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The principles of some modern classification systems for breast neoplasms based on cell growth rather than on a formal descriptive listing of them as seen in classical oncology are discussed. Particular note is made of the merits and disadvantages of the ...
Between October 1977 and December 1983, 379 consecutive patients have been treated for unilateral, non-metastatic breastcancer, either with conservative (n = 205) or radical surgery (n = 174), with axillary dissection in all the cases. None of them had histologically proved lymph node involvement. Oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) levels were measured on each tumour. Levels greater
B Chevallier; V Mosseri; JP Dauce; P Bastit; JP Julien; B Asselain
A panel of Japanese and American pathologists reviewed existing histologic material used to study breastcancer risk among the A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a population in which incidence studies have found a strong relationship between breastcancer risk and radiation dose. The primary charge to the panel was to define a body of confirmed cases in the Life
Shoji Tokuoka; Masahide Asano; Tsutomu Yamamoto; Masayoshi Tokunaga; Goi Sakamoto; William H. Hartmann; Robert V. P. Hutter; Charles E. Land; Donald E. Henson
Study objectives. To investigate the association between race\\/ethnicity and histologic types of breastcancer.Design. Cross?sectional study.Setting. Population?based data from the Northern California Tumor Registry, which is part of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program.Participants. A total of 2759 breastcancer cases diagnosed in 1988.Main results. Tumors were classified as ductal, lobular, and mixed\\/unspecified carcinoma. Ductal carcinoma
Laura B. Schaffroth; Sharon L. Edelstein; Craig Molgaard; Sidney L. Saltzstein
Available results highlight the lack of good level of evidence studies on the pure prognostic value of histological grade. In the present study, the prognostic relevance of histological grade and of its three components, tubule formation, nuclear pleomorphism and mitotic count, was analyzed in a series of 372 patients with node-negative breastcancer treated with locoregional therapy alone until early
Annalisa Volpi; Francesco Bacci; Angelo Paradiso; Luca Saragoni; Emanuela Scarpi; Monica Ricci; Mirella Aldi; Simonetta Bianchi; Pietro Muretto; Fiorella Nuzzo; Gianni Simone; Anita Mangia; Francesco Schittulli; Dino Amadori
Histologic grading of breastcancer defines morphologic subtypes informative of metastatic potential, although not without considerable interobserver disagreement and clinical heterogeneity particularly among the moderately differen- tiated grade 2 (G2) tumors. We posited that a gene expression signature capable of discerning tumors of grade 1(G1 ) and grade 3 (G3) histology might provide a more objective measure of grade with
Anna V. Ivshina; Joshy George; Oleg Senko; Benjamin Mow; Thomas C. Putti; Johanna Smeds; Thomas Lindahl; Yudi Pawitan; John E. L. Wong; Edison T. Liu; Jonas Bergh; Vladimir A. Kuznetsov; Lance D. Miller
Summary Upregulation of N-cadherin in epithelial tumor cells has been shown to contribute to the invasive\\/metastatic phenotype. It\\u000a remains however to be determined whether N-cadherin is increased in human breastcancers with enhanced malignant potential.\\u000a We examined a large number of invasive breastcancer specimens (n=114) for N- and E-cadherin. These specimens compared invasive duct carcinomas (IDCs) of varying histologic grades
Chandandeep Nagi; Mitchell Guttman; Shabnam Jaffer; Rui Qiao; Rinat Keren; Aymara Triana; Maomi Li; James Godbold; Ira J. Bleiweiss; Rachel B. Hazan
Introduction Recently, growing evidence indicates that immunoglobulins (Igs) are not only produced by mature B lymphocytes or plasma cells, but also by various normal cells types at immune privileged sites and neoplasm, including breastcancer. However, the association of breastcancer derived IgG with genesis and development of the disease has not yet been established. Methods In this study we examined the expression of IgG in 186 breastcancers, 20 benign breast lesions and 30 normal breast tissues. Both immunohistochemistry with antibodies to Ig? (immunoglobulin G ? light chain) and Ig? (immunoglobulin G heavy chain) and in situ hybridization with an antisense probe to IgG1 heavy chain constant region gene were performed. Various clinicopathological features were also analyzed. Results We found that IgG is specifically expressed in human breastcancer cells. Both infiltrating ductal carcinoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma had significantly greater numbers of Ig? and Ig? positive cancer cells as compared with medullary carcinoma, carcinoma in situ, and benign lesions (all p<0.05). In addition, IgG expression was correlated with breastcancerhistological subtypes (p<0.01) and AJCC stages (p<0.05), with more abundance of IgG expression in more malignant histological subtypes or in more advanced stage of the disease. Conclusions IgG expression in breastcancer cells is correlated with malignancy and AJCC stages of the cancers. This suggests that breastcancer derived IgG may be associated with genesis, development and prognosis of the cancer.
BACKGROUND: The potential problems associated with the use of formalin in histology, such as health hazards, degradation of RNA and cross-linking of proteins are well recognized. We describe the utilization of a formalin-free fixation and processing system for tissue detection of two important biopredictors in breastcancer – estrogen receptor and HER2 – at the RNA and protein levels. METHODS:
Mehdi Nassiri; Sharon Ramos; Hajir Zohourian; Vladimir Vincek; Azorides R Morales; Mehrdad Nadji
The histological breakdown of a consecutive series of 264 surgically resected malignant lesions of the breast was studied. Oestrogen and epidermal growth factor receptor status was quantified and presented along with size and lymph node status of the non-ductal lesions. Those non-ductal tumours containing EGF receptors have all recurred within two years of resection. Twenty-one percent of the lobular carcinomas contained EGF receptors compared to 34% of ductal carcinomas. EGF receptor status appeared to be associated with an increased risk of early recurrence and death whatever the histological sub-type of the breastcancer.
Sainsbury, J. R.; Nicholson, S.; Angus, B.; Farndon, J. R.; Malcolm, A. J.; Harris, A. L.
Background This study presents black-white breastcancer statistics, tumor histology and receptor status, and treatment patterns for all ages and by age groups (under 40, between ages 40 and 49, and age 50 and over). Methods The study used data from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program for the time period 1995–2004. Age-adjusted incidence, mortality, relative survival rates, tumor grade, histology and receptor status, and treatment patterns for invasive breastcancer were calculated for nine SEER cancer registries for 1995–2004. Results Invasive breastcancer age-adjusted incidence for black women age <40 was significantly higher than those for white women (rate ratio=1.16, 95% confidence interval=1.10–1.23). Age-adjusted mortality rate for black women age <40 was twice that for white women. Compared to white women, black women were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with regional or distant disease, have lower relative five-year survival rate, and have higher likelihood of being diagnosed with tumors with poorer prognosis. Black women were less likely to receive breastcancer surgery as part of the treatment plan. Conclusions Race/ethnic disparities in invasive breastcancer epidemiology, prognostic indicators, and treatment patterns exist between black and white women. The study findings support the need for innovative research, especially on the multifaceted determinants of the differential epidemiology of breastcancer. Equally importantly, there is a need for evidence-guided equal delivery of quality care to eliminate breastcancer disparities among black women.
Baquet, Claudia R.; Mishra, Shiraz I.; Commiskey, Patricia; Ellison, Gary L.; DeShields, Mary
Purpose Previously, we found that gene expression in histologically normal breast epithelium (NlEpi) from women at high breastcancer risk can resemble gene expression in NlEpi from cancer-containing breasts. Therefore, we hypothesized that gene expression characteristic of a cancer subtype might be seen in NlEpi of breasts containing that subtype. Experimental Design We examined gene expression in 46 cases of microdissected NlEpi from untreated women undergoing breastcancer surgery. From 30 age-matched cases (15 estrogen receptor (ER)+, 15 ER-) we used Affymetryix U133A arrays. From 16 independent cases (9 ER+, 7 ER-), we validated selected genes using qPCR. We then compared gene expression between NlEpi and invasive breastcancer using 4 publicly available datasets. Results We identified 198 genes that are differentially expressed between NlEpi from breasts with ER+ (NlEpiER+) compared to ER- cancers (NlEpiER-). These include genes characteristic of ER+ and ER- cancers (e.g., ESR1, GATA3, and CX3CL1, FABP7). QPCR validated the microarray results in both the 30 original cases and the 16 independent cases. Gene expression in NlEpiER+ and NlEpiER- resembled gene expression in ER+ and ER- cancers, respectively: 25-53% of the genes or probes examined in 4 external datasets overlapped between NlEpi and the corresponding cancer subtype. Conclusions Gene expression differs in NlEpi of breasts containing ER+ compared to ER- breastcancers. These differences echo differences in ER+ and ER- invasive cancers. NlEpi gene expression may help elucidate subtype-specific risk signatures, identify early genomic events in cancer development and locate targets for prevention and therapy.
Graham, Kelly; Ge, Xijin; de las Morenas, Antonio; Tripathi, Anusri; Rosenberg, Carol L.
Histological image is important for diagnosis of breastcancer. In this paper, we present a novel automatic breaset cancer classification scheme based on histological images. The image features are extracted using the Curvelet Transform, statistics of Gray Level Co-occurence Matrix (GLCM) and Completed Local Binary Patterns (CLBP), respectively. The three different features are combined together and used for classification. A classifier ensemble approach, called Random Subspace Ensemble (RSE), are used to select and aggregate a set of base neural network classifiers for classification. The proposed multiple features and random subspace ensemble offer the classification rate 95.22% on a publically available breastcancer image dataset, which compares favorably with the previously published result 93.4%.
Breastcancer patients have an increased risk of endometrial pathology. To investigate whether the incidence of endometrial abnormalities and their clinicopathological features were affected by receiving tamoxifen (TAM), non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors (AIs) or no treatment (NT), 333 peri/postmenopausal breastcancer patients, who were referred to the Department of Gynecological, Obstetrical Sciences and Reproductive Medicine for gynecological assessment, were reviewed retrospectively. Transvaginal ultrasonographic (TVUS), hysteroscopic and histological findings were investigated. Endometrial histological findings included: atrophy in 61, 94.3 and 55.6% of cases in the TAM, AIs and NT groups, respectively; polyps in 30.9, 31.4 and 42.2% of cases in the TAM, AIs and NT groups, respectively; hyperplasia in 3% of patients in the TAM group and 11.1% of patients in the NT group; and cancer in 3.8% of cases in the TAM group and 11.1% of cases in the NT group. There was a significant correlation between the duration of TAM treatment and the severity of endometrial pathology. In all groups, there was a significant correlation between hysteroscopic and histological findings with regard to the diagnosis of endometrial atrophy, polyps, hyperplasia and cancer (P<0.001). In conclusion, these data revealed that there was a higher incidence of endometrial pathology in the NT group compared with the TAM group, which was significant for endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. The chance of developing high-risk histological subtypes of endometrial cancer was independent of TAM use. Lastly, although there was no significant difference in recurrent vaginal bleeding and mean endometrial thickness between the TAM and AIs groups, patients receiving AIs did not exhibit hyperplastic, dysplastic or neoplastic changes in the endometrium. This study indicates that breastcancer patients require screening for endometrial pathology; TVUS alone is useful in asymptomatic patients, however, in patients where the endometrial line is irregular or its thickness is >3 mm, hysteroscopy with directed biopsy is the appropriate diagnostic method.
Background Improved survival for breastcancer is increasing the likelihood of contralateral tumors. Mammographic screening is partially\\u000a contributing to the survival advantage, while changing many aspects of breastcancer presentation, including age at diagnosis,\\u000a histology and familial risk. As mammography has become widely used, it is important to quantify the risks for contralateral\\u000a breastcancer in a population with a national
Invasive lobular carcinomas (ILC) represent the most common subtype of invasive breastcancer and account for about 5-15% of all breastcancer cases. Invasive lobular carcinoma is often accompanied by in situ lesions, by lobular neoplasia (LN). Invasive lobular carcinomas display diverse histologic patterns varying from classical through solid to pleomorphic subtypes. When analyzing histological subtypes, the classical variant is reported to have a more favorable outcome. The majority of invasive lobular carcinomas are hormone receptor positive, overexpression and/or amplification of the Her2 gene is lower than in carcinomas of invasive ductal type. Loss of heterozygosity of the 16q chromosomal regions and the consequent lack of E-Cadherin expression are common findings in invasive lobular carcinomas. Intra-operative evaluation of resection margins in ILC is often unsatisfactory due to the diffuse nature of the tumor. Size estimation of the invasive component poses a similar challenge in daily practice. PMID:19850991
Introduction Breastcancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease at the molecular level. Evolution is difficult to predict according to classical histoclinical prognostic factors. Different studies highlight the importance of large-scale molecular expression analyses to improve taxonomy of breastcancer and prognostic classification. Identification of new molecular markers that refine this taxonomy and improve patient management is a priority in the field of breastcancer research. Nectins are cell adhesion molecules involved in the regulation of epithelial physiology. We present here Nectin-4/PVRL4 as a new histological and serological tumor associated marker for breast carcinoma. Methods Expression of Nectin-4 protein was measured on a panel of 78 primary cells and cell lines from different origins and 57 breast tumors by FACS analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively. mRNA expression was measured by quantitative PCR. Serum Nectin-4 was detected by ELISA and compared with CEA and CA15.3 markers, on panels of 45 sera from healthy donors, 53 sera from patients with non-metastatic breast carcinoma (MBC) at diagnosis, and 182 sera from patients with MBC. Distribution of histological/serological molecular markers and histoclinical parameters were compared using the standard Chi-2 test. Results Nectin-4 was not detected in normal breast epithelium. By contrast, Nectin-4 was expressed in 61% of ductal breast carcinoma vs 6% in lobular type. Expression of Nectin-4 strongly correlated with the basal-like markers EGFR, P53, and P-cadherin, and negatively correlated with the luminal-like markers ER, PR and GATA3. All but one ER/PR-negative tumors expressed Nectin-4. The detection of Nectin-4 in serum improves the follow-up of patients with MBC: the association CEA/CA15.3/Nectin-4 allowed to monitor 74% of these patients compared to 67% with the association CEA/CA15.3. Serum Nectin-4 is a marker of disease progression, and levels correlate with the number of metastases (P = 0.038). Serum Nectin-4 is also a marker of therapeutic efficiency and correlates, in 90% of cases, with clinical evolution. Conclusion Nectin-4 is a new tumor-associated antigen for breast carcinoma. Nectin-4 is a new bio-marker whose use could help refine breastcancer taxonomy and improve patients' follow-up. Nectin-4 emerges as a potential target for breastcancer immunotherapy.
Breastcancer is characterized by elevated glucose consump- tion resulting in increased uptake of 18F-FDG. However, tracer uptake varies considerably among tumors imaged with PET. This study compared histologic and immunohistochemical tis- sue analysis of breast carcinomas with preoperative FDG up- take assessed by PET to identify tumor characteristics that define the degree of tracer accumulation. Methods: FDG up- take
Norbert Avril; Manuela Menzel; Jorg Dose; Marcus Schelling; Wolfgang Weber; Fritz Janicke; Walter Nathrath; Markus Schwaiger
BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest increase in estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) negative breastcancer yet little is known about histology or receptor status of breastcancer in Indian\\/Pakistani women.in the U.S. METHODS: We examined the United States National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Cancer program to assess: a) frequency of breastcancer by age, b) histologic
Madhuri Kakarala; Laura Rozek; Michele Cote; Samadhi Liyanage; Dean E Brenner
Purpose: To identify differences in clinical characteristics, histological features, hormone receptor status, and tumor marker expression between patients with sporadic and familial breastcancer. Patients and methods: As in the previous Part I of this study, two groups of women with breastcancer were compared. The first group (group I) included 504 patients with a family history of breastcancer. The second (control) group (group II) consisted of 300 patients not reporting such a history in their relatives. The examined parameters in this report were stage and axillary lymph node involvement at the time of the initial diagnosis, treatment methods, hormone receptor status, and serum levels of the tumor markers CEA and CA 15.3. The data were processed and analysed using the SPSS statistical package. The statistical significance of differences between groups and subgroups was evaluated by x(2) Pearson's test and Student's paired t-test. Results: Compared to sporadic cases, patients with familial breastcancer were more often diagnosed at an advanced III or IV stage; metastatic involvement of the regional lymph nodes was more frequent in group I patients. In the same group more radical surgical procedures combined with chemotherapy and local irradiation were performed. In group I the percentage of negative hormone receptors was higher (35.3% versus 22.6%; p <0.0001) for estrogen receptors (ER), and 47.6% versus 32.6% (p <0.0001) for progesterone receptors (PR). Also, in group I raised serum levels of CA 15.3 were significantly more frequent compared with group II (48% versus 35.5%, p <0.0789), and this applied also for CEA values above 50 ng/ml (10.6% versus 1.5%, p <0.0002). Conclusion: Familial breastcancer displays particular clinical characteristics, distinguishing it from the sporadic type of the disease. Patients with familial breastcancer are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. Commonly, the hormone receptors are negative and the serum concentrations of tumor markers elevated. The steroid receptor status represents the most reliable predictor of response to hormonotherapy and an important prognostic factor of the patient's outcome. As a result of their particular characteristics, these patients require more radical surgical techniques combined with pre- or postoperative local radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy. PMID:17577263
Little is known about how reproductive factors affect the risk of breastcancers of different histology. In an analysis of prospective data on 1.2 million middle-aged UK women, we used proportional hazards models to estimate the relative risks of six histological types in relation to menarche, childbearing and menopause. During 8.7 million person-years of follow-up, 17?923 ductal, 3332 lobular, 1062 tubular, 944 mixed ductal lobular, 330 mucinous and 117 medullary cancers were diagnosed. The effect of both age at menarche and age at first birth was greatest for lobular tumours; relative risks per 5-year increase in age at menarche for ductal, lobular, and tubular cancers were 0.93 (0.87–0.99), 0.65 (0.56–0.76), and 0.75 (0.57–0.98), respectively (P-value for heterogeneity=0.0001); and the relative risks per 5-year increase in age at first birth were 1.10 (1.07–1.12), 1.23 (1.17–1.29), and 1.13 (1.03–1.23), respectively (P-value for heterogeneity=0.0006). Increasing parity reduced the risk of each tumour type, except medullary cancers, but the reduction in risk was greater for mucinous cancers than for any other subtype considered (P<0.05 for comparison with each other subtype in turn). The effect of menopause did not vary significantly by tumour histology. Meta-analysis of published results on the effects of age at menarche and age at first birth on ductal and lobular cancers were in keeping with our findings.
Reeves, G K; Pirie, K; Green, J; Bull, D; Beral, V
Objective: Axillary lymph node (LN) sampling is important for breastcancer staging and can be performed using fine needle aspiration (FNA). The aim of this study is to review the axillary LN FNAs performed at our institution prior to treatment, and to correlate their results with the available LN histology in order to evaluate the diagnostic utility of FNA. Study
Sara E. Monaco; Amy Colaizzi; Anisa Kanbour; Ahmed S. Ibrahim; Amal Kanbour-Shakir
The fluorescence of paired human breast malignant and normal tissue samples was investigated using a novel fluorescence spectroscopic (S3-LED) ratiometer unit with no moving parts. This device can measure the emission spectra of key native organic biomolecules such as tryptophan, tyrosine, collagen and elastin within tissues by using LED (light emitting diode) excitation sources coupled to an optical fiber. With this device, the spectral profiles of 11 paired breastcancerous and normal samples from 11 patients with breast carcinoma were obtained. In each of the 11 cases, marked increases in the tryptophan levels were found in the breast carcinoma samples when compared to the normal breast tissues. In the breastcancer samples, there were also consistently higher ratios of the 340 to 440 nm and the 340 to 460 nm intensity peaks after 280 nm excitation, likely representing an increased tryptophan to NADH ratio in the breastcancer samples. This difference was seen in the spectral profiles of the breastcancer patients regardless of whether they were HER2 positive or negative or hormone receptor positive or negative, and was found regardless of menopausal status, histology, stage, or tumor grade. PMID:23547972
Sordillo, L A; Pu, Y; Sordillo, P P; Budansky, Y; Alfano, R R
Background: CA 15-3 is the most widely used serum marker in breastcancer. Currently, its main uses are in the surveillance of patients with diagnosed disease and monitoring the treatment of patients with advanced disease. Methods: Preoperative CA 15-3 concentrations were measured prospectively in 600 patients with histologi- cally confirmed breastcancer. Marker concentrations were related to patient outcome by
Michael J. Duffy; Catherine Duggan; Rachel Keane; Arnold D. K. Hill; Enda McDermott; John Crown; Niall O'Higgins
Breastcancer affects one in eight women during their lives. Breastcancer kills more women in the United States than ... cancer. No one knows why some women get breastcancer, but there are a number of risk factors. ...
The various religious communities in India viz.Hindu, Muslim, Christian, Parsi have different breastcancer incidence rate. It is not known whether there might also exist differences in biological properties of breastcancer between these communities. To investigate this possibility we have studied the distribution of oestrogen receptor (ER) status and histological grade of tumour in these four communities. Significant differences were observed in the overall distribution of ER positivity and histological grade between the communities P less than for both parameters). Christians had the highest incidence of ER +ve (65.2%) and grade I + II tumours (16.0%), while Muslims had the lowest incidence of ER +ve (35.8%) and Grade I + II tumours (4.7%). In general, we found a significant positive relationship between ER status and age of the patient (p less than 0.0.1). The mean age of the christians was slightly but significantly higher than that of the Hindus and Muslim. The difference ER positivity between the communities might, therefore, be partly (but probably not wholly) explained by difference in age of the patients. However, the difference with respect to grade of tumour cannot be explained as a function of age since no significant association was found between grade of the tumour and age of the patient. Further investigation with respect to difference in the biology of the breastcancer between the communities are warranted. PMID:1786978
Redkar, A A; Sampat, M B; Chinoy, R F; Kabre, S S; Mittra, I
A series of 202 breastcancer biopsy specimens were analysed immunohistochemically for collagen IV to demonstrate basement membrane (BM) structures and blood vessels within tumour tissue. Integrity of the BM was graded into four categories and the number of vascular channels per square millimetre of tumour tissue were counted. Defective BM structures were significantly related to high grade, lack of
Background Recent reports suggest increase in estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) negative breastcancer yet little is known about histology or receptor status of breastcancer in Indian/Pakistani women.in the U.S. Methods We examined the United States National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Cancer program to assess: a) frequency of breastcancer by age, b) histologic subtypes, c) receptor status of breastcancer and, d) survival in Indians/Pakistanis compared to Caucasians. There were 360,933 breastcancer cases diagnosed 1988-2006. Chi-Square analyses and Cox proportional hazards models, to estimate relative risks for breastcancer mortality after adjusting for confounders, were performed using Statistical Analysis Software 9.2. Results Among Asian Indian/Pakistani breastcancer patients, 16.2% were < 40 yrs. old compared to 6.23% in Caucasians (p < 0.0001). Asian Indian women had more invasive ductal carcinoma (69.1 vs. 65.7%, p < 0.0001), inflammatory cancer (1.4% vs. 0.8, p < 0.0001) and less invasive lobular carcinoma (4.2% vs. 8.1%, p < 0.0001) than Caucasians. Asian Indian/Pakistani women had more ER/PR negative breastcancer (30.6% vs. 21.8%, p = 0.0095) than Caucasians. Adjusting for stage at diagnosis, age, tumor grade, nodal status, and histology, Asian Indian/Pakistani women's survival was similar to Caucasians, while African Americans' was worse. Conclusions Asian Indian/Pakistani women have higher frequency of breastcancer (particularly in age < 40), ER/PR negative invasive ductal and inflammatory cancer than Caucasians.
Previous studies have shown that a field of genetically altered but histologically normal tissue extends 1 cm or more from the margins of human breast tumors. The extent, composition and biological significance of this field are only partially understood, but the molecular alterations in affected cells could provide mechanisms for limitless replicative capacity, genomic instability and a microenvironment that supports tumor initiation and progression. We demonstrate by microarray, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry a signature of differential gene expression that discriminates between patient-matched, tumor-adjacent histologically normal breast tissues located 1 cm and 5 cm from the margins of breast adenocarcinomas (TAHN-1 and TAHN-5, respectively). The signature includes genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, wound healing, fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Myofibroblasts, which are mediators of wound healing and fibrosis, and intra-lobular fibroblasts expressing MMP2, SPARC, TGF-?3, which are inducers of EMT, were both prevalent in TAHN-1 tissues, sparse in TAHN-5 tissues, and absent in normal tissues from reduction mammoplasty. Accordingly, EMT markers S100A4 and vimentin were elevated in both luminal and myoepithelial cells, and EMT markers ?-smooth muscle actin and SNAIL were elevated in luminal epithelial cells of TAHN-1 tissues. These results identify cellular processes that are differentially activated between TAHN-1 and TAHN-5 breast tissues, implicate myofibroblasts as likely mediators of these processes, provide evidence that EMT is occurring in histologically normal tissues within the affected field and identify candidate biomarkers to investigate whether or how field cancerization contributes to the development of primary or recurrent breast tumors. PMID:21105047
Trujillo, Kristina A; Heaphy, Christopher M; Mai, Minh; Vargas, Keith M; Jones, Anna C; Vo, Phung; Butler, Kimberly S; Joste, Nancy E; Bisoffi, Marco; Griffith, Jeffrey K
Previous studies have shown that a field of genetically altered but histologically normal tissue extends 1 cm or more from the margins of human breast tumors. The extent, composition and biological significance of this field are only partially understood, but the molecular alterations in affected cells could provide mechanisms for limitless replicative capacity, genomic instability and a microenvironment that supports tumor initiation and progression. We demonstrate by microarray, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry a signature of differential gene expression that discriminates between patient-matched, tumor-adjacent histologically normal breast tissues located 1 cm and 5 cm from the margins of breast adenocarcinomas (TAHN-1 and TAHN-5, respectively). The signature includes genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, wound healing, fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Myofibroblasts, which are mediators of wound healing and fibrosis, and intra-lobular fibroblasts expressing MMP2, SPARC, TGF-?3, which are inducers of EMT, were both prevalent in TAHN-1 tissues, sparse in TAHN-5 tissues, and absent in normal tissues from reduction mammoplasty. Accordingly, EMT markers S100A4 and vimentin were elevated in both luminal and myoepithelial cells, and EMT markers ?-smooth muscle actin and SNAIL were elevated in luminal epithelial cells of TAHN-1 tissues. These results identify cellular processes that are differentially activated between TAHN-1 and TAHN-5 breast tissues, implicate myofibroblasts as likely mediators of these processes, provide evidence that EMT is occurring in histologically normal tissues within the affected field and identify candidate biomarkers to investigate whether or how field cancerization contributes to the development of primary or recurrent breast tumors.
Trujillo, Kristina A.; Heaphy, Christopher M.; Mai, Minh; Vargas, Keith M.; Jones, Anna C.; Vo, Phung; Butler, Kimberly S.; Joste, Nancy E.; Bisoffi, Marco; Griffith, Jeffrey K
Cancer arises from an accumulation of mutations that promote the selection of cells with progressively malignant phenotypes. Previous studies have shown that genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer cells, is a driving force in this process. In the present study, two markers of genomic instability, telomere DNA content and allelic imbalance, were examined in two independent cohorts of mammary carcinomas. Altered telomeres and unbalanced allelic loci were present in both tumors and surrounding histologically normal tissues at distances at least 1 cm from the visible tumor margins. Although the extent of these genetic changes decreases as a function of the distance from the visible tumor margin, unbalanced loci are conserved between the surrounding tissues and the tumors, implying cellular clonal evolution. Our results are in agreement with the concepts of "field cancerization" and "cancer field effect," concepts that were previously introduced to describe areas within tissues consisting of histologically normal, yet genetically aberrant, cells that represent fertile grounds for tumorigenesis. The finding that genomic instability occurs in fields of histologically normal tissues surrounding the tumor is of clinical importance, as it has implications for the definition of appropriate tumor margins and the assessment of recurrence risk factors in the context of breast-sparing surgery. PMID:16450377
Heaphy, Christopher M; Bisoffi, Marco; Fordyce, Colleen A; Haaland, Christina M; Hines, William C; Joste, Nancy E; Griffith, Jeffrey K
NOS (8010) and a specific carcinoma in situ or Adenocarcinoma in situ, NOS (8140) and a specific adenocarcinoma in situ or Intraductal carcinoma, NOS (8500) and a specific intraductal carcinoma (Table 1) The specific histology may be identified as type, subtype, predominantly, with features of, major, or with ____ differentiation, architecture or pattern.
Telomerase stabilizes chromosomes by maintaining telomere length, immortalizes mammalian cells, and is expressed in more than 90% of human tumors. However, the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is not restricted to tumor cells. We have previously shown that a subpopulation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) in tumor-adjacent, histologically normal (TAHN) breast tissues expresses hTERT mRNA at levels comparable with levels in breast tumors. In the current study, we first validated a reporter for measuring levels of hTERT promoter activity in early-passage HMECs and then used this reporter to compare hTERT promoter activity in HMECs derived from tumor and paired TAHN tissues 1, 3, and 5 cm from the tumor (TAHN-1, TAHN-3, and TAHN-5, respectively). Cell sorting, quantitative real-time PCR, and microarray analyses showed that the 10% of HMECs with the highest hTERT promoter activity in both tumor and TAHN-1 tissues contain more than 95% of hTERT mRNA and overexpress many genes involved in cell cycle and mitosis. The percentage of HMECs within this subpopulation showing high hTERT promoter activity was significantly reduced or absent in TAHN-3 and TAHN-5 tissues. We conclude that the field of normal tissue proximal to the breast tumors contains a population of HMECs similar in hTERT expression levels and in gene expression to the HMECs within the tumor mass and that this population is significantly reduced in tissues more distal to the tumor.
Trujillo, Kristina A.; Hines, William C.; Vargas, Keith M.; Jones, Anna C.; Joste, Nancy E.; Bisoffi, Marco; Griffith, Jeffrey K.
