to breastcancer. The FGFR4, MTHFR, and HFE genes have been associated with neoplastic diseases development. The current report outlines the analysis of the polymorphisms G388A (FGFR4), C677T (MTHFR), C282Y, and H63D (HFE) in Brazilian breastcancer patients. We studied 68 patients with invasive ductal and operable breast carcinoma and 85 women as a control group. The polymorphism frequencies in the breastcancer and control groups were analyzed, but no significant difference was observed by comparing the two groups. The presence of each polymorphism was analyzed according to the clinical features and markers already established as prognostic in the breastcancer group. The C677T, H63D, and G388A polymorphisms were not associated to histological grade, age of diagnosis, expression of HER2 receptor, or estrogen and progesterone receptor. The H63D polymorphism showed a significant association (P = 0.02) with the presence of p53 mutations, and C667T showed association to lymph node involvement (P = 0.05). Lymph node involvement, G388A polymorphism, and histological grade were independently associated to metastasis/death. Our data suggests that the polymorphisms G388A, C677T, and H63D are not useful in breastcancer diagnosis, but they may be significant additional prognostic markers related to breastcancer survival. PMID:21625954
Batschauer, Anna P; Cruz, Nathalia G; Oliveira, Vanessa C; Coelho, Fernanda F; Santos, Izabela R; Alves, Michelle T; Fernandes, Ana P; Carvalho, Maria G; Gomes, Karina B
PURPOSE: Extending previous Canadian-United States cancer survival comparisons in large metropolitan areas, this study compares breastcancer survival in smaller metropolitan areas: Winnipeg, Manitoba and Des Moines, Iowa.METHODS: Manitoba and Iowa cancer registries, respectively, provided a total of 2,383 and 1,545 women with breastcancer (1984 to 1992, followed until December 31, 1997). Socioeconomic data for each person's residence at
Kevin M Gorey; Erich Kliewer; Eric J Holowaty; Ethan Laukkanen; Edwin Y Ng
Mitochondrial genome and functional alterations are related to various diseases including cancer. In all cases, the role of these organelles is associated with defects in oxidative energy metabolism and control of tumor-induced oxidative stress. The present study examines the involvement of mitochondrial DNA in cancer and in particular in breastcancer. Furthermore, since mitochondrial DNA is maternally inherited, hereditary breastcancer has been focused on.
OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the correlations between breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) findings and mammographic and clinicopathologic characteristics of breastcancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Our study included 56 breastcancers that had undergone BSGI between August 2010 and December 2012. We reviewed imaging findings (BSGI and mammography) with histopathologic findings, including tumor size, histologic type, nuclear grade, presence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and presence of extensive intraductal component (EIC); and immunochemical features, including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2, formerly HER2), Ki67, and p53. We classified cancers into positive or negative groups on the basis of BSGI visibility and investigated the statistical differences in mammographic and histopathologic characteristics between the BSGI-positive and -negative groups. RESULTS. Among 56 malignancies, 48 (85.7%) were shown to be BSGI positive. Patients in the BSGI-positive group were statistically significantly older than those in the BSGI-negative group (p = 0.027). BSGI-positive cancers were statistically significantly larger than BSGI-negative cancers (p = 0.002). Cancers 1.0 cm or larger, unlike those of subcentimeter size, were statistically significantly more visible on BSGI (p = 0.004). The mammographic findings and mammographic densities did not statistically significantly differ between the BSGI-positive and -negative groups. Invasiveness of cancer showed no statistically significant difference on BSGI finding. Cancers with a DCIS component tended to be BSGI positive, but without statistical significance (p = 0.051). Visibility on BSGI was not statistically significantly associated with EIC, nuclear grade, ER, PR, ERBB2, Ki67, and p53. CONCLUSION. The sensitivity of BSGI for breastcancer was 85.7%. Breastcancers in older patients, cancers larger than 1.0 cm, and cancers with the DCIS component tended to be visible on BSGI. BSGI was an equally sensitive tool to detect the breastcancer in women with fatty and dense breast. PMID:24951219
Park, Ji Yeon; Yi, Seong Yoon; Park, Hee Jin; Kim, Mi Sung; Kwon, Heon Ju; Park, Noh Hyuck; Moon, Soon Young
