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Sample records for breast milk compartment

  1. Breastfeeding and Breast Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information​ ​​Breastfeeding, also called ...

  2. Breast Milk Best from the Breast?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159054.html Breast Milk Best From the Breast? Babies were more likely ... get ear infections if they were fed pumped milk, study found To use the sharing features on ...

  3. Environmental Chemicals in Breast Milk

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most of the information available on environmental chemicals in breast milk is focused on persistent, lipophilic chemicals; the database on levels of these chemicals has expanded substantially since the 1950s. Currently, various types of chemicals are measured in breast milk and ...

  4. Breast Milk Best from the Breast?

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159054.html Breast Milk Best From the Breast? Babies were more likely to get ear infections ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Infants fed directly from the breast are less likely to develop ear infections than ...

  5. Breast milk - pumping and storing

    MedlinePlus

    ... bottle. DO NOT use everyday plastic bags or formula bottle bags. They leak. Store your breast milk. ... means not giving any other food, drinks, or formula. If you use formula, still breastfeed and give ...

  6. Breast milk breaks new boundaries.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Sioned

    2012-01-01

    It is widely understood that breast milk is best for babies, but groundbreaking research continues to be conducted by the world's leading researchers to ensure we have the most recent knowledge to help breastfeeding mothers and give health professionals up to date guidance. This article provides a report from the recent International Breastfeeding and Lactation Symposium, hosted by Medela, touching on some of the key findings that were presented. This year's symposium revealed some exciting news for the breastfeeding world and here our reporter gives us a snap shot of the three most significant updates: further understanding of stem cells in breast milk, findings that have unlocked the power of human milk and insights into medication and breast milk. PMID:22908502

  7. Nonnutritive Sweeteners in Breast Milk.

    PubMed

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Gardner, Alexandra L; Bauman, Viviana; Blau, Jenny E; Garraffo, H Martin; Walter, Peter J; Rother, Kristina I

    2015-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS), including saccharin, sucralose, aspartame, and acesulfame-potassium, are commonly consumed in the general population, and all except for saccharin are considered safe for use during pregnancy and lactation. Sucralose (Splenda) currently holds the majority of the NNS market share and is often combined with acesulfame-potassium in a wide variety of foods and beverages. To date, saccharin is the only NNS reported to be found in human breast milk after maternal consumption, while there is no apparent information on the other NNS. Breast milk samples were collected from 20 lactating volunteers, irrespective of their habitual NNS intake. Saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame-potassium were present in 65% of participants' milk samples, whereas aspartame was not detected. These data indicate that NNS are frequently ingested by nursing infants, and thus prospective clinical studies are necessary to determine whether early NNS exposure via breast milk may have clinical implications. PMID:26267522

  8. [Breast milk substitutes based on cow milk].

    PubMed

    Kofoed, P E

    1990-08-20

    "Adapted" or "humanized" breast-milk substitutes based on cows' milk are manufactured according to directives from a publication issued by the Ministry of Agriculture. The accepted recommendations for the daily intake (RDA) of nutrients is adjusted to the neonates' relatively low tolerance and provides a certain margin of safety in case of illness and slight inaccuracies in preparation. The recommendations are, however, often based on animal experiments, studies of pathological conditions etc. because the needs of the neonate are not known. There is a fundamental difference between RDA for chemical energy and various nutrients as the energy requirement is stated on the basis of average values while the requirements for specific nutrients are gives as upper and lower limiting values. In addition to nutrients, a long series of hormones, enzymes and antimicrobial factors are transferred to the infant via breast-milk. The nutritional significance of these is entirely or partially unknown. It is thus impossible to give the bottle-fed infant a diet which is quantitatively and qualitatively identical with that of a breastfed baby. Nevertheless, experience has shown that bottle-feeding usually proceeds satisfactorily. Galactosaemia and certain forms of medication in the mother constitute absolute contraindications to breast-feeding while phenylketonuria, certain maternal infections are relative contraindications to breast-feeding. Mothers should be prepared for breast-feeding already during pregnancy but in the cases where the mother cannot, should not or does not wish to breast-feed, it is important to counteract any feelings of guilt, neglect or incompetence and, on the other hand, give her thorough training in artificial feeding of the infant. PMID:2205958

  9. [Medical application of breast milk banks].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi-Hong; Ding, Zong-Yi

    2014-07-01

    The history of breast milk banks is over 100 years. Most of the milk banks were closed because of HIV in the 80's. But more and more milk banks are re-opening and new ones are being established as the composition and superiority of breast milk are recognized again. The Human Milk Banking Association of North America and European Milk Bank Association have been set up and they have established and revised the standards and guidelines of breast milk banks. There is no doubt of the clinical effects of donor human milk on preterm infants worldwide. The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition recommended that the preterm infants should use donor human milk when their own mothers' milk is not enough. The first breast milk bank was set up in China in 2013, and its clinical and social significance is worthy of further study. PMID:25008871

  10. Breast milk jaundice

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor before deciding to give your newborn formula. It is best to keep breastfeeding. Babies need their mothers' milk. Although a baby full of formula can be less demanding, formula feeding may cause ...

  11. Breast milk jaundice

    MedlinePlus

    Hyperbilirubinemia - breastfeeding; Breast-non-feeding jaundice; Breastfeeding failure jaundice ... of jaundice that is caused by too little breastfeeding by making sure your baby is getting enough ...

  12. Breast milk, microbiota, and intestinal immune homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Walker, W Allan; Iyengar, Rajashri Shuba

    2015-01-01

    Newborns adjust to the extrauterine environment by developing intestinal immune homeostasis. Appropriate initial bacterial colonization is necessary for adequate intestinal immune development. An environmental determinant of adequate colonization is breast milk. Although the full-term infant is developmentally capable of mounting an immune response, the effector immune component requires bacterial stimulation. Breast milk stimulates the proliferation of a well-balanced and diverse microbiota, which initially influences a switch from an intrauterine TH2 predominant to a TH1/TH2 balanced response and with activation of T-regulatory cells by breast milk-stimulated specific organisms (Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, and Bacteroides). As an example of its effect, oligosaccharides in breast milk are fermented by colonic bacteria producing an acid milieu for bacterial proliferation. In addition, short-chain fatty acids in breast milk activate receptors on T-reg cells and bacterial genes, which preferentially mediate intestinal tight junction expression and anti-inflammation. Other components of breast milk (defensins, lactoferrin, etc.) inhibit pathogens and further contribute to microbiota composition. The breast milk influence on initial intestinal microbiota also prevents expression of immune-mediated diseases (asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes) later in life through a balanced initial immune response, underscoring the necessity of breastfeeding as the first source of nutrition. PMID:25310762

  13. Excretion of drugs in human breast milk

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, R.M.; Findlay, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The present report briefly discusses some of the morphological, physiological, and compositional aspects of animal and human breast milk and how these characteristics might be important for the accumulation of drugs and foreign compounds. In addition, a study is described confirming the presence of caffeine, codeine, morphine, phenacetin, acetaminophen, and salicylic acid in the breast milk of a lactating mother following oral administration of a combination analgesic containing aspirin, phenacetin, caffeine, and codeine. Although the study is limited to one subject, it has provided critically needed data on the rates of appearance in, and elimination of these drugs from, breast milk. A similar amount of information is presented on phenacetin, also a component of the analgesic mixture, which has not been previously reported to enter human milk. The distribution of these drugs between the slightly more acidic breast milk and the relatively neutral plasma is consistent with their weakly basic, acidic, or relatively neutral properties. In general, the study shows that codeine and morphine milk concentrations are higher than, salicylic acid milk levels are much lower than, and phenacetin, caffeine, and acetaminophen milk concentrations are relatively similar to their respective plasma levels. It is projected, from estimated steady-state milk concentrations of the drugs and their metabolites studied, that very low percentages of the therapeutic dosages (less than 0.7%) would be excreted in mother's milk, too low an amount to be clinically significant to the infant.

  14. Comparison of HIV type 1 sequences from plasma, cell-free breast milk, and cell-associated breast milk viral populations in treated and untreated women in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Mauro; Galluzzo, Clementina M; Guidotti, Giovanni; Germano, Paola; Altan, Annamaria Doro; Pirillo, Maria Franca; Marazzi, Maria Cristina; Vella, Stefano; Palombi, Leonardo; Giuliano, Marina

    2009-07-01

    We analyzed the sequences of the HIV viral populations obtained from plasma, cell-free breast milk, and breast milk cells of HAART-treated (23) and untreated (30) HIV-infected women to obtain information about the origin of the breast milk virus. Sequence analyses of viruses were performed using the TruGene HIV-1 assay. Direct sequences of the reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) genes were analyzed using the Phylip 3.68 suite of sequence analysis program and pairwise evolutionary distances were calculated with the Kimura two parameter model for estimation of distances. We found that the genetic distances between the plasma and the cell-free breast milk viruses and between the cell-free and cell-associated breast milk viruses for RT were higher in HAART-receiving women than in untreated women, suggesting viral evolution under selective drug pressure in breast milk. Our data support the hypothesis of the presence of an actively replicating viral population in the breast milk compartment, distinct from that present in plasma. PMID:19552594

  15. [Chemical pollution and breast milk: Taking positions].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gómez, N M; Ares, S; Hernández-Aguilar, M T; Ortega-García, J A; Paricio-Talayero, J M; Landa-Rivera, L

    2013-12-01

    Chemical pollution affects all ecosystems of our planet. Human milk has been used as a biomarker of environmental pollution as, due to bioaccumulation processes in fat tissue, many chemical compounds reach measurable concentrations that can be readily tested in breast milk. Quite frequently information about the presence of contaminants in breast milk appears in the media, leading to misunderstanding among parents and health professionals, and in some cases breastfeeding the child is stopped. In this article, the Breastfeeding Committee of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics stresses the importance of promoting breastfeeding as the healthiest option, because its benefits clearly outweigh any health risks associated with chemical contaminants in breast milk. Breast milk contains protective factors that counteract the potential effects related to prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants. This article summarises the key recommendations to reduce the level of chemical contaminants in breast milk. It also highlights the importance of government involvement in the development of programs to eliminate or reduce chemical contamination of food and the environment. In this way, the negative effects on child health resulting from exposure to these toxic compounds through the placenta and breast milk may be prevented. PMID:23791806

  16. 21 CFR 866.5170 - Breast milk immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breast milk immunological test system. 866.5170... milk immunological test system. (a) Identification. A breast milk immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the breast milk proteins....

  17. 21 CFR 866.5170 - Breast milk immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breast milk immunological test system. 866.5170... milk immunological test system. (a) Identification. A breast milk immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the breast milk proteins....

  18. 21 CFR 866.5170 - Breast milk immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Breast milk immunological test system. 866.5170... milk immunological test system. (a) Identification. A breast milk immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the breast milk proteins....

  19. [Selenium contents in human milk after term and preterm labor and in breast milk substitutes].

    PubMed

    Ladodo, K S; Iatsyk, G V; Oshchenko, A P; Skvortsova, V A; Fam Van Tkhu

    1997-01-01

    Selenium contents in breast milk of Russia's and Vietnam's women after term and preterm childbirth and in breast milk substitutes were studied. The concentration of selenium in breast milk of Russia's women was normal after term and preterm childbirth. The level of selenium in breast milk of Vietnam's women was decreased and could not satisfy completely the need of breasted infants. Selenium contents in babyfood "Malutka" Istra' manufacturing company were lower than those in Sybaj' company. PMID:9206891

  20. Sex, Breast Milk May Have Helped Spread Ebola in Africa

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Sex, Breast Milk May Have Helped Spread Ebola in Africa However, most cases were transmitted by ... 2016 THURSDAY, May 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Ebola virus was transmitted by semen and breast milk ...

  1. Sex, Breast Milk May Have Helped Spread Ebola in Africa

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158941.html Sex, Breast Milk May Have Helped Spread Ebola in Africa However, ... Ebola virus was transmitted by semen and breast milk during the latter stages of the outbreak in ...

  2. Epigenetic Effects of Human Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Verduci, Elvira; Banderali, Giuseppe; Barberi, Salvatore; Radaelli, Giovanni; Lops, Alessandra; Betti, Federica; Riva, Enrica; Giovannini, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    A current aim of nutrigenetics is to personalize nutritional practices according to genetic variations that influence the way of digestion and metabolism of nutrients introduced with the diet. Nutritional epigenetics concerns knowledge about the effects of nutrients on gene expression. Nutrition in early life or in critical periods of development, may have a role in modulating gene expression, and, therefore, have later effects on health. Human breast milk is well-known for its ability in preventing several acute and chronic diseases. Indeed, breastfed children may have lower risk of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, infectious diseases, and also of non-communicable diseases, such as obesity and related-disorders. Beneficial effects of human breast milk on health may be associated in part with its peculiar components, possible also via epigenetic processes. This paper discusses about presumed epigenetic effects of human breast milk and components. While evidence suggests that a direct relationship may exist of some components of human breast milk with epigenetic changes, the mechanisms involved are still unclear. Studies have to be conducted to clarify the actual role of human breast milk on genetic expression, in particular when linked to the risk of non-communicable diseases, to potentially benefit the infant’s health and his later life. PMID:24763114

  3. 21 CFR 866.5170 - Breast milk immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breast milk immunological test system. 866.5170... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5170 Breast milk immunological test system. (a) Identification. A breast milk immunological test system is a...

  4. 21 CFR 866.5170 - Breast milk immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Breast milk immunological test system. 866.5170... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5170 Breast milk immunological test system. (a) Identification. A breast milk immunological test system is a...

  5. Estimation of chemical hazards in breast milk

    SciTech Connect

    Poitrast, B.J.; Keller, W.C.; Elves, R.G.

    1988-11-01

    The presence in the workplace of women who desire to breast feed has complicated the interpretation of what constitutes a safe work environment. There is concern that levels of chemicals found safe for occupational exposure may result in unacceptably high levels of those same chemicals in breast milk. To date, there is no evidence of harm to breast-feeding infants whose mothers are not exposed above a permissible exposure limit (PEL). While we may take some comfort in this, no evidence of harm is not the same as evidence of no harm. Unfortunately, the latter, being a negative, can never be proven. It is with this in mind that this paper is written. We present basic data for a systems approach to determining the hazard presented by a substance in breast milk.

  6. Infant exposure to dioxin-like compounds in breast milk.

    PubMed Central

    Lorber, Matthew; Phillips, Linda

    2002-01-01

    We used a one-compartment, first-order pharmacokinetic model to predict the infant body burden of dioxin-like compounds that results from breast-feeding. Validation testing of the model showed a good match between predictions and measurements of dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) in breast-fed infants, and the exercise highlighted the importance of the assumption of the rate of dissipation of TEQs in the infant. We evaluated five nursing scenarios: no nursing (i.e., formula only), and nursing for 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. We assumed that an infant weighs 3.3 kg at birth and is exposed to a total of 800 pg TEQ/day by consumption of breast milk, leading to an estimated body weight-based dose of 242 pg TEQ/kg-day, which drops to 18 pg TEQ/kg-day after 1 year. This decline is due to declines in dioxin concentration in mother's milk and infant body weight increases. This range is significantly higher, on a body-weight basis, than adult TEQ exposure, which has been estimated to average about 1 pg TEQ/kg-day. For the nursing scenarios of >or= 6 months, we predict that body burdens (expressed as a body lipid concentration) peak at around 9 weeks at 44 ppt TEQ lipid. We predict that the body burden of the formula-fed infants will remain below 10 ppt TEQ lipid during the first year. These results compare to the current adult average body burden of 25 ppt TEQ lipid. We also found that an infant who had been breast-fed for 1 year had an accumulated dose 6 times higher than a 1-year-old infant who had not been breast-fed. For a 70-year lifetime, individuals who had been breast-fed had an accumulated dose 3-18% higher than individuals who had not been breast-fed. PMID:12055063

  7. Radioactivity in breast milk and placentas during the year after Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Gori, G.; Cama, G.; Guerresi, E.; Cocchi, G.; Dalla Casa, P.; Gattavecchia, E.; Ghini, S.; Tonelli, D.

    1988-11-01

    After the April 1986 nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, samples of human placenta and breast milk were tested for 1 year to determine the levels of radioactivity. The radionuclide iodine 131 was never beyond the detection limit of our gamma detector for both matrices. As to cesium isotopes 134 and 137, the highest levels detected in breast milk (6 Bq.L-1) and placenta (15.8 Bq.kg-1) were recorded in March 1987. Study data for breast milk and placenta are in agreement with the values calculated by means of double-compartment food-milk and food-placenta models. With regard to placental content, the cesium contribution to the average dose during the year after the Chernobyl accident was calculated to be 40 to 60 microSv.

  8. Chemical Biomarkers of Human Breast Milk Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Massart, Francesco; Gherarducci, Giulia; Marchi, Benedetta; Saggese, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Human milk is, without question, the best source of nutrition for infants containing the optimal balance of fats, carbohydrates and proteins for developing babies. Breastfeeding provides a range of benefits for growth, immunity and development building a powerful bond between mother and her child. Recognition of the manifold benefits of breast milk has led to the adoption of breast-feeding policies by numerous health and professional organizations such as the World Health Organization and American Academy of Pediatrics. In industrially developed as well as in developing nations, human milk contamination by toxic chemicals such as heavy metals, dioxins and organohalogen compounds, however, is widespread and is the consequence of decades of inadequately controlled pollution. Through breastfeeding, the mother may transfer to the suckling infant potentially toxic chemicals to which the mother has previously been exposed. In the present review, environmental exposure, acquisition and current levels of old and emerging classes of breast milk pollutants are systematically presented. Although scientific evidences indicated that the advantages of breast-feeding outweigh any risks from contaminants, it is important to identify contaminant trends, to locate disproportionately exposed populations, and to take public health measures to improve chemical BM pollution as possible. PMID:19578503

  9. Diagnosis and Management of Breast Milk Oversupply.

    PubMed

    Trimeloni, Lauren; Spencer, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Managing breastfeeding problems is an essential part of newborn care. While much is written on breast milk undersupply, little is written on oversupply, sometimes known as hyperlactation or hypergalactia. Infants of mothers with oversupply may have increased or decreased weight gain. Some may have large, frothy stools. They may develop a disordered latch. Mothers may report overly full, leaking breasts. Thyroid function should be assessed. Treatment is mostly anecdotal and includes methods to maintain breast fullness, such as block feedings. Pseudoephedrine and oral contraceptive pills may decrease the supply. Dopamine agonists such as carbergoline can be used as a last resort. PMID:26769886

  10. Human breast milk provides better antioxidant capacity than infant formula.

    PubMed

    Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Naficeh; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behfar, Abd-Ol-Azim; Jannat, Forouzandeh; Mokhtarinasab, Fariba

    2010-01-01

    Human milk contains all of the constituents that are required for the optimal growth and development of a neonate. It supports the development of brain, immune, and physiological systems. This study aimed to consider the significance of breast milk in preventing oxidative stress by comparing total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in breast and formula milk for premature infants, demonstrating the relationship between TAC in breast milk and postnatal age in days. The Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) method was used to spectophotometrically measure of TAC in breast and formula milk. One hundred and fourty (n = 140) lactating mothers agreed to participate in the study. TAC was also measured in two brands of formula milk (n = 80). The Range of TAC in human breast milk was 234.27-1442.31 μM and in two formula was 160.04-630.92 μM. The average TAC was significantly higher in breast milk (642.94 ± 241.23 μM) compared to formula milk (280.986 ± 100.34 μM) p < 0.0001. The TAC of breast milk was increased with some nutritional parameter such as increased consumption of cheese, vegetables, fruits, bread and nuts. Infants' height at the birthday was directly correlated with antioxidant capacity of breast milk, whilst a reversed correlation was observed between TAC in breast milk and infant age. Based on our results, it is concluded that the TAC of breast milk is varied and affected by nutrition. It is alo observed that TAC is significantly higher in breast milk than formula, which means that breast milk provides better antioxidant potency than infant formula. PMID:24381611

  11. Adipokines in Breast Milk: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Çatlı, Gönül; Olgaç Dündar, Nihal; Dündar, Bumin Nuri

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological surveys indicate that nutrition in infancy is implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity and that a longer duration of breastfeeding is associated with a protective effect against metabolic disorders later in life. However, the precise cause of this association is not well understood. Recent studies on the compounds present in human breast milk have identified various adipokines, including leptin, adiponectin, resistin, obestatin, nesfatin, ghrelin and apelins. Some of these compounds are involved in the regulation of food intake and energy balance. The presence of these adipokines in breast milk suggests that they may be responsible for the regulation of growth in early infancy and that they could influence the energy balance and development of metabolic disorders in childhood and adulthood. PMID:25541889

  12. Chemical contaminants in breast milk: time trends and regional variability.

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Gina M; Weiss, Pilar M

    2002-01-01

    Research on environmentally related chemical contaminants in breast milk spans several decades and dozens of countries. The ability to use this research as an environmental indicator is limited because of a lack of consistent protocols. Data on xenobiotics in breast milk are influenced by choices in sample selection, sample pooling, analysis, and reporting. In addition, most studies have focused only on a small panel of persistent organic pollutants, despite indications that a wide range of additional chemical contaminants may also enter breast milk. Despite these limitations, however, it is possible to draw some generalizations. In this paper we review available data on levels of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), metals, and solvents in breast milk. Examples drawn from around the world illustrate the available data and the patterns that have appeared in various areas over time. Over the past few decades, levels of the organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and dioxins have declined in breast milk in countries where these chemicals have been banned or otherwise regulated. In contrast, the levels of PBDEs are rising. Regional differences in levels of xenobiotics in breast milk are related to historical and current local use patterns. Diet is a major factor that influences breast milk levels of persistent organic pollutants, with patterns in fish consumption playing a particularly significant role. Improved global breast milk monitoring programs would allow for more consistent data on trends over time, detection of new xenobiotics in breast milk, and identification of disproportionately exposed populations. PMID:12055065

  13. Analytic considerations for measuring environmental chemicals in breast milk.

    PubMed Central

    Needham, Larry L; Wang, Richard Y

    2002-01-01

    The presence of environmental chemicals in human breast milk is of general concern because of the potential health consequence of these chemicals to the breast-fed infant and the mother. In addition to the mother's exposure, several features determine the presence of environmental chemicals in breast milk and their ability to be determined analytically. These include maternal factors and properties of the environmental chemical--both physical and chemical--such as its lipid solubility, degree of ionization, and molecular weight. Environmental chemicals with high lipid solubility are likely to be found in breast milk; they include polyhalogenated compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, organochlorine insecticides, and polybrominated diphenylethers. These fat-soluble chemicals are incorporated into the milk as it is synthesized, and they must be measured in accordance with the fat content of the milk to allow for meaningful comparisons within an individual and among populations. Although the analytic approach selected to measure the environmental chemical is predominantly determined by the characteristics of the chemical, the concentration of the chemical in the milk sample and the existence of structurally similar chemicals (e.g., congeners) must be considered as well. In general, the analytic approach for measuring environmental chemicals in breast milk is similar to the approach for measuring the same chemicals in other matrices, except special considerations must be given for the relatively high fat content of milk. The continued efforts of environmental scientists to measure environmental chemicals in breast milk is important for defining the true contribution of these chemicals to public health, especially to the health of the newborn. Work is needed for identifying and quantifying additional environmental chemicals in breast milk from the general population and for developing analytic

  14. Antibody-independent identification of bovine milk-derived peptides in breast-milk.

    PubMed

    Picariello, Gianluca; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale; Nocerino, Rita; Paparo, Lorella; Passariello, Annalisa; Dallas, David C; Robinson, Randall C; Barile, Daniela; Canani, Roberto Berni

    2016-08-10

    Exclusively breast-fed infants can exhibit clear signs of IgE or non IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. However, the definite characterization of dietary cow's milk proteins (CMP) that survive the maternal digestive tract to be absorbed into the bloodstream and secreted into breast milk remains missing. Herein, we aimed at assessing possible CMP-derived peptides in breast milk. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-high resolution mass spectrometry (MS), we compared the peptide fraction of breast milk from 12 donors, among which 6 drank a cup of milk daily and 6 were on a strict dairy-free diet. We identified two bovine β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg, 2 out 6 samples) and one αs1-casein (1 out 6 samples) fragments in breast milk from mothers receiving a cup of bovine milk daily. These CMP-derived fragments, namely β-Lg (f42-54), (f42-57) and αs1-casein (f180-197), were absent in milk from mothers on dairy-free diet. In contrast, neither intact nor hydrolyzed β-Lg was detected by western blot and competitive ELISA in any breast milk sample. Eight additional bovine milk-derived peptides identified by software-assisted MS were most likely false positive. The results of this study demonstrate that CMP-derived peptides rather than intact CMP may sensitize or elicit allergic responses in the neonate through mother's milk. Immunologically active peptides from the maternal diet could be involved in priming the newborn's immune system, driving a tolerogenic response. PMID:27396729

  15. The introduction of breast milk donation in a Muslim country.

    PubMed

    al-Naqeeb, N A; Azab, A; Eliwa, M S; Mohammed, B Y

    2000-11-01

    Breast milk donation (wet-nursing) for full-term babies is a well-known practice in Kuwait, but it has never been organized formally in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for preterm babies. Donor milk banking as conducted in Western society is not considered to be ethical in Muslim society, where the milk donor and the recipient are required to know each other. Human milk is known to decrease the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis; improve host defenses, digestion, absorption of nutrients, gastrointestinal function, and neurodevelopment of the child; and contribute to maternal physical and psychological well-being. A culturally accepted approach to donor milk banking is proposed as a means of overcoming the ethical issues surrounding milk donation in Muslim society. This report addresses the first step in raising awareness of the valuable contribution of donor milk to preterm babies and the organization of human milk donation for use in an NICU. PMID:11155613

  16. An Intervention to Promote Breast Milk Production in Mothers of Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Héon, Marjolaine; Goulet, Céline; Garofalo, Carole; Nuyt, Anne Monique; Levy, Emile

    2016-05-01

    A pilot study was conducted to estimate the effects of a breast milk expression education and support intervention on breast milk production outcomes in mothers of very and extremely preterm infants. Forty mothers of hospitalized preterm infants (<30 weeks of gestation) were randomized to the experimental intervention or standard care for 6 weeks. Duration and frequency of breast milk expressions and volume of expressed breast milk were measured daily. Samples of breast milk were collected thrice during the study and analyzed for their lipid concentration. Mothers in the experimental group had a statistically significant higher duration of breast milk expression in min/day (p= .043). Differences observed between the two groups regarding the frequency of breast milk expression, volume of breast milk, and lipid concentration were not statistically significant. Results suggest that the experimental intervention may promote breast milk production in mothers of very and extremely preterm infants. PMID:25395013

  17. Iodine-131 in breast milk following therapy for thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, P.S.; Barker, P.; Campbell, A.

