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Sample records for breast cancer histological

  1. Rare Breast Cancer Subtypes: Histological, Molecular, and Clinical Peculiarities

    PubMed Central

    Dieci, Maria Vittoria; Orvieto, Enrico; Dominici, Massimo; Conte, PierFranco

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer encompasses a collection of different diseases characterized by different biological and pathological features, clinical presentation, response to treatments, clinical behavior, and outcome. On the basis of cell morphology, growth, and architecture patterns, breast cancer can be classified in up to 21 distinct histological types. Breast cancer special types, including the classic lobular invasive carcinoma, represent 25% of all breast cancers. The histological diversity of breast carcinomas has relevant prognostic implications. Indeed, the rare breast cancer group includes subtypes with very different prognoses, ranging from the tubular carcinoma, associated with an indolent clinical course, to metaplastic cancer, whose outcome is generally unfavorable. New approaches based on gene expression profiling allow the identification of molecularly defined breast cancer classes, with distinct biological features and clinical behavior. In clinical practice, immunohistochemical classification based on the expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and Ki67 is applied as a surrogate of the intrinsic molecular subtypes. However, the identification of intrinsic molecular subtypes were almost completely limited to the study of ductal invasive breast cancer. Moreover, some good-prognosis triple-negative histotypes, on the basis of gene expression profiling, can be classified among the poor-prognosis group. Therefore, histopathological classification remains a crucial component of breast cancer diagnosis. Special histologies can be very rare, and the majority of information on outcome and treatments derives from small series and case reports. As a consequence, clear recommendations about clinical management are still lacking. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about rare breast cancer histologies. PMID:24969162

  2. Inflammatory Breast Cancer: A Distinct Clinicopathological Entity Transcending Histological Distinction

    PubMed Central

    Raghav, K.; French, J. T.; Ueno, N. T.; Lei, X.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Reuben, J. M.; Valero, V.; Ibrahim, N. K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although well recognized in breast oncology literature, histologic subtypes have not been previously described in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). The purpose of this study was to describe lobular subtype in IBC and assess the impact of histology on patient outcomes. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 659 IBC patients at MD Anderson Cancer Center between January 1984 and December 2009. Patients with Invasive Lobular, Mixed Invasive Ductal and Lobular, or Invasive Ducal Carcinomas (ILC, MIC, IDC, respectively) comprise the subject of this report. Patient characteristics and survival estimates were compared by using chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank statistic. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to determine association of histology with outcomes after adjustment for other characteristics. Results A total of 30, 37, and 592 patients were seen to have invasive lobular, mixed, or ductal histology, respectively. Grade 3 tumors were more common in the ductal group (78%) than in the lobular (60%) or mixed (61%) group (P = 0.01). The 3-year overall survival rates were 68%, 64%, and 62% in the lobular, mixed, and ductal groups, respectively (P = 0.68). After adjustment, histology did not have a significant effect on death in the lobular group (HR = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.261.94; P = 0.50) or mixed group (HR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.251.13; P = 0.10) compared with the ductal group. Conclusion In this cohort of IBC patients, lobular histology was seen in 4.5% cases. Histology does not appear to have a significant effect on survival outcomes in IBC patients, unlike in patients with non-inflammatory breast cancer (n-IBC), indicating the distinct biological behavior of the IBC phenotype. PMID:26752563

  3. Reproductive factors and histologic subtype in relation to mortality after a breast cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Warren Andersen, S; Newcomb, P A; Hampton, J M; Titus-Ernstoff, L; Egan, K M; Trentham-Dietz, A

    2011-12-01

    Evidence suggests that certain reproductive factors are more strongly associated with the incidence of lobular than of ductal breast cancer. The mechanisms influencing breast cancer incidence histology may also affect survival. Women with invasive breast cancer (N = 22,302) diagnosed during 1986-2005 were enrolled in a series of population-based studies in three US states. Participants completed telephone interviews regarding reproductive exposures and other breast cancer risk factors. Histologic subtype was obtained from state cancer registries. Vital status and cause of death were determined through December 2006 using the National Death Index. Women were followed for 9.8 years on average with 3,050 breast cancer deaths documented. Adjusted hazard rate ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models for breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. Parity was inversely associated with breast cancer-specific mortality (P (Trend) = 0.002). Associations were similar though attenuated for all-cause mortality. In women diagnosed with ductal breast cancer, a 15% reduction in breast cancer-specific mortality was observed in women with five or more children when compared to those with no children (HR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.73-1.00). A similar inverse though non-significant association was observed in women with lobular subtype (HR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.43-1.14). The trend did not extend to mixed ductal-lobular breast cancer. Age at first birth had no consistent relationship with breast cancer-specific or all-cause mortality. We found increasing parity reduced mortality in ductal and lobular breast cancer. The number of full-term births, rather than age at first birth, has an effect on both breast cancer-specific and overall mortality. PMID:21769659

  4. Gene expression abnormalities in histologically normal breast epithelium from patients with luminal type of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zubor, Pavol; Hatok, Jozef; Moricova, Petra; Kajo, Karol; Kapustova, Ivana; Mendelova, Andrea; Racay, Peter; Danko, Jan

    2015-05-01

    The gene expression profile of breast cancer has been described as a great breakthrough on the way to comprehend differences in cancer origin, behavior and therapy. However, gene expression profile in histologically normal epithelium (HNEpi) which could harbor genetic abnormalities predisposing breast tissue to develop malignancy was minor scope for scientists in the past. Thus, we aimed to analyze gene expressions in HNEpi and breast cancer tissue (BCTis) in order to establish its value as potential diagnostic marker for cancer development. We evaluated a panel of disease-specific genes in luminal type (A/B) of breast cancer and tumor surrounding HNEpi by qRT-PCR Array in 32 microdissected samples. There was 20.2 and 2.4% deregulation rate in genes with at least 2-fold or 5-fold over-expression between luminal (A/B) type breast carcinomas and tumor surrounding HNEpi, respectively. The high-grade luminal carcinomas showed higher number of deregulated genes compared to low-grade cases (50.6 vs. 23.8% with at least 2-fold deregulation rate). The main overexpressed genes in HNEpi were KLK5, SCGB1D2, GSN, EGFR and NGFR. The significant differences in gene expression between BCTis and HNEpi samples were revealed for BAG1, C3, CCNA2, CD44, FGF1, FOSL1, ID2, IL6R, NGFB, NGFR, PAPPA, PLAU, SERPINB5, THBS1 and TP53 gene (p < 0.05) and BCL2L2, CTSB, ITGB4, JUN, KIT, KLF5, SCGB1D2, SCGB2A1, SERPINE1 (p < 0.01), and EGFR, GABRP, GSN, MAP2K7 and THBS2 (p < 0.001), and GSN, KLK5 (p < 0.0001). The ontological gene analyses revealed high deregulations in gene group directly associated with breast cancer prognosis and origin. PMID:25407308

  5. Histologic review of breast cancer cases in survivors of atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Tokuoka, S.; Asano, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Tokunaga, M.; Sakamoto, G.; Hartmann, W.H.; Hutter, R.V.; Land, C.E.; Henson, D.E.

    1984-09-01

    A panel of Japanese and American pathologists reviewed existing histologic material used to study breast cancer risk among the A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a population in which incidence studies have found a strong relationship between breast cancer risk and radiation dose. The primary charge to the panel was to define a body of confirmed cases in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation that would require little or no review for inclusion in future studies of breast cancer incidence. Broad agreement on histologic type was reached for 298 of 300 confirmed cases. The distribution of histologic types was, overall, similar to that seen in other studies of breast cancer in Japanese women, and did not appear to depend on dose; thus radiation-induced breast cancer appeared to be no different histologically from other breast cancer. Also, no evidence was found of variation in histologic type by city, age at exposure, age at diagnosis, or calendar time.

  6. Nuclear nano-morphology markers of histologically normal cells detect the "field effect" of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bista, Rajan K; Wang, Pin; Bhargava, Rohit; Uttam, Shikhar; Hartman, Douglas J; Brand, Randall E; Liu, Yang

    2012-08-01

    Accurate detection of breast malignancy from histologically normal cells ("field effect") has significant clinical implications in a broad base of breast cancer management, such as high-risk lesion management, personalized risk assessment, breast tumor recurrence, and tumor margin management. More accurate and clinically applicable tools to detect markers characteristic of breast cancer "field effect" that are able to guide the clinical management are urgently needed. We have recently developed a novel optical microscope, spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy, which extracts the nanoscale structural characteristics of cell nuclei (i.e., nuclear nano-morphology markers), using standard histology slides. In this proof-of-concept study, we present the use of these highly sensitive nuclear nano-morphology markers to identify breast malignancy from histologically normal cells. We investigated the nano-morphology markers from 154 patients with a broad spectrum of breast pathology entities, including normal breast tissue, non-proliferative benign lesions, proliferative lesions (without and with atypia), "malignant-adjacent" normal tissue, and invasive carcinoma. Our results show that the nuclear nano-morphology markers of "malignant-adjacent" normal tissue can detect the presence of invasive breast carcinoma with high accuracy and do not reflect normal aging. Further, we found that a progressive change in nuclear nano-morphology markers that parallel breast cancer risk, suggesting its potential use for risk stratification. These novel nano-morphology markers that detect breast cancerous changes from nanoscale structural characteristics of histologically normal cells could potentially benefit the diagnosis, risk assessment, prognosis, prevention, and treatment of breast cancer. PMID:22706633

  7. Histological grade and other prognostic factors in relation to survival of patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, L. S.; Edwards, D. N.; McConnell, E. M.; Downham, D. Y.

    1979-01-01

    Records of 3085 patients registered with breast cancer at the Mersey Regional Cancer Registry have been analysed to evaluate the relative importance of possible prognostic factors. In a subgroup of 1759 patients, clinical stage and histological grade are shown to be strongly related to survival after treatment. In addition histological grade is related to the distribution of times to death after treatment. The results of this and 3 other studies have implications for the design and analysis of clinical trials in the primary treatment of breast cancer. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:454563

  8. Characteristics of the Japanese histological classification for breast cancer: correlations with imaging and cytology.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Shin-Ichi; Yamaguchi, Rin; Tsuchiya, Kyoko; Ohashi, Ryuji

    2013-08-20

    The Japanese histological classification of breast cancer is a unique classification that was published as the 2nd edition of the General Rules for Clinical and Pathological Recording of Breast Cancer in 1971. According to this classification, breast cancers are divided into three subgroups: noninvasive, invasive, and Paget's disease. Invasive carcinomas are further divided into two groups: invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) and special types. IDCs are the most common types, representing 70-80% of all breast cancers, and most of them correspond to invasive carcinoma-not special type-according to the latest WHO classification (4th edition). In particular, IDCs are subdivided into three subgroups as follows: (1) papillotubular carcinoma, which is characterized by the projection of papillae into spaces, and includes cribriform and comedo patterns; (2) solid-tubular carcinoma, which is a solid cluster of cancer cells with expansive growths that form relatively sharp borders; and (3) scirrhous carcinoma, which grows in a scirrhous manner characterized by cancer nests or cells accompanied by marked fibrosis. The concept of subclassification originated in Japan. The Japanese histological classification has taken on important roles since its publication, in particular for comparisons between histology and imaging or cytology. PMID:23959775

  9. Breast Cancer Classification From Histological Images with Multiple Features and Random Subspace Classifier Ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yungang; Zhang, Bailing; Lu, Wenjin

    2011-06-01

    Histological image is important for diagnosis of breast cancer. In this paper, we present a novel automatic breaset cancer classification scheme based on histological images. The image features are extracted using the Curvelet Transform, statistics of Gray Level Co-occurence Matrix (GLCM) and Completed Local Binary Patterns (CLBP), respectively. The three different features are combined together and used for classification. A classifier ensemble approach, called Random Subspace Ensemble (RSE), are used to select and aggregate a set of base neural network classifiers for classification. The proposed multiple features and random subspace ensemble offer the classification rate 95.22% on a publically available breast cancer image dataset, which compares favorably with the previously published result 93.4%.

  10. High histologic grade and increased relative content of tryptophan in breast cancer using ratios from fingerprint fluorescence spectral peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordillo, Laura A.; Sordillo, Peter P.; Budansky, Yury; Pu, Yang; Alfano, R. R.

    2015-03-01

    Histologic grade is a very important, but underappreciated, parameter of breast cancer aggressiveness. Despite its importance, it has historically not been included as one of the criteria for staging of this cancer. In this study, spectral fluorescence profiles from patients with breast carcinoma were acquired. Ratios of emission peaks at 340 over 440,460 nm from biomolecules in malignant and normal samples were calculated. Cancerous over normal ratios (double ratio (DR) method) were evaluated with respect to tumor characteristics. Increased tryptophan content in breast cancer tissues correlates strongly with high grade, but not with lymph node metastases, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor or Her-2-Neu receptor status.

  11. Large-scale computations on histology images reveal grade-differentiating parameters for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Petushi, Sokol; Garcia, Fernando U; Haber, Marian M; Katsinis, Constantine; Tozeren, Aydin

    2006-01-01

    Background Tumor classification is inexact and largely dependent on the qualitative pathological examination of the images of the tumor tissue slides. In this study, our aim was to develop an automated computational method to classify Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained tissue sections based on cancer tissue texture features. Methods Image processing of histology slide images was used to detect and identify adipose tissue, extracellular matrix, morphologically distinct cell nuclei types, and the tubular architecture. The texture parameters derived from image analysis were then applied to classify images in a supervised classification scheme using histologic grade of a testing set as guidance. Results The histologic grade assigned by pathologists to invasive breast carcinoma images strongly correlated with both the presence and extent of cell nuclei with dispersed chromatin and the architecture, specifically the extent of presence of tubular cross sections. The two parameters that differentiated tumor grade found in this study were (1) the number density of cell nuclei with dispersed chromatin and (2) the number density of tubular cross sections identified through image processing as white blobs that were surrounded by a continuous string of cell nuclei. Classification based on subdivisions of a whole slide image containing a high concentration of cancer cell nuclei consistently agreed with the grade classification of the entire slide. Conclusion The automated image analysis and classification presented in this study demonstrate the feasibility of developing clinically relevant classification of histology images based on micro- texture. This method provides pathologists an invaluable quantitative tool for evaluation of the components of the Nottingham system for breast tumor grading and avoid intra-observer variability thus increasing the consistency of the decision-making process. PMID:17069651

  12. Breast Cancer

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    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Breast Cancer What is Breast Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made ... tumors form in the breast tissue. Who Gets Breast Cancer? Breast cancer is one of the most ...

  13. Automatic glandular and tubule region segmentation in histological grading of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Kien; Barnes, Michael; Srinivas, Chukka; Chefd'hotel, Christophe

    2015-03-01

    In the popular Nottingham histologic score system for breast cancer grading, the pathologist analyzes the H and E tissue slides and assigns a score, in the range of 1-3, for tubule formation, nuclear pleomorphism and mitotic activity in the tumor regions. The scores from these three factors are added to give a final score, ranging from 3-9 to grade the cancer. Tubule score (TS), which reflects tubular formation, is a value in 1-3 given by manually estimating the percentage of glandular regions in the tumor that form tubules. In this paper, given an H and E tissue image representing a tumor region, we propose an automated algorithm to detect glandular regions and detect the presence of tubules in these regions. The algorithm first detects all nuclei and lumen candidates in the input image, followed by identifying tumor nuclei from the detected nuclei and identifying true lumina from the lumen candidates using a random forest classifier. Finally, it forms the glandular regions by grouping the closely located tumor nuclei and lumina using a graph-cut-based method. The glandular regions containing true lumina are considered as the ones that form tubules (tubule regions). To evaluate the proposed method, we calculate the tubule percentage (TP), i.e., the ratio of the tubule area to the total glandular area for 353 H and E images of the three TSs, and plot the distribution of these TP values. This plot shows the clear separation among these three scores, suggesting that the proposed algorithm is useful in distinguishing images of these TSs.

  14. Histologic Grade and Decrease in Tumor Dimensions Affect Axillary Lymph Node Status after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hee; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Kim, Ji Young; Han, Sehwan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purposes our study was to find out any histologic factors associated with negative conversion of axillary lymph node (ALN) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). We also evaluated the association between the decrease in size of primary breast tumor and negative conversion of ALN. Methods From January 2012 to November 2014, we included 133 breast cancer patients who underwent NAC and who had ALN metastases which were confirmed on fine-needle aspiration or core needle biopsy at initial diagnosis. All 133 patients underwent initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the time of diagnosis and preoperative MRI after completion of NAC. We measured the longest dimension of primary breast cancer on MRI. Results Of 133 patients, 39 patients (29%) showed negative conversion of ALN and of these 39 patients, 25 patients (64%) showed pathologic complete remission of primary breast. On univariate analysis, mean percent decrease in longest dimension, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and histologic grade were significantly associated with the ALN status after NAC (p<0.001, p=0.001, p< 0.001, p=0.001, p=0.002, respectively). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, percent decrease in longest dimension (odds ratio, 1.026; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.009-1.044) and histologic grade (odds ratio, 3.964; 95% CI, 1.151-13.657) were identified as being independently associated with the ALN status after NAC. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.835 with the best cutoff value of 80% decrease in longest dimension. Combination of high histologic grade and more than 80% decrease in longest dimension showed 64% sensitivity and 92% specificity. Conclusion High histologic grade and more than 80% decrease in primary tumor dimension were associated with negative conversion of ALN after NAC. PMID:26770247

  15. The role of ultrasonographic findings to predict molecular subtype, histologic grade, and hormone receptor status of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    elebi, Filiz; Pilanc?, Kezban Nur; Ordu, etin; A?acayak, Filiz; Alo, Gl; ?lgn, Serkan; Sarsenov, Dauren; Erdo?an, Zeynep; zmen, Vahit

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The correlation between imaging findings and pathologic characteristics of tumors may provide information for diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The aim of this study is to determine whether ultrasound features of breast cancer are associated with molecular subtype, histologic grade, and hormone receptor status, as well as assess the predictive value of these features. METHODS A total of 201 consecutive invasive breast cancer patients were reviewed from the database according to the Breast Imaging and Reporting Data System (BI-RADS). Tumor margins were classified as circumscribed and noncircumscribed. Noncircumscribed group was divided into indistinct, spiculated, angular, and microlobulated. The posterior acoustic features were divided into four categories: shadowing, enhancement, no change, and mixed pattern. RESULTS Tumors with posterior shadowing were more likely to be of nontriple negative subtype (odds ratio [OR], 7.42; 95% CI, 2.1024.99; P = 0.002), low histologic grade (grade 1 or 2 vs. grade 3: OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.344.35; P = 0.003) and having at least one positive receptor (OR, 3.36; 95% CI, 1.557.26; P = 0.002). Tumors with circumscribed margins were more often triple-negative subtype (OR, 6.72; 95% CI, 2.5617.65; P < 0.001), high grade (grade 3 vs. grade 1 or 2: OR, 5.42; 95% CI, 2.6611.00; P < 0.001) and hormone receptor negative (OR, 4.87; 95% CI, 2.379.99; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION Sonographic features are strongly associated with molecular subtype, histologic grade, and hormone receptor status of the tumor. These findings may separate triple-negative breast cancer from other molecular subtypes. PMID:26359880

  16. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. Breast cancer kills more women in the United States ... cancer. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are a number of risk ...

  17. Breast Cancer

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    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Breast Cancer KidsHealth > For Kids > Breast Cancer Print A ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny ...

  18. Mitosis detection in breast cancer histological images An ICPR 2012 contest

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Ludovic; Racoceanu, Daniel; Lomnie, Nicolas; Kulikova, Maria; Irshad, Humayun; Klossa, Jacques; Capron, Frdrique; Genestie, Catherine; Le Naour, Gilles; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In the framework of the Cognitive Microscope (MICO) project, we have set up a contest about mitosis detection in images of H and E stained slides of breast cancer for the conference ICPR 2012. Mitotic count is an important parameter for the prognosis of breast cancer. However, mitosis detection in digital histopathology is a challenging problem that needs a deeper study. Indeed, mitosis detection is difficult because mitosis are small objects with a large variety of shapes, and they can thus be easily confused with some other objects or artefacts present in the image. We added a further dimension to the contest by using two different slide scanners having different resolutions and producing red-green-blue (RGB) images, and a multi-spectral microscope producing images in 10 different spectral bands and 17 layers Z-stack. 17 teams participated in the study and the best team achieved a recall rate of 0.7 and precision of 0.89. Context: Several studies on automatic tools to process digitized slides have been reported focusing mainly on nuclei or tubule detection. Mitosis detection is a challenging problem that has not yet been addressed well in the literature. Aims: Mitotic count is an important parameter in breast cancer grading as it gives an evaluation of the aggressiveness of the tumor. However, consistency, reproducibility and agreement on mitotic count for the same slide can vary largely among pathologists. An automatic tool for this task may help for reaching a better consistency, and at the same time reducing the burden of this demanding task for the pathologists. Subjects and Methods: Professor Fr?d?rique Capron team of the pathology department at Piti?-Salp?tri?re Hospital in Paris, France, has selected a set of five slides of breast cancer. The slides are stained with H and E. They have been scanned by three different equipments: Aperio ScanScope XT slide scanner, Hamamatsu NanoZoomer 2.0-HT slide scanner and 10 bands multispectral microscope. The data set is made up of 50 high power fields (HPF) coming from 5 different slides scanned at 40 magnification. There are 10 HPFs/slide. The pathologist has annotated all the mitotic cells manually. A HPF has a size of 512 ?m 512 ?m (that is an area of 0.262 mm 2 , which is a surface equivalent to that of a microscope field diameter of 0.58 mm. These 50 HPFs contain a total of 326 mitotic cells on images of both scanners, and 322 mitotic cells on the multispectral microscope. Results: Up to 129 teams have registered to the contest. However, only 17 teams submitted their detection of mitotic cells. The performance of the best team is very promising, with F-measure as high as 0.78. However, the database we provided is by far too small for a good assessment of reliability and robustness of the proposed algorithms. Conclusions: Mitotic count is an important criterion in the grading of many types of cancers, however, very little research has been made on automatic mitotic cell detection, mainly because of a lack of available data. A main objective of this contest was to propose a database of mitotic cells on digitized breast cancer histopathology slides to initiate works on automated mitotic cell detection. In the future, we would like to extend this database to have much more images from different patients and also for different types of cancers. In addition, mitotic cells should be annotated by several pathologists to reflect the partial agreement among them. PMID:23858383

  19. Breast Cancer

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    ... puckering or dimpling An unusual increase in the size of one breast One breast unusually lower than the other Other Organizations American Cancer Society Breast Cancer Network Susan G. Komen for ...

  20. Breast field cancerization: isolation and comparison of telomerase-expressing cells in tumor and tumor adjacent, histologically normal breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Kristina A; Hines, William C; Vargas, Keith M; Jones, Anna C; Joste, Nancy E; Bisoffi, Marco; Griffith, Jeffrey K

    2011-09-01

    Telomerase stabilizes chromosomes by maintaining telomere length, immortalizes mammalian cells, and is expressed in more than 90% of human tumors. However, the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is not restricted to tumor cells. We have previously shown that a subpopulation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) in tumor-adjacent, histologically normal (TAHN) breast tissues expresses hTERT mRNA at levels comparable with levels in breast tumors. In the current study, we first validated a reporter for measuring levels of hTERT promoter activity in early-passage HMECs and then used this reporter to compare hTERT promoter activity in HMECs derived from tumor and paired TAHN tissues 1, 3, and 5 cm from the tumor (TAHN-1, TAHN-3, and TAHN-5, respectively). Cell sorting, quantitative real-time PCR, and microarray analyses showed that the 10% of HMECs with the highest hTERT promoter activity in both tumor and TAHN-1 tissues contain more than 95% of hTERT mRNA and overexpress many genes involved in cell cycle and mitosis. The percentage of HMECs within this subpopulation showing high hTERT promoter activity was significantly reduced or absent in TAHN-3 and TAHN-5 tissues. We conclude that the field of "normal tissue" proximal to the breast tumors contains a population of HMECs similar in hTERT expression levels and in gene expression to the HMECs within the tumor mass and that this population is significantly reduced in tissues more distal to the tumor. PMID:21775421

  1. Gene expression profiling of histologically normal breast tissue in females with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2‑positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zubor, Pavol; Hatok, Jozef; Moricova, Petra; Kapustova, Ivana; Kajo, Karol; Mendelova, Andrea; Sivonova, Monika Kmetova; Danko, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Gene expression profile‑based taxonomy of breast cancer (BC) has been described as a significant breakthrough in comprehending the differences in the origin and behavior of cancer to allow individually tailored therapeutic approaches. In line with this, we hypothesized that the gene expression profile of histologically normal epithelium (HNEpi) could harbor certain genetic abnormalities predisposing breast tissue cells to develop human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)‑positive BC. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess gene expression in normal and BC tissue (BCTis) from patients with BC in order to establish its value as a potential diagnostic marker for cancer development. An array study evaluating a panel of 84 pathway‑ and disease‑specific genes in HER2‑positive BC and tumor‑adjacent HNEpi was performed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 12 patients using microdissected samples from frozen tissue. Common prognostic and predictive parameters of BC were assessed by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. In the BCTis and HNEpi samples of 12 HER2‑positive subjects with BC, the expression of 2,016 genes was assessed. A total of 39.3% of genes were deregulated at a minimal two‑fold deregulation rate and 10.7% at a five‑fold deregulation rate in samples of HNEpi or BCTis. Significant differences in gene expression between BCTis and HNEpi samples were revealed for BCL2L2, CD44, CTSD, EGFR, ERBB2, ITGA6, NGFB, RPL27, SCBG2A1 and SCGB1D2 genes (P<0.05), as well as GSN, KIT, KLK5, SERPINB5 and STC2 genes (P<0.01). Insignificant differences (P<0.07) were observed for CCNA1, CLU, DLC1, GABRP and IL6 genes. The ontological gene analyses revealed that the majority of the deregulated genes in the HNEpi samples were part of the functional gene group directly associated with BC origin and prognosis. Functional analysis showed that the most frequent gene deregulations occurred in genes associated with apoptosis and cell cycle regulation in BCTis samples, and with angiogenesis, regulation of the cell cycle and transcriptional activity in HNEpi samples. The molecular profiling of HNEpi breast tissue revealed gene expression abnormalities that may represent potential markers of increased risk for HER2‑positive malignant transformation of breast tissue, and may be able to be employed as predictors of prognosis. PMID:25373323

  2. What Is Breast Cancer?

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    ... Next Topic Types of breast cancers What is breast cancer? Cancer starts when cells begin to grow ... men, see Breast Cancer in Men . The normal breast To understand breast cancer, it helps to have ...

  3. Types of Breast Cancers

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    ... the key statistics about breast cancer? Types of breast cancers Breast cancer can be separated into different ... than invasive ductal carcinoma. Less common types of breast cancer Inflammatory breast cancer This uncommon type of ...

  4. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

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    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment–Patient Version (PDQ®) General Information about Male Breast Cancer Key Points Male breast cancer is a ...

  5. [Histological diagnosis, DNA-content and chromatin pattern of breast cancer cases with positive and negative 17-beta-oestradiol receptor binding (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sachs, H; Winzer, J

    1976-12-10

    The DNA-concent of cell nuclei of 45 breast cancer cases of various histological structure has been determined cytophotometrically. With the exception of two gallert carcinomas no DNA-histogram of peridiploid range was found. The average DNA-content was 2--3 times higher as in the control tissue. The standard deviation of undifferentiated solid mammary tumors was the highest measured in this series. 24 of 45 cases had a negative oestrogen receptor binding. This was true in 60% of the undiffierentiated solid breast cancer cases, in 69% of the adenomatous and in 89 respectively 67% of the ones of special histological structure. The heterochromatin content of nuclei was lowest in the group of differentiated mammary cancer (50--60%). In the group of undifferentiated tumors it was 60--70%. So much for now is known about the mechanism of cellular action of 17-beta-oestradiol and the function of eu- and heterochromatin of cell nuclei it is discussed that positive or negative oestrogen hormone receptor binding in mammary tumor cells is probably a biochemical parameter of cytological desintegration. From this point of view these hormon receptors could be of the same value as the index of Barr bodies in breast cancer cells with respect of selection of cases for hormonal therapy. But this has to be analyzed in further studies extensively. PMID:1036881

  6. Breast cancer

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    ... why regular breast exams are important. As the cancer grows, symptoms may include: Breast lump or lump in the armpit that is hard, has uneven edges, and usually does not hurt Change in the size, shape, or feel of the breast or nipple -- ...

  7. Surgery for Breast Cancer

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    ... Topic Radiation therapy for breast cancer Surgery for breast cancer Most women with breast cancer have some ... the most common types of breast cancer surgery. Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) This type of surgery removes ...

  8. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... parts of the body, like the bones , the liver, or elsewhere. continue Why Do People Get Breast Cancer? Any woman can get breast cancer, but doctors have found that certain factors make some women more likely to get it. Family history: A woman whose mother, sister, aunt, or daughter ...

  9. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  10. High GINS2 transcript level predicts poor prognosis and correlates with high histological grade and endocrine therapy resistance through mammary cancer stem cells in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ming; Zhou, Yinghui; Yang, Xiangmin; Tang, Juan; Wei, Ding; Zhang, Yang; Jiang, Jian-Li; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Zhu, Ping

    2014-11-01

    GINS2, a subunit of the GINS complex, is overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma and metastatic breast tumor; however, its prognostic power and possible molecular mechanisms in breast cancer (BC) remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the function of GINS2 in BC. The association between GINS2 transcript level and the clinical outcome of BC patients were estimated using Kaplan-Meier plots, multivariate cox regression analysis, forest plots, and receiver operating characteristics curves. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed to explore the mechanisms underlying the effects of the GINS2 transcript. High GINS2 transcript level was correlated with poor relapse free survival (log-rank P ≤ 0.001 in six cohorts; forest plot: total n = 1,420, total RR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.45-2.03; multivariate cox regression analysis: n = 906, HR 2.36, 95% CI 1.88-2.97), and distant metastasis free survival (log-rank P < 0.01 in 3 cohorts; forest plot: total n = 691, total RR 1.91, 95% CI 1.36-2.67; multivariate cox regression analysis: n = 442, HR 2.43, 95% CI 1.70-3.47). BC patients with higher GINS2 transcript levels showed poorer tamoxifen efficacy in a dose-dependent manner. GINS2 expression was significantly downregulated under mutated p53-depleted condition in MDA-468 and MDA-MB-231 cells, upregulated in mammary cancer stem cells (MaCSCs) (P = 0.003), and correlated with upregulated genes in mammary stem cells (GSEA: P < 0.01). Our study, for the first time, demonstrates that GINS2 is an independent prognostic marker and is associated with lung metastasis, histological grade, and endocrine therapy resistance in BC patients, which may attribute to mutant p53 and MaCSCs. PMID:25348432

  11. Signatures of post-zygotic structural genetic aberrations in the cells of histologically normal breast tissue that can predispose to sporadic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Forsberg, Lars A.; Rasi, Chiara; Pekar, Gyula; Davies, Hanna; Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Absher, Devin; Razzaghian, Hamid Reza; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Halaszka, Krzysztof; Przewoźnik, Marcin; Kruczak, Anna; Mandava, Geeta; Pasupulati, Saichand; Hacker, Julia; Prakash, K. Reddy; Dasari, Ravi Chandra; Lau, Joey; Penagos-Tafurt, Nelly; Olofsson, Helena M.; Hallberg, Gunilla; Skotnicki, Piotr; Mituś, Jerzy; Skokowski, Jaroslaw; Jankowski, Michal; Śrutek, Ewa; Zegarski, Wojciech; Tiensuu Janson, Eva; Ryś, Janusz; Tot, Tibor; Dumanski, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic breast cancer (SBC) is a common disease without robust means of early risk prediction in the population. We studied 282 females with SBC, focusing on copy number aberrations in cancer-free breast tissue (uninvolved margin, UM) outside the primary tumor (PT). In total, 1162 UMs (1–14 per breast) were studied. Comparative analysis between UM(s), PT(s), and blood/skin from the same patient as a control is the core of the study design. We identified 108 patients with at least one aberrant UM, representing 38.3% of cases. Gains in gene copy number were the principal type of mutations in microscopically normal breast cells, suggesting that oncogenic activation of genes via increased gene copy number is a predominant mechanism for initiation of SBC pathogenesis. The gain of ERBB2, with overexpression of HER2 protein, was the most common aberration in normal cells. Five additional growth factor receptor genes (EGFR, FGFR1, IGF1R, LIFR, and NGFR) also showed recurrent gains, and these were occasionally present in combination with the gain of ERBB2. All the aberrations found in the normal breast cells were previously described in cancer literature, suggesting their causative, driving role in pathogenesis of SBC. We demonstrate that analysis of normal cells from cancer patients leads to identification of signatures that may increase risk of SBC and our results could influence the choice of surgical intervention to remove all predisposing cells. Early detection of copy number gains suggesting a predisposition toward cancer development, long before detectable tumors are formed, is a key to the anticipated shift into a preventive paradigm of personalized medicine for breast cancer. PMID:26430163

  12. Signatures of post-zygotic structural genetic aberrations in the cells of histologically normal breast tissue that can predispose to sporadic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Lars A; Rasi, Chiara; Pekar, Gyula; Davies, Hanna; Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Absher, Devin; Razzaghian, Hamid Reza; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Halaszka, Krzysztof; Przewo?nik, Marcin; Kruczak, Anna; Mandava, Geeta; Pasupulati, Saichand; Hacker, Julia; Prakash, K Reddy; Dasari, Ravi Chandra; Lau, Joey; Penagos-Tafurt, Nelly; Olofsson, Helena M; Hallberg, Gunilla; Skotnicki, Piotr; Mitu?, Jerzy; Skokowski, Jaroslaw; Jankowski, Michal; ?rutek, Ewa; Zegarski, Wojciech; Tiensuu Janson, Eva; Ry?, Janusz; Tot, Tibor; Dumanski, Jan P

    2015-10-01

    Sporadic breast cancer (SBC) is a common disease without robust means of early risk prediction in the population. We studied 282 females with SBC, focusing on copy number aberrations in cancer-free breast tissue (uninvolved margin, UM) outside the primary tumor (PT). In total, 1162 UMs (1-14 per breast) were studied. Comparative analysis between UM(s), PT(s), and blood/skin from the same patient as a control is the core of the study design. We identified 108 patients with at least one aberrant UM, representing 38.3% of cases. Gains in gene copy number were the principal type of mutations in microscopically normal breast cells, suggesting that oncogenic activation of genes via increased gene copy number is a predominant mechanism for initiation of SBC pathogenesis. The gain of ERBB2, with overexpression of HER2 protein, was the most common aberration in normal cells. Five additional growth factor receptor genes (EGFR, FGFR1, IGF1R, LIFR, and NGFR) also showed recurrent gains, and these were occasionally present in combination with the gain of ERBB2. All the aberrations found in the normal breast cells were previously described in cancer literature, suggesting their causative, driving role in pathogenesis of SBC. We demonstrate that analysis of normal cells from cancer patients leads to identification of signatures that may increase risk of SBC and our results could influence the choice of surgical intervention to remove all predisposing cells. Early detection of copy number gains suggesting a predisposition toward cancer development, long before detectable tumors are formed, is a key to the anticipated shift into a preventive paradigm of personalized medicine for breast cancer. PMID:26430163

  13. Contralateral Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Breast cancer survivors constitute about 25% of the growing population of cancer survivors in the US. Contralateral breast cancer is the most common second cancer in women with primary breast cancer. With increasing cure rates comes increasing concern

  14. Same-Day Diagnosis Based on Histology for Women Suspected of Breast Cancer: High Diagnostic Accuracy and Favorable Impact on the Patient

    PubMed Central

    Barentsz, Maarten W.; Wessels, Hester; van Diest, Paul J.; Pijnappel, Ruud M.; van der Pol, Carmen C.; Witkamp, Arjen J.; van den Bosch, Maurice A. A. J.; Verkooijen, Helena M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Same-day diagnosis based on histology is increasingly being offered to patients suspected of breast cancer. We evaluated to which extent same-day diagnosis affected diagnostic accuracy and patients' anxiety levels during the diagnostic phase. Patients and methods All 759 women referred for same-day evaluation of suspicious breast lesions between November 2011March 2013 were included. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by linking all patients to the national pathology database to identify diagnostic discrepancies, in which case slides were reviewed. Patients' anxiety was measured in 127 patients by the State Trait and Anxiety Inventory on six moments during the diagnostic workup and changes over time (cancer was found. Final diagnosis on the same day was provided for 606/759 (79.8%) patients. Overall, 3/759 (0.4%) discordant findings were identified. Anxiety levels decreased significantly over time from 45.2 to 30.0 (P?=?<0.001). Anxiety levels decreased from 44.4 to 25.9 (P?=?<0.001) for patients with benign disease, and remained unchanged for patients diagnosed with malignancies (48.6 to 46.7, P?=?0.933). Time trends in anxiety were not affected by other patient or disease characteristics like age, education level or (family) history of breast cancer. Conclusion Same-day histological diagnosis is feasible in the vast majority of patients, without impairing diagnostic accuracy. Patients' anxiety rapidly decreased in patients with a benign diagnosis and remained constant in patients with malignancy. PMID:25047134

  15. Secondary cancer rates following breast cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Wesley, David

    2007-01-01

    Life table analysis and other mortality methods apply well to end points other than mortality. This paper demonstrates the application of mortality experience methodology to the recurrence of breast cancer and/or new primaries in women previously diagnosed with primary breast cancer. Specific recurrence rates are broken out by duration as well as attributes available at the time of primary breast cancer diagnosis: stage, histology, age band, and year of diagnosis. Use of attained age is demonstrated to control for the effect of aging over long durations. Breast cancer recurrence is shown to drop to a relatively low rate compared with the rate of new primary occurrence. PMID:17941334

  16. Synchronous Bilateral Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Subramanyan, Annapurneswari; Radhakrishna, Selvi

    2015-01-01

    Background Bilateral breast cancer (BBC) is not an uncommon entity in contemporary breast clinics. Improved life expectancy after breast cancer treatment and routine use of contra-lateral breast mammography has led to increased incidence of BBC. Our study objective was to define the epidemiological and tumour characteristics of BBC in India. Materials and Methods A total of 1251 breast cancer patients were treated during the period January 2007 to March 2015 and 30 patients were found to have BBC who constituted the study population (60 tumour samples). Synchronous bilateral breast cancers (SBC) was defined as two tumours diagnosed within an interval of 6 months and a second cancer diagnosed after 6 months was labelled as metachronous breast cancer (MBC). Analyses of patient and tumour characteristics were done in this prospective data base of BBC patients. Results Median patient age was 66 years (range 39-85). Majority of the patients had SBC (n=28) and in 12 patients the second tumour was clinically occult and detected only by mammography of the contra-lateral breast. The second tumour was found at lower tumour size compared to the first in 73% of cases and was negative for axillary metastasis in 80% of cases (24/30). Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the commonest histological type (n=51) and majority of the tumours were ER/PR positive (50/60). Her2 was overexpressed in 13 tumours (21%). Over 70% (22/30) of patients had similar histology in both breasts and amongst them grade concordance was present in about 69% (15/22) of patients. Concordance rates of ER, PR and Her2 statuses were 83%, 80% and 90% respectively. Bilateral mastectomy was the commonest surgery performed in 80% of the patients followed by bilateral breast conservation in 13%. At the end of study period, 26 patients were alive and disease free. Median survival was 29 months (range 3-86 months). Conclusion In most patients with BBC, the second tumour is identified at an early stage than index tumours supporting the importance of contralateral breast cancer screening at the time of primary diagnosis and during follow-up. BBC occurs more frequently in old age group and majority of these tumours are estrogen dependent. There is good pathological concordance between the index tumour and the contralateral breast cancer. PMID:26500995

  17. Breast Cancer -- Metaplastic

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Overview Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Screening Symptoms ...

  18. Sexuality After Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Next Topic Pregnancy after breast cancer Sexuality after breast cancer You may have concerns about sexuality after ... time after radiation is finished. Sexual impact of breast reconstruction Breast reconstruction restores the shape of the ...

  19. Discordance of Intraoperative Frozen Section Analysis with Definitive Histology of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer Surgery: Complementary Axillary Lymph Node Dissection is Irrelevant for Subsequent Systemic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Geertsema, D.; Gobardhan, P. D.; Madsen, E. V. E.; Albregts, M.; van Gorp, J.; de Hooge, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background In breast cancer surgery, intraoperative frozen section (FS) analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) enables axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) during the same operative procedure. In case of discordance between a negative FS analysis and definitive histology, an ALND as a second operation is advocated since additional lymph node metastases may be present. The clinical implications of the subsequent ALND in these patients were evaluated. Materials and Methods Between November 2000 and May 2008, 879 consecutive breast cancer patients underwent surgery including sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) with intraoperative FS analysis of 2 central cuts from axillary SLNs. Following fixation and serial sectioning, SLNs were further examined postoperatively with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical techniques. For patients with a discordant FS examination, the effect of the pathology findings of the subsequent ALND specimen on subsequent nonsurgical therapy were evaluated. Results FS analysis detected axillary metastases in the SLN(s) in 200 patients (23%), while the definitive pathology examination detected metastases in SLNs in another 151 patients (17%). A complementary ALND was performed in 108 of the 151 patients with discordant FS. Additional tumor positive axillary lymph nodes were found in 17 patients (16%), leading to upstaging in 7 (6%). Subsequent nonsurgical treatment was adjusted in 4 patients (4%): all 4 had more extensive locoregional radiotherapy; no patient received additional hormonal and/or chemotherapy. Conclusion Discordance between intraoperative FS analysis and definitive histology of SLNs is common. In this selection of patients, a substantial proportion had additional lymph node metastases, but postsurgical treatment was rarely adjusted based on the findings of the complementary ALND. PMID:20422461

  20. Breast cancer screenings

    MedlinePLUS

    Breast cancer screenings can help find breast cancer early, before you notice any symptoms. In many cases, finding breast cancer early makes it easier to treat or cure. But screenings also have risks, such as missing ...

  1. Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  2. Immunohistochemical analysis of medullary breast carcinoma autoantigens in different histological types of breast carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background On the past decade a plethora of investigations were directed on identification of molecules involved in breast tumorogenesis, which could represent a powerful tool for monitoring, diagnostics and treatment of this disease. In current study we analyzed six previously identified medullary breast carcinoma autoantigens including LGALS3BP, RAD50, FAM50A, RBPJ, PABPC4, LRRFIP1 with cancer restricted serological profile in different histological types of breast cancer. Methods Semi-quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of 20 tissue samples including medullary breast carcinoma, invasive ductal carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma and non-cancerous tissues obtained from patients with fibrocystic disease (each of five) was performed using specifically generated polyclonal antibodies. Differences in expression patterns were evaluated considering percent of positively stained cells, insensitivity of staining and subcellular localization in cells of all tissue samples. Results All 6 antigens predominantly expressed in the most cells of all histological types of breast tumors and non-cancerous tissues with slight differences in intensity of staining and subcellular localization. The most significant differences in expression pattern were revealed for RAD50 and LGALS3BP in different histological types of breast cancer and for PABPC4 and FAM50A antigens in immune cells infiltrating breast tumors. Conclusions This pilot study made possible to select 4 antigens LGALS3BP, RAD50, PABPC4, and FAM50A as promising candidates for more comprehensive research as potential molecular markers for breast cancer diagnostics and therapy. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1860649350796892 PMID:23181716

  3. Histological grade and steroid receptor content of primary breast cancer--impact on prognosis and possible modes of action.

    PubMed Central

    Kamby, C.; Andersen, J.; Ejlertsen, B.; Birkler, N. E.; Rytter, L.; Zedeler, K.; Thorpe, S. M.; Nørgaard, T.; Rose, C.

    1988-01-01

    The clinical course of breast cancer was related to degree of anaplasia (DA) and steroid receptor (SR) content of primary tumours in 743 patients (pts) with clinical recurrence, initially enrolled in the DBCG-77 protocols. The oestrogen receptor (ER) and the progesterone receptor (PgR) content was known in 110 and 67 pts. The recurrence-free interval, survival after recurrence, and the overall survival were all prolonged in patients with well differentiated tumours or with high SR content. The tumour growth rates were estimated as clinical rates of progression (i.e., the time elapsed from a single distant metastasis until dissemination). The progression rate was prolonged in relatively well differentiated as well as in receptor rich tumours. The extent of dissemination, as indicated by the number of metastatic sites, was not associated with either DA or SR content. However, the anatomical distribution of metastases varied with both DA and SR content: signs of poor prognosis (high DA or low SR content) were associated with occurrence of visceral metastases. In contrast, SR rich tumours had a propensity for recurrence in bone. The results suggest that the impact on prognosis of the features examined here includes both variations in growth rate and metastatic pattern. PMID:3207602

  4. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment–Patient Version (PDQ®) General Information about Male Breast Cancer Key Points Male breast cancer is a ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment–Patient Version (PDQ®) General Information about Male Breast Cancer Key Points Male breast cancer is a ...

  6. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment–Patient Version (PDQ®) General Information about Male Breast Cancer Key Points Male breast cancer is a ...

  7. Breast cancer in men

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in situ-male; Intraductal carcinoma-male; Inflammatory breast cancer-male; Paget disease of the nipple-male; Breast cancer-male ... The cause of breast cancer is not clear. But there are risk ... breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to radiation Higher ...

  8. Risk factors for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mesko, T W; Dunlap, J N; Sutherland, C M

    1990-11-01

    Despite the numerous risk factors for the development of breast cancer that have been investigated, only a few demonstrate a clear association with breast cancer development. Female gender and increasing age are the most important factors, followed by factors involving a woman's menstrual, reproductive, and family history. The risks related to menstruation and reproduction are probably related to the duration of estrogenic breast stimulation. The relationship of family history and breast cancer risk is unclear, but there may be a true genetic basis. The previous occurrence of breast cancer (invasive or in situ), the presence of proliferative pathological changes, especially with atypia, and the presence of other malignancies (e.g., primary ovarian and endometrial cancer) are histological risk factors for the development of new or recurrent breast cancer. Radiation exposure, the use of exogenous estrogens (both estrogen replacement therapy and oral contraceptives), diet (especially fat consumption), and alcohol intake may all play a role in cancer risk. Certain medications as well as patient demographics may also have a weak association. Cigarette smoking, caffeine consumption, and stress presently have little support for an association with breast cancer risk. It should be noted that in only one in four patients can breast cancer be accounted for by the known risk factors. This demonstrates that although presently known risk factors may help in screening for the early detection of breast carcinoma, in its possible prevention by modulation of influenceable factors, and in advising patients about their risks, these factors are merely strong associations with breast cancer incidence and not actual causations. The mechanisms of the development of breast cancer are as yet unknown. PMID:2269013

  9. Normal and pathological breast, the histological basis.

    PubMed

    Guinebretire, J M; Menet, E; Tardivon, A; Cherel, P; Vanel, D

    2005-04-01

    Breast tissue is heterogeneous, associating connective and glandular structures, which grow and change cyclically under hormonal regulation. Hormones are also thought to be the main determinant of the major benign and malignant pathologies encountered in the breast. Benign lesions are more frequent and fibrocystic changes are by far the most common among them. They usually associate different entities, (adenosis, fibrosis, cysts and hyperplasia) but vary in intensity and extension. Thus, their clinical and radiographic presentation is extremely different from one patient to another. Adenofibroma is the most frequent tumour. It also undergoes modifications according to hormonal conditions. About 90% of malignant tumours are primary carcinoma. The incidence of intra-ductal carcinoma has risen dramatically since the development of screening because of its ability to induce calcification. Two mechanisms could be involved in the formation of calcification: one active (tumour cell secretion of vesicles), the other passive (necrotic cell fragments are released). Invasive carcinoma comprises numerous histological types. Stromal reactions essentially determines their shape: a fibrous reaction commonly found in ductal carcinoma creates a stellate lesion while other stroma, inflammatory (medullary carcinoma), vascular (papillary carcinoma) or mucinous determine nodular lesions whose borders push the surrounding tissue. The histological features which give rise to the radiographic pattern will be emphasised. PMID:15797289

  10. Differences in fluorescence profiles from breast cancer tissues due to changes in relative tryptophan content via energy transfer: tryptophan content correlates with histologic grade and tumor size but not with lymph node metastases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordillo, Laura A.; Sordillo, Peter P.; Budansky, Yury; Pu, Yang; Alfano, Robert R.

    2014-12-01

    The correlation between histologic grade, an increasingly important measure of prognosis for patients with breast cancer, and tryptophan levels from tissues of 15 breast carcinoma patients was investigated. Changes in the relative content of key native organic biomolecule tryptophan were seen from the fluorescence spectra of cancerous and paired normal tissues with excitation wavelengths of 280 and 300 nm. Due to a large spectral overlap and matching excitation-emission spectra, fluorescence resonance energy transfer from tryptophan-donor to reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides-acceptor was noted. We used the ratios of fluorescence intensities at their spectral emission peaks, or spectral fingerprint peaks, at 340, 440, and 460 nm. Higher ratios correlated strongly with high histologic grade, while lower-grade tumors had low ratios. Large tumor size also correlated with high ratios, while the number of lymph node metastases, a major factor in staging, was not correlated with tryptophan levels. High histologic grade correlates strongly with increased content of tryptophan in breast cancer tissues and suggests that measurement of tryptophan content may be useful as a part of the evaluation of these patients.

  11. [Breast cancer epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Ravera, R; Medina, E; Lpez, I M

    1991-09-01

    204 pts with breast cancer were compared to 208 pts of similar age, with pathologies other than cancer, to assess the frequency of biological and social factors related to breast cancer, in Chilean females. The pts with breast cancer were in the 40 to 65 year old group, had a higher frequency of AB blood group, lower pregnancy and delivery rates and later pregnancies. Age of menarche and menopause, prolonged breast feeding, oral contraceptives and nutritional state were not related to a higher frequency of breast cancer. Further studies that include the analysis of previous breast pathology, diabetes, psychosomatic factors, alcohol and caffeine consumption, tobacco and others are suggested. PMID:1845101

  12. Mucoid breast carcinomas: histology and prognosis.

    PubMed Central

    Fentiman, I. S.; Millis, R. R.; Smith, P.; Ellul, J. P.; Lampejo, O.