Age standardized incidence rates of breastcancer in developed countries is nearly threefold higher than in developing countries. Iran has had one of the lowest incidence rates for breastcancer in the world, but during the last four decades increasing incidence rates of breastcancer made it the most prevalent cancer in Iranian women. After adjustment for age, Iranian young women are at relatively higher risk of breastcancer than their counterparts in developed countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate some established risk factors of breastcancer in Iranian young women. A hospital-based case control study comprising 521 women with histologically confirmed, incident breastcancer and 521 controls frequency-matched by age and province of residence was conducted. Logistic regression performed to investigate associations of reproductive and anthropometric factors with breastcancer risk. In multivariate analysis, family history [odds ratio (OR): 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-2.42], oral contraceptives (OC) usage (OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.11-2.08), low parity (OR parity ? 3 vs. 1-2: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.23-0.49), employment (OR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.05-3.23) and shorter period of breast feeding (OR ? 37 months vs. < 37: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.44-0.84) were related to a higher risk of breastcancer in young women. This was the first study focusing on risk factors of breastcancer in Iranian young women. The trend of decreasing parity and shortened duration of breast feeding along with OC usage might partly explain the rapid rising of breastcancer incidence in Iranian young women. PMID:21064105
Breastcancer is predominantly a disease of the genome with cancers arising and progressing through accumulation of aberrations that alter the genome - by changing DNA sequence, copy number, and structure in ways that that contribute to diverse aspects of cancer pathophysiology. Classic examples of genomic events that contribute to breastcancer pathophysiology include inherited mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53,
INTRODUCTION: When breastcancer patients develop distant metastases, the choice of systemic treatment is usually based on tissue characteristics of the primary tumor as determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and\\/or molecular analysis. Several previous studies have shown that the immunophenotype of distant breastcancer metastases may be different from that of the primary tumor (receptor conversion), leading to inappropriate choice of
Laurien DC Hoefnagel; Marc J van de Vijver; Henk-Jan van Slooten; Pieter Wesseling; Jelle Wesseling; Pieter J Westenend; Joost Bart; Cornelis A Seldenrijk; Iris D Nagtegaal; Joost Oudejans; Paul van der Valk; Petra van der Groep; Elisabeth GE de Vries; Elsken van der Wall; Paul J van Diest
Inflammatory breastcancer (IBC) is the most aggressive and deadly form of breastcancer. Disease-specific research and conferences have been organized since 2008 with the intent to bring together experts in various disciplines. This report focus on the Third International IBC Conference held in Philadelphia on December 2012.
The BreastCancer Family Registry (BCFR) Cohort is an international resource of multi-generational families, data, and biospecimens established in 1995 for interdisciplinary collaborative research on the genetic epidemiology of breastcancer. Questionnaire data, clinical data and (when available) biospecimens have been collected for over 30,000 women and men from nearly 12,000 families.
Breastcancer is the second most common cause of brain metastases; diagnosed in 10 to 15% of breastcancer patients and found at autopsy in 20 to 30%. Survival after detection of brain metastases can be short, and the therapy currently available only offe...
This case-control study was an examination of breastcancer risk in relation to lifetime alcohol consumption. We interviewed 1,181 women with breastcancer (295 pre- and 886 post-menopausal women), age 35-79, from Erie and Niagara counties in New York Sta...
The promise of research into breastcancer genetics is that it will provide us with new insights into the etiology of breastcancer that can be translated to strategies for early diagnosis and treatment for the larger population of women who develop breas...
Several groups have demonstrated that women with BRCA1 germline mutations are more likely to have breastcancers that are basal-like by gene expression profiling. While BRCA1 germline mutations are uncommon and contribute to fewer than 5% of breastcancer...
Earlier diagnosis, improved treatment, and the overall increase in average lifespan continue to expand the number of breastcancer survivors who are aged 65 and older. This population is already estimated to be one million of the total 2.3 million breastcancer survivors.
The disparity between the rates of breastcancer in industrialized and less-industrialized regions has led to many hypotheses, including the theory that exposure to light-at-night and/or electromagnetic fields (EMF) may suppress melatonin and that reduced melatonin may increase the risk of breastcancer. In this comprehensive review we consider strengths and weaknesses of more than 35 residential and occupational epidemiologic studies that investigated the association between EMF and breastcancer. Although most of the epidemiologic data do not provide strong support for an association between EMF and breastcancer, because of the limited statistical power as well as the possibility of misclassification and bias present in much of the existing data, it is not possible to rule out a relationship between EMF and breastcancer. We make several specific recommendations for future studies carefully designed to test the melatonin-breastcancer and EMF-breastcancer hypotheses. Future study designs should have sufficient statistical power to detect small to moderate associations; include comprehensive exposure assessments that estimate residential and occupational exposures, including shift work; focus on a relevant time period; control for known breastcancer risks; and pay careful attention to menopausal and estrogen receptor status.