    1994-11-01

    This study evaluates breast milk secretion of {sup 131}I following therapeutic adminstration of 4000 MBq of {sup 131}I-iodide during lactation. Breast milk {sup 131}I activity concentration was measured over a 32-day period. Dosimetry calculations were undertaken to estimate the period for discontinuation of breast feeding and the equivalent dose to the breasts. To achieve an infant effective dose <1 mSv and an infant thyroid dose <10 mSv, breast feeding would need to be discontinued for at least 52 days. The estimated equivalent dose to the breasts was 1.6 Gy. It is suggested that {sup 131}I-iodide adminstration is not undertaken during lactation and that breast feeding is discontinued several days prior to administration. 26 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Microbiota in Breast Milk of Chinese Lactating Mothers.

    PubMed

    Sakwinska, Olga; Moine, Déborah; Delley, Michèle; Combremont, Séverine; Rezzonico, Enea; Descombes, Patrick; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K

    2016-01-01

    The microbiota of breast milk from Chinese lactating mothers at different stages of lactation was examined in the framework of a Maternal Infant Nutrition Growth (MING) study investigating the dietary habits and breast milk composition in Chinese urban mothers. We used microbiota profiling based on the sequencing of fragments of 16S rRNA gene and specific qPCR for bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and total bacteria to study microbiota of the entire breast milk collected using standard protocol without aseptic cleansing (n = 60), and the microbiota of the milk collected aseptically (n = 30). We have also investigated the impact of the delivery mode and the stage of lactation on the microbiota composition. The microbiota of breast milk was dominated by streptococci and staphylococci for both collection protocols and, in the case of standard collection protocol, Acinetobacter sp. While the predominance of streptococci and staphylococci was consistently reported previously for other populations, the abundance of Acinetobacter sp. was reported only once before in a study where milk collection was done without aseptic cleansing of the breast and rejection of foremilk. Higher bacterial counts were found in the milk collected using standard protocol. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were present in few samples with low abundance. We observed no effect of the stage of lactation or the delivery mode on microbiota composition. Methodological and geographical differences likely explain the variability in microbiota composition reported to date. PMID:27529821

  19. Microbiota in Breast Milk of Chinese Lactating Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Sakwinska, Olga; Moine, Déborah; Delley, Michèle; Combremont, Séverine; Rezzonico, Enea; Descombes, Patrick; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K.

    2016-01-01

    The microbiota of breast milk from Chinese lactating mothers at different stages of lactation was examined in the framework of a Maternal Infant Nutrition Growth (MING) study investigating the dietary habits and breast milk composition in Chinese urban mothers. We used microbiota profiling based on the sequencing of fragments of 16S rRNA gene and specific qPCR for bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and total bacteria to study microbiota of the entire breast milk collected using standard protocol without aseptic cleansing (n = 60), and the microbiota of the milk collected aseptically (n = 30). We have also investigated the impact of the delivery mode and the stage of lactation on the microbiota composition. The microbiota of breast milk was dominated by streptococci and staphylococci for both collection protocols and, in the case of standard collection protocol, Acinetobacter sp. While the predominance of streptococci and staphylococci was consistently reported previously for other populations, the abundance of Acinetobacter sp. was reported only once before in a study where milk collection was done without aseptic cleansing of the breast and rejection of foremilk. Higher bacterial counts were found in the milk collected using standard protocol. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were present in few samples with low abundance. We observed no effect of the stage of lactation or the delivery mode on microbiota composition. Methodological and geographical differences likely explain the variability in microbiota composition reported to date. PMID:27529821

  20. Organochlorine pesticides residue in breast milk: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Limoee, Mojtaba; Namdari, Farideh; Khamutian, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chlorinated pesticides have been used in pest control for several decades in the world. These compounds are still applied in many regions, and their continuous usage has resulted in their bioaccumulation and residue in the food chain. These residues could transfer to food products and accumulate in fat tissues. Undoubtedly, the breast milk could be a significant biomarker for estimation of these residues in the human body. This study was conducted to review and compile the results of the studies undertaken in the world which surveyed the organochlorine pesticides residue in breast milk. Methods: A total of 710 national and international articles and texts related to the focused subject were extracted from the virtual databases using the following key words: Chlorinated pesticides, residue and breast milk. Thirty articles published between 1980 and 2013 were selected and reviewed. Results: The majority of the reviewed articles indicated the presence of two or more organochlorine pesticides in the collected samples of breast milk. Based on the reviewed studies, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) had the highest level of concentration in the collected samples of breast milk. Moreover, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between mother’s age, her multiparty and concentration of chlorinated pesticides in breast milk. Conclusion: The organochlorine pesticides are still applied in some developing countries including some regions of Iran. Thus, it seems essential to inform the community about the adverse effects of this class of pesticides; and most importantly the governments should also ban the use of such compounds. PMID:26478886

  1. Polyamines in human breast milk for preterm and term infants.

    PubMed

    Plaza-Zamora, J; Sabater-Molina, M; Rodríguez-Palmero, M; Rivero, M; Bosch, V; Nadal, J M; Zamora, S; Larqué, E

    2013-08-28

    Maternal milk is the first source of exogenous polyamines for the newborn. Polyamines modulate gut maturation in neonates, but no studies are available on polyamine concentration in human milk of preterm babies, even though they could be important for their immature gut. The present study aimed to determine polyamine concentration in human breast milk of mothers with preterm or term infants during the first month of lactation. Human milk samples were obtained during the first month of lactation from twenty-seven mothers with preterm babies and twelve mothers with babies born at term. The polyamine concentration in human milk was quantified by HPLC. During the first month of lactation, the total polyamine concentration was significantly higher in preterm milk than in term milk samples (7590 (SD 4990) v. 4660 (SD 4830) nmol/l, respectively (P ¼ 0·034)), as well as individual polyamine concentrations. Polyamine concentration in mature milk for preterm babies was significantly higher than that in mature milk for babies at term, and a similar trend was observed in colostrum and transition human milk. The spermidine/spermine ratio was higher in transition milk in preterm v. term samples, while in mature milk, the ratio was significantly lower in preterm than in term babies. In conclusion, the polyamine concentration was significantly higher in human milk for preterm than for term infants. This and the different spermidine/spermine ratios could influence the gut development of premature babies. PMID:23286699

  2. 68Ga-DOTATATE Breast Uptake and Expression in Breast Milk.

    PubMed

    Forwood, Nicholas J; Kanthan, Gowri L; Bailey, Dale L; Chan, David L; Schembri, Geoffrey P

    2016-08-01

    The excretion of Ga-DOTA-Octreotate (DOTATATE) and related somatostatin analogues in breast milk has not been demonstrated. We report a case of a 34-year-old woman, 7 months postpartum and breastfeeding, who was referred for DOTATATE imaging after the diagnosis of appendiceal carcinoid and subsequent appendectomy. Prominent breast uptake was noted. A breast milk sample from the patient at 90 minutes postinjection was assayed in a gamma counter and shown to have a concentration of 5.6 Bq/g per MBq administered. The excretion of DOTATATE in breast milk is important to consider when providing radiation safety advice to breastfeeding patients. PMID:27276203

  3. Breast milk donation after neonatal death in Australia: a report.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Katherine E; Lenne, Brydan S; McEgan, Kerri; Opie, Gillian; Amir, Lisa H; Bredemeyer, Sandra; Hartmann, Ben; Jones, Rachel; Koorts, Pieter; McConachy, Helen; Mumford, Patricia; Polverino, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Lactation and breast milk can hold great value and meaning for grieving mothers who have experienced a recent death of an infant. Donation to a human milk bank (HMB) as an alternative to discarding breast milk is one means of respecting the value of breast milk. There is little research, national policy discussion, or organizational representation in Australia on the subject of breast milk donation after infant death. On 29 November 2013 the Mercy Hospital for Women in Melbourne, Australia hosted Australia's first National Stakeholder Meeting (NSM) on the topic of milk donation after neonatal death. The NSM drew together representatives from Australian HMBs, neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) currently using donor human milk, and Australia's chief NICU parent support organization. The NSM was video-recorded and transcribed, and analyzed thematically by researchers. This article reports the seven dominant themes discussed by stakeholders during the NSM: the spectrum of women's lactation and donation experiences after infant death; the roles of the HMB and NICU in meeting the needs of the bereaved donor; how bereaved mothers' lactation autonomy may interface with a HMB's donation guidelines; how milk donation may be discussed with bereaved mothers; the variation between four categories of milk donation after neonatal death; the impact of limited resources and few HMBs on providing donation programs for bereaved mothers in Australia. This article provides evidence from researchers and practitioners that can assist HMB staff in refining their bank's policy on milk donation after infant death, and provides national policy makers with key considerations to support lactation, human milk banking, and bereavement services nation-wide. PMID:25530794

  4. International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The World Health Organization's final draft of the "International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes" is presented in its entirety. Recognizing that breast-feeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants, the Code's aim is to contribute to the safe and adequate nutrition of infants…

  5. Antiviral activity of purified human breast milk mucin.

    PubMed

    Habte, Habtom H; Kotwal, Girish J; Lotz, Zoë E; Tyler, Marilyn G; Abrahams, Melissa; Rodriques, Jerry; Kahn, Delawir; Mall, Anwar S

    2007-01-01

    Human breast milk is known to contain numerous biologically active components which protect breast fed infants against microbes, viruses, and toxins. The purpose of this study was to purify and characterize the breast milk mucin and determine its anti-poxvirus activity. In this study human milk mucin, free of contaminant protein and of sufficient quantity for further analysis, was isolated and purified by Sepharose CL-4B gel filtration and cesiumchloride density-gradient centrifugation. Based on the criteria of size and appearance of the bands and their electrophoretic mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, Western blotting together with the amino acid analysis, it is very likely that the human breast milk mucin is MUC1. It was shown that this breast milk mucin inhibits poxvirus activity by 100% using an inhibition assay with a viral concentration of 2.4 million plaque-forming units/ml. As the milk mucin seems to aggregate poxviruses prior to their entry into host cells, it is possible that this mucin may also inhibit other enveloped viruses such as HIV from entry into host cells. PMID:17361093

  6. Radiation dosimetry from breast milk excretion of radioiodine and pertechnetate

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, W.R.; Di Simone, R.N.; Keen, R.L.

    1986-10-01

    Measurements were made of the activity in samples of breast milk obtained from a patient with postpartum thyroiditis following administration of (/sup 123/I)sodium iodide and subsequently (99mTc)pertechnetate 24 hr later. Both /sup 123/I and 99mTc were found to be excreted exponentially with an effective half-life of 5.8 hr and 2.8 hr, respectively. Less than 10% of the activity was incorporated into breast-milk protein. After administration of (/sup 123/I)sodium iodide breast feeding should be discontinued for 24-36 hr to reduce the absorbed dose to the child's thyroid.

  7. Breastfeeding: breast milk banks and human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Choto, R G

    1990-12-01

    HIV in infants and children in Zimbabwe is virtually limited to vertical transmission. Less than 5 cases of transfusion acquired HIV infections have been documented to date. Zimbabwe was the third country in the world after the United States, to screen transfusion blood and blood products. The controversy of HIV transmission through breast milk is still far from resolved. In developing countries, breast-milk substitutes for formulae are not only prohibitively expensive but dangerous because of unhygienic and economic constraints. The paper argues the case for continued breast-feeding of infants by their HIV seropositive mothers. PMID:2092885

  8. The Presence and Anti-HIV-1 Function of Tenascin C in Breast Milk and Genital Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Frederick; McGuire, Erin; Fouda, Genevieve; Amos, Joshua; Barbas, Kimberly; Ohashi, Tomoo; Alam, S. Munir; Erickson, Harold; Permar, Sallie R.

    2016-01-01

    Tenascin-C (TNC) is a newly identified innate HIV-1-neutralizing protein present in breast milk, yet its presence and potential HIV-inhibitory function in other mucosal fluids is unknown. In this study, we identified TNC as a component of semen and cervical fluid of HIV-1-infected and uninfected individuals, although it is present at a significantly lower concentration and frequency compared to that of colostrum and mature breast milk, potentially due to genital fluid protease degradation. However, TNC was able to neutralize HIV-1 after exposure to low pH, suggesting that TNC could be active at low pH in the vaginal compartment. As mucosal fluids are complex and contain a number of proteins known to interact with the HIV-1 envelope, we further studied the relationship between the concentration of TNC and neutralizing activity in breast milk. The amount of TNC correlated only weakly with the overall innate HIV-1-neutralizing activity of breast milk of uninfected women and negatively correlated with neutralizing activity in milk of HIV-1 infected women, indicating that the amount of TNC in mucosal fluids is not adequate to impede HIV-1 transmission. Moreover, the presence of polyclonal IgG from milk of HIV-1 infected women, but not other HIV-1 envelope-binding milk proteins or monoclonal antibodies, blocked the neutralizing activity of TNC. Finally, as exogenous administration of TNC would be necessary for it to mediate measurable HIV-1 neutralizing activity in mucosal compartments, we established that recombinantly produced TNC has neutralizing activity against transmitted/founder HIV-1 strains that mimic that of purified TNC. Thus, we conclude that endogenous TNC concentration in mucosal fluids is likely inadequate to block HIV-1 transmission to uninfected individuals. PMID:27182834

  9. Clinical impact of human breast milk metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Cesare Marincola, Flaminia; Dessì, Angelica; Corbu, Sara; Reali, Alessandra; Fanos, Vassilios

    2015-12-01

    Metabolomics is a research field concerned with the analysis of metabolome, the complete set of metabolites in a given cell, tissue, or biological sample. Being able to provide a molecular snapshot of biological systems, metabolomics has emerged as a functional methodology in a wide range of research areas such as toxicology, pharmacology, food technology, nutrition, microbial biotechnology, systems biology, and plant biotechnology. In this review, we emphasize the applications of metabolomics in investigating the human breast milk (HBM) metabolome. HBM is the recommended source of nutrition for infants since it contains the optimal balance of nutrients for developing babies, and it provides a range of benefits for growth, immunity, and development. The molecular mechanisms beyond the inter- and intra-variability of HBM that make its composition unique are yet to be well-characterized. Although still in its infancy, the study of HBM metabolome has already proven itself to be of great value in providing insights into this biochemical variability in relation to mother phenotype, diet, disease, and lifestyle. The results of these investigations lay the foundation for further developments useful to identify normal and aberrant biochemical changes as well as to develop strategies to promote healthy infant feeding practices. PMID:25689794

  10. Development of the breast milk expression experience measure.

    PubMed

    Flaherman, Valerie J; Gay, Barbara; Scott, Cheryl; Aby, Janelle; Stewart, Anita L; Lee, Kathryn A

    2013-07-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding provides optimal nutrition through 6 months. Recent research has shown that milk expression may affect breastfeeding duration. A woman's experience with milk expression might mediate the effect of milk expression on breastfeeding duration. The objective of this study was to develop a measure to evaluate women's experiences of expressing milk. Based on the available literature, we developed a brief measure of the Breast Milk Expression Experience (BMEE) assessing three dimensions: (1) social support for milk expression; (2) ease of learning how to express milk; and (3) personal experiences of milk expression. All items used 1-5 Likert scales, with higher scores indicating better experiences. We administered the items immediately after expression to 68 mothers who expressed milk post-partum. We evaluated this measure for reliability using Cronbach's alpha. Mothers completing the BMEE were 57% primiparous with 75% vaginal births. The BMEE demonstrated appropriate reliability with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.703 for the summary index and 0.719-0.763 for social support, learning experience and personal experience subscales. The BMEE also indicated good predictive validity; of the six mothers who had a mean score <3 on the 11-item scale post-partum, two (33.3%) were expressing breast milk at 1 month, compared with 37 (80.4%) of the 46 mothers who had a mean score ≥3 on the 11-item scale post-partum (P = 0.012). The BMEE is a promising measure of milk expression experience in this population. Use of this measure may allow improved understanding of women's experiences expressing milk. PMID:22236401

  11. Development of a Patient-Specific Two-Compartment Anthropomorphic Breast Phantom

    PubMed Central

    Prionas, Nicolas D.; Burkett, George W.; McKenney, Sarah E.; Chen, Lin; Stern, Robin L.; Boone, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To develop a technique for the construction of a two-compartment anthropomorphic breast phantom specific to an individual patient’s pendant breast anatomy. Methods Three-dimensional breast images were acquired on a prototype dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT) scanner as part of an ongoing IRB-approved clinical trial of bCT. The images from the breast of a patient were segmented into adipose and glandular tissue regions and divided into 1.59 mm thick breast sections to correspond to the thickness of polyethylene stock. A computer controlled water-jet cutting machine was used to cut the outer breast edge and the internal regions corresponding to glandular tissue from the polyethylene. The stack of polyethylene breast segments was encased in a thermoplastic “skin” and filled with water. Water-filled spaces modeled glandular tissue structures and the surrounding polyethylene modeled the adipose tissue compartment. Utility of the phantom was demonstrated by inserting 200 μm microcalcifications as well as measuring point dose deposition during bCT scanning. Results Rigid registration of the original patient images with bCT images of the phantom showed similar tissue distribution. Linear profiles through the registered images demonstrated a mean coefficient of determination (r2) between grayscale profiles of 0.881. The exponent of the power law describing the anatomical noise power spectrum was identical in the coronal images of the patient’s breast and the phantom. Microcalcifications were visualized in the phantom at bCT scanning. Real-time air kerma rate was measured during bCT scanning and fluctuated with breast anatomy. On average, point dose deposition was 7.1% greater than mean glandular dose. Conclusions A technique to generate a two-compartment anthropomorphic breast phantom from bCT images has been demonstrated. The phantom is the first, to our knowledge, to accurately model the uncompressed pendant breast and the glandular tissue

  12. Development of a patient-specific two-compartment anthropomorphic breast phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prionas, Nicolas D.; Burkett, George W.; McKenney, Sarah E.; Chen, Lin; Stern, Robin L.; Boone, John M.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a technique for the construction of a two-compartment anthropomorphic breast phantom specific to an individual patient's pendant breast anatomy. Three-dimensional breast images were acquired on a prototype dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT) scanner as part of an ongoing IRB-approved clinical trial of bCT. The images from the breast of a patient were segmented into adipose and glandular tissue regions and divided into 1.59 mm thick breast sections to correspond to the thickness of polyethylene stock. A computer-controlled water-jet cutting machine was used to cut the outer breast edge and the internal regions corresponding to glandular tissue from the polyethylene. The stack of polyethylene breast segments was encased in a thermoplastic ‘skin’ and filled with water. Water-filled spaces modeled glandular tissue structures and the surrounding polyethylene modeled the adipose tissue compartment. Utility of the phantom was demonstrated by inserting 200 µm microcalcifications as well as by measuring point dose deposition during bCT scanning. Affine registration of the original patient images with bCT images of the phantom showed similar tissue distribution. Linear profiles through the registered images demonstrated a mean coefficient of determination (r2) between grayscale profiles of 0.881. The exponent of the power law describing the anatomical noise power spectrum was identical in the coronal images of the patient's breast and the phantom. Microcalcifications were visualized in the phantom at bCT scanning. The real-time air kerma rate was measured during bCT scanning and fluctuated with breast anatomy. On average, point dose deposition was 7.1% greater than the mean glandular dose. A technique to generate a two-compartment anthropomorphic breast phantom from bCT images has been demonstrated. The phantom is the first, to our knowledge, to accurately model the uncompressed pendant breast and the glandular tissue

  13. Aflatoxin M₁ in breast milk of nursing Sudanese mothers.

    PubMed

    Elzupir, Amin O; Abas, Abdel Rouf A; Fadul, M Hemmat; Modwi, Abueliz K; Ali, Nima M I; Jadian, Afaf F F; Ahmed, Nuha Abd A; Adam, Smah Y A; Ahmed, Nousiba A M; Khairy, Arwa A A; Khalil, Eltahir A G

    2012-05-01

    The presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in the breast milk of nursing Sudanese mothers was investigated using AOAC official method 980.21 as the extraction method and HPLC with fluorescence detector for separation and detection. Following informed consent, 94 breast milk samples of mothers were collected, and 51 samples were found to be positive for AFM1, with an average concentration of 0.401 ± 0.525 ng g(-1) and a maximum level of 2.561 ng g(-1). The volunteers completed a questionnaire concerning their dietary preferences. The data collected suggest that peanut butter, vegetable oils and rice are the main sources responsible for the AFM1 burden in breast milk. The toxin levels are alarmingly high, and indicate that Sudanese infants are exposed to high levels of AFM1. A wide range of harmful effects, and consequently health problems, can be expected due AFM1 toxicity. PMID:23606051