    1997-01-01

    In a series of 73 patients with mucoid breast carcinomas treated at Guy's Hospital between 1973 and 1989, 24 (33%) patients had pure mucoid lesions and 49 (67%) had mixed mucoid carcinomas. The patients with pure mucoid cancers had significantly smaller tumours and, among those in whom an axillary dissection was performed, mixed mucoid cancers were more likely to be associated with axillary nodal metastases (46% vs 14%). After long-term follow-up of 64 patients, both relapse-free and overall survival were significantly better for those with pure mucoid carcinomas, for whom the 10-year actuarial overall survival was 100%. The overall proportion of the tumour that was mucoid was also positively associated with a more favourable prognosis in patients with mixed tumours. With such a good prognosis, patients with pure mucoid carcinomas may not require systemic adjuvant therapy after adequate primary treatment. PMID:9083343

  13. Living Beyond Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Events Educational Programs Ask the Expert Breast Cancer 360 Community Meetings Conferences Metastatic Breast Cancer Conference Meet- ... 2) See All Blog Posts Facebook Tweet LinkedIn Google+ Email Donate Your gift helps connect those in ...

  14. Breast Cancer Disparities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: ...

  15. Breast Cancer Screening Methods

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... medlineplus/videos/news/Screening_Methods_123015.html Breast Cancer Screening Methods HealthDay News Video - December 31, 2015 ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Play video: Breast Cancer Screening Methods For closed captioning, click the CC ...

  16. Breast Cancer: Early Detection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( ... the factors that may affect your risk for breast cancer, and find out what you can do to ...

  17. What Is Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... statistics about breast cancer in men? What is breast cancer in men? A breast cancer is a ... and that they can develop breast cancer. Normal breast structure To understand breast cancer, it helps to ...

  18. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who ...

  19. Your Body After Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Breast Cancer , Coping with Cancer Your Body After Breast Cancer Article date: September 28, 2012 By Melissa Weber ... age 24, she was diagnosed with stage 3 breast cancer in 2010. “I had no control over what ...

  20. Breast Cancer in Men

    MedlinePLUS

    ... surgery) is rarely used because of the small size of the male breast. Some men may have radiation after surgery. Since most breast cancers in men are hormone receptor- positive, hormone therapy ( ...

  1. Breast Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... oral contraceptives increase the risk of breast cancer. Environment Studies have not proven that being exposed to certain substances in the environment, such as chemicals , increases the risk of breast ...

  2. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: Breast cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Breast cancer On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed May 2015 What is breast cancer? Breast cancer is a disease in which certain ...

  4. Hormone therapy for breast cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or block the action of female sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone) in a woman's body. This helps ... The hormones estrogen and progesterone make some breast cancers grow. They are called hormone-sensitive breast cancers. Most breast cancers are ...

  5. Paying for Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... screening coverage in your state. National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program States are making breast cancer ... Disease Control and Preventions (CDCs) National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) . The NBCCEDP attempts to ...

  6. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medical, surgical, radiation, gynecologic, and pediatric oncologists, oncology nurses, physician assistants, social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net ... Research Coping with Side Effects Follow-up Care and Monitoring ...

  7. Breast cancer statistics, 2013.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Carol; Ma, Jiemin; Bryan, Leah; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 232,340 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,620 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2013. One in 8 women in the United States will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. Breast cancer incidence rates increased slightly among African American women; decreased among Hispanic women; and were stable among whites, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives from 2006 to 2010. Historically, white women have had the highest breast cancer incidence rates among women aged 40 years and older; however, incidence rates are converging among white and African American women, particularly among women aged 50 years to 59 years. Incidence rates increased for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers in the youngest white women, Hispanic women aged 60 years to 69 years, and all but the oldest African American women. In contrast, estrogen receptor-negative breast cancers declined among most age and racial/ethnic groups. These divergent trends may reflect etiologic heterogeneity and the differing effects of some factors, such as obesity and parity, on risk by tumor subtype. Since 1990, breast cancer death rates have dropped by 34% and this decrease was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. Nevertheless, survival disparities persist by race/ethnicity, with African American women having the poorest breast cancer survival of any racial/ethnic group. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population. PMID:24114568

  8. Annotating breast cancer microarray samples using ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongfang; Li, Xin; Yoon, Victoria; Clarke, Robert

    2008-01-01

    As the most common cancer among women, breast cancer results from the accumulation of mutations in essential genes. Recent advance in high-throughput gene expression microarray technology has inspired researchers to use the technology to assist breast cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment prediction. However, the high dimensionality of microarray experiments and public access of data from many experiments have caused inconsistencies which initiated the development of controlled terminologies and ontologies for annotating microarray experiments, such as the standard microarray Gene Expression Data (MGED) ontology (MO). In this paper, we developed BCM-CO, an ontology tailored specifically for indexing clinical annotations of breast cancer microarray samples from the NCI Thesaurus. Our research showed that the coverage of NCI Thesaurus is very limited with respect to i) terms used by researchers to describe breast cancer histology (covering 22 out of 48 histology terms); ii) breast cancer cell lines (covering one out of 12 cell lines); and iii) classes corresponding to the breast cancer grading and staging. By incorporating a wider range of those terms into BCM-CO, we were able to indexed breast cancer microarray samples from GEO using BCM-CO and MGED ontology and developed a prototype system with web interface that allows the retrieval of microarray data based on the ontology annotations. PMID:18999108

  9. Mucocele-like lesions of the breast: a clinical outcome and histologic analysis of 102 cases.

    PubMed

    Meares, Annie L; Frank, Ryan D; Degnim, Amy C; Vierkant, Robert A; Frost, Marlene H; Hartmann, Lynn C; Winham, Stacey J; Visscher, Daniel W

    2016-03-01

    Mucocele-like lesions (MLLs) of the breast are characterized by cystic architecture with stromal mucin and frequent atypia, but it is unknown whether they convey long-term breast cancer risk. We evaluated 102 MLLs that were derived from a single-institution benign breast disease cohort of 13412 women who underwent biopsy from 1967 to 2001. MLLs were histologically characterized by type of lining epithelium, architecture of the lesion, associated atypical hyperplasia (AH), and incidence of breast cancer (14.8-year median follow-up). A relatively large proportion of MLLs (42%) were diagnosed in women older than 55 years. AH was significantly more frequent in MLL patient compared to the cohort overall (27% versus 5%; P < .001). Breast cancer has developed in 13 patients with MLL. This frequency is only slightly higher than population expected rates overall (standardized incidence ratio, 2.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-3.91) and not significantly different from women in the cohort with (nonatypical) proliferative breast lesions. Younger women (<45) with MLL had a nonsignificant increase in risk of cancer compared to the general population (standardized incidence ratio, 5.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.41-13.23). We conclude that MLL is an uncommon breast lesion that is often associated with coexisting AH. However, in women older than 45 years, MLLs do not convey additional risk of breast cancer beyond that associated with the presence of proliferative disease. PMID:26826407

  10. [Breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Caballero, J L; Ros, B

    1995-01-01

    The authors reviewed the clinical records of 31 patients with carcinoma of the breast diagnosed at the Dr. Rafael Hernndez Hospital in Chiriqu from January 1988 to December 1990. All the patients were women and the average age was 51.9 years. 41.9% of the patients were classified Stage 1; 29%, Stage 2; 16.1%, Stage IIIA; and 12.8%, Stage IIIB. 74% of the patients were treated with a modified radical mastectomy, radiation and hormonal therapies. Systemic cytotoxic therapy was given to 77% of the patients. Total survival 48 months after diagnosis was 83.3% in patients at Stage I; 66%, at Stage II; 40%, at Stage IIIA; and 0%, in patients at Stage IIIB. PMID:7480904

  11. Breast Cancer Screening Rates

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is easier to treat and before it is big enough to feel or cause symptoms. Having regular mammograms can lower the risk of dying from breast cancer. Source for graph data: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Cancer ...

  12. Breast cancer staging

    MedlinePLUS

    Stages of breast cancer are defined by a system called TNM: T stands for tumor . It describes the size and location of the main tumor. N stands for lymph nodes . It describes whether cancer has spread to ...

  13. Breast Cancer -- Male

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medical, surgical, radiation, gynecologic, and pediatric oncologists, oncology nurses, physician assistants, social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men ... with Side Effects Follow-up Care and Monitoring ...

  14. Breast Cancer -- Inflammatory

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medical, surgical, radiation, gynecologic, and pediatric oncologists, oncology nurses, physician assistants, social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer - Inflammatory ... with Side Effects Follow-up Care and Monitoring ...

  15. Staging breast cancer: role of bone scanning.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, C J; Griffiths, P A; Preston, B J; Morris, A H; Elston, C W; Blamey, R W

    1977-01-01

    Bone scans using technetium-99m phosphate complexes and a rectilinear scanner were carried out on 192 women with primary operable breast cancer four to six weeks after operation. The lymph node status of all these patients was assessed histologically from triple node biopsy specimens. Only nine patients had positive scans, although 94 patients had histological evidence that the tumour had already spread beyond the confines of the breast. Bone scanning, although accurate as a prognostic guide, is helpful only in a very few cases, and serves mainly to confirm prognostic information obtained more simply and less extensively by histological examination of lymph node biopsy specimens. PMID:901997

  16. Grading breast cancer tissues using molecular portraits.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Niclas; Carlsson, Petter; James, Peter; Hansson, Karin; Waldemarson, Sofia; Malmstrm, Per; Fern, Mrten; Ryden, Lisa; Wingren, Christer; Borrebaeck, Carl A K

    2013-12-01

    Tumor progression and prognosis in breast cancer patients are difficult to assess using current clinical and laboratory parameters, where a pathological grading is indicative of tumor aggressiveness. This grading is based on assessments of nuclear grade, tubule formation, and mitotic rate. We report here the first protein signatures associated with histological grades of breast cancer, determined using a novel affinity proteomics approach. We profiled 52 breast cancer tissue samples by combining nine antibodies and label-free LC-MS/MS, which generated detailed quantified proteomic maps representing 1,388 proteins. The results showed that we could define in-depth molecular portraits of histologically graded breast cancer tumors. Consequently, a 49-plex candidate tissue protein signature was defined that discriminated between histological grades 1, 2, and 3 of breast cancer tumors with high accuracy. Highly biologically relevant proteins were identified, and the differentially expressed proteins indicated further support for the current hypothesis regarding remodeling of the tumor microenvironment during tumor progression. The protein signature was corroborated using meta-analysis of transcriptional profiling data from an independent patient cohort. In addition, the potential for using the markers to estimate the likelihood of long-term metastasis-free survival was also indicated. Taken together, these molecular portraits could pave the way for improved classification and prognostication of breast cancer. PMID:23982162

  17. Carboplatin and Eribulin Mesylate in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-23

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  18. BREAST CANCER AND EXERCISE

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2008-03-19

    Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

  19. Multifocal/multicentric breast carcinomas showing intertumoural heterogeneity: a comparison of histological tumour type and Nottingham histological grade of primary tumour and lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Boros, Monica; Podoleanu, Cristian; Georgescu, Rares; Moldovan, Cosmin; Molnar, Calin; Stolnicu, Simona

    2015-06-01

    Our study aimed to compare the histological tumour type and Nottingham histological grade of invasive tumour foci in multifocal/multicentric breast carcinomas with those in corresponding axillary lymph node (LN) metastases. We reassessed slides from consecutive multiple breast carcinomas surgically treated with axillary LN dissection (2007-2012). 155 (19.23%) of 806 cases had multiple breast cancer, of which 115 (74.19%) cases had identical morphology. Of these, 85 (73.91%) cases had axillary LN metastases morphologically identical to the originating breast tumours. 32 of the 40 (80%) cases with different morphology had axillary LN metastases; in most heterogeneous cases with differences in grade (87.5%), the grade of metastases was identical to the grade of the tumour foci with the highest histological grade, and in 33.33% of cases the grade in LN was concordant with the grade of smaller foci. Among the 18 cases heterogeneous in histological type with axillary metastases, 33.33% presented heterogeneous histological types in LN, and 22.22% of them were only concordant with the histological type of the smaller tumour foci. The morphological aspects of axillary LN metastases correspond to the highest histological grade and/or histological tumour type with unfavourable prognosis, which does not necessarily appear in the largest tumour focus. PMID:26247525

  20. Breast Density and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... news/Breast_Density_120215.html Breast Density and Cancer Risk HealthDay News Video - December 3, 2015 To ... please enable JavaScript. Play video: Breast Density and Cancer Risk For closed captioning, click the CC button ...

  1. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male

    PubMed Central

    Rubio Hernndez, Mara Caridad; Daz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Prez, Suanly Rodrguez; Daz, Ronald Rodrguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutirrez

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer. PMID:24319497

  2. Stress and breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Priestman, T. J.; Priestman, S. G.; Bradshaw, C.

    1985-01-01

    In order to assess whether exposure to stress was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, 100 women presenting with carcinoma of the breast completed a standard life events inventory documenting life stresses experienced during the previous three years. The same questionnaire was completed by 100 women presenting with benign breast lumps and 100 apparently healthy controls. Both groups of patients with breast disease also completed the Eysenck personality inventory. There was no difference in the number of stressful life events experienced by the patients with benign and malignant breast lesions and the nature and severity of those stresses encountered were similar for both groups. The personality indices were also the same for both groups. The controls, however, recorded significantly higher levels of stress exposure than the patients with breast disease. On the basis of this series, there is no evidence to support the hypothesis that stress predisposes to breast cancer development. PMID:3978029

  3. Cathepsin D in breast secretions from women with breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, L. M.; Ferrando, A. A.; Diez-Itza, I.; Vizoso, F.; Ruibal, A.; López-Otin, C.

    1993-01-01

    A proteinase accumulated in breast secretions from women with breast cancer has been characterised. Inhibition of the proteolytic activity of breast secretions by pepstatin A showed that the main enzyme involved was an aspartyl proteinase. Determination of its cleavage specificity by SDS-PAGE and amino acid sequence analysis revealed that it was identical to that of cathepsin D, an aspartyl proteinase suggested to be involved in breast cancer development. The identity between both proteins was further confirmed by immunological analysis with monoclonal antibodies against cathepsin D. Quantification of cathepsin D in nipple fluids from 41 women with benign or malignant breast diseases and from 19 control women without breast pathology revealed the presence of variable amounts of this proteinase. The average concentration of cathepsin D in breast secretions from cancer-bearing breasts was 7.2 +/- 2.2 fmol micrograms of protein, which was significantly higher than those of nipple fluids from control women (2.9 +/- 0.6 fmol micrograms-1) (P = 0.04) or from patients with benign breast diseases (2.1 +/- 0.3 fmol micrograms-1) (P = 0.004). Though the number of cancer patients studied was small (n = 21), no correlations were found with cytosolic concentrations of cathepsin D or oestrogen receptors, neither with other parameters such as tumour size, histological grade, axillary node involvement or menopausal status. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8494701

  4. Chemoprevention of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Castrellon, Aurelio B; Glück, Stefan

    2008-03-01

    Breast cancer remains the second leading cause of malignancy-related death in women in the USA, regardless of advances in novel therapeutic agents. High priority should be given to research aimed at the study of pharmacological and natural compounds that could potentially prevent the development of breast cancer in susceptible patients. Tamoxifen has been shown to reduce the incidence of estrogen receptor-positive invasive breast cancer in women with a high risk of developing this condition by nearly 50%, and studies in osteoporosis have revealed a similar protective effect of raloxifene in postmenopausal women. The aromatase inhibitors are superior to tamoxifen in reducing the recurrence of breast cancer in postmenopausal women; large clinical trials are currently evaluating the chemopreventive effect of these agents. The list of agents with the potential for chemoprevention in breast cancer is extensive and continues to expand. There is an immense need to develop drugs that will decrease the incidence of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer in women at high risk of developing the disease. Herein, we review the most important chemopreventive agents in breast cancer and clinical trials that have evaluated their efficacy. PMID:18366291

  5. Breast cancer and obesity.

    PubMed

    La Guardia, M; Giammanco, M

    2001-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence links breast cancer, a typical endocrine-related tumor, with western lifestyle, in particular eating habits. Yet, it's necessary to distinguish premenopausal from postmenopausal breast cancer. Visceral obesity and body weight gain are considered responsible for the increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. In fact, the mammary gland is sensitive to the level of circulating estrogens, visceral obesity is usually associated with higher levels of free steroid hormones, and the adipose tissue performs important endocrine function (clearance and aromatisation of androgens, regulation of free testoterone/DHEAS molar ratio). Before menopause, ovarian polycystosis is often seen with android obesity, and breast cancer risk could arise; however, as visceral obesity is generally less frequent, genetic factors are more important than nutritional ones. Furthermore, variations have been recorded in the secretion of insulin and insulin-like growth factors, involved in the genesis of the breast cancer. High body weight and male fat distribution negatively influence prognosis of breast cancer, too; this association is linked with the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in tumoral cells. Links between diet quality and breast cancer risk are shown: increased use of saturated fats and animal proteins, and a consequently decreased use of vegetables, legumes and fruit, constituting the so-called Mediterranean diet, are considered responsible for the increased risk of breast cancer. Lower fat and alcohol ingestion, the use of dietary fibre and a higher use of complex carbohydrates could reduce breast cancer risk. Finally, starting from the results of our previous animal researches, we suggest using a tryptophan devoid diet for a few days for premenopausal women with male obesity and alterations to the menstrual cycle. PMID:11449184

  6. The histological diagnosis of metastases to the breast from extramammary malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Andrew H S

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to review histological and immunohistochemical features that are useful in the diagnosis of metastases to the breast. Histological features were compared between non‐haematological metastases to the breast and 100 consecutive core biopsy specimens of primary invasive carcinomas of the breast. 18 non‐haematological metastases to the breast were diagnosed over a 10‐year period (0.3% of malignant mammary tumours). Elastosis and carcinoma in situ were seen only in primary mammary cancers. Two‐thirds of tumours had features raising the possibility of metastasis, such as clear cell carcinoma suggestive of renal origin and small cell carcinoma suggestive of pulmonary origin. The features observed in haematological metastases are also described. Immunohistochemical panels to distinguish mammary carcinoma (oestrogen receptor, gross cystic fluid protein‐15) from common metastases to the breast, including carcinoma of the lung (thyroid transcription factor‐1), malignant melanoma (S100, HMB45, melan‐A) and ovarian serous papillary carcinoma (Wilms' tumour 1), are discussed. The pathologist has a key role in considering the diagnosis of metastasis to the breast if the histological features are unusual for a primary mammary tumour. The clinical history is vital in some cases. Immunohistochemistry plays a useful supplementary role. PMID:18042689

  7. Targeting Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Mu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer-associated deaths. Despite the significant improvement in current therapies in extending patient life, 30–40% of patients may eventually suffer from distant relapse and succumb to the disease. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the metastasis biology is key to developing better treatment strategies and achieving long-lasting therapeutic efficacies against breast cancer. This review covers recent breakthroughs in the discovery of various metastatic traits that contribute to the metastasis cascade of breast cancer, which may provide novel avenues for therapeutic targeting. PMID:26380552

  8. Progesterone and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lange, Carol A; Yee, Douglas

    2008-03-01

    Progesterone is an ovarian steroid hormone that is essential for normal breast development during puberty and in preparation for lactation and breastfeeding. The actions of progesterone are primarily mediated by its high-affinity receptors, which include the classical progesterone receptor (PR)-A and -B isoforms, located in diverse tissues, including the brain, where progesterone controls reproductive behavior, and the breast and reproductive organs. Progestins are frequently prescribed for contraception or during postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy, in which progestins are combined with estrogen as a means to block estrogen-induced endometrial growth. The role of estrogen as a potent breast mitogen is undisputed, and inhibitors of the estrogen receptor and estrogen-producing enzymes (aromatases) are effective first-line cancer therapies. However, PR action in breast cancer is grossly understudied and remains controversial. Herein, we review existing evidence and discuss the challenges to defining a role for progesterone in breast cancer. PMID:19072517

  9. Epigenomics and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Pang-Kuo

    2009-01-01

    Breast carcinogenesis involves genetic and epigenetic alterations that cause aberrant gene function. Recent progress in the knowledge of epigenomics has had a profound impact on the understanding of mechanisms leading to breast cancer, and consequently the development of new strategies for diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Epigenetic regulation has been known to involve three mutually interacting events – DNA methylation, histone modifications and nucleosomal remodeling. These processes modulate chromatin structure to form euchromatin or heterochromatin, and in turn activate or silence gene expression. Alteration in expression of key genes through aberrant epigenetic regulation in breast cells can lead to initiation, promotion and maintenance of carcinogenesis, and is even implicated in the generation of drug resistance. We currently review known roles of the epigenetic machinery in the development and recurrence of breast cancer. Furthermore, we highlight the significance of epigenetic alterations as predictive biomarkers and as new targets of anticancer therapy. PMID:19072646

  10. Breast Carcinoma, Intratumour Heterogeneity and Histological Grading, Using Geostatistics

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi?Salamatian, Vnus; de Roquancourt, Anne; Rigaut, Jean Paul

    2000-01-01

    Tumour progression is currently believed to result from genetic instability. Chromosomal patterns specific of a type of cancer are frequent even though phenotypic spatial heterogeneity is omnipresent. The latter is the usual cause of histological grading imprecision, a well documented problem, without any fully satisfactory solution up to now. The present article addresses this problem in breast carcinoma. The assessment of a genetic marker for human tumours requires quantifiable measures of intratumoral heterogeneity. If any invariance paradigm representing a stochastic or geostatistic function could be discovered, this might help in solving the grading problem. A novel methodological approach using geostatistics to measure heterogeneity is used. Twenty tumours from the three usual (Scarff?Bloom and Richardson) grades were obtained and paraffin sections stained by MIB?1 (Ki?67) and peroxidase staining. Whole two?dimensional sections were sampled. Morphometric grids of variable sizes allowed a simple and fast recording of positions of epithelial nuclei, marked or not by MIB?1. The geostatistical method is based here upon the asymptotic behaviour of dispersion variance. Measure of asymptotic exponent of dispersion variance shows an increase from grade 1 to grade 3. Preliminary results are encouraging: grades 1 and 3 on one hand and 2 and 3 on the other hand are totally separated. The final proof of an improved grading using this measure will of course require a confrontation with the results of survival studies. PMID:11153611

  11. Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preventing Recurrence in Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-11

    Benign Breast Neoplasm; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Paget Disease of the Breast; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  12. Smoking and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Peggy

    2013-03-01

    The potential role of smoking in breast cancer risk has been the subject of over 100 publications, numerous scientific reviews, and animated debate. Tobacco exposure is a well-established cause of lung cancer, and is thought to account for nearly one third of all cancer deaths. Tobacco smoke contains thousands of chemicals, many of which are known to be mammary carcinogens. Although not initially thought to be a tobacco-related cancer, over the last several decades evidence has been accumulating on the role of both active smoking and secondhand smoking in the etiology of breast cancer. The human health evidence has been systematically evaluated not only by several independent researchers but also by several expert agency panels including those of the U.S. Surgeon General, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the California Environmental Protection Agency, and a coalition of Canadian health agencies. Although the assessments have varied with time and across reviewers, the most recent weight of the evidence has suggested a potentially casual role for active smoking and breast cancer, particularly for long-term heavy smoking and smoking initiation at an early age. The role of secondhand smoking and breast cancer is less clear, although there has been some suggestion for an increased risk for premenopausal breast cancer. Recent studies evaluating the possible modifying role of polymorphisms in genes involved in the metabolism of tobacco products, particularly NAT2, have contributed another dimension to these assessments, although to date that evidence remains equivocal. PMID:23179580

  13. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-18

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  14. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a combination of trastuzumab with chemotherapy, followed by completion of one year of adjuvant trastuzumab. For metastatic ... inhibitor. Recent studies have shown that denosumab works well to treat breast cancer bone metastases, and may ...

  15. [Screening for breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Hessler, C

    1988-01-01

    On the "why", "whom" and "how" of breast screening for carcinoma, the following answers can be provided: Why? As there is no primary prevention, secondary prevention by early diagnosis is the only way to reduce breast cancer mortality. On the other hand, breast cancers discovered by screening can be conservatively treated more often than when they become symptomatic; this is especially important in young patients. For whom? Every woman over the age of 35-40 should be accepted for breast cancer screening. In countries such as Switzerland it is unthinkable to impose screening or even to send personal invitations for screening to the population. Only repeated information through newspapers, TV and conferences will induce women to come for screening. The costs would be paid for by the patient, as medical insurances do not cover this type of preventive medicine. How? Only screening through mammography with or without breast palpation, performed by paramedical personnel, can be considered, because of the cost. It should be done outside the senologic consultation setup for symptomatic patients where a doctor is in charge of the clinical consultation. As Doctor Van der Linde said at the end of his talk at the last Convention of the Swiss Senology Society in Lausanne, pilot projects for breast screening in Switzerland should be started. The Swiss Cancer Society has lately created a commission for early detection of breast cancer to study ways of launching a project. PMID:3165216

  16. Potential clinical relevance of uPA and PAI-1 levels in node-negative, postmenopausal breast cancer patients bearing histological grade II tumors with ER/PR expression, during an early follow-up.

    PubMed

    Buta, Marko; Džodić, Radan; Đurišić, Igor; Marković, Ivan; Vujasinović, Tijana; Markićević, Milan; Nikolić-Vukosavljević, Dragica

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) prognostic value in postmenopausal, node-negative breast cancer patients bearing tumors with estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) expression, treated with locoregional therapy alone, within an early follow-up. We focused our analysis on tumors of histological grade II in order to improve its prognostic value and, consequently, to improve a decision-making process. The cytosol extracts of 73 tumor samples were used for assessing several biomarkers. ER and PR levels were measured by classical biochemical method. Cathepsin D was assayed by a radiometric immunoassay while both uPA and PAI-1 level determinations were performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. HER-2 gene amplification was determined by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) in primary tumor tissue. Patients bearing tumors smaller than or equal to 2 cm (pT1) or those with low PAI-1 levels (PAI-1 < 6.35 pg/mg) showed favorable outcome compared to patients bearing tumors greater than 2 cm (pT2,3) or those with high PAI-1 levels, respectively. Analyses of 4 phenotypes, defined by tumor size and PAI-1 status, revealed that patients bearing either pT1 tumors, irrespective of PAI-1 levels, or pT2,3 tumors with low PAI-1 levels, had similar disease-free interval probabilities and showed favorable outcome compared to those bearing pT2,3 tumors with high PAI-1 levels. Our findings suggest that tumor size and PAI-1, used in combination as phenotypes are not only prognostic but might also be predictive in node-negative, postmenopausal breast cancer patients bearing histological grade II tumors with ER/PR expression, during an early follow-up period. PMID:25994573

  17. Heritable breast cancer in twins

    PubMed Central

    Mack, T M; Hamilton, A S; Press, M F; Diep, A; Rappaport, E B

    2002-01-01

    Known major mutations such as BRCA1/2 and TP53 only cause a small proportion of heritable breast cancers. Co-dominant genes of lower penetrance that regulate hormones have been thought responsible for most others. Incident breast cancer cases in the identical (monozygotic) twins of representative cases reflect the entire range of pertinent alleles, whether acting singly or in combination. Having reported the rate in twins and other relatives of cases to be high and nearly constant over age, we now examine the descriptive and histological characteristics of the concordant and discordant breast cancers occurring in 2310 affected pairs of monozygotic and fraternal (dizygotic) twins in relation to conventional expectations and hypotheses. Like other first-degree relatives, dizygotic co-twins of breast cancer cases are at higher than usual risk (standardised incidence ratio (SIR)=1.7, CI=1.1–2.6), but the additional cases among monozygotic co-twins of cases are much more numerous, both before and after menopause (SIR=4.4, CI=3.6–5.6), than the 100% genetic identity would predict. Monozygotic co-twin diagnoses following early proband cancers also occur more rapidly than expected (within 5 years, SIR=20.0, CI=7.5–53.3). Cases in concordant pairs represent heritable disease and are significantly more likely to be oestrogen receptor-positive than those of comparable age from discordant pairs. The increase in risk to the monozygotic co-twins of cases cannot be attributed to the common environment, to factors that cumulate with age, or to any aggregate of single autosomal dominant mutations. The genotype more plausibly consists of multiple co-existing susceptibility alleles acting through heightened susceptibility to hormones and/or defective tumour suppression. The resultant class of disease accounts for a larger proportion of all breast cancers than previously thought, with a rather high overall penetrance. Some of the biological characteristics differ from those of breast cancer generally. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 294–300. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600429 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12177798

  18. PET/CT in Evaluating Response to Chemotherapy in Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-31

    HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  19. Triple-negative breast cancer: clinicopathological characteristics and relationship with basal-like breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Thike, Aye Aye; Cheok, Poh Yian; Jara-Lazaro, Ana Richelia; Tan, Benita; Tan, Patrick; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer, defined as that with negative expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors and cerbB2, accounted for 11% of invasive breast cancers in our study, drawn from an original cohort of 7048 women diagnosed with breast cancer from the files of the Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital, over 14 years. Women with triple-negative breast cancer were generally postmenopausal, with adverse pathological characteristics of high histological grade and frequent nodal metastases. Using a set of 61 invasive breast cancers earlier profiled into molecular subtypes with expression arrays, we defined specificity and sensitivity values for different immunohistochemical panels of basal keratins (CK5/6, CK14, CK17, 34 beta E12), CD117, EGFR, p63 and SMA in defining basal-like breast cancer. Subsequent application of a tri-panel of CK14, EGFR and 34 beta E12 (specificity 100% and sensitivity 78%) to our group of 653 triple-negative breast cancers delineated 84% to be basal-like. Immunohistochemical expression of individual biological markers correlated with unfavorable pathological parameters. We conclude that triple-negative breast cancers in an Asian population harbor adverse pathobiological features, and an immunohistochemical surrogate panel can be reliably used to define basal-like cancers among them. PMID:19855377

  20. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093

  1. Breast Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The BioScan System was developed by OmniCorder Technologies, Inc. at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The system is able to locate cancerous lesions by detecting the cancer's ability to recruit a new blood supply. A digital sensor detects infrared energy emitted from the body and identifies the minute differences accompanying the blood flow changes associated with cancerous cells. It also has potential use as a monitoring device during cancer treatment. This technology will reduce the time taken to detect cancerous cells and allow for earlier intervention, therefore increasing the overall survival rates of breast cancer patients.

  2. Chemoprevention of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    De Palo, G; Costa, A; Formelli, F; Del Vecchio, M; Marubini, E; Veronesi, U

    1993-01-01

    Chemoprevention of cancer is a new branch of the medical science and represents a topic of increasing concern in public health. Over the last decade chemoprevention has been extensively studied from many points of view, and topics in the field of chemoprevention have expanded considerably. Breast cancer, the most common malignant neoplasm in women, is one of the areas of clinical interest for chemoprevention. In this paper the authors synthesized the "status of art" in chemoprevention of breast cancer with retinoids and antiestrogens. PMID:8193278

  3. Stereotactic Image-Guided Navigation During Breast Reconstruction in Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-27

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  4. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with steroid hormone receptor-positive breast cancer: the BIG 1–98 randomised clinical trial at 8.1 ... endocrine-responsive early breast cancer: update of study BIG 1–98. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2007; 25( ...

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: ...

  6. Treatment of Breast Cancer during Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... should you ask your doctor about breast cancer? Treatment of breast cancer during pregnancy Breast cancer is diagnosed in about ... Treating Breast Cancer Talking With Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Breast Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer ...

  7. Nonfamilial breast cancer subtypes.

    PubMed

    Ringnr, Markus; Staaf, Johan; Jnsson, Gran

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, our knowledge in somatic genetic events related to breast cancer has increased -enormously. Through usage of various genome-wide molecular approaches, it has become increasingly clear that breast cancer is a vastly heterogeneous disease. Microarray-based gene expression profiling has divided breast cancer into five distinct intrinsic subtypes termed basal-like, HER2-enriched, normal-like, luminal A, and luminal B. Importantly, these subtypes are closely correlated to clinical variables as well as different outcomes, with luminal A tumors as the good prognostic group. Initial studies using genome-wide DNA copy number data broadly partitioned breast cancers into three types, complex, amplifier, and simple, and moreover associated distinct copy number changes with the intrinsic subtypes defined by gene expression profiles. More recently, this genomic classification was refined into six genomic subtypes demonstrating strong resemblance to the intrinsic gene expression classification. Additionally, inherited BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated tumors were significantly correlated to specific subtypes. In this chapter, we will review the current status regarding genomic subtypes of nonfamilial breast cancer. PMID:23412797

  8. Surgery for Breast Cancer in Men

    MedlinePLUS

    ... therapy for breast cancer in men Surgery for breast cancer in men The thought of surgery can ... oncologist and/or a medical oncologist. Types of breast surgery Most men with breast cancer have some ...

  9. Genetic heterogeneity in breast cancer: the road to personalized medicine?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    More women die from breast cancer across the world today than from any other type of malignancy. The clinical course of breast cancer varies tremendously between patients. While some of this variability is explained by traditional clinico-pathological factors (including patient age, tumor stage, histological grade and estrogen receptor status), molecular profiling studies have defined breast cancer subtypes with distinct clinical outcomes. This mini-review considers recent studies which have used genomics technologies in an attempt to identify new biomarkers of prognosis and treatment response. These studies highlight the genetic heterogeneity that exists within breast cancers in space and time. PMID:23800221

  10. Correlation of E-cadherin expression with differentiation grade and histological type in breast carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Gamallo, C.; Palacios, J.; Suarez, A.; Pizarro, A.; Navarro, P.; Quintanilla, M.; Cano, A.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, a correlation has been suggested between a loss of E-cadherin (E-CD) and increased invasiveness of neoplastic cells. In this study, E-CD expression in breast cancer was investigated using an affinity-purified antibody (ECCD-2) in an immunoenzymatic (avidin-biotin-alkaline phosphatase) test. Intensity and extension of E-CD immunoreactivity were evaluated in 61 breast carcinomas and correlated with their histological type and grade, nodal involvement, and hormonal receptor status. Histological types were infiltrating ductal carcinoma of no special type (n = 54) and infiltrating lobular carcinoma (n = 7). All infiltrating ductal carcinomas of no special type except two grade 3 carcinomas showed positive immunoreactivity that was variable among different cases. Grade 1 breast carcinomas (n = 10) showed greater immunoreactivity than grade 2 (n = 25) and grade 3 (n = 19) carcinomas. E-CD immunoreactivity correlated positively with the degree of tubular formation and inversely with the mitoses number. None of the infiltrating lobular carcinomas expressed E-CD in their infiltrating cells, whereas they showed only weak immunostains in areas of atypical lobular hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ. These results indicate that E-CD expression correlates with histological type and grade in breast carcinomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7682767

  11. Clinical implications of ?-catenin protein expression in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ziyi; Zhang, Hao; Hou, Jianxin; Niu, Jianing; Ma, Zhenhai; Zhao, Haidong; Liu, Caigang

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the expression and significance of ?-catenin in the diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer. Overall, 241 patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer who had undergone radical surgery were enrolled in this study. ?-catenin protein expression in breast cancer samples was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. ?-catenin was expressed in Nuclei/Plasma of the samples from 41 patients. ?-catenin protein expression correlated with the histological grade of the tumor (P<0.05) and Ki-67 labeling (P<0.01). Survival analysis showed that ?-catenin expression negatively correlated with breast cancer-specific survival. Our results showed prominent expression of ?-catenin in breast cancer and strongly implicate the ?-catenin in tumor promotion. PMID:26823833

  12. [Basal-like breast cancer: a review].

    PubMed

    Treilleux, Isabelle; Morellon-Mialhe, Blandine

    2009-06-01

    Breast cancers of basal phenotype have been identified by molecular profiling and are associated with a poor prognosis. This review describes the morphological characteristics of these tumors and focuses on their profiling using immunohistochemistry: absence of detectable hormone receptors and HER2, expression of basal cytokeratins (CK5/6, CK14), myoepithelial markers (p63, smooth muscle actin) and HER1. This phenotype may be encountered in all histological types of breast cancer and is further divided into three subtypes according to prognosis and protein profiling. Pure basal and basal/myoepithelial subtypes have a poor prognosis in contrast to the myoepithelial subtype. PMID:19619822

  13. Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Male Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  14. Relationship between reflection spectra of breast adipose tissue with histologic grade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muoz Morales, Aarn; Vzquez Y Montiel, Sergio; Reigosa, Aldo

    2011-08-01

    Optical spectroscopy allows the characterization, recognition and differentiation of subcutaneous tissues healthy and no-healthy, to facilitate the diagnosis or early detection for breast cancer are studied white adipose tissue by the subcutaneous region with the help of the diffuse reflection spectroscopy in the visible areas (400 to 700 nm) of electromagnetic spectrum for them using a spectrometer portable of integrating sphere, Hunter lab Model Mini-Scan. The problem to be solved for cancer detection by optical techniques is to find the solution to the inverse problem of scattering of radiation in tissue where it is necessary to solve the equation of energy transfer. us through the trigonometric interpolation and by the data adjustment by least squares using Fourier series expansion to parameterize the spectral response curves of each sample of breast adipose tissue then correlated with histological grades established by the optical biopsy for each one of the samples, allowing use this technique to the study of anomalies in White Adipose Tissue Breast, changes are evident in the spectral response for Breast Adipose Tissue carcinogens with respect to healthy tissues and for the different histological grades.

  15. Inheritance of proliferative breast disease in breast cancer kindreds

    SciTech Connect

    Skolnick, M.H.; Cannon-Albright, L.A.; Goldgar, D.E.; Ward, J.H.; Marshall, C.J.; Schumann, G.B.; Hogle, H.; McWhorter, W.P.; Wright, E.C.; Tran, T.D.; Bishop, D.T.; Kushner, J.P.; Eyre, H.J. )

    1990-12-21

    Previous studies have emphasized that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer is rare and is expressed primarily as premenopausal breast cancer, bilateral breast cancer, or both. Proliferative breast disease (PBD) is a significant risk factor for the development of breast cancer and appears to be a precursor lesion. PBD and breast cancer were studied in 103 women from 20 kindreds that were selected for the presence of two first degree relatives with breast cancer and in 31 control women. Physical examination, screening mammography, and four-quadrant fine-needle breast aspirates were performed. Cytologic analysis of breast aspirates revealed PBD in 35% of clinically normal female first degree relatives of breast cancer cases and in 13% of controls. Genetic analysis suggests that genetic susceptibility causes both PBD and breast cancer in these kindreds. This study supports the hypothesis that this susceptibility is responsible for a considerable portion of breast cancer, including unilateral and postmenopausal breast cancer.

  16. [Breast cancer update].

    PubMed

    Armuss, A

    2014-06-01

    Breast Cancer, with a life-time prevalence of about 10-12%, is the most common cancer in women. In 2013, the actress Angelina Jolie, by announcing she had a double mastectomy, increased the awareness of a family history of breast and ovarian cancer and the treatment available to reduce the inherited risks. In Germany, each year about 25 out of 100,000 women (age-standardized according to European Standard) die of the disease. The number of newly diagnosed cases is about 72,000 per year. In comparison, many other countries record higher levels. Investing in the development of new therapies has therefore been key for many years. Prevention programs, such as the mammography screening are publicly touted, in both cases with the aim to reduce breast cancer mortality. To accurately assess the risk in underwriting, it is important to know about the risk factors for the development of breast cancer, as well as the latest advances in prevention, therapy and their prognostic classification. The following article provides an overview. PMID:25000626

  17. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Paula; Grossbard, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its role in calcium homeostasis and bone health, vitamin D has also been reported to have anticancer activities against many cancer types, including breast cancer. The discovery that breast epithelial cells possess the same enzymatic system as the kidney, allowing local manufacture of active vitamin D from circulating precursors, makes the effect of vitamin D in breast cancer biologically plausible. Preclinical and ecologic studies have suggested a role for vitamin D in breast cancer prevention. Inverse associations have also been shown between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level (25(OH)D) and breast cancer development, risk for breast cancer recurrence, and mortality in women with early-stage breast cancer. Clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation, however, have yielded inconsistent results. Regardless of whether or not vitamin D helps prevent breast cancer or its recurrence, vitamin D deficiency in the U.S. population is very common, and the adverse impact on bone health, a particular concern for breast cancer survivors, makes it important to understand vitamin D physiology and to recognize and treat vitamin D deficiency. In this review, we discuss vitamin D metabolism and its mechanism of action. We summarize the current evidence of the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer, highlight ongoing research in this area, and discuss optimal dosing of vitamin D for breast cancer prevention. PMID:22234628

  18. Treatment and Prognosis of Rare Breast Cancers.

    PubMed

    Terando, Alicia M; Agnese, Doreen M; Holmes, Dennis R

    2015-10-01

    Management algorithms for invasive and non-invasive ductal and lobular breast carcinomas are well-established. Because of their very nature, rare histologic types of primary breast cancers are not represented in practice guidelines and thus present a challenge to the practicing clinician who must make recommendations for surgical treatment, axillary staging, and adjuvant therapy, as well as counsel patients as to their expected disease course and prognosis. Herein, case reports and published series of rare types of primary breast cancer including adenoid cystic, mucoepidermoid, metaplastic, squamous, neuroendocrine, encysted papillary, and micropapillary types will be reviewed to provide a basis for treatment planning for patients presenting with these rare primary breast malignancies. PMID:26259751

  19. Virtual Weight Loss Program in Maintaining Weight in African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-01

    Cancer Survivor; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  20. Risk factors for male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, K; Bross, D S; Kessler, I I

    1985-02-01

    To investigate risk factors in male breast cancer, a case-control study of 52 histologically diagnosed cases and 52 controls--matched for age, race, marital status, and hospital--was conducted in 5 U.S. metropolitan areas. Cases were significantly more likely to be Jewish than were the controls, supporting earlier suggestions of an increased risk in Jewish males. A significant association of male breast cancer with mumps infections at age 20 years or older, along with the possible association with antecedent testicular injury and the excess frequency of mumps orchitis among cases, suggests that testicular factors may be important in the development of breast cancer among males. An increased frequency of breast cancer among persons who have worked in blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills is of interest because of the possible testicular effect of high environmental temperatures. The observed association between breast cancer and a prior history of swollen breast is difficult to interpret because of potential recall bias, and a possible relationship with military service needs further confirmation. PMID:3856050

  1. Accelerated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  2. Diversity of Breast Carcinoma: Histological Subtypes and Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Makki, Jaafar

    2015-01-01

    Mammary carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor in women, and it is the leading cause of mortality, with an incidence of >1,000,000 cases occurring worldwide annually. It is one of the most common human neoplasms, accounting for approximately one-quarter of all cancers in females worldwide and 27% of cancers in developed countries with a Western lifestyle. They exhibit a wide scope of morphological features, different immunohistochemical profiles, and unique histopathological subtypes that have specific clinical course and outcome. Breast cancers can be classified into distinct subgroups based on similarities in the gene expression profiles and molecular classification. PMID:26740749

  3. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Breast pain alone is not a sign of breast cancer, but other symptoms can mean there is a problem. What causes ... from the lump (called a core biopsy) Possible Symptoms of Breast Cancer • A lump • A change in the size or ...

  4. Activation of Host Wound Responses in Breast Cancer Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myung Hee; Carter, Matthew; Fan, Cheng; Cowan, David W.; Perez, Erick Roman; Pirone, Jason R.; Perou, Charles M.; Jerry, D. Joseph; Schneider, Sallie Smith

    2009-01-01

    Cancer progression is mediated by processes that are also important in wound repair. As a result, cancers have been conceptualized as overhealing wounds or wounds that do not heal, and gene expression signatures reflective of wound repair have shown value as predictors of breast cancer survival. Despite the widespread acknowledgment of commonalities between host responses to wounds and host responses to cancer, the gene expression responses of normal tissue adjacent to cancers have not been well characterized. Using RNA extracted from histologically normal breast tissue from 107 patients, including 60 reduction mammoplasty patients and 47 cancer patients, we measured whole genome expression profiles and identified a gene expression signature that is induced in response to breast cancer. This signature represents an in vivo wound response signature that is differentially expressed in the normal tissue of breast cancer patients compared to those without disease and is highly accurate (at least 92% sensitivity and 98% specificity) in distinguishing diseased and nondiseased. The in vivo wound response signature is highly prognostic of breast cancer survival and there is a strong association between the groups identified by this signature and those identified using serum-treated fibroblasts and other microenvironment-derived or -related signatures. The prevalence of the wound response signature in histologically normal tissue adjacent to breast cancer suggests that microenvironment response is an important variable in breast cancer progression and may be an important target for clinical interventions. PMID:19887484

  5. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Harry Mahtani analyzes the gas content of nutrient media from Bioreactor used in research on human breast cancer. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  6. The Incidence of Breast Cancer in Northwest Iran (2003 -2008)

    PubMed Central

    Hashemzadeh, Shahryar; Aligholipour Maleki, Raheleh; Golzari, Samad EJ

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Breast Cancer is the most common cancer in Iranian women and Iranian patients are relatively young. Given that Iran has a female population of about 38 million, this corresponds to a total number of 6000 new cases of breast cancer annually. This study aims to demonstrate the characteristics of breast cancers according to pathologic records in East Azerbaijan province, Iran. Methods In this retrospective cross-sectional study, 159314 pathology records of the main hospitals and pathology laboratories were observed for a period of 5 years. For each patient, sex, age, breast specimen pathology, pathological grading of malignant lesions and place of residence of patients were collected and statistically analyzed. Results There were 12083 cancer cases; 902 of which were primary breast cancer. Breast cancer was the most common cancer in females (22.2%) but it ranks the 22nd in males. The annual incidence of breast cancer in women was 52.3 per 100,000. The mean age of women with breast cancer was 48.312.7 years (range, 16-85) and for male 54.013.6 years (range, 23-76). The highest frequency of malignancies was observed in the 40-49 year old age groups (34.5%). Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most common histological type diagnosed in both sexes. Conclusion In Iran, breast cancer affects women at least one decade younger than developed countries. In spite of the rare incidence of breast cancer in men, the descriptive epidemiology of this malignancy is surprisingly similar to that of women. A considerable proportion of cancers of our research were in breast which mandates a national cancer detection program encouraging women for breast self-examination and participation in screening tests to improve breast cancer care. PMID:24250973

  7. Breast stromal fibroblasts from histologically normal surgical margins are pro-carcinogenic

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rakan, Maha A; Colak, Dilek; Hendrayani, Siti-Faujiah; Al-Bakheet, Albandary; Al-Mohanna, Falah H; Kaya, Namik; Al-Malik, Osama; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that normal breast stromal fibroblasts (NBFs) suppress tumour growth, while cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) promote tumourigenesis through functional interactions with tumour cells. Little is known about the biology and the carcinogenic potential of stromal fibroblasts present in histologically normal surgical margins (TCFs). Therefore, we first undertook gene expression analysis on five CAF/TCF pairs from breast cancer patients and three NBF samples (derived from mammoplasties). This comparative analysis revealed variation in gene expression between these three categories of cells, with a TCF-specific gene expression profile. This variability was higher in TCFs than in their paired CAFs and also NBFs. Cytokine arrays show that TCFs have a specific secretory cytokine profile. In addition, stromal fibroblasts from surgical margins expressed high levels of ?-SMA and SDF-1 and exhibited higher migratory/invasiveness abilities. Indirect co-culture showed that TCF cells enhance the proliferation of non-cancerous mammary epithelial cells and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells. Moreover, TCF and CAF cells increased the level of PCNA, MMP-2 and the phosphorylated/activated form of Akt in normal breast luminal fibroblasts in a paracrine manner. Furthermore, TCFs were able to promote the formation and growth of humanized orthotopic breast tumours in nude mice. Interestingly, these TCF phenotypes and the extent of their effects were intermediate between those of NBFs and CAFs. Together, these results indicate that stromal fibroblasts located in non-cancerous tissues exhibit a tumour-promoting phenotype, indicating that their presence post-surgery may play important roles in cancer recurrence. 2013 The Authors. Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. PMID:24009142

  8. Pertuzumab, Trastuzumab, and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With HER2-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-08

    HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Breast Adenocarcinoma; Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Breast cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by mutations in the PTEN gene; hereditary diffuse gastric cancer, which results from mutations in the CDH1 gene; ... with breast cancer. Read more about hereditary diffuse gastric cancer ; Li-Fraumeni syndrome ; Cowden syndrome ; and Peutz-Jeghers ...