Telomerase stabilizes chromosomes by maintaining telomere length, immortalizes mammalian cells, and is expressed in more than 90% of human tumors. However, the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is not restricted to tumor cells. We have previously shown that a subpopulation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) in tumor-adjacent, histologically normal (TAHN) breast tissues expresses hTERT mRNA at levels comparable with levels in breast tumors. In the current study, we first validated a reporter for measuring levels of hTERT promoter activity in early-passage HMECs and then used this reporter to compare hTERT promoter activity in HMECs derived from tumor and paired TAHN tissues 1, 3, and 5 cm from the tumor (TAHN-1, TAHN-3, and TAHN-5, respectively). Cell sorting, quantitative real-time PCR, and microarray analyses showed that the 10% of HMECs with the highest hTERT promoter activity in both tumor and TAHN-1 tissues contain more than 95% of hTERT mRNA and overexpress many genes involved in cell cycle and mitosis. The percentage of HMECs within this subpopulation showing high hTERT promoter activity was significantly reduced or absent in TAHN-3 and TAHN-5 tissues. We conclude that the field of "normal tissue" proximal to the breast tumors contains a population of HMECs similar in hTERT expression levels and in gene expression to the HMECs within the tumor mass and that this population is significantly reduced in tissues more distal to the tumor. PMID:21775421
Trujillo, Kristina A; Hines, William C; Vargas, Keith M; Jones, Anna C; Joste, Nancy E; Bisoffi, Marco; Griffith, Jeffrey K
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To analyse the clinical significance of the presence of androgen receptors (AR) in breast carcinomas, clinical and histological parameters of 153 primary breast carcinomas (median follow-up 46 months) were examined. Oestrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) levels were determined in cytosol preparations using enzyme immunoassay assays and in cryostat sections by immunohistochemistry. AR and Ki-67 levels were only determined immunohistochemically.
V. Kuenen-Boumeester; T. H. Van der Kwast; C. C. Claassen; M. P. Look; G. S. Liem; J. G. M. Klijn; S. C. Henzen-Logmans
... to get breastcancer. Diet and lifestyle choices: Women who smoke , eat high-fat diets, drink alcohol , and don't get enough exercise may be more at risk for developing breastcancer. What Are the Signs ... lump in her breast. If women examine their breasts monthly, they can help find ...
Primary systemic therapy (PST) adds some practical problems to the pathologic examination of neoplastic breast tissue obtained from patients before and after chemotherapy. Pathologists, oncologists, breast surgeons, radiotherapists and radiologists in the Marche Region held a Consensus Meeting in Ancona on May 13, 2010, in which 15 statements dealing with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were approved by all participants. The first two statements are related to the pre-PST phase and concern the technical procedures and the histological report of the core biopsy. The other statements deal with similar issues of the post-PST surgical specimen. PMID:22393685
Santinelli, A; De Nictolis, M; Mambelli, V; Ranaldi, R; Bearzi, I; Battellpi, N; Mariotti, C; Fabbietti, L; Baldassarre, S; Giuseppetti, G M; Fabris, G
Background.The increased risk of endometrial carcinoma following the use of tamoxifen has stimulated studies on endometrial diagnostic screening methods. In tamoxifen users the endometrial thickening observed with transvaginal ultrasonography (TVU) frequently cannot be confirmed by hysteroscopy or histology.Objective.The aim was to investigate the relationship between TVU and hysteroscopic and histologic endometrial findings in postmenopausal patients using tamoxifen.Methods.Fifty-three asymptomatic postmenopausal tamoxifen-using
Marian J. E Mourits; Ate G. J Van der Zee; Pax H. B Willemse; Klaske A Ten Hoor; Harry Hollema; Elisabeth G. E De Vries
... for Genetic Risk of Breast . . . 2005 Learning About BreastCancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breastcancer? Breastcancer is a common disease. Each year, ...
The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological behavior of male breastcancer. We evaluated 11 cases of male breastcancer with respect to tumor growth, extent of disease, hormone receptor status, and histological grade of the malignancy, in comparison with 241 cases of female breastcancer. The duration of symptoms was 8.6 +/- 9.1 months in males and 8.5 +/- 18.6 months in females. The incidences of stages I, II, and III were 46%, 27%, and 27%, respectively, in male breastcancer, and 38%, 49%, and 13% in female breastcancer. Metastasis to the lymph node was negative in 60% of the male patients and 54% of the female patients. All cases of male breastcancer were histologically grade I according to Bloom's classification; the histological grades were as follows for the female breastcancer cases: grade I in 99 patients, grade II in 87, and grade III in 55. The rates of hormone receptor positively were 89% for ER and 86% for PgR in male breastcancer, and 64% for ER and 44% for PgR in female breastcancer. Therefore, there was no significant difference in the growth of male breastcancer and female breastcancer, but in male breastcancer the rate of hormone receptor positivity was high, endocrine therapy was effective, and the histological grade was low. Accordingly, the result following appropriate treatment of male breastcancer should be at least comparable to the results with female breastcancer. PMID:2370802
Background The number of pathologically examined axillary nodes has been associated with breastcancer survival, and examination of ?10\\u000a nodes has been advocated for reliable axillary staging. The considerable variation observed in axillary staging prompted this\\u000a population-based study, which evaluated the prognostic effect of a variable number of pathologically examined nodes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods In total, 5314 consecutive breastcancer patients who underwent mastectomy
Michael Schaapveld; Elisabeth G. E. de Vries; Renée Otter; Jakob de Vries; Pax H. B. Willemse
Flow cytometric DNA analysis with assessment of S-phase fraction and DNA ploidy was compared to Nottingham histologic grade. The study population consisted of 654 patients who presented between 1987 and 1996 with primary operable breastcancer and whose tumours had been analysed for S-phase fraction and DNA ploidy at the time of surgery. Grade, tumour size, node status, steroid receptor status, age, S-phase fraction and DNA ploidy were analysed univariately and multi-variately in a Cox proportional hazard analysis. In the univariate analyses all parameters were statistically significantly associated with breastcancer mortality during the follow-up period of 2-11 years. The most powerful predictor of death from breastcancer in the multiple regression analysis was grade. Patients with grade 1 tumours have excellent prognosis. We conclude that tumour grade is a strong prognostic indicator applicable to all breastcancer patients, regardless of size and nodal status, and advocate its general use. PMID:11079154
Sundquist, M; Thorstenson, S; Brudin, L; Stål, O; Nordenskjöld, B
Background: The impact of early detection of second breastcancers in women who have survived a primary breast 10 cancer is unknown. We examined the prognostic effect of detection of ipsilateral breast relapse (IBR) or contralateral breastcancer (CBC) in the asymptomatic relative to symptomatic phase. Patients and methods: Subjects were women with histology-verified second (invasive or in situ) breast
N. Houssami; S. Ciatto; F. Martinelli; R. Bonardi; S. W. Duffy
The recent histological classifications of breast malignant epithelial tumours place increased emphasis on several concepts: in situ carcinoma, difference of lobular carcinoma from other forms of breastcancer and histological factors of prognosis. The authors propose to discriminate: non infiltrating duct carcinoma (intraductal carcinoma); lobular carcinoma (in situ and infiltrating); infiltrating duct carcinoma in their usual form (80 p. 100 about of all breast carcinoma); among them, histological types with a less ominous prognosis, although relatively rare, are stressed (infiltrating papillary and comedo-carcinomas, tubular carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, colloid carcinoma, cylindroma, certain metaplastic variants, Paget's disease of the nipple); some features in unusual hosts are related. They mention the criteria of the Scarff and Bloom's "grading" and its importance from the point of view of prognosis, mainly for the usual infiltrating forms. Other malignant tumours of the breast (malignant cystosarcoma phyllodes, sarcomas, mammary metastases) are more scarcely seen (I p. 100 of the mammary neoplasms): their classification is succinctly recalled. PMID:172553
... given to the women in the 1940s - 1960s. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) -- You have a higher risk of breastcancer if you have received hormone replacement therapy with estrogen for several years or more. Obesity -- ...
... Editorial Board , 4/2010 Overview Cancer.Net Guide BreastCancer - Inflammatory Overview Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Symptoms ... Questions to Ask the Doctor Additional Resources Inflammatory breastcancer is a rare form of breastcancer. The ...
Over the centuries, the breastcancer literature has contained numerous references to the role of psychological factors in the etiology of the disease. Theories and research findings pertaining to this work are reviewed, with a focus on twentieth century work. The specific hypotheses examined in each historic period can be seen in the context of views held about women in
Our objective was to assess the loss of E-cadherin (EC) as a diagnostic marker or a predictor of prognosis. We stained 276 breast carcinomas with monoclonal antibodies to EC (invasive lobular carcinomas [ILC] and variants, 59; invasive ductal carcinoma and ductal special types [IDC], 204; tubulolobular carcinoma [TLC], 4; and invasive carcinoma [IC], uncertain whether lobular or ductal type, 9). The results were as follows: EC+IDCs, 99.5%; EC-ILCs, 90%; EC+ILCs, 10%; EC+pleomorphic ILCs, 20%; EC-ICs, 44%. All 4 TLCs showed positive tubules while cords were negative. Statistically a correlation of EC loss with a positive diagnosis of ILC was found but there was no correlation with any prognostic tumor variables. A negative EC stain confirms the diagnosis of ILC (specificity, 97.7%; negative predictive value, 96.8%; sensitivity, 88.1%; positive predictive value, 91.2%). EC is helpful in classifying cases with indeterminate histologic features. EC loss is uncommon in nonlobular carcinomas with no correlation to currently established prognostic variables. PMID:16613340
Qureshi, Hina S; Linden, Michael D; Divine, George; Raju, Usha B
... noncommercial use only. Fibrocystic breast changes: Linked to breastcancer? By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www. ... Sign up Question Fibrocystic breast changes: Linked to breastcancer? Do fibrocystic breast changes increase my risk of ...
Background On the past decade a plethora of investigations were directed on identification of molecules involved in breast tumorogenesis, which could represent a powerful tool for monitoring, diagnostics and treatment of this disease. In current study we analyzed six previously identified medullary breast carcinoma autoantigens including LGALS3BP, RAD50, FAM50A, RBPJ, PABPC4, LRRFIP1 with cancer restricted serological profile in different histological types of breastcancer. Methods Semi-quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of 20 tissue samples including medullary breast carcinoma, invasive ductal carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma and non-cancerous tissues obtained from patients with fibrocystic disease (each of five) was performed using specifically generated polyclonal antibodies. Differences in expression patterns were evaluated considering percent of positively stained cells, insensitivity of staining and subcellular localization in cells of all tissue samples. Results All 6 antigens predominantly expressed in the most cells of all histological types of breast tumors and non-cancerous tissues with slight differences in intensity of staining and subcellular localization. The most significant differences in expression pattern were revealed for RAD50 and LGALS3BP in different histological types of breastcancer and for PABPC4 and FAM50A antigens in immune cells infiltrating breast tumors. Conclusions This pilot study made possible to select 4 antigens LGALS3BP, RAD50, PABPC4, and FAM50A as promising candidates for more comprehensive research as potential molecular markers for breastcancer diagnostics and therapy. Virtual slides The virtual slides’ for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1860649350796892
... state or territory Cancer Home Basic Information About BreastCancer On This Page What Is a Normal Breast? ... can develop in the breast. Common Kinds of BreastCancer There are different kinds of breastcancer. The ...
Breastcancer frequency is related to age. There are impressive advances in the diagnostic armament and surgical techniques of breastcancer, and yet, it has continued its deadly impact. In women with operable breastcancer, the histologic status of the axillary lymphnodes remains the most useful prognostic information. Today, breastcancer is viewed as a systemic disease with spreads to
Breastcancer is the most common form of cancer among women today. With early detection and advanced treatment options, survival rates are continuing to improve, but not without some long-term physical and emotional side effects. This article reviews the effects of breastcancer in general and breastcancer treatment specifically on sexuality in cancer survivors. How the cancer and its
SummaryBreastcancer is a rare disease in men representing nearly 1% of the total breastcancer cases worldwide. Due to the low incidence, there are no randomized clinical studies giving information on the optimal diagnostics and therapy for male breastcancer patients. Therefore, treatment recommendations are derived from established guidelines for breastcancer in women. However, the lack of awareness
The BreastCancer Training Program (BCTP) in the Eppley Cancer Institute of the University of Nebraska Medical Center offers predoctoral and postdoctoral trainees a comprehensive training environment in breastcancer by supporting, in part, an outstanding...
The BreastCancer Training Program (BCTP) in the Eppley Cancer Institute of the University of Nebraska Medical Center offers predoctoral and postdoctoral trainees a comprehensive training environment in breastcancer by supporting, in part, and outstandin...
... Colorectal (Colon) Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Cancer Home BreastCancer Trends Note: The word "significantly" below refers to ... to 2009 in the United States, incidence of breastcancer has— Decreased significantly by 0.9% per year ...
VIP1 receptors are present in breastcancer cells. VIP elevates the cAMP and stimulates nuclear oncogene expression in MCF-7 cells. VIPhybrid is a VIP receptor antagonist that inhibits breastcancer proliferation. A VIP analog has been developed for imaging breast tumors. Therefore VIP1 receptors may be utilized for the early detection and treatment of breastcancer. PMID:9928023
Moody, T W; Leyton, J; Gozes, I; Lang, L; Eckelman, W C
This prospective study was designed to assess the utility of the dual time point imaging technique by 18F-FDG PET in detecting primary breastcancer and to determine whether there is a rela- tionship between 18F-FDG uptake and its change over time and the histopathologic subtypes. Methods: One hundred fifty-two patients with newly diagnosed breastcancer underwent 2 se- quential PET
... Those With MBC Read more Upcoming Events Metastatic BreastCancer Part Two: Understanding Disability Rights 10/23/2013 ... disability rights. Read more News You Can Use: BreastCancer Updates for Living Well 10/26/2013 Join ...
Breastcancer Basics In-Depth Multimedia Expert Answers Expert Blog Resources What's New Reprints A single copy of ... may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Breastcancer staging By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http:// ...
NYSERNet's BreastCancer Information Clearinghouse: an Internet accessible resource for breastcancer patients and their families. Current partners represent government health agencies, hospitals, libraries, hospice and non-profit agencies.
The Office of the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs (CDMRP) was born in 1992 from a powerful grassroots effort led by the breastcancer advocacy community that resulted in a congressional appropriation of funds for breastcancer research....
Summary Male breastcancer represents with 1.5% of male malignancies a rare disease. Compared to the vast amount of data and knowledge in female breastcancer, male breastcancer is less well-researched and explored. Potential risk factors are oestrogen (exogenous or endogenous), gynaecomastia, radiation, exposure to heat and the Klinefelter’s syndrome. Whereas female breastcancer shows a double-peak risk distribution,
... Cancer and Bone Loss Share: Questions and Answers BreastCancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breastcancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breastcancer ...
A history of benign breast disease (BBD) is associated with an approximate two-fold increase in risk of breastcancer, however, the risk differs according to the histological characteristics of the benign lesion and other factors. Although histopathology ...
Hereditary breastcancer (HBC) shows extant clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Clinically one finds the onset of breastcancer at an early age, an excess of bilaterality, and patterns of multiple primary cancer such as combinations of breast and ovarian carcinoma in the hereditary breast-ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome. In addition to HBOC, one sees a variety of putative breastcancer-prone genotypes
Henry T. Lynch; Jane Lynch; Theresa Conway; Patrice Watson; Jean Feunteum; Gilbert Lenoir; Steven Narod; Robert Fitzgibbons
Breastcancer survivors are at elevated risk for developing a new breastcancer compared to healthy women; they also are at considerable risk for breastcancer recurrence. According to the American Society of Clinical Oncology, survivors should undergo ca...
Previously we demonstrated expression of vasopressin and oxytocin gene-related products in breastcancer, but not benign fibrocystic breast disease, using the technique of immunohistochemistry. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that both of these hormo...
Breastcancer is attributed to genetic alterations, the majority of which are yet to be characterized. Oncogenic alterations that give rise to breast tumors need to be identified to develop targeted treatment options and consequently, improve clinical out...
Breastcancer is attributed to genetic alterations, the majority of which are yet to be characterized. Oncogenic alterations that give rise to breast tumors need to be identified in order to drive development of more efficient targeted or personalized can...
... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Breastcancer On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed August 2007 What is breastcancer? Breastcancer is a disease in which certain ...
... lymph vessels connect to lymph nodes, the tiny, bean-shaped organs that ordinarily help fight infection. About metaplastic breastcancer Metaplastic breastcancer describes a cancer that begins in one type of cell (such as those from the glands of the ...
Early detection, combined with targeted and more effective therapies, has led to reductions in breastcancer related deaths.\\u000a Approximately 90% of women diagnosed with breastcancer in the US today are disease free 5 years after diagnosis. Despite\\u000a these successes, breastcancer remains a major cause of death, particularly among young women. In addition, chronic or prolonged\\u000a toxicities associated with
Breast conservation, comprising limited excision of the breast and axillary lymphadenectomy followed by irradiation, yields survival equal to mastectomy with the advantage of preservation of the breast for properly selected patients. When breast conservation therapy is competently done it achieves highly satisfactory cosmetic results and acceptably low rates of local recurrence. However, numerous controversies surround the selection criteria, the relative importance of some of them, and the treatment. Four critical elements in selecting patients for breast conservation therapy are: history and physical examination, careful mammographic evaluation, histological assessment of the resected specimen, and assessment of the patient's needs and expectations. Today, it is estimated that breast conservation can be recommended to 50%-75% of all women with operable breastcancer. However, this treatment is not widely used. In this article we review the generally accepted principles and controversies about the selection of patients for breast conservation. PMID:11097148
Design: This is a retrospective study evaluating the minimum detection cancers in the group of women mammographically examined in our department. The study covers the period from 1. 1. 2012 to 31. 12. 2012. Interestingly we introduced several interesting case studies.Objective: 1. Confirmation upward trend in the number of minimal breastcancers, stage T1. 2. The need for multidisciplinary cooperation for quick minimal surgical intervention and effective cancer treatment.Setting: Department of Radiology, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Third Faculty of Medicine Charles University, Faculty Hospital KV, Prague.Methods: The methodology is based on a retrospective evaluation of the number of participants, regardless of age, that come for examination the workplace Breast Radiologists in 2012. Of all the tests are then evaluated the number and types of histological proven cancer, focusing on cancer detection stage T1 and other solutions from surgery after cancer treatment. Results: In 2012 it was made in 6700 FNKV screening mammography, of this number, 45 were confirmed malignant tumors in asymptomatic women. In 2012 it was simultaneously performed 2276 diagnostic mammography in women with clinically palpable resistance, and malignant tumors was confirmed in 122 women. Overall, mammographically and ultrasonographically examined 10 146 women for the year 2012. Of the 167 women with histologically confirmed malignant tumor. Brest carcinoma, stage T1, was diagnosed in 34% of patients and 66% of patients were malignant bearing greater than 10mm. The most common histological type of breastcancer in our department during the period from 1. 1. 2012 to 31. 12. 2012 was invasive ductal carcinoma (DIC) and in 82% of invasive lobular carcinoma (LIC) was diagnosed in 10%, mixed DIC and LIC in 4% and other cancers represented 4%.Conclusion: The diagnosis mode, core cut biopsy with histological conclusion, preoperative marking bearings in the presence of the surgeon, assessment resection, definitive histology, mammary team, cancer treatment, subsequent postoperative control at one workplace, is in terms of the patient not only effective, individualized and complex, but also cost effective. Keywords: mammography - ultrasound - screening - core cut biopsy - intraoperative mammography - minimal breast carcinoma. PMID:24040977
The large number of cases in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program of the US National Cancer Institute allowed a detailed analysis of the age distribution of the histologic types of invasive breast carcinoma. Between ages 50 and 85 years in females, the age-specific incidence rate shows little change for medullary, inflammatory and apocrine carcinomas; is about doubled for Paget's disease and for ductal, lobular, tubular and metaplastic carcinomas; and increases to 4 to 8 times the menopausal level for mucinous, papillary and signet-ring-cell carcinomas. The peri-menopausal break on the age-incidence curve is most marked for carcinomas of predominantly lobular origin and virtually absent for carcinomas of predominantly ductal origin. In males, the age distribution of papillary carcinoma is similar to that of all types combined, whereas that of mucinous carcinoma is skewed towards older ages, as in females. PMID:8478135
A large number of women in the population are at risk for the development of breastcancer. Methods now exist to accurately assess risk and to provide quantitative estimates of the chance of a woman developing breastcancer in her lifetime. Histologic assessment of premalignant breast pathology aids in the evaluation of risk. The availability of primary chemoprevention clinical trials
This Review summarizes and evaluates the current evidence for the cellular origins of breastcancer subtypes identified by different approaches such as histology, molecular pathology, genetic and gene-expression analysis. Emerging knowledge of the normal breast cell types has led to the hypothesis that the subtypes of breastcancer might arise from mutations or genetic rearrangements occurring in different populations of
Andrew H Sims; Anthony Howell; Sacha J Howell; Robert B Clarke
In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breastcancer statistics in the United States, including trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 230,480 new cases of invasive breastcancer and 39,520 breastcancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2011. Breastcancer incidence rates were stable among all racial/ethnic groups from 2004 to 2008. Breastcancer death rates have been declining since the early 1990s for all women except American Indians/Alaska Natives, among whom rates have remained stable. Disparities in breastcancer death rates are evident by state, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. While significant declines in mortality rates were observed for 36 states and the District of Columbia over the past 10 years, rates for 14 states remained level. Analyses by county-level poverty rates showed that the decrease in mortality rates began later and was slower among women residing in poor areas. As a result, the highest breastcancer death rates shifted from the affluent areas to the poor areas in the early 1990s. Screening rates continue to be lower in poor women compared with non-poor women, despite much progress in increasing mammography utilization. In 2008, 51.4% of poor women had undergone a screening mammogram in the past 2 years compared with 72.8% of non-poor women. Encouraging patients aged 40 years and older to have annual mammography and a clinical breast examination is the single most important step that clinicians can take to reduce suffering and death from breastcancer. Clinicians should also ensure that patients at high risk of breastcancer are identified and offered appropriate screening and follow-up. Continued progress in the control of breastcancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population. PMID:21969133
Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of BreastCancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary BreastCancer.
To investigate the chemopreventive effects of seaweed on breastcancer, we have been studying the relationship between iodine and breastcancer. We found earlier that the seaweed, wakame, showed a suppressive effect on the proliferation of DMBA (dimethylbenz(a)anthracene)-induced rat mam- mary tumors, possibly via apoptosis induction. In the present study, powdered mekabu was placed in distilled water, and left to
Breastcancer is the commonest form of cancer in women worldwide; there were an estimated 1.4 million cases world wide in 2008  and there is no part of the world where breastcancer is now a rare form of cancer . In all major regions of the world, breastcancer is the commonest, or second commonest, cancer in women
The American Cancer Society estimates that 178,000 women will be diagnosed with breastcancer annually. Estimates of between 1% and 5% of these women will be diagnosed with a more aggressive and less well understood form, inflammatory breastcancer (IBC). Women are often unaware that breastcancer can present without a lump, but with a red rash and swollen breast.
The relationship between dietary factors and the risk of breastcancer was investigated in a case?control study conducted in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland as a pilot phase for a larger cooperative study within the SEARCH Programme of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (Lyon, France). A total of 107 incident, histologically confirmed cases of breastcancer and 318
Fabio Levi; Carlo La Vecchia; Cristina Gulie; Eva Negri
Triple negative breastcancers are defined by the absence of oestrogen, progesterone and HER2 expression. Most triple negative cancers display distinct clinical and pathological characteristics with a high proportion of these tumours occurring at a younger age of onset and in African–American women. Triple negative tumours typically demonstrate high histological grade and are the most common breastcancer subtype in
In a six year period up to the end of December 1985 fine needle aspiration cytology specimens of the breast were obtained from 562 apparently healthy women invited to participate in a breastcancer screening programme. Of these, 397 had a biopsy and 173 cancers were confirmed histologically. For the diagnosis of cancer, the procedure was less successful than in
Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breastcancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumors are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breastcancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breastcancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarize what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically. PMID:23986719
We present the case of a 57-year-old woman diagnosed with breastcancer and a thyroid mass that was suspicious for cancer. The breastcancer was estrogen and progesterone receptor negative, HER2/neu borderline, with a high proliferative index. Treatment of this cancer took precedence. Nine months later, a total thyroidectomy was done for papillary thyroid cancer with metastases to 2 of 8 perithyroid lymph nodes. Postoperative radioactive iodine ablation was given. Recurrent thyroid disease was found in the right neck 1 year later and was resected; no radioactive iodine was given at that time. After 2½ years, the cancer recurred as a more highly aggressive, undifferentiated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Treatment is discussed.
Konduri, Kartik; Harshman, Leeanne K.; Welch, Brian J.; O'Brien, John C.
However, there are very limited data on the population effects of these novel cancer control approaches. Population modeling is a unique comparative effectiveness paradigm to fill this gap by translating advances from the laboratory and clinical trials to understanding their net effects on US breastcancer mortality. The CISNET Breast Working Group has collaborated over the past nine years to apply independent population models to evaluate cancer control practices and use results to inform clinical and public health guidelines.
Context Breastcancer screening in community practices may be different from that in randomized controlled trials. New screening modalities are becoming available. Objectives To review breastcancer screening, especially in the community and to examine evidence about new screening modalities. Data Sources and Study Selection English-language articles of randomized controlled trials assessing effectiveness of breastcancer screening were reviewed, as well as meta-analyses, systematic reviews, studies of breastcancer screening in the community, and guidelines. Also, studies of newer screening modalities were assessed. Data Synthesis All major US medical organizations recommend screening mammography for women aged 40 years and older. Screening mammography reduces breastcancer mortality by about 20% to 35% in women aged 50 to 69 years and slightly less in women aged 40 to 49 years at 14 years of follow-up. Approximately 95% of women with abnormalities on screening mammograms do not have breastcancer with variability based on such factors as age of the woman and assessment category assigned by the radiologist. Studies comparing full-field digital mammography to screen film have not shown statistically significant differences in cancer detection while the impact on recall rates (percentage of screening mammograms considered to have positive results) was unclear. One study suggested that computer-aided detection increases cancer detection rates and recall rates while a second larger study did not find any significant differences. Screening clinical breast examination detects some cancers missed by mammography, but the sensitivity reported in the community is lower (28% to 36%) than in randomized trials (about 54%). Breast self-examination has not been shown to be effective in reducing breastcancer mortality, but it does increase the number of breast biopsies performed because of false-positives. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound are being studied for screening women at high risk for breastcancer but are not recommended for screening the general population. Sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging in high-risk women has been found to be much higher than that of mammography but specificity is generally lower. Effect of the magnetic resonance imaging on breastcancer mortality is not known. A balanced discussion of possible benefits and harms of screening should be undertaken with each woman. Conclusions In the community, mammography remains the main screening tool while the effectiveness of clinical breast examination and self-examination are less. New screening modalities are unlikely to replace mammography in the near future for screening the general population.
Epidemiological evidence links breastcancer, a typical endocrine-related tumor, with western lifestyle, in particular eating habits. Yet, it's necessary to distinguish premenopausal from postmenopausal breastcancer. Visceral obesity and body weight gain are considered responsible for the increased risk of postmenopausal breastcancer. In fact, the mammary gland is sensitive to the level of circulating estrogens, visceral obesity is usually associated with higher levels of free steroid hormones, and the adipose tissue performs important endocrine function (clearance and aromatisation of androgens, regulation of free testoterone/DHEAS molar ratio). Before menopause, ovarian polycystosis is often seen with android obesity, and breastcancer risk could arise; however, as visceral obesity is generally less frequent, genetic factors are more important than nutritional ones. Furthermore, variations have been recorded in the secretion of insulin and insulin-like growth factors, involved in the genesis of the breastcancer. High body weight and male fat distribution negatively influence prognosis of breastcancer, too; this association is linked with the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in tumoral cells. Links between diet quality and breastcancer risk are shown: increased use of saturated fats and animal proteins, and a consequently decreased use of vegetables, legumes and fruit, constituting the so-called Mediterranean diet, are considered responsible for the increased risk of breastcancer. Lower fat and alcohol ingestion, the use of dietary fibre and a higher use of complex carbohydrates could reduce breastcancer risk. Finally, starting from the results of our previous animal researches, we suggest using a tryptophan devoid diet for a few days for premenopausal women with male obesity and alterations to the menstrual cycle. PMID:11449184
PURPOSE: This study compared characteristics of colorectal cancer between families with dominant breastcancer inheritance and the general population. The cumulative incidence of colorectal cancer was also studied in genetically determined breastcancer syndrome subjects with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and compared with the general population. METHODS: Subjects included 42 patients with colorectal cancer from 32 clinically determined hereditary breast
Kevin M. Lin; Charles A. Ternent; Dean R. Adams; Alan G. Thorson; Garnet J. Blatchford; Mark A. Christensen; Patrice Watson; Henry T. Lynch
Breastcancer is the most common non-skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in North American women. Mammography is the only screening test shown to reduce breastcancer-related mortality. There is general agreement that screening should be offered at least biennially to women 50 to 74 years of age. For women 40 to 49 years of age, the risks and benefits of screening should be discussed, and the decision to perform screening should take into consideration the individual patient risk, values, and comfort level of the patient and physician. Information is lacking about the effectiveness of screening in women 75 years and older. The decision to screen women in this age group should be individualized, keeping the patient's life expectancy, functional status, and goals of care in mind. For women with an estimated lifetime breastcancer risk of more than 20 percent or who have a BRCA mutation, screening should begin at 25 years of age or at the age that is five to 10 years younger than the earliest age that breastcancer was diagnosed in the family. Screening with magnetic resonance imaging may be considered in high-risk women, but its impact on breastcancer mortality is uncertain. Clinical breast examination plus mammography seems to be no more effective than mammography alone at reducing breastcancer mortality. Teaching breast self-examination does not improve mortality and is not recommended; however, women should be aware of any changes in their breasts and report them promptly. PMID:23418799
Since 1989, several breastcancer screening mammography programs have been established. The purpose of this chapter is to provide the history and the main results of the previous programs. Furthermore, special attention is given to the new rules established in 2001 with emphasis of the general principles as well as the ethical principles of breast screening. PMID:12075156
... cancer include a rapid increase in breast size; sensations of heaviness, burning, or tenderness in the breast; or a nipple that is inverted (facing inward). Swollen lymph nodes may also be present under the arm, near the collarbone, or in both places. It is important to note that these symptoms ...
This group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of breast, cervix, endometrial, and ovarian cancers. Clinical trials and the evaluation of new agents, surrogate biomarkers, and new technologies to identify premalignant
\\u000a The aim of studying the epidemiology of breastcancer is to identify risk factors that could be eliminated or inhibited. Unfortunately,\\u000a the two major risk factors are gender and increasing age, neither of which can be avoided. Nevertheless, the relative rarity\\u000a of male breastcancer (MBC) has prompted investigations in the hope that the disease in men can give clues
\\u000a PKC expression is intimately associated with breastcancer initiation, progression, and therapy responsiveness, and these\\u000a effects are highly isozyme-specific. PKC isozymes play key roles in proliferation and apoptosis of breastcancer cells and\\u000a exert important modulatory roles in cell cycle progression. A close relationship exists between specific PKC isozymes and\\u000a estrogen signaling.