  14. Biomechanics of milk extraction during breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Elad, David; Kozlovsky, Pavel; Blum, Omry; Laine, Andrew F; Po, Ming Jack; Botzer, Eyal; Dollberg, Shaul; Zelicovich, Mabel; Ben Sira, Liat

    2014-04-01

    How do infants extract milk during breast-feeding? We have resolved a century-long scientific controversy, whether it is sucking of the milk by subatmospheric pressure or mouthing of the nipple-areola complex to induce a peristaltic-like extraction mechanism. Breast-feeding is a dynamic process, which requires coupling between periodic motions of the infant's jaws, undulation of the tongue, and the breast milk ejection reflex. The physical mechanisms executed by the infant have been intriguing topics. We used an objective and dynamic analysis of ultrasound (US) movie clips acquired during breast-feeding to explore the tongue dynamic characteristics. Then, we developed a new 3D biophysical model of the breast and lactiferous tubes that enables the mimicking of dynamic characteristics observed in US imaging during breast-feeding, and thereby, exploration of the biomechanical aspects of breast-feeding. We have shown, for the first time to our knowledge, that latch-on to draw the nipple-areola complex into the infant mouth, as well as milk extraction during breast-feeding, require development of time-varying subatmospheric pressures within the infant's oral cavity. Analysis of the US movies clearly demonstrated that tongue motility during breast-feeding was fairly periodic. The anterior tongue, which is wedged between the nipple-areola complex and the lower lips, moves as a rigid body with the cycling motion of the mandible, while the posterior section of the tongue undulates in a pattern similar to a propagating peristaltic wave, which is essential for swallowing. PMID:24706845

  15. Biomechanics of milk extraction during breast-feeding

    PubMed Central

    Elad, David; Kozlovsky, Pavel; Blum, Omry; Laine, Andrew F.; Po, Ming Jack; Botzer, Eyal; Dollberg, Shaul; Zelicovich, Mabel; Ben Sira, Liat

    2014-01-01

    How do infants extract milk during breast-feeding? We have resolved a century-long scientific controversy, whether it is sucking of the milk by subatmospheric pressure or mouthing of the nipple–areola complex to induce a peristaltic-like extraction mechanism. Breast-feeding is a dynamic process, which requires coupling between periodic motions of the infant’s jaws, undulation of the tongue, and the breast milk ejection reflex. The physical mechanisms executed by the infant have been intriguing topics. We used an objective and dynamic analysis of ultrasound (US) movie clips acquired during breast-feeding to explore the tongue dynamic characteristics. Then, we developed a new 3D biophysical model of the breast and lactiferous tubes that enables the mimicking of dynamic characteristics observed in US imaging during breast-feeding, and thereby, exploration of the biomechanical aspects of breast-feeding. We have shown, for the first time to our knowledge, that latch-on to draw the nipple–areola complex into the infant mouth, as well as milk extraction during breast-feeding, require development of time-varying subatmospheric pressures within the infant’s oral cavity. Analysis of the US movies clearly demonstrated that tongue motility during breast-feeding was fairly periodic. The anterior tongue, which is wedged between the nipple–areola complex and the lower lips, moves as a rigid body with the cycling motion of the mandible, while the posterior section of the tongue undulates in a pattern similar to a propagating peristaltic wave, which is essential for swallowing. PMID:24706845

  16. Bisphenol A concentrations in maternal breast milk and infant urine

    PubMed Central

    Mendonca, K.; Hauser, R.; Calafat, A.M.; Arbuckle, T.E.; Duty, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The present report describes the distribution of breast milk and urinary free and total bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations, from 27 post-partum women and their 31 infants, and explores the influence of age, sex, and nutritional source on infant BPA urinary concentration. Methods Both free (unconjugated) and total (free plus conjugated) BPA concentrations from women’s breast milk samples and infants’ urine samples were measured by online solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests of group comparisons were conducted. Results Total BPA was detected in 93% of urine samples in this healthy infant population aged 3–15 months who were without known environmental exposure to BPA (interquartile range [IQR]=1.2 – 4.4 μg/L). Similarly, 75% of the mothers’ breast milk samples had detectable concentrations of total BPA (IQR=0.4 – 1.4 μg/L). The magnitude and frequency of detection of free BPA in the children’s urine and the mothers’ breast milk were much lower than the total concentrations. Conclusions Total BPA was detected in 93% of this healthy infant population aged 3–15 months who are without known environmental exposure to BPA. Neither free nor total BPA urinary concentrations differed significantly by infant’s sex or by nutritional source (breast milk and/or formula) while age group was of borderline significance. There were no significant correlations between free or total BPA concentrations in mothers’ breast milk and their infants’ urine. PMID:23212895

  17. Detection of Volatile Metabolites of Garlic in Human Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Scheffler, Laura; Sauermann, Yvonne; Zeh, Gina; Hauf, Katharina; Heinlein, Anja; Sharapa, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant concentrations by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography−mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived metabolites in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2). Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two metabolites were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single metabolite. The formation of these metabolites is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO2 are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these metabolites into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences. PMID:27275838

  18. Detection of Volatile Metabolites of Garlic in Human Breast Milk.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Laura; Sauermann, Yvonne; Zeh, Gina; Hauf, Katharina; Heinlein, Anja; Sharapa, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant concentrations by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived metabolites in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO₂). Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two metabolites were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single metabolite. The formation of these metabolites is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO₂ are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these metabolites into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences. PMID:27275838

  19. Breast milk intake: 12 hour versus 24 hour assessment.

    PubMed

    De Carvalho, M; Pittard, W

    1982-11-01

    Letter to the editor commenting on "Clinical and field studies of human lactation: methodological considerations," by Brown et al. The point is made that in test-weighing infants to estimate breast milk intake, culture related breastfeeding practices must be studied before a 12 hour test period is used to estimate intake for a complete 24 hour period. In western cultures milk intake between 7 am and 7 pm was found to differ significantly from intake between 7 pm and 7 am, whereas in a Bangladesh study milk intake during the 2 12 hour periods was comparable. PMID:7137079

  20. Early microbial contact, the breast milk microbiome and child health.

    PubMed

    Rautava, S

    2016-02-01

    The significance of contact with microbes in early life for subsequent health has been the subject of intense research during the last 2 decades. Disturbances in the establishment of the indigenous intestinal microbiome caused by cesarean section delivery or antibiotic exposure in early life have been linked to the risk of immune-mediated and inflammatory conditions such as atopic disorders, inflammatory bowel disease and obesity later in life. Distinct microbial populations have recently been discovered at maternal sites including the amniotic cavity and breast milk, as well as meconium, which have previously been thought to be sterile. Our understanding of the impact of fetal microbial contact on health outcomes is still rudimentary. Breast milk is known to modulate immune and metabolic programming. The breast milk microbiome is hypothesized to guide infant gut colonization and is affected by maternal health status and mode of delivery. Immunomodulatory factors in breast milk interact with the maternal and infant gut microbiome and may mediate some of the health benefits associated with breastfeeding. The intimate connection between the mother and the fetus or the infant is a potential target for microbial therapeutic interventions aiming to support healthy microbial contact and protect against disease. PMID:26051698

  1. Persistent organic pollutants in human breast milk from Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kunisue, Tatsuya

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we concisely reviewed the contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in human breast milk collected from Asian countries such as Japan, China, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, and Indonesia during 1999-2003. Dioxins, PCBs, CHLs in Japanese, and DDTs in Vietnamese, Chinese, Cambodian, Malaysian, and HCHs in Chinese, Indian, and HCB in Chinese breast milk were predominant. In India, levels of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in the mothers living around the open dumping site were notably higher than those from the reference site and other Asian developing countries, indicating that significant pollution sources of DRCs are present in the dumping site of India and the residents there have been exposed to relatively higher levels of these contaminants possibly via bovine milk. PMID:16949712

  2. Ultrasonographic patterns of reproductive organs in infants fed soy formula: Comparisons to infants fed breast milk and milk formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine if differences exist in hormone sensitive organ size between infants fed soy formula (SF), milk formula (MF), or breast milk (BF). Breast buds, uterus, ovaries, prostate, and testicular volumes were assessed by ultrasonography in 40 BF, 41 MF, and 39 SF infants at age ...

  3. Exposure of infants to ochratoxin A with breast milk.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, K; Blaszkewicz, M; Campos, V; Vega, M; Degen, G H

    2014-03-01

    The nephrotoxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is a worldwide contaminant in food commodities and also found frequently in human biological fluids. Dietary contaminants ingested by nursing mothers can appear in breast milk. But the rate of lactational transfer of OTA has not been investigated so far at various stages of breastfeeding. Therefore, and to investigate OTA exposure of Chilean infants, we conducted a longitudinally designed study in mother-child pairs (n = 21) with parallel collection of maternal blood, milk and of infant urine samples over a period of up to 6 months. Validated analytical methods were applied to determine OTA concentrations in all biological samples (n = 134). OTA was detected in almost all maternal blood plasma, at concentrations ranging between 72 and 639 ng/L. The OTA concentrations in breast milk were on average one quarter of those measured in plasma (M/P ratio 0.25). Interestingly, a higher fraction of circulating OTA was excreted in colostrum (M/P 0.4) than with mature milk (M/P ≤ 0.2). Infants exposure was calculated as daily intake from our new data for OTA levels in breast milk, and taking into account milk consumption and body weight as additional variables: Chilean infants have an average intake of 12.7 ± 9.1 ng/kg bw during the first 6 days after delivery while intake with mature milk results in average values close to 5.0 ng/kg bw/day. Their OTA exposure is discussed in the context of tolerable intake values suggested by different scientific bodies. Moreover, the study design enabled a comparison of OTA intake and infant urine concentrations over the breastfeeding period. The statistical analysis of n = 27 paired values showed a good correlation (r = 0.57) for this type of studies and thereby confirms that urinary OTA analysis in infants is a valid biomarker of exposure. PMID:24270973

  4. Breast Milk Oligosaccharides: Structure-Function Relationships in the Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Smilowitz, Jennifer T.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Mills, David A.; German, J. Bruce; Freeman, Samara L.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to providing complete postnatal nutrition, breast milk is a complex biofluid that delivers bioactive components for the growth and development of the intestinal and immune systems. Lactation is a unique opportunity to understand the role of diet in shaping the intestinal environment including the infant microbiome. Of considerable interest is the diversity and abundance of milk glycans that are energetically costly for the mammary gland to produce yet indigestible by infants. Milk glycans comprise free oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycopeptides, and glycolipids. Emerging technological advances are enabling more comprehensive, sensitive, and rapid analyses of these different classes of milk glycans. Understanding the impact of inter- and intraindividual glycan diversity on function is an important step toward interventions aimed at improving health and preventing disease. This review discusses the state of technology for glycan analysis and how specific structure-function knowledge is enhancing our understanding of early nutrition in the neonate. PMID:24850388

  5. Breast milk oligosaccharides: structure-function relationships in the neonate.

    PubMed

    Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Mills, David A; German, J Bruce; Freeman, Samara L

    2014-01-01

    In addition to providing complete postnatal nutrition, breast milk is a complex biofluid that delivers bioactive components for the growth and development of the intestinal and immune systems. Lactation is a unique opportunity to understand the role of diet in shaping the intestinal environment including the infant microbiome. Of considerable interest is the diversity and abundance of milk glycans that are energetically costly for the mammary gland to produce yet indigestible by infants. Milk glycans comprise free oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycopeptides, and glycolipids. Emerging technological advances are enabling more comprehensive, sensitive, and rapid analyses of these different classes of milk glycans. Understanding the impact of inter- and intraindividual glycan diversity on function is an important step toward interventions aimed at improving health and preventing disease. This review discusses the state of technology for glycan analysis and how specific structure-function knowledge is enhancing our understanding of early nutrition in the neonate. PMID:24850388

  6. Providing an information service on drugs and breast milk.

    PubMed

    Grant, E; Golightly, P W

    1984-06-01

    Since the formulation of the national drug information network in 1975 in the United Kingdom, a work-sharing system was developed involving regional drug information centers. The designated file holder develops an in-depth, readily accessible data base which is used for the provision of information and advice to the drug information network. A specialist file was developed on drugs in breast milk. In 1977, the Trent and West Midlands drug information services, which had independently formed substantial data banks agreed to cooperate on the development of this file; DIDMIS (Drugs and Breast Milk Information Service) was then established. There are approximately 120 drug information centers. Data on excretion of drugs into breast milk form the major part of the file, but diagnostic agents, enviromental pollutants, alchol, and smoking are also included. The effects of drugs on milk content and production are also covered. Material relating to breast feeding, milk banks, and the presence of endogenous substances such as iron, immunoglobulins, and thyroxine, forms a smaller part of the file, The data bank covers both published and unpublishedmaterial in a variety of forms. At present, DIDMIS has manually operated card index retrieval system covering some 1500 entries. With the acquisition of microcomputers and data base management systems, it is hoped that file management time and response time will be reduced. The functions of DIBMIS are: 1)data collection and organization; 2)provision of a query answering service to health care professionals; 3)publication of active information; 4)formation of linds with other individuals or organizations; 5)stimulation of studies and research; and 6)establishment of criteria for evaluating studies and the formation of advice. PMID:6431101

  7. QSAR analysis of drug excretion into human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Meskin, M S; Lien, E J

    1985-09-01

    Breast feeding has increased by approximately 25% in the United States during the past decade and this trend appears to be continuing. The number of drugs available to lactating women is also growing at a rapid pace. The excretion of drugs into breast-milk presents a potential danger to infants. In spite of this, little is known about the excretion of drugs into breast-milk. The ability to predict which drugs are potential hazards would be very useful in the clinical setting. This study quantitatively correlates the human milk to plasma concentration ratio of various basic and acidic drugs (log M/P) with the square root of the molecular weight, the partition coefficient (log P) and the degree of dissociation (log U/D). For basic drugs there is a negative-dependence on both log P and log U/D. High lipophilicity favours protein binding and reduces the amount of drug available for diffusion into milk. Therefore, as log P increases, the log M/P decreases. The negative-dependence on log U/D indicates that the higher the degree of dissociation of the base in plasma, the greater the log M/P will be. This fits well with the concept of ion-trapping. A strong base is more likely to be transferred and then trapped in milk which has a lower pH than plasma. For acidic drugs there is a negative-dependence on both square root (MW) and log P. The negative-dependence on square root (MW) suggests that large molecules are less likely to be able to diffuse into the milk. A negative-dependence on log P appears to hold true for bases and acids. Log M/P decreases as log P increases. This is probably due to increased protein binding by lipophilic drugs through non-specific hydrophobic interaction with plasma protein. PMID:4066977

  8. A case report of pink breast milk.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jenny; Crete, Joan; Neumeier, Robin

    2014-01-01

    A woman presented for her postpartum examination alarmed about pink stains on her breast pads and on her infant's burp pads and diapers. The stains were also found in her breast pump and the infant's bottles. Out of concern, she stopped breastfeeding. The diagnosis was colonization of mother and infant with Serratia marcescens. They were managed conservatively without antibiotics. The mother was guided to restart breastfeeding. The infant resumed nursing and continued to thrive. PMID:25141908

  9. Chronic food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome caused by cow's milk proteins passed through breast milk.

    PubMed

    Miceli Sopo, Stefano; Monaco, Serena; Greco, Monica; Scala, Guglielmo

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 cases of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) caused by cow's milk (CM) passed through breast milk. The onset in both cases was characterized by chronic symptoms (regurgitation, colic, diarrhea, failure to thrive); in one patient, two acute episodes due to the direct consumption of CM formula by the infant were also reported. The diagnosis of FPIES through breast milk can be easily overlooked, especially in milder cases. We also discuss some important issues concerning the general management of the disease. In conclusion, (1) the diagnosis of chronic FPIES should be taken into account even in exclusively breast-fed infants who present suggestive symptoms such as persistent regurgitation, small amounts of vomiting, lethargy, failure to thrive, dehydration, diarrhea (sometimes bloody) and abdominal distention. A 2-week maternal elimination diet should be considered even in apparently mild cases. (2) CM seems to be the most frequently reported culprit food. (3) In those cases in which acute FPIES is elicited by the direct consumption of the culprit food in breast-fed infants, maternal diet may be unrestricted. PMID:25034379

  10. PBDE levels in breast milk are decreasing in California.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weihong; Holden, Arthur; Smith, Sabrina Crispo; Gephart, Rosanne; Petreas, Myrto; Park, June-Soo

    2016-05-01

    To assess the efficacy of the bans in reducing PBDE levels, we recruited 67 California first time mothers (sampled during 2009-2012) and collected cord blood at birth (n = 31), breast milk (n = 66) and maternal blood (n = 65) at 3-8 weeks postpartum. Using the same sample extraction procedures and analytical instrumentation method (GC-HRMS), we compared PBDE as well as PCB levels in these breast milk samples to those from our previous study (n = 82, sampled during 2003-2005) and found that the sum of PBDEs over the ∼7 year course declined by 39% (GeoMean = 67.8 ng/g lipid in 2003-2005; 41.5 ng/g lipid in 2009-2012) and that the sum of PCBs declined by 36% (GeoMean = 71.6 ng/g lipid in 2003-2005; 45.7 ng/g lipid in 2009-2012). This supports our earlier finding of a PBDE decline (39%) in blood. We also found that the PBDE concentrations and congener profiles were similar in breast milk and their matched maternal/cord blood: BDE-47 was the dominant congener, followed by BDE-153, -99, and -100. Similar levels and congener profiles of PBDEs in these matrices suggest that they are at equilibrium. Therefore, we propose that maternal serum levels may be used to predict an infant's daily dose of PBDE exposure from breastfeeding when breast milk levels are not available. In addition, our study confirmed that breastfeeding babies are still exposed to high levels of PBDEs, even though PBDE levels are decreasing. PMID:26693645

  11. Comparison of the Compositions of the Stool Microbiotas of Infants Fed Goat Milk Formula, Cow Milk-Based Formula, or Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, Blair; Munro, Karen; Gowri Pathmanathan, Siva; Zhou, Shao J.; Makrides, Maria; Gibson, Robert A.; Sullivan, Thomas; Prosser, Colin G.; Lowry, Dianne; Hodgkinson, Alison J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the compositions of the fecal microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula to those of infants fed cow milk formula or breast milk as the gold standard. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences was used in the analysis of the microbiotas in stool samples collected from 90 Australian babies (30 in each group) at 2 months of age. Beta-diversity analysis of total microbiota sequences and Lachnospiraceae sequences revealed that they were more similar in breast milk/goat milk comparisons than in breast milk/cow milk comparisons. The Lachnospiraceae were mostly restricted to a single species (Ruminococcus gnavus) in breast milk-fed and goat milk-fed babies compared to a more diverse collection in cow milk-fed babies. Bifidobacteriaceae were abundant in the microbiotas of infants in all three groups. Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium bifidum were the most commonly detected bifidobacterial species. A semiquantitative PCR method was devised to differentiate between B. longum subsp. longum and B. longum subsp. infantis and was used to test stool samples. B. longum subsp. infantis was seldom present in stools, even of breast milk-fed babies. The presence of B. bifidum in the stools of breast milk-fed infants at abundances greater than 10% of the total microbiota was associated with the highest total abundances of Bifidobacteriaceae. When Bifidobacteriaceae abundance was low, Lachnospiraceae abundances were greater. New information about the composition of the fecal microbiota when goat milk formula is used in infant nutrition was thus obtained. PMID:23455335

  12. Breast milk jaundice: in vitro inhibition of rat liver bilirubin-uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase activity and Z protein-bromosulfophthalein binding by human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Foliot, A; Ploussard, J P; Housset, E; Christoforov

    1976-06-01

    Twenty-four samples of breast milk from nine mothers of infants suffering from breast milk jaundice were studied. Eight samples of milk from mothers of nonjaundiced infants, along with five formula milks enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids, served as controls. Milks from mothers with jaundiced infants had no inhibitory effect when assayed immediately after thawing. However, after these milk samples were stores at 4 degrees, they strongly inhibited bilirubin conjugation (80.3% inhibition of uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UDPGT) activity) and bromosulfophthalein (BSP) binding to cytoplasmic Z protein (dye binding inhibited 82.1%). There was no effect on BSP binding to Y protein (see Table 1). Heating the milk to 56 degrees modified the results in the following manner; when the milk was heated immediately after thawing, no inhibitory effect was seen, even after storage for 96 hr. On the other hand, when the milk was first stored at 96 hr and then heated, it had the same inhibitory effects as the milks which were stored without heating. The present study shows that pathologic breast milk will inhibit BSP-Z protein binding only when stored under conditions that also cause the appearance of the capacity to inhibit bilirubin conjugation in vitro, as well as causing the liberation of nonesterified fatty acids. Thus, the appearance of this inhibitory capacity in vitro seems linked to the lipolytic activity particular to pathologic milks. PMID:818610

  13. A protective effect of milk fat globule EGF factor VIII (MFG-E8) on the spontaneous fusion of milk fat globules in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Yasueda, Takehiko; Oshima, Kenzi; Nakatani, Hajime; Tabuchi, Kanji; Nadano, Daita; Matsuda, Tsukasa

    2015-07-01

    Lipid droplets synthesized in mammary epithelial cells are secreted into breast milk by the budding-off mechanism. The milk lipids, termed mik fat globules (MFGs), are surrounded with the cell plasma membrane and contain various membrane proteins, including milk fat globule epidermal growth factor (EGF)-factor VIII (MFG-E8), on their surface. We report here that the MFGs in the milk of MFG-E8-deficient mice fused each other and turned into abnormally large size of lipid droplets within ∼48 h after being secreted into mammary alveolar lumen in situ or being incubated at 37°C in vitro. This biophysical degeneration of MFGs in the MFG-E8-deficient milk was efficiently rescued in vitro by adding the milk serum of wild-type mice, isolated MFG-E8 or annexin V. Moreover, addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (30 mM) also protected the MFG fusion remarkably in vitro. In addition, bovine MFGs also fused each other when isolated from milk serum, and the fusion was inhibited by adding isolated MFG-E8 or mouse milk serum, but not the milk serum of MFG-E8-deficient mice. MFG-E8 in breast milk may mask the phosphatidylserine exposed on the surface of MFGs with time after secretion and thereby suppress the membrane fusion among MFGs resulting in the enlargement of MFGs in the breast milk. PMID:25661589

  14. Nurturing and breast-feeding: exposure to chemicals in breast milk.

    PubMed Central

    Somogyi, A; Beck, H

    1993-01-01

    All chemicals that are not normal constituents of human milk should be considered undesirable contaminants. In the present review, the following substances detected in human milk are considered: persistent organochlorine pesticides; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB); polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF); polybrominated compounds; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); trace elements; mycotoxins; nitrate, nitrite, nitrosamines; nicotine, caffeine, ethanol; and drugs. The levels of most of these substances found in human milk were within a range that would not constitute health hazards for breast-fed infants. For many of these, there is a comfortable safety margin. This applies also to organochlorine pesticides and PCB, particularly since, as a result of their discontinued use, the levels of these compounds have clearly declined in recent years. On the other hand, the aflatoxin burden mediated through breast milk, at least in certain tropical countries, appears to pose a definite health hazard. Detailed reference are given on the contamination of human milk with PCDD/PCDF which has to be considered as a matter of concern from the viewpoint of preventive public health. Although the low PCDD/PCDF levels found in the adipose tissue of infants indicate that there is no appreciable health risk emanating from these substances for breast-fed infants, appropriate measures to reduce the current rate of their emission into the environment have to be taken. PMID:8243405

  15. Expressed breast milk on a neonatal unit: a hazard analysis and critical control points approach.

    PubMed

    Cossey, Veerle; Jeurissen, Axel; Thelissen, Marie-José; Vanhole, Chris; Schuermans, Annette

    2011-12-01

    With the increasing use of human milk and growing evidence of the benefits of mother's milk for preterm and ill newborns, guidelines to ensure its quality and safety are an important part of daily practice in neonatal intensive care units. Operating procedures based on hazard analysis and critical control points can standardize the handling of mother's expressed milk, thereby improving nutrition and minimizing the risk of breast milk-induced infection in susceptible newborns. Because breast milk is not sterile, microorganisms can multiply when the milk is not handled properly. Additional exogenous contamination should be prevented. Strict hygiene and careful temperature and time control are important during the expression, collection, transport, storage, and feeding of maternal milk. In contrast to formula milk, no legal standards exist for the use of expressed maternal milk. The need for additional measures, such as bacteriological screening or heat treatment, remains unresolved. PMID:21640434

  16. Biomonitoring Breast Milk Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers as a Function of Environment, Dietary Intake, and Demographics in New Hampshire

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breast milk is a valuable biological specimen for biomonitoring lipid-soluble polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of PBDEs in breast milk from New Hampshire and to examine potential relationships between PBDE levels in breast milk and stage o...