  10. Reproduction after breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zervoudis, Stefanos; Iatrakis, George; Navrozoglou, Iordanis

    2010-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer in women of developed countries, and as a result of new developments in breast cancer treatment, more women are cured after being diagnosed with this disease. It is important that fertility preservation strategies are addressed before chemotherapy, because chemotherapy may induce premature ovarian failure (depending on the woman's age, the drugs used, the dosage and duration of treatment). Among possible solutions are embryos or oocytes cryopreservation, ovarian tissue cryopreservation-freezing with a subsequent orthotopic and heterotopic autotransplantation, whole ovary cryopreservation, ovarian suppression with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues, which inhibit ovarian follicular depletion induced by chemotherapeutic agents and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) after ovulation induction with aromatase inhibitors or tamoxifen. PMID:20170848

  11. Who may benefit from preoperative breast MRI? A single-center analysis of 1102 consecutive patients with primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Debald, Manuel; Abramian, Alina; Nemes, Lisa; Dbler, Michael; Kaiser, Christina; Keyver-Paik, Mignon-Denise; Leutner, Claudia; Hller, Tobias; Braun, Michael; Kuhl, Christiane; Kuhn, Walther; Schild, Hans H

    2015-10-01

    Several authors question the potential benefit of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) against the background of possible overdiagnosis, false-positive findings, and unnecessary resections in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. In order to reveal a better selection of patients who should undergo preoperative MRI after histological confirmed breast cancer, the present analysis was implemented. We aimed to evaluate the influence of preoperative breast MRI in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer to find subgroups of patients that are most likely to benefit from preoperative MRI by the detection of occult malignant foci. A total of 1102 consecutive patients who underwent treatment for primary breast cancer between 2002 and 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent triple assessment by breast ultrasound, mammography, and bilateral breast MRI. MRI findings not seen on conventional imaging that suggested additional malignant disease was found in 344 cases (31.2 %). Histological confirmed malignant foci were found in 223 patients (20.2 %) within the index breast and in 28 patients (2.5 %) in the contralateral breast. The rate of false-negative biopsies was 31 (2.8 %) and 62 (5.6 %), respectively. Premenopausal women (p = 0.024), lobular invasive breast cancer (p = 0.02) as well as patients with high breast density [American College of Radiology (ACR) 3 + 4; p = 0.01] were significantly associated with additional malignant foci in the index breast. Multivariate analysis confirmed lobular histology (p = 0.041) as well as the co-factors "premenopausal stage" and "high breast density (ACR 3+4)" (p = 0.044) to be independently significant. Previous studies revealed that breast MRI is a reliable tool for predicting tumor extension as well as for the detection of additional ipsilateral and contralateral tumor foci in histological confirmed breast cancer. In the present study, we demonstrate that especially premenopausal patients with high breast density as well as patients with lobular histology seem to profit from preoperative MRI. PMID:26323190

  12. Breast cancer in the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Bellet, M.; Alonso, C.; Ojeda, B.

    1995-01-01

    Breast cancer in the elderly has attracted considerable interest in recent years for three main reasons. Firstly, information concerning the profile (clinical and biological) of the disease in the geriatric population is scarce; secondly, the number of patients is increasing, and thirdly there are conflicting data regarding the actual effectiveness of the different treatments. The present review attempts to outline the specific characteristics of this malignancy in the elderly in terms of histological pattern, stage at diagnosis, and outcome. The feasibility of standard therapies (mastectomy/lumpectomy, axillary clearance, and radio-therapy) in the elderly is carefully analysed, and compared to the efficacy of less aggressive procedures. The use of tamoxifen as a primary treatment, instead of surgery, is critically reconsidered, as well as its use as an adjuvant therapy. Finally, the effectiveness of systemic therapy in advanced disease is also discussed. Images Figure PMID:7494769

  13. Breast and Ovarian Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, Atsuko; Lendorf, Maria E.; Couchman, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Tumor markers are widely used in pathology not only for diagnostic purposes but also to assess the prognosis and to predict the treatment of the tumor. Because tumor marker levels may change over time, it is important to get a better understanding of the molecular changes during tumor progression. Occurrence of breast and ovarian cancer is high in older women. Common known risk factors of developing these cancers in addition to age are not having children or having children at a later age, the use of hormone replacement therapy, and mutations in certain genes. In addition, women with a history of breast cancer may also develop ovarian cancer. Here, the authors review the different tumor markers of breast and ovarian carcinoma and discuss the expression, mutations, and possible roles of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans during tumorigenesis of these carcinomas. The focus is on two groups of proteoglycans, the transmembrane syndecans and the lipid-anchored glypicans. Both families of proteoglycans have been implicated in cellular responses to growth factors and morphogens, including many now associated with tumor progression. PMID:22205677

  14. Azacitidine in Treating Patients With Triple Negative Stage I-IV Invasive Breast Cancer That Can Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-05

    Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  15. Breast-Feeding May Reduce Risk of Aggressive Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 155450.html Breast-Feeding May Reduce Risk of Aggressive Breast Cancer: Study Researchers call for removing obstacles ... feeding and a woman's reduced risk for an aggressive form of breast cancer called hormone-receptor-negative ...

  16. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Summary Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt with, as well as various pregnancy-associated factors, events, and perinatal outcomes. Finally, the contribution of breast feeding to a reduced breast cancer risk is discussed. PMID:25759622

  17. Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with an increase in breast cancer risk? Is abortion linked to breast cancer risk? Does pregnancy affect ... to prevent miscarriages and other pregnancy problems. Is abortion linked to breast cancer risk? A few retrospective ( ...

  18. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone ... be conducted to determine whether having an induced abortion, or a miscarriage (also known as spontaneous abortion), ...

  19. You, Your Teenage Daughter and Breast Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brateman, Libby

    1991-01-01

    Discusses breast cancer and teenagers, focusing on how parents can introduce the subject and encourage breast self-examination. The article provides information on breast cancer statistics, mammography, and American Cancer Society services. (SM)

  20. Pharmacokinetically Guided Everolimus in Patients With Breast Cancer, Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors, or Kidney Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-12

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Insulinoma; Mucositis; Oral Complications; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Somatostatinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer

  1. Triple negative breast cancer: an Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Murtaza; Dasgupta, Subhrajit; Rangwala, Murtuza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in the world. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a recently identified biological variant with aggressive tumor behavior and poor prognosis. Data of hormonal status from the Indian population is scarce due to financial constraints in performing immunohistochemistry evaluation. The present study aims to prospectively analyze receptor status of all breast cancer patients and identify TNBC and compare their clinical profile and short term survival with other non-TNBC group. Materials and methods All cytologically and histopathologically confirmed cases of carcinoma breast were prospectively enrolled. In a longitudinal study at tertiary care hospital in central India based on the hormonal status, they were further divided into TNBC and other groups. Comparison of risk factors, clinical profile and short-term survival was carried out. Results A total 85 patients were enrolled and of them 37 (43.7%) were TNBC. On comparing risk factors ie, age, age at menarche, total reproductive age, age at first child birth, and menopausal status – no statistical significance was observed between the TNBC and non-TNBC groups. But on comparison of clinical profile TNBC tumors were significantly large with majority of patients presenting as locally advanced breast cancer (83%). No statistical difference was observed in axillary lymph node status between two groups. TNBC tumors were histologically more aggressive (grade 3) compared to other groups. No statistically significant difference was observed in short term overall survival but all three deaths were observed in the TNBC group only and two local recurrences after surgery were observed in the TNBC group. Conclusion TNBC forms a large proportion of carcinoma breast patients in a central Indian scenario and needs more research to identify appropriate treatment planning considering aggressive histology and advanced presentation. PMID:26316816

  2. Breast Cancer Distress in Childhood

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Cancer_Distress_101915.html Breast Cancer Distress in Childhood HealthDay News Video - October 20, ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Play video: Breast Cancer Distress in Childhood For closed captioning, click the ...

  3. Breast Cancer Stage and Survival

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Cancer_Stage_100715.html Breast Cancer Stage and Survival HealthDay News Video - October 8, ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Play video: Breast Cancer Stage and Survival For closed captioning, click the ...

  4. Chemoprevention for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bozovic-Spasojevic, I; Azambuja, E; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Dinh, P; Cardoso, F

    2012-08-01

    Despite the progress that has been made in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment, this disease is still a major health problem, being the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the first leading cause of cancer death among women both in developed and economically developing countries. In some developed countries incidence rate start to decrease from the end of last millennium and this can be explained, at least in part, by the decrease in hormone replacement therapy use by post-menopausal women. Chemoprevention has the potential to be an approach of utmost importance to reduce cancer burden at least among high-risk populations. Tamoxifen and raloxifene are both indicated for the prevention of breast cancer in women at high risk for the development of the disease, although raloxifene may have a more favorable adverse-effect profile, causing fewer uterine cancers and thromboembolic events. Aromatase inhibitors will most probably become an additional prevention treatment option in the near future, in view of the promising results observed in adjuvant trials and the interesting results of the very recently published first chemoprevention trial using an aromatase inhibitor.(2) Despite impressive results in most clinical trials performed to date, chemoprevention is still not widely used. Urgently needed are better molecular risk models to accurately identify high-risk subjects, new agents with a better risk/benefit ratio and validated biomarkers. PMID:21856081

  5. Breast cancer — one term, many entities?

    PubMed Central

    Bertos, Nicholas R.; Park, Morag

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer, rather than constituting a monolithic entity, comprises heterogeneous tumors with different clinical characteristics, disease courses, and responses to specific treatments. Tumor-intrinsic features, including classical histological and immunopathological classifications as well as more recently described molecular subtypes, separate breast tumors into multiple groups. Tumor-extrinsic features, including microenvironmental configuration, also have prognostic significance and further expand the list of tumor-defining variables. A better understanding of the features underlying heterogeneity, as well as of the mechanisms and consequences of their interactions, is essential to improve targeting of existing therapies and to develop novel agents addressing specific combinations of features. PMID:21965335

  6. Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-12-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  7. In vitro comparative models for canine and human breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    VISAN, SIMONA; BALACESCU, OVIDIU; BERINDAN-NEAGOE, IOANA; CATOI, CORNEL

    2016-01-01

    During the past four decades, an increased number of similarities between canine mammary tumors and human breast cancer have been reported: molecular, histological, morphological, clinical and epidemiological, which lead to comparative oncological studies. One of the most important goals in human and veterinary oncology is to discover potential molecular biomarkers that could detect breast cancer in an early stage and to develop new effective therapies. Recently, cancer cell lines have successfully been used as an in vitro model to study the biology of cancer, to investigate molecular pathways and to test the efficiency of anticancer drugs. Moreover, establishment of an experimental animal model for the study of human breast cancer will improve testing potential anti-cancer therapies and the discovery of effective therapeutic schemes suitable for human clinical trials. In this review, we collected data from previous studies that strengthen the value of canine mammary cancer cell lines as an in vitro model for the study of human breast cancer. PMID:27004024

  8. Breast cancer treatment and chemoprevention.

    PubMed Central

    Kotwall, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To outline modern principles of surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic treatment of breast cancer, and to review preliminary data on breast cancer prevention. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search was conducted from 1966 to the beginning of 1999; most of the studies reviewed are randomized clinical trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Breast conservation surgery should be offered to all women with early breast cancer because studies demonstrate survival rates equivalent to those with mastectomy. If mastectomy is chosen, breast reconstruction should be offered. Most women with breast cancer are treated systemically with either chemotherapy or tamoxifen, or both, and mortality is substantially reduced. Data indicating that tamoxifen prevents breast cancer are promising; more studies with both tamoxifen and raloxifene are under way. All women should be strongly encouraged to enter clinical trials. CONCLUSIONS: Because many issues face women recently diagnosed with breast cancer, they often seek out family physicians as advisors to help negotiate a complex treatment path. The possibility of preventing breast cancer will undoubtedly raise questions among family members of women with breast cancer that should appropriately be answered and referred, if necessary, by family physicians. PMID:10463092

  9. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Breast tissue specimens in traditional sample dishes. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  10. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Robert Richmond extracts breast cell tissue from one of two liquid nitrogen dewars. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  11. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    High magnification view of human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. The arrow points to bead surface indicating breast cancer cells (as noted by the staining of tumor cell intermediate filaments). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  12. Breast cancer risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  13. Breast cancer risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kami?ska, Marzena; Ciszewski, Tomasz; ?opacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miot?a, Pawe?; Staros?awska, El?bieta

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  14. Digital histologic analysis reveals morphometric patterns of age-related involution in breast epithelium and stroma.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Rupninder; Chollet-Hinton, Lynn; Kirk, Erin L; Midkiff, Bentley; Troester, Melissa A

    2016-02-01

    Complete age-related regression of mammary epithelium, often termed postmenopausal involution, is associated with decreased breast cancer risk. However, most studies have qualitatively assessed involution. We quantitatively analyzed epithelium, stroma, and adipose tissue from histologically normal breast tissue of 454 patients in the Normal Breast Study. High-resolution digital images of normal breast hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were partitioned into epithelium, adipose tissue, and nonfatty stroma. Percentage area and nuclei per unit area (nuclear density) were calculated for each component. Quantitative data were evaluated in association with age using linear regression and cubic spline models. Stromal area decreased (P = 0.0002), and adipose tissue area increased (P < 0.0001), with an approximate 0.7% change in area for each component, until age 55 years when these area measures reached a steady state. Although epithelial area did not show linear changes with age, epithelial nuclear density decreased linearly beginning in the third decade of life. No significant age-related trends were observed for stromal or adipose nuclear density. Digital image analysis offers a high-throughput method for quantitatively measuring tissue morphometry and for objectively assessing age-related changes in adipose tissue, stroma, and epithelium. Epithelial nuclear density is a quantitative measure of age-related breast involution that begins to decline in the early premenopausal period. PMID:26772400

  15. Breast-feeding may reduce breast-cancer risk.

    PubMed

    1994-04-30

    A case control study of 6000 women with breast cancer and about 8000 women with cancer living in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Wisconsin found that younger women who breast feed are at a 20% lower risk of developing breast cancer before menopause than those who have never breast fed or have breast fed only briefly. The younger a woman was when she first breast fed, the less likely she was to develop premenopausal breast cancer. The length of total time a woman breast fed in her life was inversely related to the risk of developing breast cancer before menopause. For example, if a woman breast feeds for 4-12 months, the risk of developing breast cancer in premenopausal women is reduced 11% when compared to women who breast feed for less than 3 months and those who do not breast feed. The risk can be reduced by about 25%, if women breast feed for at least 2 years. Neither young age nor long duration of total time breast feeding appeared to influence the risk of developing breast cancer after menopause, however. One hypothesis is that breast feeding suppresses the production of ovarian hormones which may be associated with breast cancer. Since most breast cancer cases in the US are postmenopausal, the reduction in breast cancer cases would be rather small, however. Another study of about 90,000 US nurses found no relationship between breast feeding and breast cancer. The lack of a relationship may have been due to the fact that the nurses were much less likely to breast feed at a young age since they had a high educational level. Further, breast feeding practices have changed in the last 20-30 years from feeding every 4 hours to feeding on demand. In India most rural women breast feed, beginning when they are young. They even practice communal breast feeding, which allows women to work outside their homes. PMID:12179188

  16. Reproductive factors and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, J L; Gammon, M D; John, E M

    1993-01-01

    Early age at menarche, late age at menopause, and late age at first full-term pregnancy are linked to a modest increase in the risk of developing breast cancer. Some evidence suggests that the earlier the full-term pregnancy, the earlier the period of decreased susceptibility of breast tissue changes begins. Nulliparity is related to an increased risk for breast cancer diagnosed after 40 years old. Multiple full-term pregnancies decrease the risk of breast cancers diagnosed after 40 years regardless of the age at first birth. On the other hand, they may increase the risk for breast cancers diagnosed before 40 years old. Surgical removal of the ovaries protects against breast cancer. Breast feeding apparently protects against breast cancer in China, but a protective effect has not been established in the US. Other than shorter intervals between menstrual periods, which tend to increase the risk, research has not yet made clear the etiologic roles of menstrual cycle characteristics. Other unclear etiologic roles include increased intervals between births, spontaneous and induced abortion, infertility, multiple births at last pregnancy, and hypertension during pregnancy. Researchers tend to accept a mechanism to explain the epidemiologic characteristics of menstrual activity and the increased risk of breast cancer, but no mechanisms have emerged for the other likely risk factors. Greater exposure to estrogen and progesterone simultaneously are linked to early age at menarche, late age at menopause, and shorter menstrual cycle length. So far, data show that long-term combined estrogen/progestin hormone replacement therapy and long-term use of oral contraceptives increase the risk of breast cancer. Moderately increased risks linked to longterm estrogen replacement therapy and obesity in postmenopausal women indicate that estrogen alone influences breast cancer risk. Since much of the research on breast cancer risk factors are inconclusive, more research is needed, especially research examining the probability of prolonged exposure to both estrogens and progesterone concurrently. PMID:8405211

  17. Pathways to Breast Cancer Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer remains a deadly disease, even with all the recent technological advancements. Early intervention has made an impact, but an overwhelmingly large number of breast cancer patients still live under the fear of “recurrent” disease. Breast cancer recurrence is clinically a huge problem and one that is largely not well understood. Over the years, a number of factors have been studied with an overarching aim of being able to prognose recurrent disease. This paper attempts to provide an overview of our current knowledge of breast cancer recurrence and its associated challenges. Through a survey of the literature on cancer stem cells (CSCs), epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), various signaling pathways such as Notch/Wnt/hedgehog, and microRNAs (miRNAs), we also examine the hypotheses that are currently under investigation for the prevention of breast cancer recurrence. PMID:23533807

  18. Histological factors for accurately predicting first locoregional recurrence of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Hasebe, Takahiro; Iwasaki, Motoki; Hojo, Takashi; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2013-09-01

    The accurate assessment of the risk of first locoregional recurrence is very important for improving the survival of patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. The present study investigated which histological factors (both well-known histological factors and factors that we have proposed) were the most capable of accurately predicting first locoregional recurrence among 1042 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma and various tumor statuses (overall, nodal status, Union Internationale Contre le Cancer pathological TNM stage, adjuvant therapy status, and adjuvant radiotherapy status) using multivariate analyses by the Cox proportional hazard regression model. The present study clearly demonstrated that the best factor for accurately predicting locoregional recurrence was grade 3 lymph vessel tumor embolus (>4 mitotic figures and >6 apoptotic figures in tumor embolus), followed by type 2 invasive ductal carcinoma (negative for fibrotic foci but positive for atypical tumor-stromal fibroblast), grade 2 lymph vessel tumor embolus (1-4 mitotic figures and >0 apoptotic figures in tumor embolus; >0 mitotic figures and 1-6 apoptotic figures in tumor embolus), primary invasive tumor cell-related factors (>19 mitotic figures, presence of tumor necrosis, presence of skin invasion) and >5 mitotic figures in metastatic carcinomas to the lymph node. Our proposed factors were superior to well-known histological factors of primary invasive tumors or clinicopathological factors for the accurate prediction of first locoregional recurrence in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. PMID:23758085

  19. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  20. Multi-Resolution Wavelet-Transformed Image Analysis of Histological Sections of Breast Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hae-Gil; Choi, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Byeong-Il; Yoon, Hye-Kyoung; Nam, Sang-Hee; Choi, Heung-Kook

    2005-01-01

    Multi-resolution images of histological sections of breast cancer tissue were analyzed using texture features of Haar- and Daubechies transform wavelets. Tissue samples analyzed were from ductal regions of the breast and included benign ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and invasive ductal carcinoma (CA). To assess the correlation between computerized image analysis and visual analysis by a pathologist, we created a two-step classification system based on feature extraction and classification. In the feature extraction step, we extracted texture features from wavelet-transformed images at 10 magnification. In the classification step, we applied two types of classifiers to the extracted features, namely a statistics-based multivariate (discriminant) analysis and a neural network. Using features from second-level Haar transform wavelet images in combination with discriminant analysis, we obtained classification accuracies of 96.67 and 87.78% for the training and testing set (90 images each), respectively. We conclude that the best classifier of carcinomas in histological sections of breast tissue are the texture features from the second-level Haar transform wavelet images used in a discriminant function. PMID:16308473

  1. Cancer statistics: Breast cancer in situ.

    PubMed

    Ward, Elizabeth M; DeSantis, Carol E; Lin, Chun Chieh; Kramer, Joan L; Jemal, Ahmedin; Kohler, Betsy; Brawley, Otis W; Gansler, Ted

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 60,290 new cases of breast carcinoma in situ are expected to be diagnosed in 2015, and approximately 1 in 33 women is likely to receive an in situ breast cancer diagnosis in her lifetime. Although in situ breast cancers are relatively common, their clinical significance and optimal treatment are topics of uncertainty and concern for both patients and clinicians. In this article, the American Cancer Society provides information about occurrence and treatment patterns for the 2 major subtypes of in situ breast cancer in the United States-ductal carcinoma in situ and lobular carcinoma in situ-using data from the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and the 13 oldest Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries. The authors also present an overview of in situ breast cancer detection, treatment, risk factors, and prevention and discuss research needs and initiatives. PMID:26431342

  2. Rosuvastatin in Treating Women With Cardiovascular Complications Who Are Undergoing Chemotherapy For Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-17

    Cardiovascular Complications; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  3. Vascular and Cognitive Assessments in Patients With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy After Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-27

    Cognitive/Functional Effects; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  4. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  5. Coexistence of malignant phyllodes tumor and her2-positive locally advanced breast cancer in distinct breasts: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tomoi; Muto, Ichiro; Sakai, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Phyllodes tumor of the breast is a rare biphasic neoplasm, accounting for less than 1% of all breast tumors. Coexistence of phyllodes tumor and breast cancer in distinct breasts is extremely rare. Case presentation A 47-year-old Japanese woman presented with bilateral breast lumps. A HER2-positive, unresectable invasive carcinoma in the right breast and fibroadenoma in the left were diagnosed via core needle biopsy. During chemotherapy with anti-HER2 therapy, the breast cancer shrank quickly, while the left breast lump suddenly enlarged. Under a diagnosis of malignant neoplasm of the breast, left mastectomy was performed. Malignant phyllodes tumor was diagnosed by postoperative histological examination and recurred in multiple areas as early as 2 months after surgery. Discussion Only 10 cases of coexisting phyllodes tumor and breast cancer in distinct breasts have been reported in the English literature. Phyllodes tumor associated with breast cancer in distinct breasts tends to be malignant. This is the first case of phyllodes tumor rapidly enlarging during anti-HER2 chemotherapy for locally advanced HER2-positive breast cancer. Conclusion Even during effective treatment of advanced or recurrent breast cancer, attention should also be paid to the contralateral breast for the possible association of a second malignancy such as phyllodes tumor. PMID:26773878

  6. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Older Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  7. Breast cancer update.

    PubMed

    Kuter, I

    2000-01-01

    The large number of excellent presentations on breast cancer at this year's ASCO meeting reflects the enormous interest in clinical trials of this common disease. In the reports of adjuvant hormonal therapy, the most interesting included Abstract 273 by Boccardo et al., who reported that postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor positive (ER(+)) cancers who had already completed three years of tamoxifen experienced better overall survival if treated with two years of subsequent aminoglutethimide (a first-generation aromatase inhibitor) rather than another two years of tamoxifen. This whets our appetite for studies currently under way to define the role of third-generation aromatase inhibitors in the adjuvant setting. A report by FISHER: from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-23 study (Abstract 277) provided confirmation of what is rapidly becoming accepted, that the addition of tamoxifen to chemotherapy does not benefit breast cancer patients with negative lymph nodes who have ER(-) cancers. In premenopausal women, another report of the benefit of hormonal therapy, this time by the French Adjuvant Study Group using complete hormonal blockade with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist and tamoxifen (Abstract 279) showed that hormonal therapy can be at least as good as, if not better, than six cycles of 5-fluorouracil 500 mg/m(2), epirubicin 50 mg/m(2), cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m(2) in terms of disease-free survival and overall survival. Among the papers on adjuvant chemotherapy, a controversial paper from the German Adjuvant Breast Cancer Group reported that three cycles of CMF (a dose-intense regimen with all three drugs being given on days 1 and 8) were as good as six cycles (Abstract 283). Another report, from the International Breast Cancer Study Group, raised the controversial question of whether there really is much added benefit from the addition of chemotherapy to tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with negative lymph nodes if their tumors have ERs (Abstract 281). A second study (the first was the CALGB study reported at ASCO in 1998) showing a benefit to the addition of Taxol to an anthracycline-based adjuvant regimen, was reported from the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (Abstract 285), giving further impetus to the inclusion of Taxol in standard adjuvant treatment. Finally, there were a number of interesting presentations on HER-2. Reported here are three of these, all addressing the effect of HER-2 overexpression on the response to hormonal therapy. Taken together, they uphold the emerging concern that women with ER(+) cancers may not benefit significantly from endocrine treatment if the tumors also overexpress HER-2. Observations such as these will afford us the ability to predict more accurately which women will benefit from specific treatments. PMID:10964995

  8. Green tea and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anna H; Butler, Lesley M

    2011-06-01

    The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemopreventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort studies are discordant. In addition, the mechanisms by which green tea intake may influence risk of breast cancer in humans remain not well studied. We review the human studies that have evaluated the relationship between green tea intake and four biomarkers (sex steroid hormones, mammographic density, insulin-like growth factor, adiponectin) that are believed to be important in breast cancer development. Results from these biomarker studies are also inconclusive. Limitations of observational studies and areas of further investigations are discussed. PMID:21538855

  9. Progesterone in Breast Cancer Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Botelho, Monica C.; Soares, Raquel; Alves, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of steroid hormones in breast carcinogenesis is well established. Recent evidence suggests that angiogenesis can be regulated by hormones. Both oestrogen and progesterone have been implicated in the angiogenic process of hormone-dependent cancers, such as breast cancer. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is a growth factor involved in angiogenesis in breast cancer that is up-regulated by estrogens. In our study we evaluated the role of progesterone in the expression of this angiogenic growth factor commonly up-regulated in breast cancer. Our findings indicate that progesterone activates an angiogenic pathway involving VEGF stimulation. The elucidation of specific angiogenic pathways promoted by progesterone can raise new therapeutic targets at least in a subset of breast cancers responsive to progesterone. PMID:26640826

  10. [Can breast cancer be prevented?].

    PubMed

    Vatten, L J

    1991-05-30

    More than six-fold variation in incidence between countries, an increasing incidence among immigrants to high incidence areas, and a general increase in the incidence of breast cancer within countries, are factors which suggest a potential for prevention. Reproductive factors such as early menarche, late age at first full term birth, nulliparity, and late age at menopause increase risk of breast cancer, but manipulation of any one of these factors does not seem to be a realistic preventive tool. Nevertheless, the future possibility of using tamoxifen as a chemopreventive agent against breast cancer is discussed, particularly in relation to women at increased risk due to familial clustering. Alcohol consumption by young women, and overweight among postmenopausal women may also increase the incidence of breast cancer. Consequently, reduced alcohol intake by young women, and weight reduction among overweight women after menopause may reduce the risk of breast cancer. PMID:2063386

  11. Genetic susceptibility to breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Angela R; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I

    2007-09-01

    Deleterious mutations in two breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been identified in breast and ovarian cancer families. Women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation are candidates for additional risk reduction measures such as intensive screening, prophylactic surgery or chemoprevention. Additional susceptibility genes have been identified, including PTEN, ATM, TP53, CHEK2, CASP8, PBRL and BRIP1. Yet, many women with a personal or family history suggestive of a hereditary susceptibility to breast cancer undergo genetic testing and no significant genetic alteration is found. Thus, there are other susceptibility genes that have not been identified, and it is likely that the remaining familial contribution to breast cancer will be explained by the presence of multiple low penetrance alleles that coexist to confer high penetrance risks (a polygenic model). The American Cancer Society has identified cancer prevention as a key component of cancer management and there is interest in developing individualized cancer prevention focused on identifying high risk individuals who are most likely to benefit from more aggressive risk reduction measures. Breast cancer risk assessment and genetic counseling are currently provided by genetic counselors, oncology nurse specialist, geneticists, medical and surgical oncologists, gynecologists and other health care professionals, often working within a multidisciplinary clinical setting. Current methods for risk assessment and predictive genetic testing have limitations and improvements in molecular testing and risk assessment tools is necessary to maximize individual breast cancer risk assessment and to fulfill the promise of cancer prevention. PMID:17508290

  12. Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-09

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  13. [Breast cancer in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Maranghi, V; Di Meo, G; Carillo, C

    1994-01-01

    Breast cancer in pregnancy is a very rare condition. At present this doesn't seem a condition with a particularly grim prognosis. It's often only an underestimate of the mammalian masses in pregnancy which produces a delay in the diagnosis and the consequent grim prognosis. The authors recommend on the basis of their experience a careful control of mammalian masses in pregnancy and an opportune diagnosis that allows to operate as soon as possible. It's likewise underlined that interruption of the pregnancy don't seem to improve the prognosis. PMID:8177461

  14. New prognostic factors in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Adam Maciejczyk, Adam

    2013-01-01

    For many years, the age of the patient, the condition of axillar lymph nodes, the size of the tumour, histological traits (in particular histological grade of malignancy and invasion of lymphatic vessels), condition of hormonal receptors and HER2 represented principal factors used for the stratification of breast cancer patients for the purposes of evaluating the prognosis and determining the appropriate strategy of treatment. Although the variables are useful for the prognostic evaluation of individual groups of breast cancer patients, their role in determining the individual risk level of the patient and in the selection of supplementary treatment is quite restricted. This article shows the prognostic value of additional parameters, whose expression is associated with chemioresistance (MRP2, BCRP, YB1) or individual assessment of the dynamics of tumor progression (S100P, BUBR1). In addition, it describes the role of an online database of "The Kaplan-Meier plotter" which contains the assessment of the effects of expression of various genes on the clinical outcome of patients with breast cancer. PMID:23468257

  15. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer. PMID:16045991

  16. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Time-lapse exposure depicts Bioreactor rotation. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  17. [Breast cancer: the unspeakable].

    PubMed

    Winaver, D; Slama, L

    1993-04-01

    The drama with the language is that "putting in words" creates an uncrossable chasm between the felt and the expressed. There are moments where the impossibility to communicate cuts the links between doctor and patient. And this often happens in a consultation after the breast cancer has been announced. The unspeakable then, stands between the two protagonists, as the spectral appearance of death. For the patients, the medical revelation then becomes an anathema. The doctor who says the word, becomes the one who overturns a destiny for ever. One knows from greek mythology that confronted to the tragic of his destiny, man hears the ineluctability of the oracle but cannot accepts it. It is the role of the psyche to divert the prophecy so as to have space for hope, for a project of live. To tell, not to tell, how to tell: there is no rule. The misunderstanding is inexorable: it sighs the discordance between the medical reality of the breast cancer, the subject desire and the implication of the doctor who is wedged between the one and the other. PMID:7951637

  18. Epigenetics and Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Vo, An T.; Millis, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Several of the active compounds in foods, poisons, drugs, and industrial chemicals may, by epigenetic mechanisms, increase or decrease the risk of breast cancers. Enzymes that are involved in DNA methylation and histone modifications have been shown to be altered in several types of breast and other cancers resulting in abnormal patterns of methylation and/or acetylation. Hypermethylation at the CpG islands found in estrogen response element (ERE) promoters occurs in conjunction with ligand-bonded alpha subunit estrogen receptor (Erα) dimers wherein the ligand ERα dimer complex acts as a transcription factor and binds to the ERE promoter. Ligands could be 17-β-estradiol (E2), phytoestrogens, heterocyclic amines, and many other identified food additives and heavy metals. The dimer recruits DNA methyltransferases which catalyze the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to 5′-cytosine on CpG islands. Other enzymes are recruited to the region by ligand-ERα dimers which activate DNA demethylases to act simultaneously to increase gene expression of protooncogenes and growth-promoting genes. Ligand-ERα dimers also recruit histone acetyltransferase to the ERE promoter region. Histone demethylases such as JMJD2B and histone methyltransferases are enzymes which demethylate lysine residues on histones H3 and/or H4. This makes the chromatin accessible for transcription factors and enzymes. PMID:22567014

  19. Addition of Carboplatin to Neoadjuvant Therapy for Triple-negative and HER2-positive Early Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-12

    Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II; Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II; Breast Cancer Female NOS; Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III; HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer Stage IV; Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  20. Nuclear imaging in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Adi

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear imaging of the breast shows physiological changes that usually are due to malignancies. These changes are detectable earlier than those visible on other imaging modalities. Recent advances in functional breast imaging have given us promising new tools - positron emission mammography and breast-specific gamma imaging - that combine the advantages of functional imaging with a finer resolution than that of positron emission tomography and scintimammography. If its promises bear out, breast-specific functional imaging will provide a powerful new tool in the fight against breast cancer and will assume a larger role in the coming years. PMID:20051596

  1. Neo-adjuvant Therapy With Anastrozole Plus Pazopanib in Stage II and III ER+ Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-02

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer

  2. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Treated With Zoledronic Acid

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-23

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  3. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. A cross-section of a construct, grown from surgical specimens of brease cancer, stained for microscopic examination, reveals areas of tumor cells dispersed throughout the non-epithelial cell background. The arrow denotes the foci of breast cancer cells. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  4. Hereditary breast cancer: from molecular pathology to tailored therapies.

    PubMed

    Tan, D S P; Marchi, C; Reis-Filho, J S

    2008-10-01

    Hereditary breast cancer accounts for up to 5-10% of all breast carcinomas. Recent studies have demonstrated that mutations in two high-penetrance genes, namely BRCA1 and BRCA2, are responsible for about 16% of the familial risk of breast cancer. Even though subsequent studies have failed to find another high-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility gene, several genes that confer a moderate to low risk of breast cancer development have been identified; moreover, hereditary breast cancer can be part of multiple cancer syndromes. In this review we will focus on the hereditary breast carcinomas caused by mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, Fanconi anaemia (FANC) genes, CHK2 and ATM tumour suppressor genes. We describe the hallmark histological features of these carcinomas compared with non-hereditary breast cancers and show how an accurate histopathological diagnosis may help improve the identification of patients to be screened for mutations. Finally, novel therapeutic approaches to treat patients with BRCA1 and BRCA2 germ line mutations, including cross-linking agents and PARP inhibitors, are discussed. PMID:18682420

  5. ATM and breast cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M; Rahman, N

    2006-09-25

    ATM was originally identified by positional cloning as the gene that underlies the autosomal recessive condition ataxia-telangiectasia. The encoded protein plays a central role in the complex processes that repair DNA double-strand breaks. Nearly 20 years ago, epidemiological surveys of relatives of ataxia-telangiectasia cases suggested that female relatives were at modestly increased risk of breast cancer. Subsequently, many studies have tried to clarify the role of ATM in breast cancer susceptibility, but have produced inconclusive and/or inconsistent results. Recently, large epidemiological and molecular studies have finally provided conclusive evidence that ATM mutations that cause ataxia-telangiectasia are breast cancer susceptibility alleles. PMID:16998505

  6. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    High magnification of view of tumor cells aggregate on microcarrier beads, illustrting breast cells with intercellular boundaires on bead surface and aggregates of cells achieving 3-deminstional growth outward from bead after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida.

  7. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Human primary breast tumor cells after 49 days of growth in a NASA Bioreactor. Tumor cells aggregate on microcarrier beads (indicated by arrow). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  8. Phenotype-genotype correlation in familial breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Ana Cristina; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Lakhani, Sunil R

    2011-04-01

    Familial breast cancer accounts for a small but significant proportion of breast cancer cases worldwide. Identification of the candidate genes is always challenging specifically in patients with little or no family history. Therefore, a multidisciplinary team is required for the proper detection and further management of these patients. Pathologists have played a pivotal role in the cataloguing of genotypic-phenotypic correlations in families with hereditary cancer syndromes. These efforts have led to the identification of histological and phenotypic characteristics that can help predict the presence or absence of germline mutations of specific cancer predisposition genes. However, the panoply of cancer phenotypes associated with mutations of genes other than in BRCA1 is yet to be fully characterised; in fact, many cancer syndromes, germline mutations and gene sequence variants are under investigation for their possible morphological associations. Here we review the current understanding of phenotype-genotype correlation in familial breast cancer. PMID:21400086

  9. Targeted therapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ali; Krajewski, Kenneth; Cakar, Burcu; Ma, Cynthia X

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous group of diseases that are clinically subdivided as hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2(+)), and triple-negative breast cancer, to guide therapeutic interventions. Agents that target estrogen receptor (ER) and HER2 are among the most successful cancer therapeutics. However, de novo or acquired resistance is common, despite the development of newer agents against these pathways. As our understanding of tumor biology improves, novel targets are being identified. Notably, inhibitors against several pathways [including, among others, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/mTOR), cell-cycle regulation, heat shock protein, and epigenetic pathways] have demonstrated promising activity in clinical trials, and the mTOR-inhibitor everolimus has been approved for advanced or metastatic aromatase inhibitor-resistant ER(+) breast cancer. At present, there are no established targeted agents for triple-negative breast cancer (negative ER, progesterone receptor, and HER2). Although poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors have shown promising activity in BRCA-related cancers, its value in the treatment of triple-negative breast cancers remains to be demonstrated. In this Review, we present a basic understanding of the major targeted agents in current practice and under development for the treatment of breast cancer in the context of the three clinical subgroups. PMID:23988612

  10. Breast Cancer In Women Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This infographic shows the Breast Cancer Subtypes in Women. It’s important for guiding treatment and predicting survival. Know the Science: HR = Hormone receptor. HR+ means tumor cells have receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone, which can promote the growth of HR+ tumors. Hormone therapies like tamoxifen can be used to treat HR+ tumors. HER2 = Human epidermal growth Factor receptor, HER2+ means tumor cells overexpress (make high levels of) a protein, called HE2/neu, which has been shown to be associated with certain aggressive types of breast cancer. Trastuzumab and some other therapies can target cells that overexpress HER2. HR+/HER2, aka “LuminalA”. 73% of all breast cancer cases: best prognosis, most common subtype for every race, age, and poverty level. HR-/HER2, aka “Triple Negative”: 13% of all breast cancer cases, Worst prognosis, Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest rate of this subtype at every age and poverty level. HR+/HER2+, aka “Luminal B”, 10% of all breast cancer cases, little geographic variation by state. HR-/HER2+, aka”HER2-enriched”, 5% of all breast cancer cases, lowest rates for all races and ethnicities. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  11. Breast cancer and ovarian cancer genetics.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Lin, Kant Y

    2005-01-01

    Breast and ovarian cancers are the second and fifth leading causes of cancer death, respectively, among women in the United States. Individuals with breast cancer have a 20--30% chance of having at least one relative with the disease. However, only 5--10% of the cases are a direct result of germline mutations in highly penetrable genes, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) as well as genes TP53 and PTEN. Since 1996, genetic testing for these mutations has been clinically available. A strategy for the management of women at increased familial risk of breast and ovarian cancers is described, which includes genetic assessment, chemoprevention, radiologic screening, and clinical and self-examination. Genetic testing should occur within a cancer genetic clinic after genetic counseling. A blood sample allows determination of the presence of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, the TP53 gene, the PTEN gene, and the ATM gene. Tumor examination has identified a growth factor receptor gene, human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-2). With regard to diet and lifestyle, women at increased risk of breast cancer could be advised to reduce dietary fat, avoid obesity, decrease alcohol consumption, and take regular exercise. Although chemoprotection is a valuable consideration, it is important to emphasize that the use of Tamoxifen in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers is not established, nor is the optimum duration of benefit. An overview of the main outcomes of the current published studies confirms a 38% decrease in breast cancer incidence with Tamoxifen but recommends its use be restricted to women at high risk of breast cancer and low risk for potential side effects. The role of bilateral risk-reducing mastectomy or prophylactic mastectomy has been controversial for several reasons, including the psychosocial significance of the breast in Western cultures, the wide acceptance of breast conservation in surgery for early breast cancer, and the previous lack of data on its efficacy. The surgical procedure should aim to remove substantially all at-risk breast tissue. However, there is a balance between reduction of cancer risk and cosmetic outcome. Bilateral prophylactic oophorectomy can significantly decrease ovarian cancer risk in women who carry BCRA1 mutations. Oophorectomy lowers the risk of breast cancer, even in women who have previously used hormone replacement therapy. There are no published randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness of mammographic screening in women under 50 years of age with a family history of breast cancer. However, the published studies do suggest that mammographic screening of a high-risk group of women under 50 years of age may detect cancer at a rate equivalent to that seen in women 10 years older with normal risk. Other initial studies also support MRI as having a greater sensitivity than mammography in high-risk women. Breast clinical and self-examination is often advocated, but its effectiveness is unproved, and only one randomized study has been undertaken in women at risk. On the basis of this study as well as one nonrandomized study, it can be concluded that clinical examination as well as mammography are essential in detecting breast cancer. under 50 years of age with a family history of breast cancer. However, the published studies do suggest that mammographic screening of a high-risk group of women under 50 years of age may detect cancer at a rate equivalent to that seen in women 10 years older with normal risk. Other initial studies also support MRI as having a greater sensitivity than mammography in high-risk women. Breast clinical and self-examination is often advocated, but its effectiveness is unproved, and only one randomized study has been undertaken in women at risk. On the basis of this study as well as one nonrandomized study, it can be concluded that clinical examination as well as mammography are essential in detecting breast cancer. PMID:16218901

  12. Breast Cancer and Women with Disabilities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Breast Cancer and Women with Disabilities Language: English Español (Spanish) ... years old, get a mammogram every two years. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. And ...

  13. Breast cancer: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Collyar, D E

    2001-09-15

    The 2001 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) International Symposium, Breast Cancer: A Global Perspective, was conducted by members of the ASCO International Committee and additional speakers from around the world. An interactive format was chosen to: (1) learn how patterns of incidence, epidemiology, and causal biology relate to breast cancer around the world; (2) discuss the challenges in screening, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer, as well as its socioeconomic impact in various regions; (3) describe international differences in approach to and management of advanced breast cancer; and (4) discuss treatment in terms of hormone response, clinical research, and drug metabolism. After a brief introduction, each speaker gave an overview of breast cancer challenges and issues in their country, and discussed how the following case might be diagnosed and treated: A 44-year-old mother who presents with a finding of a painless breast lump and no prior history of breast masses, trauma, or surgery. Comments from a patient perspective were then presented, followed by a panel discussion and closing remarks. Co-chairs of this Symposium included Deborah Collyar (President, PAIR-Patient Advocates in Research) and Elizabeth Eisenhauer, MD (Director, Investigational New Drug Program, National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Speakers included Gilberto Schwartsmann, MD (South America), Monica Morrow, MD (North America), Daniel Vorobiof, MD (South Africa), Rakesh Chopra, MD (India), Klaus Hoeffken, MD (Eastern Europe), Russell Basser, MD (Australia), Susan Matsuko Shinigawa (patient perspective), and Larry Norton, MD (closing remarks). PMID:11560983

  14. Correlation between PET/CT results and histological and immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinomas*

    PubMed Central

    Bitencourt, Almir Galvo Vieira; Lima, Eduardo Nbrega Pereira; Chojniak, Rubens; Marques, Elvira Ferreira; de Souza, Juliana Alves; Graziano, Luciana; Andrade, Wesley Pereira; Osrio, Cynthia Aparecida Bueno de Toledo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To correlate the results of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) performed with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts with histological/immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinoma patients. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional study with prospective data collection, where patients with biopsy-confirmed breast carcinomas were studied. The patients underwent PET/CT examination in prone position, with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts. PET/CT findings were compared with histological and immunohistochemical data. Results The authors identified 59 malignant breast lesions in 50 patients. The maximum diameter of the lesions ranged from 6 to 80 mm (mean: 32.2 mm). Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most common histological type (n = 47; 79.7%). At PET/CT, 53 (89.8%) of the lesions demonstrated anomalous concentrations of 18F-FDG, with maximum SUV ranging from 0.8 to 23.1 (mean: 5.5). A statistically significant association was observed between higher values of maximum SUV and histological type, histological grade, molecular subtype, tumor diameter, mitotic index and Ki-67 expression. Conclusion PET/CT performed with specific protocol for assessment of breasts has demonstrated good sensitivity and was associated with relevant histological/immunohistochemical factors related to aggressiveness and prognosis of breast carcinomas. PMID:25741051

  15. [Patient education and breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Arfé, Emmanuelle; Bombail, Marie

    2015-10-01

    The therapeutic education program set up at the Institut Universitaire du Cancer (University Cancer Institute) in Toulouse accompanies the treatment pathway of breast cancer patients. It includes nine collective workshops. From work organization to application, professionals and patients are closely involved. PMID:26455624

  16. Triiodothyronine and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    De Sibio, Maria Teresa; de Oliveira, Miriane; Moretto, Fernanda Cristina Fontes; Olimpio, Regiane Marques Castro; Conde, Sandro Jos; Luvizon, Aline Carbonera; Nogueira, Clia Regina

    2014-01-01

    The thyroid hormones (THs), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), are essential for survival; they are involved in the processes of development, growth, and metabolism. In addition to hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, THs are involved in other diseases. The role of THs in the development and differentiation of mammary epithelium is well established; however, their specific role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer (BC) is controversial. Steroid hormones affect many human cancers and the abnormal responsiveness of the mammary epithelial cells to estradiol (E2) in particular is known to be an important cause for the development and progression of BC. The proliferative effect of T3 has been demonstrated in various types of cancer. In BC cell lines, T3 may foster the conditions for tumor proliferation and increase the effect of cell proliferation by E2; thus, T3 may play a role in the development and progression of BC. Studies show that T3 has effects similar to E2 in BC cell lines. Despite controversy regarding the relationship between thyroid disturbances and the incidence of BC, studies show that thyroid status may influence the development of tumor, proliferation and metastasis. PMID:25114863

  17. Metals and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Celia; Divekar, Shailaja D.; Storchan, Geoffrey B.; Parodi, Daniela A.; Martin, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    Metalloestrogens are metals that activate the estrogen receptor in the absence of estradiol. The metalloestrogens fall into two subclasses: metal/metalloid anions and bivalent cationic metals. The metal/metalloid anions include compounds such as arsenite, nitrite, selenite, and vanadate while the bivalent cations include metals such as cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, nickel, chromium, lead, mercury, and tin. The best studied metalloestrogen is cadmium. It is a heavy metal and a prevalent environmental contaminant with no known physiological function. This review addresses our current understanding of the mechanism by which cadmium and the bivalent cationic metals activate estrogen receptor-?. The review also summarizes the in vitro and in vivo evidence that cadmium functions as an estrogen and the potential role of cadmium in breast cancer. PMID:23338949

  18. Association of breast cancer risk loci with breast cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindstrm, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N; Ziegler, Regina G; Buring, Julie E; Chanock, Stephen J; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Giles, Graham G; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J; Joshi, Amit D; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I-Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L; Southey, Melissa C; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Snchez, Mara-Jos; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2015-12-15

    The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of evidence suggest that alleles influencing breast cancer risk might also be associated with breast cancer survival. We examined the associations between 35 breast cancer susceptibility loci and the disease over-all survival (OS) in 10,255 breast cancer patients from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) of which 1,379 died, including 754 of breast cancer. We also conducted a meta-analysis of almost 35,000 patients and 5,000 deaths, combining results from BPC3 and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and performed in silico analyses of SNPs with significant associations. In BPC3, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was significantly associated with improved OS (HRper-allele =0.70; 95% CI: 0.58-0.85; ptrend ?=?2.84 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes ?=?0.71; 95% CI: 0.55-0.92; HRhomozygotes ?=?0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.76; p2DF ?=?1.45 10(-3) ). In silico, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was predicted to increase expression of the tumor suppressor cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C). In the meta-analysis, TNRC9-rs3803662 was significantly associated with increased death hazard (HRMETA =1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.15; ptrend ?=?6.6 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes ?=?0.96 95% CI: 0.90-1.03; HRhomozygotes ?=?1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.35; p2DF =1.25 10(-4) ). In conclusion, we show that there is little overlap between the breast cancer risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified so far and the SNPs associated with breast cancer prognosis, with the possible exceptions of LSP1-rs3817198 and TNRC9-rs3803662. PMID:25611573

  19. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medical literature, the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) trial was started in 1998. That study enrolled ... in the BCPT. Studies, such as BCPT and STAR, involve women who have not had breast cancer, ...

  20. Tumour markers in breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cove, D. H.; Woods, K. L.; Smith, S. C.; Burnett, D.; Leonard, J.; Grieve, R. J.; Howell, A.

    1979-01-01

    The clinical usefulness of 8 potential tumour markers has been evaluated in 69 patients with Stage I and II breast cancer and 57 patients with Stage III and IV. Serum CEA concentrations were raised in 13% of patients with local and 65% of those with advanced breast cancer. In patients with clinical evidence of progression or regression of tumour, serum CEA levels changed appropriately in 83% of cases. Taking 4 of the markers (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), lactalbumin, alpha subunit and haptoglobin) serum concentrations of one or more were raised in 33% of patients with local disease and 81% of those with advanced breast cancer. However, marker concentrations were often only marginally raised, and are unlikely to provide sensitive guide to tumour burden. CEA, lactalbumin and alpha subunit were detectable in 68%, 43% and 40% respectively of extracts of primary breast cancers. PMID:92331

  1. The TAILORx Breast Cancer Trial

    Cancer.gov

    A collection of material about the Trial Assigning IndividuaLized Options for Treatment (Rx), or TAILORx, which will examine whether a molecular test can assign women with early-stage breast cancer to the most appropriate and effective treatment.

  2. Cholesterol and Breast Cancer Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Erik R.; Chang, Ching-yi; McDonnell, Donald P.

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol is a risk factor for breast cancer although the mechanisms by which this occurs are not well understood. One hypothesis is that dyslipidemia results in increased cholesterol content in cell membranes thus impacting membrane fluidity and subsequent signaling. Additionally, studies demonstrate that the metabolite, 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC), can function as an estrogen, increasing the proliferation of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells. This was unexpected as 27HC and other oxysterols activate the liver X receptors resulting in the reduction of intracellular cholesterol. Resolution of this paradox will require a dissection of the molecular mechanisms by which ER and LXR converge in breast cancer cells. Regardless, the observation that 27HC influences breast cancer provides rationale for strategies that target cholesterol metabolism. PMID:25458418

  3. Palbociclib for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.

  4. Fostering early breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, Judy A; Weyhenmeyer, Diana P; Mabus, Linda K

    2014-12-01

    This article examines how faith community nurses (FCNs) fostered early breast cancer detection for those at risk in rural and African American populations throughout nine counties in midwestern Illinois to decrease breast cancer disparities. Flexible methods for breast cancer awareness education through FCNs, effective strategies for maximizing participation, and implications for practice were identified. In addition, networking within faith communities, connecting with complementary activities scheduled in those communities, and offering refreshments and gift items that support educational efforts were identified as effective ways of maximizing outcomes and reinforcing learning. Flexible educational programming that could be adapted to situational and learning needs was important to alleviate barriers in the project. As a result, the number of participants in the breast cancer awareness education program exceeded the grant goal, and the large number of African American participants and an unexpected number of Hispanic and Latino participants exceeded the target. PMID:25427713

  5. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Talking about Advanced Cancer Coping with Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer and Caregivers Questions ... Talking About Advanced Cancer Coping With Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer ...

  6. Can Breast Cancer in Men Be Found Early?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and symptoms of breast cancer in men Can breast cancer in men be found early? Early detection ... Differences affecting early detection of male and female breast cancers There are many similarities between breast cancer ...