Sofia D. Merajver; Devin T. Rosenthal; Lauren Van Wassenhove
\\u000a Abstract\\u000a The previous assumption that progestin does not promote breastcancer development needs to be re-examined since a growing\\u000a body of evidence indicates the opposite. Data from recent experimental trials and results from clinical and epidemiological\\u000a studies on hormonal contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have been confronted with breastcancer cases known\\u000a from the German database of adverse drug
Clarification of the role of diet in breastcancer pathogenesis is important in order to identify modifiable risk factors\\u000a on which to focus prevention efforts. Excess weight and weight gain in adult life are related to higher risk of postmenopausal\\u000a breastcancer, and weight loss after menopause is associated with substantially reduced risk. Even moderate alcohol consumption\\u000a contributes considerably to
Eleni Linos; Michelle D. Holmes; Walter C. Willett
Three independent sets of normal breast tissues without evidence of cancer, either obtained from patients undergoing reduction mammoplasty or in women at time of autopsy, have been analyzed. The postdoctoral trainee has shown that moderate to dramatic tel...
Background The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyze the overall survival of patients with brain metastases due to breast\\u000a cancer and to identify prognostic factors that affect clinical outcome. Methods Of the 7,872 breastcancer patients histologically diagnosed with breastcancer between January 1990 and July 2006 at the\\u000a Asan Medical Center, 198 patients with solitary or multiple
Sung Sook Lee; Jin-Hee Ahn; Min Kyoung Kim; Sun Jin Sym; Gyungyub Gong; Seung Do Ahn; Sung-Bae Kim; Woo Kun Kim
Five hundred thirty-four histologically confirmed incident cases of breastcancer in Chinese women of Shanghai and an equal number of age and sex-matched population controls were interviewed as part of an epidemiolÃ³gica! study of breastcancer risk factors. Early age at menarche was positively associated with breastcancer risk whereas early age at first full term pregnancy, high parity, and
Jian-Min Yuan; Mimi C. Vu; Ronald K. Ross; Yu-Tang Gao; Brian E. Henderson
The use of breast-conserving treatment approaches for breastcancer has now become a standard option for early stage disease. Numerous randomized studies have shown medical equivalence when mastectomy is compared to lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy for the local management of this common problem. With an increased emphasis on patient involvement in the therapeutic decision making process, it is important to identify and quantify any unforeseen risks of the conservation approach. One concern that has been raised is the question of radiation- related contralateral breastcancer after breast radiotherapy. Although most studies do not show statistically significant evidence that patients treated with breast radiotherapy are at increased risk of developing contralateral breastcancer when compared to control groups treated with mastectomy alone, there are clear data showing the amount of scattered radiation absorbed by the contralateral breast during a routine course of breast radiotherapy is considerable (several Gy) and is therefore within the range where one might be concerned about radiogenic contralateral tumors. While radiation related risks of contralateral breastcancer appear to be small enough to be statistically insignificant for the majority of patients, there may exist a smaller subset which, for genetic or environmental reasons, is at special risk for scatter related second tumors. If such a group could be predicted, it would seem appropriate to offer either special counseling or special prevention procedures aimed at mitigating this second tumor risk. The use of genetic testing, detailed analysis of breastcancer family history, and the identification of patients who acquired their first breastcancer at a very early age may all be candidate screening procedures useful in identifying such at- risk groups. Since some risk mitigation strategies are convenient and easy to utilize, it makes sense to follow the classic 'ALARA' (as low as reasonably achievable) principles and to minimize scattered radiation for these special risk groups and perhaps for all patients undergoing breast radiotherapy. This paper reviews the literature on the risk of radiation- related second contralateral breastcancers. PMID:11514003
This study aims to review histological and immunohistochemical features that are useful in the diagnosis of metastases to the breast. Histological features were compared between non?haematological metastases to the breast and 100 consecutive core biopsy specimens of primary invasive carcinomas of the breast. 18 non?haematological metastases to the breast were diagnosed over a 10?year period (0.3% of malignant mammary tumours). Elastosis and carcinoma in situ were seen only in primary mammary cancers. Two?thirds of tumours had features raising the possibility of metastasis, such as clear cell carcinoma suggestive of renal origin and small cell carcinoma suggestive of pulmonary origin. The features observed in haematological metastases are also described. Immunohistochemical panels to distinguish mammary carcinoma (oestrogen receptor, gross cystic fluid protein?15) from common metastases to the breast, including carcinoma of the lung (thyroid transcription factor?1), malignant melanoma (S100, HMB45, melan?A) and ovarian serous papillary carcinoma (Wilms' tumour 1), are discussed. The pathologist has a key role in considering the diagnosis of metastasis to the breast if the histological features are unusual for a primary mammary tumour. The clinical history is vital in some cases. Immunohistochemistry plays a useful supplementary role.
The ultimate goal of breastcancer prevention strategies is to reduce the incidence of this disease in populations. Greater understanding of recently identified associations of lactation, alcohol, exercise, and diet with breastcancer is necessary to bring these to bear favorably on the behavior of populations. As a hormonally related process, breastcancer incidence is associated with two major physiologic mechanisms: (1) extent of lobular maturation, which is profoundly influenced by the occurrence of a full-term pregnancy, and (2) hormonal exposure of the breast epithelium, which is influenced by a spectrum of lifestyle factors. Manipulation of these processes by technologically simple and practical means is a major goal of research. Modulation of preclinical growth of breastcancers by chemopreventive means poses significant challenges, due to the absence of target-organ specificity and frequent toxicity. With the emergence of well-supported models of breastcancer development, behavioral and social strategies are likely to be key to achieving the ultimate goal. PMID:9057173
The prognosis and clinical and pathological findings in 93 patients with breastcancer who had taken contraceptive steroids before diagnosis (study group) were compared with those in 93 control patients, also with breastcancer, matched for age and parity. The tumours in the women in the study group were found to have more favourable clinical and histological features than those
The relation between alcoholic beverage consumption and risk of breastcancer was examined. We used data from a population-based, case-control study that included almost all incident cases occurring in five Spanish regions from February 1990 to July 1991. A total of 762 women between 18 and 75 years of age, with a histologically confirmed, first diagnosis of breastcancer, were
Jose M. Martin-Moreno; Peter Boyle; Lydia Gorgojo; Walter C. Willett; Jesus Gonzalez; Fernando Viliar; Patrick Maisonneuve
Based on experimental and epidemiological evidence it is hypothesized that estrogen increases breastcancer risk by increasing mitotic activity in breast epithelial cells. Aromatase is crucial to the biosynthesis of estrogens and may therefore play a role in breastcancer development. Supporting data for an etiological role of aromatase in breast tumor biology are several-fold. First, the association between weight
N M Probst-Hensch; S A Ingles; A T Diep; R W Haile; F Z Stanczyk; L N Kolonel; B E Henderson
Alterations in sialylation are well documented in breastcancer as well as other epithelial cancers. A principal enzyme implicated in this process is the sialyltransferase ST6Gal, which mediates the synthesis of the sialyl a2, 6-anomeric linkage to termin...
Alterations in sialylation are well documented in breastcancer as well as other epithelial cancers. A principal enzyme implicated in this process is the sialyltransferase ST6Gal, which mediates the synthesis of the sialyl a2, 6-anomeric linkage to termin...
An increasing percentage of elderly women, particularly in industrialized countries, are developing breastcancer. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain this dramatic increase in breastcancer incidence in the later stages of life. However, an...
This document represents the final report for our BreastCancer Center Support Grant. Our grant consisted of five areas, three projects and two cores. Projects included: Project 1 - Impact of Genetic Testing for BreastCancer Susceptibility; Project 2 - A...
The long range goal of this project is to improve the accuracy and consistency of breastcancer diagnosis by developing a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system for early prediction of breastcancer from the patients' mammographic findings and medical hist...
Breastcancer is the commonest cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Rates vary about five-fold around the world, but they are increasing in regions that until recently had low rates of the disease. Many of the established risk factors are linked to oestrogens. Risk is increased by early menarche, late menopause, and obesity in postmenopausal women, and prospective studies have shown that high concentrations of endogenous oestradiol are associated with an increase in risk. Childbearing reduces risk, with greater protection for early first birth and a larger number of births; breastfeeding probably has a protective effect. Both oral contraceptives and hormonal therapy for menopause cause a small increase in breast-cancer risk, which appears to diminish once use stops. Alcohol increases risk, whereas physical activity is probably protective. Mutations in certain genes greatly increase breast-cancer risk, but these account for a minority of cases. PMID:11902563
A family history of breastcancer poses higher risks for Jewish versus non-Jewish women, particularly for early-onset breastcancer. This appears to be due in large part to the high prevalence (2.5%) of three BRCA1 and BRCA2 founder mutations in Ashkenazi Jews. About 4 to 8% of non-Jewish male breastcancer cases versus 19% of Jewish male breastcancer cases
The power of association studies between polymorphic genetic variants and breastcancer may be enhanced if the cancer subjects are subclassified by histologic subgroup. In this study we classified 482 unselected breastcancers from Szczecin, Poland by histology (ductal, lobular, medullary, other). All women were genotyped for three founder mutations in the CHEK2 gene (1100delC, IVS2 + 1G > A
Tomasz Huzarski; Cezary Cybulski; Wenancjusz Domaga?a; Jacek Gronwald; Tomasz Byrski; Marek Szwiec; Stanis?aw Woyke; Steven A Narod; Jan Lubi?ski
To investigate the chemopreventive effects of seaweed on breastcancer, we have been studying the relationship between iodine and breastcancer. We found earlier that the seaweed, wakame, showed a suppressive effect on the proliferation of DMBA (dimethylbenz(a)anthracene)-induced rat mammary tumors, possibly via apoptosis induction. In the present study, powdered mekabu was placed in distilled water, and left to stand for 24 h at 4 degrees C. The filtered supernatant was used as mekabu solution. It showed an extremely strong suppressive effect on rat mammary carcinogenesis when used in daily drinking water, without toxicity. In vitro, mekabu solution strongly induced apoptosis in 3 kinds of human breastcancer cells. These effects were stronger than those of a chemotherapeutic agent widely used to treat human breastcancer. Furthermore, no apoptosis induction was observed in normal human mammary cells. In Japan, mekabu is widely consumed as a safe, inexpensive food. Our results suggest that mekabu has potential for chemoprevention of human breastcancer. PMID:11376555
Funahashi, H; Imai, T; Mase, T; Sekiya, M; Yokoi, K; Hayashi, H; Shibata, A; Hayashi, T; Nishikawa, M; Suda, N; Hibi, Y; Mizuno, Y; Tsukamura, K; Hayakawa, A; Tanuma, S
... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR November 2012 BreastCancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from BreastCancer Than Other Women On this Page Problem U.S. ... to Top U.S. State Info Number of Additional BreastCancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...
ABSTRACT: Although uncommon, breastcancer in young women is worthy of special attention due to the unique and complex issues that are raised. This article reviews specific challenges associated with the care of younger breastcancer patients, which include fertility preservation, management of inherited breastcancer syndromes, maintenance of bone health, secondary prevention, and attention to psychosocial issues.
Breastcancer imposes a significant healthcare burden on women worldwide. Early detection is of paramount importance in reducing mortality, yet the diagnosis of breastcancer is hampered by a lack of adequate detection methods. In addition, better breastcancer prognostication may improve selection of patients eligible for adjuvant therapy. Hence, new markers for diagnosis and prognosis are warranted to improve
\\u000a In the randomized controlled trials carried out in the late 1970s and the 1980s, mammographic screening was demonstrated to\\u000a have an impact in decreasing mortality from breastcancer. The evaluation of mammographic service screening programmes implemented\\u000a in several Western European countries in the late 1980s and the 1990s demonstrated that these programmes may have an even\\u000a higher effect on breast
Abstract Over the past decade, multiple genetic and histological approaches have accelerated development of new breastcancer diagnostics and treatment paradigms. Multiple distinct genetic subtypes of breastcancers have been defined, and this has progressively led toward more personalized medicine in regard to treatment options. There still remains a deficiency in the development of molecular diagnostic assays that can be used for breastcancer detection and pretherapy clinical decisions. In particular, the type of cancer-specific biomarker typified by a serum or tissue-derived protein. Progress in this regard has been minimal, especially in comparison to the rapid advancements in genetic and histological assays for breastcancers. In this review, some potential reasons for this large gap in developing protein biomarkers will be discussed, as well as new strategies for improving these approaches. Improvements in the study design of protein biomarker discovery strategies in relation to the genetic subtypes and histology of breastcancers is also emphasized. The current successes in use of genetic and histological assays for breastcancer diagnostics are summarized, and in that context, the current limitations of the types of breastcancer-related clinical samples available for protein biomarker assay development are discussed. Based on these limitations, research strategies emphasizing identification of glycoprotein biomarkers in blood and MALDI mass spectrometry imaging of tissues are described.
Cazares, Lisa H.; Jones, E. Ellen; Fuller, Thomas W.; Semmes, O. John; Laronga, Christine
The preponderance of evidence suggests a role for fat and alcohol as risk factors for breastcancer. The role of milk is more controversial with some studies suggesting that milk is a risk factor and others that consumption of milk is protective against breastcancer. No other major nutrient appears to play a significant role in increasing breastcancer risk. On the other hand, there is increasing evidence that a variety of micronutrients and hormones appear to have significant anticancer activity. These range from steroids such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its analysis to indoles, isothiocyanates, and isoflavone derivatives. These compounds act directly by interfering with cyclins and promoting apoptosis as well as indirectly by altering estrogen metabolism in a favorable direction. These effects are not merely theoretical actions in cell culture and tissue explants; they have been demonstrated in human patients as a range of studies have demonstrated. PMID:12095951
Summary A retrospective analysis was undertaken in which 15 female and 15 male breastcancers were matched by age, stage, estrogen receptor status, and histologic type. Our protocol compares male and female breastcancers for reactivity with antibodies against tumor-associated antigens known to be present on female breastcancer cells. Formalin-fixed sections of each primary tumor were reacted in the
Joel Lundy; Yousri Mishriki; Michael V. Viola; Sylvia Chao; Barbara Kasa; Sheila Oravez; Allan Schuss
BackgroundProper determination of histologic type and biomarkers in a core biopsy specimen is important before preoperative systemic therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of preoperative core biopsy through comparative analysis of histologic grade (HG), hormone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) status in both the core biopsy and surgical specimens.
So Yeon Park; Ku Sang Kim; Taek-Gu Lee; Sung-Shin Park; Sun Mi Kim; Wonshik Han; Dong-Young Noh; Sung-Won Kim
Little is known about knowledge levels regarding hereditary breastcancer among breastcancer survivors. This study explored, among women with early-onset breastcancer (<50 years): 1) knowledge regarding breastcancer risk factors and hereditary breastcancer; and 2) differences in knowledge based on risk for hereditary disease. Participants recruited from 34 Virginia hospitals responded to two questionnaires. The Family History
Susan Miesfeldt; Wendy Cohn; Mary Ropka; Susan Jones
Background: Despite the high rate of pathologic involvement of the nipple-areola complex (NAC) with subareolar cancers and the suboptimal cosmetic results when lumpectomy removes the NAC, breast conservation surgery has been extended to include these patients.Methods: Ninety-five patients with subareolar cancers operated on between 1979 and 1998 were identified and the relationships between the pathologic findings, treatment, and outcome were
Breastcancer stem cells (BCSCs) constitute a subpopulation of tumor cells that express stem cell-associated markers and have a high capacity for tumor generation in vivo. Identification of BCSCs from tumor samples or breastcancer cell lines has been based mainly on CD44+/CD24?/low or ALDH+ phenotypes. BCSCs isolation has allowed the analysis of the molecular mechanisms involved in their origin, self-renewal, differentiation into tumor cells, resistance to radiation therapy and chemotherapy, and invasiveness and metastatic ability. Molecular genetic analysis using knockout animals and inducible transgenics have identified NF-?B, c-Jun, p21CIP1, and Forkhead-like-protein Dach1 in BCSC expansion and fate. Clinical analyses of BCSCs in breast tumors have found a correlation between the proportion of BCSCs and poor prognosis. Therefore, new therapies that specifically target BCSCs are an urgent need. We summarize recent evidence that partially explain the biological characteristics of BCSCs.
Velasco-Velazquez, Marco A.; Homsi, Nora; De La Fuente, Marisol; Pestell, Richard G.
... t usually recommended because of the risk of side effects. Drug therapy (chemotherapy). If your recurrent breastcancer is the ... stamina and your ability to cope with the side effects of treatments. But eating ... includes chemotherapy or radiation therapy. For times when you don' ...
The maps show a pattern of elevated mortality rates for female breastcancer extending from the Mid-Atlantic through the Northeastern states has persisted for many years. Established risk factors are believed to be largely responsible, but the remaining reasons are unknown.
Breastcancer (BC) may affect three main domains of women's sexuality: sexual identity, sexual function and sexual relationship. Age, lymphedema, side-effects of surgery, radio-, chemo- and hormonotherapy, pregnancy-related problems, infertility, iatrogenic premature menopause, with its cohort of symptoms secondary to the chronic loss of estrogens on the brain, on the sensory organs, on the pathophysiology of sexual response and on
... ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site . Three tests are used by health care providers to screen ... ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site . Risks of BreastCancer Screening Screening tests have risks. Decisions about screening tests can be ...
The breastcancer treatment is based nowadays on new surgical options: breast-conserving surgery, which applies at least for the first and second stage cancer, with radical intention. We have been practicing breast-conserving surgery for the last 16 years and we have performed 303 breast conserving operations from a total of 673. We recorded 12 local recurrences (3,96%) and 2 deaths due to cancer progression. Our protocol includes removal of the primary tumor with enough surrounding tissue to ensure negative margins of the resectable specimen, associated with axillary lymph-node dissection and postoperative breast irradiation. Our oncologist indicated chemotherapy on different postoperative conditions: tumor size, axillary lymph node involvement, patient's age, etc. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize our modest experience, nevertheless to draw the attention on important results, obtained by long-term monitoring of the patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery, in a two prospective protocols, and demonstrate the importance and applicability of breast conserving therapy. The conclusion of this study is that breast-conserving surgery followed by breast irradiation is reliable, as the results are similar with radical mastectomies; the main objective is to obtain a good cosmetic result, which depends on tumor size / breast size. PMID:23116836
Tenea Cojan, T S; Vidrighin, C D; Ciobanu, M; Paun, I; Teodorescu, M; Mogos, G; Tenovici, M; Florescu, M; Mogos, D
Breastcancer has often been reported to run in families, and the most important risk factor for the disease is a family history of breastcancer. Numerous pedigrees and segregation analyses have suggested an autosomal dominant transmitted susceptibility to breastcancer. Familial breastcancer occurs alone or associated with other cancers in clinically distinguishable syndromes. Such cases may be characterized
Women who develop bilateral breastcancer at an early age are likely to harbour germline mutations in breastcancer susceptibility genes. The aim of this study was to test for concordant genetic changes in left and right breastcancer of young women (age <50) with bilateral breastcancer that may suggest an inherited breastcancer predisposition. Microsatellite markers were used
J. Kollias; S. Man; M. Marafie; K. Carpenter; S. Pinder; I. O. Ellis; R. W. Blamey; G. Cross; J. D. Brook
Breastcancer is a common disease with few practical preventive measures. The recent evidence that lactation, like other reproductive experiences, is associated with a modest reduction in breastcancer risk is therefore of great interest. Overall, the reduction in risk appears to be about 20% for ever breast feeding and is even greater for women with histories of prolonged lactation,
Optical spectroscopy allows the characterization, recognition and differentiation of subcutaneous tissues healthy and no-healthy, to facilitate the diagnosis or early detection for breastcancer are studied white adipose tissue by the subcutaneous region with the help of the diffuse reflection spectroscopy in the visible areas (400 to 700 nm) of electromagnetic spectrum for them using a spectrometer portable of integrating sphere, Hunter lab Model Mini-Scan. The problem to be solved for cancer detection by optical techniques is to find the solution to the inverse problem of scattering of radiation in tissue where it is necessary to solve the equation of energy transfer. us through the trigonometric interpolation and by the data adjustment by least squares using Fourier series expansion to parameterize the spectral response curves of each sample of breast adipose tissue then correlated with histological grades established by the optical biopsy for each one of the samples, allowing use this technique to the study of anomalies in White Adipose Tissue Breast, changes are evident in the spectral response for Breast Adipose Tissue carcinogens with respect to healthy tissues and for the different histological grades.
Muñoz Morales, Aarón; Vázquez Y Montiel, Sergio; Reigosa, Aldo
Breastcancer is a heterogeneous disease. There is a high degree of diversity between and within tumors as well as among cancer-bearing individuals, and all of these factors together determine the risk of disease progression and therapeutic resistance. Advances in technologies such as whole-genome sequencing and functional viability screens now allow us to analyze tumors at unprecedented depths. However, translating this increasing knowledge into clinical practice remains a challenge in part due to tumor evolution driven by the diversity of cancer cell populations and their microenvironment. The articles in this Review series discuss recent advances in our understanding of breast tumor heterogeneity, therapies tailored based on this knowledge, and future ways of assessing and treating heterogeneous tumors. PMID:21965334
Inflammatory breastcancer (IBC), the most lethal form of breastcancer, has characteristics linked to higher risk of contralateral\\u000a breastcancer. However, no large studies have examined risk of contralateral breastcancer following IBC. We calculated absolute\\u000a risk of invasive contralateral breastcancer among 5,631 IBC and 174,634 comparably staged non-IBC first breastcancer cases\\u000a who survived at least 2 months
Catherine SchairerLinda; Linda M. Brown; Phuong L. Mai
Background There is considerable evidence that birth weight is positively associated with breastcancer risk, and seven single-nucleotide\\u000a polymorphisms (SNPs) have been conclusively associated with this risk. We have hypothesized that breastcancer susceptibility\\u000a loci may have a greater influence on breastcancer risk among women with higher birth weight, who are expected to have a larger\\u000a pool of mammary stem
Rulla M. Tamimi; Pagona Lagiou; Kamila Czene; Jianjun Liu; Anders Ekbom; Chung-Cheng Hsieh; Hans-Olov Adami; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Per Hall
Breast pain (mastalgia) is a common complaint, with a potentially important relationship to breastcancer risk. We have examined the association between mastalgia and breastcancer in the patient population of the Breast Care Center of University Hospital, Syracuse, New York. Of 5463 women with complete breastcancer risk factor information, 1532 (28%) reported breast pain as an incidental complaint
Breast pain (mastalgia) is a common complaint, with a potentially important relationship to breastcancer risk. We have examined the association between mastalgia and breastcancer in the patient population of the Breast Care Center of University Hospital, Syracuse, New York. Of 5463 women with complete breastcancer risk factor information, 1532 (28%) reported breast pain as an incidental complaint
Text Version... breastcancer and metastatic breastcancer are different ... positive breastcancer, where the EFS improvement is already high? ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/newsevents
This Guest Editorial introduces this month's special BreastCancer Theme Issue, a series of reviews that highlight the molecular pathogenesis of breastcancer and implications for personalized breastcancer therapy. PMID:23978519
Breastcancer is the most common malignancy of women in the Western world. Many risk factors are associated with the development and progression of breastcancer; however, diet/nutrition constitutes a highly modifiable risk. Breastcancer is considered to...
|Discusses breastcancer and teenagers, focusing on how parents can introduce the subject and encourage breast self-examination. The article provides information on breastcancer statistics, mammography, and American Cancer Society services. (SM)|
Discusses breastcancer and teenagers, focusing on how parents can introduce the subject and encourage breast self-examination. The article provides information on breastcancer statistics, mammography, and American Cancer Society services. (SM)
Tumor markers are widely used in pathology not only for diagnostic purposes but also to assess the prognosis and to predict the treatment of the tumor. Because tumor marker levels may change over time, it is important to get a better understanding of the molecular changes during tumor progression. Occurrence of breast and ovarian cancer is high in older women. Common known risk factors of developing these cancers in addition to age are not having children or having children at a later age, the use of hormone replacement therapy, and mutations in certain genes. In addition, women with a history of breastcancer may also develop ovarian cancer. Here, the authors review the different tumor markers of breast and ovarian carcinoma and discuss the expression, mutations, and possible roles of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans during tumorigenesis of these carcinomas. The focus is on two groups of proteoglycans, the transmembrane syndecans and the lipid-anchored glypicans. Both families of proteoglycans have been implicated in cellular responses to growth factors and morphogens, including many now associated with tumor progression.
Yoneda, Atsuko; Lendorf, Maria E.; Couchman, John R.
Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative BreastCancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive BreastCancer; HER2-negative BreastCancer; HER2-positive BreastCancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male BreastCancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative BreastCancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive BreastCancer; Stage I BreastCancer; Stage II BreastCancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma
Background: Breastcancer is the most common cancer affecting women worldwide. Despite tremendous advances in screening, diagnosis, and treatment, the causes of this disease remain elusive and complex. Proteomics is a rapidly developing field that can explore the heterogeneity of breastcancer and supplement the wealth of information gained from genomics. Methods: This article serves as an overview of the
INTRODUCTION: Recently, the BreastCancer Association Consortium (BCAC) conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study and identified 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breastcancer risk. Given the high degree of heritability of mammographic density and its strong association with breastcancer, it was hypothesised that breastcancer susceptibility loci may also be associated with breast density and provide insight
Rulla M. Tamimi; David Cox; Peter Kraft; Graham A. Colditz; Susan E. Hankinson; David J. Hunter
A RT-PCR assay (GeneSearch™, Veridex, LLC), FDA approved and CE marked to detect metastases > 0.2 mm in sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) is used intra-operatively for the management of patients with breastcancer. The assay provides qualitative results by applying cut-off values to cycle times (Ct) for mammaglobin (MG) and cytokeratin-19 (CK19) genes. Aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of the quantitative Ct values to estimate the size of nodal metastases and the risk of additional disease in non-SLNs. SLNs from 367 patients were clinically processed using both BLN assay and post-operative histology. Complementary axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was performed concurrently in case of BLN assay positivity or tumour size > 2 cm. BLN positivity was reported in 19.6% of the patients for a sensitivity of 89%. BLN specificity (94.5%) and negative predictive value (97.5%) clearly demonstrated its reliability to guide ALND decision. All, except one, residual axillary metastases were found in BLN-positive patients. Considering the 78 patients with SLN positivity or discordant status according to both criteria, the metastases histological size was significantly correlated to the expression level of MG (? = 0.62) and CK19 (? = 0.64) genes (P < 10E-6). Moreover, ALND status positivity was significantly associated to Ct value of MG (z = 2.4; P = 0.018) and CK19 (z = 3.2; P = 0.001). The high intra-operative quality performance of the BLN assay minimizes the need for second surgeries for ALND. Results from this investigational study suggest that markers Ct value may provide, intra-operatively, valuable metastases size data and a risk prediction of additional disease in non-SLNs. PMID:19779817
OBJECTIVE: To outline modern principles of surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic treatment of breastcancer, and to review preliminary data on breastcancer prevention. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search was conducted from 1966 to the beginning of 1999; most of the studies reviewed are randomized clinical trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Breast conservation surgery should be offered to all women with early breastcancer because studies demonstrate survival rates equivalent to those with mastectomy. If mastectomy is chosen, breast reconstruction should be offered. Most women with breastcancer are treated systemically with either chemotherapy or tamoxifen, or both, and mortality is substantially reduced. Data indicating that tamoxifen prevents breastcancer are promising; more studies with both tamoxifen and raloxifene are under way. All women should be strongly encouraged to enter clinical trials. CONCLUSIONS: Because many issues face women recently diagnosed with breastcancer, they often seek out family physicians as advisors to help negotiate a complex treatment path. The possibility of preventing breastcancer will undoubtedly raise questions among family members of women with breastcancer that should appropriately be answered and referred, if necessary, by family physicians.
Epidemiologic research continues to confirm a strong inverse association between physical activity and breastcancer risk.\\u000a New studies suggest that activity during adolescence is most important for premenopausal breastcancer. Long-term activity\\u000a patterns are clearly important for postmenopausal breastcancer, although recent activity often highly correlates with long-term\\u000a activity, accounting for its influence on risk. Whether physical activity has greater
A 44-year-old woman who is a new patient has no known current health problems and no family history of breast or ovarian cancer. Eighteen months ago, she had a normal screening mammogram. She recently read that mammograms may not help to prevent death from breastcancer and that “the patient should decide.” But she does not think she knows enough. She worries that there is a breast-cancer epidemic. What should her physician advise?
Scintimammography is a rarely used method of breastcancer imaging. The aim of the study was to find its place among other radiological methods. Routine methods of breastcancer detection were compared considering their advantages and disadvantages. Scintimammography seems to be a promising complementary method. Indications for scintimammography are considered and suggestion of a diagnostic algorithm in breastcancer, including of this method is proposed. PMID:12666455
Pilecki, Stanis?aw; Bandurski, Tomasz; Lasek, W?adys?aw; Purzycka-Jazdon, Anna; Lass, Piotr
\\u000a Breastcancer in women is a major public health problem throughout the world. It is the most common cancer among women both\\u000a in developed and developing countries. One in ten of all new cancers diagnosed worldwide each year is a cancer of the female\\u000a breast. It is also the principal cause of death from cancer among women globally. More than
Jacques Ferlay; Clarisse Héry; Philippe Autier; Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan
Advances in technology and the increase in screening for breastcancer that identifies tumors at earlier stages have made\\u000a it possible to destroy tumors in situ without surgery. This can also be used to treat locally advanced tumors. These locoregional\\u000a ablative techniques include minimally invasive surgical as well as noninvasive ablative modalities, new radiation technologies,\\u000a and regional chemotherapy. New developments
The feasibility of mass population screening for breastcancer by clinical examination and x-ray mammography was studied. The results indicate that such a programme could be conducted effectively by non-medical staff and be safe from the dangers of irradiation. The response rate of women invited for screening suggests that such a service is acceptable to the general public. The additional work load produced by screening would not overburden the existing surgical services.
George, W D; Gleave, E N; England, P C; Wilson, M C; Sellwood, R A; Asbury, D; Hartley, G; Barker, P G; Hobbs, P; Wakefield, J
Breastcancer, rather than constituting a monolithic entity, comprises heterogeneous tumors with different clinical characteristics, disease courses, and responses to specific treatments. Tumor-intrinsic features, including classical histological and immunopathological classifications as well as more recently described molecular subtypes, separate breast tumors into multiple groups. Tumor-extrinsic features, including microenvironmental configuration, also have prognostic significance and further expand the list of tumor-defining variables. A better understanding of the features underlying heterogeneity, as well as of the mechanisms and consequences of their interactions, is essential to improve targeting of existing therapies and to develop novel agents addressing specific combinations of features.