  17. [Nitro-musk compounds in breast milk].

    PubMed

    Liebl, B; Ehrenstorfer, S

    1993-10-01

    Musk xylene, ketone, ambrette, tibetene and moskene are synthetic nitroaromatic compounds. Because of their scent, they are used as substitutes for natural musk. In particular musk xylene and musk ketone are added to cosmetics, washing agents and other products. Acute toxicity of nitro musks has been estimated to be low. Knowledge on the toxicokinetics, chronic toxicity, as well as mutagenic and carcinogenic potential is based so far on only few studies. First evidence for the persistence of these lipophilic compounds in the environment and their potential to accumulate in organisms came from their identification in the aquatic ecosystem. Nitro musks have now been identified in mother's milk. The analysis of 391 samples from Southern Bavaria, Germany, in 1991 and 1992 revealed concentrations of musk xylene ranging from 0.01-1.22 mg/kg fat with a mean content of 0.10 mg/kg fat. This was 2-3 times higher than the mean contents of musk ketone or musk ambrette. Average levels of the nitro musks were in the range of those usually found for various chlorinated compounds like hexachlorocyclohexanes and cis-heptachloroepoxide. Because of their presence in cosmetic products and washing agents dermal absorption could be an important route of uptake of nitro musks in man. Toxicologic relevance of the present findings for humans is still unclear. In order to assess consequences for health, further investigation of effects caused by a continual uptake of small amounts of these substances is necessary. PMID:8268706

  18. Comparing water, bovine milk, and indoor residual spraying as possible sources of DDT and pyrethroid residues in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Sereda, Barbara; Bouwman, Henk; Kylin, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The presence of pollutants in human breast milk is of major concern, especially in malaria control areas where 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) is currently used as indoor residual spray (IRS). The levels of DDT and pyrethroids (PYR) were determined in breast milk, bovine milk, and drinking water from northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Both reference and exposed mothers used the same market food, but the DDT levels in the exposed mothers (mean SigmaDDT 10 microg/g milk fat [mf]) were much higher than for the reference mothers (mean SigmaDDT 1.3 microg/g milk fat). This difference in residue levels indicates uptake from IRS-applied DDT, most likely via air and skin contact, and excludes food as the main source of pollutants. DDT levels in bovine milk (mean SigmaDDT 0.15 microg/g mf) from the exposed area were less than levels in breast milk from the reference area, and lower than the 20 microg/L maximum residue limit (MRL) set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Mean SigmaDDT in water was 0.0065 microg/L, much lower then the WHO limit of the sum of all metabolites in drinking water of 1 microg/L, and therefore highly unlikely to have contributed to any extent toward levels in breast milk. Permethrin in breast milk (mean 1.1-1.6 microg/g milk fat) was probably derived from home garden and indoor use, while the other PYR (cypermethrin and cyfluthrin) at lower concentrations were probably derived from food and agricultural exposure. It is postulated that a better understanding of the indoor dynamics of DDT and other insecticides, through a concept of Total Homestead Environment Approach (THEA), is crucial for investigating options of reducing human exposure and uptake under malaria control conditions. PMID:19557612

  19. Breast milk in Botswana: cream and vitamin C contents.

    PubMed

    Woll, P J; Parkin, J M

    1982-06-01

    Breast milk samples taken at the end of suckling from 112 Botswanan and 17 British mothers were analysed for cream and vitamin C content. Cream was estimated using the creamatocrit method. Measurements of triceps skinfold thickness and mid upper arm circumference were similar in the two groups. The mean (s.d.) vitamin D content of milk in Botswana was 84.60 mumol/l (73.81) [1.49 mg/dl (1.30)] which was less than the mean of 269.70 mumol/l (109.58) [4.75 mg/dl (1.93)] (P less than 0.0001) in Britain, especially among grand multiparae. The Botswanan mean (s.d.) creamatocrit of of 5.32% (2.48%) was lower than that of the British, 7.93% (2.81%) (P less than 0.01). Possible explanations are discussed. PMID:6185080

  20. Isoflavones in human breast milk and other biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Franke, A A; Custer, L J; Tanaka, Y

    1998-12-01

    We established a method for using HPLC and diode-array ultraviolet scanning to quantitate soy isoflavonoids in foods and in human plasma, urine, and breast milk. The analytes occurring as glycoside conjugates were hydrolyzed enzymatically before HPLC analysis if extracted from biological matrices or were subjected to direct HPLC analysis after extraction from foods. We monitored the isoflavones daidzein, genistein, glycitein, formononetin, and biochanin-A and their mammalian metabolites equol and O-desmethylangolensin in human plasma, urine, and breast milk. Analytes were identified by absorbance patterns, fluorometric and electrochemical detection. and comparison with internal and external standards. In addition, we identified analytes by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after trimethylsilylation. The HPLC method was also used to measure concentrations of isoflavones and their glucoside conjugates in various soy-based infant formulas. Total isoflavone concentrations varied between 155 and 281 mg/kg. After one woman received a moderate challenge with 20 g roasted soybeans (equivalent to 37 mg isoflavones), we detected mean total isoflavone concentrations of approximately 2.0 micromol/L in plasma, 0.2 micromol/L in breast milk, and 3.0 micromol/h in urine. According to our measurements, with adjustment for body weight, isoflavonoid exposure is 4-6 times higher in infants fed soy-based formula than in adults eating a diet rich in soyfoods (approximately 30 g/d). Implications of the presented results for the potential cancer-preventing activity of isoflavones by exposing newborn infants to these phytochemicals are discussed. PMID:9848518

  1. Ultra-small volume interdigital sensors for the measurement of human breast milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, A.; Pang, W. W.; Lai, C. T.; Hartmann, P.

    2007-12-01

    A palm-size interdigital impedance sensor incorporating a 10 μL sample reservoir, temperature sensor and hybrid heater was fabricated to determine the feasibility of measuring macronutrients in ultra-small volumes of human breast milk. Comparisons with previous measurements of homogenized cows milk show excellent agreement with fat measurement. Human breast milk however shows no correlation with fat but a surprising correlation with protein. Our investigations and proposed methods to improve the correlation and measurement accuracy are discussed.

  2. Persistent Pesticides in Human Breast Milk and Cryptorchidism

    PubMed Central

    Damgaard, Ida N.; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Toppari, Jorma; Virtanen, Helena E.; Shen, Heqing; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Petersen, Jørgen H.; Jensen, Tina K.; Main, Katharina M.

    2006-01-01

    .012), there were no significant differences between cryptorchid and healthy boys for individual chemicals. However, combined statistical analysis of the eight most abundant persistent pesticides showed that pesticide levels in breast milk were significantly higher in boys with cryptorchidism (p = 0.032). Conclusion The association between congenital cryptorchidism and some persistent pesticides in breast milk as a proxy for maternal exposure suggests that testicular descent in the fetus may be adversely affected. PMID:16835070

  3. Infant exposure to chemicals in breast milk in the United States: what we need to learn from a breast milk monitoring program.

    PubMed Central

    LaKind, J S; Berlin, C M; Naiman, D Q

    2001-01-01

    The presence of environmental chemicals in breast milk has gained increased attention from regulatory agencies and groups advocating women's and children's health. As the published literature on chemicals in breast milk has grown, there remains a paucity of data on parameters related to infant exposure via breast-feeding, particularly those with a time-dependent nature. This information is necessary for performing exposure assessments without heavy reliance on default assumptions. Although most experts agree that, except in unusual situations, breast-feeding is the preferred nutrition, a better understanding of an infant's level of exposure to environmental chemicals is essential, particularly in the United States where information is sparse. In this paper, we review extant data on two parameters needed to conduct realistic exposure assessments for breast-fed infants: a) levels of chemicals in human milk in the United States (and trends for dioxins/furans); and b) elimination kinetics (depuration) of chemicals from the mother during breast-feeding. The limitations of the existing data restrict our ability to predict infant body burdens of these chemicals from breast-feeding. Although the data indicate a decrease in breast milk dioxin toxic equivalents over time for several countries, the results for the United States are ambiguous. Whereas available information supports the inclusion of depuration when estimating exposures from breast-feeding, the data do not support selection of a specific rate of depuration. A program of breast milk monitoring would serve to provide the information needed to assess infant exposures during breast-feeding and develop scientifically sound information on benefits and risks of breast-feeding in the United States. PMID:11171529

  4. Concentration of Trichloroethylene in Breast Milk and Household Water from Nogales, Arizona

    PubMed Central

    Beamer, Paloma I.; Luik, Catherine E.; Abrell, Leif; Campos, Swilma; Martínez, María Elena; Sáez, A. Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has identified quantification of trichloroethylene (TCE), an industrial solvent, in breast milk as a high priority need for risk assessment. Water and milk samples were collected from 20 households by a lactation consultant in Nogales, Arizona. Separate water samples (including tap, bottled and vending machine) were collected for all household uses: drinking, bathing, cooking, and laundry. A risk factor questionnaire was administered. Liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether was followed by GC-MS for TCE quantification in water. Breast milk underwent homogenization, lipid hydrolysis and centrifugation prior to extraction. The limit of detection was 1.5 ng/mL. TCE was detected in 7 of 20 mothers’ breast milk samples. The maximum concentration was 6 ng/mL. TCE concentration in breast milk was significantly correlated with the concentration in water used for bathing (ρ=0.59, p=0.008). Detection of TCE in breast milk was more likely if the infant had a body mass index <14 (RR=5.2, p=0.02). Based on average breast milk consumption, TCE intake for 5% of the infants may exceed the proposed US EPA Reference Dose. Results of this exploratory study warrant more in depth studies to understand risk of TCE exposures from breast milk intake. PMID:22827160

  5. Contamination of breast milk obtained by manual expression and breast pumps in mothers of very low birthweight infants.

    PubMed

    Boo, N Y; Nordiah, A J; Alfizah, H; Nor-Rohaini, A H; Lim, V K

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the rates of bacterial contamination of expressed breast milk (EBM) obtained by manual expression and breast pumps in mothers of very low birthweight (VLBW) infants (<1501 g). This was a randomized, controlled study carried out on 28 mothers of such babies and 92 specimens of EBM were collected: 41 specimens from 13 mothers assigned to the manual group and 51 specimens from 15 mothers in the breast-pump group. EBM was cultured quantitatively by the Miles and Misra method. Breast milk expressed by breast pumps (86.3% or 44/51 specimens) had a significantly higher rate of bacterial contamination than milk expressed by the manual method (61.0% or 25/41 specimens) (P= 0.005). When breast milk was expressed in the hospital, there was no significant difference in contamination rates between the two methods. When breast milk was expressed at home, the rates of bacterial contamination by staphylococci (P= 0.003) and Gram-negative bacilli (P= 0.002) were significantly higher in the breast-pump group than the manual group. In conclusion, the rate of bacterial contamination of EBM of mothers of VLBW infants was high, especially when EBM was obtained by the breast pump or when expression was carried out at home. PMID:11740876

  6. Leukocyte Populations in Human Preterm and Term Breast Milk Identified by Multicolour Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Trend, Stephanie; de Jong, Emma; Lloyd, Megan L.; Kok, Chooi Heen; Richmond, Peter; Doherty, Dorota A.; Simmer, Karen; Kakulas, Foteini; Strunk, Tobias; Currie, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Extremely preterm infants are highly susceptible to bacterial infections but breast milk provides some protection. It is unknown if leukocyte numbers and subsets in milk differ between term and preterm breast milk. This study serially characterised leukocyte populations in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants using multicolour flow cytometry methods for extended differential leukocyte counts in blood. Methods Sixty mothers of extremely preterm (<28 weeks gestational age), very preterm (28–31 wk), and moderately preterm (32–36 wk), as well as term (37–41 wk) infants were recruited. Colostrum (d2–5), transitional (d8–12) and mature milk (d26–30) samples were collected, cells isolated, and leukocyte subsets analysed using flow cytometry. Results The major CD45+ leukocyte populations circulating in blood were also detectable in breast milk but at different frequencies. Progression of lactation was associated with decreasing CD45+ leukocyte concentration, as well as increases in the relative frequencies of neutrophils and immature granulocytes, and decreases in the relative frequencies of eosinophils, myeloid and B cell precursors, and CD16- monocytes. No differences were observed between preterm and term breast milk in leukocyte concentration, though minor differences between preterm groups in some leukocyte frequencies were observed. Conclusions Flow cytometry is a useful tool to identify and quantify leukocyte subsets in breast milk. The stage of lactation is associated with major changes in milk leukocyte composition in this population. Fresh preterm breast milk is not deficient in leukocytes, but shorter gestation may be associated with minor differences in leukocyte subset frequencies in preterm compared to term breast milk. PMID:26288195

  7. HIV-Specific Functional Antibody Responses in Breast Milk Mirror Those in Plasma and Are Primarily Mediated by IgG Antibodies ▿

    PubMed Central

    Fouda, Genevieve G.; Yates, Nicole L.; Pollara, Justin; Shen, Xiaoying; Overman, Glenn R.; Mahlokozera, Tatenda; Wilks, Andrew B.; Kang, Helen H.; Salazar-Gonzalez, Jesus F.; Salazar, Maria G.; Kalilani, Linda; Meshnick, Steve R.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Shaw, George M.; Lovingood, Rachel V.; Denny, Thomas N.; Haynes, Barton; Letvin, Norman L.; Ferrari, Guido; Montefiori, David C.; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Permar, Sallie R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite months of mucosal virus exposure, the majority of breastfed infants born to HIV-infected mothers do not become infected, raising the possibility that immune factors in milk inhibit mucosal transmission of HIV. HIV Envelope (Env)-specific antibodies are present in the milk of HIV-infected mothers, but little is known about their virus-specific functions. In this study, HIV Env-specific antibody binding, autologous and heterologous virus neutralization, and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses were measured in the milk and plasma of 41 HIV-infected lactating women. Although IgA is the predominant antibody isotype in milk, HIV Env-specific IgG responses were higher in magnitude than HIV Env-specific IgA responses in milk. The concentrations of anti-HIV gp120 IgG in milk and plasma were directly correlated (r = 0.75; P < 0.0001), yet the response in milk was 2 logarithm units lower than in plasma. Similarly, heterologous virus neutralization (r = 0.39; P = 0.010) and ADCC activity (r = 0.64; P < 0.0001) in milk were directly correlated with that in the systemic compartment but were 2 log units lower in magnitude. Autologous neutralization was rarely detected in milk. Milk heterologous virus neutralization titers correlated with HIV gp120 Env-binding IgG responses but not with IgA responses (r = 0.71 and P < 0.0001, and r = 0.17 and P = 0.30). Moreover, IgGs purified from milk and plasma had equal neutralizing potencies against a tier 1 virus (r = 0.65; P < 0.0001), whereas only 1 out of 35 tested non-IgG milk fractions had detectable neutralization. These results suggest that plasma-derived IgG antibodies mediate the majority of the low-level HIV neutralization and ADCC activity in breast milk. PMID:21734046

  8. Factors affecting breast milk composition and potential consequences for development of the allergic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Munblit, D; Boyle, R J; Warner, J O

    2015-03-01

    There is conflicting evidence on the protective role of breastfeeding in relation to allergic sensitization and disease. The factors in breast milk which influence these processes are still unclear and under investigation. We know that colostrum and breast milk contain a variety of molecules which can influence immune responses in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue of a neonate. This review summarizes the evidence that variations in colostrum and breast milk composition can influence allergic outcomes in the infant, and the evidence that maternal and environmental factors can modify milk composition. Taken together, the data presented support the possibility that maternal dietary interventions may be an effective way to promote infant health through modification of breast milk composition. PMID:25077553

  9. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula.

    PubMed

    Martin, Camilia R; Ling, Pei-Ra; Blackburn, George L

    2016-01-01

    Mothers' own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow's milk or soymilk. A number of alternatives to cow's milk-based formula also exist. In this article, we review the nutritional information of breast milk and infant formulas for better understanding of the importance of breastfeeding and the uses of infant formula from birth to 12 months of age when a substitute form of nutrition is required. PMID:27187450

  10. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Camilia R.; Ling, Pei-Ra; Blackburn, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Mothers’ own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow’s milk or soymilk. A number of alternatives to cow’s milk-based formula also exist. In this article, we review the nutritional information of breast milk and infant formulas for better understanding of the importance of breastfeeding and the uses of infant formula from birth to 12 months of age when a substitute form of nutrition is required. PMID:27187450

  11. Recovery of extracellular vesicles from human breast milk is influenced by sample collection and vesicle isolation procedures.

    PubMed

    Zonneveld, Marijke I; Brisson, Alain R; van Herwijnen, Martijn J C; Tan, Sisareuth; van de Lest, Chris H A; Redegeld, Frank A; Garssen, Johan; Wauben, Marca H M; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N M

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) in breast milk carry immune relevant proteins and could play an important role in the instruction of the neonatal immune system. To further analyze these EV and to elucidate their function it is important that native populations of EV can be recovered from (stored) breast milk samples in a reproducible fashion. However, the impact of isolation and storage procedures on recovery of breast milk EV has remained underexposed. Here, we aimed to define parameters important for EV recovery from fresh and stored breast milk. To compare various protocols across different donors, breast milk was spiked with a well-defined murine EV population. We found that centrifugation of EV down into density gradients largely improved density-based separation and isolation of EV, compared to floatation up into gradients after high-force pelleting of EV. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we identified different subpopulations of human breast milk EV and a not previously described population of lipid tubules. Additionally, the impact of cold storage on breast milk EV was investigated. We determined that storing unprocessed breast milk at -80°C or 4°C caused death of cells present in breast milk, leading to contamination of the breast milk EV population with storage-induced EV. Here, an alternative method is proposed to store breast milk samples for EV analysis at later time points. The proposed adaptations to the breast milk storage and EV isolation procedures can be applied for EV-based biomarker profiling of breast milk and functional analysis of the role of breast milk EV in the development of the neonatal immune system. PMID:25206958

  12. Recovery of extracellular vesicles from human breast milk is influenced by sample collection and vesicle isolation procedures

    PubMed Central

    Zonneveld, Marijke I.; Brisson, Alain R.; van Herwijnen, Martijn J. C.; Tan, Sisareuth; van de Lest, Chris H. A.; Redegeld, Frank A.; Garssen, Johan; Wauben, Marca H. M.; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N. M.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) in breast milk carry immune relevant proteins and could play an important role in the instruction of the neonatal immune system. To further analyze these EV and to elucidate their function it is important that native populations of EV can be recovered from (stored) breast milk samples in a reproducible fashion. However, the impact of isolation and storage procedures on recovery of breast milk EV has remained underexposed. Here, we aimed to define parameters important for EV recovery from fresh and stored breast milk. To compare various protocols across different donors, breast milk was spiked with a well-defined murine EV population. We found that centrifugation of EV down into density gradients largely improved density-based separation and isolation of EV, compared to floatation up into gradients after high-force pelleting of EV. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we identified different subpopulations of human breast milk EV and a not previously described population of lipid tubules. Additionally, the impact of cold storage on breast milk EV was investigated. We determined that storing unprocessed breast milk at −80°C or 4°C caused death of cells present in breast milk, leading to contamination of the breast milk EV population with storage-induced EV. Here, an alternative method is proposed to store breast milk samples for EV analysis at later time points. The proposed adaptations to the breast milk storage and EV isolation procedures can be applied for EV-based biomarker profiling of breast milk and functional analysis of the role of breast milk EV in the development of the neonatal immune system. PMID:25206958

  13. Effect of Maternal Body Mass Index on Hormones in Breast Milk: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Andreas, Nicholas J.; Hyde, Matthew J.; Gale, Chris; Parkinson, James R. C.; Jeffries, Suzan; Holmes, Elaine; Modi, Neena

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal Body Mass Index (BMI) is positively associated with infant obesity risk. Breast milk contains a number of hormones that may influence infant metabolism during the neonatal period; these may have additional downstream effects on infant appetite regulatory pathways, thereby influencing propensity towards obesity in later life. Objective To conduct a systematic review of studies examining the association between maternal BMI and the concentration of appetite-regulating hormones in breast milk. Method Pubmed was searched for studies reporting the association between maternal BMI and leptin, adiponectin, insulin, ghrelin, resistin, obestatin, Peptide YY and Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 in breast milk. Results Twenty six studies were identified and included in the systematic review. There was a high degree of variability between studies with regard to collection, preparation and analysis of breast milk samples. Eleven of fifteen studies reporting breast milk leptin found a positive association between maternal BMI and milk leptin concentration. Two of nine studies investigating adiponectin found an association between maternal BMI and breast milk adiponectin concentration; however significance was lost in one study following adjustment for time post-partum. No association was seen between maternal BMI and milk adiponectin in the other seven studies identified. Evidence for an association between other appetite regulating hormones and maternal BMI was either inconclusive, or lacking. Conclusions A positive association between maternal BMI and breast milk leptin concentration is consistently found in most studies, despite variable methodology. Evidence for such an association with breast milk adiponectin concentration, however, is lacking with additional research needed for other hormones including insulin, ghrelin, resistin, obestatin, peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1. As most current studies have been conducted with small sample sizes, future studies

  14. Improvement of Expressed Breast Milk in Mothers of Preterm Infants by Recording Breast Milk Pumping Diaries in a Neonatal Center in China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bin; Zheng, Jinxia; Zhou, Ming; Xi, Xiaohong; Wang, Qin; Hua, Jing; Hu, Xuefeng; Liu, Jiang-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Because inadequate expression of human milk (EBM) in mothers of hospitalized infants were noticed in a neonatal center of our hospital, family education program was carried out to increase the EBM. Methods A breast milk pumping diary was introduced to the mothers with preterm infant(s) admitted in the NICU. The ratios of EBM (days of EBM to NICU/hospitalized days), breast milk feeding (BMF) (days of infants fed with exclusive human milk/hospitalized days), mixed feeding (MF) (days of infants fed with partial breast milk and partial formula/hospitalized days), and formula feeding (FF) (days of infants fed with preterm formula/hospitalized days) were evaluated. Results During January to April, 2014, the ratios of EBM to the NICU, BMF, MF and FF were 28.11%, 6.6%, 32.8% and 60.6%, respectively. After the introduction of breast milk pumping diary to the mothers from May 2014, the ratio of EBM to the NICU increased significantly to 53.3% (p<0.01) within the following eight months. Both the ratios of BMF and MF also rose to 23.8% and MF 55.3%, respectively. Consequently, the ratio of FF was reduced to 20.9%. Exclusive breast milk feeding also significantly reduce the duration of nil per oral (NPO) of the very low birth weight infants during hospital stay as compared to those fed with mixed feeding and formula feeding. Conclusion The introduction of a breast milk pumping diary was associated with a significant increase in the intake of EBM of the hospitalized preterm newborns. PMID:26637118