  7. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Cyclophosphamide, and Filgrastim Followed By Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer Previously Treated With Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-07

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  8. Choosing the right cell line for breast cancer research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease. Gene expression profiling has contributed significantly to our understanding of this heterogeneity at a molecular level, refining taxonomy based on simple measures such as histological type, tumour grade, lymph node status and the presence of predictive markers like oestrogen receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) to a more sophisticated classification comprising luminal A, luminal B, basal-like, HER2-positive and normal subgroups. In the laboratory, breast cancer is often modelled using established cell lines. In the present review we discuss some of the issues surrounding the use of breast cancer cell lines as experimental models, in light of these revised clinical classifications, and put forward suggestions for improving their use in translational breast cancer research. PMID:21884641

  9. Genotype/Phenotype Correlations in Patients with Hereditary Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wittersheim, Maike; Bttner, Reinhard; Markiefka, Birgid

    2015-01-01

    Summary Of all breast cancer cases, 510% can be attributed to germline mutations, and the high-susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for about 2528% of these cases. For the remainder, several genes of moderate and low penetrance have been discovered. Histopathologic characteristics have been studied in small cohorts, but for most of the known non-BRCA1/2-associated hereditary breast cancers, the histologic and immunohistochemical phenotypes are not yet identified. Particularly BRCA1 tumors are associated with a distinct morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics that differ from sporadic breast cancer of age-matched controls. The recognition of features characteristic of these mutations can be helpful to identify patients likely to carry a germline mutation and to assess which gene should be screened for first, in families with a high occurrence of breast and ovarian cancer. PMID:25960721

  10. Targeting autophagy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maycotte, Paola; Thorburn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Macroautophagy (referred to as autophagy here) is an intracellular degradation pathway enhanced in response to a variety of stresses and in response to nutrient deprivation. This process provides the cell with nutrients and energy by degrading aggregated and damaged proteins as well as compromised organelles. Since autophagy has been linked to diverse diseases including cancer, it has recently become a very interesting target in breast cancer treatment. Indeed, current clinical trials are trying to use chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, alone or in combination with other drugs to inhibit autophagy during breast cancer therapy since chemotherapy and radiation, regimens that are used to treat breast cancer, are known to induce autophagy in cancer cells. Importantly, in breast cancer, autophagy has been involved in the development of resistance to chemotherapy and to anti-estrogens. Moreover, a close relationship has recently been described between autophagy and the HER2 receptor. Here, we discuss some of the recent findings relating autophagy and cancer with a particular focus on breast cancer therapy. PMID:25114840

  11. Soy Isoflavones Supplementation in Treating Women at High Risk For or With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-20

    BRCA1 Mutation Carrier; BRCA2 Mutation Carrier; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer

  12. Immune targeting in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Foote, Jeremy B; Emens, Leisha A

    2015-05-01

    The immune system is active in breast cancer, playing a dual role in tumor progression and in immune surveillance. Infiltrating immune cells are both prognostic and predictive of response to standard breast cancer therapies. Breast cancer vaccines can activate and expand tumor-specific T cells, but have enjoyed minimal clinical success to date. Immune checkpoint blockade is a new approach to cancer immunotherapy, with documented clinical responses in diverse tumor types. Interest in breast cancer immunotherapy has been reignited by recent reports of objective responses in metastatic triple-negative breast cancer with both pembrolizumab (a programmed cell death protein 1 [PD-1] antagonist) and MPDL3280A (a programmed cell death ligand 1 [PD-L1] antagonist). Rational strategies for combination immunotherapy that expand and promote the trafficking of tumor-specific T cells, support their activity at the tumor site, and abrogate pathways of immune suppression within breast tumors are most likely to result in objective responses that translate into long-term disease control and cure. PMID:25979549

  13. Iodide transport and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Poole, Vikki L; McCabe, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death in women, with incidence rates that continue to rise. The heterogeneity of the disease makes breast cancer exceptionally difficult to treat, particularly for those patients with triple-negative disease. To address the therapeutic complexity of these tumours, new strategies for diagnosis and treatment are urgently required. The ability of lactating and malignant breast cells to uptake and transport iodide has led to the hypothesis that radioiodide therapy could be a potentially viable treatment for many breast cancer patients. Understanding how iodide is transported, and the factors regulating the expression and function of the proteins responsible for iodide transport, is critical for translating this hypothesis into reality. This review covers the three known iodide transporters - the sodium iodide symporter, pendrin and the sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter - and their role in iodide transport in breast cells, along with efforts to manipulate them to increase the potential for radioiodide therapy as a treatment for breast cancer. PMID:26285906

  14. Survivorship Care Plan in Promoting Physical Activity in Breast or Colorectal Cancer Survivors in Wisconsin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-18

    Cancer Survivor; Healthy Subject; Stage I Colorectal Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer

  15. [Up-to-date pathological diagnosis for breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Moriya, Takuya; Kanomata, Naoki

    2014-06-01

    The number of breast cancer patients among Japanese women has been increasing, and one in fourteen women may develop breast cancer during their lifetime. Most cases of breast cancer occur in the terminal duct-lobular units, but their pathological features are quite heterogeneous. Thus, it is necessary to examine them pathologically, to establish appropriate adjuvant therapy for individual patients. In addition to determining the histological type, tumor size, tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, node metastases, and surgical margin status (for breast-conserving surgery), we should clarify the biomarker status. Analyses of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) are routinely performed currently, but strict quality control is strongly recommended, including pre-analytical issues. In addition, the Ki-67 labeling index has been employed as a marker to determine the indication for adjuvant chemotherapy for hormone receptor (ER/PgR)-positive, HER2-negative invasive carcinoma patients. The significance of PgR may alter, too. The threshold for the therapeutic indication may alter with the progress of pharmacology. The evidence-based data and expert consensus (i.e., St. Gallen international meeting consensus) may influence our daily practice. In this issue, we introduce the newest histological classifications (by the WHO and the Japanese Society of Breast Cancer) and the Japanese Breast Cancer Treatment Guideline. Several issues to be included in the pathology reports are examined, and the current status as well as future perspectives of biomarker analysis will be discussed. PMID:25151775

  16. The pathology of familial breast cancer: Clinical and genetic counselling implications of breast cancer pathology

    PubMed Central

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 5% of all breast cancers are due to one of the high-risk breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, or possibly to a third or fourth moderate- to high-risk gene(s). A further proportion of cases arise in the presence of a less striking family history, with later average age at onset and lower penetrance: familial breast cancer. Bilaterality is a recognized feature of hereditary breast cancer. Cancers often present at an early age, with the contralateral risk high within 10 years. Proof that bilateral malignancies are separate primaries can be difficult histologically, however, especially within 3 years. The recent finding of specific pathological features related to BRCA1 and, to a lesser extent, BRCA2 mutations means that, in addition to bilaterality and family history, a pathological element can be entered into the risk calculation for the presence of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations. This will facilitate the targeting of mutation testing to families in which a positive result is most likely, and may subsequently influence the clinical management of these families. PMID:11250683

  17. 'Omic approaches to preventing or managing metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Early detection of metastasis-prone breast cancers and characterization of residual metastatic cancers are important in efforts to improve management of breast cancer. Applications of genome-scale molecular analysis technologies are making these complementary approaches possible by revealing molecular features uniquely associated with metastatic disease. Assays that reveal these molecular features will facilitate development of anatomic, histological and blood-based strategies that may enable detection prior to metastatic spread. Knowledge of these features also will guide development of therapeutic strategies that can be applied when metastatic disease burden is low, thereby increasing the probability of a curative response. PMID:22216753

  18. Breast Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Quiz Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual ...

  19. Stages of Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Quiz Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual ...

  20. Environmental pollutants and breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer death among women 35-54 years of age. Rising incidence, increased risk among migrants to higher risk regions, and poor prediction of individual risk have prompted a search for additional modifiable factors. Risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive characteristics associated with estrogen and other hormones, pharmaceutical hormones, and activities such as alcohol use and lack of exercise that affect hormone levels. As a result, investigation of hormonally active compounds in commercial products and pollution is a priority. Compounds that cause mammary tumors in animals are additional priorities. Animal models provide insight into possible mechanisms for effects of environmental pollutants on breast cancer and identify chemical exposures to target in epidemiologic studies. Although few epidemiologic studies have been conducted for chemical exposures, occupational studies show associations between breast cancer and exposure to certain organic solvents and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Population-based studies have been limited to a few organochlorine compounds and PAHs and have been mostly negative. A variety of challenges in studies of breast cancer and the environment may have contributed to negative findings. Lack of exposure assessment tools and few hypothesis-generating toxicologic studies limit the scope of epidemiologic studies. Issues of timing with respect to latency and periods of breast vulnerability, and individual differences in susceptibility pose other challenges. Substantial work is needed in exposure assessment, toxicology, and susceptibility before we can expect a pay-off from large epidemiologic studies of breast cancer and environment. PMID:12826474

  1. Histological profile and age at diagnosis of breast and ovarian tumors: A register-based study in Espirito Santo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    DE VARGAS WOLFGRAMM, ELDAMRIA; GAVIOLI, CAMILA FTIMA BIANCARDI; ENTRINGER, MAYARA LEMOS; ALVES, LYVIA NEVES REBELLO; STUR, ELAINE; DE CASTRO NETO, ALLAN KARDEC; MOTTA, LUCIENE LAGE DA; PEREIRA, FAUSTO EDMUNDO LIMA; LOURO, IURI DRUMOND

    2013-01-01

    Breast and ovarian cancers are important public health problems in Brazil. However, in various locations in the Brazilian territory these types of cancer remain poorly characterized. Therefore, this study aimed to compare data collected from the Pathology Services of two Oncology Reference Hospitals in Espirito Santo state (Brazil) with the data in previous Brazilian studies. Histological type frequency and age at diagnosis of breast and ovarian tumors between 20012004 and 20092010 were analyzed. Tumor size, histological grade, lymph node status, hormone receptor status [estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR)] as well as HER2 and Ki-67 marker status were obtained for the cases of infiltrating ductal carcinomas of the breast during the period 20092010. Categorical variables were described by their absolute and/or relative frequencies, while quantitative variables were expressed as the mean standard deviation and median, using 95% confidence intervals. Chi-square tests were performed to examine whether or not the studied variables differed by age at the time of diagnosis. Malignant breast tumors (1,758) and 119 malignant ovarian tumors were examined. Mean ages for malignant breast and ovarian tumors were 53.59 and 52.98 years, respectively. An increased tumor frequency in the age group of ?35 years was observed for other malignant tumors of the breast during the period of 20092010, compared to 20012004. When considering only infiltrating ductal carcinomas with immunohistochemistry records available, there were 82.1% (133 cases) of ER+/PR+ tumors, 1.9% (3 cases) of ER?/PR?/HER2 3+ and 16.04% (26 cases) of ER?/PR?/HER2? tumors. The findings of this study demonstrated detailed information concerning breast and ovarian tumor behavior in the Espirito Santo state (Brazil), allowing for a precise comparison with other populations (Brazilian or international), which may be helpful in the planning of prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:24649174

  2. Natural Products for Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Eun-Yi; Moon, Aree

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the primary cause of cancer death in women. Although current therapies have shown some promise against breast cancer, there is still no effective cure for the majority of patients in the advanced stages of breast cancer. Development of effective agents to slow, reduce, or reverse the incidence of breast cancer in high-risk women is necessary. Chemoprevention of breast cancer by natural products is advantageous, as these compounds have few side effects and low toxicity compared to synthetic compounds. In the present review, we summarize natural products which exert chemopreventive activities against breast cancer, such as curcumin, sauchinone, lycopene, denbinobin, genipin, capsaicin, and ursolic acid. This review examines the current knowledge about natural compounds and their mechanisms that underlie breast cancer chemopreventive activity both in vitro and in vivo. The present review may provide information on the use of these compounds for the prevention of breast cancer. PMID:26734584

  3. Natural Products for Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eun-Yi; Moon, Aree

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer is the primary cause of cancer death in women. Although current therapies have shown some promise against breast cancer, there is still no effective cure for the majority of patients in the advanced stages of breast cancer. Development of effective agents to slow, reduce, or reverse the incidence of breast cancer in high-risk women is necessary. Chemoprevention of breast cancer by natural products is advantageous, as these compounds have few side effects and low toxicity compared to synthetic compounds. In the present review, we summarize natural products which exert chemopreventive activities against breast cancer, such as curcumin, sauchinone, lycopene, denbinobin, genipin, capsaicin, and ursolic acid. This review examines the current knowledge about natural compounds and their mechanisms that underlie breast cancer chemopreventive activity both in vitro and in vivo. The present review may provide information on the use of these compounds for the prevention of breast cancer. PMID:26734584

  4. Changes in breast cancer reports after pathology second opinion.

    PubMed

    Marco, Vicente; Muntal, Teresa; Garca-Hernandez, Felip; Cortes, Javier; Gonzalez, Begoa; Rubio, Isabel T

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer pathology reports contain valuable information about the histologic diagnosis, prognostic factors and predictive indicators of therapeutic response. A second opinion may be requested by medical oncologists and surgeons, when a patient is referred from another institution for treatment. We report the experience with pathology second opinion in selected patients referred to the Breast Oncology Unit. 205 cases referred to the Breast Oncology Unit were selected for second opinion after clinical evaluation, between 2002 and 2012. The cases reviewed included 102 core needle biopsies, 88 surgical specimens from the breast and 18 lymphadenopathies, 14 from the axillary region. Pathology second opinion was based on a review of hematoxylin-eosin preparations, recuts of submitted paraffin blocks and written external pathology reports. Immunohistochemical studies for hormone receptors, HER2, myoepithelial cells, and other markers were performed in selected cases. A case was reclassified as showing major change when second opinion showed a potential for significant change in prognosis or treatment. Otherwise, it was considered to represent minor change or to be concordant. In 52 cases (25.4%), the pathology review showed changes. Thirty-three (16%) patients were reclassified for major changes and 19 (9.2%) as minor changes. In six patients, more than one major change was identified. The major discrepancies identified were related to the histologic classification (12 cases), the presence or absence of invasion in ductal carcinoma (15 cases), the results of hormone receptors (5 cases), and HER2 (7 cases). Major changes in histologic classification included two cases diagnosed as invasive ductal carcinoma and reclassified as benign, four cases with diagnosis of breast cancer reclassified as metastatic lung cancer, one case diagnosed as small cell carcinoma of lung metastatic in the breast, reclassified as primary carcinoma of the breast, and three cases with diagnosis of breast cancer in the axilla reclassified as primary cutaneous adnexal carcinomas (2) and metastatic melanoma (1), respectively. In two cases, the histologic type of the primary breast tumor was changed. Second opinion in breast pathology may uncover significant discrepancies that impact on patient management and prognosis. Major discrepancies are most frequently related to the assessment of the presence or absence of invasion in ductal carcinoma, the results of predictive makers of therapeutic response, and the differential diagnosis of breast cancer and nonmammary tumors in the breast, the axilla, and at distant sites. PMID:24689830

  5. The risk of contralateral breast cancer in daughters of women with and without breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Narod, S A; Kharazmi, E; Fallah, M; Sundquist, K; Hemminki, K

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to estimate the 15-year and lifetime risks of contralateral breast cancer in breast cancer patients according to the age of diagnosis of the first cancer and the history of breast cancer in the mother. The risks of contralateral breast cancer were estimated for all 78,775 breast cancer patients in the Swedish Family-Cancer Database (age at diagnosis of first breast cancer <70 years). The risk of experiencing a contralateral breast cancer within 15 years of diagnosis was 8.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 8.1-8.7%] for women with an unaffected mother, was 12% (95%CI: 11-13%) for a woman with a mother with unilateral breast cancer and was 13% (95%CI: 9.5-17%) for women with a mother with bilateral breast cancer. In early-onset diagnosed women (<50 years) with an unaffected mother, the risk of contralateral breast cancer until age 80 was 23% (95%CI: 20-26%) and for late-onset (50-69 years) diagnosed women it was 17% (95%CI: 14-21%). In a woman with a mother with an early-onset unilateral breast cancer, risk of contralateral breast cancer by age 80 was 35% (95%CI: 25-46%). Women with a mother with early-onset bilateral breast cancer had 31% (95%CI: 12-67%) lifetime risk of contralateral breast cancer. The risk of contralateral breast cancer is higher for daughters of breast cancer patients than for daughters of women without breast cancer. Maternal cancer history and age at onset of first breast cancer in women should be taken into account when counseling breast cancer patients about their risk of contralateral breast cancer. PMID:25920602

  6. Luminal breast cancer: from biology to treatment.

    PubMed

    Ignatiadis, Michail; Sotiriou, Christos

    2013-09-01

    Oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive--or luminal--tumours represent around two-thirds of all breast cancers. Luminal breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease comprising different histologies, gene-expression profiles and mutational patterns, with very varied clinical courses and responses to systemic treatment. Despite adjuvant endocrine therapy and chemotherapy treatment for patients at high risk of relapse, both early and late relapses still occur, a fact that highlights the unmet medical needs of these patients. Ongoing research aims to identify those patients who can be spared adjuvant chemotherapy and who will benefit from extended adjuvant hormone therapy. This research also aims to explore the role of adjuvant bisphosphonates, to interrogate new agents for targeting minimal residual disease, and to address endocrine resistance. Data from next-generation sequencing studies have given us new insight into the biology of luminal breast cancer and, together with advances in preclinical models and the availability of newer targeted agents, have led to the testing of rationally chosen combination treatments in clinical trials. However, a major challenge will be to make sense of the large amount of patient genomic data that is becoming increasingly available. This analysis will be critical to our understanding how intertumour and intratumour heterogeneity can influence treatment response and resistance. PMID:23881035

  7. Genomic profiling of breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To describe recent advances in the application of advanced genomic technologies towards the identification of biomarkers of prognosis and treatment response in breast cancer. Recent findings Advances in high-throughput genomic profiling such as massively parallel sequencing have enabled researchers to catalogue the spectrum of somatic alterations in breast cancers. These tools also hold promise for precision medicine through accurate patient prognostication, stratification, and the dynamic monitoring of treatment response. For example, recent efforts have defined robust molecular subgroups of breast cancer and novel subtype-specific oncogenes. In addition, previously unappreciated activating mutations in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 have been reported, suggesting new therapeutic opportunities. Genomic profiling of cell-free tumor DNA and circulating tumor cells has been used to monitor disease burden and the emergence of resistance, and such ‘liquid biopsy’ approaches may facilitate the early, noninvasive detection of aggressive disease. Finally, single-cell genomics is coming of age and will contribute to an understanding of breast cancer evolutionary dynamics. Summary Here, we highlight recent studies that employ high-throughput genomic technologies in an effort to elucidate breast cancer biology, discover new therapeutic targets, improve prognostication and stratification, and discuss the implications for precision cancer medicine. PMID:25502431

  8. [Immunotherapy opportunities in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Pusztai, Lajos; Ladnyi, Andrea; Szkely, Borbla; Dank, Magdolna

    2016-03-01

    The prognostic value of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer has long been recognized by histopathologists. These observations were reaffirmed by recent immunohistochemistry and gene expression profiling studies that also revealed an association between greater chemotherapy sensitivity and extensive lymphocytic infiltration in early stage breast cancers treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. These results suggest that local anti-tumor immune response can at least partially control cancer growth and may mediate the antitumor effects of chemotherapy. However, until recently, there was no direct clinical evidence to demonstrate that enhancing anti-tumor immune response could lead to clinical benefit in breast cancer patients. The recent development of clinically effective immune checkpoint inhibitors made it possible to test the therapeutic impact of augmenting the local anti-tumor immune response. Two Phase I clinical trials using single agent anti-PD-1 (MK-3475, pembrolizumab) and anti-PD-L1 (MPDL3280A, atezolizumab) antibodies demonstrated close to 20% tumor response rates in heavily pretreated, metastatic, triple negative breast cancers. The most remarkable feature of the responses was their long duration. Several patients had disease control close to a year, or longer, which has not previously been seen with chemotherapy regimens in this patient population. A large number of clinical trials are currently underway with these and similar drugs in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant and metastatic settings to define the role of this new treatment modality in breast cancer. PMID:26934349

  9. Breast cancer and fertility preservation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S. Samuel; Klemp, Jennifer; Fabian, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the benefits of adjuvant systemic therapy given to women with breast cancer of reproductive age, its effects on fertility, and options for fertility preservation. Design Publications relevant to fertility preservation and breast cancer were identified through a PubMed database search. Conclusion(s) Most women who develop invasive breast cancer under age 40 will be advised to undergo adjuvant chemotherapy with or without extended antihormonal therapy to reduce the risk of recurrence and death from breast cancer. Adjuvant chemotherapy particularly with alkylating agents such as cyclophosphamide is gonadotoxic and markedly accelerates the rate of age-related ovarian follicle loss. Although loss of fertility is an important issue for young cancer survivors, there is often little discussion about fertility preservation before initiation of adjuvant therapy. Greater familiarity with prognosis and effects of different types of adjuvant therapy on the part of infertility specialists and fertility preservation options such cryopreservation of embryos, oocytes, and ovarian tissue on the part of oncologists would facilitate these discussions. Establishment of rapid fertility consultation links within cancer survivorship programs can help ensure that every young woman who is likely to undergo gonadotoxic cancer treatment is counseled about the effects of therapy and options available to her to increase the likelihood of childbearing after cancer treatment. PMID:21272867

  10. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  11. Azacitidine and Entinostat in Treating Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-19

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  12. Organochlorine Compounds and Risk of Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Tongzhang Zheng, of Yale University, New Haven, CT, and colleagues conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Connecticut to investigate risk for breast cancer associated with exposure to organochlorine compounds. Levels of organochlorine compounds are being measured in breast adipose (fatty) tissue and blood serum obtained from women who had surgery or biopsies for breast cancer or benign breast disease.

  13. Lipid biology of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Jan; Sevinsky, Christopher; Conklin, Douglas S.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in lipid metabolism have been reported in many types of cancer. Lipids have been implicated in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammation, autophagy, motility and membrane homeostasis. It is required that their biosynthesis is tightly regulated to ensure homeostasis and to prevent unnecessary energy expenditure. This review focuses on the emerging understanding of the role of lipids and lipogenic pathway regulation in breast cancer, including parallels drawn from the study of metabolic disease models, and suggestions on how these findings can potentially be exploited to promote gains in HER2/neu-positive breast cancer research. PMID:23562840

  14. Medical Prevention of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stubert, Johannes; Dieterich, Max; Gerber, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Summary Breast cancer is the most common cancer of women in Western Europe and North America. Effective strategies of medical prevention could reduce the burden of breast cancer mortality. The best evidence for a risk reduction exists for hormonal agents such as tamoxifen and raloxifene (22–72%) or aromatase inhibitors (50–65%). However, the severity of side effects and the lack of evidence for an improved survival compromise the risk/benefit balance. In this review the results of chemoprevention studies, including new treatment approaches, are summarized with critical discussion of their use in clinical practice. PMID:25759621

  15. Gastric cancer: Classification, histology and application of molecular pathology

    PubMed Central

    El Hajj, Nassim; Sittler, Scott; Lammert, Nancy; Barnes, Robert; Meloni-Ehrig, Aurelia

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains one of the deadly diseases with poor prognosis. New classification of gastric cancers based on histologic features, genotypes and molecular phenotypes helps better understand the characteristics of each subtype, and improve early diagnosis, prevention and treatment. The objective of this article is to review the new classification of gastric cancers and the up-to-date guidance in the application of molecular testing. PMID:22943016

  16. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Isolate of long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from outgrowth of duct element; cells shown soon after isolation and early in culture in a dish. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  17. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Same long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), but after 3 weeks in concinuous culture. Note attempts to reform duct elements, but this time in two dimensions in a dish rather that in three demensions in tissue. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  18. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneously die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  19. Breast Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from breast cancer varies by race and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity "Incidence rate" means how many women out of a ... which numbers have been reported. The breast cancer incidence rate is grouped by race and ethnicity. The ...

  20. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  1. Antiperspirants/Deodorants and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Overview–for health professionals Research Antiperspirants/Deodorants and Breast Cancer On This Page Can antiperspirants or deodorants cause breast cancer? What do scientists know about the ingredients in ...

  2. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... hormone therapy does not increase the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, according to an updated analysis ...

  3. Genetic and epigenetic signatures of breast cancer subtypes.

    PubMed

    Stecklein, Shane R; Jensen, Roy A; Pal, Arindam

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease at both the histological and molecular levels. The current model of breast tumorigenesis suggests that the normal mammary stem cell and the various progenitors that arise thereof can be transformed and generate lineage-restricted tumor phenotypes. This model is supported by observations that the different subtypes of breast cancer share transcriptional signatures intrinsic to normal components of the mammary epithelium. Studies have since elaborated these molecular signatures to include recurrent genetic abnormalities, patterns of DNA methylation and dysregulation of microRNAs. Here we aim to review the current state of knowledge concerning the cellular etiology of breast cancer subtypes and the genetic, transcriptional and epigenetic aberrations associated with each subtype. PMID:22201926

  4. Molecular apocrine differentiation is a common feature of breast cancer in patients with germline PTEN mutations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Breast carcinoma is the main malignant tumor occurring in patients with Cowden disease, a cancer-prone syndrome caused by germline mutation of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN characterized by the occurrence throughout life of hyperplastic, hamartomatous and malignant growths affecting various organs. The absence of known histological features for breast cancer arising in a PTEN-mutant background prompted us to explore them for potential new markers. Methods We first performed a microarray study of three tumors from patients with Cowden disease in the context of a transcriptomic study of 74 familial breast cancers. A subsequent histological and immunohistochemical study including 12 additional cases of Cowden disease breast carcinomas was performed to confirm the microarray data. Results Unsupervised clustering of the 74 familial tumors followed the intrinsic gene classification of breast cancer except for a group of five tumors that included the three Cowden tumors. The gene expression profile of the Cowden tumors shows considerable overlap with that of a breast cancer subgroup known as molecular apocrine breast carcinoma, which is suspected to have increased androgenic signaling and shows frequent ERBB2 amplification in sporadic tumors. The histological and immunohistochemical study showed that several cases had apocrine histological features and expressed GGT1, which is a potential new marker for apocrine breast carcinoma. Conclusions These data suggest that activation of the ERBB2-PI3K-AKT pathway by loss of PTEN at early stages of tumorigenesis promotes the formation of breast tumors with apocrine features. PMID:20712882

  5. Racial differences in breast cancer screening, knowledge and compliance.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Dawne M.; Miller, Jane E.; Davis, Diane M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States. Although the incidence of breast cancer is 13% higher in white women, mortality in black women is 28% higher, due to histological and socioeconomic factors. Existing research regarding racial differences in compliance with breast cancer screening recommendations has found conflicting results. METHODS: Data on more than 4,500 women were taken from the 1992 National Health Interview Survey, a nationally representative, population-based sample survey. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relative odds of knowledge of breast self-exam (BSE) and mammograms, and compliance with BSE, clinical breast exams (CBE), and mammograms. RESULTS: Black women were less likely than white women to be aware of and use breast cancer screening tests. However, among women who were aware of screening tests, compliance was higher among black women. Women with low educational attainment, low cancer knowledge, and no usual source of care were less likely to be CBE or mammogram compliant. Socioeconomic differences were larger for the two clinical tests than for BSE. CONCLUSIONS: Programs should inform women about cancer screening tests and remove barriers that hinder women from receiving clinical screening exams. PMID:12934865

  6. Multicenter Breast Cancer Collaborative Registry

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Simon; Shats, Oleg; Fleissner, Elizabeth; Bascom, George; Yiee, Kevin; Copur, Mehmet; Crow, Kate; Rooney, James; Mateen, Zubeena; Ketcham, Marsha A.; Feng, Jianmin; Sherman, Alexander; Gleason, Michael; Kinarsky, Leo; Silva-Lopez, Edibaldo; Edney, James; Reed, Elizabeth; Berger, Ann; Cowan, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Breast Cancer Collaborative Registry (BCCR) is a multicenter web-based system that efficiently collects and manages a variety of data on breast cancer (BC) patients and BC survivors. This registry is designed as a multi-tier web application that utilizes Java Servlet/JSP technology and has an Oracle 11g database as a back-end. The BCCR questionnaire has accommodated standards accepted in breast cancer research and healthcare. By harmonizing the controlled vocabulary with the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) or Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT), the BCCR provides a standardized approach to data collection and reporting. The BCCR has been recently certified by the National Cancer Institutes Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology (NCI CBIIT) as a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) Bronze Compatible product. The BCCR is aimed at facilitating rapid and uniform collection of critical information and biological samples to be used in developing diagnostic, prevention, treatment, and survivorship strategies against breast cancer. Currently, seven cancer institutions are participating in the BCCR that contains data on almost 900 subjects (BC patients and survivors, as well as individuals at high risk of getting BC). PMID:21918596

  7. Multicenter breast cancer collaborative registry.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Simon; Shats, Oleg; Fleissner, Elizabeth; Bascom, George; Yiee, Kevin; Copur, Mehmet; Crow, Kate; Rooney, James; Mateen, Zubeena; Ketcham, Marsha A; Feng, Jianmin; Sherman, Alexander; Gleason, Michael; Kinarsky, Leo; Silva-Lopez, Edibaldo; Edney, James; Reed, Elizabeth; Berger, Ann; Cowan, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Breast Cancer Collaborative Registry (BCCR) is a multicenter web-based system that efficiently collects and manages a variety of data on breast cancer (BC) patients and BC survivors. This registry is designed as a multi-tier web application that utilizes Java Servlet/JSP technology and has an Oracle 11g database as a back-end. The BCCR questionnaire has accommodated standards accepted in breast cancer research and healthcare. By harmonizing the controlled vocabulary with the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) or Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT), the BCCR provides a standardized approach to data collection and reporting. The BCCR has been recently certified by the National Cancer Institute's Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology (NCI CBIIT) as a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG()) Bronze Compatible product.The BCCR is aimed at facilitating rapid and uniform collection of critical information and biological samples to be used in developing diagnostic, prevention, treatment, and survivorship strategies against breast cancer. Currently, seven cancer institutions are participating in the BCCR that contains data on almost 900 subjects (BC patients and survivors, as well as individuals at high risk of getting BC). PMID:21918596

  8. The Epidemiology of Male Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferzoco, Raina M; Ruddy, Kathryn J

    2016-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease, accounting for only 1% of breast cancer diagnoses in the USA. The current literature suggests that genetic factors including BRCA2 mutations, family history, age, androgen/estrogen imbalance, and environmental exposures may predispose to male breast cancer. In this manuscript, we will review known and possible risk factors for male breast cancer, as well as describe the clinical patterns of the disease. PMID:26694922

  9. Evolving Evidence of the Efficacy and Safety of nab-Paclitaxel in the Treatment of Cancers with Squamous Histologies

    PubMed Central

    Loong, Herbert H.; Chan, Alvita C.Y.; Wong, Ashley C.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Taxanes, such as paclitaxel and docetaxel, are well-established cytotoxic chemotherapeutics used in the treatment of a variety of cancers, including those of squamous histology. In their formulation, both agents require solvents, which have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions, peripheral neuropathy, hepatic toxicities, and impaired drug delivery. nab-Paclitaxel is a novel, albumin-bound form of paclitaxel with improved tolerability, bioavailability, and efficacy compared with solvent-based paclitaxel. Currently, nab-paclitaxel is approved for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer, locally advanced/metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and metastatic pancreatic cancer. Clinical studies suggest that nab-paclitaxel may be particularly effective in cancers with squamous histology, including NSCLC. This article reviews the emerging evidence supporting nab-paclitaxel as an effective agent in the treatment of malignancies of squamous histology. PMID:26918039

  10. Veliparib, Cisplatin, and Vinorelbine Ditartrate in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-05

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer - BRCA1; Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer - BRCA2; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  11. Ten genes for inherited breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Tom; King, Mary-Claire

    2007-02-01

    Inherited breast cancer is associated with germline mutations in ten different genes in pathways critical to genomic integrity. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations confer very high risks of breast and ovarian cancer. p53 and PTEN mutations lead to very high breast cancer risks associated with rare cancer syndromes. Mutations in CHEK2, ATM, NBS1, RAD50, BRIP1, and PALB2 are associated with doubling of breast cancer risks. In addition, biallelic mutations in BRCA2, BRIP1, and PALB2 cause Fanconi anemia. The convergence of these genes in a shared role reveals underlying biology of these illnesses and suggests still other breast cancer genes. PMID:17292821

  12. Breast cancer in Morocco: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Slaoui, Meriem; Razine, Rachid; Ibrahimi, Azeddine; Attaleb, Mohammed; Mzibri, Mohammed El; Amrani, Mariam

    2014-01-01

    In Morocco, breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women and a major public health problem. Several Moroccan studies have focused on studying this disease, but more are needed, especially at the genetic and molecular levels. It is therefore interesting to establish the genetic and molecular profile of Moroccan patients with breast cancer. In this paper, we will highlight some pertinent hypotheses that may enhance breast cancer care in Moroccan patients. This review will give a precise description of breast cancer in Morocco and propose some new markers for detection and prediction of breast cancer prognosis. PMID:24606420

  13. Minocycline Hydrochloride in Reducing Chemotherapy Induced Depression and Anxiety in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-07

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  14. Heavy Metal Exposure in Predicting Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-01

    Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  15. Can we prevent breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Saadat, Sabiha

    2008-07-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the most common cancer in females accounting to 23% of all cases. Between January 1998 and December 2004-2004, 6,882 cases were reported from all GCC states accounting to 11.8% from all cancers and 22.7% from cancers in females. An ASR/100,000 woman was 46.4 from Bahrain, 44.3 from Kuwait, 35.5 from Qatar, 19.2 from UAE, 14.2 from Oman and 12.9 from KSA. Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in Arab women constituting 14-42% of all women cancers. Breast cancer in Arab countries presents almost 10 yrs younger than in USA and Europe. Median age at presentation is 48-52 and 50% of all cases are below the age of 50 where as only 25% of cases in industrialized nations are below the age of 50 yrs. What we need to fight this deadly disease is opening of screening centers with trained physicians equipped with ultrasound, x-ray unit, a pathology lab and most of all a system where a patient is seen urgently on referral to a secondary level care. Health education campaigns should be organized, female medical students should be encouraged to be general surgeons in a community where social customs still have value. PMID:21475500

  16. What Happens After Treatment for Breast Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Breast Cancer + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » After Treatment TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE A LIST » What happens after treatment for breast cancer? Lymphedema after breast cancer treatment Emotional aspects of ...

  17. Lifestyle Changes After Breast Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Breast Cancer + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » After Treatment TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE A LIST » What happens after treatment for breast cancer? Lymphedema after breast cancer treatment Emotional aspects of ...

  18. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  19. Loss of primary cilia occurs early in breast cancer development

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles that protrude from the cell surface. Primary cilia play a critical role in development and disease through regulation of signaling pathways including the Hedgehog pathway. Recent mouse models have also linked ciliary dysfunction to cancer. However, little is known about the role of primary cilia in breast cancer development. Primary cilia expression was characterized in cancer cells as well as their surrounding stromal cells from 86 breast cancer patients by counting cilia and measuring cilia length. In addition, we examined cilia expression in normal epithelial and stromal cells from reduction mammoplasties as well as histologically normal adjacent tissue for comparison. Results We observed a statistically significant decrease in the percentage of ciliated cells on both premalignant lesions as well as in invasive cancers. This loss of cilia does not correlate with increased proliferative index (Ki67-positive cells). However, we did detect rare ciliated cancer cells present in patients with invasive breast cancer and found that these express a marker of basaloid cancers that is associated with poor prognosis (Cytokeratin 5). Interestingly, the percentage of ciliated stromal cells associated with both premalignant and invasive cancers decreased when compared to stromal cells associated with normal tissue. To understand how cilia may be lost during cancer development we analyzed the expression of genes required for ciliogenesis and/or ciliary function and compared their expression in normal versus breast cancer samples. We found that expression of ciliary genes were frequently downregulated in human breast cancers. Conclusions These data suggest that primary cilia are lost early in breast cancer development on both the cancer cells and their surrounding stromal cells. PMID:24987519

  20. [Cancer in ectopic breast tissue].

    PubMed

    Røikjer, Johan; Lindmark, Ida; Knudsen, Thor

    2015-06-15

    Two different forms of ectopic breast tissue exist in human beings: supernumerary and aberrant. Both forms are usually seen alongside the milk lines, which extend from the upper limbs to the inguinal region where they give rise to mammary glands, areolas and nipples. Although ectopic- and orthotopic breast tissue are placed in different areas of the body, they still share the same ability to undergo pathological degeneration. The focus of this case report is to shed light on this unusual form of breast cancer, and raise the level of awareness in cases with lumps located in the milk lines. PMID:26101129

  1. Tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, V.C.

    1995-02-01

    The case for tamoxifen to be tested as a preventive for breast cancer has merit. Animal studies demonstrate that tamoxifen prevents mammary carcinogenesis and clinical studies now confirm that adjuvant tamoxifen therapy is the only systemic treatment that will prevent contralateral breast cancer. Developing clinical studies confirm the laboratory data that tamoxifen will maintain post-menopausal bone density in the lumbar spine and the neck of the femur; two important skeletal sites for the ultimate prevention of osteoporosis. However, a most important target site-specific effect of tamoxifen is the decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women. This positive property of tamoxifen may be responsible for the recorded decreases in hospital visits for the treatment of cardiac conditions and the significant decrease in fatal myocardial infarction for women treated with 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen. These data provide the scientific basis to undertake randomized, placebocontrolled clinical trials to test the worth of tamoxifen to prevent breast cancer.

  2. Breast cancer in older women.

    PubMed

    Kimmick, G; Muss, H B

    1997-05-01

    More than 50% of breast cancers are diagnosed in women aged 65 years or older, a quickly growing segment of the population. Healthy older women should be offered state-of-the-art screening and treatment for breast cancer, including mammography, surgery, radiation therapy, and adjuvant therapy for early stage tumors. Clinical trials focusing on the role of adjuvant treatment in older women with breast cancer are of chief importance. The optimal treatment for older women with life-threatening, comorbid conditions may be primary treatment with tamoxifen or adjuvant therapy with tamoxifen alone after definitive surgery. Outside the clinical trials setting, metastatic disease should be treated similarly in all age groups. PMID:9115451

  3. Tamoxifen prophylaxis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Love, R R

    1992-07-01

    An increasing body of data suggests that tamoxifen can suppress development of preclinical breast cancer. Newer data in postmenopausal women also demonstrate major biologic effects of tamoxifen on risk factors for cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Taken together, this information supports the hypotheses that use of tamoxifen will provide overall health benefits and lower the incidence of breast cancer in selected women, particularly postmenopausal women, who are willing to take a daily hormone pill indefinitely and who do not develop significant symptomatic side effects. Clinical trials addressing these hypotheses are beginning in the United States, Great Britain, and Italy, but the design and completion of such trials present significant challenges. Until clear data are available from the clinical trials just being launched, tamoxifen should not be given to healthy women who do not have breast cancer. PMID:1386239

  4. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues. Here, two High-Aspect Ratio Vessels turn at about 12 rmp to keep breast tissue constructs suspended inside the culture media. Syringes allow scientists to pull for analysis during growth sequences. The tube in the center is a water bubbler that dehumidifies the air to prevent evaporation of the media and thus the appearance of destructive bubbles in the bioreactor.

  5. Evaluate Risk/Benefit of Nab Paclitaxel in Combination With Gemcitabine and Carboplatin Compared to Gemcitabine and Carboplatin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer (or Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-21

    Breast Tumor; Breast Cancer; Cancer of the Breast; Estrogen Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; HER2- Negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  6. Metastasis of breast cancer to renal cancer: report of a rare case

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Zhijun; Gao, Yongsheng; Yu, Zhiyong; Zuo, Wenshu; Zhang, Yanfang

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-to-tumor metastasis (TTM) is a rare phenomenon. We present a case of an invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast metastasizing to a clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Breast cancer (BC) metastasis to the RCC is rarely reported, especially in resected kidney tumor. In several cases reported, IDC was the exclusively histologic type of BC metastasized to RCC. It seems that the different molecular type of IDC doesnt affect the metastatic tendencies to RCC. TTM was an indicator of diffuse disease. For any patient with a history of breast cancer, especially with multi-organs metastasis, resection of kidney tumor should be carefully considered. PMID:26823905

  7. Job Authority and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pudrovska, Tetyana

    2014-01-01

    Using the 19572011 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, I integrate the gender relations theory, a life course perspective, and a biosocial stress perspective to explore the effect of womens job authority in 1975 (at age 36) and 1993 (at age 54) on breast cancer incidence up to 2011. Findings indicate that women with the authority to hire, fire, and influence others pay had a significantly higher risk of a breast cancer diagnosis over the next 30 years compared to housewives and employed women with no job authority. Because job authority conferred the highest risk of breast cancer for women who also spent more hours dealing with people at work in 1975, I suggest that the assertion of job authority by women in the 1970s involved stressful interpersonal experiences, such as social isolation and negative social interactions, that may have increased the risk of breast cancer via prolonged dysregulation of the glucocorticoid system and exposure of breast tissue to the adverse effects of chronically elevated cortisol. This study contributes to sociology by emphasizing gendered biosocial pathways through which womens occupational experiences become embodied and drive forward physiological repercussions. PMID:25506089

  8. Clinical Proteomics of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bask?n, Y.; Yi?itba??, T.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the lifetimes that increased in breast cancers due to the the early screening programs and new therapeutic strategies, many cases still are being lost due to the metastatic relapses. For this reason, new approaches such as the proteomic techniques have currently become the prime objectives of breast cancer researches. Various omic-based techniques have been applied with increasing success to the molecular characterisation of breast tumours, which have resulted in a more detailed classification scheme and have produced clinical diagnostic tests that have been applied to both the prognosis and the prediction of outcome to the treatment. Implementation of the proteomics-based techniques is also seen as crucial if we are to develop a systems biology approach in the discovery of biomarkers of the early diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of the outcome of the breast cancer therapies. In this review, we discuss the studies that have been conducted thus far, for the discovery of diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers, and evaluate the potential of the discriminating proteins identified in this research for clinical use as breast cancer biomarkers. PMID:21532837

  9. Far Beyond the Usual Biomarkers in Breast Cancer: A Review

    PubMed Central

    dos Anjos Pultz, Brunna; da Luz, Felipe Andrs Cordero; de Faria, Paulo Rogrio; Oliveira, Ana Paula Lima; de Arajo, Rogrio Agenor; Silva, Marcelo Jos Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Research investigating biomarkers for early detection, prognosis and the prediction of treatment responses in breast cancer is rapidly expanding. However, no validated biomarker currently exists for use in routine clinical practice, and breast cancer detection and management remains dependent on invasive procedures. Histological examination remains the standard for diagnosis, whereas immunohistochemical and genetic tests are utilized for treatment decisions and prognosis determinations. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive review of literature published in PubMed on breast cancer biomarkers between 2009 and 2013. The keywords that were used together were breast cancer, biomarkers, diagnosis, prognosis and drug response. The cited references of the manuscripts included in this review were also screened. We have comprehensively summarized the performance of several biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and predicted drug responses of breast cancer. Finally, we have identified 15 biomarkers that have demonstrated promise in initial studies and several miRNAs. At this point, such biomarkers must be rigorously validated in the clinical setting to be translated into clinically useful tests for the diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of drug responses of breast cancer. PMID:25057307

  10. Family history of breast cancer and all-cause mortality after breast cancer diagnosis in the Breast Cancer Family Registry

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ellen T.; Milne, Roger L.; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Sangaramoorthy, Meera; Keegan, Theresa H. M.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Hopper, John L.; Goodwin, Pamela J.; OMalley, Frances P.; Weerasooriya, Nayana; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Friedlander, Michael L.; Giles, Graham G.; Whittemore, Alice S.; West, Dee W.; John, Esther M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Although having a family history of breast cancer is a well established breast cancer risk factor, it is not known whether it influences mortality after breast cancer diagnosis. Methods Subjects were 4,153 women with first primary incident invasive breast cancer diagnosed between 1991 and 2000, and enrolled in the Breast Cancer Family Registry through population-based sampling in Northern California, USA; Ontario, Canada; and Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Cases were oversampled for younger age at diagnosis and/or family history of breast cancer. Carriers of germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 were excluded. Cases and their relatives completed structured questionnaires assessing breast cancer risk factors and family history of cancer. Cases were followed for a median of 6.5 years, during which 725 deaths occurred. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate associations between family history of breast cancer at the time of diagnosis and risk of all-cause mortality after breast cancer diagnosis, adjusting for established prognostic factors. Results The hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.84-1.15) for having at least one first- or second-degree relative with breast cancer, and 0.85 (95% CI=0.70-1.02) for having at least one first-degree relative with breast cancer, compared with having no such family history. Estimates did not vary appreciably when stratified by case or tumor characteristics. Conclusions Family history of breast cancer is not associated with all-cause mortality after breast cancer diagnosis for women without a known germline mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Therefore, clinical management should not depend on family history of breast cancer. PMID:19034644

  11. Estrogen Metabolism and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Samavat, Hamed; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2015-01-01

    There is currently accumulating evidence that endogenous estrogens play a critical role in the development of breast cancer. Estrogens and their metabolites have been studied in both pre- and postmenopausal women with more consistent results shown in the latter population, in part because of large hormonal variations during the menstrual cycle and far fewer studies having been performed in premenopausal women. In this review we describe in detail estrogen metabolism and associated genetic variations, and provide a critical review of the current literature regarding the role of estrogens and their metabolites in breast cancer risk. PMID:24784887

  12. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    FENGA, CONCETTINA

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are defined environmental factors for breast cancer, particularly at young ages. However, the mechanisms by which occupational factors can promote breast cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the evaluation of occupational factors for breast cancer, particularly in the workplace, also remains to be explained. The present review summarizes the occupational risk factors and the associated mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, in order to highlight new environmental exposures that could be correlated to breast cancer and to provide new insights for breast cancer prevention in the occupational settings. Furthermore, this review suggests that there is a requirement to include, through multidisciplinary approaches, different occupational exposure risks among those associated with breast cancer development. Finally, the design of new epigenetic biomarkers may be useful to identify the workers that are more susceptible to develop breast cancer. PMID:26998264

  13. Intensity Modulated Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Before Surgery in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Stage 0-I Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-23

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  14. Postpartum Remodeling, Lactation, and Breast Cancer Risk: Summary of a National Cancer Institute–Sponsored Workshop

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The pregnancy–lactation cycle (PLC) is a period in which the breast is transformed from a less-developed, nonfunctional organ into a mature, milk-producing gland that has evolved to meet the nutritional, developmental, and immune protection needs of the newborn. Cessation of lactation initiates a process whereby the breast reverts to a resting state until the next pregnancy. Changes during this period permanently alter the morphology and molecular characteristics of the breast (molecular histology) and produce important, yet poorly understood, effects on breast cancer risk. To provide a state-of-the-science summary of this topic, the National Cancer Institute invited a multidisciplinary group of experts to participate in a workshop in Rockville, Maryland, on March 2, 2012. Topics discussed included: 1) the epidemiology of the PLC in relation to breast cancer risk, 2) breast milk as a biospecimen for molecular epidemiological and translational research, and 3) use of animal models to gain mechanistic insights into the effects of the PLC on breast carcinogenesis. This report summarizes conclusions of the workshop, proposes avenues for future research on the PLC and its relationship with breast cancer risk, and identifies opportunities to translate this knowledge to improve breast cancer outcomes. PMID:23264680

  15. Postpartum remodeling, lactation, and breast cancer risk: summary of a National Cancer Institute-sponsored workshop.

    PubMed

    Faupel-Badger, Jessica M; Arcaro, Kathleen F; Balkam, Jane J; Eliassen, A Heather; Hassiotou, Foteini; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Michels, Karin B; Palmer, Julie R; Schedin, Pepper; Stuebe, Alison M; Watson, Christine J; Sherman, Mark E

    2013-02-01

    The pregnancy-lactation cycle (PLC) is a period in which the breast is transformed from a less-developed, nonfunctional organ into a mature, milk-producing gland that has evolved to meet the nutritional, developmental, and immune protection needs of the newborn. Cessation of lactation initiates a process whereby the breast reverts to a resting state until the next pregnancy. Changes during this period permanently alter the morphology and molecular characteristics of the breast (molecular histology) and produce important, yet poorly understood, effects on breast cancer risk. To provide a state-of-the-science summary of this topic, the National Cancer Institute invited a multidisciplinary group of experts to participate in a workshop in Rockville, Maryland, on March 2, 2012. Topics discussed included: 1) the epidemiology of the PLC in relation to breast cancer risk, 2) breast milk as a biospecimen for molecular epidemiological and translational research, and 3) use of animal models to gain mechanistic insights into the effects of the PLC on breast carcinogenesis. This report summarizes conclusions of the workshop, proposes avenues for future research on the PLC and its relationship with breast cancer risk, and identifies opportunities to translate this knowledge to improve breast cancer outcomes. PMID:23264680

  16. Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Breast: A Rare Breast Cancer Subtype Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ratti, Vilma; Pagani, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Background Glycogen-rich clear cell breast carcinoma is a rare histological breast cancer subtype. Its prognosis may vary depending on specific clinical and pathological characteristics such as low grade, strong positivity of estrogen receptor (ER) expression and early diagnosis. Case Presentation We present the case of a 53-year-old woman with a bleeding 10-cm-diameter mass in the left breast. The histological examination showed a poorly differentiated tumor with malignant cells characterized by abundant clear cytoplasm. The diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma was based on the histological characteristics of the tumor, and a nonmammary origin was initially ruled out. The tumor was triple negative [i.e. ER, progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 negative]. Four months after the initial locoregional treatment, the patient developed lung and distant lymph node metastases. Conclusions Glycogen-rich clear cell carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor. Early diagnosis, absence of lymph node metastases and ER/PR positivity are associated with a better prognosis, as in other common breast cancer subtypes. PMID:26600782

  17. Gastric Mucinous Cancer Histology: Clinicopathological Characteristics and Prognostic Value

    PubMed Central

    Jian-Hui, Chen; Shi-Rong, Cai; Hui, Wu; Jian-bo, Xu; Kai-Ming, Wu; Si-le, Chen; He, Yu-Long

    2016-01-01

    MC tended toward worse tumor biological behavior and long-term survival outcome compared to WMDC. Moreover, MC also showed worse clinicopathological features and survival outcome in some selected patients. For these reasons, MC should be deemed as a special histological type of gastric cancer with worse clinicopathological features and survival outcome. PMID:26839544

  18. Five new cases of breast cancer in transsexual persons.

    PubMed

    Gooren, L; Bowers, M; Lips, P; Konings, I R

    2015-12-01

    Cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual people may be associated with the induction and growth stimulation of hormone-related malignancies. We report here five cases of breast cancer, three in female-to-male (FtoM) transsexual subjects and two in male-to-female (MtoF) transsexual subjects. In the general population the incidence of breast cancer increases with age and with duration of exposure to sex hormones. This pattern was not recognised in these five transsexual subjects. Tumours occurred at a relatively young age (respectively, 48, 41, 41, 52 and 46years old) and mostly after a relatively short span of time of cross-sex hormone treatment (9, 9-10 but in one after 30years). Occurrence of breast cancer was rare. As has been reported earlier, breast tumours may occur in residual mammary tissue after breast ablation in FtoM transsexual people. For adequate treatment and decisions on further cross-sex hormone treatment it is important to have information on the staging and histology of the breast tumour (type, grade and receptor status), with an upcoming role for the androgen receptor status, especially in FtoM transsexual subjects with breast cancer who receive testosterone administration. This information should be taken into account when considering further cross-sex hormone treatment. PMID:25611459

  19. Breast Cancer Death Rates Down 34% Since 1990

    MedlinePLUS

    ... News » Filed under: Breast Cancer Report: Breast Cancer Death Rates Down 34% Since 1990 Article date: October ... report from the American Cancer Society finds that death rates from breast cancer in the United States ...