Breastcancer is the commonest malignancy in women and although identification of this multi-system disease has increased, the survival rates have not dramatically altered over the past four decades. Optimium treatment of patients with breastcancer is a subject of great debate and traditionally may be divided into surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone manipulation.Halsted's radical mastectomy, although initially superseded by
A breastcancer diagnosis can be frightening, confusing experience for the women with newly diagnosed disease, not only at the prospect of having a malignant disease but also by the possibility of a radical change in their appearance after mastectomy. Even when cancer treatment does not involve removal of the entire breast, its appearance may be adversely affected. The first
Determination of the levels of catechol estrogens (CE) in breast tissue constitutes important evidence for the hypothesis that human breastcancer and certain other cancers are initiated by activation of CE to CE-3,4- quinones (CE-3,4-Q), which form depur...
Determination of the levels of catechol estrogens (CE) in breast tissue constitutes important evidence for the hypothesis that human breastcancer and certain other cancers are initiated by activation of CE to CE-3,4-quinones (CE-3,4-Q), which form depuri...
The purpose of the breastcancer research training program is to recruit and train potential future researchers in breastcancer research. From a total of 90 applications for summer research, we selected a total of five students. During the 12 week progra...
In English En español In English En español Cancers by Body Location/System: Breast To find a cancer: select a body location or system — AIDS-RelatedBreastDigestive/GastrointestinalEndocrine and NeuroendocrineEye GenitourinaryGerm CellGynecologicHead
The NIEHS and the NCI are collaborating on the Long Island BreastCancer Study Project (LIBCSP), which is designed to conduct epidemiologic research on the role of environmental factors in the etiology of breastcancer in women who live in Nassau and Suffolk counties, New York. T...
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis (home of the Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center) have discovered why breastcancer patients with dense breasts are more likely than others to develop aggressive tumors that spread. The finding opens the door to drug treatments that prevent metastasis.
A rise in incidence and decrease in mortality rates from breastcancer have lead to an increase in prevalence within developed countries. Presentation is classically with a palpable breast tissue mass that may metastasize to bone, lung, liver, brain, lymph nodes, and skin. We describe a delayed diagnosis, in an 80-year-old female patient, where, on 2 occasions, the primary initial presentation was with a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in the right axilla. It was not until the third referral, with an ipsilateral breast lump, that breastcancer was clinically diagnosed. This was histologically identified as the primary malignancy, most likely in-keeping with squamous cell carcinoma of the breast. This unique atypical presentation represents a diagnostic challenge and highlights a clinically relevant learning point that may avoid subsequent diagnostic delay. Cutaneous axillary lesions should be treated with a high index of suspicion, necessitating the requirement for chest examination because of the possible presence of an associated primary breast carcinoma. PMID:23241794
Miranda, Benjamin H; Malahias, Marco; El-Said, Tarek F A; Fahmy, Fahmy S
Since breast-conserving surgery has become the gold standard for early breastcancer, the development of less radical or less burdensome technologies has been pressed for in order to preserve the patient from unnecessary harm through the operative procedure. Different technical approaches are under evaluation, and some of them are already being used in the clinical setting. The aim of this article is to present a perspective on future breastcancer surgery by shedding light on the current innovative and new techniques.
The National Cancer Institute, Genetics Branch is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize a method of profiling ductal carcinoma of the breast. The implementation of mammographic screening for breastcancer has led to the frequent identification of early tumors that are confined to the ductal system of the breast. These tumors are termed ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).
Breastcancer treatment has undergone significant changes in concept, concurrent with alterations in our understanding of cancer biology and natural history. Within the last 10 years, oncologists have brought into question the traditional Halstedian concepts of the natural history of breastcancer and its appropriate management. The goal of treatment, once a primary cancer is detected in the breast, is to prevent metastasis and subsequent death of the patient. One hundred forty-two female patients over the age of 65 with histologically confirmed breastcancer were treated at Lankenau Hospital from 1982 to 1990. We treated 32 women over the age of 65 with quadrantectomy and tamoxifen as the sole form of therapy. No radiation, standard chemotherapy, nor axillary dissection was utilized. A cohort of 110 women of similar age, treated for breastcancer with "standard therapy" (total mastectomy or "segmental resection" and radiation with axillary nodal dissection) during the same time period, were also analyzed retrospectively. All segmental resections were followed by standard radiation doses to the ipsilateral breast and draining nodal basins with a local boost. Twenty-nine of 32 patients in the quad + tam group were available for follow-up 1 to 8 years following treatment (mean 52 months). The cumulative overall survival was 67 per cent and disease-free survival 92 per cent. No patient developed local recurrence. Follow-up analysis of the 110 women treated in "standard fashion" was complete in 88 patients 1 to 8 years post-treatment (mean 56 months). Cumulative overall survival was 82 per cent and disease-free survival 83 per cent. Local recurrence was noted in five per cent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8273979
Chronic inflammation has been consistently associated with cancers of several sites, including the breast, and inhibition of inflammation through the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been inversely associated with risk. As NSAIDs bind with cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), genetic variation in COX-2 may influence breastcancer risk by affecting inflammatory response and re