  15. Concentration profiles of metals in breast milk, drinking water, and soil: relationship between matrices.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Osmar O; Julião, Fabiana C; Alves, Renato I S; Baena, Antonio R; Díez, Isabel G; Suzuki, Meire N; Celere, Beatriz S; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L; Segura-Muñoz, Susana I

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, and Zn were determined in breast milk of women living in Conceição das Alagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The potential relationships between metal levels in samples of breast milk, drinking water, and soils collected in the study area were also established. Metal levels in breast milk, except Cr, were lower in comparison to WHO reference concentrations. Zinc was the predominant element in breast milk and drinking water samples, with a median level of 46.2 and 82.2 μg · L(-1), respectively. Soils presented a different pattern of metal concentrations with respect to those found in breast milk and drinking water, Chromium showed the highest median levels (148 mg · kg(-1)), while a certain predominance of Zn and Cu was also observed (47.0 and 43.0 mg · kg(-1), respectively). Similar profiles were observed when comparing metal concentrations in drinking water and breast milk (chi-square χ(2) = 14.36; p < 0.05). In contrast, breast milk-soil and drinking water-soil metal concentration profiles showed significant differences (χ(2) = 635.05 and χ(2) = 721.78, respectively; p < 0.05). These results indicate that drinking water is an important exposure pathway for metals to newborns through breast milk. Further studies should be aimed at assessing the body burdens of metals in that population and at evaluating the potential relationships in the concentrations in biological and environmental matrices as well as at estimating the contribution of dietary intake of metals. In addition, the presence of other chemical pollutants in breast milk should be also studied in order to assess the combined newborn exposure to other contaminants. PMID:24881955

  16. Target Fortification of Breast Milk: How Often Should Milk Analysis Be Done?

    PubMed Central

    Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Gerhard; Zapanta, Bianca; Ali, Anaam; Barui, Sandip; Fusch, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Target fortification (TFO) reduces natural macronutrient variation in breast milk (BM). Daily BM analysis for TFO increases neonatal intensive care unit work load by 10–15 min/patient/day and may not be feasible in all nurseries. The variation of macronutrient intake when BM analysis is done for various schedules was studied. In an observational study, we analyzed 21 subsequent samples of native 24-h BM batches, which had been prepared for 10 healthy infants (gestational age 26.1 ± 1.3 weeks, birth weight: 890 ± 210 g). Levels of protein and fat (validated near-infrared milk analyzer), as well as lactose (UPLC-MS/MS) generated the database for modelling TFO to meet recommendations of European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition. Intake of macronutrients and energy were calculated for different schedules of BM measurements for TFO (n = 1/week; n = 2/week; n = 3/week; n = 5/week; n = 7/week) and compared to native and fixed dose fortified BM. Day-to-day variation of macronutrients (protein 20%, carbohydrate 13%, fat 17%, energy 10%) decreased as the frequency of milk analysis increased and was almost zero for protein and carbohydrate with daily measurements. Measurements two/week led to mean macronutrient intake within a range of ±5% of targeted levels. A reduced schedule for macronutrient measurement may increase the practical use of TFO. To what extent the day-to-day variation affects growth while mean intake is stable needs to be studied. PMID:25835073

  17. Target fortification of breast milk: how often should milk analysis be done?

    PubMed

    Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Gerhard; Zapanta, Bianca; Ali, Anaam; Barui, Sandip; Fusch, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Target fortification (TFO) reduces natural macronutrient variation in breast milk (BM). Daily BM analysis for TFO increases neonatal intensive care unit work load by 10-15 min/patient/day and may not be feasible in all nurseries. The variation of macronutrient intake when BM analysis is done for various schedules was studied. In an observational study, we analyzed 21 subsequent samples of native 24-h BM batches, which had been prepared for 10 healthy infants (gestational age 26.1 ± 1.3 weeks, birth weight: 890 ± 210 g). Levels of protein and fat (validated near-infrared milk analyzer), as well as lactose (UPLC-MS/MS) generated the database for modelling TFO to meet recommendations of European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition. Intake of macronutrients and energy were calculated for different schedules of BM measurements for TFO (n = 1/week; n = 2/week; n = 3/week; n = 5/week; n = 7/week) and compared to native and fixed dose fortified BM. Day-to-day variation of macronutrients (protein 20%, carbohydrate 13%, fat 17%, energy 10%) decreased as the frequency of milk analysis increased and was almost zero for protein and carbohydrate with daily measurements. Measurements two/week led to mean macronutrient intake within a range of ± 5% of targeted levels. A reduced schedule for macronutrient measurement may increase the practical use of TFO. To what extent the day-to-day variation affects growth while mean intake is stable needs to be studied. PMID:25835073

  18. Increasing breast milk production for premature infants with a relaxation/imagery audiotape.

    PubMed

    Feher, S D; Berger, L R; Johnson, J D; Wilde, J B

    1989-01-01

    Many women whose premature infants are hospitalized in a newborn intensive care unit choose to express breast milk for their babies. Yet anxiety, fatigue, and emotional stress are powerful inhibitors of lactation. To facilitate the breast-feeding experience, intervention mothers were given a 20-minute audio cassette tape based on relaxation and visual imagery techniques. At a single follow-up expression of milk at the hospital approximately 1 week after enrollment, they expressed 63% more breast milk than a randomized group of control mothers. The fat content of the breast milk in the two groups was not significantly different. Among a small group of mothers whose infants were receiving mechanical ventilation, the increase in milk volume compared with that of control mothers was 121%. Longer-term effects of the relaxation/imagery approach (such as extending the duration of breast-feeding or reducing parental stress after hospital discharge) and the physiologic basis for the increased volume of expressed milk (improved milk production v more efficient milk ejection) are appropriate topics for future research. PMID:2642620

  19. Leptospira in breast tissue and milk of urban Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    DE Oliveira, D; Figueira, C P; Zhan, L; Pertile, A C; Pedra, G G; Gusmão, I M; Wunder, E A; Rodrigues, G; Ramos, E A G; Ko, A I; Childs, J E; Reis, M G; Costa, F

    2016-08-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. The disease is globally distributed and a major public health concern. The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the main reservoir of the pathogen in urban slums of developing and developed countries. The potential routes of intra-specific leptospire transmission in rats are largely unknown. Herein, we identified pathogenic Leptospira spp. in breast tissue and milk of naturally infected rats. We examined kidney, breast tissue and milk from 24 lactating rats for the presence of leptospires using immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and scanning electronic microscopy. All 24 rats had evidence for Leptospira in the kidneys, indicating chronic carriage. The majority of kidney-positive rats had detectable leptospires in milk (18, 75%) and breast tissue (16, 67%), as evidenced by immunofluorescence assay and immunohistochemistry. Four (17%) milk samples and two (8%) breast tissue samples were positive by quantitative real-time PCR. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of leptospires in breast tissue. No major pathological changes in breast tissue were found. This study, for the first time, identified leptospires in the milk and breast tissue of wild Norway rats, suggesting the possibility of milk-borne transmission of leptospirosis to neonates. PMID:27019024

  20. Breast Milk and Solid Food Shaping Intestinal Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Parigi, Sara M.; Eldh, Maria; Larssen, Pia; Gabrielsson, Susanne; Villablanca, Eduardo J.

    2015-01-01

    After birth, the intestinal immune system enters a critical developmental stage, in which tolerogenic and pro-inflammatory cells emerge to contribute to the overall health of the host. The neonatal health is continuously challenged by microbial colonization and food intake, first in the form of breast milk or formula and later in the form of solid food. The microbiota and dietary compounds shape the newborn immune system, which acquires the ability to induce tolerance against innocuous antigens or induce pro-inflammatory immune responses against pathogens. Disruption of these homeostatic mechanisms might lead to undesired immune reactions, such as food allergies and inflammatory bowel disease. Hence, a proper education and maturation of the intestinal immune system is likely important to maintain life-long intestinal homeostasis. In this review, the most recent literature regarding the effects of dietary compounds in the development of the intestinal immune system are discussed. PMID:26347740

  1. Fatty acid composition of breast milk from three racial groups from Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kneebone, G M; Kneebone, R; Gibson, R A

    1985-04-01

    The fatty acid composition of samples of breast milk obtained from 51 mothers (26 Malay, 15 Chinese, 10 Indian) residing in Penang, Malaysia was determined by gas chromatography. Despite living in close physical proximity the mothers from the three racial groups showed distinct cultural differences in dietary intake. These differences were reflected in differences in the fatty acid composition of breast milk samples. The milk of Chinese mothers was generally less saturated (41%) than that of Malay and Indian mothers (52 and 50% respectively). The milk of Chinese mothers was also richer in linoleic acid (17%) than that of Malay and Indian mothers (9% and 11% respectively). Overall the level of individual fatty acids fell within the range of values reported for Western mothers on well nourished diets and pointed to breast milk of high standard despite large variations in the diet of Malaysian mothers. PMID:3984928

  2. Multiplatform characterization of dynamic changes in breast milk during lactation

    PubMed Central

    Andreas, Nicholas J.; Hyde, Matthew J.; Gomez‐Romero, Maria; Lopez‐Gonzalvez, Maria Angeles; Villaseñor, Alma; Wijeyesekera, Anisha; Barbas, Coral; Modi, Neena; Holmes, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    The multicomponent analysis of human breast milk (BM) by metabolic profiling is a new area of study applied to determining milk composition, and is capable of associating BM composition with maternal characteristics, and subsequent infant health outcomes. A multiplatform approach combining HPLC‐MS and ultra‐performance LC‐MS, GC‐MS, CE‐MS, and 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to comprehensively characterize metabolic profiles from seventy BM samples. A total of 710 metabolites spanning multiple molecular classes were defined. The utility of the individual and combined analytical platforms was explored in relation to numbers of metabolites identified, as well as the reproducibility of the methods. The greatest number of metabolites was identified by the single phase HPLC‐MS method, while CE‐MS uniquely profiled amino acids in detail and NMR was the most reproducible, whereas GC‐MS targeted volatile compounds and short chain fatty acids. Dynamic changes in BM composition were characterized over the first 3 months of lactation. Metabolites identified as altering in abundance over lactation included fucose, di‐ and triacylglycerols, and short chain fatty acids, known to be important for infant immunological, neurological, and gastrointestinal development, as well as being an important source of energy. This extensive metabolic coverage of the dynamic BM metabolome provides a baseline for investigating the impact of maternal characteristics, as well as establishing the impact of environmental and dietary factors on the composition of BM, with a focus on the downstream health consequences this may have for infants. PMID:25959062

  3. [Menstrual blood and human milk. Reflections and new proposals on breast-feeding in ancient Greece].

    PubMed

    Pedrucci, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    Within a larger study on breast-feeding in ancient Greece, we dwelt on four subjects (the superstitions concerning menstrual blood, milk and dairy products consumption by the Athenians, different kinds of milk and beliefs related to the transmission of hereditary characteristics through human milk, the connection between milk, breast and madness) on which we have identified a certain number of neglected sources. Starting from these, we can gain not only some mosaic tiles of the overall fragmentary view on habits and beliefs about breast-feeding, but also, more generally, helpful hints on some aspects of the Greek world and mentality that we barely know. In attempting to reach some general conclusions, we have also considered the iconographic sources, trying to explain, in part at least, the reason for the almost complete absence of scenes of breast-feeding in the archaic and classical art. PMID:24527558

  4. Target Fortification of Breast Milk: Predicting the Final Osmolality of the Feeds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Arum; Fusch, Gerhard; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    For preterm infants, it is common practice to add human milk fortifiers to native breast milk to enhance protein and calorie supply because the growth rates and nutritional requirements of preterm infants are considerably higher than those of term infants. However, macronutrient intake may still be inadequate because the composition of native breast milk has individual inter- and intra-sample variation. Target fortification (TFO) of breast milk is a new nutritional regime aiming to reduce such variations by individually measuring and adding deficient macronutrients. Added TFO components contribute to the final osmolality of milk feeds. It is important to predict the final osmolality of TFO breast milk to ensure current osmolality recommendations are followed to minimize feeding intolerance and necrotizing enterocolitis. This study aims to develop and validate equations to predict the osmolality of TFO milk batches. To establish prediction models, the osmolalities of either native or supplemented breast milk with known amounts of fat, protein, and carbohydrates were analyzed. To validate prediction models, the osmolalities of each macronutrient and combinations of macronutrients were measured in an independent sample set. Additionally, osmolality was measured in TFO milk samples obtained from a previous clinical study and compared with predicted osmolality using the prediction equations. Following the addition of 1 g of carbohydrates (glucose polymer), 1 g of hydrolyzed protein, or 1 g of whey protein per 100 mL breast milk, the average increase in osmolality was 20, 38, and 4 mOsm/kg respectively. Adding fat decreased osmolality only marginally due to dilution effect. Measured and predicted osmolality of combinations of macronutrients as well as single macronutrient (R2 = 0.93) were highly correlated. Using clinical data (n = 696), the average difference between the measured and predicted osmolality was 3 ± 11 mOsm/kg and was not statistically significant. In

  5. Target Fortification of Breast Milk: Predicting the Final Osmolality of the Feeds

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Arum; Fusch, Gerhard; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    For preterm infants, it is common practice to add human milk fortifiers to native breast milk to enhance protein and calorie supply because the growth rates and nutritional requirements of preterm infants are considerably higher than those of term infants. However, macronutrient intake may still be inadequate because the composition of native breast milk has individual inter- and intra-sample variation. Target fortification (TFO) of breast milk is a new nutritional regime aiming to reduce such variations by individually measuring and adding deficient macronutrients. Added TFO components contribute to the final osmolality of milk feeds. It is important to predict the final osmolality of TFO breast milk to ensure current osmolality recommendations are followed to minimize feeding intolerance and necrotizing enterocolitis. This study aims to develop and validate equations to predict the osmolality of TFO milk batches. To establish prediction models, the osmolalities of either native or supplemented breast milk with known amounts of fat, protein, and carbohydrates were analyzed. To validate prediction models, the osmolalities of each macronutrient and combinations of macronutrients were measured in an independent sample set. Additionally, osmolality was measured in TFO milk samples obtained from a previous clinical study and compared with predicted osmolality using the prediction equations. Following the addition of 1 g of carbohydrates (glucose polymer), 1 g of hydrolyzed protein, or 1 g of whey protein per 100 mL breast milk, the average increase in osmolality was 20, 38, and 4 mOsm/kg respectively. Adding fat decreased osmolality only marginally due to dilution effect. Measured and predicted osmolality of combinations of macronutrients as well as single macronutrient (R2 = 0.93) were highly correlated. Using clinical data (n = 696), the average difference between the measured and predicted osmolality was 3 ± 11 mOsm/kg and was not statistically significant. In

  6. Quantitative determination of the human breast milk macronutrients by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, Edlene d. C. M.; Zângaro, Renato A.; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.

    2012-03-01

    This work proposes the evaluation of the macronutrient constitution of human breast milk based on the spectral information provided by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Human breast milk (5 mL) from a subject was collected during the first two weeks of breastfeeding and stocked in -20°C freezer. Raman spectra were measured using a Raman spectrometer (830 nm excitation) coupled to a fiber based Raman probe. Spectra of human milk were dominated by bands of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates in the 600-1800 cm-1 spectral region. Raman spectroscopy revealed differences in the biochemical constitution of human milk depending on the time of breastfeeding startup. This technique could be employed to develop a classification routine for the milk in Human Milk Banking (HMB) depending on the nutritional facts.

  7. Copper, lead and zinc concentrations of human breast milk as affected by maternal dietary practices

    SciTech Connect

    Umoren, J.; Kies, C.

    1986-03-01

    Maternal dietary practices have been found to affect the concentrations of some nutrients in human breast milk. Lead toxicity is a concern in young children. Lead, copper and zinc are thought to compete for intestinal absorption sites. The objective of the current project was to compare copper, lead and zinc contents of breast milk from practicing lacto-vegetarian and omnivore, lactating women at approximately four months post-partum. Analyses were done by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a carbon rod attachment. Copper concentrations were higher in milk samples from lacto-ovo-vegetarians. Milk samples from the omnivores had the highest lead and zinc concentrations. Lead and copper concentrations in milk were negatively correlated. The higher zinc concentrations in the milk of the omnivore women may have been related to better utilization of zinc from meat than from plant food sources.

  8. Analysis of the breast milk of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and the preparation of substitutes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihe; Hou, Rong; Lan, Jingchao; Wang, Hairui; Kurokawa, Hiroyuki; Takatsu, Zenta; Kobayashi, Toyokazu; Koie, Hiroshi; Kamata, Hiroshi; Kanayama, Kiichi; Watanabe, Toshi

    2016-06-01

    The first milk substitute for giant panda cubs was developed in 1988 based on limited data about giant panda breast milk and that of certain types of bear. Mixtures of other formulas have also been fed to cubs at some facilities. However, they are not of sufficient nutritional quality for promoting growth in panda cubs. Here, we report analysis of giant panda breast milk and propose new milk substitutes for cubs, which were developed based on the results of our analysis. The Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding obtained breast milk samples from three giant pandas. Up to 30 ml of breast milk were collected from each mother by hand. Then, the milk samples were frozen and sent to Nihon University. The levels of protein, fat, carbohydrates, ash, moisture, vitamins, minerals, total amino acids, fatty acids, lactose and other carbohydrates in the milk were analyzed. The breast milk samples exhibited the following nutritional values: protein: 6.6-8.5%, fat: 6.9-16.4%, carbohydrates: 2.5-9.1%, ash: 0.9-1.0% and moisture: 67-83%. We designed two kinds of milk substitutes based on the data obtained and the nutritional requirements of dogs, cats and rodents. The nutritional composition of the milk substitutes for the first and second stages was as follows: protein: 38 and 26%, fat: 40 and 40%, carbohydrates: 13 and 25%, ash: 6 and 6% and moisture: 3 and 3%, respectively. In addition, the substitutes contained vitamins, minerals, taurine, docosahexaenoic acid, lactoferrin, nucleotides and other nutrients. PMID:26781707

  9. Analysis of the breast milk of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and the preparation of substitutes

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Zhihe; HOU, Rong; LAN, Jingchao; WANG, Hairui; KUROKAWA, Hiroyuki; TAKATSU, Zenta; KOBAYASHI, Toyokazu; KOIE, Hiroshi; KAMATA, Hiroshi; KANAYAMA, Kiichi; WATANABE, Toshi

    2016-01-01

    The first milk substitute for giant panda cubs was developed in 1988 based on limited data about giant panda breast milk and that of certain types of bear. Mixtures of other formulas have also been fed to cubs at some facilities. However, they are not of sufficient nutritional quality for promoting growth in panda cubs. Here, we report analysis of giant panda breast milk and propose new milk substitutes for cubs, which were developed based on the results of our analysis. The Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding obtained breast milk samples from three giant pandas. Up to 30 ml of breast milk were collected from each mother by hand. Then, the milk samples were frozen and sent to Nihon University. The levels of protein, fat, carbohydrates, ash, moisture, vitamins, minerals, total amino acids, fatty acids, lactose and other carbohydrates in the milk were analyzed. The breast milk samples exhibited the following nutritional values: protein: 6.6–8.5%, fat: 6.9–16.4%, carbohydrates: 2.5–9.1%, ash: 0.9–1.0% and moisture: 67–83%. We designed two kinds of milk substitutes based on the data obtained and the nutritional requirements of dogs, cats and rodents. The nutritional composition of the milk substitutes for the first and second stages was as follows: protein: 38 and 26%, fat: 40 and 40%, carbohydrates: 13 and 25%, ash: 6 and 6% and moisture: 3 and 3%, respectively. In addition, the substitutes contained vitamins, minerals, taurine, docosahexaenoic acid, lactoferrin, nucleotides and other nutrients. PMID:26781707

  10. Genome Sequence of Parascardovia denticolens IPLA 20019, Isolated from Human Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Gueimonde, Miguel; Bottacini, Francesca; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco; Margolles, Abelardo

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the draft genome of Parascardovia denticolens IPLA 20019, isolated from human milk. This species, usually isolated from caries lesions, is taxonomically related to the genus Bifidobacterium. The genetic information of IPLA 20019 enhances our understanding of the adaptation of this P. denticolens strain from human breast milk. PMID:22887674

  11. Mother and Infant Body Mass Index, Breast Milk Leptin and Their Serum Leptin Values

    PubMed Central

    Savino, Francesco; Sardo, Allegra; Rossi, Lorenza; Benetti, Stefania; Savino, Andrea; Silvestro, Leandra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates correlations between mother and infant Body Mass Index (BMI), their serum leptin values and breast milk leptin concentration in early infancy. Subjects and Methods: We determined serum leptin values in 58 healthy infants and leptin values in their mothers’ breast milk, using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Infant and maternal anthropometrics were measured. Results: Median leptin concentration was 3.9 ng/mL (interquartile range (IQR): 2.75) in infant serum, 4.27 ng/mL (IQR: 5.62) in maternal serum and 0.89 ng/mL (IQR: 1.32) in breast milk. Median maternal BMI and weight were 24 kg/m2 (IQR: 4.41) and 64 kg (IQR: 15). Median infant BMI was 15.80 kg/cm2 (IQR: 4.02), while average weight was 5.130 kg (IQR: 1.627). Infants serum leptin values positively correlated with infants’ BMI (p = 0.001; r = 0.213) and breast milk leptin (p = 0.03; r = 0.285). Maternal serum leptin values positively correlated with maternal BMI (p = 0.000, r = 0.449) and breast milk leptin ones (p = 0.026; r = 0.322). Conclusion: Breast milk leptin and maternal BMI could influence infant serum leptin values. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the role of genetics and environment on infant leptin production and risk of obesity later in life. PMID:27338468

  12. Compartment-specific activation of PPARγ governs breast cancer tumor growth, via metabolic reprogramming and symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Avena, Paola; Anselmo, Wanda; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Wang, Chenguang; Pestell, Richard G; Lamb, Rebecca S; Hulit, James; Casaburi, Ivan; Andò, Sebastiano; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Lisanti, Michael P; Sotgia, Federica

    2013-05-01

    The role of PPARγ in cancer therapy is controversial, with studies showing either pro-tumorigenic or antineoplastic effects. This debate is very clinically relevant, because PPARγ agonists are used as antidiabetic drugs. Here, we evaluated if the effects of PPARγ on tumorigenesis are determined by the cell type in which PPARγ is activated. Second, we examined if the metabolic changes induced by PPARγ, such as glycolysis and autophagy, play any role in the tumorigenic process. To this end, PPARγ was overexpressed in breast cancer cells or in stromal cells. PPARγ-overexpressing cells were examined with respect to (1) their tumorigenic potential, using xenograft models, and (2) regarding their metabolic features. In xenograft models, we show that when PPARγ is activated in cancer cells, tumor growth is inhibited by 40%. However, when PPARγ is activated in stromal cells, the growth of co-injected breast cancer cells is enhanced by 60%. Thus, the effect(s) of PPARγ on tumorigenesis are dependent on the cell compartment in which PPARγ is activated. Mechanistically, stromal cells with activated PPARγ display metabolic features of cancer-associated fibroblasts, with increased autophagy, glycolysis and senescence. Indeed, fibroblasts overexpressing PPARγ show increased expression of autophagic markers, increased numbers of acidic autophagic vacuoles, increased production of L-lactate, cell hypertrophy and mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, PPARγ fibroblasts show increased expression of CDKs (p16/p21) and β-galactosidase, which are markers of cell cycle arrest and senescence. Finally, PPARγ induces the activation of the two major transcription factors that promote autophagy and glycolysis, i.e., HIF-1α and NFκB, in stromal cells. Thus, PPARγ activation in stromal cells results in the formation of a catabolic pro-inflammatory microenvironment that metabolically supports cancer growth. Interestingly, the tumor inhibition observed when PPARγ is