  20. Genetic testing by cancer site: breast.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Kristen Mahoney; Chittenden, Anu

    2012-01-01

    Women in the United States have a 12% lifetime risk of developing breast cancer. Although only about 5% to 10% of all cases of breast cancer are attributable to a highly penetrant cancer predisposition gene, individuals who carry a mutation in one of these genes have a significantly higher risk of developing breast cancer, as well as other cancers, over their lifetime compared with the general population. The ability to distinguish those individuals at high risk allows health care providers to intervene with appropriate counseling and education, surveillance, and prevention-with the overall goal of improved survival for these individuals. This article focuses on the identification of patients at high risk for breast cancer and provides an overview of the clinical features, cancer risks, causative genes, and medical management for the most clearly described hereditary breast cancer syndromes. Newer genes that have also been implicated in familial breast cancer are also briefly reviewed. PMID:22846731

  1. 19p13.1 is a triple-negative-specific breast cancer susceptibility locus.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Kristen N; Fredericksen, Zachary; Vachon, Celine M; Wang, Xianshu; Margolin, Sara; Lindblom, Annika; Nevanlinna, Heli; Greco, Dario; Aittomki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Vrieling, Alina; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Nickels, Stefan; Brauch, Hiltrud; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Schmutzler, Rita K; Meindl, Alfons; Bartram, Claus R; Schott, Sarah; Engel, Christoph; Godwin, Andrew K; Weaver, Joellen; Pathak, Harsh B; Sharma, Priyanka; Brenner, Hermann; Mller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Miron, Penelope; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Stavropoulou, Alexandra; Fountzilas, George; Gogas, Helen J; Swann, Ruth; Dwek, Miriam; Perkins, Annie; Milne, Roger L; Bentez, Javier; Zamora, Mara Pilar; Prez, Jos Ignacio Arias; Bojesen, Stig E; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Brge G; Flyger, Henrik; Gunel, Pascal; Truong, Thrse; Menegaux, Florence; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marm, Frederick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Peto, Julian; Johnson, Nichola; Fletcher, Olivia; Dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Hartmann, Arndt; Ekici, Arif B; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Muir, Kenneth; Puttawibul, Puttisak; Wiangnon, Surapon; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Braaf, Linde M; Rosenberg, Efraim H; Hopper, John L; Apicella, Carmel; Park, Daniel J; Southey, Melissa C; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Bernstein, Leslie; Dur, Christina Clarke; Shen, Chen-Yang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Hamann, Ute; Dnnebier, Thomas; Rdiger, Thomas; Ulmer, Hans Ulrich; Pharoah, Paul P; Dunning, Alison M; Humphreys, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcom W; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Ambrosone, Christine B; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Hwang, Helena; Eccles, Diana M; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine D; Sherman, Mark E; Lissowska, Jolanta; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Hooning, Maartje J; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Winqvist, Robert; Pylks, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; John, Esther M; Miron, Alexander; Alns, Grethe Grenaker; Kristensen, Vessela; Brresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Giles, Graham G; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona A; Severi, Gianluca; Kosel, Matthew L; Pankratz, V S; Slager, Susan; Olson, Janet E; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Lambrechts, Diether; Hatse, Sigrid; Dieudonne, Anne-Sophie; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Soini, Ylermi; Easton, Douglas F; Couch, Fergus J

    2012-04-01

    The 19p13.1 breast cancer susceptibility locus is a modifier of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers and is also associated with the risk of ovarian cancer. Here, we investigated 19p13.1 variation and risk of breast cancer subtypes, defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) status, using 48,869 breast cancer cases and 49,787 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Variants from 19p13.1 were not associated with breast cancer overall or with ER-positive breast cancer but were significantly associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk [rs8170 OR, 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.15; P = 3.49 10(-5)] and triple-negative (ER-, PR-, and HER2-negative) breast cancer (rs8170: OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.13-1.31; P = 2.22 10(-7)). However, rs8170 was no longer associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk when triple-negative cases were excluded (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.89-1.07; P = 0.62). In addition, a combined analysis of triple-negative cases from BCAC and the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC; N = 3,566) identified a genome-wide significant association between rs8170 and triple-negative breast cancer risk (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.18-1.33; P = 3.31 10(-13)]. Thus, 19p13.1 is the first triple-negative-specific breast cancer risk locus and the first locus specific to a histologic subtype defined by ER, PR, and HER2 to be identified. These findings provide convincing evidence that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer varies by tumor subtype and that triple-negative tumors and other subtypes likely arise through distinct etiologic pathways. PMID:22331459

  2. Mediterranean Dietary Pattern and Risk of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Couto, Elisabeth; Sandin, Sven; Lf, Marie; Ursin, Giske; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2013-01-01

    Background A Mediterranean diet has a recognized beneficial effect on health and longevity, with a protective influence on several cancers. However, its association with breast cancer risk remains unclear. Objective We aimed to investigate whether adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern influences breast cancer risk. Design The Swedish Womens Lifestyle and Health cohort study includes 49,258 women aged 30 to 49 years at recruitment in 19911992. Consumption of foods and beverages was measured at enrollment using a food frequency questionnaire. A Mediterranean diet score was constructed based on the consumption of alcohol, vegetables, fruits, legumes, cereals, fish, the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fat, and dairy and meat products. Relative risks (RR) for breast cancer and specific tumor characteristics (invasiveness, histological type, estrogen/progesterone receptor status, malignancy grade and stage) associated with this score were estimated using Cox regression controlling for potential confounders. Results 1,278 incident breast cancers were diagnosed. Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was not statistically significantly associated with reduced risk of breast cancer overall, or with specific breast tumor characteristics. A RR (95% confidence interval) for breast cancer associated with a two-point increment in the Mediterranean diet score was 1.08 (1.001.15) in all women, and 1.10 (1.011.21) and 1.02 (0.911.15) in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively. When alcohol was excluded from the Mediterranean diet score, results became not statistically significant. Conclusions Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern did not decrease breast cancer risk in this cohort of relatively young women. PMID:23390532

  3. Breast and Gynecologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV | Prevention and early detection of breast, cervix, endometrial and ovarian cancers and their precursors.

  4. Breast Cancer Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cover an implant or natural tissue flap during reconstruction. Nipple-sparing mastectomy: The surgeon removes the tumor, ... sheets in this series: Axillary Lymph Nodes Breast Reconstruction & Prosthesis After Mastectomy Chemotherapy and Side Effects Radiation ...

  5. Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... screening tests are being studied in clinical trials. Thermography Thermography is a procedure in which a special camera ... thermogram. There have been no clinical trials of thermography to find out how well it detects breast ...

  6. MiRNA-101 inhibits breast cancer growth and metastasis by targeting CX chemokine receptor 7

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-Shan; Liu, Qin-Qin; Wang, Xiu-Li; Yu, Feng; Liu, Yan-Li; Yang, An-Gang; Gao, Chun-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Whereas miR-101 is involved in the development and progression of breast cancer, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that miR-101 expression is inversely correlated with the clinical stage, lymph node metastasis and prognosis in breast cancers. Introduction of miR-101 inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and suppressed tumor growth and lung metastasis of in vivo. CX chemokine receptor 7 (CXCR7) is a direct target of miR-101, positively correlating with the histological grade and the incidence of lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients. The effects of miR-101 were mimicked and counteracted by CXCR7 depletion and overexpression, respectively. STAT3 signaling downstream of CXCR7 is involved in miR-101 regulation of breast cancer cell behaviors. These findings have implications for the potential application of miR-101 in breast cancer treatment. PMID:26360780

  7. MiRNA-101 inhibits breast cancer growth and metastasis by targeting CX chemokine receptor 7.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Tang; Jia, Lin-Tao; Liu, Ning-Ning; Zhu, Xiao-Shan; Liu, Qin-Qin; Wang, Xiu-Li; Yu, Feng; Liu, Yan-Li; Yang, An-Gang; Gao, Chun-Fang

    2015-10-13

    Whereas miR-101 is involved in the development and progression of breast cancer, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that miR-101 expression is inversely correlated with the clinical stage, lymph node metastasis and prognosis in breast cancers. Introduction of miR-101 inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and suppressed tumor growth and lung metastasis of in vivo. CX chemokine receptor 7 (CXCR7) is a direct target of miR-101, positively correlating with the histological grade and the incidence of lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients. The effects of miR-101 were mimicked and counteracted by CXCR7 depletion and overexpression, respectively. STAT3 signaling downstream of CXCR7 is involved in miR-101 regulation of breast cancer cell behaviors. These findings have implications for the potential application of miR-101 in breast cancer treatment. PMID:26360780

  8. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an important component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. We describe existing clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents and the challenges facing the clinical development and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria. PMID:21067536

  9. Nanotechnology for breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takemi; Decuzzi, Paolo; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Sakamoto, Jason H; Tasciotti, Ennio; Robertson, Fredika M; Ferrari, Mauro

    2009-02-01

    Breast cancer is the field of medicine with the greatest presence of nanotechnological therapeutic agents in the clinic. A pegylated form of liposomally encapsulated doxorubicin is routinely used for treatment against metastatic cancer, and albumin nanoparticulate chaperones of paclitaxel were approved for locally recurrent and metastatic disease in 2005. These drugs have yielded substantial clinical benefit, and are steadily gathering greater beneficial impact. Clinical trials currently employing these drugs in combination with chemo and biological therapeutics exceed 150 worldwide. Despite these advancements, breast cancer morbidity and mortality is unacceptably high. Nanotechnology offers potential solutions to the historical challenge that has rendered breast cancer so difficult to contain and eradicate: the extreme biological diversity of the disease presentation in the patient population and in the evolutionary changes of any individual disease, the multiple pathways that drive disease progression, the onset of 'resistance' to established therapeutic cocktails, and the gravity of the side effects to treatment, which result from generally very poor distribution of the injected therapeutic agents in the body. A fundamental requirement for success in the development of new therapeutic strategies is that breast cancer specialists-in the clinic, the pharmaceutical and the basic biological laboratory-and nanotechnologists-engineers, physicists, chemists and mathematicians-optimize their ability to work in close collaboration. This further requires a mutual openness across cultural and language barriers, academic reward systems, and many other 'environmental' divides. This paper is respectfully submitted to the community to help foster the mutual interactions of the breast cancer world with micro- and nano-technology, and in particular to encourage the latter community to direct ever increasing attention to breast cancer, where an extraordinary beneficial impact may result. The paper initiates with an introductory overview of breast cancer, its current treatment modalities, and the current role of nanotechnology in the clinic. Our perspectives are then presented on what the greatest opportunities for nanotechnology are; this follows from an analysis of the role of biological barriers that adversely determine the biological distribution of intravascularly injected therapeutic agents. Different generations of nanotechnology tools for drug delivery are reviewed, and our current strategy for addressing the sequential bio-barriers is also presented, and is accompanied by an encouragement to the community to develop even more effective ones. PMID:18663578

  10. Testosterone and breast cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Glaser, R; Dimitrakakis, C

    2015-11-01

    Testosterone (T) is the most abundant biologically active hormone in women. Androgen receptors (AR) are located throughout the body including the breast where T decreases tissue proliferation. However, T can be aromatized to estradiol (E2), which increases proliferation and hence, breast cancer (BCA) risk. Increased aromatase expression and an imbalance in the ratio of stimulatory estrogens to protective androgens impacts breast homeostasis. Recent clinical data supports a role for T in BCA prevention. Women with symptoms of hormone deficiency treated with pharmacological doses of T alone or in combination with anastrozole (A), delivered by subcutaneous implants, had a reduced incidence of BCA. In addition, T combined with A effectively treated symptoms of hormone deficiency in BCA survivors and was not associated with recurrent disease. Most notably, T+A implants placed in breast tissue surrounding malignant tumors significantly reduced BCA tumor size, further supporting T direct antiproliferative, protective and therapeutic effect. PMID:26160683

  11. Nanoparticle-based Paclitaxel vs Solvent-based Paclitaxel as Part of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Early Breast Cancer (GeparSepto)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II; Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II; Breast Cancer Female NOS; Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III; HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer Stage IV; Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  12. Combination Chemotherapy and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant Followed By Aldesleukin and Sargramostim in Treating Patients With Inflammatory Stage IIIB or Metastatic Stage IV Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-07-08

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  13. Multimodal optical imaging for detecting breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Rakesh; Khan, Ashraf; Wirth, Dennis; Kamionek, Michal; Kandil, Dina; Quinlan, Robert; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.

    2012-06-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate wide-field and high-resolution multimodal optical imaging, including polarization, reflectance, and fluorescence for the intraoperative detection of breast cancer. Lumpectomy specimens were stained with 0.05 mg/ml aqueous solution of methylene blue (MB) and imaged. Wide-field reflectance images were acquired between 390 and 750 nm. Wide-field fluorescence images were excited at 640 nm and registered between 660 and 750 nm. High resolution confocal reflectance and fluorescence images were excited at 642 nm. Confocal fluorescence images were acquired between 670 nm and 710 nm. After imaging, the specimens were processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histopathology. Histological slides were compared with wide-field and high-resolution optical images to evaluate correlation of tumor boundaries and cellular morphology, respectively. Fluorescence polarization imaging identified the location, size, and shape of the tumor in all the cases investigated. Averaged fluorescence polarization values of tumor were higher as compared to normal tissue. Statistical analysis confirmed the significance of these differences. Fluorescence confocal imaging enabled cellular-level resolution. Evaluation and statistical analysis of MB fluorescence polarization values registered from single tumor and normal cells demonstrated higher fluorescence polarization from cancer. Wide-field high-resolution fluorescence and fluorescence polarization imaging shows promise for intraoperative delineation of breast cancers.

  14. Interactive Gentle Yoga in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-03

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Fatigue; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  15. [Psychosocial aspects of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Tassin, S; Bragard, I; Thommessen, M; Pitchot, W

    2011-01-01

    In occidental countries, breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women. In the last 30 years, the therapeutical progresses have improved the prognosis and the survival rate. However, despite this hope of recovering, women continue to face the fear of death and vulnerability. Moreover, treatments can induce cognitive, emotional and behavioral reactions in patients but also in their relatives. Therefore, the treatments are associated with physical and psychosocial dysfunctioning influencing quality of life. PMID:21826969

  16. Par(-4)oxysm in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha-Bhattarai, Tripti; Hebbar, Nikhil; Rangnekar, Vivek M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Women suffering from breast cancer often succumb to incurable recurrent disease resulting from therapy-resistant cancer cells. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Alvarez and colleagues identify downregulation of the tumor suppressor Par-4 as the key determinant in apoptosis evasion that leads to tumor recurrence in breast cancer. PMID:23845436

  17. Par(-4)oxysm in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shrestha-Bhattarai, Tripti; Hebbar, Nikhil; Rangnekar, Vivek M

    2013-07-01

    Women suffering from breast cancer often succumb to incurable recurrent disease resulting from therapy-resistant cancer cells. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Alvarez and colleagues identify downregulation of the tumor suppressor Par-4 as the key determinant in apoptosis evasion, which leads to tumor recurrence in breast cancer. PMID:23845436

  18. Breast Cancer Startup Challenge winners

    Cancer.gov

    Ten winners of a world-wide competition to bring emerging breast cancer research technologies to market faster were announced today by the Avon Foundation for Women, in partnership with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI). Avon is providing

  19. Breast Cancer Family Registries Publications

    Cancer.gov

    Le Calvez-Kelm F, Lesueur F, Damiola F, Vallee M, Voegele C, Babikyan D, Durand G, Forey N, McKay-Chopin S, Robinot N, Nguyen-Dumont T, Thomas A, Byrnes GB, Breast Cancer Family Registry T, Hopper JL, Southey MC, Andrulis IL, John EM, Tavtigian SV.

  20. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue; A: Duct element recovered from breast tissue digest. B: Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneousely die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. C: Isolate of long-term frowth HMEC from outgrowth of duct element; cells shown soon after isolation and in early full-cell contact growth in culture in a dish. D: same long-term growth HMEC, but after 3 weeks in late full-cell contact growth in a continuous culture in a dish. Note attempts to reform duct elements but this in two demensions in a dish rather than in three dimensions in tissue. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  1. Quebec breast cancer screening program

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Minh-Nguyet; Larocque, Diane; Paquette, Daniel; Irace-Cima, Alejandra

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify physicians perceptions of breast cancer prevention in order to generate strategies to increase womens participation in the Quebec breast cancer screening program (QBCSP). DESIGN Qualitative study using archival data and in-depth interviews. SETTING Laval, Que, a suburban city north of Montreal. PARTICIPANTS Twenty family physicians and 1 gynecologist practising in Laval who had received at least 1 screening mammography report in 2004 or 2005. METHODS Archival data were obtained in order to refine our understanding of the QBCSP. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with participating physicians until data saturation was reached in order to determine physicians knowledge of, beliefs and attitudes about, and behaviour toward preventive breast cancer practices, as well as their suggestions for enhancing patient compliance. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded, and the content was analyzed. MAIN FINDINGS Respondents indicated that the screening age groups, the age for beginning clinical breast examination, and the instructions to patients about breast self-examination should be harmonized. Letters to patients should be shortened, simplified, and endorsed by physicians. Screening mammography reports should include more details and be clearer about patient follow-up. The need for patients to sign authorization forms for transmission of information related to their participation in the QBCSP should be reinforced by their physicians. Following abnormal mammogram results, services and procedures should be simplified and delays in appointments decreased. Referral for orphan patients (ie, patients without family physicians) should be supervised by nurse practitioners, with physician consultations when needed. CONCLUSION This study provides a qualitative understanding of improvements or modifications needed in order to reach a screening mammography participation rate sufficient to reduce breast cancer mortality in women. PMID:19509208

  2. Caloric Restriction in Treating Patients With Stage 0-I Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-11

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer

  3. BRCA 1/2-Mutation Related and Sporadic Breast and Ovarian Cancers: More Alike than Different

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Melissa; Puhalla, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    No longer is histology solely predictive of cancer treatment and outcome. There is an increasing influence of tumor genomic characteristics on therapeutic options. Both breast and ovarian cancers are at higher risk of development in patients with BRCA 1/2-germline mutations. Recent data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and others have shown a number of genomic similarities between triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) and ovarian cancers. Recently, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have shown promising activity in hereditary BRCA 1/2-mutated and sporadic breast and ovarian cancers. In this review, we will summarize the current literature regarding the genomic and phenotypic similarities between BRCA 1/2-mutation related cancers, sporadic TNBCs, and sporadic ovarian cancers. We will also review Phase I, II, and III data using PARP inhibitors for these malignancies and compare and contrast the results with respect to histology. PMID:24579064

  4. Studies of breast cancer imaging with radiolabeled antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigen. Immunomedics Breast Cancer Study Group.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, D M; Wegener, W

    1997-01-01

    Multiple imaging methods are currently used to detect the presence, location, and extent of breast cancer, either at initial presentation or during follow-up. Even at initial diagnosis, more specific methods are needed to complement the high sensitivity of mammography in the detection and diagnosis of mammary carcinoma. Therefore, the current study evaluates the potential use of a new monoclonal antibody-based imaging agent, arcitumomab (CEA-Scan), which comprises an anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody Fab' fragment labeled directly with technetium-99m, in the detection of primary, recurrent, or metastatic mammary cancer. A prospective, non-randomized, open-label, multicenter trial was conducted in 123 women 100 with primary breast cancer confirmed by histology or cytology, and 23 with a prior history and who were under evaluation for possible recurrence or metastasis. A 1-mg dose of arcitumomab labeled with 20-25 mCi Tc-99m was injected i.v., and planar images were acquired at 5-8 hr, as well as single-photon emission computed tomography. Additional planar scanning was performed optionally at 18-24 hr. The imaging studies were interpreted as positive if there was abnormal focal activity, and were correlated, wherever possible, with histopathology or conventional imaging tests. In 78 evaluable patients with primary breast carcinoma arcitumomab showed an imaging sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 88%, respectively, even detecting lesions < 1 cm in 61% of the cases. Among 58 patients evaluable for axillary node involvement, 30 were positive by histopathology, of which arcitumomab was correct in 19 with cancer (63% sensitivity) and in 25 of 28 without cancer (89% specificity). Among 88 primary operable patients, arcitumomab showed additional sites of focal uptake outside of the breasts and axillae in 10, or 11%. In a total of 19 breast cancer patients with known or suspected recurrence or metastatic disease, 13, or 68%, showed one or more focal sites of uptake, involving the typical sites of spread of mammary cancer. No significant adverse effects or induction of human antimouse antibodies were observed in these patients. Arcitumomab immunoscintigraphy is a simple, same-day, and safe new imaging modality for the detection of sites of breast cancer, including lesions < 1 cm, with a reasonably high rate of sensitivity and specificity. It may be used to complement mammography in the differentiation of malignant from benign disease. PMID:9227788

  5. [Local control in breast cancer: constant importance, changing radiotherapy practice].

    PubMed

    Kahn, Zsuzsanna

    2010-01-01

    Local control is of primary importance when treating operable breast cancer. Local relapse serves as a secondary source of distant metastases, and compromises survival. Postoperative radiotherapy improves local control after mastectomy or breast conserving surgery, however, sometimes it leads to overtreatment. The risk of local relapse may be estimated based on different correlated factors, such as the type of the surgery, the size and stage of the tumor, the nodal status, the histological type, multifocality and biological features of the cancer, the margin status, the age and the mammographic appearance of the lesion. Late radiogenic sequelae appearing 5-10 years after radiotherapy are sometimes fatal, but may be prevented if radiotherapy is delivered at a high standard. Systemic therapies contribute to local control, and in some cases may substitute radiotherapy. In other low risk cases, radiotherapy may be either omitted or lessened. Local therapies in breast cancer should be tailored individually. PMID:20031522

  6. Male Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Comparison With Female Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, William F.; Jatoi, Ismail; Tse, Julia; Rosenberg, Philip S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Because of its rarity, male breast cancer is often compared with female breast cancer. Patients and Methods To compare and contrast male and female breast cancers, we obtained case and population data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program for breast cancers diagnosed from 1973 through 2005. Standard descriptive epidemiology was supplemented with age-period-cohort models and breast cancer survival analyses. Results Of all breast cancers, men with breast cancer make up less than 1%. Male compared with female breast cancers occurred later in life with higher stage, lower grade, and more estrogen receptorpositive tumors. Recent breast cancer incidence and mortality rates declined over time for men and women, but these trends were greater for women than for men. Comparing patients diagnosed from 1996 through 2005 versus 1976 through 1985, and adjusting for age, stage, and grade, cause-specific hazard rates for breast cancer death declined by 28% among men (P = .03) and by 42% among women (P ? 0). Conclusion There were three intriguing results. Age-specific incidence patterns showed that the biology of male breast cancer resembled that of late-onset female breast cancer. Similar breast cancer incidence trends among men and women suggested that there are common breast cancer risk factors that affect both sexes, especially estrogen receptorpositive breast cancer. Finally, breast cancer mortality and survival rates have improved significantly over time for both male and female breast cancer, but progress for men has lagged behind that for women. PMID:19996029

  7. What You Need to Know about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Breast Cancer This booklet is about breast cancer. Learning about your cancer can help you take ... This booklet covers: Basics about breast anatomy and breast cancer Treatments for breast cancer, including taking part in ...

  8. Targeted Therapy for Breast Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    den Hollander, Petra; Savage, Michelle I.; Brown, Powel H.

    2013-01-01

    With a better understanding of the etiology of breast cancer, molecularly targeted drugs have been developed and are being testing for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Targeted drugs that inhibit the estrogen receptor (ER) or estrogen-activated pathways include the selective ER modulators (tamoxifen, raloxifene, and lasofoxifene) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) (anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane) have been tested in preclinical and clinical studies. Tamoxifen and raloxifene have been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer and promising results of AIs in breast cancer trials, suggest that AIs might be even more effective in the prevention of ER-positive breast cancer. However, these agents only prevent ER-positive breast cancer. Therefore, current research is focused on identifying preventive therapies for other forms of breast cancer such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC, breast cancer that does express ER, progesterone receptor, or HER2). HER2-positive breast cancers are currently treated with anti-HER2 therapies including trastuzumab and lapatinib, and preclinical and clinical studies are now being conducted to test these drugs for the prevention of HER2-positive breast cancers. Several promising agents currently being tested in cancer prevention trials for the prevention of TNBC include poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, vitamin D, and rexinoids, both of which activate nuclear hormone receptors (the vitamin D and retinoid X receptors). This review discusses currently used breast cancer preventive drugs, and describes the progress of research striving to identify and develop more effective preventive agents for all forms of breast cancer. PMID:24069582

  9. Cancer risk after radiotherapy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Levi, F; Randimbison, L; Te, V-C; Vecchia, C La

    2006-01-01

    Among women with breast cancer, we compared the relative and absolute rates of subsequent cancers in 1541 women treated with radiotherapy (RT) to 4570 women not so treated (NRT), using all registered in the Swiss Vaud Cancer Registry in the period between 1978 and 1998, and followed up to December 2002. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were based on age- and calendar year-specific incidence rates in the Vaud general population. There were 11 lung cancers in RT (SIR=1.40; 95% CI: 0.70–2.51) and 17 in NRT women (SIR=0.76; 95% CI: 0.44–1.22), 72 contralateral breast cancers in RT (SIR=1.85; 95% CI: 1.45–2.33) and 150 in NRT women (SIR=1.38; 95% CI: 1.16–1.61), and 90 other neoplasms in RT (SIR=1.37; 95% CI: 1.10–1.68) and 224 in NRT women (SIR=1.05; 95% CI: 0.91–1.19). Overall, there were 173 second neoplasms in RT women (SIR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.32–1.78) and 391 among NRT women (SIR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.02–1.25). The estimates were significantly heterogeneous. After 15 years, 20% of RT cases vs 16% of NRT cases had developed a second neoplasm. The appreciable excess risk of subsequent neoplasms after RT for breast cancer must be weighed against the approximately 5% reduction of breast cancer mortality at 15 years after RT. PMID:16804519

  10. HSP90 Inhibitor AT13387 and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Advanced Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-28

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  11. Asian ethnicity and breast cancer subtypes: a study from the California Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Telli, Melinda L; Chang, Ellen T; Kurian, Allison W; Keegan, Theresa H M; McClure, Laura A; Lichtensztajn, Daphne; Ford, James M; Gomez, Scarlett L

    2011-06-01

    The distribution of breast cancer molecular subtypes has been shown to vary by race/ethnicity, highlighting the importance of host factors in breast tumor biology. We undertook the current analysis to determine population-based distributions of breast cancer subtypes among six ethnic Asian groups in California. We defined immunohistochemical (IHC) surrogates for each breast cancer subtype among Chinese, Japanese, Filipina, Korean, Vietnamese, and South Asian patients diagnosed with incident, primary, invasive breast cancer between 2002 and 2007 in the California Cancer Registry as: hormone receptor-positive (HR+)/HER2- [estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and/or progesterone receptor-positive (PR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-)], triple-negative (ER-, PR-, and HER2-), and HER2-positive (ER±, PR±, and HER2+). We calculated frequencies of breast cancer subtypes among Asian ethnic groups and evaluated their associations with clinical and demographic factors. Complete IHC data were available for 8,140 Asian women. Compared to non-Hispanic White women, Korean [odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-2.2], Filipina (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.2-1.5), Vietnamese (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.6), and Chinese (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.3) women had a significantly increased risk of being diagnosed with HER2-positive breast cancer subtypes after adjusting for age, stage, grade, socioeconomic status, histology, diagnosis year, nativity, and hospital ownership status. We report a significant ethnic disparity in HER2-positive breast cancer in a large population-based cohort enriched for Asian-Americans. Given the poor prognosis and high treatment costs of HER2-positive breast cancer, our results have implications for healthcare resource utilization, cancer biology, and clinical care. PMID:20957431

  12. Prognostic Typing in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hartveit, F.

    1971-01-01

    Infiltrating breast carcinomas in which recurrence takes place 10 years or more after operation are reported to contain tumour cells of characteristic morphology. The cytological features of these tumour cells form the basis of the system of classification described here. Three cytological types are recognized, prognosis being best in type III. Typing is carried out on specimens stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The results of typing were reproducible in over 90% of cases and independent of the histology of the lesion. Correlation to survival time was shown in a total of 222 cases. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:4107964

  13. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Binukumar, Bhaskarapillai; Mathew, Aleyamma

    2005-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern. PMID:16022739

  14. [Comparative histological and cytological characteristics of peripheral lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Zolotarevski?, V B; Kogan, E A; Ablitsov, Iu A

    1983-01-01

    Peripheral pulmonary carcinoma was analysed retrospectively histologically, histochemically, and cytologically. The examination material (smears taken at percutaneous thoracic aspirational biopsy, resected lung or lung lobe) had been obtained from 113 patients with PPC among whom 85 patients underwent pulmon- or lobe-ectomy. Cytological examination of specimens from percutaneous thoracic biopsy allowed the diagnosis of PPC to be established in 90.6% of cases and to determine correctly the histological type of cancer in 85.7%. No regular correlation between the levels of tissue and cellular differentiation in squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma was found. Argyrophilic granules (Grimelius reaction) were detected in cells of combined oat cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma of transitional type. Because of the existence of combined tumors in the lungs consisting of cells of different types of differentiation it is suggested that complex histological types of pulmonary carcinoma can develop from a common polypotent precursor cell. PMID:6303278

  15. Cancer stem cells in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, Jrgen; Rody, Achim

    2013-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play a critical role in breast cancer initiation, progression, metastasis and drug resistance. It is thought that they are either generated from normal mammary stem/progenitor cells or from mammary epithelial cells by epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Breast CSCs are characterized by the activation of stemness-related pathways, such as the Notch and Wnt pathways, and by the expression of certain stem cell markers, such as CD44, EpCAM and ALDH1. CSCs form a minor population, whose proportion depends on various factors, including environmental conditions. Since CSCs are highly resistant to chemotherapy, additional treatment of breast cancer patients with CSC-specific drugs, such as salinomycin and gamma-secretase inhibitors which target the Wnt or Notch pathway, respectively, will be required. Interestingly, an equilibrium seems to exist between CSCs and non-stem cancer cells, and there are indications that CSCs can be recruited from non-stem cancer cells. As a consequence, it may be necessary to combine a therapy targeting CSCs with common chemotherapy that targets the bulk tumor to avoid the regeneration of CSCs. PMID:23468411

  16. The dream and reality of histology agnostic cancer clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Lacombe, Denis; Burock, Susen; Bogaerts, Jan; Schoeffski, Patrick; Golfinopoulos, Vassilis; Stupp, Roger

    2014-09-12

    Emerging technologies and progress in data processing allowed for new insights on gene expression, genomics and epigenomics, and mechanisms of cancer genesis and progression. The development of new therapeutic strategies should therefore be triggered by the understanding of the underlying biology through sophisticated clinical trials. Therefore, the methodology and the design of cancer clinical trials as well as the methods of their implementation are under profound changes. Targeting specific pathways has open the hope of a more focused and personalized medicine which has the potential to bring more efficient and tailored treatments to patients. It has been questioned therefore whether clinical trials traditionally designed for specific tumor types could not re-visited towards trials gathering patients based on molecular features rather than pure pathology criteria. The complexity of the cancer biology being the result of so many different interactive mechanisms whether driving or not the process of cancer cells is an additional level of complexity to approach more inclusive clinical trial access. Nevertheless, a number of innovative solutions to address biological challenges across histologies have been initiated and the question of whether histology agnostic trials could be conceived is a logical next question. This paper questions the advantages and the limits of clinical trials performed across tumor types bearing similar selected molecular features and looks further into the feasibility of such histology agnostic trials. PMID:25349876

  17. Radiation Dose and Breast Cancer Risk in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    Inskip, Peter D.; Robison, Leslie L.; Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A.; Hammond, Sue; Mertens, Ann C.; Whitton, John A.; Diller, Lisa; Kenney, Lisa; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Meadows, Anna T.; Neglia, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to quantify the risk of breast cancer in relation to radiation dose and chemotherapy among survivors of childhood cancer. Methods We conducted a case-control study of breast cancer in a cohort of 6,647 women who were 5-year survivors of childhood cancer and who were treated during 1970 through 1986. One hundred twenty patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer were identified and were individually matched to four selected controls on age at initial cancer and time since initial cancer. Medical physicists estimated radiation dose to the breast tumor site and ovaries on the basis of medical records. Results The odds ratio for breast cancer increased linearly with radiation dose, and it reached 11-fold for local breast doses of approximately 40 Gy relative to no radiation (P for trend < .0001). Risk associated with breast irradiation was sharply reduced among women who received 5 Gy or more to the ovaries (P = .002). The excess odds ratio per Gy was 0.36 for those who received ovarian doses less than 5 Gy and was 0.06 for those who received higher doses. Radiation-related risk did not vary significantly by age at exposure. Borderline significantly elevated risks were seen for doxorubicin, dactinomycin, dacarbazine, and carmustine. Conclusion Results confirm the radiation sensitivity of the breast in girls age 10 to 20 years but do not demonstrate a strong effect of age at exposure within this range. Irradiation of the ovaries at doses greater than 5 Gy seems to lessen the carcinogenic effects of breast irradiation, most likely by reducing exposure of radiation-damaged breast cells to stimulating effects of ovarian hormones. PMID:19620485

  18. Paclitaxel and Cyclophosphamide With or Without Trastuzumab Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-12-12

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  19. Ovarian granulosa cell tumor and increased risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Anne; Lauszus, Finn F; Petersen, Astrid C

    2013-12-01

    Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary (GCT) is a rare neoplasm. The tumor often secretes estrogens and then presents at an earlier stage due to hormone-related symptoms. GCT women are at increased risk of endometrial carcinoma, but there is only limited information about GCTs and potential association to other hormone-related neoplasms such as breast cancer. We conducted a retrospective follow-up study on 163 women with GCT. Medical records and histological sections were reviewed and a search in the pathology registry performed. Eight [95% confidence interval (CI); 3.4-15.8] GCT women were diagnosed with a breast neoplasm; one with Paget's disease of the nipple and seven with breast carcinoma. Based on calculations using incidence rates on breast cancer among Danish women, we would have expected 2.5 cases of breast cancer. The odds ratio was 3.3 (95% CI, 1.6-6.6), suggesting an increased risk of breast cancer in GCT women. PMID:24283356

  20. Histopathological Features of Non-Neoplastic Breast Parenchyma Do Not Predict BRCA Mutation Status of Patients with Invasive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bayraktar, Soley; Qiu, Hongming; Liu, Diane; Shen, Yu; Gutierrez-Barrera, Angelica M; Arun, Banu K; Sahin, Aysegul A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Several studies have evaluated histologic features of non-neoplastic breast parenchyma in patients with BRCA1/2 mutations, but the results are conflicting. The limited data suggest a much higher prevalence of high-risk precursor lesions in BRCA carriers. Therefore, we designed this study to compare the clinicopathological characteristics of peritumoral benign breast tissue in patients with and without deleterious BRCA mutations. METHODS Women with breast cancer (BC) who were referred for genetic counseling and underwent BRCA genetic testing in 2010 and 2011 were included in the study. RESULTS Of the six benign histological features analyzed in this study, only stromal fibrosis grade 2/3 was found to be statistically different, with more BRCA noncarriers having stromal fibrosis grade 2/3 than BRCA1/2 carriers (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION There is no significant association between mutation risk and the presence of benign histologic features of peritumoral breast parenchyma. PMID:26327783

  1. FLT PET in Measuring Treatment Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-01

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  2. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kalache, A; McPherson, K; Barltrop, K; Vessey, M P

    1983-10-01

    An attempt is made to summarize the results of recently conducted epidemiological studies relating to the possible adverse effects of oral contraceptives (OCs) on breast cancer. Evaluation of the safety of OCs is difficult. An important reason is that since preparations were introduced to the American market in 1959 the formulation of pills and the dosage of constituents have both changed markedly. A number of other considerations to be born in mind when evaluating the relevant literature were identified by a recent World Health Organization (WHO) Scientific Group. These include the following: there is usually a considerable latent period between 1st exposure to a carcinogen and the development of overt malignancy; and it is possible that exposure to contraceptive steroids may be particularly important at certain critical periods during reproductive life. After age, the most important risk factors during early life are a young age at menarche and a late age at 1st full term birth. There factors appear to operate independently and so the longer the period between menarche and 1st full term birth, the higher is the risk of breast cancer. A girl whose menarche occurs before age 12 is approximately twice as likely to develop breast cancer later in life as a girl whose menarche occurs after age 14. Similarly, a woman whose first full term birth occurs after age 35 is about 3 times more likely to develop breast cancer than a woman who gives birth before age 20. Nulliparous women have an intermediate risk. Other known risk factors include a family history of breast cancer, a past history of benign breast disease, and increased body weight. Possibly the most serious problem from an epidemiological perspective is the interrelationship between calendar time, age, and OC exposure. OC seems to be clearly associated with a decreased risk of benign breast disease of sufficient severity to require biopsy and the evidence is that the reduction in risk increases with duration of use. The epidemiological evidence available regarding OCs and breast cancer is reassuring. Data have been obtained from case control studies and cohort studies. A table summarizes the main features of 12 case control studies. Results of both groups of studies are reassuring in relation to breast cancer, yet there is usually a long period between exposure to a carcinogen and the development of overt malignancy and OCs have been in widespread use for only a relatively short time. Women who have never used OCs seem to present with more clinically advanced tumors than women who have used them. The differences in staging are reflected in patterns of survival. The difference may be due to a greater awareness of breast disease in OC users, but it could represent a beneficial biological effect of OCs. PMID:6640197

  3. Endometrial cancer survival after breast cancer in relation to tamoxifen treatment: Pooled results from three countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Tamoxifen is an effective treatment for breast cancer but an undesirable side-effect is an increased risk of endometrial cancer, particularly rare tumor types associated with poor prognosis. We investigated whether tamoxifen therapy increases mortality among breast cancer patients subsequently diagnosed with endometrial cancer. Methods We pooled case-patient data from the three largest case-control studies of tamoxifen in relation to endometrial cancer after breast cancer (1,875 patients: Netherlands, 765; United Kingdom, 786; United States, 324) and collected follow-up information on vital status. Breast cancers were diagnosed in 1972 to 2005 with endometrial cancers diagnosed in 1978 to 2006. We used Cox proportional hazards survival analysis to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results A total of 1,104 deaths occurred during, on average, 5.8 years following endometrial cancer (32% attributed to breast cancer, 25% to endometrial cancer). Mortality from endometrial cancer increased significantly with unfavorable non-endometrioid morphologies (P < 0.0001), International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics staging system for gynecological malignancy (FIGO) stage (P < 0.0001) and age (P < 0.0001). No overall association was observed between tamoxifen treatment and endometrial cancer mortality (HR = 1.17 (95% CI: (0.89 to 1.55)). Tamoxifen use for at least five years was associated with increased endometrial cancer mortality (HR = 1.59 (1.13 to 2.25)). This association appeared to be due primarily to the excess of unfavorable histologies and advanced stage in women using tamoxifen for five or more years since the association with mortality was no longer significant after adjustment for morphological type and FIGO stage (HR = 1.37 (0.97 to 1.93)). Those patients with endometrioid tumors, who stopped tamoxifen use at least five years before their endometrial cancer diagnosis, had a greater mortality risk from endometrial cancer than endometrioid patients with no tamoxifen exposure (HR = 2.11 (1.13 to 3.94)). The explanation for this latter observation is not apparent. Conclusions Patients with endometrial cancer after breast cancer who received tamoxifen treatment for five years for breast cancer have greater endometrial cancer mortality risk than those who did not receive tamoxifen. This can be attributed to non-endometrioid histological subtypes with poorer prognosis among long term tamoxifen users. PMID:22691381

  4. Targeting type I? phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase inhibits breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Chen, C; Wang, X; Xiong, X; Liu, Q; Huang, Y; Xu, Q; Hu, J; Ge, G; Ling, K

    2015-08-27

    Most deaths from breast cancer are caused by metastasis, a complex behavior of cancer cells involving migration, invasion, survival and microenvironment manipulation. Type I? phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase (PIPKI?) regulates focal adhesion assembly and its phosphorylation at Y639 is critical for cell migration induced by EGF. However, the role of this lipid kinase in tumor metastasis remains unclear. Here we report that PIPKI? is vital for breast cancer metastasis. Y639 of PIPKI? can be phosphorylated by stimulation of EGF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), two promoting factors for breast cancer progression. Histological analysis revealed elevated Y639 phosphorylation of PIPKI? in invasive ductal carcinoma lesions and suggested a positive correlation with tumor grade. Orthotopically transplanted PIPKI?-depleted breast cancer cells showed substantially reduced growth and metastasis, as well as suppressed expression of multiple genes related to cell migration and microenvironment manipulation. Re-expression of wild-type PIPKI? in PIPKI?-depleted cells restored tumor growth and metastasis, reinforcing the importance of PIPKI? in breast cancer progression. Y639-to-F or a kinase-dead mutant of PIPKI? could not recover the diminished metastasis in PIPKI?-depleted cancer cells, suggesting that Y639 phosphorylation and lipid kinase activity are both required for development of metastasis. Further analysis with in vitro assays indicated that depleting PIPKI? inhibited cell proliferation, MMP9 secretion and cell migration and invasion, lending molecular mechanisms for the eliminated cancer progression. These results suggest that PIPKI?, downstream of EGF and/or HGF receptor, participates in breast cancer progression from multiple aspects and deserves further studies to explore its potential as a therapeutic target. PMID:25486426

  5. Triciribine Phosphate, Paclitaxel, Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IV Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-13

    Breast Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  6. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride and Cyclophosphamide Followed by Paclitaxel With or Without Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-09

    Breast Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  7. Incidence of breast cancer in women with fibroadenoma.

    PubMed

    Levi, F; Randimbison, L; Te, V C; La Vecchia, C

    1994-06-01

    There is a general agreement that fibroadenoma is associated with a certain increase in breast cancer risk, but the risk estimates appear heterogeneous according to various studies. To provide further quantitative and population-based estimates of breast cancer risk in women with histologically confirmed fibroadenomas, we linked data of 1,461 incident cases of fibroadenoma (median age, 37 years) to the Cancer Registry of the Swiss Canton of Vaud (about 600,000 inhabitants) over the period 1977-1991. After exclusion of 57 synchronous breast neoplasms, a total of 17 cases of breast cancer were observed vs. 10.9 expected (standardised incidence ratio, SIR, 1.6; 90% confidence interval: 1.1-2.1). The SIR was similar in the short term (3-5 years) and in the medium-long term (> 5 years) following diagnosis of fibroadenoma. The cumulative risk of invasive breast cancer was 0.7% after 5 years and 2.2% after 12 years following diagnosis of fibroadenoma. This is not negligible on account of the young age of our cohort. PMID:8194875

  8. Relationship between Menopausal Symptoms and Risk of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi; Malone, Kathleen E.; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L.; Daling, Janet R.; Li, Christopher I.

    2011-01-01

    Background Prior studies indicate that women with menopausal symptoms have lower estrogen levels as they go through menopause compared to women who do not experience them. Given the central role of hormones in the etiology of breast cancer, a link between menopausal symptoms and breast cancer is plausible. However, no prior studies have evaluated the association between menopausal symptoms and breast cancer risk. Methods Utilizing data from a population-based case-control study we examined associations between menopausal symptoms and risks of different histologic types of breast cancer among postmenopausal women. We calculated multivariate adjusted odds ratios (OR) using polytomous logistic regression and evaluated several potential effect modifiers. Results Women who ever experienced menopausal symptoms had lower risks of invasive ductal carcinoma [IDC, OR=0.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.30.7], invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC, OR=0.5; 95% CI: 0.30.8), and invasive ductal-lobular carcinoma (IDLC, OR=0.7; 95% CI: 0.41.2), and these reductions in risk were independent of recency and timing of hormone therapy use, age at menopause, and body mass index. Increasing intensity of hot flashes among women who ever experienced hot flashes was also associated with decreasing risks of all three breast cancer subtypes (p-values for trend all ?0.017). Conclusion This is the first study to report that women who ever experienced menopausal symptoms have a substantially reduced risk of breast cancer, and that severity of hot flashes is also inversely associated with risk. Impact If confirmed, these findings could enhance our understanding of breast cancer etiology and factors potentially relevant to prevention. PMID:21212063

  9. Guide to Understanding Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 360 March 3, 2016 Triple-Negative Breast Cancer 360: Waiting for the Future Article August 31, 2015 Triple-Negative Breast Cancer See More Facebook Tweet LinkedIn Google+ Email Learn The Basics What is Breast Cancer? ...

  10. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  11. What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in men? What are the risk factors for breast cancer in men? A risk factor is anything that ... old when they are diagnosed. Family history of breast cancer Breast cancer risk is increased if other members ...

  12. Electric power, melatonin, and breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.G.

    1987-08-01

    In this paper, the epidemiology of breast cancer will be discussed, followed by a brief description of the effect of electric fields on melatonin and the relation of melatonin to mammary cancer in rats. Finally, there will be a consideration of factors such as alcohol that affect melatonin and their relation to breast cancer risk. 55 refs.

  13. Selected National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Research Topics | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sciences are jointly funding three Breast Cancer and Environment Research Centers (BCERCs) to conduct interdisciplinary research on the effects of early environmental exposures on breast development and breast cancer risk. The Breast Cancer Surveillance ...

  14. Statin Use and Breast Cancer Risk in the Nurses' Health Study.

    PubMed

    Borgquist, Signe; Tamimi, Rulla M; Chen, Wendy Y; Garber, Judy E; Eliassen, A Heather; Ahern, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical studies support an anticancer effect of statin drugs, yet epidemiologic evidence remains inconsistent regarding their role in breast cancer primary prevention. Here, we report an updated analysis of the association between statin use and breast cancer incidence in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) cohort. Postmenopausal NHS participants without a cancer history were followed from 2000 until 2012 (n = 79,518). Data on statin use were retrieved from biennial questionnaires. We fit Cox regression models to estimate associations between longitudinal statin use and breast cancer incidence. Over 823,086 person-years of follow-up, 3,055 cases of invasive breast cancer occurred. Compared with never users, both former and current statin users had similar rates of invasive breast cancer incidence [former users: HRadj, 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.82-1.1; current users: HRadj, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.92-1.3]. Associations did not differ by estrogen receptor (ER) status or histology (ductal vs. lobular carcinoma). Statin use was not associated with risk of invasive breast cancer, irrespective of histologic subtype and ER status. Statin drugs do not appear to modify processes involved in breast cancer initiation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(1); 201-6. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26762806

  15. The epidemiology of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, J L; Gammon, M D

    1991-01-01

    Table 5 presents risk factors for breast cancer generally regarded as established, together with their approximate relative risks. With the exception of age, country of birth, and a history of breast cancer in both a mother and a sister, all of the relative risks reported to date are of a relatively modest magnitude. Thus, new risk factors need to be identified and knowledge of existing risk factors refined. Factors for which the evidence of an etiologic role has mounted over the past several years, but which are not yet considered to be established, include the protective effects of parity and lactation in certain age groups and the increased risks associated with alcohol consumption and with DES exposure during pregnancy. In addition, physical activity has emerged as a factor worthy of further study. Some evidence suggests that use of oral contraceptives for several years at an early age modestly increases the risk for breast cancer diagnosed before age 35 and perhaps age 45. Use of estrogen-replacement therapy for 20 years or more has been found by a few studies to increase the risk for breast cancer in the postmenopausal years; further studies of very long-term users are needed. Also, other risks and benefits of these hormones need to be taken into account when women decide whether to use them. Surprisingly elusive has been the etiologic role of endogenous hormones, especially in view of the large number of studies that have been concerned with them. A better understanding of the role of endogenous hormones should help explain the mechanisms of action of known and suspected risk factors. Areas of high priority for further research thus include establishing with more certainty whether the risk for breast cancer is increased in any subgroups of women who use oral contraceptives and estrogen-replacement therapy and determining the etiologic roles of specific endogenous hormones. The possible risks associated with alcohol consumption and lack of physical activity need to be studied more thoroughly, and ideas about new potential risk factors are needed. Although epidemiologic studies will continue to be concerned with diet, enthusiasm for its etiologic role in women has been considerably dampened by the lack of association in many of the studies reported to date. The studies in women exposed to radiation, DES, and oral contraceptives suggest that the timing of some exposures may be critical, since the effects of these agents may mostly be limited to specific time periods of rapid breast development.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1902137

  16. Do underarm cosmetics cause breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Gikas, Panagiotis D; Mansfield, Lucy; Mokbel, Kefah

    2004-01-01

    Although animal and laboratory studies suggest a possible link between certain chemicals used in underarm cosmetics and breast cancer development, there is no reliable evidence that underarm cosmetics use increases breast cancer risk in humans. This article reviews the evidence for and against the possible link between breast cancer and underarm cosmetics and highlights the need for further research to clarify this issue. PMID:15633477

  17. Multidisciplinary care for patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hulvat, Melissa C; Hansen, Nora M; Jeruss, Jacqueline S

    2009-02-01

    The care of patients with breast cancer has become increasingly complex with advancements in diagnostic modalities, surgical approaches, and adjuvant treatments. A multidisciplinary approach to breast cancer care is essential to the successful integration of available therapies. This article addresses the key components of multidisciplinary breast cancer care, with a special emphasis on new and emerging approaches over the past 10 years in the fields of diagnostics, surgery, radiation, medical oncology, and plastic surgery. PMID:19186235

  18. Endocrine therapy of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalli, F.

    1986-01-01

    This book results from a meeting of the ESO (European School of Oncology) Task Force on endocrine aspects of breast cancer. The contributions stem from some of the most outstanding researchers in Europe and highlight mainly methodological issues and new avenues for future research. The chapters on basic research deal primarily with experimental strategies for studying the relationship between steroid hormones, growth factors, and oncongenes. The clinically oriented chapters treat the methodology of clinical trials. Provocative questions are raised, such as: What are the pitfalls in endocrine trials. What does statistical proof mean. How can we consider a quality of life endpoint in the adjuvant setting. Two special reports deal with the controversial issues of chemoprevention in high-risk normal women and the optimization of the hormonal contribution to the adjuvant therapy of breast cancer. Topics considered included oncogenic transformations, radiotherapy, steroid hormones, cell proliferation, tamoxifen, and preventive medicine.