Background Different ethnicities have different distribution of Duffy blood group (DBG) phenotypes and different breastcancer morbidity. A study in our lab demonstrated that Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC, also known as DBGP, the Duffy protein phenotype), led to the inhibition of tumorigenesis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that DBGP is correlated with breastcancer occurrence. Methods DBGP proteins were examined by indirect antiglobulin testing with anti-FYa and anti-FYb antibodies. The phenotypes were classified into four groups according to the agglutination reactions: FYa + FYb+, FYa + FYb-, FYa-FYb + and FYa-FYb-. The phenotypes and pathological diagnosis of consecutively hospitalized female patients (n = 5,022) suffering from breastcancer at the Shanghai Cancer Hospital and Henan Province Cancer Hospital were investigated. The relationships between DBGP expression with breastcancer occurrence, axillary lymph status, histological subtype, tumor size pathological grade and overall survival were analyzed. Results The incidence of breastcancer was significantly different between FYa + FYb + (29.8%), FYa + FYb- (33.2%), FYa-FYb + (45.6%) and FYa-FYb- (59.1%; P = 0.001). Significant different numbers of breastcancer patients had metastases to the axillary lymph nodes in the FYa + FYb + group (25.1%), FYa + FYb- (36.9%), FYa-FYb + (41.0%) and FYa-FYb- (50.0%, (P = 0.005). There was a statistical significance (p = 0.022) of the overall survival difference between patients with difference phenotypes. No significant difference was observed in cancer size (t-test, p > 0.05), histologicalcancer type (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05) or histological grade (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05) between every each DBGP group. Conclusions DBGP is correlated with breastcancer incidence and axillary lymph node metastasis and overall survival. Further investigations are required to determine the underlying mechanism of Duffy blood group phenotype on breastcancer risk.
In 2006, an estimated 275,000 women in the United States were diagnosed with breastcancer and 41,000 patients died of this disease. 1 Because breastcancer is a common disease and early stage cancers detected by mammography are more successfully treated, mam- mogram screening programs have been instrumental in reducing breastcancer mortality. The morbidity of breastcancer treatment has
Even as the National Institutes of Health came under fire last week for giving short shrift to women in the institute's basic and clinical research programs, the report of a recent NIH consensus conference points up the need for more research on how to treat early breastcancer. Although the experts were able to agree on the best surgical treatment for women with early breastcancer, they couldn't resolve the more controversial issue of whether the patients should subsequently receive systemic treatment - chemotherapy or hormone therapy - to prevent recurrence of their disease. The panel reaffirmed that the removal of the lump and nearby lymph nodes, followed by irradiation, is just as effective as a mastectomy. But then came the contentious question: should women with early breastcancer, especially those without detectable lymph node metastases, receive drug therapy to prevent recurrence of the disease Currently, 70% of such cancers are successfully treated with surgery and radiation alone. For this reason, about 2 years ago, the National Cancer Institute issued a clinical alert saying that addition treatment with drugs or hormones is a credible therapeutic option worthy of careful attention for all early stage patients. This pronouncement engendered a storm of criticism. A consensus panel concluded that in cases where tumors are 1 centimeter or less in diameter and no lymph nodes are affected, the likelihood of recurrence is so small that the benefits of adjuvant therapy would be insignificant. But for the patients with larger tumors, the panel concluded that the decision is an individual one that depends on personal preferences and a variety of prognostic factors that can help to indicate whether a woman is at high risk of having a recurrence and should therefore have adjuvant therapy.
Radiology, along with clinical examination and the pathological results, is a fundamental aspect of the triple assessment of patients with breast disease, particularly those with breastcancer. In addition to long established imaging techniques such as mammography and breast ultrasound in the symptomatic patient, there are now many developing technologies which assist in making and confirming the diagnosis (eg digital
Introduction: Occult primary breastcancer, i.e., isolated axillary adenocarcinoma without detectable tumor in the breast by either physical exam or mammography, represents up to 1% of operable breastcancer. Modified radical mastectomy (MRM) is generally the accepted treatment for this condition although tumor is identified in only two-thirds of mastectomy specimens. Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can identify occult breast
John A. Olson; Elizabeth A. Morris; Kimberly J. Van Zee; David C. Linehan; Patrick I. Borgen
\\u000a The identification and clinical management of patients at inherited risk for breastcancer has become an integral part of\\u000a the practice of preventative medicine and oncology. Although only about 5–10% of all cases of breastcancer are attributable\\u000a to a highly penetrant cancer predisposition gene, individuals who carry a cancer susceptibility gene mutation have a significantly\\u000a higher risk of developing
Breastcancer among Japanese females is characterized by its relatively low incidence and better prognosis than among Caucasian\\u000a females. The annual mortality due to breastcancer among Japanese is about one-fifth that among Caucasians. Comparison of\\u000a case distribution by histological type indicates that the ratio of well-differentiated carcinoma is slightly higher among\\u000a Japanese, while the ratio of poorly differentiated carcinoma
Drugs called bisphosphonates may be able to prevent bone metastases in women with early breastcancer. With this trial, researchers are comparing a bisphosphonate called clodronate with two newer, more-potent bisphosphonates--zoledronate and ibandronate--in women with stage I-III breastcancer.
Breastcancer is a complex disease. Its aetiology is multifactorial, its period of development can span decades, and its clinical course is highly variable. Evaluation of the role of the immune response in either the development or control of breastcancer is also complex. Nevertheless, there is substantial information that in this disease, the immune response is not a host defence reaction and may even serve to facilitate cancer development. This evidence comes from a variety of sources including clinical-pathological investigations in women that show a correlation between the intensity of lymphocytic infiltration into the tumour mass with poor prognosis, studies in breastcancer patients that demonstrate a similar correlation between delayed hypersensitivity reactivity or in vitro assays of immune reactivity to tumour cell membranes or non-specific antigens and poor prognosis, and analyses of cancer incidence in chronically immunosuppressed, kidney transplant recipients who develop an unexpectedly low incidence of breastcancer. The overall conclusions from these human studies are corroborated by observations in mouse mammary tumour models that also demonstrate immune enhancement of breast cell proliferation in vitro and of breastcancer development in vivo. Potential mechanisms for these effects include production, by inflammatory cell infiltrates, of direct or indirect modulators of breast cell growth, e.g. cytokines, peptide or steroid hormones, enzymes involved in steroid metabolism, as well as of antibodies to growth factors or their receptors. These immune facilitatory mechanisms must be overcome if immune-based therapies are to be applied successfully in breastcancer. PMID:9571699
Over the past five decades, radiotherapy (RT) has become an integral part in the combined modality management of breastcancer. Although its significant effect on local control has been long demonstrated, only recently has adjuvant RT been shown to have a significant effect on breastcancer mortality and overall survival. This article summarizes the adjuvant role of RT after mastectomy and lumpectomy, as well as the rationale and techniques for partial-breast irradiation. PMID:16730294
Bellon, Jennifer R; Katz, Angela; Taghian, Alphonse
Between 1975 and 1983, sixteen patients with a history of irradiation at an early age to the head, neck, or chest areas for a variety of conditions in whom breastcancer subsequently developed were seen at out institute. The median latent period between the irradiation and the development of breastcancer was 420 months. The distribution of patients by stage of the disease and the median age at diagnosis of this subgroup was similar to the breastcancer observed in the general population. The subsequent course of this disease was also similar to the breastcancer observed in the general population. A substantial number of women have been exposed to irradiation at a young age, and these women are at a higher risk of having breastcancer develop. These women should be closely observed to discover the disease in an early curable stage.
The study was carried out to find out predictors of axillary lymph node metastasis in breastcancer and to evaluate its significance\\u000a in selecting the group of patients in whom axillary dissection could be avoided. Ninety-five breastcancer patients who underwent\\u000a mastectomy and axillary dissection were included in the study. Factors like patient’s age, tumor size, histopathological type,\\u000a histological grade
Amrut V. Ashturkar; Gayatri S. Pathak; Sanjay D. Deshmukh; Harshal T. Pandave
This is the second of a six-part series on metastatic spread and natural history of 18 common tumors. Part one summarized symptom/problem anticipation, cancer metastasis, and the 18 tumors that each cause more than 6,000 deaths per year in the United States. Bladder and brain cancer were discussed, with information given on tumor types, metastatic spread and invasion, and common symptoms. Part two charts the natural histories of breast, colorectal, and esophageal cancers. Each of these cancers is presented separately, with information given on mortality rates, the most common tumor types, sites of metastases, common problems, and common oncologic emergencies. Sites of spread, resulting problems (including site-specific symptoms), and assessment parameters are presented as tables. Material is presented so that clinicians will be able to anticipate the spread of these cancers and thus identify problems early in their development so that the problems are more easily managed. PMID:10085798
BACKGROUND: The overall incidence of male breastcancer is around 1% of all breastcancers and is on the rise. In this review we aim to present various aspects of male breastcancer with particular emphasis on incidence, risk factors, patho-physiology, treatment, prognostic factors, and outcome. METHODS: Information on all aspects of male breastcancer was gathered from available relevant
Kaiyumars B Contractor; Kanchan Kaur; Gabriel S Rodrigues; Dhananjay M Kulkarni; Hemant Singhal
Breastcancer in males is rare, accounting for less than 1% of all cases. Bilateral male breastcancer is reported to occur in fewer than 2% of all the diagnosed cases of male breastcancer, and synchronous tumors are exceedingly rare. The authors report a case of male breastcancer that is bilateral and syn- chronous, and review the literature
PETER B. KAHLA; SEBASTIANO CASSARO; FELIX G. VLADIMIR; MICHAEL G. WAYNE; ANGELO CAMMARATA
Preoperative magnetoradiation therapy of stage II-III breastcancer patients was followed by pronounced regression of tumor and axillary lymph node metastases in all cases. The treatment modality had been previously substantiated by establishing the optimal sequence and time intervals for magnetic and radiation fields. Complete regression of primary tumor and metastases verified by histologic and cytologic examination of surgical and biopsy material was observed in 20%. The best results were obtained for edematous-infiltrative form of cancer. In the control group (radiation alone), regression of tumor was only slight, nor did lymph node metastases regress. Magnetoradiation therapy did not involve either immediate or delayed adverse side-effects. PMID:1300786
Akhmetov, E D; Liu, B N; Dzhamaldinov, D D; Musin, T B; Ismailov, B I
Pathological grade is routinely used to stratify breastcancer patients into favorable and less favorable outcome groups. Mechanisms by which genomic changes in breast tumors specifically contribute to the underlying components of tumor grade - tubule formation, nuclear pleomorphism, and mitoses - are unknown. This study examined 26 chromosomal regions known to be altered in breastcancer in 256 invasive breast carcinomas. Differences in overall levels and patterns of allelic imbalance (AI) at each chromosomal region were compared for tumors with favorable (=1) and unfavorable (=3) scores for tubule formation, nuclear pleomorphism and mitotic count. Levels of AI were significantly different between samples with high and low scores for tubule formation (P < 0.001), nuclear pleomorphism (P < 0.001) and mitotic count (P < 0.05). Significantly higher levels of AI were detected at regions 11q23 and 13q12 for tumors with reduced tubule formation, chromosomes 9p21, 11q23, 13q14, 17p13 and 17q12 for those with high levels of nuclear atypia, and chromosomes 1p36, 11q23, and 13q14 for those with high mitotic counts. Region 16q11-q22 showed significantly more AI events in samples with low nuclear atypia. Patterns of genetic changes associated with poorly-differentiated breast tumors were recapitulated by the individual components of the Nottingham Histologic Score. While frequent alteration of 11q23 is common for reduced tubule formation, high nuclear atypia and high mitotic counts, suggesting that this is an early genetic change in the development of poorly-differentiated breast tumors, alterations at the other seven loci associated with poorly-differentiated tumors may specifically influence cell structure, nuclear morphology and cellular proliferation. PMID:19194786
Background: A study was undertaken to investigate long-term histological changes in the environment of breast implants and their correlation with complains at the time of capsular contracture defined by the Baker score.Method: The collagenous capsules of 53 silicone breast implants from 43 patients (23 smooth and 30 textured devices) were evaluated histologically for capsular thickness, the presence of histiocytes, the
Wulf Siggelkow; Andre Faridi; Katrin Spiritus; Uwe Klinge; Werner Rath; Bernd Klosterhalfen
Ascertainment of breastcancer incidence among the cohort of the RERF Life Span Study extended sample identified 574 breastcancers among 564 cases diagnosed during 1950-1980 of which 412 cancers were reviewed microscopically. There were no dose-dependent differences with respect to diagnostic certainty or histological type. As in previous studies, the dose response appeared to be roughly linear and did
M. Tokunaga; C. E. Land; T. Yamamoto; M. Asano; S. Tokuoka; H. Ezaki; I. Nishimori
While the majority of breastcancer patients with histologically lymph node-negative cancers are cured by local therapy alone, approximately 25% will develop recurrent breastcancer and die of their disease in the absence of systemic adjuvant chemotherapy . Cytotoxic chemotherapy markedly improves outcome for some of these patients. Assays that could better distinguish those nodenegative patients who are more likely
Multi-resolution images of histological sections of breastcancer tissue were analyzed using texture features of Haar- and Daubechies transform wavelets. Tissue samples analyzed were from ductal regions of the breast and included benign ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and invasive ductal carcinoma (CA). To assess the correlation between computerized image analysis and visual analysis by a pathologist, we created a two-step classification system based on feature extraction and classification. In the feature extraction step, we extracted texture features from wavelet-transformed images at 10x magnification. In the classification step, we applied two types of classifiers to the extracted features, namely a statistics-based multivariate (discriminant) analysis and a neural network. Using features from second-level Haar transform wavelet images in combination with discriminant analysis, we obtained classification accuracies of 96.67 and 87.78% for the training and testing set (90 images each), respectively. We conclude that the best classifier of carcinomas in histological sections of breast tissue are the texture features from the second-level Haar transform wavelet images used in a discriminant function. PMID:16308473
Soy food and its constituents may protect against breastcancer, but the association between soy intake and decreased breastcancer risk is inconsistent. We evaluated the relationship between breastcancer risk and the dietary intake of soy protein as measured by total soy food and tofu intake. Histologically confirmed cases (n = 362) were matched to controls by age (within
Mi Kyung Kim; Jin Hee Kim; Seok Jin Nam; Seungho Ryu; Gu Kong
Preclinical models suggest that retinoids inhibit mammary carcinogenesis. Induction of apoptosis is a unique feature of fenretinide, the most studied retinoid in clinical trials of breastcancer chemoprevention due to its selective accumulation in breast tissue and its favorable toxicological profile. In a phase III breastcancer prevention trial, fenretinide showed a very strong trend of reduction of incidence of second breast malignancies in premenopausal women, which was confirmed by the 15-year follow-up. Interestingly, ovarian cancer incidence appeared reduced during treatment in the same trial. This warrants further research on fenretinide mechanisms of action and potential efficacy and provides the rationale for a phase III primary prevention trial in young women at high risk for breastcancer. PMID:19213560
Breast carcinogenesis is a multistep process involving both genetic and epigenetic changes. Epigenetics is defined as reversible changes in gene expression, not accompanied by alteration in gene sequence. DNA methylation, histone modification, and nucleosome remodeling are the major epigenetic changes that are dysregulated in breastcancer. Several genes involved in proliferation, anti-apoptosis, invasion, and metastasis have been shown to undergo epigenetic changes in breastcancer. Because epigenetic changes are potentially reversible processes, much effort has been directed toward understanding this mechanism with the goal of finding effective therapies that target these changes. Both demethylating agents and the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are under investigation as single agents or in combination with other systemic therapies in the treatment of breastcancer. In this review, we discuss the role of epigenetic regulation in breastcancer, in particular focusing on the clinical trials using therapies that modulate epigenetic mechanisms.
Summary Breastcancer is the most common malignancy in women in Western Europe and the U.S. Adjuvant chemotherapy reduces the rate\\u000a of cancer recurrence, thereby contributing to the recent decline of breastcancer mortality. Notably, a number of important\\u000a developments occurred over the past decades. Starting with first generation regimens like CMF, the next step was the introduction\\u000a of anthracyclines into
Patients with germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are predisposed to breastcancer. The BRCA1-associated breastcancers have distinct morphology, being more often medullary-like, triple negative and showing a ‘basal’ phenotype. On the other hand, BRCA2 and BRCAX cancers are a heterogeneous group without a specific phenotype. When incorporated into risk assessment models, pathology data improves prediction of carrier
Bilateral breastcancer occurs in approximately 7 % of surviving breastcancer patients. However, a dilemma exists concerning the notion of whether this represents a de novo second primary tumor versus a breast metastasis. We analyzed 81 patients with bilateral breastcancer, 47 (58 %) synchronous tumors and 34 (42 %) metachronous tumors. Additionally, charts were reviewed for age, family history, full histology data and biological receptors. We found there were no significant differences in concordance between the first and second primary tumors (in both synchronous and metachronous bilateral breastcancer) with respect to histology; grade; T-category; N-category; ER, PR and HER-2 status. In addition, there was no significant difference in the strength of correlation between ER and PR in the first and secondary primary tumors. Our findings suggest that the differentiation of the origin of contralateral breastcancer based on routine histological and biological concordance is inconclusive. Furthermore, the dilemma will continue to exist until additional molecular approaches are applied routinely for research purposes to resolve the debate. PMID:24062258
Perou's molecular classification defines tumors that neither express hormone receptors nor overexpress HER2 as triple-negative (TN) tumors. These tumors account for approximately 15% of breastcancers. The so-called basaloid tumors are not always synonymous with TN tumors; they differ in the fact that they express different molecular markers, have a higher histologic grade, and have a worse prognosis. Clinically they occur in younger women as interval cancer, and the risk of recurrence is higher within the first 3 years. Distant recurrences in the brain and visceral metastases are more common than in hormone receptor-positive tumors. Therapeutically, despite being highly chemosensitive, their progression-free time is generally short. In terms of chemotherapeutic treatment, anthracyclines and taxanes are useful drugs, and high response rates have been described for the combination of ixabepilone-capecitabine and platinums. The combination with antiangiogenic drugs has also proven useful. A group of new drugs, poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase inhibitors, showed favorable results in TN tumors with BRCA mutation. There are currently several ongoing studies with new drugs including epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, c-kit inhibitors, Raf/Mek/Map kinase inhibitors and mTOR inhibitors. PMID:21050424
The primary aim of surgery in breastcancer is to achieve local control of disease. Secondly, improving quality of life and patient satisfaction is of utmost importance. While the positive effect of postmastectomy reconstruction on the psychological well-being of women with breastcancer has been demonstrated, evidence-based data on its oncological safety remain sparse. There is concern that the presence of autologous tissue or an implant may mask locoregional recurrence. Furthermore, there is little agreement on the appropriateness of routine radiological surveillance of these patients as well as on the surgical treatment of locoregional recurrence. We attempt to review the impact of breast reconstruction on the incidence and detection of locoregional recurrence and discuss treatment options. PMID:18716989
Breastcancer is the most common cause of cancer death among women worldwide. In order to improve the treatment of this disease, a more complete understanding of its biological basis is necessary. Since the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway was recently found to be required for growth and propagation of a number of different cancers, we discuss here the possible involvement of this pathway in the normal biology and development of cancer in the mammary gland. The use of mouse mammary cancer models has assisted the process of dissecting the mechanisms behind Hh-driven mammary tumour formation and growth. Based on recent studies, we conclude that the inhibition of Hh signalling in breast tumours may interfere with the maintenance of a putative cancer stem cell compartment and the abnormal stimulation of tumour stroma. Therefore, the components of the Hh signalling cascade may provide a set of drug targets, which could be implemented into novel combinatorial strategies for the treatment of breastcancer.
Two new models for assessing a patient's risk of developing breastcancer focus on breast density as an important predictor. The two studies are reported in the September 6, 2006, Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
Breastcancer is a heterogeneous group of diseases that are clinically subdivided as hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2(+)), and triple-negative breastcancer, to guide therapeutic interventions. Agents that target estrogen receptor (ER) and HER2 are among the most successful cancer therapeutics. However, de novo or acquired resistance is common, despite the development of newer agents against these pathways. As our understanding of tumor biology improves, novel targets are being identified. Notably, inhibitors against several pathways [including, among others, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/mTOR), cell-cycle regulation, heat shock protein, and epigenetic pathways] have demonstrated promising activity in clinical trials, and the mTOR-inhibitor everolimus has been approved for advanced or metastatic aromatase inhibitor-resistant ER(+) breastcancer. At present, there are no established targeted agents for triple-negative breastcancer (negative ER, progesterone receptor, and HER2). Although poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors have shown promising activity in BRCA-related cancers, its value in the treatment of triple-negative breastcancers remains to be demonstrated. In this Review, we present a basic understanding of the major targeted agents in current practice and under development for the treatment of breastcancer in the context of the three clinical subgroups. PMID:23988612
Mohamed, Ali; Krajewski, Kenneth; Cakar, Burcu; Ma, Cynthia X
Purpose Data on international variation in breastcancer incidence may help to identify additional risk factors. Substantially lower breastcancer rates in Asia than in North America and Western Europe are established, but differences within Asia have been largely ignored despite heterogeneity in lifestyles and environments. Mongolia’s breastcancer experience is of interest because of its shared genetics but vastly different diet compared with other parts of Asia. Methods Age-standardized breastcancer incidence and mortality rates obtained from the International Association of Cancer Registries are presented for several Asian countries. Mongolian incidence rates obtained from its cancer registry describe incidence within the country. Results Breastcancer incidence in Mongolia (age standardized 8.0/100,000) is almost a third of rates in China (21.6/100,000), and over five times that of Japan (42.7/100,000) and Russia (43.2/100,000). Rates within Mongolia appear to have increased slightly over the last decade and are higher in urban than rural areas (annual percentage increase of age-standardized rates from 1998 to 2005 was 3.60 and 2.57%, respectively). The increase in breastcancer incidence with age plateaus at menopause, as in other Asian populations. Conclusions Mongolia’s low breastcancer incidence is of particular interest because of their unusual diet (primarily red meat and dairy) compared with other Asian countries. More intensive study of potential dietary, reproductive and lifestyle factors in Mongolia with comparison to other Asian populations may provide more clarity in what drives the international breastcancer rate differences.
Altantsetseg, Dalkhjav; Davaasambuu, Ganmaa; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Tretli, Steinar; Hoover, Robert N.; Frazier, A. Lindsay
The 2001 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) International Symposium, BreastCancer: A Global Perspective, was conducted by members of the ASCO International Committee and additional speakers from around the world. An interactive format was chosen to: (1) learn how patterns of incidence, epidemiology, and causal biology relate to breastcancer around the world; (2) discuss the challenges in screening, diagnosis, and treatment of breastcancer, as well as its socioeconomic impact in various regions; (3) describe international differences in approach to and management of advanced breastcancer; and (4) discuss treatment in terms of hormone response, clinical research, and drug metabolism. After a brief introduction, each speaker gave an overview of breastcancer challenges and issues in their country, and discussed how the following case might be diagnosed and treated: A 44-year-old mother who presents with a finding of a painless breast lump and no prior history of breast masses, trauma, or surgery. Comments from a patient perspective were then presented, followed by a panel discussion and closing remarks. Co-chairs of this Symposium included Deborah Collyar (President, PAIR-Patient Advocates in Research) and Elizabeth Eisenhauer, MD (Director, Investigational New Drug Program, National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Speakers included Gilberto Schwartsmann, MD (South America), Monica Morrow, MD (North America), Daniel Vorobiof, MD (South Africa), Rakesh Chopra, MD (India), Klaus Hoeffken, MD (Eastern Europe), Russell Basser, MD (Australia), Susan Matsuko Shinigawa (patient perspective), and Larry Norton, MD (closing remarks). PMID:11560983
Surgical therapy for occult breastcancer has traditionally centered on mastectomy; however, breast conservation with whole breast radiotherapy followed by axillary lymph node dissection has shown equivalent results. Patients with breastcancer in pregnancy can be safely and effectively treated; given a patient's pregnancy trimester and stage of breastcancer, a clinician must be able to guide therapy accordingly. Male breastcancer risk factors show strong association with BRCA2 mutations, as well as Klinefelter syndrome. Several retrospective trials of surgical therapy in stage IV breastcancer have associated a survival advantage with primary site tumor extirpation. PMID:23464700
Background Previous studies and biological mechanisms of carcinogenesis suggest that the steroid receptor content of benign breast epithelium may be related to breastcancer risk. The objective in this study was to compare the levels of estrogen receptor-? (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in nonneoplastic breast epithelium between breastcancer cases and biopsy controls. Methods Between 1995 and 1997 at two sites (Women's College Hospital in Toronto and Kingston General Hospital), 667 women who were scheduled for diagnostic excisional breast biopsies completed a questionnaire providing personal information and agreed to allow analysis of routinely resected tissue. Histological slides with nonneoplastic epithelium were available for 101 cancer cases and 200 biopsy controls in Toronto and for 105 cancer cases and 119 controls in Kingston. Nonneoplastic epithelium was examined with immunohistochemical assays to determine the percent of epithelial cells staining for ER and PR. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) stratified by study site. Results The ER content of nonneoplastic tissue was higher in cases than biopsy controls in unadjusted analyses; after adjustment for age, however, a weak association remained in only one of the study sites. After adjustment for age, the PR content of nonneoplastic tissue was slightly lower in breastcancer cases than controls in one study site. Furthermore, this inverse association was confined to women with PR negative breastcancer in comparison to the controls. No interaction between ER and PR content of nonneoplastic tissue was observed in relation to the odds of having breastcancer. Conclusion The results of this study are consistent with only a slight indication of increased ER levels in nonneoplastic tissue in breastcancer cases relative to controls. This study contributes to the understanding of breastcancer by examining both ER and PR in nonneoplastic tissue. Limitations remain, however, such as the necessity of using as controls women with benign breast changes, difficulties in selecting the appropriate tissue for analysis, and tissue sampling concurrent to diagnosis.
In 2000, BreastCancer Research published a series of articles describing the state-of-the-art of breastcancer imaging, edited by James Basilion [1-6]. This series reviewed developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), radionuclide imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomogrophy (PET), and optical imaging, including optical computed tomography and near infra-red imaging fluorescence.
The goal of minimally invasive therapy for breastcancer is to eradicate cancer cells with minimal damage to the underlying normal breast parenchyma or skin. Tumor ablation is seen as a means of obtaining local control of breastcancer without surgery. Breast imaging is a critical component of therapy to (1) detect the primary tumor, (2) demonstrate the anatomical extent
Purpose The objective of this study was to analyze the histology of breast lesions categorized as Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 4c or 5 breast lesions during the imaging evaluation, but diagnosed as benign during the histological evaluation. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 71 breast lesions categorized as BI-RADS 4c or 5 during imaging study, but diagnosed as benign upon histological evaluation. Results Breast lesions were classified into six groups upon histological analysis: intraductal papilloma (18 cases), inflammatory group (15 cases), fibroepithelial tumor (14 cases), clustered microcalcification (10 cases), minimal histological alteration (10 cases), and adenosis (4 cases). Sclerosis and architectural complexity were associated with most of the biopsies that were morphologically similar to malignancy. Conclusion Among 71 cases categorized as 4c or 5 during the imaging study, but diagnosed as benign upon histological examination, intraductal papilloma was the most frequently identified histological lesion. These 71 cases exhibited histological characteristics of sclerosis and/or complex/complicated features that should be histologically differentiated from malignancy during evaluation.
Metastatic malignancy in the breast is uncommon. A 68-year-old woman with a past medical history of breastcancer presented with a lump in the opposite breast. A mammogram suggested a possible benign lump. An ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy was taken to complete the triple assessment. The histology on the breast core biopsy showed it to be a metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Subsequent computed tomography of the abdomen confirmed a renal primary tumour. The patient was referred to the renal oncologist for palliative treatment. PMID:19710958
ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is an important component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. We describe existing clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents and the challenges facing the clinical development and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breastcancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use
Dorte Lisbet Nielsen; Michael Andersson; Jon Lykkegaard Andersen; Claus Kamby
This short booklet is designed to be used by health educators when teaching women about breastcancer and its early detection and the procedure for breast self-examination. It includes the following: (1) A one-page teaching plan consisting of objectives, subject matter, methods (including titles of films and printed materials), target audience,…
Breastcancer accounts for about 5-8% of cancer in India. It is second to cancer of the cervix in order of frequency. Parsee women have a higher incidence of breastcancer than Hindu women. The unmarried, lately married, and nullipara women are at higher risk than early married and multiparous women. Sometimes cancer affects women of the same family. Women with family histories of cancer should not use estrogen. 50-70% of all breastcancers, when detected, are in their later stages when the chances of a cure are practically nonexistent. 20% of breastcancer patients may live up to 5 years with the disease without receiving treatment. Following radical treatment of curable cases, metastases can remain dormant for many years, up to 18-20, before it develops. Management of breastcancer is biologically, immunologically, and histologically heterogeneous in character and requires multidisciplinary treatment: surgery, radiotherapy, hormone, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. About 20-40% of late stage cases respond to hormones. Metastatic bone pain is alleviated by local radiotherapy. The management of breastcancer is a controversial topic including such questions as the value of postoperative radiotherapy following radical mastectomy; prophylactic versus therapeutic oopherectomy, and the place of adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:501120
... and symptoms of breastcancer in men Can breastcancer in men be found early? Early detection improves ... Differences affecting early detection of male and female breastcancers There are many similarities between breastcancer in ...
There is evidence suggesting that life-style factors play a significant role in breastcancer (BC) development. Insulin, which secretion is influenced by life-style factors, might represent the possible etiological linkage between lifestyle characteristic...
... 1+, 2+, or 3+. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH): This test uses fluorescent pieces of DNA that ... special microscope. Many breastcancer specialists feel the FISH test is more accurate than IHC. However, it ...
... used therapy is a female hormone blocker called tamoxifen. A newer therapy uses a pill (anastrozole, letrozole, ... are at high risk for developing breastcancer, tamoxifen or raloxifene can also be taken to prevent ...
Aging is the single largest risk factor for developing breastcancer and is thought to be due the convergence of the accumulation of mutations together with the accumulation of senescent cells. Our working hypothesis is that senescent epithelial cells can...
... can talk with your health care provider about genetic testing, screening tests, like MRI, or risk reduction options that might be right for you. Diagnosing breastcancer in young women can be more difficult because ...
A controversy in the treatment of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breastcancers is whether an aromatase inhibitor, e.g., letrozole (LET) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durati...
This report documents progress on studies of the effects on breastcancer cell proliferation of reagents that inhibit mevalonate synthesis (lovastatin) or metabolism (6-fluoromevalonate (Fmev), a mevalonate analogue). In our initial year we have establish...