  13. Compartment-specific activation of PPARγ governs breast cancer tumor growth, via metabolic reprogramming and symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Avena, Paola; Anselmo, Wanda; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Wang, Chenguang; Pestell, Richard G.; Lamb, Rebecca S.; Hulit, James; Casaburi, Ivan; Andò, Sebastiano; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Lisanti, Michael P.; Sotgia, Federica

    2013-01-01

    The role of PPARγ in cancer therapy is controversial, with studies showing either pro-tumorigenic or antineoplastic effects. This debate is very clinically relevant, because PPARγ agonists are used as antidiabetic drugs. Here, we evaluated if the effects of PPARγ on tumorigenesis are determined by the cell type in which PPARγ is activated. Second, we examined if the metabolic changes induced by PPARγ, such as glycolysis and autophagy, play any role in the tumorigenic process. To this end, PPARγ was overexpressed in breast cancer cells or in stromal cells. PPARγ-overexpressing cells were examined with respect to (1) their tumorigenic potential, using xenograft models, and (2) regarding their metabolic features. In xenograft models, we show that when PPARγ is activated in cancer cells, tumor growth is inhibited by 40%. However, when PPARγ is activated in stromal cells, the growth of co-injected breast cancer cells is enhanced by 60%. Thus, the effect(s) of PPARγ on tumorigenesis are dependent on the cell compartment in which PPARγ is activated. Mechanistically, stromal cells with activated PPARγ display metabolic features of cancer-associated fibroblasts, with increased autophagy, glycolysis and senescence. Indeed, fibroblasts overexpressing PPARγ show increased expression of autophagic markers, increased numbers of acidic autophagic vacuoles, increased production of L-lactate, cell hypertrophy and mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, PPARγ fibroblasts show increased expression of CDKs (p16/p21) and β-galactosidase, which are markers of cell cycle arrest and senescence. Finally, PPARγ induces the activation of the two major transcription factors that promote autophagy and glycolysis, i.e., HIF-1α and NFκB, in stromal cells. Thus, PPARγ activation in stromal cells results in the formation of a catabolic pro-inflammatory microenvironment that metabolically supports cancer growth. Interestingly, the tumor inhibition observed when PPARγ is

  14. Lactation-Related MicroRNA Expression Profiles of Porcine Breast Milk Exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan; Zhong, Zhijun; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Qi; Chen, Lei; Lang, Qiulei; He, Zhiping; Chen, Xiaohui; Gong, Jianjun; Gao, Xiaolian; Li, Xuewei; Lv, Xuebin

    2012-01-01

    Breast milk is the primary source of nutrition for newborns, and is rich in immunological components. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are present in various body fluids and are selectively packaged inside the exosomes, a type of membrane vesicles, secreted by most cell types. These exosomal miRNAs could be actively delivered into recipient cells, and could regulate target gene expression and recipient cell function. Here, we analyzed the lactation-related miRNA expression profiles in porcine milk exosomes across the entire lactation period (newborn to 28 days after birth) by a deep sequencing. We found that immune-related miRNAs are present and enriched in breast milk exosomes (p<10−16, χ2 test) and are generally resistant to relatively harsh conditions. Notably, these exosomal miRNAs are present in higher numbers in the colostrums than in mature milk. It was higher in the serum of colostrum-only fed piglets compared with the mature milk-only fed piglets. These immune-related miRNA-loaded exosomes in breast milk may be transferred into the infant body via the digestive tract. These observations are a prelude to in-depth investigations of the essential roles of breast milk in the development of the infant’s immune system. PMID:22937080

  15. Exposure of Infants to Aflatoxin M1 from Mother's Breast Milk in Ilam, Western Iran

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Farajollah; Abdi, Soghra; Davodian, Elaham; Haghani, Karimeh; Bakhtiyari, Salar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Aflatoxins as a highly toxic group of mycotoxins are present in the environment and foodstuff. These have been reported to cause serious health problems in humans. Since aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is excreted into breast milk, investigating the exposure of infants to AFM1 is of special concern. Methods In the present study, breast milk samples were collected from 85 lactating mothers in Ilam province, Iran, and the levels of AFM1 were analyzed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based technique. AFM1 was detected in breast milk of all lactating women. The mean contamination level was 5.91 ± 2.031 ng/L, ranging from 2 ng/L to 10 ng/L. Results Multiple regression analysis indicated no significant associations of consumption of milk and dairy products, meat, fish, legumes, grain products, fruits, and nuts with the concentration of AFM1 in breast milk. Furthermore, no significant association was observed between AFM1 concentration and anthropometric data of infants. Conclusion In western parts of Iran, lactating mothers and their infants could be at risk of aflatoxin B1 and AFM1 exposure, respectively. Therefore, in Iran, the evaluation of AFM1 in human breast milk as a biomarker for postnatal exposure of infants to this carcinogen requires more attention in different regions and various seasons. PMID:26929911

  16. At the Dawn of a New Discovery: The Potential of Breast Milk Stem Cells1234

    PubMed Central

    Hassiotou, Foteini; Hartmann, Peter E.

    2014-01-01

    Breast milk contains bioactive molecules that provide a multitude of immunologic, developmental and nutritional benefits to the infant. Less attention has been placed on the cellular nature of breast milk, which contains thousands to millions of maternal cells in every milliliter that the infant ingests. What are the properties and roles of these cells? Most studies have examined breast milk cells from an immunologic perspective, focusing specifically on the leukocytes, mainly in the early postpartum period. In the past decade, research has taken a multidimensional approach to investigating the cells of human milk. Technologic advances in single cell analysis and imaging have aided this work, which has resulted in the breakthrough discovery of stem cells in breast milk with multilineage potential that are transferred to the offspring during breastfeeding. This has generated numerous implications for both infant and maternal health and regenerative medicine. This review summarizes the latest knowledge on breast milk stem cells, and discusses their known in vitro and in vivo attributes as well as potential functions and applications. PMID:25398739

  17. The contribution of breast milk to toddler diets in western Kenya.

    PubMed Central

    Onyango, Adelheid W.; Receveur, Olivier; Esrey, Steven A.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To understand the relative contributions of breast milk and the weaning diet to overall nutrient intake, with a view to designing and implementing appropriate programmes to improve complementary feeding in developing countries. METHODS: Complementary food intake was measured in a sample of 250 toddlers (mean baseline age: 13.9 +/- 2.4 months) using 24-h dietary recall interviews administered once every 3 weeks over a 6-month period. Breast-milk intake over a 24-h period was measured using the test-weighing method in a subsample of 50 children. Regression effects of age and sex on observed milk intakes were estimated and imputed to the whole sample to estimate mean intake over the observation period. Total energy and nutrient intakes were evaluated for adequacy with reference to published estimates of toddler requirements. FINDINGS: Total energy intake (1029 kcal/day) was adequate, with breast milk supplying an average of 328 kcal/day (32%), but vitamin A, riboflavin, calcium, iron and zinc intakes were below current estimates of required intakes. Observed limitations in nutrient intake were consistent with the finding that almost half of the toddlers were stunted. The prevalence of wasting was 6% at baseline and 4% at final assessment. Although food consumption increased when breastfeeding stopped, it could not fully compensate for the fat and vitamin A previously supplied by breast milk. CONCLUSIONS: The nutritional role of mother's milk in the second year is inversely related to the adequacy of the complementary diet. In this study, breast milk was an irreplaceable source of fat and vitamin A. When the weaning diet is inadequate for key nutrients because of low intake or poor bioavailability, breast milk assumes greater nutritional significance in the second year of life but does not guarantee adequate nutrient intakes. PMID:12075365

  18. HIV-SPECIFIC SECRETORY IGA IN BREAST MILK OF HIV-POSITIVE MOTHERS IS NOT ASSOCIATED WITH PROTECTION AGAINST HIV TRANSMISSION AMONG BREAST-FED INFANTS

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Louise; Trabattoni, Daria; Kankasa, Chipepo; Sinkala, Moses; Lissoni, Francesca; Ghosh, Mrinal; Aldrovandi, Grace; Thea, Don; Clerici, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To test whether secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigens in breast milk of HIV-positive women is associated with protection against HIV transmission among breast-fed infants. Study design Nested, case-control design in which HIV-specific sIgA was measured in breast milk collected from 90 HIV-positive women enrolled in a study in Lusaka, Zambia. Milk samples were selected to include 26 HIV-positive mothers with infected infants (transmitters) and 64 mothers with uninfected infants (nontransmitters). Results HIV-specific sIgA was detected more often in breast milk of transmitting mothers (76.9%) than in breast milk of nontransmitting mothers (46.9%, P = .009). There were no significant associations between HIV-specific sIgA in breast milk and other maternal factors, including HIV RNA quantities in breast milk, CD4 count, and plasma RNA quantities. Conclusions HIV-specific sIgA in breast milk does not appear to be a protective factor against HIV transmission among breast-fed infants. PMID:17095329

  19. Limited Contribution of Mucosal IgA to Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV)-Specific Neutralizing Antibody Response and Virus Envelope Evolution in Breast Milk of SIV-Infected, Lactating Rhesus Monkeys▿

    PubMed Central

    Permar, Sallie R.; Wilks, Andrew B.; Ehlinger, Elizabeth P.; Kang, Helen H.; Mahlokozera, Tatenda; Coffey, Rory T.; Carville, Angela; Letvin, Norman L.; Seaman, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Breast milk transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains an important mode of infant HIV acquisition. Interestingly, the majority of infants remain uninfected during prolonged virus exposure via breastfeeding, raising the possibility that immune components in milk prevent mucosal virus transmission. HIV-specific antibody responses are detectable in the milk of HIV-infected women and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected monkeys; however, the role of these humoral responses in virus neutralization and local virus quasispecies evolution has not been characterized. In this study, four lactating rhesus monkeys were inoculated with SIVmac251 and monitored for SIV envelope-specific humoral responses and virus evolution in milk and plasma throughout infection. While the kinetics and breadth of the SIV-specific IgG and IgA responses in milk were similar to those in plasma, the magnitude of the milk responses was considerably lower than that of the plasma responses. Furthermore, a neutralizing antibody response against the inoculation virus was not detected in milk samples at 1 year after infection, despite a measurable autologous neutralizing antibody response in plasma samples obtained from three of four monkeys. Interestingly, while IgA is the predominant immunoglobulin in milk, the milk SIV envelope-specific IgA response was lower in magnitude and demonstrated more limited neutralizing capacity against a T-cell line-adapted SIV compared to those of the milk IgG response. Finally, amino acid mutations in the envelope gene product of SIV variants in milk and plasma samples occurred in similar numbers and at similar positions, indicating that the humoral immune pressure in milk does not drive distinct virus evolution in the breast milk compartment. PMID:21041730

  20. Inactivation of Cytomegalovirus in Breast Milk Using Ultraviolet-C Irradiation: Opportunities for a New Treatment Option in Breast Milk Banking

    PubMed Central

    Hod, Nurul; Jayaraman, Jothsna; Marchant, Elizabeth A.; Christen, Lukas; Chiang, Peter; Hartmann, Peter; Simmer, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Pasteurized donor human milk is provided by milk banks to very preterm babies where their maternal supply is insufficient or unavailable. Donor milk is currently processed by Holder pasteurization, producing a microbiologically safe product but significantly reducing immunoprotective components. Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) irradiation at 254 nm is being investigated as an alternative treatment method and has been shown to preserve components such as lactoferrin, lysozyme and secretory IgA considerably better than Holder pasteurization. We describe the inactivation of cytomegalovirus, a virus commonly excreted into breast milk, using UV-C irradiation. Full replication was ablated by various treatment doses. However, evidence of viral immediate early proteins within the cells was never completely eliminated indicating that some viral gene transcription was still occurring. In conclusion, UV-C may be a safe alternative to pasteurisation for the treatment of human donor milk that preserves the bioactivity. However, our data suggests that CMV inactivation will have to be carefully evaluated for each device designed to treat breast milk using UV-C irradiation. PMID:27537346

  1. Inactivation of Cytomegalovirus in Breast Milk Using Ultraviolet-C Irradiation: Opportunities for a New Treatment Option in Breast Milk Banking.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Megan L; Hod, Nurul; Jayaraman, Jothsna; Marchant, Elizabeth A; Christen, Lukas; Chiang, Peter; Hartmann, Peter; Shellam, Geoffrey R; Simmer, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Pasteurized donor human milk is provided by milk banks to very preterm babies where their maternal supply is insufficient or unavailable. Donor milk is currently processed by Holder pasteurization, producing a microbiologically safe product but significantly reducing immunoprotective components. Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) irradiation at 254 nm is being investigated as an alternative treatment method and has been shown to preserve components such as lactoferrin, lysozyme and secretory IgA considerably better than Holder pasteurization. We describe the inactivation of cytomegalovirus, a virus commonly excreted into breast milk, using UV-C irradiation. Full replication was ablated by various treatment doses. However, evidence of viral immediate early proteins within the cells was never completely eliminated indicating that some viral gene transcription was still occurring. In conclusion, UV-C may be a safe alternative to pasteurisation for the treatment of human donor milk that preserves the bioactivity. However, our data suggests that CMV inactivation will have to be carefully evaluated for each device designed to treat breast milk using UV-C irradiation. PMID:27537346

  2. Breast-milk vitamin A as an indicator of the vitamin A status of women and infants.

    PubMed Central

    Stoltzfus, R. J.; Underwood, B. A.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the evidence for using breast-milk vitamin A as an indicator of vitamin A status and provides technical information for researchers who want to use this indicator to assess the vitamin A status of women and breast-fed children. Breast-milk vitamin A is a unique indicator for assessing the vitamin A status of lactating women and their breast-fed infants, and has recently been recommended by WHO for use in monitoring global elimination of vitamin A deficiency. Assessing breast-milk vitamin A is less invasive than alternative approaches for assessing a mother's vitamin A status and not at all invasive for her infant. Collection of milk samples in the field is generally feasible and acceptable. Breast-milk vitamin A appears to be an especially good indicator for measuring the impact of vitamin A interventions on women and infants, and for this purpose, it is more responsive than other indicators. PMID:8846497

  3. Marketing breast milk substitutes: problems and perils throughout the world.

    PubMed

    Brady, June Pauline

    2012-06-01

    On 21 May 1981 the WHO International Code of Marketing Breast Milk Substitutes (hereafter referred to as the Code) was passed by 118 votes to 1, the US casting the sole negative vote. The Code arose out of concern that the dramatic increase in mortality, malnutrition and diarrhoea in very young infants in the developing world was associated with aggressive marketing of formula. The Code prohibited any advertising of baby formula, bottles or teats and gifts to mothers or 'bribery' of health workers. Despite successes, it has been weakened over the years by the seemingly inexhaustible resources of the global pharmaceutical industry. This article reviews the long and tortuous history of the Code through the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the HIV pandemic and the rare instances when substitute feeding is clearly essential. Currently, suboptimal breastfeeding is associated with over a million deaths each year and 10% of the global disease burden in children. All health workers need to recognise inappropriate advertising of formula, to report violations of the Code and to support efforts to promote breastfeeding: the most effective way of preventing child mortality throughout the world. PMID:22419779

  4. Marketing breast milk substitutes: problems and perils throughout the world

    PubMed Central

    Brady, June Pauline

    2012-01-01

    On 21 May 1981 the WHO International Code of Marketing Breast Milk Substitutes (hereafter referred to as the Code) was passed by 118 votes to 1, the US casting the sole negative vote. The Code arose out of concern that the dramatic increase in mortality, malnutrition and diarrhoea in very young infants in the developing world was associated with aggressive marketing of formula. The Code prohibited any advertising of baby formula, bottles or teats and gifts to mothers or ‘bribery’ of health workers. Despite successes, it has been weakened over the years by the seemingly inexhaustible resources of the global pharmaceutical industry. This article reviews the long and tortuous history of the Code through the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the HIV pandemic and the rare instances when substitute feeding is clearly essential. Currently, suboptimal breastfeeding is associated with over a million deaths each year and 10% of the global disease burden in children. All health workers need to recognise inappropriate advertising of formula, to report violations of the Code and to support efforts to promote breastfeeding: the most effective way of preventing child mortality throughout the world. PMID:22419779

  5. Bone mineral content is not reduced despite low vitamin D status in breast milk-fed infants versus cow's milk based formula-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Park, M J; Namgung, R; Kim, D H; Tsang, R C

    1998-04-01

    The effect of low or borderline vitamin D status on bone mineralization of exclusively breast milk-fed infants has not been studied. The low vitamin D status of Korean breast milk-fed infants may theoretically have adverse effects on bone mineralization. Assuming that bone mineral content (BMC) relates in part to vitamin D status, we hypothesized that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentration and BMC would be low, and serum osteocalcin concentration high, reflecting active bone turnover, in breast milk- versus formula-fed infants born in the winter. Eighteen breast milk- and 17 formula-fed infants were recruited at ages 2 to 5 months. The BMC of the lumbar1-4 spine region was measured by using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The BMC and serum osteocalcin levels were similar for both groups. The serum 25-OHD level was significantly lower in breast milk- than formula-fed infants; 44% of the breast milk group versus 6% of the formula group had serum 25-OHD levels less than 28 nmol/L (11 ng/ml), the lower limit of normal. The BMC did not correlate with the serum 25-OHD level. Thus BMC and serum osteocalcin levels in 2- to 5-month-old infants were not different by type of feeding, despite low vitamin D status in breast milk-fed infants. We speculate that adequate mineral absorption occurs during this period from a predominantly (vitamin D independent) passive transport mechanism. PMID:9580763

  6. High levels of DDT in breast milk: intake, risk, lactation duration, and involvement of gender.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Kylin, Henrik; Sereda, Barbara; Bornman, Riana

    2012-11-01

    We investigated presence and levels of DDT in 163 breast milk samples from four South African villages where, in three of them, malaria is controlled with DDT-sprayed indoors. Mean ΣDDT levels in breast milk were 18, 11, and 9.5 mg/kg mf (milk fat) from the three DDT-sprayed villages, respectively, including the highest ΣDDT level ever reported for breast milk from South Africa (140 mg/kg mf). Understanding the causes for these differences would be informative for exposure reduction intervention. The Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT by infants, and the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) were significantly exceeded. DDT had no effect on duration of lactation. There were indications (not significant) from DDT-sprayed villages that first-born female infants drink milk with more ΣDDT than first-born male infants, and vice versa for multipara male and female infants, suggesting gender involvement on levels of DDT in breast milk - requiring further investigation. PMID:22766005

  7. Organochlorine pesticides and their metabolites in human breast milk from Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dasheng; Wang, Dongli; Ni, Rong; Lin, Yuanjie; Feng, Chao; Xu, Qian; Jia, Xiaodong; Wang, Guoquan; Zhou, Zhijun

    2015-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are persistent organic pollutants that could cause deleterious effects on human health. Breast milk represents a noninvasive specimen source to assess maternal and infant exposure to OCPs. This study recruited 142 pregnant mothers in 2011-2012 in Shanghai, China, and their breast milk samples were collected during lactation and analyzed for 27 OCP compounds. Detection rates were in a range of 65.5 to 100 %. In particular, metabolites of 2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) such as 2-chloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDMU), 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol (DDOH), bis(4-chlorophenyl)ketone (DBP), and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenylmethane (DDM) were detected in most milk samples. DDTs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) were dominant OCPs with mean levels of 316, 49.8, and 41.5 ng/g lipid content, respectively, whereas levels of methoxychlor, ∑Drins, ∑Heptachlor, ∑Chlordane, and ∑Endosulfan were fairly low (0.87-5.6 ng/g lipid content). Milk concentrations of OCPs were weakly correlated with maternal age, body weight, and body mass indexes (BMIs). ∑OCPs in this study were much lower than those in human breast milk samples collected in 2002 and 2007. Consumption of higher amounts of fish was associated with higher milk levels of OCPs. Specific OCP patterns in breast milk samples from migrant mothers in Shanghai reflected features of OCP production, use, and exposure in their home provinces. The probabilistic exposure assessment model reveals that Shanghai infants were exposed to low levels of OCPs through breast milk consumption. However, infants as the vulnerable group might be subject to the potential additive and/or synergistic health effects from complex OCP exposure. PMID:25595932

  8. Determinants of aflatoxin M1 in breast milk in a selected group of Egyptian mothers.

    PubMed

    Polychronaki, Nektaria; C Turner, Paul; Mykkänen, Hannu; Gong, Yunyun; Amra, Hassan; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad; El-Nezami, Hani

    2006-07-01

    In Egypt, there is a paucity of biomarker data on aflatoxin (AF) exposure. The study assessed the level and frequency of breast milk AFM1 as a biomarker of maternal exposure. Breast milk samples were collected from a selected group of 388 Egyptian lactating mothers of children attending the New El-Qalyub Hospital, Qalyubiyah governorate, Egypt, during May-September 2003. Following aflatoxin extraction, AFM1 levels were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Approximately 36% of mothers tested positive for AFM1 (median 13.5 pg ml-1, interquartile range (IQR) 10.27-21.43). Non-working status (p = 0.018, odds ratio (OR) = 2.87), obesity (p = 0.004, OR = 3.01), high corn oil consumption (p = 0.002, OR = 2.21), number of children (>1) (p = 0.025, OR = 1.99), and early lactation stage (<1 month) (p = 0.028 OR = 3.57), contributed to the occurrence of AF in breast milk. AFM1 contamination of breast milk was frequent, albeit at moderate levels. Growth and development of the infant is rapid and thus it is possible that AF exposure through breast milk has a significant health effect. PMID:16751147

  9. Organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) in human breast milk from several Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Isobe, Tomohiko; Muto, Mamoru; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Katsura, Kana; Malarvannan, Govindan; Sudaryanto, Agus; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Prudente, Maricar; Viet, Pham Hung; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the concentrations of 10 organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) were determined in 89 human breast milk samples collected from Japan, the Philippines and Vietnam. Among the targeted PFRs, tris(2-chloroexyl) phosphate (TCEP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were the predominant compounds and were detected in more than 60% of samples in all three countries. The concentrations of PFRs in human breast milk were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the Philippines (median 70 ng g(-1) lipid wt.) than those in Japan (median 22 ng g(-1) lipid wt.) and Vietnam (median 10 ng g(-1) lipid wt.). The present results suggest that the usage of products containing PFRs in the Philippines is higher than those of Japan and Vietnam. Comparing with a previous literature survey in Sweden, the levels of PFRs in human breast milk from the Philippines were 1.5-2 times higher, whereas levels in Japan and Vietnam were 4-20 times lower, suggesting that these differences might be due to their variation in the usage of flame-retarded products utilized in each country. When daily intake of PFRs to infants via human breast milk was estimated, some individuals accumulated tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and TCEP were close to reference dose (RfD). This is the first report to identify PFRs in human breast milk samples from Asian countries. PMID:24630247