  19. Targeted therapies for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Michaela J.; Baselga, Jos

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the description of well-defined molecular subtypes of breast cancer, together with the identification of the driving genetic alterations and signaling pathways, has led to the clinical development of a number of successful molecular targeted agents. This is best exemplified in the subset of HER2-amplified breast cancers, in which an increasing number of active agents are changing the natural history of this aggressive disease. Other targets are under exploration, and the clinical development of these agents will require a change from the current large, randomized trials in unselected patient populations to smaller trials in groups with a molecularly defined tumor type. In addition, combinatorial approaches that act on the secondary mutations and/or compensatory pathways in resistant tumors may markedly improve on the effects of targeted agents used alone. PMID:21965336

  20. Pathology of breast cancer in women irradiated for acute postpartum mastitis. [X rays

    SciTech Connect

    Dvoretsky, P.M.; Woodard, E.; Bonfiglio, T.A.; Hempelmann, L.H.; Morse, I.P.

    1980-11-15

    The gross and microscopic pathology of breast cancers in women irradiated for acute postpartum mastitis was compared to the breast cancers found in the sisters of the irradiated women. In considering the lesions in the two populations, the size, location, histologic type, histologic grade, inflammatory response, lymphatic and blood vascular invasion, nipple involvement, axillary lymph node metastases, and menopausal status at the time of diagnosis were statistically indistinguishable. The only parameter that was different in the two populations was the desmoplastic response to the malignant lesion. The control population had more marked fibrosis within the cancers compared with the irradiated women.

  1. Consumption of coffee, but not black tea, is associated with decreased risk of premenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Baker, Julie A; Beehler, Gregory P; Sawant, Abhishek C; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; McCann, Susan E; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2006-01-01

    Caffeine has been suggested as a possible risk factor for breast cancer, potentially through its effect of facilitating the development of benign breast disease. However, coffee and tea also contain polyphenols, which exhibit anticarcinogenic properties. A hospital-based, case-control study was conducted to evaluate the role of coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and black tea in breast cancer etiology. Study participants included 1932 cases with primary, incident breast cancer and 1895 hospital controls with nonneoplastic conditions. All participants completed a comprehensive epidemiological questionnaire. Among premenopausal women, consumption of regular coffee was associated with linear declines in breast cancer risk (P for trend = 0.03); consumers of >or=4 cups/d experienced a 40% risk reduction (odds ratio = 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.98). No clear associations between intake of black tea or decaffeinated coffee and breast cancer risk were noted among premenopausal women, although black tea was associated with a protective effect unique to a subsample of cases with lobular histology. Among postmenopausal women, breast cancer risk was not associated with consumption of coffee, tea, or decaffeinated coffee. Results among postmenopausal women did not differ by histologic subtype. Our findings support a protective effect of coffee intake on premenopausal, but not postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:16365077

  2. Differentiating cancerous from normal breast tissue by redox imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, He N.; Tchou, Julia; Feng, Min; Zhao, Huaqing; Li, Lin Z.

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal metabolism can be a hallmark of cancer occurring early before detectable histological changes and may serve as an early detection biomarker. The current gold standard to establish breast cancer (BC) diagnosis is histological examination of biopsy. Previously we have found that pre-cancer and cancer tissues in animal models displayed abnormal mitochondrial redox state. Our technique of quantitatively measuring the mitochondrial redox state has the potential to be implemented as an early detection tool for cancer and may provide prognostic value. We therefore in this present study, investigated the feasibility of quantifying the redox state of tumor samples from 16 BC patients. Tumor tissue aliquots were collected from both normal and cancerous tissue from the affected cancer-bearing breasts of 16 female patients (5 TNBC, 9 ER+, 2 ER+/Her2+) shortly after surgical resection. All specimens were snap-frozen with liquid nitrogen on site and scanned later with the Chance redox scanner, i.e., the 3D cryogenic NADH/oxidized flavoprotein (Fp) fluorescence imager. Our preliminary results showed that both NADH and Fp (including FAD, i.e., flavin adenine dinucleotide) signals in the cancerous tissues roughly tripled to quadrupled those in the normal tissues (p<0.05) and the redox ratio Fp/(NADH+Fp) was about 27% higher in the cancerous tissues than in the normal ones (p<0.05). Our findings suggest that the redox state could differentiate between cancer and non-cancer breast tissues in human patients and this novel redox scanning procedure may assist in tissue diagnosis in freshly procured biopsy samples prior to tissue fixation. We are in the process of evaluating the prognostic value of the redox imaging indices for BC.

  3. Educational Counseling in Improving Communication and Quality of Life in Spouses and Breast Cancer Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  4. [Male Breast Cancer: What is Different?].

    PubMed

    Niederberger, Philipp; Bucher, Susanne; Aebi, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease. Symptoms and signs resemble breast cancer in women: A palpable mass, enlarged lymph nodes or skin changes (ulceration, secretion, peau d'orange) mandate mammography, ultrasound to assess the regional lymph nodes. The definitive diagnosis is made by biopsy. Men with breast cancer are treated along the same principles as women: resection followed by systemic and radiation therapy. Tamoxifen, not aromatase inhibitors, is the adjuvant therapy of choice for estrogen receptor positive tumors. Therapy of men with metastatic breast cancer follows the same principles as therapy of women. PMID:26837323

  5. Using hair to screen for breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Veronica; Kearsley, John; Irving, Tom; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Cookson, David

    1999-03-01

    We have studied hair using fibre X-ray diffraction studies with synchrotron radiation and find that hair from breast-cancer patients has a different intermolecular structure to hair from healthy subjects. These changes are seen in all samples of scalp and pubic hair taken from women diagnosed with breast cancer. All the hair samples from women who tested positive for a mutation of the BRCA1 gene, which is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, also show these changes. Because our results are so consistent, we propose that such hair analyses may be used as a simple, non-invasive screening method for breast cancer.

  6. Breast Cancer, Version 1.2016.

    PubMed

    Gradishar, William J; Anderson, Benjamin O; Balassanian, Ron; Blair, Sarah L; Burstein, Harold J; Cyr, Amy; Elias, Anthony D; Farrar, William B; Forero, Andres; Giordano, Sharon Hermes; Goetz, Matthew; Goldstein, Lori J; Hudis, Clifford A; Isakoff, Steven J; Marcom, P Kelly; Mayer, Ingrid A; McCormick, Beryl; Moran, Meena; Patel, Sameer A; Pierce, Lori J; Reed, Elizabeth C; Salerno, Kilian E; Schwartzberg, Lee S; Smith, Karen Lisa; Smith, Mary Lou; Soliman, Hatem; Somlo, George; Telli, Melinda; Ward, John H; Shead, Dottie A; Kumar, Rashmi

    2015-12-01

    These NCCN Guideline Insights highlight the important updates to the systemic therapy recommendations in the 2016 NCCN Guidelines for Breast Cancer. In the most recent version of these guidelines, the NCCN Breast Cancer Panel included a new section on the principles of preoperative systemic therapy. In addition, based on new evidence, the panel updated systemic therapy recommendations for women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in the adjuvant and metastatic disease settings and for patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. This report summarizes these recent updates and discusses the rationale behind them. PMID:26656517

  7. Does diet affect breast cancer risk?

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Michelle D; Willett, Walter C

    2004-01-01

    The role of specific dietary factors in breast cancer causation is not completely resolved. Results from prospective studies do not support the concept that fat intake in middle life has a major relation to breast cancer risk. However, weight gain in middle life contributes substantially to breast cancer risk. Alcohol is the best established dietary risk factor, probably by increasing endogenous estrogen levels. Hypotheses relating diet during youth to risk decades later will be difficult to test. Nevertheless, available evidence is strong that breast cancer risk can be reduced by avoiding weight gain during adult years, and by limiting alcohol consumption. PMID:15217490

  8. "Carcinoid" tumor of the breast. A variant of conventional breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Taxy, J B; Tischler, A S; Insalaco, S J; Battifora, H

    1981-02-01

    A breast tumor with the morphologic features of a carcinoid tumor and containing large amounts of estrogen receptor protein was associated with areas of typical in situ and infiltrating lobular carcinoma. The carcinoid areas were argyrophilic and ultrastructurally contained electron dense granules on which silver grains were localized. Of 21 other examples of ordinary breast cancer, five showed histologic similarities to carcinoid tumors. Focal argyrophilia was observed in 11 invasive tumors. The presence of argyrophilic granules could not be correlated with the presence of "neurosecretory" granules, although groups of such granules were found in one case of in situ lobular carcinoma. Argyrophilic and "neurosecretory" granules imply the presence of hormonal substances, although in breast tumors these granules have not yet been chemically or immunochemically characterized. Until such evidence becomes available it would appear that most cases reported as primary carcinoid tumors of the breast have much more in common with conventional breast cancer than with the usual carcinoid tumor. Within this context it can be acknowledged that some breast cancers may focally exhibit a carcinoid-like differentiation. PMID:7011938

  9. Iron homeostasis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Marques, Oriana; da Silva, Berta Martins; Porto, Graa; Lopes, Carlos

    2014-05-28

    Iron is an essential element and a critical component of molecules involved in energy production, cell cycle and intermediate metabolism. However, the same characteristic chemistry that makes it so biologically versatile may lead to iron-associated toxicity as a consequence of increased oxidative stress. The fact that free iron accumulates with age and generates ROS led to the hypothesis that it could be involved in the etiogenesis of several chronic diseases. Iron has been consistently linked to carcinogenesis, either through persistent failure in the redox balance or due to its critical role in cellular proliferation. Several reports have given evidence that alterations in the import, export and storage of cellular iron may contribute to breast cancer development, behavior and recurrence. In this review, we summarize the basic mechanisms of systemic and cellular iron regulation and highlight the findings that link their deregulation with breast cancer. To conclude, progresses in iron chelation therapy in breast cancer, as a tool to fight chemotherapy resistance, are also reviewed. PMID:24486738

  10. Breast Cancer 2012 New Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Kolberg, H.-C.; Lftner, D.; Lux, M. P.; Maass, N.; Schtz, F.; Fasching, P. A.; Fehm, T.; Janni, W.; Kmmel, S.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment options as well as the characteristics for therapeutic decisions in patients with primary and advanced breast cancer are increasing in number and variety. New targeted therapies in combination with established chemotherapy schemes are broadening the spectrum, however potentially promising combinations do not always achieve a better result. New data from the field of pharmacogenomics point to prognostic and predictive factors that take not only the properties of the tumour but also inherited genetic properties of the patient into consideration. Current therapeutic decision-making is thus based on a combination of classical clinical and modern molecular biomarkers. Also health-economic aspects are more frequently being taken into consideration so that health-economic considerations may also play a part. This review is based on information from the recent annual congresses. The latest of these are the 34th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium 2011 and the ASCO Annual Meeting 2012. Among their highlights are the clinically significant results from the CLEOPATRA, BOLERO-2, EMILIA and SWOG S0226 trials on the therapy for metastatic breast cancer as well as further state-of-the-art data on the adjuvant use of bisphosphonates within the framework of the ABCSG-12, ZO-FAST, NSABP-B34 and GAIN trials. PMID:25324576

  11. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Epithelial and fibroblast cell coculture: Long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) admixed in coculture with fibroblast from the same initial breast tissue grown as 3-dimenstional constructions in the presence of attachment beads in the NASA Bioreactor. A: A typical constrct about 2.0 mm in diameter without beads on the surface. The center of these constrcts is hollow, and beads are organized about the irner surface. Although the coculture provides smaller constructs than the monoculture, the metabolic of the organized cells is about the same. B, C, D: Closer views of cells showing that the shape of cells and cell-to-cell interactions apprear different in the coculture than in the monoculture constructs. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  12. Metabolic syndrome in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Aguilar, VM; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adanm; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo; Tovar-Rodriguez, JM

    2013-01-01

    Breast Cancer is a heterogeneous disease, progressive, currently, are classified according to in pattern of gene expression luminal A, luminal B, basal and HER-2neu + and Triple-negative, 75% to 80% have receptors positive hormonal and 15% to 20% are positive for hER-2neu and 10% to 20% are triple negative, with hormone receptor negative and HER2-neu and their diagnostic is made by exclusion, the Metabolic Syndrome is related to a higher incidence of these cancers where the insulin-leptin axis-adiponectin are implicated in carcinogenesis. PMID:25083463

  13. Carboplatin, Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, and Mifepristone in Treating Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer or Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-09

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  14. Adolescent meat intake and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y; Eliassen, A Heather; Willett, Walter C

    2015-04-15

    The breast is particularly vulnerable to carcinogenic influences during adolescence due to rapid proliferation of mammary cells and lack of terminal differentiation. We investigated consumption of adolescent red meat and other protein sources in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. We followed prospectively 44,231 women aged 33-52 years who, in 1998, completed a detailed questionnaire about diet during adolescence. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. We documented 1132 breast cancer cases during 13-year follow-up. In multivariable Cox regression models with major breast cancer risk factors adjustment, greater consumption of total red meat in adolescence was significantly associated with higher premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintiles, RR, 1.43; 95%CI, 1.05-1.94; Ptrend ?=?0.007), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. Adolescent intake of poultry was associated with lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.76; 95%CI, 0.60-0.97; for each serving/day). Adolescent intakes of iron, heme iron, fish, eggs, legumes and nuts were not associated with breast cancer. Replacement of one serving/day of total red meat with one serving of combination of poultry, fish, legumes, and nuts was associated with a 15% lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.85; 95%CI, 0.74-0.96) and a 23% lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer (RR, 0.77; 95%CI, 0.64-0.92). In conclusion, higher consumption of red meat during adolescence was associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Substituting other dietary protein sources for red meat in adolescent diet may decrease premenopausal breast cancer risk. PMID:25220168

  15. Carcinoid tumorlets simulate pulmonary metastases in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Darvishian, Farbod; Ginsberg, Michelle S; Klimstra, David S; Brogi, Edi

    2006-07-01

    A pulmonary carcinoid tumorlet (PCT) is a nodular proliferation of neuroendocrine cells smaller than 0.5 cm. On computed tomographic (CT) imaging, these nodules are nonspecific in appearance and can mimic metastatic disease. Cases of multiple PCTs diagnosed between 1992 and 2003 in patients with history of breast cancer were identified through a search of the pathology files. The clinical information was abstracted from the medical records. We identified 12 women with a history of breast cancer and biopsy-proven PCTs, who were treated at our institution in a period of 12 years. Only 3 women were smokers. The mean age at diagnosis of the breast cancer was 62.8 years. The breast cancer was invasive carcinoma in 10 cases (9 ductal and 1 lobular) and ductal carcinoma in situ and malignant phyllodes tumor in 1 case each. Six women received radiotherapy; 5, chemotherapy; and 4, hormonal treatment, alone or in combination. Pulmonary carcinoid tumorlets were identified within 5 months from diagnosis of the breast malignancy in 7 patients and at follow-up (range, 57-162 months) in the remaining 5. In all cases, the PCTs consisted of multiple pulmonary nodules that were radiologically interpreted as suspicious for pulmonary metastases. Misdiagnosis of metastatic carcinoma was rendered intraoperatively by frozen section analysis in 3 cases. None of the patients had known metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis of PCTs. Three patients subsequently developed recurrent disease, including 2 with extramammary spread. Pulmonary carcinoid tumorlets are radiologic and histologic mimickers of pulmonary metastases in patients with a history of breast cancer. Consideration should be given to the possibility of PCTs in patients with breast cancer with pulmonary nodules, even if multiple. PMID:16784983

  16. Triple negative breast cancers: clinical and prognostic implications.

    PubMed

    Dawson, S J; Provenzano, E; Caldas, C

    2009-09-01

    Triple negative breast cancers are defined by the absence of oestrogen, progesterone and HER2 expression. Most triple negative cancers display distinct clinical and pathological characteristics with a high proportion of these tumours occurring at a younger age of onset and in African-American women. Triple negative tumours typically demonstrate high histological grade and are the most common breast cancer subtype in BRCA1 carriers. In addition, many of the features of triple negative cancers are similar to those identified in the basal-like molecular subtype which has recently been characterised by gene expression profiling. Although the two groups overlap, they are not synonymous. Triple negative breast cancers are of pivotal clinical importance given the lack of therapeutic options. The prognostic significance of triple negative tumours remains unclear since the group is heterogeneous and worst prognosis seems to be mostly confined to those that express basal cytokeratins or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This review focuses on outlining the pathological, molecular, and clinical features of triple negative breast cancers, discusses its prognostic value and summarises current therapeutic approaches and future directions of research. PMID:19775602

  17. Typhoid Vaccine in Testing Response to Immune Stress in Patients With Stage I-IIIA Breast Cancer Who Received Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-13

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Depression; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  18. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor expression in breast cancer tissue and mammographic density

    PubMed Central

    SUN, WOO-YOUNG; YUN, HYO-YOUNG; SONG, YOUNG-JIN; KIM, HEON; LEE, OK-JUN; NAM, SEOK-JIN; KOO, JA-SEUNG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) expression in breast cancer tissue and mammographic density and the clinical significance of IGF-1R overexpression. A total of 167 patients with primary invasive breast cancer were analyzed. Mammographic breast density and IGF-1R overexpression were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and analyzed by overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Increased breast tissue density was significantly associated with age, body mass index, menopausal status, histological grade and IGF-1R overexpression in the univariate analysis and with age (P=0.001), histological grade (P=0.045) and IGF-1R overexpression (P=0.021) in the multivariate analysis. IGF-1R overexpression was significantly associated with dense breast tissue in patients aged >40 years (P=0.002). IGF-1R overexpression in breast cancer in premenopausal women was associated with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) positivity (P=0.016) and worse DFS (P=0.0414). There was no significant difference in OS and DFS between dense and non-dense breast tissue. IGF-1R expression in breast cancer tissue was significantly associated with mammographic breast tissue density in patients aged >40 years. It appears that IGF-1R expression in breast cancer tissue plays an important role in breast cancer in patients with dense breast tissue. In premenopausal women, IGF-1R overexpression in breast cancer tissue was significantly associated with HER-2 positivity and poor DFS. PMID:26137269

  19. High levels of class III β-tubulin expression are associated with aggressive tumor features in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    LEBOK, PATRICK; ÖZTÜRK, MELIKE; HEILENKÖTTER, UWE; JAENICKE, FRITZ; MÜLLER, VOLKMAR; PALUCHOWSKI, PETER; GEIST, STEFAN; WILKE, CHRISTIAN; BURANDT, EICKE; LEBEAU, ANNETTE; WILCZAK, WALDEMAR; KRECH, TILL; SIMON, RONALD; SAUTER, GUIDO; QUAAS, ALEXANDER

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of class III β-tubulin (TUBB3), a factor that confers dynamic properties to microtubules, is a candidate biomarker for resistance to microtubule-targeting chemotherapeutics in breast and other types of solid cancer. Discrepant results from previous studies, with respect to the association of TUBB3 expression levels with breast cancer phenotype and patient prognosis, prompted the present study to investigate TUBB3 expression in a large cohort of breast cancer cases, with available clinical follow-up data. A preexisting breast cancer prognosis tissue microarray, containing a single 0.6 mm tissue core from each of 2,197 individual patients with breast cancer, was analyzed for TUBB3 expression by immunohistochemistry. The results of the present study revealed that TUBB3 expression was less frequent in lobular breast cancer cases (34%), compared with that of cancer cases of alternative histologies, including breast cancer of no special type (60%; P<0.0001). High TUBB3 positivity was associated with high tumor grade (P<0.0001), negativity for estrogen (P<0.0001) and progesterone receptors (P<0.004), as well as the presence of human epidermal growth factor 2 amplification (P<0.0001) and a triple-negative phenotype (P<0.0001). TUBB3 overexpression was additionally associated with reduced patient survival if all breast cancer cases of any histology were jointly analyzed (P=0.0088); however this link was not evident in the subset of breast cancer cases of no special type, or in a multivariate analysis including the established prognostic factors of tumor stage, grade and nodal stage. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that TUBB3 overexpression was associated with adverse features of breast cancer, and that TUBB3 may possess a distinct role in lobular breast cancer cases, compared with alternative histological subtypes. The results of the present study do not support a clinically relevant role for TUBB3 as a prognostic marker in breast cancer. PMID:26998111

  20. Breast Cancer Marker Link to Aggressive Rarer Cancer Development

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists have identified a group of surface markers on cells linked to an aggressive type of breast cancer called estrogen receptor-negative cancer. The research, conducted by scientists at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Insti

  1. TGFBR1 Signaling and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moore-Smith, Lakisha

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade mutations discovered in genes such as BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53 and PTEN, have emerged as high-penetrance susceptibility genes and are clinically relevant for determination of breast cancer risk. Genetic counseling and subsequent screening for mutations and gene rearrangement has improved patient outcome through early detection and prophylactic interventions in patients with familial breast cancer syndromes. However, these high-penetrance genes only account for a small fraction of the hereditary linked breast cancers. It is currently believed that low-penetrance susceptibility alleles and/or environmental factors may play an important role in the remaining cases. TGFBR1*6A (*6A) is a common hypomorphic variant of the type I TGF-? receptor gene (TGFBR1) that has been associated with risk for several forms of cancer, in particular breast cancer. Several epidemiological studies have suggested that patients who carry the *6A allele have an increased risk of breast cancer. Furthermore, functional analysis suggests that this mutation alters TGF-? signaling and promotes tumorigenesis. Although a decade of research has provided basic information in regards to the prevalence of this mutation in several cancer types and populations the molecular underpinning of its functional effects are poorly understood. A better understanding of the molecular mechanism of TGFBR1 signaling in breast cancer may have an impact on breast cancer risk assessment and breast cancer prevention. PMID:21461994

  2. Technique for histological control of surgical margins in lip cancer.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Satoru; Hata, Hiroo; Homma, Erina; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    To preserve oral function and achieve acceptable cosmetic results, intraoperative control of surgical margins with frozen section evaluation may help to determine surgical technique in lip cancer. However, frozen section analysis is usually limited to suspicious areas and has not been systematically performed among surgeons. The accuracy of such analysis for detecting histological surgical margins is highly dependent on the methods used to obtain and analyze the margins. Improving the pathodiagnostic reliability of conventional intraoperative frozen section evaluation is the most important goal of surgical management in our method. We describe the successful use of the "double-blade method" in lip cancer treatment. The technique we describe has the advantage of histologically confirming clear margins in lip cancer. This method appears to be time-saving and easy to apply with existing surgical systems. In addition, this method may be used as an alternative to complete evaluation of lateral surgical margins that is important in planning a suitable surgical reconstruction procedure in lip cancer at many institutions where Mohs micrographic surgery is difficult to perform. PMID:24611955

  3. Intraoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Norman R.; Pigott, Katharine H.; Brew-Graves, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Intra-operative radiotherapy (IORT) as a treatment for breast cancer is a relatively new technique that is designed to be a replacement for whole breast external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in selected women suitable for breast-conserving therapy. This article reviews twelve reasons for the use of the technique, with a particular emphasis on targeted intra-operative radiotherapy (TARGIT) which uses X-rays generated from a portable device within the operating theatre immediately after the breast tumour (and surrounding margin of healthy tissue) has been removed. The delivery of a single fraction of radiotherapy directly to the tumour bed at the time of surgery, with the capability of adding EBRT at a later date if required (risk-adaptive technique) is discussed in light of recent results from a large multinational randomised controlled trial comparing TARGIT with EBRT. The technique avoids irradiation of normal tissues such as skin, heart, lungs, ribs and spine, and has been shown to improve cosmetic outcome when compared with EBRT. Beneficial aspects to both institutional and societal economics are discussed, together with evidence demonstrating excellent patient satisfaction and quality of life. There is a discussion of the published evidence regarding the use of IORT twice in the same breast (for new primary cancers) and in patients who would never be considered for EBRT because of their special circumstances (such as the frail, the elderly, or those with collagen vascular disease). Finally, there is a discussion of the role of the TARGIT Academy in developing and sustaining high standards in the use of the technique. PMID:25083504

  4. Influence of increasing breast meat yield on muscle histology and meat quality in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Rmignon, H; Desrosiers, V; Marche, G

    1996-01-01

    The histological characteristics, ie, myofibre types and cross-sectional areas (CSA), of pectoralis major and sartorius muscles of 20 male chickens from two lines (ten birds from each line) divergently selected for breast meat yield were compared. Moreover, some quality parameters (ie, drip loss, ultimate pH value and meat colour) of the breast muscle were recorded. The animals from both lines displayed identical pectoralis major myofibre types and CSA. A slight difference in typology, but not in myofibre CSA, was observed in the sartorius muscle: animals with the highest breast meat yield tended to have a more pronounced glycolytic character. No significant difference was observed in the quality of breast meat (pH, colour and drip loss). PMID:8987104

  5. Cytodiagnosis of papillary carcinoma of the breast: Report of a case with histological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Deepti; Soin, Navmeet; Kalita, Dipti; Pant, Leela; Kudesia, Madhur; Singh, Sompal

    2014-01-01

    Papillary lesions of the breast pose diagnostic challenges on aspiration cytology due to overlapping features of benign and malignant entities. Accurate cytologic diagnosis of papillary breast carcinoma cannot usually be made pre-operatively. We present the case of an adult female who underwent fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of a left breast lump. FNA smears were highly cellular showing cohesive clusters, complex papillary fragments and few singly dispersed intact cells. The tumor cells had hyperchromatic nuclei, prominent nucleoli and mild nuclear pleomorphism. A cytologic impression of papillary lesion, possibly malignant (in view of high cellularity, complex papillae and single intact cells) was rendered. The lesion proved to be a papillary carcinoma with microscopic foci of stromal invasion on histologic examination. Papillary carcinoma, an uncommon subtype of breast carcinoma, should be considered while evaluating a papillary lesion with complex branching papillae containing delicate fibrovascular cores and singly lying intact atypical cells. PMID:25210247

  6. Radiation Therapy in Treating Post-Menopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-02

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Cribriform Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  7. Breast cancer-related lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Thomas-MacLean, Roanne; Miedema, Baukje; Tatemichi, Sue R.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE One distressing health problem facing breast cancer patients is breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). This incurable condition can occur many years after treatment is completed and often causes pain and disability and interferes with work and activities of daily living. Patients at risk of BCRL are those who have received radiation therapy or axillary node dissection; higher incidence is reported among patients who have had both radiation and dissection. Our objective was to explore New Brunswick womens experiences of BCRL and its treatment. DESIGN A focus group and 15 individual in-depth interviews. SETTING Province of New Brunswick. PARTICIPANTS A diverse sample of 22 women with BCRL was obtained using age, location, time after breast cancer diagnosis, and onset of BCRL symptoms as selection criteria. METHOD The focus group discussion guided development of a semistructured interview guide that was used for 15 individual interviews exploring womens experiences with BCRL. MAIN FINDINGS Four themes emerged from the interviews. First, participants thought they were poorly informed about the possibility of developing BCRL. Eleven women reported receiving very little or no information about BCRL. Second, triggers and symptoms varied. Participants used words such as numb, heavy, tingling, aching, seeping fluid, hard, tight, limited mobility, and burning to describe symptoms. They reported a variety of both aggravating and alleviating factors for their symptoms. Some actions, such as applying heat, were thought to both exacerbate and reduce symptoms. Third, in New Brunswick, access to treatment is poor, compression garments are costly, and accessing physiotherapists is difficult. Last, the effect of BCRL on daily life is profound: 12 of the 15 women reported that it interfered with work and day-to-day activities. CONCLUSION Participants were unaware of the risk factors and treatment options for BCRL. Family physicians should discuss BCRL with their breast cancer patients routinely. They should be vigilant for the possible onset of BCRL and, if it is diagnosed, should manage it aggressively to minimize the severe effect it has on the lives of breast cancer patients. PMID:16926934

  8. Coffee consumption and the risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tavani, A; Pregnolato, A; La Vecchia, C; Favero, A; Franceschi, S

    1998-02-01

    On the basis of clinical observations that some women with fibrocystic breast disease experienced resolution of the disease on eliminating methylxanthines from their diet, it has been suggested that coffee intake might be related to breast carcinogenesis. The relationship between coffee (mostly expresso and mocha), decaffeinated coffee and tea intake and breast cancer risk was therefore considered, combining data from two case-control studies, conducted in Italy between 1983 and 1994. Cases were 5,984 women, below age 75, with histologically confirmed breast cancer, and controls were 5,504 women admitted to hospital for a wide spectrum of acute, non-neoplastic, non-hormone-related diseases. The odds ratios (ORs) were estimated from multiple logistic regression equations including terms for study/centre, age, education, body mass index, smoking status, total alcohol intake, age at menarche and menopause, parity and age at first birth, use of oral contraceptives, use of hormone replacement therapy, history of benign breast disease and family history of breast cancer. No relationship was observed between coffee intake and the risk of breast cancer. The multivariate ORs were 1.17 (1.03-1.33), 1.17 (1.04-1.33), 1.21 (1.06-1.37) and 0.96 (0.83-1.11) for women drinking < 2, 2, > 2 to < 4 and > or = 4 cups/day compared to non-drinkers. Decaffeinated coffee was consumed only by 6-7% of cases and controls and the corresponding OR was 0.84 (0.72-0.98). Tea consumption was also low and not associated with the risk of breast cancer (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.85-1.03). No significant heterogeneity was found for coffee intake across strata of age at diagnosis, education, body mass index, smoking status, total alcohol intake, age at menarche and menopause, parity, age at first birth, ever use of oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, history of benign breast disease and family history of breast cancer. Thus, this study, based on a large data set, allows us to exclude the hypothesis that coffee intake is related to breast cancer risk in this Italian population. PMID:9511854

  9. Breast Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has come up with a technique to decrease exposure to harmful x-rays in mammographies or breast radiography. Usually, physicians make more than one exposure to arrive at an x-ray film of acceptable density. Now the same solar cells used to convert sunlight into electricity on space satellites can make a single exposure sufficient. When solar cell sensor is positioned directly beneath x-ray film, it can determine exactly when film has received sufficient radiation and has been exposed to optimum density. At that point associated electronic equipment sends signal to cut off x-ray source. Reduction of mammography to single exposures not only reduced x-ray hazard significantly, but doubled the number of patient examinations handled by one machine. The NASA laboratory used this control system at the Huntington Memorial Hospital with overwhelming success.

  10. Immunohistochemical Expression of CXCR4 on Breast Cancer and Its Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Okuyama Kishima, Marina; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Coral; Banin-Hirata, Bruna Karina; Losi-Guembarovski, Roberta; Brajo de Oliveira, Karen; Amarante, Marla Karine; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara

    2015-01-01

    Many tumor cells express chemokines and chemokine receptors, and, for this reason, these molecules can affect the tumor progression. It is known that breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous neoplasia comprising distinct diseases, histological characteristics, and clinical outcomes. The most studied role for CXCL12 chemokine and its receptor CXCR4 in breast cancer pathogenesis is the metastasis event, although several reports have demonstrated its involvement in other processes, such as angiogenesis and tumor growth. It has been found that CXCR4 is required for breast cancer cell migration to other sites such as lung, bone, and lymph nodes, which express high levels of CXCL12 chemokine. Therefore, CXCR4 is being considered a prognostic marker in breast cancer. Within this context, this review summarizes established studies involving expression of CXCR4 on breast cancer, focusing on its clinical significance. PMID:26161302

  11. Interleukin-8 in Breast Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Milovanovi?, Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a chemokine that has an autocrine and/or paracrine tumor-promoting role and significant potential as a prognostic and/or predictive cancer biomarker. In breast cancer, which is mostly determined by expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), IL-8 could play a specific role. IL-8 is highly expressed in ER? breast cancers, but it increases invasiveness and metastatic potential of both ER? and ER+ breast cancer cells. It is also highly expressed in HER2+ breast cancers. Because of the complex crosstalk between these receptors and IL-8, its role is mainly determined by delicate balance in their signaling pathways. Therefore, the main point of this review was to analyze the possible influence of IL-8 in breast cancer progression related to its interaction with ER and HER2 and the consequent therapeutic implications of these relations. PMID:23697558

  12. Optical spectra analysis for breast cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkov, S. A.; Kochemasov, G. G.; Lyubynskaya, T. E.; Maslov, N. V.; Nuzhny, A. S.; da Silva, L. B.; Rubenchik, A.

    2011-11-01

    Minimally invasive probe and optical biopsy system based on optical spectra recording and analysis seem to be a promising tool for early diagnostics of breast cancer. Light scattering and absorption spectra are generated continuously as far as the needle-like probe with one emitting and several collecting optical fibers penetrates through the tissues toward to the suspicious area. That allows analyzing not only the state of local site, but also the structure of tissues along the needle trace. The suggested method has the advantages of automated on-line diagnosing and minimal tissue destruction and in parallel with the conventional diagnostic procedures provides the ground for decision-making. 165 medical trials were completed in Nizhny Novgorod Regional Oncology Centre, Russia. Independent diagnoses were the results of fine biopsy and histology. Application of wavelet expansion and clasterization techniques for spectra analysis revealed several main spectral types for malignant and benign tumors. Automatic classification algorithm demonstrated specificity 90% and sensitivity 91%. Large amount of information, fuzziness in criteria and data noisiness make neural networks to be an attractive analytic tool. The model based on three-layer perceptron was tested over the sample of 29 `cancer' and 29 `non-cancer' cases and demonstrated total separation.

  13. Gene panel testing for hereditary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Winship, Ingrid; Southey, Melissa C

    2016-03-21

    Inherited predisposition to breast cancer is explained only in part by mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Most families with an apparent familial clustering of breast cancer who are investigated through Australia's network of genetic services and familial cancer centres do not have mutations in either of these genes. More recently, additional breast cancer predisposition genes, such as PALB2, have been identified. New genetic technology allows a panel of multiple genes to be tested for mutations in a single test. This enables more women and their families to have risk assessment and risk management, in a preventive approach to predictable breast cancer. Predictive testing for a known family-specific mutation in a breast cancer predisposition gene provides personalised risk assessment and evidence-based risk management. Breast cancer predisposition gene panel tests have a greater diagnostic yield than conventional testing of only the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. The clinical validity and utility of some of the putative breast cancer predisposition genes is not yet clear. Ethical issues warrant consideration, as multiple gene panel testing has the potential to identify secondary findings not originally sought by the test requested. Multiple gene panel tests may provide an affordable and effective way to investigate the heritability of breast cancer. PMID:26985847

  14. Treating Male Breast Cancer by Stage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... their goal, whether it is to try to cure the cancer or to prevent or treat symptoms. In some ... itself. Because current treatments are very unlikely to cure advanced breast cancer, patients in otherwise good health are encouraged to ...

  15. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.C.; Lippman, M.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  16. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Cancer.gov

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  17. Etiology of breast cancer I. Genetic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Vakil, Damodar V.; Morgan, Robert W.

    1973-01-01

    The subject of breast cancer is reviewed with particular emphasis on the genetic aspect of its etiology. A number of studies using various approaches gave the same results: the familial form occurs earlier and there is a higher risk in female members of the breast-cancer families. An association between breast cancer and cancer of certain other sites among women is reported. Cytogenetic studies of cancer families revealed increased frequency of aneuploidy in some members. However, the role of chromosome abnormalities in carcinogenesis is still not clear. PMID:4577599

  18. [Breast tomosynthesis: a new tool for diagnosing breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Martnez Miravete, P; Etxano, J

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer continues to be the most common malignant tumor in women in occidental countries. Mammography is currently the technique of choice for screening programs; however, although it has been widely validated, mammography has its limitations, especially in dense breasts. Breast tomosynthesis is a revolutionary advance in the diagnosis of breast cancer. It makes it possible to define lesions that are occult in the glandular tissue and therefore to detect breast tumors that are impossible to see on conventional mammograms. In considering the combined use of mammography and tomosynthesis, many factors must be taken into account apart from cancer detection; these include additional radiation, the recall rate, and the time necessary to carry out and interpret the two tests. In this article, we review the technical principles of tomosynthesis, it main uses, and the future perspective for this imaging technique. PMID:24598575

  19. Male breast cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Fentiman, IS

    2009-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is rare, with the peak age of onset at 71 years. BRCA2 mutations are more frequent than BRCA1 with 20% of cases giving a family history. Risk factors for MBC are poorly understood and include working in high-ambient temperatures and exhaust fume exposure. MBC is associated with hyperoestrogenic states found in liver disease, Klinefelters syndrome, gonadal dysfunction or obesity. Most information on treatment of MBC is derived from large randomized trials carried out in female patients. The small numbers of MBC seen in any unit annually has precluded significant trials being carried out. Diagnosis and treatment of MBC is similar to that of female patients, but men tend to be treated with mastectomy rather than breast-conserving surgery. The mainstay of adjuvant therapy or palliative treatment for advanced disease is endocrine, mostly tamoxifen. Prognosis of male patients is equal to that of stage-matched women, but men tend to fare worse because of delay in presentation, leading to a large proportion of patients presenting with stage III or IV disease. Increased input is needed for psychological support for male breast cancer patients. Specific therapeutic questions about MBC need international trials to obtain meaningful answers. PMID:22276005

  20. Update on raloxifene: role in reducing the risk of invasive breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Victor G

    2011-01-01

    Risk factors allow us to define women who are at increased lifetime risk for breast cancer, and the most important factor is age. Benign breast disease increases risk, and the most important histologies are atypical lobular or ductal hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ. Family history of breast cancer among first-degree relatives (mother, sisters, daughters) also increases risk. Quantitative measures of risk give accurate predictions of breast cancer incidence for groups of women but not for individual subjects. Multiple published, randomized controlled trials, which employed selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulators (SERMs), have demonstrated consistent reductions of 35% or greater in the risk of ER-positive invasive and noninvasive breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Professional organizations in the US now recommend the use of SERMs to reduce the risk of breast cancer in high-risk, postmenopausal women. Raloxifene and tamoxifen reduce the risk of ER-positive invasive breast cancer with equal efficacy, but raloxifene is associated with a lower risk of thromboembolic disease, benign uterine conditions, and cataracts than tamoxifen in postmenopausal women. No evidence exists establishing whether a reduction in breast cancer risk from either agent translates into reduced breast cancer mortality. Overall quality of life is similar with raloxifene or tamoxifen, but the incidence of dyspareunia, weight gain, and musculoskeletal complaints is higher with raloxifene use, whereas vasomotor symptoms, bladder incontinence, gynecologic symptoms, and leg cramps were higher with tamoxifen use. PMID:24367182

  1. Phospho-TCTP as a therapeutic target of dihydroartemisinin for aggressive breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lucibello, Maria; Adanti, Sara; Antelmi, Ester; Dezi, Dario; Ciafr, Stefania; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Zonfrillo, Manuela; Nicotera, Giuseppe; Sica, Lorenzo; De Braud, Filippo; Pierimarchi, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Upregulation of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) is associated with poorly differentiated aggressive tumors, including breast cancer, but the underlying mechanism(s) are still debated. Here, we show that in breast cancer cell lines TCTP is primarily localized in the nucleus, mostly in the phosphorylated form. The effects of Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), an anti-malaria agent that binds TCTP, were tested on breast cancer cells. DHA decreases cell proliferation and induces apoptotic cell death by targeting the phosphorylated form of TCTP. Remarkably, DHA enhances the anti-tumor effects of Doxorubicin in triple negative breast cancer cells resulting in an increased level of apoptosis. DHA also synergizes with Trastuzumab, used to treat HER2/neu positive breast cancers, to induce apoptosis of tumor cells. Finally, we present new clinical data that nuclear phospho-TCTP overexpression in primary breast cancer tissue is associated with high histological grade, increase expression of Ki-67 and with ER-negative breast cancer subtypes. Notably, phospho-TCTP expression levels increase in trastuzumab-resistant breast tumors, suggesting a possible role of phospho-TCTP as a new prognostic marker. In conclusion, the anti-tumor effect of DHA in vitro with conventional chemotherapeutics suggests a novel therapeutic strategy and identifies phospho-TCTP as a new promising target for advanced breast cancer. PMID:25779659

  2. Genotype in BRCA-associated Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Gutierrez-Barrera, Angelica M.; Litton, Jennifer; Mellor-Crummey, Lauren; Ready, Kaylene; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana Maria; Lu, Karen H.; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Arun, Banu K.

    2015-01-01

    Women with BRCA1 or 2 mutations are at high risk for breast cancer. For BRCA1, a trend of increasing risk has been associated with increasing downstream (3′) location for mutations compared to the upstream (5′) mutations in the gene. For BRCA2, an increased risk of breast cancer has been associated with mutations outside of the ovarian cancer cluster region (OCCR). We sought to determine the mutation position in BRCA-associated breast cancers and whether or not there was a genotype-phenotype correlation. Breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2 mutations were identified by a search of a prospectively maintained data base. Mutation site, patient, and tumor characteristics were determined through retrospective review. One hundred and sixty-four patients with BRCA1-associated breast cancer and 109 patients with BRCA2-associated breast cancer were identified. Among patients with BRCA1-associated cancers, 86 (52%) had mutations in the 5′ half of the gene. Among patients with BRCA2-associated breast cancers, 40 (37%) had OCCR mutations. Although BRCA1-associated tumors were more likely to be ER/PR- than BRCA2-associated cancers (p < 0.0001), there was no difference in the tumor characteristics among BRCA1 or BRCA2-associated cancers based on mutation location. In this single-institution study, over half of BRCA1-associated and over a third of BRCA2-associated breast cancers were associated with putative lower risk mutations. Although we cannot exclude the possibility that mutations in these regions confer a lower relative risk for breast cancer, vigilance in cancer screening and prevention remains necessary. Further studies in genotype/phenotype correlation are needed to individualize prevention strategies. PMID:23231005

  3. Mitochondria and Familial Predisposition to Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Weigl, Stefania; Paradiso, Angelo; Tommasi, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome and functional alterations are related to various diseases including cancer. In all cases, the role of these organelles is associated with defects in oxidative energy metabolism and control of tumor-induced oxidative stress. The present study examines the involvement of mitochondrial DNA in cancer and in particular in breast cancer. Furthermore, since mitochondrial DNA is maternally inherited, hereditary breast cancer has been focused on. PMID:24179442

  4. Triple-negative breast cancer in West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Jame; Flanagan, Melina; Hazard, Hannah; Jubelirer, Steven; Tirona, Maria Tria; Vona-Davis, Linda

    2009-10-01

    In 2007, the American Cancer Society ranked West Virginia 43rd in breast cancer incidence rates for individual states. Despite our improvements in medical care, the advanced pathological characteristics of breast cancer at diagnosis receive little attention. Consequently, we compared the changing pattern of early breast cancer in several cohort studies conducted at regional medical centers in West Virginia. The data used in this analysis was derived from 320 women presenting at West Virginia University Hospital (WVUH) in Morgantown between 1999 and 2004, with a diagnosis of invasive breast cancer. Details of age, tumor size and axillary lymph node status were compared with tumor registry information published from a cohort study of 191 patients from the Charleston Area Medical Center (CAMC) between 1990 and 1991. Only histologically documented adenocarcinomas of the breast were included. Tumor size was characterized using the TNM system and staged according to AJCC criteria. For comparative purposes, details from the two regional centers were compared with tumor characteristics from a large longitudinal cohort of 2,484 breast cancers from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study. Baseline median age at diagnosis of women screened at WVUH was younger than patients at CAMC (52 vs. 60). Women diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer at WVUH and CAMC had similar age distributions. Within the triple-negative patients at WVUH, 44% of patients were less than 50 years of age and 20% were less than 40 years of age. At CAMC, 35% were less than 50 years of age and 7% were less than 40 years of age. For women at WVUH, 61.5% presented with T1 tumors compared to 65.5% at CAMC. These figures were lower than the WHI average of 80.3%. In contrast, more women presented with larger T2 tumors at our medical centers compared with the national study, 32.6% versus 17.4% respectively. At WVUH, 2.3% of women had T3 tumors (> or =5 cm) compared with 1% at CAMC. Similar to the WHI study, 35-42% of women at WVUH and CAMC were diagnosed at the T1c stage. Approximately, 30% were diagnosed with positive lymph nodes, compared to 23% in the national study. Combined breast cancer data from our medical centers show an increase in more advanced tumors and positive regional lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis compared to national reports. Other factors such as obesity, diabetes, poverty and access to mammography screening could be influencing the poorer outcomes for women with breast cancer in West Virginia. PMID:19999267

  5. Flax and Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Flower, Gillian; Fritz, Heidi; Balneaves, Lynda G; Verma, Shailendra; Skidmore, Becky; Fernandes, Rochelle; Kennedy, Deborah; Cooley, Kieran; Wong, Raimond; Sagar, Stephen; Fergusson, Dean; Seely, Dugald

    2013-09-01

    Background. Flax is a food and dietary supplement commonly used for menopausal symptoms. Flax is known for its lignan, ?-linolenic acid, and fiber content, components that may possess phytogestrogenic, anti-inflammatory, and hormone modulating effects, respectively. We conducted a systematic review of flax for efficacy in improving menopausal symptoms in women living with breast cancer and for potential impact on risk of breast cancer incidence or recurrence. Methods. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and AMED from inception to January 2013 for human interventional or observational data pertaining to flax and breast cancer. Results. Of 1892 records, we included a total of 10 studies: 2 randomized controlled trials, 2 uncontrolled trials, 1 biomarker study, and 5 observational studies. Nonsignificant (NS) decreases in hot flash symptomatology were seen with flax ingestion (7.5 g/d). Flax (25 g/d) increased tumor apoptotic index (P < .05) and decreased HER2 expression (P < .05) and cell proliferation (Ki-67 index; NS) among newly diagnosed breast cancer patients when compared with placebo. Uncontrolled and biomarker studies suggest beneficial effects on hot flashes, cell proliferation, atypical cytomorphology, and mammographic density, as well as possible anti-angiogenic activity at doses of 25 g ground flax or 50 mg secoisolariciresinol diglycoside daily. Observational data suggests associations between flax and decreased risk of primary breast cancer (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.69-0.97), better mental health (AOR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.05-2.94), and lower mortality (multivariate hazard ratio = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.50-0.95) among breast cancer patients. Conclusions. Current evidence suggests that flax may be associated with decreased risk of breast cancer. Flax demonstrates antiproliferative effects in breast tissue of women at risk of breast cancer and may protect against primary breast cancer. Mortality risk may also be reduced among those living with breast cancer. PMID:24013641

  6. Unique features of breast cancer in Asian women--breast cancer in Taiwan as an example.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Hung; Lu, Yen-Shen; Shen, Chen-Yang

    2010-02-28

    Breast carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in women and is known to arise from a multifactorial process, the effect of reproductive risk factors strongly supporting a hormonal role in its etiology. Breast cancer in Asia is characterized by a lower incidence than in Western populations, but is still the leading type of cancer in Asian women, and a significant increasing tread indicates that it is an issue of particular public health importance. Asian breast cancer is characterized by early tumor onset, showing a relatively younger median age at diagnosis. Recently, scientists began to explore the tumorigenic mechanisms underlying breast cancer formation at the molecular level. Both a candidate-gene approach and genome-wide association studies have yielded crucial insights into breast cancer susceptibility genes initiating breast tumorigenesis. As expected, ethnic/racial variation in the genotypic frequency of these genes results in differences in breast cancer incidence in different populations. Furthermore, the question of how important these genes are in Asian breast cancer remains to be explored. It has been demonstrated that gene expression profiles and gene sets are prognostic and predictive for patients with breast cancer. Originally, due to its early onset, it was speculated that Asian breast cancer would have a higher frequency of the basal-like subtype of breast cancer, a molecular subtype characterized by poor differentiation, resulting in a relatively poor progression; however, recent findings do not support this speculation. The frequency of the luminal-A subtype of breast cancer, characterized by estrogen receptor expression, is similar to that in breast cancer in Caucasian, supporting the usefulness of hormone-based therapy in Asian breast cancer. PMID:20045728

  7. Biological determinants of radiation-induced human breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Feig, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    This is the second in a three part series on the hypothetical risk from x-ray mammography. It will review those aspects of breast anatomy, histology, physiology, and pathology which are pertinent to radiation carcinogenesis. Radiation-induced breast cancers are histologically identical to the naturally occurring type in that they arise from the ductal epithelium and consist of a similar proportion of infiltrating and intraductal lesions. Possible explanations for the increased resistance to radiation effect in women over 30 years of age at time of exposure include regression of the glandular target tissue, hormonal changes, and parity. Examples of age-related sensitivity and hormonal dependence in other radiation-induced human and animal tumors will be discussed.