The objective of the proposed data analysis project is to assess whether high exposure to vitamin D from sunlight exposure, diet, and dietary supplements is associated with reduced breastcancer risk. We will perform a retrospective cohort analysis based ...
Metalloestrogens are metals that activate the estrogen receptor in the absence of estradiol. The metalloestrogens fall into two subclasses: metal/metalloid anions and bivalent cationic metals. The metal/metalloid anions include compounds such as arsenite, nitrite, selenite, and vanadate while the bivalent cations include metals such as cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, nickel, chromium, lead, mercury, and tin. The best studied metalloestrogen is cadmium. It is a heavy metal and a prevalent environmental contaminant with no known physiological function. This review addresses our current understanding of the mechanism by which cadmium and the bivalent cationic metals activate estrogen receptor-?. The review also summarizes the in vitro and in vivo evidence that cadmium functions as an estrogen and the potential role of cadmium in breastcancer. PMID:23338949
Since the localization and discovery of the first high-risk breastcancer (BC) genes in 1990, there has been a substantial progress in unravelling its familial component. Increasing numbers of women at risk of BC are coming forward requesting advice on their risk and what they can do about it. Three groups of genetic predisposition alleles have so far been identified with high-risk genes conferring 40-85% lifetime risk including BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53. Moderate risk genes (20-40% risk) including PALB1, BRIP, ATM and CHEK2, and a host of low-risk common alleles identified largely through genome-wide association studies. Currently, only BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53 are used in clinical practice on a wide scale, although testing of up to 50-100 gene loci may be possible in the future utilizing next-generation technology. PMID:22356477
Being overweight appears to be associated with a higher risk of post-menopausal breastcancer in most studies. Although the relative risk of breastcancer related to Quetelet's index is generally weak (range 1.1-1.9 in the major cohort studies), some studies have found that timing of weight gain and body fat distribution could be more significant factors of an increased risk.
Pascal Pujol; Florence Galtier-Dereure; Jacques Bringer
Increased expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a poor prognostic factor in breastcancer, indicating\\u000a that antiangiogenic therapies may improve outcomes. Novel antiangiogenic agents targeting the proangiogenic VEGF ligand and\\u000a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed. Of these, bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against\\u000a VEGF, is very promising in breastcancer. A large phase 3
Arvinder Bhinder; Sarah Carothers; Bhuvaneswari Ramaswamy
Background: Along with the ongoing modifications in treatment of primary breastcancer, the purpose and extent of lymph-node dissection\\u000a has changed. The following is an overview of the current knowledge and practice of lymph-node dissection in breastcancer,\\u000a with special regard to expected developments in the near future. Axillary dissection is described as a ten-step procedure,\\u000a including dissection of level-I
INTRODUCTION: A genetic component is well established in the etiology of breastcancer. It is not well known, however, whether genetic traits also influence prognostic features of the malignant phenotype. METHODS: We carried out a population-based cohort study in Sweden based on the nationwide Multi-Generation Register. Among all women with breastcancer diagnosed from 1961 to 2001, 2,787 mother-daughter pairs
Mikael Hartman; Linda Lindström; Paul W Dickman; Hans-Olov Adami; Per Hall; Kamila Czene
Endocrine therapy is a mainstay for the many women who develop in situ or invasive steroid receptor-positive breastcancer.\\u000a The use of tamoxifen has reduced mortality in such women. Recently estrogen deprivation strategies have come under scrutiny.\\u000a Here the use of aromatase inhibitors for treatment of postmenopausal endocrine-responsive breastcancer in the metastatic,\\u000a adjuvant, and preoperative settings is reviewed.
BACKGROUND: NUCKS (Nuclear, Casein Kinase and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate) is a nuclear, DNA-binding and highly phosphorylated protein. A number of reports show that NUCKS is highly expressed on the level of mRNA in several human cancers, including breastcancer. In this work, NUCKS expression on both RNA and protein levels was studied in breast tissue biopsies consisted of invasive carcinomas,
Introduction Previous studies have suggested an inverse relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and breastcancer incidence. The primary objective of this study was to assess whether BMD is associated with risk of subsequent breastcancer occurrence in the female population of southern Israel. Methods The electronic medical charts of women who underwent BMD at the Soroka Medical Center (SMC) between February 2003 and March 2011 were screened for subsequent breastcancer diagnoses. Women were divided by tertiles of BMD at 3 skeletal sites: lumbar spine (LS, L1–4), total hip (TH) and femoral neck (FN). The incidence of breastcancer was calculated. Results Of 15268 women who underwent BMD testing, 86 were subsequently diagnosed with breastcancer. Most women in the study were older than 50 years (94.2% and 92.7%, respectively; p?=?0.597). Women who subsequently developed breastcancer had a higher mean body-mass index (BMI) (30.9±5.5 vs. 29.1±5.7 p?=?0.004) and the mean BMD Z-score was significantly higher than in those without breastcancer for all 3 skeletal sites (LS: 0.36±1.58 vs. ?0.12±1.42, p?=?0.002; TH: 0.37±1.08 vs. 0.03±1.02, p?=?0.002; FN: 0.04±0.99 vs. ?0.18±0.94; p?=?0.026). Women in the highest Z-score tertiles at the FN and TH had a higher chance of developing breastcancer compared to the lowest tertile; odds ratio of 2.15, 2.02, respectively (P?=?0.004 and 0.01 respectively). No association was found between the BMD Z-score and the stage, histology, grade or survival from breastcancer. Conclusions This study provides additional support for an inverse association between BMD and the risk of breastcancer.
Fraenkel, Merav; Novack, Victor; Liel, Yair; Koretz, Michael; Siris, Ethel; Norton, Larry; Shafat, Tali; Shany, Shraga; Geffen, David B.
Both obesity and breastcancer incidence increased dramatically during two recent decades in a rapidly changing society in\\u000a northern Iran. In this study, we examined the ability of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) as predictor biomarkers\\u000a of breastcancer risk in Iranian women. In a case–control study of 100 new cases of histological confirmed breastcancer and
K. O. Hajian-Tilaki; A. R. Gholizadehpasha; S. Bozorgzadeh; E. Hajian-Tilaki
Little is known about the role of birth weight and other prenatal factors in the etiology of breastcancer in Asian-Americans.\\u000a We investigated the relation between birth weight and other prenatal factors and breastcancer risk in a population-based\\u000a case–control study in Los Angeles County that included 2,259 Asian-American women with incident, histologically confirmed\\u000a breastcancer and 2,019 control women,
Anna H. WuRoberta; Roberta McKean-Cowdin; Chiu-Chen Tseng
Data from a multicenter case-control study on breastcancer conducted in Italy have been used to analyze the relationship of olive oil and other dietary fats to breastcancer risk. Cases were 2,564 women hospitalized with histologically confirmed, incident breastcancer. Controls were 2,588 women admitted to the same network of hospitals for acute, non-neoplastic, non-hormone related, on-digestive tract disorders.
Carlo La Vecchia; Eva Negri; Silvia Franceschi; Adriano Decarli; Attilio Giacosa; Loren Lipworth
BackgroundHigh-intensity–focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a noninvasive thermal ablation technique. This study reports the use of histological techniques for the pathological assessment of HIFU effects in patients with breastcancer.
Aims To study the diagnosis delay and its impact on stage of disease among women with breastcancer on Libya. Methods 200 women, aged 22 to 75 years with breastcancer diagnosed during 2008–2009 were interviewed about the period from the first symptoms to the final histological diagnosis of breastcancer. This period (diagnosis time) was categorized into 3 periods: <3 months, 3–6 months, and >6 months. If diagnosis time was longer than 3 months, the diagnosis was considered delayed (diagnosis delay). Consultation time was the time taken to visit the general practitioner after the first symptoms. Retrospective preclinical and clinical data were collected on a form (questionnaire) during an interview with each patient and from medical records. Results The median of diagnosis time was 7.5 months. Only 30.0% of patients were diagnosed within 3 months after symptoms. 14% of patients were diagnosed within 3–6 months and 56% within a period longer than 6 months. A number of factors predicted diagnosis delay: Symptoms were not considered serious in 27% of patients. Alternative therapy (therapy not associated with cancer) was applied in 13.0% of the patients. Fear and shame prevented the visit to the doctor in 10% and 4.5% of patients, respectively. Inappropriate reassurance that the lump was benign was an important reason for prolongation of the diagnosis time. Diagnosis delay was associated with initial breast symptom(s) that did not include a lump (p?0.0001), with women who did not report monthly self examination (p?0.0001), with old age (p?=?0.004), with illiteracy (p?=?0.009), with history of benign fibrocystic disease (p?=?0.029) and with women who had used oral contraceptive pills longer than 5 years (p?=?0.043). At the time of diagnosis, the clinical stage distribution was as follows: 9.0% stage I, 25.5% stage II, 54.0% stage III and 11.5% stage IV. Diagnosis delay was associated with bigger tumour size (p <0.0001), with positive lymph nodes (N2, N3; p?0.0001), with high incidence of late clinical stages (p?0.0001), and with metastatic disease (p?0.0001). Conclusions Diagnosis delay is very serious problem in Libya. Diagnosis delay was associated with complex interactions between several factors and with advanced stages. There is a need for improving breastcancer awareness and training of general practitioners to reduce breastcancer mortality by promoting early detection. The treatment guidelines should pay more attention to the early phases of breastcancer. Especially, guidelines for good practices in managing detectable of tumors are necessary.
In the early 1990s, breastcancer advocates petitioned the United States Congress to investigate the high rates of breastcancer on Long Island in the state of New York. The resulting law led to the Long Island BreastCancer Study Project (LIBCSP) — more than ten research projects designed to study the possible causes of this increased incidence of cancer.
Breastcancer is the most common form of cancer and the principal cause of death from cancer among women worldwide. Risk factors for breastcancer are manifold. Certain risk factors, such as age and family history are well established. Research in the past decade has further elucidated disease aetiology, in particular the role of hormones and the discovery of breast
Breastcancer is the most common female malignancy and it frequently metastasizes to bone. Metastatic breastcancer continues to be the primary cause of death for women in East and Southeast Asia. Psoralen is a furocoumarin that can be isolated from the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia L. Psoralen exhibits a wide range of biological properties and has been demonstrated as an antioxidant, antidepressant, anticancer, antibacterial, and antiviral agent. Additionally, it is involved in the formation and regulation of bone. This study investigated whether psoralen can inhibit metastasis of breastcancer to bone in vivo. Histological, molecular biological, and imaging analyses revealed that psoralen inhibits bone metastases in mice. Psoralen may function to inhibit breastcancer cell growth in the bone microenvironment and regulate the function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in tumor-bearing mice. The results of this study suggest that psoralen is a bone-modifying agent and a potential therapeutic to treat patients with bone metastases. PMID:24060909
SummaryBreastcancer is increasing in developing countries, and Colombia has a double burden from cervical and breastcancer. Suitable guidelines for breastcancer early detection are needed, and the Breast Health Global Initiative provides a favorable framework for breastcancer control in low resource nations. The Colombian National Cancer Institute developed evidence-based guidelines for breastcancer early detection in which
Raúl Murillo; Sandra Díaz; Oswaldo Sánchez; Fernando Perry; Marion Piñeros; César Poveda; Edgar Salguero; Dimelza Osorio
Many publications deal with the impact of cosmetic breast implants to increase the breastcancer occurence or to delay its diagnosis. We first try to express the clinical and radiological differences in the implanted breast. The diagnostical and therapeutical difficulties were developped to the different technics of imagery, biopsy and specific management of the treatment. On one hand, the litterature revue does not show any significant difference in tumoral stage and nodal status between augmented and nonaugmented women eventhough the mammography sensibility is not as optimal. On the other hand, the global mortality of the augmented population is higher but it appears that this phenomenon could be link to their way of life and is totally independant of breastcancer. Finally, if the diagnosis and the treatment are more complex, the women survival is not altered by breast augmented surgery. PMID:16169139
Breastcancer is the second commonest malignancy affecting half a million women worldwide each year. Dyslipidaemia can affect cell integrity in patients of breastcancer. The aim of this study was to find out status of lipid profile in patients of breastcancer in rural area. A hospital-based randomised case control study was done among 50 consented women with histologically diagnosed breastcancer and 50 control normal healthy women from same age group. Their fasting blood samples were analysed for serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The study showed significant increase in serum triglycerides (p = 0.06) in breastcancer patients as compared to controls. Significant decreased levels of total cholesterol (p = 0.043) and HDL cholesterol levels (p = 0.036) were observed in breastcancer patients compared to control group. The study has been come up with altered pattern of lipid profile in breastcancer. The reason for hypocholesterolaemia may be due to its increased utilisation by neoplastic cells for new membrane biogenesis. PMID:23785924
Asegaonkar, Shilpa; Chaudhari, S C; Bardapurkar, J S
Male breastcancer is an uncommon disease accounting for only 1% of all breastcancers. We present the evaluation, treatment and outcome of male patients seen with breastcancer in our institution. Male patients that had histological diagnosis of breastcancer from 2001 to 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. After evaluation patients were treated with modified radical mastectomy. Combination chemotherapy was given to patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. Radiotherapy and hormonal therapy were also employed. There were 57 male patients with breastcancer which accounted for 9% of all breastcancers seen during the study period. Their mean age was 59 ± 2.3 years. The mean tumor diameter was 13 ± 2.5?cm. Fifty three (93%) patients presented with advanced disease including 15 with distant metastasis. Four patients with stage II disease were treated with modified radical mastectomy, chemotherapy and tamoxifen. Of the 30 patients with sage III disease that had modified radical mastectomy, complete axillary clearance and tumor free margins were achieved in 25. Overall 21 (36.8%) patients were tumor free at one year. Overall 5-year survival was 22.8%. In conclusion, male patients with breastcancer present with advanced disease which is associated with poor outcome of treatment.
The purpose of this project is to enhance the value of the California Cancer Registry as a research tool for clinicians and epidemiologists interested in conducting breastcancer research. The objectives of the project are to: (1) classify breastcancers ...
Breastcancer is the most common cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer death among women 35-54 years of age. Rising incidence, increased risk among migrants to higher risk regions, and poor prediction of individual risk have prompted a search for additional modifiable factors. Risk factors for breastcancer include reproductive characteristics associated with estrogen and other hormones, pharmaceutical hormones, and activities such as alcohol use and lack of exercise that affect hormone levels. As a result, investigation of hormonally active compounds in commercial products and pollution is a priority. Compounds that cause mammary tumors in animals are additional priorities. Animal models provide insight into possible mechanisms for effects of environmental pollutants on breastcancer and identify chemical exposures to target in epidemiologic studies. Although few epidemiologic studies have been conducted for chemical exposures, occupational studies show associations between breastcancer and exposure to certain organic solvents and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Population-based studies have been limited to a few organochlorine compounds and PAHs and have been mostly negative. A variety of challenges in studies of breastcancer and the environment may have contributed to negative findings. Lack of exposure assessment tools and few hypothesis-generating toxicologic studies limit the scope of epidemiologic studies. Issues of timing with respect to latency and periods of breast vulnerability, and individual differences in susceptibility pose other challenges. Substantial work is needed in exposure assessment, toxicology, and susceptibility before we can expect a pay-off from large epidemiologic studies of breastcancer and environment.
ABSTRACT: Breastcancer is a heterogeneous disease. Patient outcome varies significantly, depending on prognostic features of patients and their tumors, including patient age, menopausal status, tumor size and histology, nodal status, and so on. Response to treatment also depends on a series of predictive factors, such as hormone receptor and HER2 status. Current treatment guidelines use these features to determine
David I Rodenhiser; Joseph D Andrews; Theodore A Vandenberg; Ann F Chambers
Determining the risk that a particular area of hyperplastic breast tissue will progress to cancer is difficult and is currently expressed only as a general risk factor within the population. Using an antibody against the apoptotic purinergic receptor P2X7, we examined 40 cases each of the following histological categories: normal, moderate, florid and atypical hyperplasia, lobular carcinoma in situ, ductal
Michael Slater; Suzanne Danieletto; Margaret Pooley; Liew Cheng Teh; Angus Gidley-Baird; Julian A. Barden
The goal of this study is to determine whether the occurrence of AI/LOH in the DNA of histologically normal epithelium from noncancerous breasts predicts future breastcancer development. If so, then AI/LOH would be an excellent candidate molecular marker...
Early detection of metastasis-prone breastcancers and characterization of residual metastatic cancers are important in efforts to improve management of breastcancer. Applications of genome-scale molecular analysis technologies are making these complementary approaches possible by revealing molecular features uniquely associated with metastatic disease. Assays that reveal these molecular features will facilitate development of anatomic, histological and blood-based strategies that may enable detection prior to metastatic spread. Knowledge of these features also will guide development of therapeutic strategies that can be applied when metastatic disease burden is low, thereby increasing the probability of a curative response.
Purpose Accurate, individualized risk prediction for breastcancer is lacking. Tissue-based features may help to stratify women into different risk levels. Breast lobules are the anatomic sites of origin of breastcancer. As women age, these lobular structures should regress, which results in reduced breastcancer risk. However, this does not occur in all women. Methods We have quantified the extent of lobule regression on a benign breast biopsy in 85 patients who developed breastcancer and 142 age-matched controls from the Mayo Benign Breast Disease Cohort, by determining number of acini per lobule and lobular area. We also calculated Gail model 5-year predicted risks for these women. Results There is a step-wise increase in breastcancer risk with increasing numbers of acini per lobule (P = .0004). Adjusting for Gail model score, parity, histology, and family history did not attenuate this association. Lobular area was similarly associated with risk. The Gail model estimates were associated with risk of breastcancer (P = .03). We examined the individual accuracy of these measures using the concordance (c) statistic. The Gail model c statistic was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.50 to 0.70); the acinar count c statistic was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.54 to 0.75). Combining acinar count and lobular area, the c statistic was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.78). Adding the Gail model to these measures did not improve the c statistic. Conclusion Novel, tissue-based features that reflect the status of a woman's normal breast lobules are associated with breastcancer risk. These features may offer a novel strategy for risk prediction.
McKian, Kevin P.; Reynolds, Carol A.; Visscher, Daniel W.; Nassar, Aziza; Radisky, Derek C.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Degnim, Amy C.; Boughey, Judy C.; Ghosh, Karthik; Anderson, Stephanie S.; Minot, Douglas; Caudill, Jill L.; Vachon, Celine M.; Frost, Marlene H.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Hartmann, Lynn C.
Purpose we evaluated whether patients with multifocal\\/multicentric (M\\/M) breastcancer have different outcomes compared to unifocal\\u000a (U) disease in terms of survival and the development of contralateral breastcancer (CBC) disease. Methods women diagnosed with stage I–III breastcancer were classified as having U or M\\/M disease. Prognostic factors were prospectively\\u000a collected and obtained from the breastcancer outcome unit
Rinat Yerushalmi; Hagen Kennecke; Ryan Woods; Ivo A. Olivotto; Caroline Speers; Karen A. Gelmon
Male breastcancer has always been shadowed by the attention received by its other half of the coin; female breastcancer. It is widely known to be 1% of all breastcancer, constituting also about 1% of all breastcancer literature. As a rare disease, it is fortunate that its female counterpart has provided it with the wealth of knowledge
Marcus W. L. Ying; Amit Agrawal; Kwok-Leung Cheung
Recent studies have suggested that bone mineral density (BMD) is related to risk of breastcancer in elderly women. This study investigated whether the level of breastcancer risk associated with BMD in women with a positive family history of breastcancer is different from that in women without a family history of breastcancer. Radial and calcaneus BMD were
Frances Leslie Lucas; Jane A. Cauley; Roslyn A. Stone; Steven R. Cummings; Molly T. Vogt
Aims To investigate the impact of the national breastcancer screening programme, BreastScreen Aotearoa, on breastcancer registrations in New Zealand. Methods Age-specific breastcancer incidence rates for women aged 50-64 years were compared before and after the establishment of BreastScreen Aotearoa. The degree of spread of breastcancers diagnosed at screening was compared with the degree of spread of
Ann Richardson; Brian Cox; Thelma Brown; Paul Smale
Objective:Although clinical reports have raised concern that breast implants may either increase the risk of breastcancer or delay its diagnosis, epidemiologic studies have generally shown implant recipients to be at a reduced risk of subsequent breastcancer. A large retrospective cohort study was undertaken to clarify effects of cosmetic breast implantation.
Louise A. Brinton; Jay H. Lubin; Mary Cay Burich; Theodore Colton; S. Lori Brown; Robert N. Hoover
Early breastcancer incidence increases owing to mammography screening. Hypofractionated radiotherapy is more and more proposed in women with low local relapse risk breastcancer, especially accelerated partial breast irradiation. Various irradiation modalities have been reported: brachytherapy, intraoperative irradiation, 3D-conformal accelerated partial breast irradiation. We describe limitations of intraoperative irradiation and the advantages of alternative techniques. PMID:21795091
Bourgier, C; Heymann, S; Verstraet, R; Biron, B; Marsiglia, H
Breastcancer remains the most leading cause of death among women worldwide. Common methods for diagnosis and surveillance include mammography, histopathology and blood tests. The major drawback of mammography is the high rate of false reports, aside from the risk from repeated exposure to harmful ionizing radiations; histopathology is time consuming and often prone to subjective interpretations; blood-based tests are attractive, but lack the sensitivity and specificity. Obviously, more sensitive biomarkers for early detection and molecular targets for better treating breastcancer are urgently needed. Fortunately, molecular level 'omics' diagnosis is becoming increasingly popular; metabolomics, diagnosis based on 'metabolic fingerprinting' may provide clinically useful biomarkers applied toward identifying metabolic alterations and has introduced new insights into the pathology of breastcancer. By applying advanced analytical and statistical tools, metabolomics involves the comprehensive profiling of the full complement of low molecular weight compounds in a biological system and could classify the basis of tumor biology of breastcancer, to identify new prognostic and predictive markers and discover new targets for future therapeutic interventions. This advanced bioanalytic methods may now open new avenues for diagnostics in cancer via discovery of biomarkers. In this review we take a closer look at the metabolomics used within the field of breastcancer diagnosis. Further, we highlight the most interesting metabolomics publications and discuss these in detail; additional studies are mentioned as a reference for the interested reader. A general trend is an increased focus on biological interpretation rather than merely the ability to classify samples. PMID:23669185
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Mutations in BRCA2 are responsible for about 35% of familial breastcancers and also a proportion of familial ovarian cancers. Both BRCA2 and BRCA1 proteins were shown to have transcriptional activation domains and also shown to be associated with RNA pol...
... and Cancer Hazard Assessment Branch, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency While we have learned a lot about breastcancer and what increases risk, there are still many questions. New ... the nation to improve health. Established in 1970 under the charter of the ...
The nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database was used to analyse the risk of cancer among the offspring of bilateral breastcancer patients. We studied 4,734 such mothers who had 9,391 offspring, of whom 328 presented with a primary cancer in the years 1958-1996. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were increased for breast [SIR 3.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.57-3.59], ovarian (SIR 1.84, 95% CI 1.03-3.05) and anogenital (SIR 1.75, 95% CI 1.11-2.63) cancers and childhood sarcomas (SIR 9.39, 95% CI 1.93-29.13). Additionally, squamous-cell skin cancer was increased among sons and all childhood cancers among daughters. When analysed by histological type, adenocarcinomas of the breast and ovary, all squamous-cell carcinomas and tumours at glandular epithelium (seminomas and intestinal carcinoids) were increased. Mothers with bilateral breastcancer had an excess of 2 or more children with cancer. The increased risk of ovarian cancer is consistent with germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, while the risk of soft tissue and bone sarcomas may reflect the association of these tumours with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. The increases in squamous-cell carcinomas at many sites may reflect a new susceptibility syndrome. PMID:10962444
Obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with increased breastcancer risk, development of more aggressive tumors and resistance to certain anti-breastcancer treatments. These effects might be mediated by obesity hormone leptin. Here we investigated...
An increase in breastcancer incidence among younger women has been observed, thus many young breastcancer patients are faced with questions concerning their reproductive futures. At present it is unclear whether attempting childbearing may increase thes...
Goals met during the first funding period of this grant include developing methodologies to measure cellular polyphosphosphate concentrations in breastcancer cells and the preparation of breastcancer cell lines with altered levels of polyphosphate. Spec...
The goal of this Training Program is to direct talented undergraduates into careers in breastcancer research. The program, called BreastCancer Undergraduate Research Experience (BCURE), is a joint program between The University of Maryland Baltimore Cou...
The goal of this Training Program is to direct talented undergraduates into careers in breastcancer research. The program, called BreastCancer Undergraduate Research Experience (BCURE), is a joint program between The University of Maryland Baltimore Cou...
... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH BreastCancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... hormone therapy does not increase the risk of breastcancer in postmenopausal women, according to an updated analysis ...
... Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Abortion, Miscarriage, and BreastCancer Risk Introduction A woman’s hormone levels normally change ... that may influence a woman’s chances of developing breastcancer later in life. As a result, over several ...
Environmental Factors Affecting BreastCancer Susceptibility Suzanne. E. Fenton US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. Breastcancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...
... in men survival rates, by stage How is breastcancer in men staged? Staging is the process of ... example, the lungs or bones. T categories for breastcancer TX: Primary tumor cannot be assessed. T0: No ...
There is increasing evidence that breastcancers are driven by a small subcomponent that displays stem cell properties. We hypothesize that these breastcancer stem cells are resistant to chemotherapy and may contribute to tumor relapse. In order to provi...
The purpose of the BreastCancer Research Training Program is to recruit and train potential future researchers in breastcancer research. During the 3-year grant, we recruited 75 applicants to the program, interviewed 22 candidates, and hired 15 students...
The purpose of the breastcancer research-training program is to recruit and train potential future researchers in breastcancer research. We recruited 15 individuals, interviewed eight, and chose five for the program. During the 12-week program, trainees...
While the relevance of estrogen to established breastcancer is well documented, the role of estrogen in breastcancer initiation is still unclear. The carcinogenic effect of estrogen is mediated by its genotoxic metabolites. We hypothesized that increase...
Angiogenesis, formation of new blood vessels, plays a key role in breastcancer growth by providing a method for hematogenous spread of the tumor, as well as providing nutrients for tumor metastasis. Rational treatment strategies for breastcancer must ta...
Angiogenesis, formation of new blood vessels, plays a key role in breastcancer growth by providing a method for hematogenous spread of the tumor, as well as providing nutrients for tumor metastasis. Rational treatment strategies for breastcancer must ta...
Prognostic factors are clinical and pathological features that give information in estimating the likely clinical outcome of an individual suffering from cancer. The author gives a short review of the most important prognostic factors in breastcancer. 376 breastcancer cases of a ten year interval in a county hospital are summarized. Traditional clinico-pathological parameters i.e. TNM and steroid receptor status are discussed. The more common karyotipic, oncogene and tumor suppressor gene alterations are outlined in the study. Methods for their detection are presented and their value in prognostication is reviewed. Emphasis was laid on steroid receptors, c-erpB-2, p53 and bcl-2 alterations. Genes responsible for heritable forms of increased breastcancer risk are briefly reviewed. PMID:9608769
SummaryBackground: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic features of male breastcancer. Case Report: We present the clinicopathologic data of a 72year-old male patient with occult breastcancer, who was diagnosed and underwent surgery in our hospital. The diagnosis was confirmed by histological examination, and the patient underwent modified radical mastectomy and axillary dissection. The histological
Guo-Li Gu; Shi-Lin Wang; Xue-Ming Wei; Li Ren; Fu-Xian Zou
Background Several gene sets for prediction of breastcancer survival have been derived from whole-genome mRNA expression profiles. Here, we develop a statistical framework to explore whether combination of the information from such sets may improve prediction of recurrence and breastcancer specific death in early-stage breastcancers. Microarray data from two clinically similar cohorts of breastcancer patients are used as training (n?=?123) and test set (n?=?81), respectively. Gene sets from eleven previously published gene signatures are included in the study. Principal Findings To investigate the relationship between breastcancer survival and gene expression on a particular gene set, a Cox proportional hazards model is applied using partial likelihood regression with an L2 penalty to avoid overfitting and using cross-validation to determine the penalty weight. The fitted models are applied to an independent test set to obtain a predicted risk for each individual and each gene set. Hierarchical clustering of the test individuals on the basis of the vector of predicted risks results in two clusters with distinct clinical characteristics in terms of the distribution of molecular subtypes, ER, PR status, TP53 mutation status and histological grade category, and associated with significantly different survival probabilities (recurrence: p?=?0.005; breastcancer death: p?=?0.014). Finally, principal components analysis of the gene signatures is used to derive combined predictors used to fit a new Cox model. This model classifies test individuals into two risk groups with distinct survival characteristics (recurrence: p?=?0.003; breastcancer death: p?=?0.001). The latter classifier outperforms all the individual gene signatures, as well as Cox models based on traditional clinical parameters and the Adjuvant! Online for survival prediction. Conclusion Combining the predictive strength of multiple gene signatures improves prediction of breastcancer survival. The presented methodology is broadly applicable to breastcancer risk assessment using any new identified gene set.
Zhao, Xi; Naume, Bj?rn; Langer?d, Anita; Frigessi, Arnoldo; Kristensen, Vessela N.; B?rresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Lingjaerde, Ole Christian
The successful demonstration that the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) tamoxifen and raloxifene reduce the risk\\u000a of breastcancer has stimulated great interest in using drugs to prevent breastcancer in high-risk women. In addition, recent\\u000a results from breastcancer treatment trials suggest that aromatase inhibitors may be even more effective at preventing breast\\u000a cancer than are SERMs. However, while
Locally advanced or metastatic breastcancer is typically treated with chemotherapy. Multiple combinations of chemotherapy regimens are available, including anthracyclines, taxanes, antimetabolites, alkylating agents, platinum drugs and vinca alkaloids. This review discusses the pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenomic information available for commonly used breastcancer chemotherapy drugs. Pharmacogenomic associations for many drugs have yet to be identified or validated in breastcancer. Further work is needed to identify markers to screen breastcancer patients prior to therapy selection. PMID:19100797
Introduction Median survival from metastatic breastcancer is 12 months without treatment, but young people can survive up to 20 years with the disease, whereas in other metastatic cancers this would be considered unusual. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of first-line hormonal treatment? What are the effects of second-line hormonal treatment in women who have not responded to tamoxifen? What are the effects of first-line chemotherapy? What are the effects of first-line chemotherapy in combination with a monoclonal antibody? What are the effects of second-line chemotherapy? What are the effects of treatments for bone metastases? What are the effects of treatments for spinal cord metastases? What are the effects of treatments for cerebral or choroidal metastases? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to June 2006 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 63 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: anthracycline-based non-taxane combination chemotherapy regimens; bisphosphonates; capecitabine or semisynthetic vinca alkaloids for anthracycline-resistant disease; chemotherapy plus monoclonal antibody (trastuzumab); classical non-taxane combination chemotherapy; combined gonadorelin analogues plus tamoxifen; hormonal treatment with antioestrogens (tamoxifen) or progestins; intrathecal chemotherapy; non-anthracycline-based regimens; non-taxane combination chemotherapy; ovarian ablation; radiation sensitisers; radiotherapy (alone, or plus appropriate analgesia, or plus high-dose corticosteroids); selective aromatase inhibitors; chemotherapy (standard, or high dose); surgical resection; tamoxifen; and taxane-based combination chemotherapy.