  10. Impact of Music Therapy on Breast Milk Secretion in Mothers of Premature Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmanagowda, Preethi Bangalore; G C M, Pradeep; Goturu, Jaisri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The promotion of breastfeeding is a simple and efficient strategy in reducing morbidity and mortality in neonates worldwide. Milk from the mother of a Preterm New Born (PTNB) infant contains a higher concentration of nutrients and energy than that produced by mothers of a full-term infant. Studies have shown that music therapy can reduce maternal anxiety, helping mothers cope with the hospitalization of their newborns in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Objective To evaluate the impact of music therapy on amount of breast milk secretion among mothers of premature newborns by reducing maternal stress. Materials and Methods Mothers of premature babies who were admitted to NICU at a tertiary health care centre were included as subjects. Mothers of premature infants were enrolled in the study once they came to NICU to express breast milk from Dec 2012 to May 2013. Each subject was assessed for 4 sessions on MT (Music Therapy) and 4 sessions on NMT (No Music Therapy) over 4 days. Breast milk was expressed using breast milk pump and quantity was measured for two sessions each day once at 11.00am and other at 4.00pm. Raga malkauns and yaman by flute was used for music therapy. MT was administered for 4 sessions in a randomized manner during the study period of 30mins (15mins prior to and 15mins during Breast milk amount). To assess the psychological stress, PSS questionnaire was administered on day 1 and day 4 of MT. Mother’s saliva was collected to estimate salivary cortisol level on the last day of study during the sessions with MT and NMT. Results Music therapy was associated with a significant reduction in stress level as shown by improved PSS score and reduced salivary cortisol. Subjects who received music therapy had significant increase (p-value- 0.033) in breast milk expression when compared to mothers who didn’t. Conclusion Music therapy can be easily used in the breast milk expression room as a method to increase breast milk secretion in

  11. Strontium-89 and Strontium-90 Levels in Breast Milk and in Mineral-Supplement Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Anita A.; Brown, John R.; Tiefenbach, Bella

    1963-01-01

    Strontium-90, strontium-89 and S.U. values were determined in human milk before and after the resumption of atmospheric nuclear testings in 1961, and the levels were compared to cows' milk values reported during the same time. S.U.90 levels in human milk were approximately one-fifth of those found in cows' milk. Assuming an average dietary intake of 11-13 S.U.90 during the period tested, the mean strontium/calcium ratio of 1.78 found in human milk represents an Observed Ratio milk-diet of approximately 0.14-0.16. Although strontium-89 was present in cows' milk already in September 1961, it did not appear in human milk until November 1961. It seems, therefore, that there was a two-month lag period between the appearance of fresh fallout in cows' milk and human milk. Calcium-supplement mineral preparations used by pregnant and lactating women were tested to find their strontium-89, strontium-90 and S.U. levels, because strontium isotopes, if present in these products, will be transferred to the fetus and to breast-fed infants. The compounds tested had S.U.90 levels of 0.13-2.62; in none of the preparations was Sr89 present. PMID:14041888

  12. Maternal Blood, Plasma, and Breast Milk Lead: Lactational Transfer and Contribution to Infant Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ananya; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J.; Smith, Donald; Lupoli, Nicola; Mercado-García, Adriana; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Background: Human milk is a potential source of lead exposure. Yet lactational transfer of lead from maternal blood into breast milk and its contribution to infant lead burden remains poorly understood. Objectives: We explored the dose–response relationships between maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk to better understand lactational transfer of lead from blood and plasma into milk and, ultimately, to the breastfeeding infant. Methods: We measured lead in 81 maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk samples at 1 month postpartum and in 60 infant blood samples at 3 months of age. Milk-to-plasma (M/P) lead ratios were calculated. Multivariate linear, piecewise, and generalized additive models were used to examine dose–response relationships between blood, plasma, and milk lead levels. Results: Maternal lead levels (mean ± SD) were as follows: blood: 7.7 ± 4.0 μg/dL; plasma: 0.1 ± 0.1 μg/L; milk: 0.8 ± 0.7 μg/L. The average M/P lead ratio was 7.7 (range, 0.6–39.8) with 97% of the ratios being > 1. The dose–response relationship between plasma lead and M/P ratio was nonlinear (empirical distribution function = 6.5, p = 0.0006) with the M/P ratio decreasing by 16.6 and 0.6 per 0.1 μg/L of plasma lead, respectively, below and above 0.1 μg/L plasma lead. Infant blood lead level (3.4 ± 2.2 μg/dL) increased by 1.8 μg/dL per 1 μg/L milk lead (p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.3). Conclusions: The M/P ratio for lead in humans is substantially higher than previously reported, and transfer of lead from plasma to milk may be higher at lower levels of plasma lead. Breast milk is an important determinant of lead burden among breastfeeding infants. Citation: Ettinger AS, Roy A, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Smith DR, Lupoli N, Mercado-García A, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Tellez-Rojo MM, Hu H, Hernández-Avila M. 2014. Maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk lead: lactational transfer and contribution to infant exposure. Environ Health Perspect 122:87–92; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp

  13. [Dynamics of lysozyme levels in the blood serum and milk of puerperae with various functional activities of the breasts].

    PubMed

    Safronov, O V; Bakuleva, L P; Nesterova, A A; Babaian, S S

    1991-05-01

    The morbidity rates, ++features of lactation formation, and serum and breast milk lysozyme levels were studied in 91 parturients who showed various breast functional activity in the early postpartum period. The highest frequency of postpartum ++pyo-septic diseases was found in females with hyperlactation. There was earlier appearance of foremilk and milk in these females. Healthy mothers with higher breast functional activity exhibited the greatest levels of lysozyme in the milk and marked decreases in its levels in the blood within the first 3 days as compared to those observed in females who had normal or insufficient quantities of milk. PMID:1897671

  14. Self-assembly structure formation during the digestion of human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Salentinig, Stefan; Phan, Stephanie; Hawley, Adrian; Boyd, Ben J

    2015-01-26

    An infant's complete diet, human breast milk, is the basis for its survival and development. It contains water-soluble and poorly water-soluble bioactive components, metabolic messages, and energy, all of which are made bioavailable during the digestion process in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. Reported is the first discovery of highly geometrically organized structures formed during the digestion of human breast milk under simulated in vivo conditions using small-angle X-ray scattering and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. Time of digestion, pH, and bile salt concentration were found to have symbiotic effects gradually tuning the oil-based environment inside the breast milk globules to more water-like structures with high internal surface area. The structure formation is necessarily linked to its function as carriers for poorly water-soluble molecules in the digestive tract of the infant. PMID:25482918

  15. Expressionists of the twenty-first century: the commodification and commercialization of expressed breast milk.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Kath; Team, Victoria; Alexander, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Breast milk expression has been promoted as liberating for women and as offering them more choices, but there has been little research on women's experiences of it and even less critical commentary on the consequences of its incorporation into mainstream behavior. Drawing on narratives of women in the United Kingdom about breastfeeding, we explore the increasingly popular practice of expressing and feeding expressed breast milk. We argue that breast milk has become commodified, breastfeeding commercialized and technologized, and the mother-infant relationship disrupted. We suggest that breastfeeding as a process is being undermined by vested interests that portray it as unreliable and reconstruct it in artificial feeding terms, so playing on women's insecurities. The major beneficiaries of expression are fathers who want increased involvement in infant care and commercial enterprises that aim to maximize profits for shareholders. PMID:23944247

  16. Impact of Chloroquine on Viral Load in Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Semrau, Katherine; Kuhn, Louise; Kasonde, Prisca; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Shutes, Erin; Vwalika, Cheswa; Ghosh, Mrinal; Aldrovandi, Grace; Thea, Donald M.

    2006-01-01

    Summary The anti-malarial agent chloroquine has activity against HIV. We compared the effect of chloroquine (n = 18) to an anti-malarial agent without known anti-HIV-activity, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (n = 12), on breast milk HIV RNA levels among HIV-infected breastfeeding women in Zambia. After adjusting for CD4 count and plasma viral load, chloroquine was associated with a trend towards lower levels of HIV RNA in breast milk compared with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (P 0.05). Higher breastmilk viral load was also observed among women receiving presumptive treatment = for symptomatic malaria compared with asymptomatic controls and among controls reporting fever in the prior week. Further research is needed to determine the potential role of chloroquine in prevention of HIV transmission through breastfeeding. Impacte de la chloroquine sur la charge virale dans le lait maternelle La chloroquine, agent antimalarique, a une activité contre le VIH. Nous avons comparé l’effet de la chloroquine à celui d’un autre agent antimalarique, la sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, dont l’activité sur le VIH n’est pas connue, en mesurant les taux d’ARN de VIH dans le lait maternel de femmes allaitantes infectées par le VIH en Zambie. Après ajustement pour les taux de CD4 et la charge virale dans le plasma, la chloroquine comparée à la sulfadoxine pyrimethamine était associée à une tendance vers des teneurs plus bas en ARN de VIH dans le lait maternel (P = 0,05). Des charges virales plus élevées dans le lait maternel étaient aussi observées chez des femmes recevant un traitement présomptif pour des symptômes de malaria par rapport aux contrôles asymptomatiques et par rapport à des contrôles rapportant de la fièvre durant la première semaine. Des études supplémentaires sont nécessaires pour déterminer le rôle potentiel de la chloroquine dans la prévention de la transmission du VIH par l’allaitement maternel. mots clésVIH, malaria, allaitement maternel

  17. Pharmacokinetics of Piperaquine Transfer into the Breast Milk of Melanesian Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brioni R.; Salman, Sam; Benjamin, John; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Yadi, Gumal; Batty, Kevin T.; Siba, Peter M.; Mueller, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Transfer of piperaquine (PQ) into breast milk was examined in 27 Papua New Guinean women given a 3-day course of dihydroartemisinin-PQ or sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-PQ during the second/third trimester. Breast milk was sampled on days 1, 2, 3 to 5, 7 to 11, and 14 to 17 postdelivery, a median of 70 days postdose (range, 6 to 145 days). A blood sample was taken at delivery, and additional serial samples were available from 9 women who delivered within 42 days of dosing. Milk and plasma PQ were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography. A population-based approach was used to model the loge(plasma) and milk concentration-time data. A sigmoid Emax model best described PQ breast milk transfer. The population average milk:plasma PQ ratio was 0.58, with a peak of 2.5 at delivery. The model-derived maximum milk intake (148 ml/kg of body weight/day) was similar to the accepted value of 150 ml/kg/day. The median estimated absolute and relative cumulative infant PQ doses were 22 μg and 0.07%, respectively, corresponding to absolute and relative daily doses of 0.41 μg/kg and 0.004%. Model-based simulations for PQ treatment regimens given at birth, 1 week postdelivery, and 6 weeks postdelivery showed that the highest median estimated relative total infant dose (0.36%; median absolute total dose of 101 μg/kg) was seen after maternal PQ treatment 6 weeks postpartum. The maximum simulated relative total and daily doses from any scenario were 4.3% and 2.5%, respectively, which were lower than the recommended 10% upper limit. Piperaquine is transferred into breast milk after maternal treatment doses, but PQ exposure for suckling infants appears safe. PMID:25963980

  18. Recommendations for Evaluating Temporal Trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Gyalpo, Tenzing; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Biomonitoring data of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in breast milk are increasingly collected and available for quantitative analysis of levels and time trends. A common approach is to apply log-linear regression to calculate doubling and halving times of the POP concentrations based on the temporal trend observed in breast milk. However, there are different, sometimes conflicting interpretations of these doubling and halving times. Objectives: We provide a mechanistic understanding of doubling and halving times where possible. Five recommendations are proposed for dealing with POP concentration trends in breast milk during three distinct periods (pre-ban, transition, post-ban period). Discussion: Using temporal trends of BDE-47 and PCB-153 in breast milk data, we show which information can be gained from the time-trend data. To this end, we analyzed time trends of hypothetical POPs for different periods with time-variant exposure and different intrinsic elimination half-lives, using a dynamic population-based pharmacokinetic model. Different pieces of information can be extracted from time-trend data from different periods. The analysis of trends of short-lived POPs is rather straightforward and facilitates extraction of the intrinsic elimination half-lives from the breast milk data. However, trends of slowly eliminated POPs only provide indications for the exposure time trend. Conclusions: Time-trend data of rapidly eliminated POPs provide information on exposure time trends and elimination half-lives. Temporal trends of slowly eliminated POPs are more complicated to interpret, and the extraction of exposure time trends and elimination half-lives require data sets covering several decades. Citation: Gyalpo T, Scheringer M, Hungerbühler K. 2016. Recommendations for evaluating temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants in breast milk. Environ Health Perspect 124:881–885; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510219 PMID:26672061

  19. Choline intake and genetic polymorphisms influence choline metabolite concentrations in human breast milk and plasma123

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Leslie M; da Costa, Kerry Ann; Galanko, Joseph; Sha, Wei; Stephenson, Brigitte; Vick, Julie; Zeisel, Steven H

    2010-01-01

    Background: Choline is essential for infant nutrition, and breast milk is a rich source of this nutrient. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) change dietary requirements for choline intake. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether total choline intake and/or SNPs influence concentrations of choline and its metabolites in human breast milk and plasma. Design: We gave a total of 103 pregnant women supplemental choline or a placebo from 18 wk gestation to 45 d postpartum and genotyped the women for 370 common SNPs. At 45 d postpartum, we measured choline metabolite concentrations in breast milk and plasma and assessed the dietary intake of choline by using a 3-d food record. Results: On average, lactating women in our study ate two-thirds of the recommended intake for choline (Adequate Intake = 550 mg choline/d). Dietary choline intake (no supplement) correlated with breast-milk phosphatidylcholine and plasma choline concentrations. A supplement further increased breast-milk choline, betaine, and phosphocholine concentrations and increased plasma choline and betaine concentrations. We identified 5 SNPs in MTHFR that altered the slope of the intake–metabolite concentration relations, and we identified 2 SNPs in PEMT that shifted these curves upward. Individuals who shared sets of common SNPs were outliers in plots of intake–metabolite concentration curves; we suggest that these SNPs should be further investigated to determine how they alter choline metabolism. Conclusion: Total intake of choline and genotype can influence the concentrations of choline and its metabolites in the breast milk and blood of lactating women and thereby affect the amount of choline available to the developing infant. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00678925. PMID:20534746

  20. Expressing yourself: a feminist analysis of talk around expressing breast milk.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sally; Williamson, Iain; Lyttle, Steven; Leeming, Dawn

    2009-09-01

    Recent feminist analyses, particularly from those working within a poststructuralist framework, have highlighted a number of historically located and contradictory socio-cultural constructions and practices which women are faced with when negotiating infant feeding, especially breastfeeding, within contemporary western contexts. However, there has been little explicit analysis of the practice of expressing breast milk. The aim of this article is to explore the embodied practice of expressing breast milk. This is done by analysing, from a feminist poststructuralist perspective, discourse surrounding expressing breast milk in sixteen first time mothers' accounts of early infant feeding. Participants were recruited from a hospital in the South Midlands of England. The data are drawn from the first phase of a larger longitudinal study, during which mothers kept an audio diary about their breastfeeding experiences for seven days following discharge from hospital, and then took part in a follow-up interview. Key themes identified are expressing breast milk as (i) a way of managing pain whilst still feeding breast milk; (ii) a solution to the inefficiencies of the maternal body; (iii) enhancing or disrupting the 'bonding process'; (iv) a way of managing feeding in public; and (v) a way to negotiate some independence and manage the demands of breastfeeding. Links between these and broader historical and socio-cultural constructions and practices are discussed. This analysis expands current feminist theorising around how women actively create the 'good maternal body'. As constructed by the participants, expressing breast milk appears to be largely a way of aligning subjectivity with cultural ideologies of motherhood. Moreover, breastfeeding discourses and practices available to mothers are not limitless and processes of power restrict the possibilities for women in relation to infant feeding. PMID:19646802

  1. Does Dietary Iodine Regulate Oxidative Stress and Adiponectin Levels in Human Breast Milk?

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Repiso, Carolina; Velasco, Inés; Garcia-Escobar, Eva; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Rodríguez-Pacheco, Francisca; Linares, Francisca; Ruiz de Adana, Maria Soledad; Rubio-Martin, Elehazara; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Cobos-Bravo, Juan Francisco; Priego-Puga, Tatiana; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the association between iodine and human milk composition. In this study, we investigated the association between iodine and different markers of oxidative stress and obesity-related hormones in human breast milk. This work is composed of two cross-sectional studies (in lactating women and in the general population), one prospective and one in vitro. In the cross-sectional study in lactating women, the breast milk iodine correlated negatively with superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and with adiponectin levels. An in vitro culture of human adipocytes with 1 μM potassium iodide (KI, dose similar to the human breast milk iodine concentration) produced a significant decrease in adiponectin, GSH-Px, SOD1, and SOD2 mRNA expression. However, after 2 months of treatment with KI in the prospective study, a positive correlation was found between 24-h urinary iodine and serum adiponectin. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that iodine may be a factor directly involved in the regulation of oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 847–853. PMID:24001137

  2. Pharmacokinetics of Transfer of Azithromycin into the Breast Milk of African Mothers.

    PubMed

    Salman, Sam; Davis, Timothy M E; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Camara, Bully; Oluwalana, Claire; Bojang, Abdoulie; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Roca, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Azithromycin (AZI) is used for its antibiotic and antimalarial properties in pregnancy. Reported estimates of AZI breast milk transfer, based on concentrations in mostly single samples from small numbers of women, have suggested that infant intake is safe. To better characterize infant intake and the associated potential benefits and risks, AZI was measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in four breast milk samples taken over 28 days postpartum from each of 20 Gambian women given 2 g AZI during labor. A population pharmacokinetic model utilizing published parameters for AZI disposition in pregnancy, the present breast milk concentrations, and increasing/decreasing sigmoid maximum-effect (Emax) functions adequately described temporal changes in the milk/plasma ratio. The median estimated absolute and relative cumulative infant doses were 4.5 mg/kg of body weight (95% prediction interval, 0.6 to 7.0 mg/kg) and 15.7% (95% prediction interval, 2.0 to 27.8%) of the maternal dose, respectively; the latter exceeded the recommended 10% safety limit. Although some infants with bacterial infections may benefit from AZI in breast milk, there is a risk of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis with a worst-case number needed to harm of 60 based on the present and available epidemiologic data. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01800942.). PMID:26711756

  3. Pharmacokinetics of Transfer of Azithromycin into the Breast Milk of African Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Page-Sharp, Madhu; Camara, Bully; Oluwalana, Claire; Bojang, Abdoulie; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Roca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Azithromycin (AZI) is used for its antibiotic and antimalarial properties in pregnancy. Reported estimates of AZI breast milk transfer, based on concentrations in mostly single samples from small numbers of women, have suggested that infant intake is safe. To better characterize infant intake and the associated potential benefits and risks, AZI was measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in four breast milk samples taken over 28 days postpartum from each of 20 Gambian women given 2 g AZI during labor. A population pharmacokinetic model utilizing published parameters for AZI disposition in pregnancy, the present breast milk concentrations, and increasing/decreasing sigmoid maximum-effect (Emax) functions adequately described temporal changes in the milk/plasma ratio. The median estimated absolute and relative cumulative infant doses were 4.5 mg/kg of body weight (95% prediction interval, 0.6 to 7.0 mg/kg) and 15.7% (95% prediction interval, 2.0 to 27.8%) of the maternal dose, respectively; the latter exceeded the recommended 10% safety limit. Although some infants with bacterial infections may benefit from AZI in breast milk, there is a risk of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis with a worst-case number needed to harm of 60 based on the present and available epidemiologic data. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01800942.) PMID:26711756

  4. Breast milk excretion Kinetic of b-HCH, pp'DDE and pp'DDT.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, S M; Melo-Santiesteban, G; Villalobos-Pietrini, R; Gómez-Arroyo, S; Amador-Muñoz, O; Herrero-Mercado, M; Carvajal, O

    2009-12-01

    Breast milk is considered the most important route in the elimination of deposited organochlorine pesticides in a mother’s body. The equilibrium of organochlorine pesticides in the human body considers the elements of internal transport processes, the equilibrium pattern between pesticides and tissue fat contents, and the mobilization of lipids and lipoproteins among body parts. The aim of this study was to determine organochlorine pesticide levels in breast milk samples from the 4th to the 30th day of lactation and the trend in their concentration time so as to forecast the time tendency of residue levels and the pesticide excretion pattern. Milk samples were taken from forty participants and analyzed by GLC-ECD. The organochlorine pesticide residues determined in the breast milk samples during lactation decreased: β-HCH from 0.095 to 0.066 mg/kg, pp′DDE from 1.807 to 1.423 mg/kg and pp′DDT from 0.528 to 0.405 mg/kg, at the characteristic rate for each compound. The obtained results compared with the calculated fits of forecasts were parallel and did not exhibit significant differences. The newborn baby exposed during lactation had organochlorine pesticide residues whose levels decreased permanently. The levels depended not only on the breast milk nutrition, but also on the total environmental exposures which included air pollution as a significant contamination source. PMID:19551328

  5. Clinical Findings and Autopsy of a Preterm Infant with Breast Milk-Acquired Cytomegalovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Anne-Aurélie, Lopes; Souad, Belhabri; Leila, Karaoui

    2016-01-01

    Background Nonpasteurized, nonfrozen, fresh breast milk from mothers with positive cytomegalovirus (CMV) serology was initially contraindicated to very low-birth-weight infants because of the risk of milk-acquired CMV infection. Recently, the severity of this infection was increasingly discussed and the international guidelines now differ. Since 2012, the American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended nutrition through raw breast milk for all preterm infants. Case We report the case of an infant born prematurely at 27 weeks and 4 days and fed with raw breastmilk from day 12 of life (D12). He presented with a late-onset of CMV infection from D39. The CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), negative on D3, was strongly positive on D49, as well as the PCR on breast milk. He had CMV-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M while his mother had only CMV-specific IgG. On D52, he deteriorated further with septic shock, and a fatal cardiac arrest on D54. His twin presented an asymptomatic CMV infection. The autopsy and histological examination showed evidence of numerous organ damage caused by CMV (with differences compared with congenital infection) but no evidence of bacterial infection. Conclusion Although rare, postnatal CMV infections transmitted by raw breast milk given to very low-birthweight infants can have dramatic consequences. PMID:27257513

  6. Does dietary iodine regulate oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk?

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Repiso, Carolina; Velasco, Inés; Garcia-Escobar, Eva; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Rodríguez-Pacheco, Francisca; Linares, Francisca; Ruiz de Adana, Maria Soledad; Rubio-Martin, Elehazara; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Cobos-Bravo, Juan Francisco; Priego-Puga, Tatiana; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico; García-Fuentes, Eduardo

    2014-02-10

    Little is known about the association between iodine and human milk composition. In this study, we investigated the association between iodine and different markers of oxidative stress and obesity-related hormones in human breast milk. This work is composed of two cross-sectional studies (in lactating women and in the general population), one prospective and one in vitro. In the cross-sectional study in lactating women, the breast milk iodine correlated negatively with superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and with adiponectin levels. An in vitro culture of human adipocytes with 1 μM potassium iodide (KI, dose similar to the human breast milk iodine concentration) produced a significant decrease in adiponectin, GSH-Px, SOD1, and SOD2 mRNA expression. However, after 2 months of treatment with KI in the prospective study, a positive correlation was found between 24-h urinary iodine and serum adiponectin. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that iodine may be a factor directly involved in the regulation of oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk. PMID:24001137

  7. Levels of coplanar PCBs in human breast milk at different times of lactation

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, M.J.; Ramos, L.; Hernandez, L.M.