  8. MicroRNAs in breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Joy; Ahmad, Aamir; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common type of cancers as well as a principal cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although research has provided a better understanding and diagnosis of breast cancer, studies in breast cancer therapeutics are still far from satisfactory. Recent research on microRNAs (miRNAs) has implicated these tiny regulatory molecules in progression of breast cancer with the possibility of exploiting them as diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers. The loss of tumor suppressor miRNAs or overexpression of oncogenic miRNAs can lead to breast cancer tumorigenesis or metastasis. However, the next step - linking miRNAs to cancer therapeutics - is still under progression. The roles of miRNAs exhibit much potential in breast cancer therapy, but currently need to be further studied and evaluated in order to better understand how to apply laboratory results to clinical medicine. Here we provide an update on our current understanding of miRNAs as molecular targets for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of breast cancers. PMID:24479805

  9. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Inflammatory Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-07

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative

  10. Industrialization, electromagnetic fields, and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kheifets, L I; Matkin, C C

    1999-01-01

    The disparity between the rates of breast cancer in industrialized and less-industrialized regions has led to many hypotheses, including the theory that exposure to light-at-night and/or electromagnetic fields (EMF) may suppress melatonin and that reduced melatonin may increase the risk of breast cancer. In this comprehensive review we consider strengths and weaknesses of more than 35 residential and occupational epidemiologic studies that investigated the association between EMF and breast cancer. Although most of the epidemiologic data do not provide strong support for an association between EMF and breast cancer, because of the limited statistical power as well as the possibility of misclassification and bias present in much of the existing data, it is not possible to rule out a relationship between EMF and breast cancer. We make several specific recommendations for future studies carefully designed to test the melatonin-breast cancer and EMF-breast cancer hypotheses. Future study designs should have sufficient statistical power to detect small to moderate associations; include comprehensive exposure assessments that estimate residential and occupational exposures, including shift work; focus on a relevant time period; control for known breast cancer risks; and pay careful attention to menopausal and estrogen receptor status. PMID:10229714

  11. Breast Cancer in the Personal Genomics Era

    PubMed Central

    Ellsworth, Rachel E.; Decewicz, David J.; Shriver, Craig D.; Ellsworth, Darrell L.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a complex etiology that develops from different cellular lineages, progresses along multiple molecular pathways, and demonstrates wide variability in response to treatment. The standard of care approach to breast cancer treatment in which all patients receive similar interventions is rapidly being replaced by personalized medicine, based on molecular characteristics of individual patients. Both inherited and somatic genomic variation is providing useful information for customizing treatment regimens for breast cancer to maximize efficacy and minimize adverse side effects. In this article, we review (1) hereditary breast cancer and current use of inherited susceptibility genes in patient management; (2) the potential of newly-identified breast cancer-susceptibility variants for improving risk assessment; (3) advantages and disadvantages of direct-to-consumer testing; (4) molecular characterization of sporadic breast cancer through immunohistochemistry and gene expression profiling and opportunities for personalized prognostics; and (5) pharmacogenomic influences on the effectiveness of current breast cancer treatments. Molecular genomics has the potential to revolutionize clinical practice and improve the lives of women with breast cancer. PMID:21037853

  12. DDT, endocrine disruption and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Ana M.; Sonnenschein, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Developmental exposure to endocrine disruptors is suspected to be one of the main factors responsible for the increased incidence of breast cancer in industrialized countries. New data published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism show that exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane during fetal life is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. PMID:26239610

  13. Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR) Cohort

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR) Cohort is an international resource of multi-generational families, data, and biospecimens established in 1995 for interdisciplinary collaborative research on the genetic epidemiology of breast cancer. Questionnaire data, clinical data and (when available) biospecimens have been collected for over 30,000 women and men from nearly 12,000 families.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility
    Suzanne. E. Fenton
    US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  15. THE LONG ISLAND BREAST CANCER STUDY (LIBCSP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NIEHS and the NCI are collaborating on the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP), which is designed to conduct epidemiologic research on the role of environmental factors in the etiology of breast cancer in women who live in Nassau and Suffolk counties, New York. T...

  16. Palbociclib in Combination With Tamoxifen as First Line Therapy for Metastatic Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-27

    Hormone Receptor Positive Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Positive Tumor; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  17. Axillary skin malignancy: a rare breast cancer presentation.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Benjamin H; Malahias, Marco; El-Said, Tarek F A; Fahmy, Fahmy S

    2014-05-01

    A rise in incidence and decrease in mortality rates from breast cancer have lead to an increase in prevalence within developed countries. Presentation is classically with a palpable breast tissue mass that may metastasize to bone, lung, liver, brain, lymph nodes, and skin. We describe a delayed diagnosis, in an 80-year-old female patient, where, on 2 occasions, the primary initial presentation was with a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in the right axilla. It was not until the third referral, with an ipsilateral breast lump, that breast cancer was clinically diagnosed. This was histologically identified as the primary malignancy, most likely in-keeping with squamous cell carcinoma of the breast. This unique atypical presentation represents a diagnostic challenge and highlights a clinically relevant learning point that may avoid subsequent diagnostic delay. Cutaneous axillary lesions should be treated with a high index of suspicion, necessitating the requirement for chest examination because of the possible presence of an associated primary breast carcinoma. PMID:23241794

  18. The Changing World of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Christiane K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Compared with other fields of medicine, there is hardly an area that has seen such fast development as the world of breast cancer. Indeed, the way we treat breast cancer has changed fundamentally over the past decades. Breast imaging has always been an integral part of this change, and it undergoes constant adjustment to new ways of thinking. This relates not only to the technical tools we use for diagnosing breast cancer but also to the way diagnostic information is used to guide treatment. There is a constant change of concepts for and attitudes toward breast cancer, and a constant flux of new ideas, new treatment approaches, and new insights into the molecular and biological behavior of this disease. Clinical breast radiologists and even more so, clinician scientists, interested in breast imaging need to keep abreast with this rapidly changing world. Diagnostic or treatment approaches that are considered useful today may be abandoned tomorrow. Approaches that seem irrelevant or far too extravagant today may prove clinically useful and adequate next year. Radiologists must constantly question what they do, and align their clinical aims and research objectives with the changing needs of contemporary breast oncology. Moreover, knowledge about the past helps better understand present debates and controversies. Accordingly, in this article, we provide an overview on the evolution of breast imaging and breast cancer treatment, describe current areas of research, and offer an outlook regarding the years to come. PMID:26083829

  19. PAQR3 expression is downregulated in human breast cancers and correlated with HER2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenghu; Ling, Zhi-Qiang; Guo, Weiwei; Lu, Xiao-Xiao; Pan, Yi; Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Yan

    2015-01-01

    PAQR3 is a newly discovered tumor suppressor and its functional role in breast cancer has not been well characterized. We report here that PAQR3 is associated with the progression and survival of human patients with breast cancer, as well as cell proliferation and migration of human breast cancer cells. PAQR3 mRNA level was robustly downregulated in human breast cancer samples compared with their corresponding para-cancerous histological normal tissues (n = 82, P < 0.0001). The mRNA level of PAQR3 was negatively correlated with HER2 expression (P < 0.0001) and disease-free survival of the patients (P < 0.0001). PAQR3 overexpression inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation and migration of breast cancer cells including MCF7, SKBR3, MDA-MD-231, MDA-MD-468 and MDA-MD-453 cells. Knockdown of PAQR3 in MDA-MD-231 cells elevated cell proliferation and migration. Inhibition of HER2 by trastuzumab increased PAQR3 expression in SKBR3 cells. In conclusion, PAQR3 expression is frequently downregulated in human breast cancers inversely correlated with HER2 expression. PAQR3 is able to modulate the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. Our data indicate that PAQR3 functions as a tumor suppressor in the development of human breast cancers. PMID:25900239

  20. Claudin 1 in Breast Cancer: New Insights

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bowen; Moodie, Amanda; Blanchard, Anne A. A.; Leygue, Etienne; Myal, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Claudin 1 is a small transmembrane protein responsible for maintaining the barrier function that exists between epithelial cells. A tight junction protein that regulates the paracellular transport of small ions across adjacent cells, claudin 1 maintains cellular polarity and plays a major role in cell-cell communication and epithelial cell homeostasis. Long considered to be a putative tumor suppressor in human breast cancer, new studies suggest a role much more complex. While most invasive breast cancers exhibit a down regulation or absence of claudin 1, some aggressive subtypes that exhibit high claudin 1 levels have now been described. Furthermore, a causal role for claudin 1 in breast cancer progression has recently been demonstrated in some breast cancer cell lines. In this review we highlight new insights into the role of claudin 1 in breast cancer, including its involvement in collective migration and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). PMID:26633531

  1. Breast cancer detection using time reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh Sajjadieh, Mohammad Hossein

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death after lung cancer among women. Mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have certain limitations in detecting breast cancer, especially during its early stage of development. A number of studies have shown that microwave breast cancer detection has potential to become a successful clinical complement to the conventional X-ray mammography. Microwave breast imaging is performed by illuminating the breast tissues with an electromagnetic waveform and recording its reflections (backscatters) emanating from variations in the normal breast tissues and tumour cells, if present, using an antenna array. These backscatters, referred to as the overall (tumour and clutter) response, are processed to estimate the tumour response, which is applied as input to array imaging algorithms used to estimate the location of the tumour. Due to changes in the breast profile over time, the commonly utilized background subtraction procedures used to estimate the target (tumour) response in array processing are impractical for breast cancer detection. The thesis proposes a new tumour estimation algorithm based on a combination of the data adaptive filter with the envelope detection filter (DAF/EDF), which collectively do not require a training step. After establishing the superiority of the DAF/EDF based approach, the thesis shows that the time reversal (TR) array imaging algorithms outperform their conventional conterparts in detecting and localizing tumour cells in breast tissues at SNRs ranging from 15 to 30dB.

  2. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Epithelial cell monoculture: Long-term growth of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) grown in monoculture as 3-dimensional constructions in the presence of attachment beads in the NASA Bioreactor. A: A typical construct about 3.5 mm (less than 1/8th inch) in diameter with slightly dehydrted, crinkled beads contained on the surface as well as within the 3-dimensional structure. B: The center of these constructs is hollow. Crinkling of the beads causes a few to fall out, leaving crater-like impressiions in the construct. The central impression shows a small hole that accesses the hollow center of the construct. C: A closeup view of the cells and the hole the central impression. D: Closer views of cells in the construct showing sell-to-cell interactions. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  3. Breast Cancer After Chest Radiation Therapy for Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Chou, Joanne F.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Malhotra, Jyoti; Friedman, Danielle Novetsky; Mubdi, Nidha Z.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Stovall, Marilyn; Hammond, Sue; Smith, Susan A.; Henderson, Tara O.; Boice, John D.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Diller, Lisa R.; Bhatia, Smita; Kenney, Lisa B.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Begg, Colin B.; Robison, Leslie L.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The risk of breast cancer is high in women treated for a childhood cancer with chest irradiation. We sought to examine variations in risk resulting from irradiation field and radiation dose. Patients and Methods We evaluated cumulative breast cancer risk in 1,230 female childhood cancer survivors treated with chest irradiation who were participants in the CCSS (Childhood Cancer Survivor Study). Results Childhood cancer survivors treated with lower delivered doses of radiation (median, 14 Gy; range, 2 to 20 Gy) to a large volume (whole-lung field) had a high risk of breast cancer (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 43.6; 95% CI, 27.2 to 70.3), as did survivors treated with high doses of delivered radiation (median, 40 Gy) to the mantle field (SIR, 24.2; 95% CI, 20.7 to 28.3). The cumulative incidence of breast cancer by age 50 years was 30% (95% CI, 25 to 34), with a 35% incidence among Hodgkin lymphoma survivors (95% CI, 29 to 40). Breast cancerspecific mortality at 5 and 10 years was 12% (95% CI, 8 to 18) and 19% (95% CI, 13 to 25), respectively. Conclusion Among women treated for childhood cancer with chest radiation therapy, those treated with whole-lung irradiation have a greater risk of breast cancer than previously recognized, demonstrating the importance of radiation volume. Importantly, mortality associated with breast cancer after childhood cancer is substantial. PMID:24752044

  4. Trastuzumab Emtansine in Treating Older Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-26

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2 Positive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  5. GDC-0941 and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Androgen Receptor-Negative Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-17

    Estrogen Receptor Negative Breast Cancer; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  6. KeraStat Skin Therapy in Treating Radiation Dermatitis in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage 0-IIIA Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-28

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Skin Reactions Secondary to Radiation Therapy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  7. Gene expression in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaklamani, Virginia G; Gradishar, William J

    2006-03-01

    We now recognize that all breast cancers are not the same. Different characteristics in gene expression profiles result in differential clinical behavior. With the use of gene microarrays, different subtypes of breast cancer have been characterized. The basal subtype is characterized by high expression of keratins 5 and 17, laminin, and fatty acid-binding protein 7. The ERBB2+ subtype is characterized by high expression of genes in the ERBB2 amplicon. The luminal A subtype is characterized by the highest expression of the ER alpha gene. The luminal B and C subtypes have a lower expression of the ER cluster. The importance of these different subtypes lies in the fact that they differ in clinical outcome, with the basal and ERBB2+ subtypes having the worse prognosis and the luminal A group having the best prognosis. Different strategies for evaluating tumors in a clinical setting have been developed. Two such strategies are the 21-gene assay (Oncotype DX; Genomic Health, Redwood City, CA), which is currently in commercial use in the United States, and the 70-gene assay, which has been developed by a group in the Netherlands. These assays have been shown to predict clinical outcome and response to therapy. However, to date these gene assays have not been studied in a prospective manner. Over the next year, prospective clinical trials will be initiated using these predictive tools in the treatment of breast cancer. In the near future, clinical decisions will most likely be dictated by the genetic characteristics of the tumor, with the clinical characteristics becoming less important. Tailoring our treatment based on individual tumor characteristics will help us develop better therapeutic strategies and save many patients from receiving unnecessary toxic therapy. PMID:16455023

  8. Cancer and fertility preservation: fertility preservation in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Maltaris, Theodoros; Weigel, Michael; Mueller, Andreas; Schmidt, Marcus; Seufert, Rudolf; Fischl, Franz; Koelbl, Heinz; Dittrich, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    Aggressive chemotherapy has improved the life expectancy for reproductive-age women with breast cancer, but it often causes infertility or premature ovarian failure due to destruction of the ovarian reserve. Many questions concerning fertility preservation in breast cancer patients remain unanswered for example, whether fertility preservation methods interfere with chemotherapy, and whether subsequent pregnancy has negative effects on the prognosis. Fertility preservation is a critical factor in decision-making for younger breast cancer patients, however, and clinicians should address this. The present article reviews the incidence of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea, and discusses fertility-preservation options and the prognosis for patients who become pregnant after breast cancer. PMID:18492214

  9. DDT Exposure in Utero and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    La Merrill, Michele; Krigbaum, Nickilou Y.; Yeh, Gregory; Park, June-Soo; Zimmermann, Lauren; Cirillo, Piera M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Currently no direct evidence links in utero dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exposure to human breast cancer. However, in utero exposure to another xenoestrogen, diethylstilbestrol, predicts an increased breast cancer risk. If this finding extends to DDT, it could have far-reaching consequences. Many women were heavily exposed in utero during widespread DDT use in the 1960s. They are now reaching the age of heightened breast cancer risk. DDT exposure persists and use continues in Africa and Asia without clear knowledge of the consequences for the next generation. Hypothesis: In utero exposure to DDT is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Design: This was a case-control study nested in a prospective 54-year follow-up of 9300 daughters in the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort (n = 118 breast cancer cases, diagnosed by age 52 y and 354 controls matched on birth year). Setting and Participants: Kaiser Foundation Health Plan members who received obstetric care in Alameda County, California, from 1959 to 1967, and their adult daughters participated in the study. Main Outcome Measure: Daughters' breast cancer diagnosed by age 52 years as of 2012 was measured. Results: Maternal o,p′-DDT predicted daughters' breast cancer (odds ratio fourth quartile vs first = 3.7, 95% confidence interval 1.5–9.0). Mothers' lipids, weight, race, age, and breast cancer history did not explain the findings. Conclusions: This prospective human study links measured DDT exposure in utero to risk of breast cancer. Experimental studies are essential to confirm results and discover causal mechanisms. Findings support classification of DDT as an endocrine disruptor, a predictor of breast cancer, and a marker of high risk. PMID:26079774

  10. The role of oestrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer immunohistochemical evaluation of oestrogen and progesterone receptor expression in invasive breast cancer in women

    PubMed Central

    Patera, Janusz; Sobol, Maria; Przybylski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study Expression of oestrogen and progesterone receptors is a very powerful and useful predictor. Because the response rate to hormonal treatment in breast cancer is associated with the presence of oestrogen and progesterone receptors, assessment of the receptor expression profile allows for prediction of breast cancer response to hormonal treatment. The aim of this study was to assess whether the expression of receptors for oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) in the tumour tissue of patients with invasive breast cancer correlated with tumour histological type, histological grade of malignancy, tumour size, and lymph node status. Material and methods Materials consisted of histological preparations derived from patients treated for invasive breast cancer. Evaluations were conducted with histopathological and immunohistochemical methods using suitable antibodies. Results Among 231 cases of breast cancer 18 invasive lobular carcinomas (ILC) and 213 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC) were diagnosed. Taking the histological type of tumour into account, oestrogen receptor-positive reaction was observed in 74.2% of IDC and 77.8% of ILC, and the positive response to PR was observed in 67.1% of IDC and 61.1% of ILC. Considering the histological grade, ER- in the largest percentage (72%) was observed in second-grade (G2) invasive carcinomas. Similarly, PR expression (75%) was found in the largest percentage in second-grade (G2) carcinomas. Based on our own studies and data from literature, it appears that the ER (+) status is an indicator of good prognosis, because it points to a less aggressive cancer, in which overall survival and disease-free time is longer in comparison with ER () tumours. Conclusions Determination of ER status may, therefore, have significant clinical value and is widely used in routine pathological diagnostics. PMID:26557763

  11. Nutritional concerns of women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Monnin, S; Schiller, M R; Sachs, L; Smith, A M

    1993-01-01

    Health professionals should assess the nutrition information needs of women with breast cancer in order to provide appropriate services. Questionnaires were mailed to 143 Reach to Recovery volunteers who had had surgery for breast cancer, and 72% responded. The subjects were mostly concerned about and wanted information on diets for cancer prevention, low-fat diets, weight reduction, and vitamin supplements. Findings also showed the potential for excessive vitamin/mineral use among one-third of respondents and a tendency toward weight gain regardless of whether or not chemotherapy was received. The results provide direction for development of nutrition educational materials and programs for women with breast cancer. PMID:8489912

  12. Genomic similarities between breast and ovarian cancers

    Cancer.gov

    One subtype of breast cancer shares many genetic features with high-grade serous ovarian cancer, a cancer that is very difficult to treat, according to researchers supported by the National Institutes of Health. The findings suggest that the two cancers a

  13. Regional and racial disparities in breast cancer-specific mortality.

    PubMed

    Grann, Victor; Troxel, Andrea B; Zojwalla, Naseem; Hershman, Dawn; Glied, Sherry A; Jacobson, Judith S

    2006-01-01

    Where and how one lives is associated with cancer survival. This study was designed to assess geographical region of residence, race/ethnicity, and clinical and socioeconomic factors as predictors of survival in a population based cohort of women with breast cancer followed for up to 12 years. In a cohort of 218,879 breast cancer patients >20 years of age at diagnosis, registered in the database of the US National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program between 1990 and 2001, we analyzed the association of breast cancer-specific survival with SEER region; age; stage; histology; hormone receptor status; race/ethnicity; and census data on educational attainment, income, employment, and insurance coverage. We compared Kaplan-Meier survival curves by region and race/ethnicity. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to assess the association of mortality with region, race/ethnicity, and the other variables. Women who lived in Detroit had significantly higher mortality than those living in most other SEER regions. In most regions, black women had the poorest survival. The association of mortality with race did not differ significantly across regions, but it was significantly stronger among women 50-64 years of age than among women 65 and older. The SEER data document the association of breast cancer mortality with region, race, and socioeconomic status. Black race was a strong predictor of mortality in each region even after controlling for socioeconomic factors. The diminishing effect of race with age, which may only partially be explained by insurance in those over 65, suggests a need for research on the role of other factors, such as comorbid conditions or access to care, in breast cancer mortality. PMID:16051406

  14. Questionnaires in Identifying Upper Extremity Function and Quality of Life After Treatment in Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-24

    Musculoskeletal Complication; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Therapy-Related Toxicity

  15. Radiation-induced sarcoma of the breast in a female adolescent. Case report with histologic and therapeutic considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, R.; Bianchi, A.; Jakate, S.M.

    1988-06-15

    A 14-year-old girl developed a radiation-induced sarcoma of the left breast after successful combined surgical and radiation therapy of a left adrenal carcinoma when she was 9 months old. The breast lesion was histologically described as a stromal sarcoma with fibrosarcomatous and myxosarcomatous areas. The second primary lesion and local recurrence of this was treated with surgery. At each recurrence the tumor became more aggressive both clinically and histologically, and eventually proved fatal.

  16. Diabetes, diabetes treatment and breast cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Virnig, Beth; Hendryx, Michael; Wen, Sijin; Chelebowski, Rowan; Chen, Chu; Rohan, Tomas; Tinker, Lesley; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Lessin, Lawrence; Margolis, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to assess the impact of pre-existing diabetes and diabetes treatment on breast cancer prognosis. 8,108 women with centrally confirmed invasive breast cancer in the Womens Health Initiative diagnosed between 1998 and 2013 were followed through the date of death or September 20, 2013. Information on diabetes and diabetes therapy were obtained via self-report and face-to-face review of current medication containers, respectively. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate adjusted relative hazard ratios for overall mortality. The proportional subdistribution hazard model was used to estimate hazard ratios for breast cancer-specific mortality. Compared with women without diabetes, women with diabetes had significantly increased risk of overall mortality (HR 1.26 95 % CI 1.061.48), especially among those who took insulin or had longer duration of diabetes. However, diabetes was not associated with increased risk of breast cancer-specific mortality, regardless of type of treatment and duration of diabetes, despite the significant association of diabetes with unfavorable tumor characteristics. Our large prospective cohort study provides additional evidence that pre-existing diabetes increases risk of total mortality among women with breast cancer. The increased total mortality associated with diabetes was mainly driven by increased risk of dying from diseases other than breast cancer. Thus, the continuum of care for breast cancer patients with diabetes should include careful attention to CVD risk factors and other non-cancer conditions. PMID:25261292

  17. Breast Cancer Survivorship: Where Are We Today?

    PubMed

    Ganz, Patricia A; Goodwin, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and survivors with this diagnosis account for almost one fourth of the over 14 million cancer survivors in the US. After several decades of basic and clinical trials research, we have learned much about the heterogeneity of breast cancer and have evolved a complex and multidisciplinary treatment approach to the disease. Increasingly, we are paying attention to the long term and late effects of breast cancer treatment, and this is largely the subject of this volume. In this chapter, the authors introduce the topic of breast cancer survivorship and highlight the organization and content of this volume, briefly describing the contents of the subsequent chapters. PMID:26059925

  18. Cancer Stem Cells in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Ryou-u; Takeshita, Fumitaka; Fujiwara, Tomohiro; Ono, Makiko; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) theory is generally acknowledged as an important field of cancer research, not only as an academic matter but also as a crucial aspect of clinical practice. CSCs share a variety of biological properties with normal somatic stem cells in self-renewal, the propagation of differentiated progeny, the expression of specific cell markers and stem cell genes, and the utilization of common signaling pathways and the stem cell niche. However, CSCs differ from normal stem cells in their chemoresistance and their tumorigenic and metastatic activities. In this review, we focus on recent reports regarding the identification of CSC markers and the molecular mechanism of CSC phenotypes to understand the basic properties and molecular target of CSCs. In addition, we especially focus on the CSCs of breast cancer since the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy can lead to the enrichment of CSCs in patients with that disease. The identification of CSC markers and an improved understanding of the molecular mechanism of CSC phenotypes should lead to progress in cancer therapy and improved prognoses for patients with cancer. PMID:24212663

  19. Understanding Lymphedema (For Cancers Other Than Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Saved Articles » My ACS » Understanding Lymphedema: For Cancers Other Than Breast Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » Lymphedema can be caused ... Find Support Programs and Services in Your Area Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms ...

  20. Immune modulatory potentials of antineoplaston A-10 in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Badria, F; Mabed, M; El-Awadi, M; Abou-Zeid, L; Al-Nashar, E; Hawas, S

    2000-08-31

    Antineoplastons are naturally occurring cytodifferentiating agents. Chemically, they are medium and small sized peptides, amino acid derivatives and organic acids, which exist in blood, tissues and urine. Antineoplaston A-10 (3-phenylacetylamino-2,6-piperidinedione) is the first chemically identified antineoplaston. Previously we have shown a strong inverse association of urinary antineoplaston A-10 with breast cancer. This study is designed to evaluate neutrophil apoptosis in patients with breast cancer at time of diagnosis and to correlate urinary antineoplaston A-10 levels with neutrophil apoptosis and to describe the direct effect of A-10 in vitro on neutrophil apoptosis in breast cancer patients. The participants were patients with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer. Only those cases without previous treatment for breast cancer were included. Neutrophil apoptosis was assessed in breast cancer patients both morphologically and by DNA fragmentation and studied relative to healthy controls. Antineoplaston A-10 was measured using high performance liquid chromatography in urine samples collected from the patients. Urine samples from normal women served as controls. Direct effect of antineoplaston A-10 on neutrophil apoptosis was tested in vitro after adding A-10 at a concentration of 10 ng/ml to the cellular suspensions of breast cancer patients. Non-treated samples served as controls. Significantly higher neutrophil apoptosis levels were detected among patients with breast cancer with a P value <0.001. Urinary antineoplaston A-10 level is significantly negatively correlated with high apoptosis levels (P<0.0001). In vitro, antineoplaston A-10 was found to inhibit significantly the neutrophil apoptosis with a P value <0.0001. These findings confirm the presence of immune defects among patients with breast cancer and such results should stimulate the development of new strategies to induce and augment immunity for the treatment of breast cancer. Antineoplaston A-10 may provide rational basis for designing trials to employ its immune modulatory potentials as adjuvant therapy in breast cancer patients. PMID:10893443

  1. Main controversies in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zervoudis, Stephane; Iatrakis, George; Tomara, Eirini; Bothou, Anastasia; Papadopoulos, George; Tsakiris, George

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we have reviewed available evidence for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up in female breast cancer (BC). Into daily clinical practice some controversies are occurred. Especially, in the diagnosis field, despite the fact that the optimal age in which screening mammography should start is a subject of intense controversy, there is a shift toward the beginning at the age of 40 although it is suggested that the net benefit is small for women aged 40 to 49 years. In addition, a promising tool in BC screening seems to be breast tomosynthesis. Other tools such as 3D ultrasound and shear wave elastography (SWE) are full of optimism in BC screening although ultrasonography is not yet a first-line screening method and there is insufficient evidence to recommend the systemic use of the SWE for BC screening. As for breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), even if it is useful in BC detection in women who have a strong family history of BC, it is not generally recommended as a screening tool. Moreover, based on the lack of randomized clinical trials showing a benefit of presurgical breast MRI in overall survival, its integration into breast surgical operations remains debatable. Interestingly, in contrast to fine needle aspiration, core biopsy has gained popularity in presurgical diagnosis. Furthermore, after conservative surgery in patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes, the recent tendency is the shift from axillary dissection to axillary conserving strategies. While the accuracy of sentinel lymph node after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and second BC surgery remains controversial, more time is needed for evaluation and for determining the optimal interval between the two surgeries. Additionally, in the decision between immediate or delayed breast reconstruction, there is a tendency in the immediate use. In the prevention of BC, the controversial issue between tamoxifen and raloxifene becomes clear with raloxifene be more profitable through the toxicities of tamoxifen. However, the prevention of bone metastasis with bisphosphonates is still conflicting. Last but not least, in the follow-up of BC survivors, mammography, history and physical examination are the means of an early detection of BC recurrence. ed. PMID:25114851

  2. Par-4 prevents breast cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Hebbar, Nikhil; Shrestha-Bhattarai, Tripti; Rangnekar, Vivek M

    2013-01-01

    Therapy resistance and disease recurrence are two of the most challenging aspects in breast cancer treatment. A recent article in Cancer Cell makes a significant contribution toward a better understanding of this therapeutic problem by establishing downregulation of the tumor suppressor Par-4 as the primary determinant of breast cancer recurrence. This viewpoint brings forth the importance of their findings and its implications on future research and therapy. PMID:24164776

  3. Par-4 prevents breast cancer recurrence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Therapy resistance and disease recurrence are two of the most challenging aspects in breast cancer treatment. A recent article in Cancer Cell makes a significant contribution toward a better understanding of this therapeutic problem by establishing downregulation of the tumor suppressor Par-4 as the primary determinant of breast cancer recurrence. This viewpoint brings forth the importance of their findings and its implications on future research and therapy. PMID:24164776

  4. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanyuan; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and distant site metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer patients. There is increasing evidence supporting the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tumor cell progression, invasion, and metastasis. During the process of EMT, epithelial cancer cells acquire molecular alternations that facilitate the loss of epithelial features and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Such transformation promotes cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that EMT is associated with the increased enrichment of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and these CSCs display mesenchymal characteristics that are resistant to chemotherapy and target therapy. However, the clinical relevance of EMT in human cancer is still under debate. This review will provide an overview of current evidence of EMT from studies using clinical human breast cancer tissues and its associated challenges. PMID:26821054

  5. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanyuan; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and distant site metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer patients. There is increasing evidence supporting the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tumor cell progression, invasion, and metastasis. During the process of EMT, epithelial cancer cells acquire molecular alternations that facilitate the loss of epithelial features and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Such transformation promotes cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that EMT is associated with the increased enrichment of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and these CSCs display mesenchymal characteristics that are resistant to chemotherapy and target therapy. However, the clinical relevance of EMT in human cancer is still under debate. This review will provide an overview of current evidence of EMT from studies using clinical human breast cancer tissues and its associated challenges. PMID:26821054

  6. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cassano, E; Rizzo, S; Bozzini, A; Menna, S; Bellomi, M

    2006-01-01

    The importance of ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of breast cancer has been widely demonstrated. During the last few years, the introduction of ultrasound contrast media has been considered a promising tool for studying the vascular pattern of focal lesions within the breast. Our purpose was to assess whether contrast-enhanced (CE) ultrasound examination, performed using specific contrast imaging modes, can be helpful for detection and characterization of breast lesions, and for prediction of the response of breast cancer to therapy. PMID:16478698

  7. Adoption of Hypofractionated Whole-Breast Irradiation for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A National Cancer Data Base Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Elyn H.; Mougalian, Sarah S.; Soulos, Pamela R.; Rutter, Charles E.; Evans, Suzanne B.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Gross, Cary P.; Yu, James B.

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship of patient, hospital, and cancer characteristics with the adoption of hypofractionation in a national sample of patients diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study of breast cancer patients in the National Cancer Data Base from 2004-2011 who were treated with radiation therapy and met eligibility criteria for hypofractionation. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with receipt of hypofractionation (vs conventional fractionation). Results: We identified 13,271 women (11.7%) and 99,996 women (88.3%) with early-stage breast cancer who were treated with hypofractionation and conventional fractionation, respectively. The use of hypofractionation increased significantly, with 5.4% of patients receiving it in 2004 compared with 22.8% in 2011 (P<.001 for trend). Patients living ≥50 miles from the cancer reporting facility had increased odds of receiving hypofractionation (odds ratio 1.57 [95% confidence interval 1.44-1.72], P<.001). Adoption of hypofractionation was associated with treatment at an academic center (P<.001) and living in an area with high median income (P<.001). Hypofractionation was less likely to be used in patients with high-risk disease, such as increased tumor size (P<.001) or poorly differentiated histologic grade (P<.001). Conclusions: The use of hypofractionation is rising and is associated with increased travel distance and treatment at an academic center. Further adoption of hypofractionation may be tempered by both clinical and nonclinical concerns.

  8. Chemotherapy With or Without Trastuzumab After Surgery in Treating Women With Invasive Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-31

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Positive; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  9. Second breast cancers in a Tuscan case series: characteristics, prognosis, and predictors of survival

    PubMed Central

    Ciatto, S; Houssami, N; Martinelli, F; Bonardi, R; Cafferty, F H; Duffy, S W

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about long-term outcomes following a second breast cancer diagnosis. We describe the epidemiology, characteristics and prognosis of second breast cancers in an Italian cohort. We identified women with two breast cancer diagnoses from 24?278 histology records at a Tuscan breast cancer service between 1980 and 2005, and determined their survival status. Disease-specific survival from second diagnosis was examined using Cox regression analyses. Second cancers were identified in 1044 women with a median age of 60 years. In all 455 were ipsilateral relapses and 589 were contralateral cancers. Median time between first and second diagnosis was 63.4 months. The majority of second cancers was small invasive or in situ tumours. Estimated 10-year survival from a second cancer diagnosis was 78%. Survival was poorest when the second cancer was large (HR=2.26) or node-positive (HR=3.43), when the time between the two diagnoses was <5 years (HR=1.45), or when the diagnosis was in an earlier epoch (HR=2.20). Second tumours were more likely to be large or node-positive if the first breast cancer had these features. Prognosis following a second breast cancer in this cohort was generally good. However, large or node-positive second tumours, and shorter intervals between diagnoses were indicators of poorer survival. PMID:18628762

  10. Circulating testosterone and prostate-specific antigen in nipple aspirate fluid and tissue are associated with breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Edward R; Tichansky, David S; Chervoneva, Inna; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary evidence has associated testosterone and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) with breast cancer. Our objective was to determine whether a) testosterone levels in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF), serum, or breast tissue are associated with breast cancer; b) testosterone levels in serum are associated with levels in NAF; c) PSA in NAF, serum, or breast tissue is associated with breast cancer; and d) serum PSA is associated with NAF PSA levels. We obtained 342 NAF specimens from 171 women by means of a modified breast pump. Additionally, we collected 201 blood samples from 99 women and 51 tissue samples from 41 subjects who underwent surgical resection for suspected disease. Women currently using birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy were excluded from the study. Controlling for age and menopausal status, serum testosterone was significantly increased in women with breast cancer (p = 0.002). NAF and serum testosterone levels were not associated. Neither NAF nor tissue testosterone was associated with breast cancer. Controlling for menopausal status and age, NAF PSA was significantly decreased in women with breast cancer (p < 0.001). We did not find serum PSA to be associated with breast cancer, although we found an indication that, in postmenopausal women, its levels were lower in women with cancer. Serum PSA was associated with NAF PSA in postmenopausal women (p < 0.001). PSA levels in cancerous tissue were significantly lower than in benign breast specimens from subjects without cancer (p = 0.011), whereas levels of PSA in histologically benign specimens from subjects with cancer were intermediate. Our results suggest that serum testosterone is increased and NAF PSA is decreased in women with breast cancer, with PSA expression being higher in normal than in cancerous breast tissues. NAF and serum PSA levels in postmenopausal women are correlated, suggesting that as laboratory assessment of PSA becomes more sensitive, serum PSA may become useful in identifying women with breast cancer. PMID:11882474

  11. RECQL: a new breast cancer susceptibility gene.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Taraswi; Brosh, Robert M

    2015-11-17

    Identifying and characterizing novel genetic risk factors for BRCA1/2 negative breast cancers is highly relevant for early diagnosis and development of a management plan. Mutations in a number of DNA repair genes have been associated with genomic instability and development of breast and various other cancers. Whole exome sequencing efforts by 2 groups have led to the discovery in distinct populations of multiple breast cancer susceptibility mutations in RECQL, a gene that encodes a DNA helicase involved in homologous recombination repair and response to replication stress. RECQL pathogenic mutations were identified that truncated or disrupted the RECQL protein or introduced missense mutations in its helicase domain. RECQL mutations may serve as a useful biomarker for breast cancer. Targeting RECQL associated tumors with novel DNA repair inhibitors may provide a new strategy for anti-cancer therapy. PMID:26125302

  12. Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Ludman, Evette J.; Ichikawa, Laura E.; Simon, Gregory E.; Rohde, Paul; Arterburn, David; Operskalski, Belinda H.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Jeffery, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Obesity and depression may each be associated with less cervical and breast cancer screening. Studies have examined obesity or depression alone, but not together, despite the established link between them. Purpose To disentangle the effects of depression and obesity on receipt of breast and cervical cancer screening. Methods A stratified sampling design was used to recruit women aged 40–65 years with information on BMI from an integrated health plan in Washington in 2003–2005. A telephone survey included the PHQ-9 for depression, weight, and height. Automated data assessed Paps for 3097 women over a 3-year period and screening mammograms over a 2-year period for 2163 women aged ≥51 years. Logistic regression models (conducted in 2008) examined the association between obesity and depression and receipt of screening tests. Results In univariate logistic regression models, women were less likely to receive a Pap if they were obese (OR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.41–0.69) or depressed (OR = 0.60, 95% CI= 0.42–0.87). Women were less likely to receive a screening mammogram if they were depressed (OR = 0.45, 95% CI= 0.30–0.67). In multivariable models, only obesity remained significantly associated with lower likelihood of Pap screening (OR =0.67, 95% CI= 0.0.49–0.93) and only depression remained significantly associated with less screening mammography (OR =0.49, 95% CI 0.31–0.76). Obesity and depression did not interact significantly in either model. Conclusions Obesity and depression appear to have specific effects on receipt of different cancer screening tests. PMID:20171532

  13. Exercise Interventions in Breast Cancer Survivors - Office of Cancer Survivorship

    Cancer.gov

    Earlier studies have shown that women who are overweight at the time of breast cancer diagnosis are twice as likely to experience recurrence and death as lighter women. Additionally, women who gained weight (approximately 5 lbs.) after breast cancer diagnosis had a 60-percent increased risk of death compared to women who did not gain weight.

  14. Breast Cancer Basics and You: Introduction | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Basics and You: Introduction Past Issues / Spring - ... women, although male breast cancer is rare. The Breasts Inside a woman's breast are 15 to 20 ...

  15. Breast Cancer Basics and You | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Basics and You Past Issues / Summer 2014 ... women, although male breast cancer is rare. The Breasts Inside a woman's breast are 15 to 20 ...

  16. ?-Blockers Reduce Breast Cancer Recurrence and Breast Cancer Death: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Childers, W Kurtis; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Cheriyath, Pramil

    2015-12-01

    The normal physiologic stress mechanism, mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, causes a release of the neurotransmitters epinephrine and norepinephrine. Preclinical data have demonstrated an effect on tumor progression and metastasis via the sympathetic nervous system mediated primarily through the ?-adrenergic receptor (?-AR) pathway. Invitro data have shown an increase in tumor growth, migration, tumor angiogenesis, and metastatic spread in breast cancer through activation of the ?-AR. Retrospective cohort studies on the clinical outcomes of ?-blockers in breast cancer outcomes showed no clear consensus. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of ?-blockers on breast cancer outcomes. A systematic review was performed using the Cochrane library and PubMed. Publications between the dates of January 2010 and December 2013 were identified. Available hazard ratios (HRs) were extracted for breast cancer recurrence, breast cancer death, and all-cause mortality and pooled using a random effects meta-analysis. A total of 7 studies contained results for at least 1 of the outcomes of breast cancer recurrence, breast cancer death, or all-cause mortality in breast cancer patients receiving ?-blockers. In the 5 studies that contained results for breast cancer recurrence, there was no statistically significant risk reduction (HR, 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-1.13). Breast cancer death results were contained in 4 studies, which also suggested a significant reduction in risk (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.32-0.80). Among the 4studies that reported all-cause mortality, there was no significant effect of ?-blockers on risk (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.75-1.37). Results of this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that the use of ?-blockers significantly reduced risk of breast cancer death among women with breast cancer. PMID:26516037

  17. Pertuzumab for the treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lynce, Filipa; Swain, Sandra M

    2014-10-01

    HER2-targeted therapies have revolutionized the outcome of patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. Pertuzumab is the first in a new class of monoclonal antibodies that target the extracellular dimerization domain of HER2 receptors, also known as HER dimerization inhibitors. The development of pertuzumab and preclinical and clinical data in breast cancer are reviewed. Regulatory affairs related to pertuzumab and the recent accelerated approval granted by the FDA for the treatment of breast cancer in the neoadjuvant setting are also covered. This process opens doors for further approvals which could considerably shorten the time between initial drug development and availability. PMID:24921704

  18. Adjuvant Bisphosphonates and Breast Cancer Survival.

    PubMed

    Strobl, Stephanie; Korkmaz, Belgin; Devyatko, Yelena; Schuetz, Michael; Exner, Ruth; Dubsky, Peter C; Jakesz, Raimund; Gnant, Michael

    2016-01-14

    Randomized trials have studied bisphosphonates in the adjuvant setting of early breast cancer to investigate their ability to prevent treatment-induced bone loss. Trial results have also suggested their potential to prevent disease recurrence and metastases. These trials are summarized in this review. A recent patient-level meta-analysis by the Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (EBCTCG) finds convincing evidence that adjuvant antiresorptive treatments provide persistent benefits to breast cancer patients in low-estrogen situations and should be considered an important part of the treatment algorithm. PMID:26332000

  19. Older women, breast cancer, and social support

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Ellen G.; Aviv, Caryn; Ewing, Cheryl; Au, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Introduction One in ten women over the age of 65 will develop breast cancer. Despite this high incidence of breast cancer among older women, social support for them is often inadequate. This paper describes a qualitative study of the impact of a breast cancer diagnosis on older women from racially/ethnically diverse populations and their subsequent need for social support. Methods Forty-seven older African American, Asian American, Caucasian and Latina women between the ages of 65 to 83 participated in a larger study examining the impact of breast cancer on women from racially/ethnically diverse populations and the meaning and nature of social support. The women completed an in-depth qualitative interview on the psychosocial impact of breast cancer and the meaning and nature of social support. Results and Conclusion The results indicate that there are variations in reactions to a breast cancer diagnosis among older women, and that these reactions impact their experiences with seeking social support at diagnosis and during treatment. Respondents were concerned about their aging bodies, potential dependency on others, and loss of autonomy. At the same time, the severity of cancer treatment and existing co-morbidities often meant they needed to learn to receive support, and to reach out if they had no support. The implications of these findings underscore the older cancer patient’s need to strengthen her supportive networks at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and post-treatment. PMID:20967554

  20. Tamoxifen therapy in breast cancer control worldwide.

    PubMed Central

    Love, R. R.; Koroltchouk, V.

    1993-01-01

    In most developed and many developing countries, breast cancer is the most frequent cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among women. At least 50% of all breast cancer patients worldwide would survive longer, however, if public awareness about and early detection of the condition were increased and greater use were made of efficient treatment of proven value. With early-stage, localized breast cancer, local treatment combined with adjuvant hormonal therapy with tamoxifen, a synthetic estrogen, could save the lives of 6 women out of 100 compared with local treatment alone. Tamoxifen has anti-estrogenic effects not only on breast cancer cells but also on liver metabolism and bone, with concomitant decreases in risk factors for chronic skeletal and vascular system diseases. Long-term tamoxifen treatment causes major adverse clinical effects in < 5% of women; menopausal and vasomotor symptoms occur in the majority of treated women, but their severity lessens over time. Tamoxifen is being considered as a standard therapy and is included in the WHO list of essential drugs for the treatment of breast cancer patients in both developing and developed countries. For the control of breast cancer more successfully worldwide, one challenge is to make tamoxifen therapy available to greater numbers of women. PMID:8313498

  1. Autophagy and endocrine resistance in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Katherine L; Shajahan, Ayesha N; Clarke, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The American Cancer Society estimates that over 200,000 new breast cancer cases are diagnosed annually in the USA alone. Of these cases, the majority are invasive breast cancers and almost 70% are estrogen receptor-α positive. Therapies targeting the estrogen receptor-α are widely applied and include selective estrogen receptor modulators such as tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor downregulator such as Fulvestrant (Faslodex; FAS, ICI 182,780), or one of the third-generation aromatase inhibitors including letrozole or anastrozole. While these treatments reduce breast cancer mortality, many estrogen receptor-α-positive tumors eventually recur, highlighting the clinical significance of endocrine therapy resistance. The signaling leading to endocrine therapy resistance is poorly understood; however, preclinical studies have established an important role for autophagy in the acquired resistance phenotype. Autophagy is a cellular degradation process initiated in response to stress or nutrient deprivation, which attempts to restore metabolic homeostasis through the catabolic lysis of aggregated proteins, unfolded/misfolded proteins or damaged subcellular organelles. The duality of autophagy, which can be either pro-survival or pro-death, is well known. However, in the context of endocrine therapy resistance in breast cancer, the inhibition of autophagy can potentiate resensitization of previously antiestrogen resistant breast cancer cells. In this article, we discuss the complex and occasionally contradictory roles of autophagy in cancer and in resistance to endocrine therapies in breast cancer. PMID:21916582

  2. [Interval Breast Cancer with Neuroendocrine Differentiation].

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kenichi; Fujisaki, Shigeru; Adachi, Keita; Suzuki, Shuhei; Masuo, Yuki; Nagashima, Saki; Hara, Yukiko; Tomita, Ryouichi; Gonda, Kenji; Hirano, Tomohiro; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Amano, Sadao

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of interval breast cancer that was an invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast with neuroendocrine differentiation. The patient was a 66-year-old woman who had a breast lump. She had received breast cancer screening every other year. The last screening was 1 year and 6 months prior to diagnosis. A core needle biopsy for breast tumor led to a diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma. Breast conserving surgery plus sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed. The pathological diagnosis from the resected surgical specimen was invasive ductal carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation, positive for ER and PgR, and negative for HER2/neu protein expression. The surgical margins were negative, and there was no metastasis in the sentinel lymph node. She was administered radiation therapy and adjuvant endocrine therapy. Two years after surgery, she is well without metastasis. PMID:26805167

  3. Identification of genes involved in breast cancer and breast cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Apostolou, Panagiotis; Toloudi, Maria; Papasotiriou, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in women. Great progress has been made in its treatment but relapse is common. One hypothesis to account for the high recurrence rates is the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple malignant cell types. This study aimed to determine genes that are expressed in breast cancer and breast CSCs and to investigate their correlation with stemness. RNA was extracted from established breast cancer cell lines and from CSCs derived from five different breast cancer patients. DNA microarray analysis was performed and any upregulated genes were also studied in other cancer types, including colorectal and lung cancer. For genes that were expressed only in breast cancer, knockdown-based experiments were performed. Finally, the gene expression levels of stemness transcription factors were measured. The outcome of the analysis indicated a group of genes that were aberrantly expressed mainly in breast cancer cells with stemness properties. Knockdown experiments confirmed the impact of several of these on NANOG, OCT3/4, and SOX2 transcription factors. It seems that several genes that are not directly related with hormone metabolism and basic signal transduction pathways might have an important role in relapse and disease progression and, thus, can be targeted for new treatment approaches for breast cancer. PMID:26203276

  4. Identification of genes involved in breast cancer and breast cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Apostolou, Panagiotis; Toloudi, Maria; Papasotiriou, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in women. Great progress has been made in its treatment but relapse is common. One hypothesis to account for the high recurrence rates is the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple malignant cell types. This study aimed to determine genes that are expressed in breast cancer and breast CSCs and to investigate their correlation with stemness. RNA was extracted from established breast cancer cell lines and from CSCs derived from five different breast cancer patients. DNA microarray analysis was performed and any upregulated genes were also studied in other cancer types, including colorectal and lung cancer. For genes that were expressed only in breast cancer, knockdown-based experiments were performed. Finally, the gene expression levels of stemness transcription factors were measured. The outcome of the analysis indicated a group of genes that were aberrantly expressed mainly in breast cancer cells with stemness properties. Knockdown experiments confirmed the impact of several of these on NANOG, OCT3/4, and SOX2 transcription factors. It seems that several genes that are not directly related with hormone metabolism and basic signal transduction pathways might have an important role in relapse and disease progression and, thus, can be targeted for new treatment approaches for breast cancer. PMID:26203276

  5. Experts Issue Guidelines on Caring for Breast Cancer Survivors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 156087.html Experts Issue Guidelines on Caring for Breast Cancer Survivors New advisory comes from the American Cancer ... 2015 MONDAY, Dec. 7, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Battling breast cancer is tough, but survivors need care, too. Now, ...

  6. What Breast Cancer Survivors Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... docprint.focus(); */ } //--> Print-Friendly Page April 2015 The Impact of Breast Cancer The National Cancer Institute reports ... suggest that chemotherapy also may have a direct negative effect on bone. In addition, the breast cancer ...

  7. Metabolic profiling of breast cancer: Differences in central metabolism between subtypes of breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Willmann, Lucas; Schlimpert, Manuel; Halbach, Sebastian; Erbes, Thalia; Stickeler, Elmar; Kammerer, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    Although the concept of aerobic glycolysis in cancer was already reported in the 1930s by Otto Warburg, the understanding of metabolic pathways remains challenging especially due to the heterogeneity of cancer. In consideration of four different time points (1, 2, 4, and 7 days of incubation), GC-MS profiling of metabolites was performed on cell extracts and supernatants of breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, -453, BT-474) with different sub classification and the breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A. To the exclusion of trypsinization, direct methanolic extraction, cell scraping and cell disruption was executed to obtain central metabolites. Major differences in biochemical pathways have been observed in the breast cancer cell lines compared to the breast epithelial cell line, as well as between the breast cancer cell lines themselves. Characteristics of breast cancer subtypes could be correlated to their individual metabolic profiles. PLS-DA revealed the discrimination of breast cancer cell lines from MCF-10A based on elevated amino acid levels. The observed metabolic signatures have great potential as biomarker for breast cancer as well as an improved understanding of subtype specific phenomenons of breast cancer. PMID:26218769

  8. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase is expressed in different subtypes of human breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Chang, Y.; Astudillo, A.; Mortimer, J.; Deuel, T.F. . E-mail: tfdeuel@scripps.edu

    2007-06-29

    Pleiotrophin (PTN, Ptn) is an 18 kDa cytokine expressed in human breast cancers. Since inappropriate expression of Ptn stimulates progression of breast cancer in transgenic mice and a dominant negative PTN reverses the transformed phenotype of human breast cancer cells that inappropriately express Ptn, it is suggested that constitutive PTN signaling in breast cancer cells that inappropriately express Ptn activates pathways that promote a more aggressive breast cancer phenotype. Pleiotrophin signals by inactivating its receptor, the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP){beta}/{zeta}, and, recently, PTN was found to activate anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) through the PTN/RPTP{beta}/{zeta} signaling pathway in PTN-stimulated cells, not through a direct interaction of PTN with ALK and thus not through the PTN-enforced dimerization of ALK. Since full-length ALK is activated in different malignant cancers and activated ALK is a potent oncogenic protein, we examined human breast cancers to test the possibility that ALK may be expressed in breast cancers and potentially activated through the PTN/RPTP{beta}/{zeta} signaling pathway; we now demonstrate that ALK is strongly expressed in different histological subtypes of human breast cancer; furthermore, ALK is expressed in both nuclei and cytoplasm and, in the 'dotted' pattern characteristic of ALK fusion proteins in anaplastic large cell lymphoma. This study thus supports the possibility that activated ALK may be important in human breast cancers and potentially activated either through the PTN/RPTP{beta}/{zeta} signaling pathway, or, alternatively, as an activated fusion protein to stimulate progression of breast cancer in humans.