The BreastCancer Collaborative Registry (BCCR) is a multicenter web-based system that efficiently collects and manages a variety of data on breastcancer (BC) patients and BC survivors. This registry is designed as a multi-tier web application that utilizes Java Servlet/JSP technology and has an Oracle 11g database as a back-end. The BCCR questionnaire has accommodated standards accepted in breastcancer research and healthcare. By harmonizing the controlled vocabulary with the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) or Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT), the BCCR provides a standardized approach to data collection and reporting. The BCCR has been recently certified by the National Cancer Institute's Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology (NCI CBIIT) as a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG(®)) Bronze Compatible product.The BCCR is aimed at facilitating rapid and uniform collection of critical information and biological samples to be used in developing diagnostic, prevention, treatment, and survivorship strategies against breastcancer. Currently, seven cancer institutions are participating in the BCCR that contains data on almost 900 subjects (BC patients and survivors, as well as individuals at high risk of getting BC). PMID:21918596
The BreastCancer Collaborative Registry (BCCR) is a multicenter web-based system that efficiently collects and manages a variety of data on breastcancer (BC) patients and BC survivors. This registry is designed as a multi-tier web application that utilizes Java Servlet/JSP technology and has an Oracle 11g database as a back-end. The BCCR questionnaire has accommodated standards accepted in breastcancer research and healthcare. By harmonizing the controlled vocabulary with the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) or Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT), the BCCR provides a standardized approach to data collection and reporting. The BCCR has been recently certified by the National Cancer Institute’s Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology (NCI CBIIT) as a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) Bronze Compatible product. The BCCR is aimed at facilitating rapid and uniform collection of critical information and biological samples to be used in developing diagnostic, prevention, treatment, and survivorship strategies against breastcancer. Currently, seven cancer institutions are participating in the BCCR that contains data on almost 900 subjects (BC patients and survivors, as well as individuals at high risk of getting BC).
Personalized medicine in the sense of individualized therapy concepts plays an important role in breastcancer. In early breastcancer the molecular subtypes luminal A and B and basal-like are important for planning adjuvant systemic therapy. Prognostic and predictive markers, such as hormone receptor status, HER2, Ki-67, uPA/PAI-1 or multiple gene tests, such as Oncotype DX® currently allow avoidance of an over therapy or under therapy. In early and also advanced breastcancer there are an increasing number of new targeted therapies which represent an augmentation of standard endocrine and chemotherapy and in the future could at least partially replace them. As a whole the therapy regimens for breastcancer have become more complex due to the inclusion of molecular information, new therapies and the withdrawal of conventional treatment concepts. Decisive for the future will be the confirmation of this development by modern study concepts contemporarily with adequate evidence. It could then be expected that a personalized therapy for early breastcancer and in particular adjuvant chemotherapy would only be used for those patients for whom it is really necessary. In advanced stage disease there is justified hope that the survival time in the sense of a chronic disease can be improved by the use of targeted therapy. PMID:23371261
BACKGROUND: Breastcancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States. Although the incidence of breastcancer is 13% higher in white women, mortality in black women is 28% higher, due to histological and socioeconomic factors. Existing research regarding racial differences in compliance with breastcancer screening recommendations has found conflicting results. METHODS: Data on more than 4,500 women were taken from the 1992 National Health Interview Survey, a nationally representative, population-based sample survey. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relative odds of knowledge of breast self-exam (BSE) and mammograms, and compliance with BSE, clinical breast exams (CBE), and mammograms. RESULTS: Black women were less likely than white women to be aware of and use breastcancer screening tests. However, among women who were aware of screening tests, compliance was higher among black women. Women with low educational attainment, low cancer knowledge, and no usual source of care were less likely to be CBE or mammogram compliant. Socioeconomic differences were larger for the two clinical tests than for BSE. CONCLUSIONS: Programs should inform women about cancer screening tests and remove barriers that hinder women from receiving clinical screening exams.
Harris, Dawne M.; Miller, Jane E.; Davis, Diane M.
Male breastcancer arising in ectopic axillary breast tissue is a rare occurrence and few cases have been reported in the literature. Due to its rarity, male axillary breastcancer is easy to misdiagnose. As for adenocarcinoma in the axilla, it is difficult to identify whether the origin is the mammary tissue or the skin appendages, particularly in cases where there is a poor differentiation. The present study reports the case of a male patient with a right axillary lesion that had been present for 6 months. A histological evaluation revealed the features of a poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma with regards to the pathological report. The patient was diagnosed with a metastatic adenocarcinoma with unknown primary origin. However, following 4 cycles of intensive chemotherapy, the patient experienced bone metastasis while the local lesion was in partial remission. Further immunohistochemistry confirmed its mammary origin. There is limited literature relating to male ectopic axillary breastcancer, and a high probability of misdiagnosis of this disease.
This article illustrates the most common benign and malignant lesions in the breast, and is intended for the biologist working in the area of breastcancer and breast biology, not for the practicing pathologist. The atlas covers benign proliferative lesions, atypical lesions, variants of in situ cancer, the main types of invasive cancers, spindle cell lesions, and examples of vascular
Elizabeth Mallon; Pinchas Osin; Nasar Nasiri; Iain Blain; Beatrice Howard; Barry Gusterson
Women who are members of breastcancer families are at increased risk for breastcancer. The cloning of BRCA1 and BRCA2 has made it possible to identify mutation carriers within some of these families. Management of breastcancer risk in these families, which presents enormous challenges to patients and clinicians, is addressed. Management should begin with a full evaluation of
A renewal of the search for a link between breastcancer and thyroid disease has once again demonstrated an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with breastcancer. This is the most recent of many studies showing an association between a variety of thyroid disorders and breastcancer. Such an association is not surprising as both diseases are
The mortality and incidence of breastcancer are high in Western industrialized countries and relatively low in developing countries in Asia and other parts of the world. In Japan the mortality of breastcancer has gradually been increasing, but is still much lower compared with that of Western countries. Within Japan the mortality of breastcancer is higher in urban
Breastcancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the most common cancer in females accounting to 23% of all cases. Between January 1998 and December 2004–2004, 6,882 cases were reported from all GCC states accounting to 11.8% from all cancers and 22.7% from cancers in females. An ASR/100,000 woman was 46.4 from Bahrain, 44.3 from Kuwait, 35.5 from Qatar, 19.2 from UAE, 14.2 from Oman and 12.9 from KSA. Breastcancer is the most frequent cancer in Arab women constituting 14–42% of all women cancers. Breastcancer in Arab countries presents almost 10 yrs younger than in USA and Europe. Median age at presentation is 48–52 and 50% of all cases are below the age of 50 where as only 25% of cases in industrialized nations are below the age of 50 yrs. What we need to fight this deadly disease is opening of screening centers with trained physicians equipped with ultrasound, x-ray unit, a pathology lab and most of all a system where a patient is seen urgently on referral to a secondary level care. Health education campaigns should be organized, female medical students should be encouraged to be general surgeons in a community where social customs still have value.
To evaluate further the relationship between high-dose radiotherapy and leukemia incidence, a nested case-control study was conducted in a cohort of 22,753 women who were 18-month survivors of invasive breastcancer diagnosed from 1935 to 1972. Women treated for breastcancer after 1973 were excluded to minimize the possible confounding influence of treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. The cases had histologically confirmed leukemia reported to the Connecticut Tumor Registry (CTR) between 1935 and 1984. A total of 48 cases of leukemia following breastcancer were included in the study. Two controls were individually matched to each leukemia case on the basis of age, calendar year when diagnosed with breastcancer, and survival time. Leukemia diagnoses were verified by one hematologist. Radiation dose to active bone marrow was estimated by medical physicists on the basis of the original radiotherapy records of study subjects. Local radiation doses to each of the 16 bone marrow components for each patient were reconstructed; the dose averaged over the entire body was 530 rad (5.3 Gy). Based on this dosage and assuming a linear relationship between dose and affect, a relative risk (RR) in excess of 10 would have been expected. However, there was little evidence that radiotherapy increased the overall risk of leukemia (RR = 1.16; 90% confidence interval (CI), 0.6 to 2.1). The risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, one of the few malignancies without evidence for an association with ionizing radiation, was not significantly increased (RR = 1.8; n = 10); nor was the risk for all other forms of leukemia (RR = 1.0; n = 38). There was no indication that risk varied over categories of radiation dose.
Background The clinical significance of bilateral breastcancer is unclear and its influence on prognosis is controversial. We assessed\\u000a the impact of synchronous and metachronous bilateral breastcancer on the prognosis compared with unilateral breastcancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Between January 1, 1960 and December 31, 2001, 1,214 women were treated for primary operable breastcancers. Thirteen (1.1%)\\u000a had synchronous bilateral breastcancer; 33
\\u000a Breast carcinoma develops in an environment of genetic alterations (a sick lobe) within the breast and already exhibits a\\u000a complex subgross morphology in the early stages of development in many cases. The conventional histology sampling technique\\u000a applied in most laboratories today is insufficient to document this complexity in operative breast specimens. This has necessitated\\u000a the special approach of using large-format
A method, apparatus and a lifelike model of a human female breast form a breastcancer detection training system. The model closely simulates the feeding of the different tissues of the human breast and except for a tumor-free comparison model, contains at least one simulated tumor. When used in conjunction with the electronic training apparatus, the model also contains a pressure sensing means. The apparatus and method compare signals initiated by the trainee with stored signals representative of the number of simulated tumors in the model, their location, and the pressure required to feel them and provide feedback information to the trainee so as to improve the trainee's examination technique.
Cancer is intimately related to the accumulation of DNA damage, and repair failures (including mutation prone repair and hyperactive repair systems). This article relates current clinical categories for breastcancer and their common DNA damage repair defects. Information is included on the potential for accumulation of DNA damage in the breast tissue of a woman during her lifetime and the role of DNA damage in breastcancer development. We then cover endogenous and exogenous sources of DNA damage, types of DNA damage repair and basic signal transduction pathways for three gene products involved in the DNA damage response system; namely BRCA1, BRIT1 and PARP-1. These genes are often considered tumor suppressors because of their roles in DNA damage response and some are under clinical investigation as likely sources for effective new drugs to treat breastcancers. Finally we discuss some of the problems of DNA damage repair systems in cancer and the conundrum of hyper-active repair systems which can introduce mutations and confer a survival advantage to certain types of cancer cells.
The case for tamoxifen to be tested as a preventive for breastcancer has merit. Animal studies demonstrate that tamoxifen prevents mammary carcinogenesis and clinical studies now confirm that adjuvant tamoxifen therapy is the only systemic treatment that will prevent contralateral breastcancer. Developing clinical studies confirm the laboratory data that tamoxifen will maintain post-menopausal bone density in the lumbar spine and the neck of the femur; two important skeletal sites for the ultimate prevention of osteoporosis. However, a most important target site-specific effect of tamoxifen is the decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women. This positive property of tamoxifen may be responsible for the recorded decreases in hospital visits for the treatment of cardiac conditions and the significant decrease in fatal myocardial infarction for women treated with 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen. These data provide the scientific basis to undertake randomized, placebocontrolled clinical trials to test the worth of tamoxifen to prevent breastcancer.
Jordan, V.C. [Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States)
Tamoxifen is a central component of the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breastcancer as a partial agonist of ER. It has been clinically used for the last 30 years and is currently available as a chemopreventive agent in women with high risk for breastcancer. The most challenging issue with tamoxifen use is the development of resistance in an initially responsive breast tumor. This review summarizes the roles of ER as the therapeutic target of tamoxifen in cancer treatment, clinical values and issues of tamoxifen use, and molecular mechanisms of tamoxifen resistance. Emerging knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of tamoxifen resistance will provide insight into the design of regimens to overcome tamoxifen resistance and discovery of novel therapeutic agents with a decreased chance of developing resistance as well as establishing more efficient treatment strategies.
The bone is the most common site to which breastcancer metastasises. Recently, denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds to receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) has been developed as a new targeted bone therapy. In a large randomized phase III study with a head-to-head comparison of denosumab to zoledronic acid in patients with bone metastases of breastcancer, denosumab significantly delayed the time to first skeletal related event. In the adjuvant setting denosumab significantly increased bone mineral density compared to placebo in a phase III study in patients treated with aromatase inhibitors. Preclinical data suggest an effect of denosumab on tumour growth and even on carcinogenesis. This review describes the current indications for denosumab in the various settings of breastcancer treatment, with special attention for efficacy, short and long term toxicity and other relevant issues for clinical practice. Furthermore possible and necessary future research questions are proposed. PMID:23545361
Drooger, Jan C; van der Padt, Annemieke; Sleijfer, Stefan; Jager, Agnes
Background: Tamoxifen is effective in treating breastcancer, reduces breastcancer incidence among high-risk women, and is associated with increased endometrial cancer risk. This study was designed to examine the possible modifying effects of endometrial cancer risk factors on the tamoxifen- endometrial cancer association. Methods: We conducted a case-control study of endometrial cancer (324 case patients and 671 individually matched
Leslie Bernstein; Dennis Deapen; James R. Cerhan; Stephen M. Schwartz; Jonathan Liff; Jeffrey A. Perlman; Leslie Ford
Breastcancer patient advocacy groups emerged in the 1990s to support and empower women with breastcancer. Women with cancer and oncologists tend to have divergent perspectives on how breastcancer prevention should be defined and what the priorities for research should be. As their American counterparts have done, breastcancer patient advocates in Canada are seeking greater participation in decision making with respect to research. To date they have had more input into research policy decisions than into the planning of specific projects. In 1993 the National Forum on BreastCancer recommended that women with breastcancer should have more input into the research process; breastcancer patient advocates will continue to actively pursue this objective.
Mammographic density (MD), representing connective and epithelial tissue (fibroglandular tissue, FGT) is a major risk factor for breastcancer. In an analysis of an autopsy series (Bartow SA, Pathak DR, Mettler FA. Radiographic microcalcification and parenchymal patterns as indicators of histologic "high-risk" benign breast disease. Cancer 1990; 66: 1721-1725, Bartow SA, Pathak DR, Mettler FA et al. Breast mammographic pattern: a concatenation of confounding and breastcancer risk factors. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 142: 813-819), MD was found to be strongly correlated with the collagen and epithelial content of the breast (Li T, Sun L, Miller N et al. The association of measured breast tissue characteristics with MD and other risk factors for breastcancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14: 343-349), and another report showed that breast epithelium was highly concentrated in the areas of collagen concentration (Hawes D, Downey S, Pearce CL et al. Dense breast stromal tissue shows greatly increased concentration of breast epithelium but no increase in its proliferative activity. BreastCancer Res 2006; 8: R24). Collagen comprises the overwhelming majority of the FGT, occupying an area on the slides obtained from the autopsy series some 15 times the area of glandular tissue. The relationship of MD with breastcancer risk appears likely to be due to a major extent to increasing epithelial cell numbers with increasing MD. FGT is also seen in breast magnetic resonance imaging (breast MRI) and, as expected, it has been shown that this measure of FGT (MRI-FGT) is highly correlated with MD. A contrast-enhanced breast MRI shows that normal FGT 'enhances' (background parenchymal enhancement, BPE) after contrast agent is administered(Morris EA. Diagnostic breast MR imaging: current status and future directions. Radiol Clin North Am 2007; 45: 863-880, vii., Kuhl C. The current status of breast MR imaging. Part I. Choice of technique, image interpretation, diagnostic accuracy, and transfer to clinical practice. Radiology 2007; 244: 356-378), and a recent study suggests that BPE is also a major breastcancer risk factor, possibly as important as, and independent of MD (King V, Brooks JD, Bernstein JL et al. BPE at breast MR imaging and breastcancer risk. Radiology 2011; 260: 50-60). BPE is much more sensitive to the effects of menopause and tamoxifen than is FGT (King V, Gu Y, Kaplan JB et al. Impact of menopausal status on BPE and fibroglandular tissue on breast MRI. Eur Radiol 2012; 22: 2641-2647, King V, Kaplan J, Pike MC et al. Impact of tamoxifen on amount of fibroglandular tissue, BPE, and cysts on breast MRI. Breast J 2012; 18: 527-534). Changes in MD and BPE may be most useful in predicting response to chemopreventive agents aimed at blocking breast cell proliferation. More study of the biological basis of the effects of MD and BPE is needed if we are to fully exploit these factors in developing chemopreventive approaches to breastcancer. PMID:24131968
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to describe breast tumor subtypes by common breastcancer risk factors and to determine correlates of subtypes using baseline data from two pooled prospective breastcancer studies within a large health maintenance organization. METHODS: Tumor data on 2544 invasive breastcancer cases subtyped by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor
Marilyn L Kwan; Lawrence H Kushi; Erin Weltzien; Benjamin Maring; Susan E Kutner; Regan S Fulton; Marion M Lee; Christine B Ambrosone; Bette J Caan
Background Genomic grade (GG) is a 97-gene signature which improves the accuracy and prognostic value of histological grade (HG) in invasive breast carcinoma. Since most of the genes included in the GG are involved in cell proliferation, we performed a retrospective study to compare the prognostic value of GG, Mitotic Index and Ki67 score. Methods A series of 163 consecutive breastcancers was retained (pT1–2, pN0, pM0, 10-yr follow-up). GG was computed using MapQuant Dx(R). Results GG was low (GG-1) in 48%, high (GG-3) in 31% and equivocal in 21% of cases. For HG-2 tumors, 50% were classified as GG-1, 18% as GG-3 whereas 31% remained equivocal. In a subgroup of 132 ER+/HER2? tumors GG was the most significant prognostic factor in multivariate Cox regression analysis adjusted for age and tumor size (HR?=?5.23, p?=?0.02). Conclusions In a reference comprehensive cancer center setting, compared to histological grade, GG added significant information on cell proliferation in breastcancers. In patients with HG-2 carcinoma, applying the GG to guide the treatment scheme could lead to a reduction in adjuvant therapy prescription. However, based on the results observed and considering (i) the relatively close prognostic values of GG and Ki67, (ii) the reclassification of about 30% of HG-2 tumors as Equivocal GG and (iii) the economical and technical requirements of the MapQuant micro-array GG test, the availability in the near future of a PCR-based Genomic Grade test with improved performances may lead to an introduction in clinical routine of this test for histological grade 2, ER positive, HER2 negative breast carcinoma.
Introduction Breastcancer affects at least 1 in 10 women in the UK, but most present with primary operable disease, which has an 80% 5-year survival rate overall. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions after breast-conserving surgery for ductal carcinoma in situ? What are the effects of treatments for primary operable breastcancer? What are the effects of interventions in locally advanced breastcancer (stage 3B)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 83 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: adding chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/fluorouracil and/or anthracycline and/or taxane-based regimens), or hormonal treatment to radiotherapy; adjuvant treatments (aromatase inhibitors, adjuvant anthracycline regimens, tamoxifen); axillary clearance; axillary dissection plus sentinel node dissection; axillary radiotherapy; axillary sampling; combined chemotherapy plus tamoxifen; chemotherapy plus monoclonal antibody (trastuzumab); extensive surgery; high-dose chemotherapy; hormonal treatment; less extensive mastectomy; less than whole-breast radiotherapy plus breast-conserving surgery; multimodal treatment; ovarian ablation; primary chemotherapy; prolonged adjuvant combination chemotherapy; radiotherapy (after breast-conserving surgery, after mastectomy, plus tamoxifen after breast-conserving surgery, to the internal mammary chain, and to the ipsilateral supraclavicular fossa, and total nodal radiotherapy); sentinel node biopsy; and standard chemotherapy regimens.
Background Correlation between circulating sex steroid levels and breastcancer has been controversial, with measurement of free, or bioavailable hormone rarely available. Salivary hormone levels represent the bioavailable fraction. To further elucidate the role of endogenous hormones in breastcancer, we aimed to assess correlation between salivary sex steroid levels and breastcancer prevalence. Methods Salivary hormone levels of testosterone (T), Estradiol (E2), Progesterone (P), Estriol (E3), Estrone (E1), DHEAS and Cortisol (C) were measured by Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) in 357 women with histologically verified breastcancer and 184 age-matched control women. Results Salivary T and DHEAS levels were significantly lower in breastcancer cases vs. controls (27.2+13.9 vs. 32.2+17.5 pg/ml, p < 0.001 for T and 5.3+4.3 vs. 6.4+4.5 ng/ml, p = 0.007 for DHEAS). E2 and E1 levels were elevated and E3 levels were lowered in cases vs. controls. Conclusions Salivary T levels, representing the bioavailable hormone, are significantly lower in women with breastcancer compared to age-matched control women. These findings support the protective role of biovailable testosterone in counteracting the proliferative effects of estrogens on mammary tissue.
Introduction Median survival from metastatic breastcancer is 12 months without treatment, but young people can survive up to 20 years with the disease, whereas in other metastatic cancers this would be considered unusual. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of first-line hormonal treatment? What are the effects of second-line hormonal treatment in women who have not responded to tamoxifen? What are the effects of first-line chemotherapy? What are the effects of first-line chemotherapy in combination with a monoclonal antibody? What are the effects of second-line chemotherapy? What are the effects of treatments for bone metastases? What are the effects of treatments for spinal cord metastases? What are the effects of treatments for cerebral or choroidal metastases? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 77 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: first-line hormonal treatment using anti-oestrogens (tamoxifen), ovarian ablation, progestins, selective aromatase inhibitors, or combined gonadorelin analogues plus tamoxifen; second-line hormonal treatment using progestins or selective aromatase inhibitors; first-line non-taxane combination chemotherapy; first-line taxane-based combination chemotherapy; first-line high- versus low-dose standard chemotherapy; first-line chemotherapy plus monoclonal antibody (bevacizumab, trastuzumab); first-line chemotherapy plus tyrosine kinase inhibitor (lapatinib); second-line taxane-based combination chemotherapy; second-line capecitabine or semi-synthetic vinca alkaloids for anthracycline-resistant disease; second-line chemotherapy plus tyrosine kinase inhibitor (lapatinib); and treatment for bone, spinal, or choroidal metastases using bisphosphonates, intrathecal chemotherapy, radiotherapy (alone or plus corticosteroids) radiation sensitisers, or surgical resection.
... News » Filed under: BreastCancer Report: BreastCancer Death Rates Down 34% Since 1990 Article date: October ... report from the American Cancer Society finds that death rates from breastcancer in the United States ...
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of women who were diagnosed with cancer in one breast detected over 90 percent of cancers in the other breast that were missed by mammography and clinical breast exam at initial diagnosis, according to a new study. Given the established rates of mammography and clinical breast exams for detecting cancer in the opposite, or contralateral breast, adding an MRI scan to the diagnostic evaluation effectively doubled the number of cancers immediately found in these women.
Objective The present study aimed to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and breastcancer risk among Chinese women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Four hundred and thirty-eight cases with histologically confirmed primary breastcancer and 438 controls were consecutively\\u000a recruited. Cases were frequency matched to controls on 5-year age group and rural–urban residence. A validated food frequency\\u000a questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake by
Cai-Xia Zhang; Suzanne C. Ho; Jian-Hua Fu; Shou-Zhen Cheng; Yu-Ming Chen; Fang-Yu Lin
Breastcancer is mainly a postmenopausal disease, but in younger women breast tumors often exhibit more aggressive features\\u000a and worse prognosis. Furthermore, high-risk and low-risk tumors present different age distributions suggesting that breast\\u000a cancer comprises a mixture of two different disease processes. In agreement with this hypothesis, breastcancer presents different\\u000a epidemiologic traits in pre- and postmenopausal women. Regarding racial
The purpose of this project was to enhance the value of the California Cancer Registry (CCR) as a research tool for clinicians and epidemiologists interested in conducting breastcancer research. The objectives of the project were to: (1) classify breast ...
Triple negative breastcancers are an aggressive subtype of breastcancer with poor survival, but there remains little known about the etiological factors which promote its initiation and development. Commonly inherited breastcancer risk factors identified through genome wide association studies (GWAS) display heterogeneity of effect among breastcancer subtypes as defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. In the Triple Negative BreastCancer Consortium (TNBCC), 22 common breastcancer susceptibility variants were investigated in 2,980 Caucasian women with triple negative breastcancer and 4,978 healthy controls. We identified six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with risk of triple negative breastcancer, including rs2046210 (ESR1), rs12662670 (ESR1), rs3803662 (TOX3), rs999737 (RAD51L1), rs8170 (19p13.11) and rs8100241 (19p13.11). Together, our results provide convincing evidence of genetic susceptibility for triple negative breastcancer.
Stevens, Kristen N.; Vachon, Celine M.; Lee, Adam M.; Slager, Susan; Lesnick, Timothy; Olswold, Curtis; Fasching, Peter A.; Miron, Penelope; Eccles, Diana; Carpenter, Jane E.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Ambrosone, Christine; Winqvist, Robert; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Sawyer, Elinor; Hartmann, Arndt; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Schulz-Wendtland, Rudiger; Ekici, Arif B.; Tapper, William J; Gerty, Susan M; Durcan, Lorraine; Graham, Nikki; Hein, Rebecca; Nickels, Stephan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Fostira, Florentia; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Dimopoulos, Athanasios M.; Fountzilas, George; Clarke, Christine L.; Balleine, Rosemary; Olson, Janet E.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Diasio, Robert B.; Pathak, Harsh; Ross, Eric; Weaver, JoEllen; Rudiger, Thomas; Forsti, Asta; Dunnebier, Thomas; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Kulkarni, Swati; Pylkas, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Van Limbergen, Erik; Janssen, Hilde; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; Verhoef, Senno; Tomlinson, Ian; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Beesley, Jonathan; Greco, Dario; Blomqvist, Carl; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Blows, Fiona M.; Dawson, Sarah-Jane; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W; Lambrechts, Diether; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Severi, Gianluca; Hamann, Ute; Pharoah, Paul; Easton, Douglas F.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Nevanlinna, Heli; Wang, Xianshu; Couch, Fergus J.
Concern has been raised about the potential delay in breastcancer diagnosis in the augmented breast. We linked a cohort of 2955 women, who received cosmetic breast implants in Denmark during the period 1973–1997 with the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish BreastCancer Cooperative Group register. We identified 23 incident cases of invasive breastcancer diagnosed subsequent to breast
L R Hölmich; L Mellemkjær; K A Gunnarsdóttir; U B Tange; C Krag; S Møller; J K McLaughlin; J H Olsen
Identification of novel drivers of cancer is necessary to understand the mechanisms of transformation as well as reveal more efficient targets for cancer therapy. Various subtypes of human cancer show activation of the RAS- MAPK pathway however, activatin...
... of Interventions to Increase Cancer Screening Cancer Screening in the United States Physician Practices Regarding Genetic Testing Cancers Diagnosed at Late Stages African American Women and Mass Media Campaign Public Service Announcements Public Service Announcements Transcripts ...
... and Families (also in Spanish) National organizations and Web sites* Along with the American Cancer Society, other ... 800-422-6237 TYY: 1-800-332-8615 Web site: www.cancer.gov Information about cancer and ...
Second primary cancers occur in ? 12% of women with an initial breastcancer diagnosis. This study assessed predictors of\\u000a the risk of developing a second primary cancer after breastcancer. The analysis included 335,191 females, registered in the\\u000a National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, who had been diagnosed with breast\\u000a cancer. Observed numbers of subsequent
The aim of the study was to define biological subtypes of breastcancer that have the propensity to metastasize to the leptomeninges and to assess factors influencing survival from detection of leptomeningeal metastatis (LM). One hundred and eighteen consecutive breastcancer patients with LM were treated in one institution, between the years 1999 and 2009; 40.5 % of patients had triple-negative subtype, 37.5 % had luminal A subtype and 22 % had HER2-positive subtypes (luminal B and HER2). Of patients with LM, 35 % had lobular cancer. Median survival from the detection of LM was 18 weeks, and 1-year survival was 16 %. Cox multivariate analysis revealed that performance status and systemic treatment statistically significantly influenced survival of patients with LM. Triple-negative biological subtype and lobular histological type of breastcancer had the propensity to metastasize to the leptomeninges. Performance status and systemic treatment ordered after detection of LM statistically significantly influenced survival. PMID:23322521
Angiogenesis is an important component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. We describe existing clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents and the challenges facing the clinical development and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breastcancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breastcancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria.
Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent BreastCancer; Stage IA BreastCancer; Stage IB BreastCancer
Genetic susceptibility to breastcancer in women is conferred by a large number of genes, of which six have so far been identified. In the context of multiple-case families, BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the most important. Mutations in these genes confer high lifetime risks of breastcancer and ovarian cancer, and more moderate risks of prostate cancer and some other
Breastcancer is the field of medicine with the greatest presence of nanotechnological therapeutic agents in the clinic. A\\u000a pegylated form of liposomally encapsulated doxorubicin is routinely used for treatment against metastatic cancer, and albumin\\u000a nanoparticulate chaperones of paclitaxel were approved for locally recurrent and metastatic disease in 2005. These drugs have\\u000a yielded substantial clinical benefit, and are steadily gathering
Takemi Tanaka; Paolo Decuzzi; Massimo Cristofanilli; Jason H. Sakamoto; Ennio Tasciotti; Fredika M. Robertson; Mauro Ferrari
The common sites of metastasis of breastcancer are bone, lung, and liver, but gastrointestinal metastasis from breastcancer is rare. We experienced a case of solitary ileal metastasis from breastcancer. A 45-years-old woman presented with melena for several weeks. She showed no other abdominal symptoms. Colonoscopy findings showed an ulcerative mucosal lesion in the terminal ileum, and biopsy was performed. Pathologic examination revealed metastatic carcinoma, originated from breast. The tumor cells were positive for estrogen receptor and negative for Cdx-2. She had had a previous medical history of bilateral breastcancer and undergone breast conserving surgery with sentinel lymph node biopsy for both breasts. The torso positron emission tomography scan at 19 months after surgery showed mildly increased uptake in the terminal ileum which was considered as inflammation. Finally, she was diagnosed with solitary ileal metastasis from breastcancer at 22 months after surgery.