  9. Association between SIRT1 Gene Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer in Egyptians

    PubMed Central

    Rizk, Sherine M.; Shahin, Nancy N.; Shaker, Olfat G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is reported to cause the highest mortality among female cancer patients. Previous studies have explored the association of silent mating-type information regulator 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) gene expression with prognosis in breast cancer. However, no studies exist, so far, on the role of SIRT1 gene polymorphism in breast cancer risk or prognosis. The present study aimed to assess the association between SIRT1 gene polymorphisms and breast cancer in Egyptians. Methods The study comprised 980 Egyptian females divided into a breast cancer group (541 patients) and a healthy control group (439 subjects). SIRT1 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs3758391, rs3740051 and rs12778366 were genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Allelic and genotypic frequencies were determined in both groups and association with breast cancer and clinicopathological characteristics was assessed. Results Breast cancer patients exhibited elevated serum SIRT1 levels which varied among different tumor grades. SIRT1 rs3758391 and rs12778366 TT genotypes were more frequent, exhibited higher SIRT1 levels than CC and CT genotypes and were associated with histologic grade and lymph node status. SIRT1 rs12778366 TT genotype also correlated with negative estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) statuses. The T allele frequency for both SNPs was higher in breast cancer patients than in normal subjects. Combined GG and AG genotypes of rs3740051 were more frequent, showed higher serum SIRT1 levels than the AA genotype, and were associated with ER and PR expression. Furthermore, inheritance of the G allele was associated with breast cancer. Conclusions Our findings reveal that rs3758391 and rs12778366 polymorphisms of SIRT1 gene are associated with breast cancer risk and prognosis in the Egyptian population. PMID:26999517

  10. Classification of lung cancer histology by gold nanoparticle sensors

    PubMed Central

    Barash, Orna; Peled, Nir; Tisch, Ulrike; Bunn, Paul A.; Hirsch, Fred R.; Haick, Hossam

    2016-01-01

    We propose a nanomedical device for the classification of lung cancer (LC) histology. The device profiles volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace of (subtypes of) LC cells, using gold nanoparticle (GNP) sensors that are suitable for detecting LC-specific patterns of VOC profiles, as determined by gas chromatographymass spectrometry analysis. Analyzing the GNP sensing signals by support vector machine allowed significant discrimination between (i) LC and healthy cells; (ii) small cell LC and nonsmall cell LC; and between (iii) two subtypes of nonsmall cell LC: adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The discriminative power of the GNP sensors was then linked with the chemical nature and composition of the headspace VOCs of each LC state. These proof-of-concept findings could totally revolutionize LC screening and diagnosis, and might eventually allow early and differential diagnosis of LC subtypes with detectable or unreachable lung nodules. PMID:22033081

  11. Breast cancer characteristics-comparison of preoperative and postoperative values.

    PubMed

    Kolarik, Dusan; Pecha, Vaclav; Skovajsova, Miroslava; Zahumensky, Jozef; Trnkova, Marketa; Petruzelka, Lubos; Halaska, Michael; Sottner, Oldrich; Otcenasek, Michal; Kolarova, Hana

    2013-07-01

    Breast cancer characteristics obtained at the time of diagnosis are important for setting the basic strategy of the treatment. Reliability of preoperative investigation differs for various features of the disease. The aim of this study was to ascertain the agreements and differences between preoperative and postoperative values. This retrospective study analyzed the results of 617 women with primary surgery of the breast and axilla. Cohen's kappa coefficient has been employed to measure the degree of agreement between preoperative and postoperative values. Substantial or "almost perfect" agreement has been documented for the histological type of the tumors, their histopathological grade, proliferation index Ki67, as well as for estrogen, progesterone, and HER-2/neu receptors. Substantial differences exist between preoperative and postoperative diagnoses of invasiveness of the tumor, determination of the size of the tumors, and the number of tumor foci. Preoperative imaging and clinical examination of lymph nodes exhibited unacceptably high false negative rates. Heterogeneity of breast cancer cell population, methodology of histology examinations, and insufficient imaging of lymph nodes are the major limitations precluding satisfactory accuracy of preoperative diagnosis. Preoperatively diagnosed in situ carcinomas, as well as multifocal lesions, were the most often sources of diagnostic failures. PMID:23726929

  12. Perceived Versus Objective Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer Risk in Diverse Women

    PubMed Central

    Fehniger, Julia; Livaudais-Toman, Jennifer; Karliner, Leah; Kerlikowske, Karla; Tice, Jeffrey A.; Quinn, Jessica; Ozanne, Elissa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Prior research suggests that women do not accurately estimate their risk for breast cancer. Estimating and informing women of their risk is essential for tailoring appropriate screening and risk reduction strategies. Methods: Data were collected for BreastCARE, a randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate a PC-tablet based intervention providing multiethnic women and their primary care physicians with tailored information about breast cancer risk. We included women ages 4074 visiting general internal medicine primary care clinics at one academic practice and one safety net practice who spoke English, Spanish, or Cantonese, and had no personal history of breast cancer. We collected baseline information regarding risk perception and concern. Women were categorized as high risk (vs. average risk) if their family history met criteria for referral to genetic counseling or if they were in the top 5% of risk for their age based on the Gail or Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium Model (BCSC) breast cancer risk model. Results: Of 1,261 participants, 25% (N=314) were classified as high risk. More average risk than high risk women had correct risk perception (72% vs. 18%); 25% of both average and high risk women reported being very concerned about breast cancer. Average risk women with correct risk perception were less likely to be concerned about breast cancer (odds ratio [OR]=0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.20.4) while high risk women with correct risk perception were more likely to be concerned about breast cancer (OR=5.1; 95%CI=2.79.6). Conclusions: Many women did not accurately perceive their risk for breast cancer. Women with accurate risk perception had an appropriate level of concern about breast cancer. Improved methods of assessing and informing women of their breast cancer risk could motivate high risk women to apply appropriate prevention strategies and allay unnecessary concern among average risk women. PMID:24372085

  13. Computer-Aided Assessment of Tumor Grade for Breast Cancer in Ultrasound Images

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study involved developing a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for discriminating the grades of breast cancer tumors in ultrasound (US) images. Histological tumor grades of breast cancer lesions are standard prognostic indicators. Tumor grade information enables physicians to determine appropriate treatments for their patients. US imaging is a noninvasive approach to breast cancer examination. In this study, 148 3-dimensional US images of malignant breast tumors were obtained. Textural, morphological, ellipsoid fitting, and posterior acoustic features were quantified to characterize the tumor masses. A support vector machine was developed to classify breast tumor grades as either low or high. The proposed CAD system achieved an accuracy of 85.14% (126/148), a sensitivity of 79.31% (23/29), a specificity of 86.55% (103/119), and an AZ of 0.7940. PMID:25810750

  14. African American breast cancer survivors participating in a breast cancer support group: Translating research into practice

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Anjanette A.; Gulbas, Lauren; Sanders-Thompson, Vetta; Shon, En-Jung; Kreuter, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite an overall decline in mortality, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death among African American women. As such, clinicians should prepare to address the unique sociocultural and psychological concerns encountered by African American women breast cancer survivors. Objective To examine, using qualitative methods, the main coping facilitators used by African American women as they transition across the cancer continuum. The identification of these facilitators was then aligned with culturally sensitive interventions most useful with women coping with cancer, along the cancer continuum. Methods This was a secondary analysis of 20 video-taped stories of African American breast cancer survivors collected as a part of the Washington University Center for Excellence in Cancer Communications project. The interview began with a discussion of how the survivor first became aware she had breast cancer, followed by a series of open-ended probes used to explore the following themes: coping, relationships, health care system experiences, follow up care, and quality of life living with breast cancer. Results Survivors discussed their experiences and advice for targeting needs at each cancer stage, from screening to diagnosis, treatment, and then survivorship. Survivor narratives point to key evidence-based clinical intervention strategies at each stage of the cancer trajectory. Conclusion This study found that survivors see a cyclical cancer course, whereby African American breast cancer survivors serve an important role in the lives of unscreened women, newly diagnosed women, and women in treatment. PMID:24326669

  15. A Radial Sclerosing Lesion Mimicking Breast Cancer on Mammography in a Young Woman

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Masashi; Taira, Naruto; Iha, Shigemichi; Nogami, Tomohiro; Shien, Tadahiko; Omori, Masako; Doihara, Hiroyoshi

    2012-01-01

    A spiculated mass on a mammogram is highly suggestive of malignancy. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with a radial sclerosing lesion that mimicked breast cancer on mammography. She visited her physician after palpating a lump in her left breast. Mammography showed architectural distortion in the upper inner quadrant of the left breast. Ultrasonography showed a low echoic area with an ambiguous boundary. Core needle biopsy was performed because of the suspicion of malignancy. Histological examination did not reveal any malignant cells. After 6 months, the breast lump became larger and the patient was referred to our hospital. Mammography performed in our hospital showed a spiculated mass, and therefore mammotome biopsy was performed. Histological examination revealed dense fibroelastic stroma with a wide variety of mastopathic changes, leading to a diagnosis of a radial sclerosing lesion. One year after the biopsy, the lump on her left breast had disappeared and mammography showed no spiculated mass. PMID:22539921

  16. Gamma-secretase/Notch Signalling Pathway Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating Patients With Advanced, Metastatic, or Recurrent Triple Negative Invasive Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-09

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  17. Physical activity and breast cancer survivorship.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    A diagnosis of breast cancer is associated with treatments that have physiologic effects beyond the intended curative therapy. The first section of this chapter provides and integrative physiology review of the effects of breast cancer treatment on the body systems used by and affected by physical activity, including effects of chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. In later sections, we review the literature on physical activity and breast cancer from the point of diagnosis and for the balance of life. The efficacy of physical activity for supportive cancer care outcomes is reviewed separately from the purported usefulness of physical activity for disease-free and overall survival from breast cancer. The current evidence supports the safety of physical activity during and after breast cancer therapy. The supportive cancer care outcomes for which there is sufficient evidence of efficacy during and after breast cancer treatment include fitness, fatigue, body size, and quality of life. Further, there is growing evidence that upper body exercise does not pose additional risk for negative lymphedema outcomes among survivors with and at risk for lymphedema. For overall survival, the evidence is largely observational, with sufficient evidence that physical activity does confer benefit. Finally, we outline future directions for research on physical activity among breast cancer survivors, including expanding to focus on subsets of the population not included in most prior studies (minority women and older women), tailoring of interventions to stages of cancer most likely to benefit, expanding to study women with metastatic cancer, and new modes of exercise, such as team sports, martial arts, and Pilates. PMID:21113765

  18. Breast Cancer Risk Reduction, Version 2.2015.

    PubMed

    Bevers, Therese B; Ward, John H; Arun, Banu K; Colditz, Graham A; Cowan, Kenneth H; Daly, Mary B; Garber, Judy E; Gemignani, Mary L; Gradishar, William J; Jordan, Judith A; Korde, Larissa A; Kounalakis, Nicole; Krontiras, Helen; Kumar, Shicha; Kurian, Allison; Laronga, Christine; Layman, Rachel M; Loftus, Loretta S; Mahoney, Martin C; Merajver, Sofia D; Meszoely, Ingrid M; Mortimer, Joanne; Newman, Lisa; Pritchard, Elizabeth; Pruthi, Sandhya; Seewaldt, Victoria; Specht, Michelle C; Visvanathan, Kala; Wallace, Anne; Bergman, Mary Ann; Kumar, Rashmi

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in women in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. To assist women who are at increased risk of developing breast cancer and their physicians in the application of individualized strategies to reduce breast cancer risk, NCCN has developed these guidelines for breast cancer risk reduction. PMID:26150582

  19. New targeted therapies for breast cancer: A focus on tumor microenvironmental signals and chemoresistant breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kamdje, Armel Hervé Nwabo; Etet, Paul Faustin Seke; Vecchio, Lorella; Tagne, Richard Simo; Amvene, Jeremie Mbo; Muller, Jean-Marc; Krampera, Mauro; Lukong, Kiven Erique

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent female malignancy worldwide. Current strategies in breast cancer therapy, including classical chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and targeted therapies, are usually associated with chemoresistance and serious adverse effects. Advances in our understanding of changes affecting the interactome in advanced and chemoresistant breast tumors have provided novel therapeutic targets, including, cyclin dependent kinases, mammalian target of rapamycin, Notch, Wnt and Shh. Inhibitors of these molecules recently entered clinical trials in mono- and combination therapy in metastatic and chemo-resistant breast cancers. Anticancer epigenetic drugs, mainly histone deacetylase inhibitors and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors, also entered clinical trials. Because of the complexity and heterogeneity of breast cancer, the future in therapy lies in the application of individualized tailored regimens. Emerging therapeutic targets and the implications for personalized-based therapy development in breast cancer are herein discussed. PMID:25516852

  20. Inequalities in breast cancer care and outcome.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, M.; Sainsbury, R.; Kerr, D.

    1997-01-01

    Comparisons across Europe suggest that survival from breast cancer is less good in the United Kingdom than in many countries. The care given in some UK breast cancer units is exemplary. However, it is difficult to escape the conclusion that a substantial number of women who present with breast cancer receive suboptimal care. Cancer registry-based studies have clearly demonstrated variations between surgeons and between hospitals in the management of early breast cancer. Although variations in surgical practice per se may have little impact on survival, there is evidence that differences in the use of systemic adjuvant therapy influence outcome. Five-year survival seems to be greater in women treated by surgeons seeing more than 30-50 new cases of breast cancer each year. This may be because such patients are more likely to be treated by a multidisciplinary team and to receive adjuvant therapy. Proposals that would increase the overall quality of breast cancer care and remove current inequalities must be carefully considered and should then be implemented. PMID:9303363

  1. DNA Repair and Personalized Breast Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu-Xia; Sjolund, Ashley; Harris, Lyndsay; Sweasy, Joann B.

    2010-01-01

    Personalized cancer therapy is likely to be one of the next big advances in our search for a cure for cancer. To be able to treat people in an individualized manner, researchers need to know a great deal about their genetic constitution and the DNA repair status of their tumors. Specific knowledge is required regarding the polymorphisms individuals carry and how these polymorphisms influence responses to therapy. Researchers are actively engaged in biomarker discovery and validation for this purpose. In addition, the design of clinical trials must be reassessed to include new information on biomarkers and drug responses. In this review, we focus on personalized breast cancer therapy. The hypothesis we focus upon in this review is that there is connection between the DNA repair profile of individuals, their breast tumor subtypes, and their responses to cancer therapy. We first briefly review cellular DNA repair pathways that are likely to be impacted by breast cancer therapies. Next, we review the phenotypes of breast tumor subtypes with an emphasis on how a DNA repair deficiency might result in tumorigenesis itself and lead to the chemotherapeutic responses that are observed. Specific examples of breast tumor subtypes and their responses to cancer therapy are given, and we discuss possible DNA repair mechanisms that underlie the responses of tumors to various chemotherapeutic agents. Much is known about breast cancer subtypes and the way each of these subtypes responds to chemotherapy. In addition, we discuss novel design of clinical trials that incorporates rapidly emerging information on biomarkers. PMID:20872853

  2. Squamoid features and expression of involucrin in primary breast carcinoma associated with high histological grade, tumour cell necrosis and recurrence sites.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, H.; Sakamaki, C.; Fukutomi, T.; Hirohashi, S.

    1997-01-01

    Although breast carcinomas are considered to originate from glandular epithelial cells, some exhibit 'squamoid features', comprising stratification with a gradient in the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio within individual cancer cell nests on microscopy. In parallel with a histological review of squamoid features, we immunohistochemically investigated the expression of involucrin, a marker of terminal squamous differentiation, in 223 breast carcinomas with one to three regional nodal metastases but no distant metastases and analysed their association with other clinicopathological parameters to explore their clinical and biological implications. Squamoid features and involucrin expression, detected in 22% and 27% of cases respectively, correlated with each other and were associated with high-grade atypia, a solid-nest pattern, cancer cell necrosis on histology and negative oestrogen receptor status. The incidence of regional recurrences was higher in patients with involucrin expression, whereas bone metastases were less frequent in groups with squamoid features or with diffuse (> or = 10%) involucrin expression. Both squamoid features and involucrin expression, which were considered to be derived either from differentiation into keratinocytes or from some kind of cellular degeneration caused by high turnover rate, are suggested to influence the biological behaviour of breast cancer cells in vivo, and they may be effective in predicting the most likely recurrence sites. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9166948

  3. Optical imaging for breast cancer prescreening

    PubMed Central

    Godavarty, Anuradha; Rodriguez, Suset; Jung, Young-Jin; Gonzalez, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer prescreening is carried out prior to the gold standard screening using X-ray mammography and/or ultrasound. Prescreening is typically carried out using clinical breast examination (CBE) or self-breast examinations (SBEs). Since CBE and SBE have high false-positive rates, there is a need for a low-cost, noninvasive, non-radiative, and portable imaging modality that can be used as a prescreening tool to complement CBE/SBE. This review focuses on the various hand-held optical imaging devices that have been developed and applied toward early-stage breast cancer detection or as a prescreening tool via phantom, in vivo, and breast cancer imaging studies. Apart from the various optical devices developed by different research groups, a wide-field fiber-free near-infrared optical scanner has been developed for transillumination-based breast imaging in our Optical Imaging Laboratory. Preliminary in vivo studies on normal breast tissues, with absorption-contrasted targets placed in the intramammary fold, detected targets as deep as 8.8 cm. Future work involves in vivo imaging studies on breast cancer subjects and comparison with the gold standard X-ray mammography approach. PMID:26229503

  4. Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Screening Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vahabi, Mandana

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess young women's breast health knowledge and explore its relation to the use of screening mammography. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women aged 25-45 residing in Toronto, Canada, with no history of breast cancer and mammography received an information brochure and four questionnaires which assessed their knowledge of

  5. Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Screening Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vahabi, Mandana

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess young women's breast health knowledge and explore its relation to the use of screening mammography. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women aged 25-45 residing in Toronto, Canada, with no history of breast cancer and mammography received an information brochure and four questionnaires which assessed their knowledge of…

  6. Biostereometric analysis for breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Proietti-Orlandi, F; Varga, R S; Sheffer, D B; Price, T E; Loughry, C W

    1988-05-01

    A measurement technique has been developed for noninvasive breast cancer detection. The process involves the use of close-range stereophotogrammetry as a data acquisition device for the determination of breast surface concavities. We report the methodology used to detect these surface depressions, the rationale for the study, and our preliminary findings. PMID:3392975

  7. Breast cancer and sexual function.

    PubMed

    Boswell, Erica N; Dizon, Don S

    2015-04-01

    As the most common malignancy affecting women within the United States, breast cancer can bring about multiple physical and psychological challenges. Among the greatest challenges are those associated with female sexual function. Chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, surgeries and radiation can all have a large effect in altering a woman's sexual health and function. Sexual concerns result in significant emotional distress, including sadness/depression, issues related to personal appearance, stigma, and negative impacts on personal relationships. In this article, we discuss some of the specific challenges that present with each type of treatment and the socio-physical impact they have on survivorship. Among the most detrimental to sexual function, are the use of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy. Additionally, anatomical changes that transpire in patients who have undergone surgery or radiation therapy (RT), disrupt perceptions of body image. Here we will discuss and also review the contemporary literature to determine effective management and treatment of sexual dysfunction. PMID:26816822

  8. Breast cancer and sexual function

    PubMed Central

    Boswell, Erica N.

    2015-01-01

    As the most common malignancy affecting women within the United States, breast cancer can bring about multiple physical and psychological challenges. Among the greatest challenges are those associated with female sexual function. Chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, surgeries and radiation can all have a large effect in altering a woman’s sexual health and function. Sexual concerns result in significant emotional distress, including sadness/depression, issues related to personal appearance, stigma, and negative impacts on personal relationships. In this article, we discuss some of the specific challenges that present with each type of treatment and the socio-physical impact they have on survivorship. Among the most detrimental to sexual function, are the use of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy. Additionally, anatomical changes that transpire in patients who have undergone surgery or radiation therapy (RT), disrupt perceptions of body image. Here we will discuss and also review the contemporary literature to determine effective management and treatment of sexual dysfunction. PMID:26816822

  9. Cryotherapy in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy and Nail Toxicity in Patients With Breast Cancer Who Are Receiving Paclitaxel

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-26

    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Pain; Peripheral Neuropathy; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Therapy-related Toxicity

  10. [CHEK2-mutation in Dutch breast cancer families: expanding genetic testing for breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Adank, Muriel A; Hes, Frederik J; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A G; van den Tol, M Petrousjka; Seynaeve, Caroline; Oosterwijk, Jan C

    2015-01-01

    In the majority of breast cancer families, DNA testing does not show BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and the genetic cause of breast cancer remains unexplained. Routine testing for the CHEK2*1100delC mutation has recently been introduced in breast cancer families in the Netherlands. The 1100delC mutation in the CHEK2-gene may explain the occurrence of breast cancer in about 5% of non-BRCA1/2 families in the Netherlands. In the general population the CHEK2*1100delC mutation confers a slightly increased breast cancer risk, but in a familial breast cancer setting this risk is between 35-55% for first degree female carriers. Female breast cancer patients with the CHEK2*1100delC mutation are at increased risk of contralateral breast cancer and may have a less favourable prognosis. Female heterozygous CHEK2*1100delC mutation carriers are offered annual mammography and specialist breast surveillance between the ages of 35-60 years. Prospective research in CHEK2-positive families is essential in order to develop more specific treatment and screening strategies. PMID:26332814

  11. Histology, composition, and quality traits of chicken Pectoralis major muscle affected by wooden breast abnormality.

    PubMed

    Soglia, F; Mudalal, S; Babini, E; Di Nunzio, M; Mazzoni, M; Sirri, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2016-03-01

    Only a few years ago, the poultry industry began to face a recent abnormality in breast meat, known as wooden breast, which frequently overlaps with white striping. This study aimed to assess the impact of wooden breast abnormality on quality traits of meat. For this purpose, 32 normal (NRM), 32 wooden (WB), and 32 wooden and white-striped (WB/WS) Pectoralis major muscles were selected from the same flock of heavy broilers (males, Ross 708, weighing around 3.7 kg) in the deboning area of a commercial processing plant at 3 h postmortem and used to assess histology, proximate (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and collagen) and mineral composition (Mg, K, P, Na and Ca), sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein patterns, and technological traits of breast meat. Compared to the normal group, WB/WS fillets showed more severe histological lesions characterized by fiber degeneration, fibrosis, and lipidosis, coupled with a significantly harder texture. With regard to proximate and mineral composition, abnormal samples exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher moisture, fat, and collagen contents coupled with lower (P < 0.001) amounts of protein and ash. Furthermore, increased calcium (131 vs. 84 mg kg(-1); P < 0.05) and sodium (741 vs. 393 mg kg(-1); P < 0.001) levels were found in WB/WS meat samples. The SDS-PAGE analysis revealed a significantly lower amount of calcium-ATPase (SERCA, 114 kDa), responsible for the translocation of Ca ions across the membrane, in normal breasts compared to abnormal ones. As for meat quality traits, fillets affected by wooden abnormality exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher ultimate pH and lower water-holding/water-binding capacity. In particular, compared to normal, abnormal samples showed reduced marinade uptake coupled with increased drip loss and cooking losses as well. In conclusion, this study revealed that meat affected by wooden breast or both wooden breast and white striping abnormalities exhibit poorer nutritional value, harder texture, and impaired water-holding capacity. PMID:26706363

  12. ALND for Women with Breast Cancer Micrometastases

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from a randomized clinical trial that compared axillary lymph node dissection versus no axillary lymph node dissection in women with breast cancer and only micrometastases in their sentinel lymph nodes.

  13. Optical Microscope Software for Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers at NCI have developed computer software able to analyze optical microscopic images of human breast tissue sections for diagnosing cancer by using the differences in spatial positioning of certain genes.

  14. Breast cancer subtypes: morphologic and biologic characterization.

    PubMed

    Masood, Shahla

    2016-01-01

    Advances in basic science, technology and translational research have created a revolution in breast cancer diagnosis and therapy. Researchers' discoveries of genes defining variability in response to therapy and heterogeneity in clinical presentations and tumor biology are the foundation of the path to personalized medicine. The success of personalized breast cancer care depends on access to pertinent clinical information and risk factors, optimal imaging findings, well-established morphologic features, and traditional and contemporary prognostic/predictive testing. The integration of these entities provides an opportunity to identify patients who can benefit from specific therapies, and demonstrates the link between breast cancer subtypes and their association with different tumor biology. It is critical to recognize specific types of breast cancer in individual patients and design optimal personalized therapy. This article will highlight the roles of morphologic features and established tumor biomarkers on patient outcome. PMID:26756229

  15. Overactive Thyroid Linked to Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... women with the opposite problem -- a condition called hypothyroidism, where abnormally low levels of thyroid hormones are ... News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Breast Cancer Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  16. Adjuvant Bisphosphonates for Postmenopausal Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of a meta-analysis of randomized trials of bisphosphonates as adjuvant therapy for women with early-stage breast cancer that shows the drugs can reduce the rate of disease recurrence in bone.

  17. Bringing Breast Cancer Technologies to Market | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    CCR research is recognized in novel competition to encourage the commercialization of breast cancer inventions. Editor’s note: This article was originally published in CCR Connections (Volume 8, No. 1). The Breast Cancer Startup Challenge was named one of six finalists in the HHS Innovates Award Competition, and was one of three finalists recognized by HHS Secretary Sylvia Mathews Burwell and Deputy Secretary Bill Corr. For more information on the Challenge, see previous article on the Poster website.  Start-up companies are instrumental in bringing the fruits of scientific research to market. Recognizing an opportunity to bring entrepreneurial minds to bear on the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, the Avon Foundation for Women partnered with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation to launch the Breast Cancer Startup Challenge.

  18. Developing phytoestrogens for breast cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mandy M; Huang, Ying; Wang, Jeffrey

    2012-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in women, and is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Chemoprevention using phytoestrogens (PEs) for breast cancer may be a valid strategy. PEs are phytochemicals with estrogen-like structures and can be classified into four types: isoflavones, lignans, stilbenes and coumestans. They are widely distributed in diet and herbs and have shown anti-cancer activity via mechanisms including estrogen receptor modulation, aromatase inhibition, and anti-angiogenesis. Genistein, daidzein and resveratrol are some of the most studied PE examples. Quality control in product manufacturing and clinical study design is a critical issue in developing them as clinically effective chemopreventive agents for breast cancer. PMID:22583409

  19. Targeting SH2 domains in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morlacchi, Pietro; Robertson, Fredika M; Klostergaard, Jim; McMurray, John S

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is among the most commonly diagnosed cancer types in women worldwide and is the second leading cause of cancer-related disease in the USA. SH2 domains recruit signaling proteins to phosphotyrosine residues on aberrantly activated growth factor and cytokine receptors and contribute to cancer cell cycling, metastasis, angiogenesis and so on. Herein we review phosphopeptide mimetic and small-molecule approaches targeting the SH2 domains of Grb2, Grb7 and STAT3 that inhibit their targets and reduce proliferation in in vitro breast cancer models. Only STAT3 inhibitors have been evaluated in in vivo models and have led to tumor reduction. Taken together, these studies suggest that targeting SH2 domains is an important approach to the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25495984

  20. Ovarian stimulation in patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Muoz, Elkin; Gonzlez, Naira; Muoz, Luis; Aguilar, Jess; Velasco, Juan A Garca

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy among women under 50. Improvements in diagnosis and treatment have yielded an important decrease in mortality in the last 20 years. In many cases, chemotherapy and radiotherapy develop side effects on the reproductive function. Therefore, before the anti-cancer treatment impairs fertility, clinicians should offer some techniques for fertility preservation for women planning motherhood in the future. In order to obtain more available oocytes for IVF, the ovary must be stimulated. New protocols which prevent exposure to increased estrogen during gonadotropin stimulation, measurements to avoid the delay in starting anti-cancer treatment or the outcome of ovarian stimulation have been addressed in this review. There is no evidence of association between ovarian stimulation and breast cancer. It seems that there are more relevant other confluent factors than ovarian stimulation. Factors that can modify the risk of breast cancer include: parity, age at full-term birth, age of menarche, and family history. There is an association between breast cancer and exogenous estrogen. Therefore, specific protocols to stimulate patients with breast cancer include anti-estrogen agents such as letrozole. By using letrozole plus recombinant follicular stimulating hormone, patients develop a multifollicular growth with only a mild increase in estradiol serum levels. Controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) takes around 10 days, and we discuss new strategies to start COS as soon as possible. Protocols starting during the luteal phase or after inducing the menses currently prevent a delay in starting ovarian stimulation. Patients with breast cancer have a poorer response to COS compared with patients without cancer who are stimulated with conventional protocols of gonadotropins. Although many centres offer fertility preservation and many patients undergo ovarian stimulation, there are not enough studies to evaluate the recurrence, breast cancer-free interval or mortality rates in these women. PMID:25729417

  1. 19p13.1 is a triple negative-specific breast cancer susceptibility locus

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Kristen N.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Vachon, Celine M.; Wang, Xianshu; Margolin, Sara; Lindblom, Annika; Nevanlinna, Heli; Greco, Dario; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Vrieling, Alina; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Nickels, Stefan; Brauch, Hiltrud; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Meindl, Alfons; Bartram, Claus R.; Schott, Sarah; Engel, Christof; Godwin, Andrew K.; Weaver, JoEllen; Pathak, Harsh B.; Sharma, Priyanka; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Miron, Penelope; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Stavropoulou, Alexandra; Fountzilas, George; Gogas, Helen J.; Swann, Ruth; Dwek, Miriam; Perkins, Annie; Milne, Roger L.; Benítez, Javier; Zamora, M Pilar; Pérez, José Ignacio Arias; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Menegaux, Florence; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marmé, Frederick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Peto, Julian; Johnson, Nichola; Fletcher, Olivia; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Hartmann, Arndt; Ekici, Arif B.; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Muir, Kenneth; Puttawibul, Puttisak; Wiangnon, Surapon; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Braaf, Linde M; Rosenberg, Efraim H; Hopper, John L.; Apicella, Carmel; Park, Daniel J.; Southey, Melissa C.; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Bernstein, Leslie; Dur, Christina Clarke; Shen, Chen-Yang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Hamann, Ute; Dünnebier, Thomas; Rüdiger, Thomas; Ulmer, Hans Ulrich; Pharoah, Paul P.; Dunning, Alison M; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcom W.; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Hwang, Helena; Eccles, Diana M.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Sherman, Mark E.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Tollenaar, R.A.E.M.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; John, Esther M.; Miron, Alexander; Alnæs, Grethe Grenaker; Kristensen, Vessela; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona A; Severi, Gianluca; Kosel, Matthew L.; Pankratz, V.S.; Slager, Susan; Olson, Janet E.; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Lambrechts, Diether; Hatse, Sigrid; Dieudonne, Anne-Sophie; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Soini, Ylermi; Easton, Douglas F.; Couch, Fergus J.

    2012-01-01

    The 19p13.1 breast cancer susceptibility locus is a modifier of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers and is also associated with risk of ovarian cancer. Here we investigated 19p13.1 variation and risk of breast cancer subtypes, defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) status, using 48,869 breast cancer cases and 49,787 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Variants from 19p13.1 were not associated with breast cancer overall or with ER-positive breast cancer but were significantly associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk [rs8170 Odds Ratio (OR)=1.10, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.05 – 1.15, p=3.49 × 10-5] and triple negative (TN) (ER, PR and HER2 negative) breast cancer [rs8170 OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.13 – 1.31, p=2.22 × 10-7]. However, rs8170 was no longer associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk when TN cases were excluded [OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.89 – 1.07, p=0.62]. In addition, a combined analysis of TN cases from BCAC and the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC) (n=3,566) identified a genome-wide significant association between rs8170 and TN breast cancer risk [OR=1.25, 95% CI 1.18 – 1.33, p=3.31 × 10-13]. Thus, 19p13.1 is the first triple negative-specific breast cancer risk locus and the first locus specific to a histological subtype defined by ER, PR, and HER2 to be identified. These findings provide convincing evidence that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer varies by tumor subtype and that triple negative tumors and other subtypes likely arise through distinct etiologic pathways. PMID:22331459

  2. Breast cancer following polyacrylamide hydrogel injection for breast augmentation: A case report

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, GANG; WANG, YUJIA; HUANG, JIN-LONG

    2016-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) has been used for several years as an injectable implant for augmentation mammoplasty in China. Although patients who received PAAG injections experienced a number of complications, breast cancer following PAAG injection has been reported only in two cases. In this report, we present a case of breast cancer following PAAG injection for breast augmentation. Our study demonstrated that PAAG injection may increase the risk of breast cancer development. Early-stage breast cancer detection is difficult, since the breast is covered with the indurated injected gel. Thus, PAAG injection for augmentation mammoplasty may negatively affect breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis.

  3. Clinical Diagnosis and Management of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Elizabeth S; Clark, Amy S; Tchou, Julia; Zhang, Paul; Freedman, Gary M

    2016-02-01

    The diagnosis and management of breast cancer are undergoing a paradigm shift from a one-size-fits-all approach to an era of personalized medicine. Sophisticated diagnostics, including molecular imaging and genomic expression profiles, enable improved tumor characterization. These diagnostics, combined with newer surgical techniques and radiation therapies, result in a collaborative multidisciplinary approach to minimizing recurrence and reducing treatment-associated morbidity. This article reviews the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, including screening, staging, and multidisciplinary management. PMID:26834110

  4. Hormone Therapy and Fatal Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Sandra A.; Weber, Anita L.; Localio, A. Russell; Marchbanks, Polly A.; Ursin, Giske; Strom, Brian L.; Weiss, Linda K.; Burkman, Ronald T.; Bernstein, Leslie; Deapen, Dennis M.; Folger, Suzanne G.; Simon, Michael S.; Nadel, Marion R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Among unanswered questions is whether menopausal use of estrogen therapy (ET) or estrogen-plus-progestin therapy (CHT) increases risk of developing fatal breast cancer, i.e developing and dying of breast cancer. Using a population-based case-control design, we estimated incidence rate ratios of fatal breast cancer in postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) users compared to non-users by type, duration, and recency of HT use. Methods HT use prior to breast cancer diagnosis in 278 women who died of breast cancer within 6 years of diagnosis (cases) was compared with use in 2,224 controls never diagnosed with breast cancer using conditional logistic regression. Measures taken to address potential bias and confounding inherent in case-control studies included collecting and adjusting for detailed data on demographic and other factors potentially associated both with hormone therapy use and breast cancer. Results Fifty-six percent of cases and 68% of controls reported HT use. Among current 3+ year HT users, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for death were 0.83 (0.50, 1.38) and 0.69 (0.44, 1.09), respectively, for exclusive use of CHT or of ET, and were 0.94 (0.59, 1.48) and 0.70 (0.45, 1.07) for any use of CHT or of ET regardless of other hormone use. Conclusion Point estimates suggest no increased risk of fatal breast cancer with HT use, although 50% increases in risk in longer-term current CHT users cannot be ruled out. PMID:20336635

  5. Molecular imaging using PET for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Chikako; Miyakita, Yasuji; Yoshida, Masayuki; Hamada, Akinobu; Kanayama, Yousuke; Yonemori, Kan; Hashimoto, Jun; Tani, Hitomi; Kodaira, Makoto; Yunokawa, Mayu; Yamamoto, Harukaze; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging can visualize the biological processes at the molecular and cellular levels in vivo using certain tracers for specific molecular targets. Molecular imaging of breast cancer can be performed with various imaging modalities, however, positron emission tomography (PET) is a sensitive and non-invasive molecular imaging technology and this review will focus on PET molecular imaging of breast cancer, such as FDG-PET, FLT-PET, hormone receptor PET, and anti-HER2 PET. PMID:25917108

  6. Modern Breast Cancer Detection: A Technological Review

    PubMed Central

    Nover, Adam B.; Jagtap, Shami; Anjum, Waqas; Yegingil, Hakki; Shih, Wan Y.; Shih, Wei-Heng; Brooks, Ari D.

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is a serious threat worldwide and is the number two killer of women in the United States. The key to successful management is screening and early detection. What follows is a description of the state of the art in screening and detection for breast cancer as well as a discussion of new and emerging technologies. This paper aims to serve as a starting point for those who are not acquainted with this growing field. PMID:20069109

  7. Prognosis for Mammographically Occult, Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conservation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tzu-I. J.; Yang Qifeng; Haffty, Bruce G.; Moran, Meena S.

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To compare mammographically occult (MamOcc) and mammographically positive (MamPos) early-stage breast cancer patients treated with breast-conservation therapy (BCT), to analyze differences between the two cohorts. Methods and Materials: Our two cohorts consisted of 214 MamOcc and 2168 MamPos patients treated with BCT. Chart reviews were conducted to assess mammogram reports and method of detection. All clinical-pathologic and outcome parameters were analyzed to detect differences between the two cohorts. Results: Median follow-up was 7 years. There were no differences in final margins, T stage, nodal status, estrogen/progesterone receptor status, or 'triple-negative' status. Significant differences included younger age at diagnosis (p < 0.0001), more positive family history (p = 0.0033), less HER-2+ disease (p = 0.0294), and 1{sup o} histology (p < 0.0001). At 10 years, the differences in overall survival, cause-specific survival, and distant relapse between the two groups did not differ significantly. The MamOcc cohort had more breast relapses (15% vs. 8%; p = 0.0357), but on multivariate analysis this difference was not significant (hazard ratio 1.0, 95% confidence interval 0.993-1.007, p = 0.9296). Breast relapses were mammographically occult in 32% of the MamOcc and 12% of the MamPos cohorts (p = 0.0136). Conclusions: Although our study suggests that there are clinical-pathologic variations for the MamOcc cohort vs. MamPos patients that may ultimately affect management, breast relapse after BCT was not significantly different. Breast recurrences were more often mammographically occult in the MamOcc cohort; consideration should be given to closer follow-up and alternative imaging strategies (ultrasound, breast MRI) for routine posttreatment examination. To our knowledge, this represents the largest series addressing the prognostic significance of MamOcc cancers treated with BCT.

  8. Annular erythema as a sign of recurrent breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Eugene; Kuper-Hommel, Marion; Rademaker, Marius

    2010-05-01

    Three women with known breast cancer presented with very similar annular erythemas of their chest walls. All women were in remission from their breast cancer for at least 6 months. Their breast cancers had initially responded well to multi-modality treatment with no clinical or radiologic evidence of recurrence, until the development of the annular erythema. In the first case, the annular erythema was treated unsuccessfully as a dermatitis and then as tinea corporis. In the second case, subacute cutaneous lupus was considered but lupus antibodies were negative. In the third case, the annular erythema was promptly recognized and biopsied. Histology in all three cases revealed identical findings of invasive ductal carcinoma involving the lymphatics of the skin. Immunohistochemical staining of the carcinoma was positive for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 but negative for oestrogen and progesterone receptors. Annular erythema can pose a wide differential but rarely has it been described as a sign of locally recurrent cancer. These cases highlight the importance of recognizing this entity in the oncologic patient, where prompt skin biopsies can confirm the diagnosis and allow early initiation of therapy. PMID:20546222

  9. Risk Factors of the Invasive Breast Cancer Locoregional Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Liubota, R. V.; Zotov, A. S.; Vereshchako, R. I.; Liubota, I. I.; Zaychuk, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of the research was to estimate the frequency of the locoregional breast cancer recurrence appearance, the recurrence-free period continuance, and the 3- and 5-year survival depending on the scope of the surgical intervention, menstrual profile, and histological and molecular-biologic characteristics of the primary tumor. Patients and Methods. Among 218 patients with a breast cancer, 99 patients had breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and 119 underwent radical mastectomy (RME); all patients had regional lymphatic nodes dissection. The size and the primary tumor differentiation degree, metastasis presence in the regional lymph nodes, ER expression, PR, and Her/2neu were assessed as the prognostics factors. Results. It was defined that the locoregional recurrence appearance frequency in patients with BCS turned out to be 13%, and in patients after RME it turned out to be 9%; the recurrence-free period continuance was 53 8 months and 56 10 months, respectively. Conclusions. The locoregional cancer recurrence frequency is higher in women with the menstrual function being preserved at the moment of the primary tumor detection than in postmenopausal patients and also in patients having the hyperexpression of the Her/2neu. The ipsilateral cancer recurrence decreases the 3-year survival by 7,1% and the 5-year one by 20,3%, respectively. PMID:26339643

  10. BikDD Eliminates Breast Cancer Initiating Cells and Synergizes with Lapatinib for Breast Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Jing-Yu; Hsu, Jennifer L.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Chang, Chun-Ju; Wang, Qingfei; Bao, Yi; Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Xie, Xiaoming; Woodward, Wendy A.; Yu, Dihua; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Breast cancer initiating cells (BCICs), which can fully recapitulate the tumor origin and are often resistant to chemo- and radiotherapy, are currently considered as a major obstacle for breast cancer treatment. Here, we show that BIKDD, a constitutively active mutant form of proapoptotic gene, BIK, effectively induces apoptosis of breast cancer cells and synergizes with lapatinib. Most importantly, BikDD significantly reduced BCICs through co-antagonism of its binding partners Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy targeting BCICs. Furthermore, we developed a cancer-specific targeting approach for breast cancer that selectively expresses BikDD in breast cancer cells including BCICs, and demonstrated its potent antitumor activity and synergism with lapatinib in vitro and in vivo. PMID:21907925

  11. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Metastatic Breast Cancer, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, or Prostate Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-29

    Male Breast Carcinoma; Prostate Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  12. Platinum Based Chemotherapy or Observation in Treating Patients With Residual Triple-Negative Basal-Like Breast Cancer Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-14

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  13. The extracellular matrix in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Insua-Rodrguez, Jacob; Oskarsson, Thordur

    2016-02-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is increasingly recognized as an important regulator in breast cancer. ECM in breast cancer development features numerous changes in composition and organization when compared to the mammary gland under homeostasis. Matrix proteins that are induced in breast cancer include fibrillar collagens, fibronectin, specific laminins and proteoglycans as well as matricellular proteins. Growing evidence suggests that many of these induced ECM proteins play a major functional role in breast cancer progression and metastasis. A number of the induced ECM proteins have moreover been shown to be essential components of metastatic niches, promoting stem/progenitor signaling pathways and metastatic growth. ECM remodeling enzymes are also markedly increased, leading to major changes in the matrix structure and biomechanical properties. Importantly, several ECM components and ECM remodeling enzymes are specifically induced in breast cancer or during tissue regeneration while healthy tissues under homeostasis express exceedingly low levels. This may indicate that ECM and ECM-associated functions may represent promising drug targets against breast cancer, providing important specificity that could be utilized when developing therapies. PMID:26743193

  14. Sudden tumour regression with enhanced natural killer cell accumulation in a patient with stage IV breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Maiche, A G; Jekunen, A; Rissanen, P; Virkkunen, P; Halavaara, J; Turunen, J P

    1994-01-01

    Spontaneous regression of advanced breast cancer is a rare phenomenon. Efforts have been made in order to explain it by means of immunological mechanisms. Corticosteroids have demonstrated important efficacy in the treatment of breast cancer. We present a patient with stage IV breast cancer in whom large tumour masses dramatically regressed during treatment with dexamethasone alone. In this patient, histological and hormonal findings, with results of analyses on surface and intracellular blood cells markers demonstrated significant redistribution of lymphocytes and accumulation of natural killer cells in tumour masses. It seems that dexamethasone has acted through the hypophyse against cancer. PMID:7833137

  15. Association of PKCζ expression with clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jian; Liu, Zhipei; Li, Haixin; Sun, Jingyan; Chang, Xinzhong; Liu, Jing; He, Shanshan; Li, Binghui

    2014-01-01

    The protein kinase C (PKC) family has been functionally linked to cancer. It has been suggested that atypical PKCs contribute to cell proliferation and cancer progression. With respect to breast cancer, PKCζ has been found to play a key role in intracellular transduction of mitogenic and apoptotic signals using mammary cell lines. However, little is known about its function in vivo. Here we examined the correlation between PKCζ protein levels and important clinicopathologic factors in breast cancer using patient samples. To conduct the study, 30 invasive ductal carcinoma cases and their paired normal tissues were used for tissue microarray analysis (TMA) and 16 were used for western blot analysis. In addition, the correlation between PKCζ expression levels and clinicopathologic characteristics was determined in 176 cases with relevant clinical data. Finally, the correlation between PKCζ and epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expressions was determined using three breast cancer cell lines by western blot analysis. Both TMA and western blot results showed that PKCζ protein was highly expressed in primary tumors but not in paired normal tissue. The correlation study indicated that high PKCζ levels were associated with premenopausal patients (p = 0.019) and worse prognostic factors, such as advanced clinical stage, more lymph node involvement and larger tumor size. Both disease-free survival and overall survival rates were lower in the high PKCζ group than those in the low PKCζ group. No correlation was observed between PKCζ levels and age, histological grade, or estrogen or progesterone receptor expression status. A positive correlation between PKCζ and HER2 levels was observed in both tumor samples and cell lines. Our observations link PKCζ expression with factors pointing to worse prognosis, higher HER2 levels and a lower survival rate. This suggests that PKCζ protein levels may serve as a prognostic marker of breast cancer. PMID:24603690

  16. Biological subtypes of breast cancer: current concepts and implications for recurrence patterns.

    PubMed

    Cadoo, K A; Fornier, M N; Morris, P G

    2013-12-01

    Breast cancer is comprised of a number of complex and heterogeneous subtypes with differing clinical behavior and outcomes. In recent years, significant advances have been made in discerning the molecular drivers of this disease, and characterizing distinct subtypes of breast cancer based on gene expression profiles. These advances have begun to translate into greater individualization of treatment for patients. Although these advances have shaped our understanding of the underlying biology of breast cancer, most clinical decisions are currently based on tumor expression of the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). These biomarkers have prognostic and predictive significance in breast cancer and have important implications for tumor growth and metastatic patterns. In this review, we focus on the three broad phenotypes of breast cancer used in clinical practice; ER/PR positive, HER2 positive and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), which is characterized by lack of expression of ER, PR and HER2. We discuss the influence of these tumor-related factors as well as histological subtype, on the potential for breast cancer recurrence and patterns of disease spread. PMID:24322788

  17. Targeting Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Sean P.; Wicha, Max S.

    2010-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis postulates that tumors are maintained by a self-renewing CSC population that is also capable of differentiating into non-self renewing cell populations that constitute the bulk of the tumor. Although, the CSC hypothesis does not directly address the cell of origin of cancer, it is postulated that tissue-resident stem or progenitors are the most common targets of transformation. Clinically, CSCs are predicted to mediate tumor recurrence after chemo- and radiation-therapy due to the relative inability of these modalities to effectively target CSCs. If this is the case, then CSC must be efficiently targeted to achieve a true cure. Similarities between normal and malignant stem cells, at the levels of cell-surface proteins, molecular pathways, cell cycle quiescence, and microRNA signaling present challenges in developing CSC-specific therapeutics. Approaches to targeting CSCs include the development of agents targeting known stem cell regulatory pathways as well as unbiased high-throughput siRNA or small-molecule screening. Based on studies of pathways present in normal stem cells, recent work has identified potential Achilles heals of CSC, whereas unbiased screening provides opportunities to identify new pathways utilized by CSC as well as develop potential therapeutic agents. Here, we review both approaches and their potential to effectively target breast CSC. PMID:20599450

  18. Hypofractionated Image Guided Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IV Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-22

    Central Nervous System Metastases; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma With Predominant in Situ Component; Liver Metastases; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lung Metastases; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Tumors Metastatic to Brain

  19. Autophagy Inhibition to Increase Radiosensitization in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Diana Hwang; El-Zein, Randa; Dave, Bhuvanesh

    2015-01-01

    Currently, many breast cancer patients with localized breast cancer undergo breast-conserving therapy, consisting of local excision followed by radiation therapy. Following radiation therapy, breast cancer cells are noted to undergo induction of autophagy, development of radioresistance, and enrichment of breast cancer stem cell subpopulations. It is hypothesized that inhibition of the cytoprotective autophagy that arises following radiation therapy increases radiosensitivity and confers longer relapse-free survival by eliminating tumor-initiating breast cancer stem cells. Therefore, we reviewed the controversial role of autophagy in breast cancer tumorigenesis and progression, autophagy induction by radiotherapy, and utilization of autophagy inhibitors to increase radiosensitivity of breast cancer and to target radioresistant breast cancer stem cells. PMID:26613064

  20. Ectopic Male Breast Cancer: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Dipti Rani; Bose, Chaitali; Upadhyay, Ashish; Sheet, Saikat; Senapati, Surendra Nath

    2015-08-01

    Carcinoma of male breast constitutes 1% of total breast malignancy. Carcinoma arising from ectopic breast tissue in male is an extremely rare entity and can be misdiagnosed. Ectopic breast tissue may be supernumerary or aberrant one. Despite morphologic difference, ectopic breast tissue presents characteristics analogous to orthoptic breast in terms of functional and pathologic degeneration. Most of the ectopic breast tissue occurs in thoracic or abdominal portion of milk line. If found in a location outside the milk line, it proves a diagnostic dilemma. We are reporting a case of 60-year-old male who presented with a fixed mass of size 10cm8cm, in right chest wall infraclavicular area of 6 months duration. Histopathology of the mass revealed invasive duct carcinoma. He had no evidence of malignant or occult primary lesion in the bilateral mammary glands. Due to the paucity of the literature, incidence of ectopic male breast cancer and its management is not well understood. There is high probability of misdiagnosis of this disease. To the best of our knowledge this is the first described case of ectopic male breast cancer in the chest wall, not along the milk line, which is being reported here for documentation. PMID:26436033