Choi, Jung Eun; Park, Shin Young; Jeon, Myung Hoon; Kang, Su Hwan; Bae, Young Kyung; Kim, Min Kyoung
We have developed data demonstrating that the pineal gland, via its hormone melatonin, inhibits the proliferation of both human and animal models of breastcancer. As humans age there is the onset of disrupted sleep leading to a significant suppression in...
This webpage by breastcancer.org, provides a number of diagrams relative to various methods of breastcancer diagnosis. The site also shows PET scan, mammogram, ultrasound, and MRI images from different perspectives; illustrations of abnormal lymph nodes are also shown. Lastly, webpage contains a link to additional information about screening and testing options.
Data were collected on 169 men treated for breastcancer at 36 surgical departments in Austria between 1970 and 1991. We report here several of their clinical features and assess the importance of established prognostic factors. After a median observation period of 51 months 60 patients (35%) suffered a recurrence. The estimated 5-year recurrence-free survival for the entire group was
Michael Stierer; Harald Rosen; Wolfgang Weitensfelder; Hubert Hausmaninger; Bela Teleky; Raimund Jakesz; Hannes Fruhwirth; Martina Dtinser; Siegfried Beller; Anton Haid; Heinz Tüchler
The possible relationship of oral contraception use to breastcancer is a concern to physicians and their patients. In this article, the authors present a review of the major studies conducted during the last 10 years, from an epidemiologic viewpoint. PMID:2259330
The pineal gland, via its hormone melatonin, inhibits the proliferation of both human and animal models of breastcancer. As humans age there is the onset of disrupted sleep leading to a significant suppression in the nocturnal levels of melatonin after a...
Several compounds that selectively inhibit estrogen synthesis via aromatase have been developed. Steroidal substrate analogs, such as formestane and exemestane, inactivate aromatase by binding irreversibly to it. Non-steroidal inhibitors, such as the triazole compounds letrozole and anastrozole, are highly potent, reversible inhibitors with good specificity for aromatase. The intratumoral aromatase model for postmenopausal breastcancer has been used to investigate
Le Calvez-Kelm F, Lesueur F, Damiola F, Vallee M, Voegele C, Babikyan D, Durand G, Forey N, McKay-Chopin S, Robinot N, Nguyen-Dumont T, Thomas A, Byrnes GB, BreastCancer Family Registry T, Hopper JL, Southey MC, Andrulis IL, John EM, Tavtigian SV.
The purpose of the project is to appraise critically the state of dietary prevention of breastcancer and to forge new avenues of investigation in the field of nutrition. A special emphasis is on the role of diet during fetal life, puberty, and pregnancy,...
Summary Systemic treatment of non-metastatic breastcancer is based on endocrine therapy, cytotoxic chemotherapy, and molecular targeted therapy – with the major problems of immense overtreatment of patients who would not relapse without systemic therapy and the failure of treatment in others whose disease still recurs. These deficits can only be overcome by the identification of new and better prognostic
Folate is involved in DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. It has been hypothesized that high intake of folate may reduce the risk of human cancers, including cancer of the breast. Using data from a population- based case-control study of breastcancer conducted in urban Shanghai during 1996 -1998, we evaluated the association of dietary folate intake and breastcancer risk
Martha J. Shrubsole; Fan Jin; Qi Dai; Xiao-Ou Shu; John D. Potter; James R. Hebert; Yu-Tang Gao; Wei Zheng
We describe herein the clinical characteristics of five male breast carcinoma (MBC) patients with a familial history of breast carcinoma (FHBC). Four of these patients suffered from multiple primary cancers, being gastric and prostate cancer in 1, gastric cancer in 1, and asynchronous bilateral breastcancers in 2. The average age of these patients at diagnosis was not lower than
Cancer-related posttraumatic stress (PTS) in women with breastcancer, perceived risk of cancer in these women's daughters, and daughters' PTS related to their mothers' breastcancer were tested for relationships to daughters' breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography activity. Daughters' mammography frequency was related to her own PTS, but not to her perceived risk or her mothers' PTS. In contrast, daughters
Cancer evolution involves cycles of genomic damage, epigenetic deregulation, and increased cellular proliferation that eventually culminate in the carcinoma phenotype. Early neoplasias, which are often found concurrently with carcinomas and are histologically distinguishable from normal breast tissue, are less advanced in phenotype than carcinomas and are thought to represent precursor stages. To elucidate their role in cancer evolution we performed comparative whole-genome sequencing of early neoplasias, matched normal tissue, and carcinomas from six patients, for a total of 31 samples. By using somatic mutations as lineage markers we built trees that relate the tissue samples within each patient. On the basis of these lineage trees we inferred the order, timing, and rates of genomic events. In four out of six cases, an early neoplasia and the carcinoma share a mutated common ancestor with recurring aneuploidies, and in all six cases evolution accelerated in the carcinoma lineage. Transition spectra of somatic mutations are stable and consistent across cases, suggesting that accumulation of somatic mutations is a result of increased ancestral cell division rather than specific mutational mechanisms. In contrast to highly advanced tumors that are the focus of much of the current cancer genome sequencing, neither the early neoplasia genomes nor the carcinomas are enriched with potentially functional somatic point mutations. Aneuploidies that occur in common ancestors of neoplastic and tumor cells are the earliest events that affect a large number of genes and may predispose breast tissue to eventual development of invasive carcinoma. PMID:23568837
Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is involved in the growth of breastcancer cells in vitro and may be important in breastcancer etiology and progression. The IGF-IR is overexpressed in breast ca...
We hypothesized that certain miRNA species are differentially expressed in the normal breast epithelium and breastcancer cells. Our concept was that these miRNAs are involved in breastcancer progression by promoting either loss or alternatively an incre...
TOX3 maps to 16q12, a region commonly lost in breastcancers and recently implicated in the risk of developing breastcancer. However, not much is known of the role of TOX3 itself in breastcancer biology. This is the first study to determine the importance of TOX3 mutations in breastcancers. We screened TOX3 for mutations in 133 breast tumours and identified four mutations (three missense, one in-frame deletion of 30 base pairs) in six primary tumours, corresponding to an overall mutation frequency of 4.5%. One potentially deleterious missense mutation in exon 3 (Leu129Phe) was identified in one tumour (genomic DNA and cDNA). Whilst copy number changes of 16q12 are common in breastcancer, our data show that mutations of TOX3 are present at low frequency in tumours. Our results support that TOX3 should be further investigated to elucidate its role in breastcancer biology.
Jones, James Owain; Chin, Suet-Feung; Wong-Taylor, Li-An; Leaford, Donna; Ponder, Bruce A. J.; Caldas, Carlos; Maia, Ana-Teresa
The investigator has shown that moderate telomere shortening occurs specifically in luminal epithelial cells, but not in myoepithelial cells, in the majority of histologically normal terminal ductal lobular units analyzed from patients undergoing reductio...
The BreastCancer and the Environment Research Program (BCERP), a joint effort co-funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), is the next phase of a program that began with the BreastCancer and the Environment Research Centers (BCERC) in 2003. The BCERP supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breastcancer throughout her life.
Introduction Recently, the BreastCancer Association Consortium (BCAC) conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study and identified 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breastcancer risk. Given the high degree of heritability of mammographic density and its strong association with breastcancer, it was hypothesised that breastcancer susceptibility loci may also be associated with breast density and provide insight into the biology of breast density and how it influences breastcancer risk. Methods We conducted an analysis in the Nurses' Health Study (n = 1121) to assess the relation between 11 breastcancer susceptibility loci and mammographic density. At the time of their mammogram, 217 women were premenopausal and 904 women were postmenopausal. We used generalised linear models adjusted for covariates to determine the mean percentage of breast density according to genotype. Results Overall, no association between the 11 breastcancer susceptibility loci and mammographic density was seen. Among the premenopausal women, three SNPs (rs12443621 [TNRc9/LOC643714], rs3817198 [lymphocyte-specific protein-1] and rs4666451) were marginally associated with mammographic density (p < 0.10). All three of these SNPs showed an association that was consistent with the direction in which these alleles influence breastcancer risk. The difference in mean percentage mammographic density comparing homozygous wildtypes to homozygous variants ranged from 6.3 to 8.0%. None of the 11 breastcancer loci were associated with postmenopausal breast density. Conclusion Overall, breastcancer susceptibility loci identified through a genome-wide association study do not appear to be associated with breastcancer risk.
Tamimi, Rulla M; Cox, David; Kraft, Peter; Colditz, Graham A; Hankinson, Susan E; Hunter, David J
With a better understanding of the etiology of breastcancer, molecularly targeted drugs have been developed and are being testing for the treatment and prevention of breastcancer. Targeted drugs that inhibit the estrogen receptor (ER) or estrogen-activated pathways include the selective ER modulators (tamoxifen, raloxifene, and lasofoxifene) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) (anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane) have been tested in preclinical and clinical studies. Tamoxifen and raloxifene have been shown to reduce the risk of breastcancer and promising results of AIs in breastcancer trials, suggest that AIs might be even more effective in the prevention of ER-positive breastcancer. However, these agents only prevent ER-positive breastcancer. Therefore, current research is focused on identifying preventive therapies for other forms of breastcancer such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and triple-negative breastcancer (TNBC, breastcancer that does express ER, progesterone receptor, or HER2). HER2-positive breastcancers are currently treated with anti-HER2 therapies including trastuzumab and lapatinib, and preclinical and clinical studies are now being conducted to test these drugs for the prevention of HER2-positive breastcancers. Several promising agents currently being tested in cancer prevention trials for the prevention of TNBC include poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, vitamin D, and rexinoids, both of which activate nuclear hormone receptors (the vitamin D and retinoid X receptors). This review discusses currently used breastcancer preventive drugs, and describes the progress of research striving to identify and develop more effective preventive agents for all forms of breastcancer.
den Hollander, Petra; Savage, Michelle I.; Brown, Powel H.
Breastcancer may be classified into luminal A, luminal B, HER2+/ER-, basal-like and normal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling or immunohistochemical (IHC) characteristics. The main aim of the present study was to classify breastcancer into molecular subtypes based on immunohistochemistry findings and correlate the subtypes with clinicopathological factors. Two hundred and seventeen primary breast carcinomas tumor tissues were immunostained for ER, PR, HER2, CK5/6, EGFR, CK8/18, p53 and Ki67 using tissue microarray technique. All subtypes were significantly associated with Malay ethnic background (p=0.035) compared to other racial origins. The most common subtypes of breastcancers were luminal A and was significantly associated with low histological grade (p<0.000) and p53 negativity (p=0.003) compared to HER2+/ER-, basal-like and normal-like subtypes with high histological grade (p<0.000) and p53 positivity (p=0.003). Luminal B subtype had the smallest mean tumor size (p=0.009) and also the highest mean number of lymph nodes positive (p=0.032) compared to other subtypes. All markers except EGFR and Ki67 were significantly associated with the subtypes. The most common histological type was infiltrating ductal carcinoma, NOS. Majority of basal-like subtype showed comedo-type necrosis (68.8%) and infiltrative margin (81.3%). Our studies suggest that IHC can be used to identify the different subtypes of breastcancer and all subtypes were significantly associated with race, mean tumor size, mean number of lymph node positive, histological grade and all immunohistochemical markers except EGFR and Ki67. PMID:21655659
Munirah, M A; Siti-Aishah, M A; Reena, M Z; Sharifah, N A; Rohaizak, M; Norlia, A; Rafie, M K M; Asmiati, A; Hisham, A; Fuad, I; Shahrun, N S; Das, S
Breastcancer in males is much rare than in females so in practice, male breastcancer treatment is likely to follow the guidelines developed for female breastcancer patients. The objective of this study is to compare the characteristics and treatment pattern of male breastcancer patients with comparable subgroups of female breastcancer patients using data submitted to the
Jim Wang; James Kollias; Claire Marsh; Guy Maddern
Background Breastcancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breastcancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breastcancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breastcancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breastcancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and the risk of breastcancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breastcancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breastcancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breastcancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breastcancer is an increasing public health concern.
Both genetic and epigenetic alterations can control the progression of cancer. Genetic alterations are impossible to reverse, while epigenetic alterations are reversible. This advantage suggests that epigenetic modifications should be preferred in therapy applications. DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylases have become the primary targets for studies in epigenetic therapy. Some DNA methylation inhibitors and histone deacetylation inhibitors are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, the uses of epigenetic targets are believed to have great potential as a lasting favorable approach in treating breastcancer.
Surgery for breastcancer includes removal of the breast tumor along with axillary lymph nodes. Unfortunately, a relatively common side effect following axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is upper-extremity lymphedema. The purpose of this study is to i...
The proposal objective is to define the interaction between Notch and VEGFR-3 in breastcancer. Thus, we proposed to investigate this relationship in four different settings: primary endothelial cell cultures, mouse embryos, human breast tumors, and mouse...
Among 910 survivors of childhood cancer, four developed infiltrating carcinoma of the breast and another had noninfiltrating breast tumor. Expected frequency was 0.3 cases of breastcancer in the series. The affected women developed breast carcinoma at ages 20, 25 and 38 years, and the men at ages 38 and 39 years, respectively. Each patient had received orthovoltage chest irradiation for treatment of Wilms' tumor or bone sarcoma between seven and 34 years previously, and estimated radiation dose to the breast exceeded 300 rad in each instance. Four patients also received diverse forms of chemotherapy. Survivors of childhood cancer have increased risk of developing breastcancer and should undergo periodic screening, particularly after breast tissue had been irradiated. Individualized radiotherapy planning can help exclude the breasts from treatment fields for some thoracic neoplasms.
Introduction Breast development and structure is influenced most during the following stages of life - intrauterine, menarche, and pregnancy and lactation. The success of traditional breastcancer epidemiology has been to uncover the relationship of facto...
We have developed a unique magnetic resonance imaging multi voxel pulse sequence unaffected by intravenous contrast producing spectroscopic images of key metabolites (choline) found in breastcancer, and validated our work in 22 breast lesions with in vit...
Breastcancermanagementhasbeenevolvingtowardmin- imally invasive approaches. Image-guided percutaneous biopsy techniques provide accurate histologic diagnosis without the need for surgical biopsy. Breast conservation therapy has become the treatment standard for early- stage breastcancer. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a new procedure that can predict axillary lymph node status without the need of axillary lymph node dissection. The next challenge is to treat
Purpose The purpose of this study was to quantify the risk of breastcancer in relation to radiation dose and chemotherapy among survivors of childhood cancer. Methods We conducted a case-control study of breastcancer in a cohort of 6,647 women who were 5-year survivors of childhood cancer and who were treated during 1970 through 1986. One hundred twenty patients with histologically confirmed breastcancer were identified and were individually matched to four selected controls on age at initial cancer and time since initial cancer. Medical physicists estimated radiation dose to the breast tumor site and ovaries on the basis of medical records. Results The odds ratio for breastcancer increased linearly with radiation dose, and it reached 11-fold for local breast doses of approximately 40 Gy relative to no radiation (P for trend < .0001). Risk associated with breast irradiation was sharply reduced among women who received 5 Gy or more to the ovaries (P = .002). The excess odds ratio per Gy was 0.36 for those who received ovarian doses less than 5 Gy and was 0.06 for those who received higher doses. Radiation-related risk did not vary significantly by age at exposure. Borderline significantly elevated risks were seen for doxorubicin, dactinomycin, dacarbazine, and carmustine. Conclusion Results confirm the radiation sensitivity of the breast in girls age 10 to 20 years but do not demonstrate a strong effect of age at exposure within this range. Irradiation of the ovaries at doses greater than 5 Gy seems to lessen the carcinogenic effects of breast irradiation, most likely by reducing exposure of radiation-damaged breast cells to stimulating effects of ovarian hormones.
Inskip, Peter D.; Robison, Leslie L.; Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A.; Hammond, Sue; Mertens, Ann C.; Whitton, John A.; Diller, Lisa; Kenney, Lisa; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Meadows, Anna T.; Neglia, Joseph P.
Summary The prognostic significance of clinical and histological factors as well as hormone receptors was analyzed in a population of 3,064 lymph node-negative breastcancer patients operated in the Stockholm region between 1976 and 1988. None of these patients received systemic adjuvant treatment. Multivariate analysis showed that only histological tumor size, number of examined axillary lymph nodes, and progesterone receptors
Rodrigo Arriagada; Lars Erik Rutqvist; Lambert Skoog; Hemming Johansson; Andrew Kramar
Nine clinical, biologic and histologic variables were evaluated for their significance in predicting the metastasis free survival (MFS) and the overall survival (OS) of 650 histologic node negative breastcancer patients. The variables studied were: menopausal status, UICC clinical stage of disease, Scarff-Bloom and Richardson (SBR) grade and its 3 components, estrogen and progesterone receptors, and anatomic tumor size. Multivariate
V. le Doussal; M. Tubiana-Hulin; K. Hacene; S. Friedman; M. Brunet
This article reviews the evidence that the functioning of both the innate and the adaptive immune system plays a role in preventing relapse in women with breastcancer. Lymphocytes, including T cells, T regulatory cells, and natural killer cells, and their cytokine release patterns are implicated in both primary prevention and recurrence of breastcancer. Cancer prognosis may be related to immune system functional status. The hypothesis that the immune system has a causal role in breastcancer etiology is supported by epidemiologic, preclinical, and clinical research. Empirical support for the concept that immune status and immunomodulatory therapy have important roles in comprehensive breastcancer treatment is provided.
The melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE) genes are commonly expressed in tumors, but the function of many of these genes remains unknown. Here, we investigated the expression of one family member, MAGE-A11, in breastcancer tissues and corresponding adjacent normal tissues. MAGE-A11 expression was assessed in breastcancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues from 100 women by immunohistochemistry. MAGE-A11 was significantly more highly expressed in breast tumors (56% of samples) compared to normal tissues (0%; P<0.05). Additionally, its expression in breast tumors was investigated in relation to various clinicopathological features, including patient age, tumor stage and volume, and lymph node metastasis. MAGE-A11 protein expression was correlated with expression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) and estrogen receptor (ER)-? (P<0.05), but not with age, pathological type, histological grade, clinical stage, tumor size or lymph node metastasis, or ER-?, progesterone receptor (PR) or amplified in breastcancer 1 (AIB-1) expression. To determine how its expression affects cancer cell proliferation in vitro, MCF-7 human breastcancer cells were transfected with pCMV-AC-MAGE-A11-GFP. MTT colorimetry and colony-forming assays indicated that MAGE-A11 overexpression significantly increased breastcancer cell proliferation and the ability to form colonies (P<0.05). These findings indicate that MAGE-A11, similarly to HER-2 and ER-?, may be an important diagnostic or prognostic indicator in breastcancer and potentially promotes tumor proliferation. PMID:23064813
Introduction Histologic and genetic evidence suggests that at least some columnar cell lesions (CCL) of the breast represent precursor lesions in the low-grade breast neoplasia pathway. However, the risk of subsequent breastcancer associated with the presence of CCL in a benign breast biopsy is poorly understood. Methods The authors examined the association between the presence of CCL and subsequent breastcancer risk in a nested case-control study of benign breast disease (BBD) and breastcancer within the Nurses' Health Studies (394 cases, 1,606 controls). Benign breast biopsy slides were reviewed by pathologists and CCL presence assessed. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between CCL and breastcancer risk. Results Women with CCL (140 cases, 448 controls) had an increased risk of breastcancer compared with those without CCL (OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.83), although this was attenuated and became non-significant after adjustment for the histologic category of BBD (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.94 to 1.54). CCL presence was associated with the greatest risk of breastcancer for those with nonproliferative BBD (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 0.79 to 2.37) and the lowest risk for those with atypical hyperplasia (AH) (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.65 to 1.87); however, this apparent heterogeneity in risk across BBD categories was not significant (P for interaction between CCL presence and BBD category = 0.77). Conclusions These results provide evidence that CCL may be an important marker of breastcancer risk in women with BBD but suggest that CCL do not increase breastcancer risk independently of concurrent proliferative changes in the breast.
Hereditary breastcancer arising in carriers of mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes differs from sporadic breastcancer and from non-BRCA1\\/2 familial breast carcinomas. Most BRCA1 carcinomas have the basal-like phenotype and are high-grade, highly proliferating, estrogen receptor-negative and HER2-negative breast carcinomas, characterized by the expression of basal markers such as basal keratins, P-cadherin and epidermal growth factor receptor.
J. Palacios; M. J. Robles Frías; M. A. Castilla; M. A. López-García; J. Benítez
Metallothioneins are ubiquitous low molecular weight proteins characterised by high cysteine content and affinity for binding heavy metals. Abnormal metallothionein function and expression have been implicated in various disease states, including neoplasia. The aim of this study was to investigate metallothionein expression in human breast carcinoma. Sections of routinely fixed and processed blocks of tumour from 100 consecutive cases of primary operable breast carcinoma were stained for metallothionein using a recently developed monoclonal antibody and a standard immunohistochemical technique. Expression was scored on the basis of microscopical assessment of percentage of tumour cells staining. One patient was lost to follow-up and excluded from the study. A significant association (P < 0.0001) was observed between metallothionein expression and tumour type, with low levels being observed in tumours of good prognostic type. There was also a significant association with local recurrence (P < 0.02) and a significant difference (P < 0.02) in both survival and disease-free interval between tumours showing low and high levels of expression, the latter indicating a poor prognosis. No relationship was observed with patient age, tumour size, lymph node stage, histological grade, vascular invasion, menopausal status or oestrogen receptor status. The assessment of metallothionein expression in human breastcancer appears to provide prognostic information and may have important implications for understanding its development. Images Figure 1 Figure 2
Goulding, H.; Jasani, B.; Pereira, H.; Reid, A.; Galea, M.; Bell, J. A.; Elston, C. W.; Robertson, J. F.; Blamey, R. W.; Nicholson, R. A.
Background.Despite the importance of breastcancer screening to reduce morbidity and mortality, limited information is available on screening practices among African American women with a family history that is suggestive of hereditary breastcancer.
Chanita Hughes Halbert; Lisa Kessler; E. Paul Wileyto; Benita Weathers; Jill Stopfer; Susan Domchek; Aliya Collier; Kiyona Brewster
Background: Although mammographic breast density is as- sociated with the risk of breastcancer and is influenced by hormone levels, the effects of tamoxifen on breast density in healthy women and whether tamoxifen-induced density changes are associated with breastcancer risk are unclear. We investigated mammographic breast density in healthy women with an increased risk of breastcancer at baseline
Jack Cuzick; Jane Warwick; Elizabeth Pinney; Ruth M. L. Warren; Stephen W. Duffy
The authors draw attention to the frequency of breast carcinoma and the importance of its early detection. They critically evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of X-ray diagnosis, thermography, ultrasound, radioisotope diagnosis, cytology, and histological diagnosis. PMID:755123
Breastcancer screening is a highly complex and more recently a controversial topic. Conventional screening includes breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and screening mammography. Several newer imaging modalities have been introduced into the screening armamentarium including breast magnetic resonance imaging and whole-breast automated ultrasound. Novel imaging techniques like positron emission mammography are currently under clinical investigation in the hopes of improving the sensitivity of breastcancer screening. In addition, the development of biochemical assays, which employ minimally invasive sampling are also promising. PMID:22828098
Feldman, Elizabeth D; Oppong, Bridget A; Willey, Shawna C
In this paper, we propose a technique to locate abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test, when require. We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps. Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal/lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper. In fact, features of cancerousbreast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue. We also suggest the breastcancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some extent.
This project is testing the hypothesis that breastcancer in elderly women represents a disease different than breastcancer in young women The hypothesis is being tested using gene expression profiles as objective measures of breastcancer phenotypes. Th...
...8874 of October 1, 2012 National BreastCancer Awareness Month, 2012 By the...States of America A Proclamation Breastcancer touches the lives of Americans...000 women will be diagnosed with breastcancer this year, and tens of...
...Proclamation 9028 of September 30, 2013 National BreastCancer Awareness Month, 2013 By the President of...America stands in solidarity with those battling breastcancer and those at risk for breastcancer. This disease touches every corner of...
... in men? What are the risk factors for breastcancer in men? A risk factor is anything that ... old when they are diagnosed. Family history of breastcancerBreastcancer risk is increased if other members ...
. As the use of ultrasound-assisted liposuction (UAL) increases, the technique grows more popular in breast surgery, especially\\u000a in reduction mammaplasty and treatment of gynecomastia. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of UAL on breast\\u000a tissue using histological examinations, and analyze the effect of this technique on a cellular level.\\u000a \\u000a Biopsies from 10 patients undergoing ultrasonically
Klaus-J. Walgenbach; Artjom W. Riabikhin; Thomas J. Galla; Holger Bannasch; Mathias Voigt; Christoph Andree; Raymund E. Horch; G. Björn Stark
Systemic treatment of non-metastatic breastcancer is based on endocrine therapy, cytotoxic chemotherapy, and molecular targeted therapy - with the major problems of immense overtreatment of patients who would not relapse without systemic therapy and the failure of treatment in others whose disease still recurs. These deficits can only be overcome by the identification of new and better prognostic and predictive markers. Currently, adjuvant treatment stratification is based on a limited number of established factors, namely locoregional tumour stage, age, grade, expression of hormone receptors, HER2, and Ki-67. Molecular profiling techniques, however, have revolutionized our understanding of breastcancer as a heterogeneous disease. Future results from even more comprehensive genetic analyses as part of the coordinated cancer genome projects will help to develop better treatment stratifications and new therapeutic approaches. Efforts to realize the dream of a personalized treatment for breastcancer will include drug development and intelligent design of trials for increasingly small subgroups of patients with specific host and disease characteristics. This will only be made possible by a strong cooperation between basic researchers and translational scientists, clinicians, as well as academia and industry. PMID:22286585
The After BreastCancer Pooling Project was established to examine the role of physical activity, adiposity, dietary factors,\\u000a supplement use, and quality of life (QOL) in breastcancer prognosis. This paper presents pooled and harmonized data on post-diagnosis\\u000a lifestyle factors, clinical prognostic factors, and breastcancer outcomes from four prospective cohorts of breastcancer\\u000a survivors (three US-based and one from
Sarah J. Nechuta; Bette J. Caan; Wendy Y. Chen; Shirley W. Flatt; Wei Lu; Ruth E. Patterson; Elizabeth M. Poole; Marilyn L. Kwan; Zhi Chen; Erin Weltzien; John P. Pierce; Xiao Ou Shu
Introduction Tamoxifen is an effective treatment for breastcancer but an undesirable side-effect is an increased risk of endometrial cancer, particularly rare tumor types associated with poor prognosis. We investigated whether tamoxifen therapy increases mortality among breastcancer patients subsequently diagnosed with endometrial cancer. Methods We pooled case-patient data from the three largest case-control studies of tamoxifen in relation to endometrial cancer after breastcancer (1,875 patients: Netherlands, 765; United Kingdom, 786; United States, 324) and collected follow-up information on vital status. Breastcancers were diagnosed in 1972 to 2005 with endometrial cancers diagnosed in 1978 to 2006. We used Cox proportional hazards survival analysis to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results A total of 1,104 deaths occurred during, on average, 5.8 years following endometrial cancer (32% attributed to breastcancer, 25% to endometrial cancer). Mortality from endometrial cancer increased significantly with unfavorable non-endometrioid morphologies (P < 0.0001), International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics staging system for gynecological malignancy (FIGO) stage (P < 0.0001) and age (P < 0.0001). No overall association was observed between tamoxifen treatment and endometrial cancer mortality (HR = 1.17 (95% CI: (0.89 to 1.55)). Tamoxifen use for at least five years was associated with increased endometrial cancer mortality (HR = 1.59 (1.13 to 2.25)). This association appeared to be due primarily to the excess of unfavorable histologies and advanced stage in women using tamoxifen for five or more years since the association with mortality was no longer significant after adjustment for morphological type and FIGO stage (HR = 1.37 (0.97 to 1.93)). Those patients with endometrioid tumors, who stopped tamoxifen use at least five years before their endometrial cancer diagnosis, had a greater mortality risk from endometrial cancer than endometrioid patients with no tamoxifen exposure (HR = 2.11 (1.13 to 3.94)). The explanation for this latter observation is not apparent. Conclusions Patients with endometrial cancer after breastcancer who received tamoxifen treatment for five years for breastcancer have greater endometrial cancer mortality risk than those who did not receive tamoxifen. This can be attributed to non-endometrioid histological subtypes with poorer prognosis among long term tamoxifen users.
In this paper, the epidemiology of breastcancer will be discussed, followed by a brief description of the effect of electric fields on melatonin and the relation of melatonin to mammary cancer in rats. Finally, there will be a consideration of factors such as alcohol that affect melatonin and their relation to breastcancer risk. 55 refs.
Locally advanced breastcancer refers to patients diagnosed with bulky primary cancers and/or regional adenopathy. It's frequency has diminished greatly because of screening mammography and early detection. However, impoverished and minority racial/ethnic communities continue to experience disproportionately high breastcancer mortality rates because of their high risk for being diagnosed with locally advanced disease. PMID:19732683
The importance of pain as a presenting symptom of breastcancer has been assessed in a series of 240 patients with operable breastcancer over four years. From an analysis of the case histories of 36 patients the diagnosis proved difficult in one-quarter of the cancers. This is explained by the high incidence of subclinical and lobular carcinoma in the
P E Preece; M Baum; R E Mansel; D J Webster; R W Fortt; I H Gravelle; L E Hughes
Metastasis of breastcancer cells to bone consists of multiple sequential steps. To accomplish the process of metastasis to bone, breastcancer cells are required to intrinsically possess or acquire the capacities that are necessary for them to proliferate, invade, migrate, survive, and ultimately arrest in bone. These capacities are essential for any cancer cells to develop distant metastases in
Purpose: The results of epidemiological studies on diet and cancer are often difficult to interpret on an individual level and may influence patients’ beliefs, attitudes and behaviour. This study investigated the behaviour of breastcancer patients and their attitudes to dietary changes and the need of dietary advice during their disease.Patients and methods: The study population consisted of breastcancer
EK Salminen; HK Lagström; SP Heikkilä; SJ Salminen
In this paper, the epidemiology of breastcancer will be discussed, followed by a brief description of the effect of electric fields on melatonin and the relation of melatonin to mammary cancer in rats. Finally, there will be a consideration of factors such as alcohol that affect melatonin and their relation to breastcancer risk. 55 refs.
The HIP trial was done in an era when the size of breastcancers was much larger than became usual in the subsequent two decades in North America. I recall no instance in which the masking of the allocation was compromised. The major difficulty for the reviewers was not whether the patient died of cancer, nor whether breastcancer had
Breastcancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breastcancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breastcancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breastcancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high rate of breastcancer (142.7 per 100,000 in Suffolk County) and in a representative sample of US women (NHANES 1999-2008, 92 with breastcancer and 2,884 without). In a multivariable logistic model, both samples showed a significant trend for increased odds of breastcancer across increasing UCd quartiles (NHANES, p=0.039 and LI, p=0.023). Compared to those in the lowest quartile, LI women in the highest quartile had increased risk for breastcancer (OR=2.69; 95% CI=1.07, 6.78) and US women in the two highest quartiles had increased risk (OR=2.50; 95% CI=1.11, 5.63 and OR=2.22; 95% CI=.89, 5.52, respectively). Further research is warranted on the impact of environmental cadmium on breastcancer risk in specific populations and on identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms.
Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.
It has been reported that age-specific breastcancer rates vary by estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status. We report breastcancer rates for age-at-diagnosis, stage-at-diagnosis, histological grade and type by estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PgR) receptor status in six major racial\\/ethnic groups. The average annual age-adjusted rates for breastcancers with estrogen receptor positive (ER+), ER-, progesterone receptor positive (PgR+),
Breastcancer is the most common malignancy in United States women, accounting for >40,000 deaths each year. These breast tumors are comprised of phenotypically diverse populations of breastcancer cells. Using a model in which human breastcancer cells were grown in immunocompromised mice, we found that only a minority of breastcancer cells had the ability to form new
Muhammad Al-Hajj; Max S. Wicha; Adalberto Benito-Hernandez; Sean J. Morrison; Michael F. Clarke
Breastcancer is the most frequent spontaneous malignancy diagnosed in women and is characterized by a broad histological diversity. Progression of the disease has a metastasizing trend and can be resistant to hormonal and chemotherapy. Animal models have provided some understanding of these features and have allowed new treatments to be proposed. However, these models need to be revised because they have some limitations in predicting the clinical efficacy of new therapies. In this review, we discuss the biological criteria to be taken into account for a realistic animal model of breastcancer graft (tumor implantation site, animal immune status, histological diversity, modern imaging). We emphasize the need for more stringent monitoring criteria, and suggest adopting the human RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) criteria to evaluate treatments in animal models.
Background Few studies have been published regarding the practice of breastcancer screening in Asian countries. Aims The present study illustrates how the health policy for breastcancer screening has evolved in Taiwan from selective mammographic screening within a high-risk group, firstly to a programme of physical examination by public health nurses, and finally to a two-stage breastcancer screening
This project will update and extend a previously developed model simulating breastcancer age- and stage-specific incidence and age-specific mortality in Wisconsin. The model was developed and validated in 1992-93 and was used to explain breastcancer trends in Wisconsin from 1982-1992. We will reprogram the macrosimulation model as a discrete event microsimulation, updating inputs to account for demographic, and breastcancer detection and treatment changes since 1992.
Breastcancer imposes a significant healthcare burden on women worldwide. Early detection is of paramount importance in reducing\\u000a mortality, yet the diagnosis of breastcancer is hampered by the lack of an adequate detection method. In addition, better\\u000a breastcancer prognostication may improve selection of patients eligible for adjuvant therapy. Hence, new markers for early\\u000a diagnosis, accurate prognosis and prediction
Marie-Christine W. Gast; Jan H. M. Schellens; Jos H. Beijnen
The mortality and incidence of breastcancer are high in Western industrialized countries and relatively low in developing\\u000a countries in Asia and other parts of the world. In Japan the mortality of breastcancer has gradually been increasing, but\\u000a is still much lower compared with those of Western countries. Within Japan the mortality of breastcancer is higher in urban
Can we say the magic word "cured", "cancer free" for breastcancer patients or can we say only survivors? This litterature review was focused on what mean cured of breastcancer with the long term effects on quality of life of locoregional and systemic therapies and the role of breast reconstruction. Finally changes in the intimacy, sex and love live and psychosocial live were stressed. PMID:12135858
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has the potential to convert inoperable breastcancer into operable disease; however, patients may remain inoperable by the classic criteria after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In such cases, palliative surgical therapy to promote comfort and hygiene and to control wound breakdown may need to be considered. This report documents this clinical scenario in a patient with a large exophytic breastcancer who had a partial response with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and required an extended radical mastectomy with extensive reconstruction for coverage. The decision to undertake such a surgical procedure is complicated when the patient's life expectancy may be extremely limited and both patient and treatment team must carefully weigh the risks and potential benefits of a highly complex but technically feasible operation. PMID:11918881
Kuerer, Henry M; Beahm, Elisabeth K; Swisher, Stephen G; Ross, Merrick I
Breastcancer now represents the most common female malignancy in both the developing and developed world, and is the primary cause of death among women globally. Despite well-documented reductions in mortality from breastcancer during the past two decades, incidence rates continue to increase and do so more rapidly in countries that historically had low rates. This has emphasized the importance of survivorship issues and optimal management of disease chronicity. This article reviews current trends of incidence and mortality in both a western and global context, and considers pertinent changes in underlying etiological risk factors. The latter not only offer clues regarding changes in incidence patterns, but also provides rationale and guidance for strategies that could potentially reduce the burden of this disease. The relevance of lifestyle adjustments and screening interventions for primary and secondary prevention, respectively, are discussed with reference to different healthcare resource settings. PMID:22764767
Inflammatory breastcancer (IBC) is both the least frequent and the most severe form of epithelial breastcancer. The diagnosis is based on clinical inflammatory signs and is reinforced by pathological findings. Significant progress has been made in the management of IBC in the past 20 years. Yet survival among IBC patients is still only one-half that among patients with non-IBC. Identification of the molecular determinants of IBC would probably lead to more specific treatments and to improved survival. In the present article we review recent advances in the molecular pathogenesis of IBC. A more comprehensive view will probably be obtained by pan-genomic analysis of human IBC samples, and by functional in vitro and in vivo assays. These approaches may offer better patient outcome in the near future.
Inflammatory breastcancer (IBC) is both the least frequent and the most severe form of epithelial breastcancer. The diagnosis is based on clinical inflammatory signs and is reinforced by pathological findings. Significant progress has been made in the management of IBC in the past 20 years. Yet survival among IBC patients is still only one-half that among patients with non-IBC. Identification of the molecular determinants of IBC would probably lead to more specific treatments and to improved survival. In the present article we review recent advances in the molecular pathogenesis of IBC. A more comprehensive view will probably be obtained by pan-genomic analysis of human IBC samples, and by functional in vitro and in vivo assays. These approaches may offer better patient outcome in the near future. PMID:15743511
Breastcancer (BC) is the most common neoplasm in women in Western countries. Tumoral angiogenesis (TA) is essential for the\\u000a growth and spread of BC cells. There are at least 6 different angiogenic growth factors associated with TA in BC. The major\\u000a mediator of TA is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a homodimeric heparin-binding glycoprotein. VEGF signals through\\u000a VEGF receptor-2
Parham Khosravi Shahi; Alicia Soria Lovelle; Gumersindo Pérez Manga
Summary BACKGROUND: In the ASCO Annual Meeting, important recent developments in haematology and oncology were presented. In the 2010\\u000a ASCO meeting, interest in the field of metastatic breastcancer focused on Poly-(ADP-Ribose)-Polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitors\\u000a and novel treatment options in Her2-positive disease. METHODS: For this review article, authors searched proceedings of the\\u000a 2010 ASCO Annual Meeting. Abstracts providing important new insights were
This lesson culminates the unit with the Go Public phase of the legacy cycle. In the associated activity, students must depict a tumor amidst healthy body tissue using a graph in Microsoft Excel. In addition, students will design a brochure advertising a new form of painless yet reliable breastcancer detection to both patients and doctors alike. Together, the in-class activity and the take-home assignment will function as an assessment of what the students have learned throughout the unit.
VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,
In this paper we trace the evolution of paradigms concerning the nature of breastcancer and their therapeutic consequences.\\u000a There is no doubt that the conceptual revolution of about 20 years ago has led to modest gains in survival following the use\\u000a of adjuvant systemic therapy and the quality of survival by demonstrating the safety of conservative surgical regimens. At
Summary Cathepsin D is an acidic lysosomal protease present in all cells. In estrogen receptor positive and negative breastcancer cell lines, the mRNA coding for pro-cathepsin D is overexpressed and sorting and maturation of the pro-enzyme are altered, leading to accumulation of the active proteinase in large endosomes and to secretion of the precursor (52K protein). In MCF7 cells,
BACKGROUND: Older paternal age may increase the germ cell mutation rate in the offspring. Maternal age may also mediate in utero exposure to pregnancy hormones in the offspring. To evaluate the association between paternal and maternal age at birth with the risk of breastcancer in female offspring, a case-control study was conducted in Korea. METHODS: Histologically confirmed breastcancer
Ji-Yeob Choi; Kyoung-Mu Lee; Sue Kyung Park; Dong-Young Noh; Sei-Hyun Ahn; Keun-Young Yoo; Daehee Kang
In a six year period up to the end of December 1985 fine needle aspiration cytology specimens of the breast were obtained from 562 apparently healthy women invited to participate in a breastcancer screening programme. Of these, 397 had a biopsy and 173 cancers were confirmed histologically. For the diagnosis of cancer, the procedure was less successful than in symptomatic cases. The main factors influencing success were the aspirator, the small size of many cancers, and the occult nature of the lesions seen only on mammography. Retrospective analysis of the figures shows that combining the results of FNA cytology in a triple assessment with physical and mammographical findings for restricted selection means that the number of benign biopsy specimens could be reduced considerably.
In a six year period up to the end of December 1985 fine needle aspiration cytology specimens of the breast were obtained from 562 apparently healthy women invited to participate in a breastcancer screening programme. Of these, 397 had a biopsy and 173 cancers were confirmed histologically. For the diagnosis of cancer, the procedure was less successful than in symptomatic cases. The main factors influencing success were the aspirator, the small size of many cancers, and the occult nature of the lesions seen only on mammography. Retrospective analysis of the figures shows that combining the results of FNA cytology in a triple assessment with physical and mammographical findings for restricted selection means that the number of benign biopsy specimens could be reduced considerably. PMID:3624497
The study population was derived from 482 patients with breastcancer treated at the Department of Oncology, University Hospital Center Zagreb, between 1992 and 1999. The main purpose of our study was to evaluate differences in breastcancer characteristics and treatment in a population of women with breastcancer older than 65 years compared to younger women group (less than 65 years). We have analyzed disease parameters (stage of the disease, size of primary tumor, tumor differentiation grade and steroid receptor status) and parameters associated to treatment modalities (surgery, radiotherapy, hormonal therapy and chemotherapy) in both age groups. In older women, we found significantly higher rates of tumors grade 1 (p = 0.0049), tumors > 2 cm and tumors with a high steroid receptor status (p = 0.0013). Evaluation of treatment modalities showed that in older women a significantly higher proportion were treated with hormonal therapy (p < 0.001) compared to younger patients. In evaluation of clinical outcome after a median follow-up of 58 months, in older women the cumulative 5-year disease-free survival rate was 65%, while cumulative 5-year survival was 83%, which was not significantly different from the younger women (p > 0.005). PMID:16285580
The radiographic appearance of the breast on mammography varies among women, and reflects variations in breast tissue composition and the different X-ray attenuation characteristics of these tissues. Fat is radiologically lucent and appears dark on a mammogram. Connective and epithelial tissues are radiologically dense and appear light. These variations in appearance are commonly described as the percentage of the breast image that is radiologically dense, or as percent mammographic density (PMD). There is now extensive evidence that PMD is a risk factor for breastcancer, with a 4- to 6-fold gradient in risk between women with 75% or more PMD compared with those with 10% or less. However, the accuracy of risk prediction in individual women is modest. The extent of PMD is associated inversely with greater age, parity, and weight, and is reduced by the menopause and by tamoxifen. PMD is positively associated with greater height, a family history of breastcancer, and is increased by combined hormone therapy. The relative risk associated with density is substantially larger than the relative risk of breastcancer associated with a family history of the disease or any of the menstrual and reproductive risk factors. It is estimated that the risks of breastcancer attributable to density of 50% or more may be 16% for all breastcancers. Although combined hormone therapy and tamoxifen respectively increase a decrease both PMD and breastcancer risk, there is as yet insufficient evidence to use PMD as a surrogate marker for breastcancer. PMID:23714456
This lesson introduces students to their task of developing a painless means of identifying cancerous tumors. Solving the challenge will depend on an understanding of the properties of stress and strain. After being introduced to the challenge question, students will generate ideas and consider the knowledge required to solve the challenge question. After which, students will read an expert's opinion on ultrasound imaging and the potentials for detecting cancerous tumors. This interview will help direct student research and learning toward solving the challenge.
VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,
A rapid increase of female breastcancer has been reported in many areas of the world and the reasons are not fully understood. While some have attributed the increase to the increasing detection of early stage breastcancer through mammography screening, few studies have directly examined the time trend of in situ breastcancer specifically. This study included all incident
T. Zheng; T. R. Holford; Y. Chen; B. A. Jones; J. Flannery; P. Boyle
Clinical and experimental evidence suggest that the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) is involved in breastcancer etiology. For instance, IGF-IR is overexpressed in breast tumors (relative to normal breast epithelium) and high levels of IGF-I ...
One hundred and thirty two women with normal breast screening results were interviewed six months after their attendance at the Edinburgh Breast Screening Clinic. Eight percent of women said screening had made them more anxious about developing breastcancer. Thirty eight percent said they were more aware of the disease since screening but they regarded this as advantageous. Seventy percent
Abstract The appearance of pulmonary metastasis more than 15 years after primary treatment for breastcancer is rare. We herein report the case of a breastcancer patient with solitary pulmonary metastasis, after an 18-year disease-free period, treated with resection. A 66-year-old Japanese woman was found to exhibit an abnormal shadow on a chest X-ray. She had undergone a left mastectomy for breastcancer 18 years previously. The nodule was suspected to be either metastatic or primary lung cancer, and thus thoracoscopic surgery was performed. The histologic diagnosis was metastasis from breastcancer. Pulmonary resection in breastcancer recurrence is an important diagnostic tool that allows for a differential diagnosis with primary lung cancer. The clinical implication of surgery for a solitary pulmonary metastasis from breastcancer is discussed in this report. PMID:23294064
This Clinical Trial Network was aimed at forming a collaborative linkage between the UAB Comprehensive Cancer Center, community-based oncology practices and pharmaceutical sponsors, and providing access to women with breastcancer within the community to ...
Cancer incidence rises exponentially with age. This project tests the hypothesis that cellular senescence of stromal fibroblasts contributes to the age-dependent increase in breastcancer by creating a more permissive environment for the expression of mal...
"BreastCancer Prevention Trial" Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health Statement of Richard D. Klausner, M.D. Director, National Cancer Institute Before the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Labor, Health, Human
This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of BreastCancer.
King, M.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Lippman, M. [Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)] [comps.
Psychological research documents that the psychosocial burdens following breastcancer are notable in number, severity, and scope. A biobehavioral model of cancer stress and disease course has been proposed (see Andersen, Kiecolt-Claser, Claser, 1994) and...
Objective: To critically review the theoretical and actual risks and benefits of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) after breast-conserving surgery. Summary Background Data: Because of rapid evolution of radiation therapy techniques related to brachytherapy and three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, APBI has very recently come to the forefront as a potential local treatment option for women with breastcancer. This review aims to give an overview of the biologic rationale for APBI techniques, and benefits and limitations of APBI techniques. Methods: The authors reviewed the currently available published world medical literature on breast-conserving surgery with and without postoperative irradiation; all studies involving partial breast irradiation, including brachytherapy, for breastcancer; and currently accruing and planned APBI trials. The focus of this review was the early results of treatment in terms of toxicity, complications, cosmesis, and local control. Results: On average, approximately 3% of patients treated with breast-conserving surgery will have an in-breast local recurrence away from the original lumpectomy site with or without postoperative standard whole-breast irradiation. The results of phase I-II studies involving approximately 500 patients treated with APBI after breast-conserving surgery have been published. Although many of the studies have limited long-term follow-up and potential selection bias, early results suggest that toxicity, cosmesis, and local control are comparable to outcomes seen after breast-conserving surgery followed by standard whole-breast irradiation. Conclusions: Recent advances in radiation delivery and published series of partial breast irradiation support large randomized trials comparing APBI with standard whole-breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery.
Kuerer, Henry M.; Julian, Thomas B.; Strom, Eric A.; Lyerly, H Kim; Giuliano, Armando E.; Mamounas, Eleftherios P.; Vicini, Frank A.
Mitochondrial genome and functional alterations are related to various diseases including cancer. In all cases, the role of these organelles is associated with defects in oxidative energy metabolism and control of tumor-induced oxidative stress. The present study examines the involvement of mitochondrial DNA in cancer and in particular in breastcancer. Furthermore, since mitochondrial DNA is maternally inherited, hereditary breastcancer has been focused on.
Breastcancer is the most conmlon malignant tumor among women, with an\\u000aestimated 135,000 new cases and 58,000 recorded deaths per year in the Europeau\\u000aCommunity in 1990. With respect to the Netherlands, the most recent data of The\\u000aNetherlands Cancer Registry show an incidence of nearly 10.000 new cases of primary\\u000abreast cancer and about 3500 breastcancer deaths
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs), enumerated by the Food and Drugs Administration-cleared CellSearch(®) system, are an independent prognostic factor of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in metastatic breastcancer (MBC) patients. Several published papers demonstrated the poor prognosis for MBC patients who presented basal CTC count ?5 in 7.5 mL of blood. Therefore, the enumeration of CTCs during treatment for MBC provides a tool with the ability to predict progression of disease earlier than standard timing of anatomical assessment using conventional radiological tests. Randomized clinical trials are ongoing to demonstrate whether CTCs detected by CellSearch(®) may help to guide treatments in MBC patients and improve prognosis. Moreover, the ability to perform molecular characterization of CTCs might identify a new druggable target in MBC patients. For example, the RT-PCR-based approach AdnaTest BreastCancerSelect(™) showed a high discordance rate in receptor expression between the primary tumors and CTCs. Theoretically, the phenotypic analysis of CTCs can represent a "liquid" biopsy of breast tumor that is able to identify a new potential target against the metastatic disease. PMID:22527507
Preclinical models suggest that retinoids inhibit mammary carcinogenesis. The induction of apoptosis is a unique feature of fenretinide, the most-studied retinoid in clinical trials of breastcancer chemoprevention, owing to its selective accumulation in breast tissue and its favorable toxicological profile. In a Phase III breastcancer prevention trial, fenretinide showed a strong trend of reduction of incidence of second breast malignancies in premenopausal women, which was confirmed by 15 years of follow-up. This warrants further research on the mechanisms of action and potential efficacy of fenretinide and provides the rationale for a Phase III primary prevention trial in young women at high risk for breastcancer. This review will highlight the role of fenretinide in breastcancer chemoprevention. PMID:17428163
Breastcancer is the leading cause of cancer in females between the age of 15 and 54, and the second leading cause of death in women in the United States. Diagnosis begins with detection by breast examination (clinical breast examination or breast self-examination) or by radiologic studies, such as mammography. Many advances in the diagnosis of breastcancer have taken
Introduction: Routine mammography screening with clinical breast examination is effective in reducing breastcancer mortality. The Breast and Cervical Health Program (BCHP) in Washington State provides free breast and cervical cancer screening for low-income women, with an emphasis on women of color. This study examined initial breastcancer rescreening and factors associated with rescreening for women enrolled in BCHP in
This paper investigates the feasibility of using terahertz pulsed imaging to detect breastcancer in a reflection imaging geometry. Spectroscopic terahertz data is used to simulate the reflected time domain response functions of healthy fibrous breast tissue and breastcancer tissue. Previously we have looked at the refractive index and absorption coefficient separately to characterize tissues. In this work we investigate their combined effects and identify parameters of the simulated reflected impulse response function and corresponding spectroscopic properties with a view to improving our ability to distinguish between the fibrous and cancer tissues in the breast.
Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma; Fitzgerald, Anthony J.; Wallace, Vincent P.
Background: Many invasive breastcancers are accompanied by a variety of noninvasive components. Histological distinctions have been made between these components, but to understand their importance, it is essential to examine their molecular biology.\\u000aMethods: Proliferative indices, oncoproteins, and steroid receptor expression were compared for invasive breastcancers containing comedo-type ductal carcinoma in situ (n=35), noncomedo-type ductal carcinoma in situ
Steven T. Brower; Sharmila Ahmed; Paul I. Tartter; Ira Bleiweiss; J. B. Amberson
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between menstrual, reproductive, and life-style factors and breast\\u000a cancer in Turkish women. In a hospital-based case-control study in Ankara, 622 patients with histologically confirmed breast\\u000a cancer were compared with 622 age-matched controls, admitted to the same hospital for acute and non-neoplastic diseases. Unconditional\\u000a logistic regression was used to estimate odds
Objectives: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of gemcitabine and paclitaxel as first-line treatment in advanced breastcancer. Methods: Patients with histologically confirmed metastatic or metastatic plus locally advanced breastcancer received gemcitabine 1,200 mg\\/m2 on days 1 and 8 and paclitaxel 175 mg\\/m2 on day 1 every 21 days for 8 cycles. Results: From December 1999 to August 2001,
Carlos Delfino; Graciela Caccia; Luis Riva Gonzáles; Elizabeth Mickiewicz; Jeannette Rodger; Luis Balbiani; Daniel Flores Morales; Alberto Zori Comba; Celia Brosio
Breastcancer is predominantly a disease of the genome with cancers arising and progressing through accumulation of aberrations that alter the genome - by changing DNA sequence, copy number, and structure in ways that that contribute to diverse aspects of cancer pathophysiology. Classic examples of genomic events that contribute to breastcancer pathophysiology include inherited mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53,
Background: Experimental data from animals suggest a pro- tective role for the pineal hormone melatonin in the etiology of breastcancer, but results from the few retrospective case- control studies that examined the association in hu- mans have been inconsistent. To determine whether low levels of endogenous melatonin are associated with an in- creased risk for developing breastcancer, we
Ruth C. Travis; Diane S. Allen; Ian S. Fentiman; Timothy J. Key
Objective: To determine whether estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) adversely affected outcome of breastcancer survivors. Method: A prospective descriptive study of all breastcancer survivors who requested ERT because of intractable menopausal symptoms. All patients presented voluntarily as gynecological outpatients and were all given oral continuous opposed ERT: 20 premarin and medroxyprogesterone and four tibolone. Results: Twenty-four patients who had
Conflicting results have been reported on the association between breastcancer risk and symptoms of luteal insufficiency, such as irregular or prolonged menstrual cycles and difficulty in becoming pregnant. Studies on the association between breastcancer risk and hormonal markers of impaired ovulation have also yielded conflicting results. Inadequate allowance for body mass and fat distribution may lead to inconsistent
Research in breastcancer extends in many directions, stimulated by concerns related to the high incidence of the disease and the relative un- predictability of its clinical course. Examples of work in several directions are presented here arranged by four levels of analysis. 1) Molecular, intracellular events (molecular genetics). Recent identification of genes that predispose to breastcancer, and the
Breastcancer remains the commonest malignancy amongst women and its incidence continues to increase worldwide. This inexorable rise in numbers of women suffering from the disease is particularly notable in those countries which previously had a relatively low incidence of breastcancer but have now adopted Western lifestyles with changes in reproductive behaviour and greater usage of the oral contraceptive
Breastcancer is the commonest malignancy in women and although identification of this multi-system disease has increased, the survival rates have not dramatically altered over the past four decades. Optimium treatment of patients with breastcancer is a subject of great debate and traditionally may be divided into surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone manipulation.Halsted's radical mastectomy, although initially superseded by
The promise of research into breastcancer genetics is that it will provide us with new insights into the etiology of breastcancer that can be translated to strategies for early diagnosis and treatment for the larger population of women who develop breas...
The taxanes, paclitaxel and docetaxel are microtubule-stabilizing agents that function primarily by interfering with spindle microtubule dynamics causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. However, the mechanisms underlying their action have yet to be fully elucidated. These agents have become widely recognized as active chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of metastatic breastcancer and early-stage breastcancer with benefits gained in
Barbara T. McGrogan; Breege Gilmartin; Desmond N. Carney; Amanda McCann
Breastcancer in young Black women is more virulent, leading to a decrease in the overall survival rates for African Americans diagnosed with breastcancer when compared to Whites. Our studies provide the first concerted effort to seriously address the co...
Breastcancer activism has become a fixture in the United States, where fundraising events are ubiquitous and government financing of research into the disease has skyrocketed. Activists in other countries are now reporting similar accomplishments. Here, predominantly using the United States as a case study, I analyse the recent successes of breastcancer activism. I also raise a series of
Screening for breastcancer should concern all women at some point in their life. In cases of a family history of breastcancer, an oncogenetic consultation may be offered. The identification of a genetic predisposition enables specific management strategies for the woman to be drawn up. PMID:23878882
Triple negative breastcancer (TNBC) accounts for approximately 15% of breastcancer cases. TNBC is an immunohistochemically defined subtype, with significant diversity within the subtype. Generally TNBC occurs in younger women and is marked by high rates of relapse, visceral and CNS metastases, and early death. Current therapy fails to curtail the innate aggressive behaviour of TNBC in the majority
Pregnancy-associated breastcancer, which has a poor prognosis, is often overlooked by clinicians and researchers alike. With the trend towards delayed child-bearing, an increase in the occurrence of breastcancer complicated by pregnancy is anticipated. The mechanisms that have been proposed to account for this poor prognosis, including increased hormone exposure, might not contribute significantly to the observed increase in
Emerging evidence suggests that breastcancer may originate during early life. In particular, offspring of mothers who during pregnancy exhibited behaviors that are associated with increased incidence of breastcancer, may be at risk. These behaviors include intake of high fat diet or alcohol, or stressful life style. We have found that neonatal exposure to handling that leads to improved
Leena Hilakivi-Clarke; Robert Clarke; Marc E. Lippman
Breastcancer is an emotive disease as it is virtually confined to women, the incidence of cancer of the male breast being less than one percent. It is estimated that it will affect about one in twelve Irish women during the course of their lives. It is the commonest malignancy affecting women - and 4% of Irish women will die
The objective of the City of Hope (COH) BreastCancer Training Program is to develop a new generation of basic and clinical scientists trained to do research on breastcancer and its prevention. The Program will draw predoctoral trainees from the COH Grad...
The objective of the City of Hope (COH) BreastCancer Training Program is to develop a new generation of basic and clinical scientists trained to do research on breastcancer and its prevention. The Program will draw predoctoral trainees from the COH Grad...
Breastcancer is the second deadliest cancer in US women, with estimated 182,800 new cases yearly. PTEN has been characterized as a tumor suppressor gene and found deleted or mutated in many human tumors, including breast, and functions to negatively regu...
Several groups have demonstrated that women with BRCA1 germline mutations are more likely to have breastcancers that are basal-like by gene expression profiling. While BRCA1 germline mutations are uncommon and contribute to fewer than 5% of breastcancer...
Breastcancer is the second deadliest cancer in US women, with estimated 182,800 new cases yearly. PTEN has been characterized as a tumor suppressor gene and found deleted or mutated in many human tumors, including breast, and functions to negatively regu...
This project has two mayor goals: to design and conduct a pilot case- control breastcancer study among Puerto Rican women, and to train and develop researchers in breastcancer at the University of Puerto Rico. The case-control study will enroll women ag...
BACKGROUND: Elevated pregnancy estrogen levels are associated with increased risk of developing breastcancer in mothers. We studied whether pregnancy weight gain that has been linked to high circulating estrogen levels, affects a mother's breastcancer risk. METHODS: Our cohort consisted of women who were pregnant between 1954–1963 in Helsinki, Finland, 2,089 of which were eligible for the study. Pregnancy
Tarja I Kinnunen; Riitta Luoto; Mika Gissler; Elina Hemminki; Leena Hilakivi-Clarke
The purpose of the breastcancer research training program is to recruit and train potential future researchers in breastcancer research. From a total of 90 applications for summer research, we selected a total of five students. During the 12 week progra...
SummaryBackground The excess risk of breastcancer among Jewish women has been attributed to the effects of difference in lifestyle and reproductive patterns, but there is now evidence that Jewish women may be more likely than other women to inherit mutations in breast-cancer genes. We investigated whether any excessive risk among Jewish women is confined to those with a family
K. M Egan; D Trichopoulos; M. J Stampfer; W. C Willett; P. A Newcomb; A Trentham-Dietz; M. P Longnecker; J. A Baron
Atopy, defined as the ability to develop IgE antibodies to commonly encountered allergens under conditions of normal exposure, has an inherited component with pleiotropic effects. An inverse relationship between the occurrence of atopy, allergy-related diseases, and cancers at specific sites has been reported. The familial association of primary lung cancer is most evident among women, nonsmokers, and those with adenocarcinomas. In order to determine whether the relationship between a lower prevalence of atopy among patients with lung cancer compared to control subjects was consistent between histologic cell types, we used seven common allergens to allergy prick skin test 209 community control subjects (46 women), 109 cases with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (25 women), and 67 patients with primary adenocarcinomas of the lung (23 women). We have confirmed earlier reports of an inverse relationship between atopy and lung cancer risk. In analyses focusing on sex and histologic cell type, we found that women with adenocarcinomas were an exception and were as likely to be atopic as control subjects. The evidence does not support a protective role for atopy among these women. PMID:1989803
The clinical course of patients with breastcancer is often protracted with metastases presenting a considerable time after initial diagnosis and surgical intervention. Whilst specific common patterns of tumour dissemination may be anticipated and readily recognised, more unusual sites may present with confusing symptoms seemingly unconnected to the breast primary. This report documents two cases of primary breastcancer metastatic to the gastrointestinal tract presenting to one surgical unit. PMID:21594419
Since breast-conserving surgery has become the gold standard for early breastcancer, the development of less radical or less burdensome technologies has been pressed for in order to preserve the patient from unnecessary harm through the operative procedure. Different technical approaches are under evaluation, and some of them are already being used in the clinical setting. The aim of this article is to present a perspective on future breastcancer surgery by shedding light on the current innovative and new techniques.
To be successful, screening procedures must have certain properties: simplicity, acceptability, reasonable costs, and adequate sensitivity. The evolution of mammography over the past 10 years has allowed the examination to fall within accepted standards for these properties, and it has become a widely accepted procedure. Its expanded use has resulted in an increase in the detection of early stage disease with a profound effect upon the treatment of the disease. Survival continues to correlate with cancer size and nodal involvement, and the increase in the number of early cases diagnosed eventually should be reflected in a decreasing mortality rate. Though the efficacy of screening mammography for women between the ages of 50 and 69 is well-established, its usefulness in women aged 40-49 has provoked considerable debate. Despite the disagreements concerning appropriate screening thresholds and intervals, the American Cancer Society and the American College of Radiology have concluded that sufficient evidence exists to maintain published guidelines. PMID:8334656