    1995-03-01

    PCBs are a highly lipophilic group of global pollutants, consisting of 209 congeners which exhibit wide differences in their toxic and biological effects. The coplanar PCB (non-, mono- and di-ortho Chlorine substituted) congeners, the most toxic ones, induce similar toxic effects as 2,3,7,8 TCDD. Thus for risk assessment of exposure to PCBs, the analysis of these coplanar congeners is required. The PCB levels in human breast milk are of specific concern because of the potential health damage which may be caused to the nursing baby. The PCB levels in this sample come from previously accumulated quantities in body fat whose principal source is food, and pass directly to the nursing baby who accumulates the PCBs in adipose tissue. The amount of total PCBs and other organochlorine compounds (OCC) in human milk at different time intervals after birth was reported earlier, but data concerning individual and coplanar PCBs are sparse in the literature. The results from some studies showed a gradual decrease of residual levels in milk and milk fat. However, other research has shown differences in this respect. We present our first result concerning the concentration of 14 individual PCBs (13 coplanars) in breast milk from the same mother, during weeks 8 to 12 of lactation. We related the different concentration variations observed among the individual PCBs to their molecular structure and % fat in human breast milk. 17 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. The PBDEs: an emerging environmental challenge and another reason for breast-milk monitoring programs.

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, K; McDonald, T A

    2000-01-01

    Levels of the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of widely used flame retardants, appear to be rising rapidly in human tissues, as evidenced by studies of human breast milk. The case of the PBDEs illustrates the value of breast-milk monitoring programs in identifying important emerging pollutants, and highlights why such monitoring programs are needed in the United States. A review of the use, occurrence, and toxicity of PBDEs indicates many parallels between some PBDEs, PCBs, and other polyhalogenated persistent organic pollutants, and suggests that the PBDEs may be a significant environmental challenge in the future. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10811563

  9. Infant exposure assessment for breast milk dioxins and furans derived from waste incineration emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.H.

    1987-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been detected in human milk samples obtained in several countries. Possible sources include emissions from incineration of municipal waste in resource recovery facilities. A formula is presented for calculating the infant daily dose of dioxin equivalents from breast milk on the basis of the maternal daily intake. Application of the formula suggests that an infant breast-fed for 12 months would receive around 10% of the cumulative exposure dose per body weight that would be received by an adult with 50 years of exposure. Further analysis indicated that the contribution of dioxin equivalents from breast milk to an infant's body concentration at the end of 12 months of breast feeding would amount to 1.7 times the concentration in the mother. However, dioxin and furan emissions from a source calculated to result in worst-case lifetime cancer risks of the order of 1 in 100,000 are only likely to increase breast milk concentrations by around 1%-10% of the levels that have been detected in several countries. This finding suggests that there are major sources of dioxins and furans other than from municipal solid waste incineration that need to be identified.

  10. Journal Article: Infant Exposure to Dioxin-Like Compounds in Breast Milk

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple, one-compartment, first-order pharmacokinetic model is used to predict the infant body burden of dioxin-like compounds that results from breast-feeding. Validation testing of the model showed a good match between predictions and measurements of dioxin toxic equivalents ...

  11. Bone mineralization and vitamin D/calcium daily intake of infants fed breast-milk, milk-based formula or soy-based formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cross-sectional analysis of bone mineralization during the first year of life of infants (N=107) exclusively fed breast-milk (BF), milk-based formula (MF), or soy-based formula (SF) for at least the first 4 months of life was conducted. Participants were part of the longitudinal Beginnings study. ...

  12. Effects of breast milk and milk formula on synthesized speech sound-induced event-related potentials at 3 and 6 months of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of breast milk and milk formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid on speech processing were investigated by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) to synthesized /pa/ and /ba/ (oddball paradigm, 80%:20%) at 3 and 6 months of age. Behavioral assessment was also ob...

  13. Body composition of infants fed breast-milk, milk-based formula or soy-based formula during the first 6 months of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Literature on the impact of infant feeding on body composition is sparse and inconclusive. We assessed body composition in infants exclusively fed breast-milk (BF), milk-based formula (MF) or soy-based formula (SF) for at least the first 4 months of life. Participants are part of the on-going prosp...

  14. Cortical Responses to Speech Sounds in 3- and 6-Month-Old Infants Fed Breast Milk, Milk Formula, or Soy Formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of the three most common infant diets (breast milk, milk-based and soy-based formulas) on growth, behavioral development, and cortical responses (ERPs) to the consonant-vowel syllable /pa/, was examined in 130 healthy infants from an ongoing longitudinal study of 600 from birth through...

  15. Breast milk sharing via the internet: the practice and health and safety considerations.

    PubMed

    Keim, Sarah A; McNamara, Kelly A; Jayadeva, Chenali M; Braun, Ashlea C; Dillon, Chelsea E; Geraghty, Sheela R

    2014-08-01

    To characterize the practice of breast milk sharing via the internet in the US and examine factors associated with participants' communication regarding potential health and safety risks. This cross-sectional study examined all original postings (n = 254) placed during 1 week in 2011 on four websites to facilitate the sharing of breast milk. Postings were characterized for intent and health and safety topics (i.e., selling vs. donating milk, hygiene/handling practices, infectious disease screening, diet/exercise habits, substance and pharmaceutical use, milk quality claims, price) communicated between milk providers and recipients. Approximately 69% of postings were providing milk and 31% were seeking milk; 47% included identifiers. Few provider postings reflected measures to potentially reduce risks to recipients: 20% mentioned using a healthy handling/hygiene practice, 11% offered specifics about infectious disease screening, 51% mentioned limiting/abstaining from 1+ substances. The presence of indications about handling/hygiene, diet/exercise, and abstaining from substances were strongly positively associated with each other (ORs 7.42-13.80), with the odds of selling (ORs 6.03-∞), and with making quality claims (ORs 3.14-13.54), but not with disease screening. One-fifth of recipients sought milk for a child with a medical condition or poor birth outcome. Most recipients (90%) did not specify any health and safety practices of a provider in their posting. Health behaviors and screening for diseases that may affect milk safety are not prominent topics in postings seeking to share milk. This lack of communication may exacerbate the health risks to recipient infants, especially infants at increased risk due to pre-existing health conditions. PMID:24158507

  16. Prevalence of rotavirus antibodies in breast milk and inhibitory effects to rotavirus vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Trang, Nguyen V; Braeckman, Tessa; Lernout, Tinne; Hau, Vu T B; Anh, Le T K; Luan, Le T; Van Damme, Pierre; Anh, Dang D

    2015-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is the most common cause of childhood diarrhea worldwide, and several vaccines have been successfully developed to reduce the burden of disease. However, lower vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy in developing countries might be related to the virus-neutralizing activity of breast milk. We examined possible differences in breast milk antibody levels (total IgA antibody, RV-specific antibodies, and RV-neutralizing antibodies) between healthy mothers living in a rural area (n = 145) and mothers living in an urban area (n = 147) of Vietnam. Total IgA concentration was significantly higher in samples from mothers in the rural region than in samples from mothers in the urban region, whereas urban mothers had significantly higher RV-specific IgA antibody titers than did rural mothers. Neutralizing antibodies against RV strain G1P[8] were undetected in nearly one-half of the breast milk samples (45–48%), whereas the majority of the remaining samples had low antibody titers (2–16). Despite these low titers, the breast milk still reduced vaccine strain titers (2 × 106 plaque forming units/mL) up to 80% or more, even at a milk-to-virus ratio of 1:8. An increase in neutralizing anti-G1P[8] antibody titers (P < 0.05) in rural infants over time suggests a continuous exposure to circulating RV. These results contribute to the understanding of the potential interference of breast milk with RV vaccine efficacy and immunogenicity in Vietnamese infants. PMID:25668672

  17. Nitrite and Nitrate Concentrations and Metabolism in Breast Milk, Infant Formula, and Parenteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jesica A.; Ninnis, Janet R.; Hopper, Andrew O.; Ibrahim, Yomna; Merritt, T. Allen; Wan, Kim-Wah; Power, Gordon G.; Blood, Arlin B.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary nitrate and nitrite are sources of gastric NO, which modulates blood flow, mucus production, and microbial flora. However, the intake and importance of these anions in infants is largely unknown. Nitrate and nitrite levels were measured in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants, infant formulas, and parenteral nutrition. Nitrite metabolism in breast milk was measured after freeze-thawing, at different temperatures, varying oxygen tensions, and after inhibition of potential nitrite-metabolizing enzymes. Nitrite concentrations averaged 0.07 ± 0.01 μM in milk of mothers of preterm infants, less than that of term infants (0.13 ± 0.02 μM) (P < .01). Nitrate concentrations averaged 13.6 ± 3.7 μM and 12.7 ± 4.9 μM, respectively. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations in infant formulas varied from undetectable to many-fold more than breast milk. Concentrations in parenteral nutrition were equivalent to or lower than those of breast milk. Freeze-thawing decreased nitrite concentration ∼64%, falling with a half-life of 32 minutes at 37°C. The disappearance of nitrite was oxygen-dependent and prevented by ferricyanide and 3 inhibitors of lactoperoxidase. Nitrite concentrations in breast milk decrease with storage and freeze-thawing, a decline likely mediated by lactoperoxidase. Compared to adults, infants ingest relatively little nitrite and nitrate, which may be of importance in the modulation of blood flow and the bacterial flora of the infant GI tract, especially given the protective effects of swallowed nitrite. PMID:23894175

  18. Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor is a major motogenic and protective factor in human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Marchbank, Tania; Weaver, Gillian; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit; Playford, Raymond J

    2009-04-01

    Colostrum is the first milk produced after birth and is rich in immunoglobulins and bioactive molecules. We examined whether human colostrum and milk contained pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI), a peptide of potential relevance for mucosal defense and, using in vitro and in vivo models, determined whether its presence influenced gut integrity and repair. Human milk was collected from individuals over various times from parturition and PSTI concentrations determined with the use of immunoassay. Human milk samples were analyzed for proliferation and promigratory activity (wounded monolayers) and antiapoptotic activity (caspase-3 activity) with the use of intestinal HT29 cells with or without neutralizing antibodies to PSTI and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Rats were restrained and given indomethacin to induce gastric injury. Effect of gavage with human breast milk with or without neutralizing antibodies on amount of injury were compared with animals receiving a commercial formula feed. PSTI is secreted into human milk, with colostrum containing a much higher concentration of PSTI than human milk obtained later. Human milk stimulated migration and proliferation about threefold and reduced indomethacin-induced apoptosis by about 70-80%. Sixty-five percent of the migratory effect of human milk could be removed by immunoneutralization of PSTI. PSTI worked synergistically with EGF in mediating these effects. Gastric damage in rats was reduced by about 75% in the presence of human milk and was more efficacious than the formula feed (P<0.001). Protective effects of the milk were reduced by about 60% by PSTI immunoneutralization. We concluded that PSTI is secreted into human milk at concentrations that have probable pathophysiological relevance. PMID:19147803

  19. Metals and trace element concentrations in breast milk of first time healthy mothers: a biological monitoring study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast milk is the best source of nutrition for the newborn infant. However, since all infants cannot be breast-fed, there is a need for background data for setting adequate daily intakes. Previously, concentration data on major essential elements and some toxic elements in breast milk, based on different analytical techniques, have been published. There is no recent study on a large number of metals and trace elements in breast milk, using a sensitive analytical method for determination of low element concentrations. Methods Breast milk concentrations of 32 metals and elements in early lactation (days 14-21) were determined in a random sample of first time Swedish mothers (n = 60) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Results There were small inter-individual concentration variations in the macroelements Ca, K, Mg, P and S, and striking similarities across studies and over time, supporting a tight regulation of these elements in breast milk. Large inter-individual and over time differences were detected for Na concentrations, which may reflect an increase in salt consumption in Swedish women. Large inter-individual differences were also detected for the microelements Co, Cr, Mn and Mo, and the toxic metals As, Cd, Pb, Sb and V. Arsenic and B were positively correlated with fish consumption, indicating influence of maternal intake on breast milk concentrations. Observed differences in breast milk element concentrations across studies and over time could be attributed to the timing of sampling and a general decline over time of lactation (Cu, Fe, Mo, Zn), a possible lack of regulation of certain elements in breast milk (As, B, Co, Mn, Se) and time trends in environmental exposure (Pb), or in some cases to differences in analytical performance (Cr, Fe). Conclusions This study provides reliable updated information on a number of metals and elements in breast milk, of which some have not previously been reported. PMID:23241426

  20. Appearance of infused zinc ( sup 70 Zn) and oral zinc ( sup 68 Zn) in breast milk

    SciTech Connect

    Moser-Veillon, P.B.; Patterson, K.Y.; Mangels, A.R.; Wallace, G.F.; Veillon, C. Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD Perkin-Elmer Corp., Rockville, MD )

    1991-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to monitor the appearance of a simultaneous intravenous (IV) dose and oral dose of stable isotopes, {sup 70}Zn and {sup 68}Zn, respectively, in breast milk. Three lactating subjects, 2-3 months postpartum were fed a controlled diet which contained an average of 7.8 mg Zn/day. Subjects collected milk samples at the beginning of each feeding for a 24 hour period on the fifth day of the controlled diet. On day 7 of the controlled diet, a 160 ug IV dose of {sup 70}Zn as zinc chloride in saline was infused into each subject. The subjects also received 2 mg of {sup 68 }Zn as zinc chloride in 50 ml of orange juice. Following the stable isotope doses, subjects collected milk samples at the beginning of each feeding for 48 hours, weighing their infants before and after each feeding. The amount of natural Zn, {sup 70}Zn and {sup 68}Zn tracers in the milk was measured by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The cumulative {sup 70}Zn excretion into breast milk over 48 hours was approximately 1% of the infused dose and the cumulative {sup 68}Zn excretion was smaller still. Thus, only a small fraction of a physiological IV or oral dose of zinc comes out in the milk. The small fraction of {sup 70}Zn and {sup 68}Zn appearing in the milk suggests that circulating zinc and dietary zinc are not rapidly or directly incorporated into breast milk in appreciable amounts.

  1. Relationships of lead in breast milk to lead in blood, urine, and diet of the infant and mother.

    PubMed Central

    Gulson, B L; Jameson, C W; Mahaffey, K R; Mizon, K J; Patison, N; Law, A J; Korsch, M J; Salter, M A

    1998-01-01

    We have obtained stable lead isotope and lead concentration data from a longitudinal study of mobilization of lead from the maternal skeleton during pregnancy and lactation and in which the newly born infants were monitored for 6 months postpartum to evaluate the effects of the local environment on lead body burden of the infant. Samples of maternal and infant blood, urine, and diet and especially breast milk were measured for 21 mothers and 24 infants. Blood lead concentrations were less than 5 microg/dl in all except one subject. The mean lead concentration in breast milk +/- standard deviation was 0.73 +/- 0.70 microg/kg. In seven subjects for whom serial breast milk sampling was possible, the lead concentration varied by factors of from 2 to 4, and for three subjects there was an increase at or after 90 days postpartum. For the first 60-90 days postpartum, the contribution from breast milk to blood lead in the infants varied from 36 to 80%. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated statistically significant relationships for some of the variables of isotope ratios and lead concentrations between breast milk, blood, urine, and diet for infants and mothers. For example, the analyses revealed that both a mother's breast milk 207Pb/206Pb and 206Pb/204Pb ratios and lead concentration provide information to predict her infant's blood 207Pb/206Pb and 206Pb/204Pb ratios. The major sources of lead in breast milk are from the maternal bone and diet. An evaluation of breast milk lead concentrations published over the last 15 years indicates that studies in which the ratio of lead concentrations in breast milk to lead concentrations in whole maternal blood (Multiple>100) were greater than 15 should be viewed with caution because of potential contamination during sampling and/or laboratory analyses. Selected studies also appear to show a linear relationship between breast milk and maternal whole blood, with the percentage of lead in breast milk compared with whole blood

  2. Effect of maternal Chlorella supplementation on carotenoid concentration in breast milk at early lactation.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Junya; Noda, Kiyoshi; Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Michiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Breast milk carotenoids provide neonates with a source of vitamin A and potentially, oxidative stress protection and other health benefits. Chlorella, which has high levels of carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene, is an effective dietary source of carotenoids for humans. In this study, the effect of maternal supplementation with Chlorella on carotenoid levels in breast milk at early lactation was investigated. Ten healthy, pregnant women received 6 g of Chlorella daily from gestational week 16-20 until the day of delivery (Chlorella group); ten others did not (control group). Among the carotenoids detected in breast milk, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations in the Chlorella group were 2.6-fold (p = 0.001), 2.7-fold (p = 0.001) and 1.7-fold (p = 0.049) higher, respectively, than those in the control group. Our study shows that Chlorella intake during pregnancy is effective in improving the carotenoid status of breast milk at early lactation. PMID:24635025

  3. A pilot study of synbiotic supplementation on breast milk mineral concentrations and growth of exclusively breast fed infants.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Reza; Taghipour, Sharare; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Nikniaz, Leila; Hezaveh, Seyed Jamal Ghaemmaghami

    2015-04-01

    Despite the crucial role of breast milk mineral contents for health and growth of the infants, they decrease with the duration of lactation. So, this pilot study aimed to determine the effects of synbiotic supplementation on breast milk mineral composition and infants' growth. In this pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 57 lactating mothers were randomly divided into two groups to receive a daily supplement of synbiotic (n=30) or a placebo (n=27) for 30 days. Breast milk zinc, copper, Iron, magnesium and, calcium concentrations were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Weight for age Z-score (WAZ) and height for age Z-score (HAZ) were assessed for infants. Dietary intake was collected from lactating women using the 24-h recall method. Data analyses were carried out using nutritionist IV, Epi Info and SPSS soft wares. Synbiotic supplementation led to an insignificant increase of the mean breast milk levels of zinc (from 2.44±0.65 to 2.55±0.55mgL(-1)), copper (from 0.35±0.24 to 0.40±0.26mgL(-1)), iron (from 0.28±0.42 to 0.31±0.38mgL(-1)), magnesium (from 17.14±1.35 to 17.17±1.09mgL(-1)), and calcium (from 189±25.3 to 189.9±21.7mgL(-1)); whilst in the placebo group, these variables decreased significantly (P=0.001). The observed changes between two groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Although WAZ and HAZ of infants increased slightly in the supplemented group (from 1.19±0.79 to 1.20±0.69 and 0.36±0.86 to 0.37±0.85 respectively), these two parameters decreased in the placebo group which was significant only for WAZ (P=0.01). Moreover, no significant association was found between mineral intake and breast milk mineral contents. It seems, synbiotic supplementation may have positive effects on breast milk mineral contents. PMID:25744506

  4. Thiamine Diphosphate in Whole Blood, Thiamine and Thiamine Monophosphate in Breast-Milk in a Refugee Population

    PubMed Central

    Stuetz, Wolfgang; Carrara, Verena Ilona; McGready, Rose; Lee, Sue Jean; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Nosten, François Henry

    2012-01-01

    Background The provision of high doses of thiamine may prevent thiamine deficiency in the post-partum period of displaced persons. Methodology/Principal Findings The study aimed to evaluate a supplementation regimen of thiamine mononitrate (100 mg daily) at the antenatal clinics in Maela refugee camp. Women were enrolled during antenatal care and followed after delivery. Samples were collected at 12 weeks post partum. Thiamine diphosphate (TDP) in whole blood and thiamine in breast-milk of 636 lactating women were measured. Thiamine in breast-milk consisted of thiamine monophosphate (TMP) in addition to thiamine, with a mean TMP to total thiamine ratio of 63%. Mean whole blood TDP (130 nmol/L) and total thiamine in breast-milk (755 nmol/L) were within the upper range reported for well-nourished women. The prevalence of women with low whole blood TDP (<65 nmol/L) was 5% and with deficient breast-milk total thiamine (<300 nmol/L) was 4%. Whole blood TDP predicted both breast-milk thiamine and TMP (R2 = 0.36 and 0.10, p<0.001). A ratio of TMP to total thiamine ≥63% was associated with a 7.5 and 4-fold higher risk of low whole blood TDP and deficient total breast-milk thiamine, respectively. Routine provision of daily 100 mg of thiamine mononitrate post-partum compared to the previous weekly 10 mg of thiamine hydrochloride resulted in significantly higher total thiamine in breast-milk. Conclusions/Significance Thiamine supplementation for lactating women in Maela refugee camp is effective and should be continued. TMP and its ratio to total thiamine in breast-milk, reported for the first time in this study, provided useful information on thiamine status and should be included in future studies of breast-milk thiamine. PMID:22768031

  5. Polybrominated biphenyl ethers in breast milk and infant formula from Shanghai, China: temporal trends, daily intake, and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Kaiqiong; Yang, Dan; Ma, Li; Lei, Bingli; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhou, Jing; Fang, Xiangming; Yu, Yingxin

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the temporal trend of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk and assess the risks to breast- and formula-fed infants, breast milk and infant formula samples were collected from Shanghai, China. The PBDE concentrations decreased from 14.8 to 4.85 pmol/g lipid weight during 2006-2012, with a rate of decrease by half approximately every four years. Although there were no significant correlations between the total PBDEs in breast milk and age, parity, and pre-pregnant BMI of mothers, there were significant differences between primiparous and multiparous mothers for tri- to hepta-BDEs. PBDEs in breast milk were much higher than those in infant formula (equivalent to 91.9 vs. 5.25 pg/mL). Among the different brand infant formulas, there were no significant differences in their PBDE concentrations. The estimated daily intake of PBDEs by breast- and formula-fed infants suggested that breast-fed infants are exposed to much more PBDEs than formula-fed ones (12.9 vs. 0.72 ng/kg-bw/day). However, the hazard quotient values were much smaller than one, indicating that the ingested PBDEs did not exert obvious adverse effects on both breast- and formula-fed infants considering non-carcinogenic effect endpoint. This is the first report on temporal trend of PBDEs in breast milk from China. PMID:25155891

  6. Determination of GHB levels in breast milk and correlation with blood concentrations.

    PubMed

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Mannocchi, Giulio; Tittarelli, Roberta; Pantano, Flaminia; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Marinelli, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    The sodium salt of GHB or sodium oxybate is approved and registered in some countries as a therapeutic substance (Xyrem(®)) for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy. This study was designed to measure the GHB endogenous levels in blood and breast milk of 20 breastfeeding women. In addition, blood and breast milk samples of a 32-year-old narcoleptic nursing mother, who was on sodium oxybate treatment, were simultaneously collected at 0.5, 1, 3, 4 and 5h following a 4.5g GHB dose and analyzed, in order to establish the safety interval of time to breastfeed. A GC-MS method for the detection and quantification of GHB in blood and breast milk was developed and fully validated. The geometric mean of endogenous GHB levels in blood and breast milk detected at time 0 were 0.57mg/L; 95% Reference Interval (RI): 0.21-1.52mg/L and 0.36mg/L; 95% RI: 0.13-1.03mg/L, respectively. The geometric mean of the concentration of GHB in milk was 37% less (95% RI: from 14 to 53%) compared to that found in the blood. The analysis of blood and breast milk samples collected from the 32 years-old female showed the following results: GHB blood concentration 0.5h after medication intake was 80.10mg/L, reaching the peak 1h after the drug administration (108.34mg/L) and it steadily decreased to reach a level of 1.75mg/L, 5h after the medication intake. The GHB concentration found in breast milk followed the same pattern as for the blood, with the highest concentration being 23.19mg/L, 1h after sodium oxybate administration and the lowest 0.99mg/L, 5h after the medication's intake. The comparison between blood and breast milk GHB levels in the 32-year-old woman, showed significant lower GHB levels in milk at 0.5, 1 and 3h, ranging from 71 to 80% less. It is interesting to note that only at 4 and 5h the difference between blood and breast milk GHB levels fell within the 95% RI (14-53%) of endogenous levels. Taking into consideration the absence of reference values for endogenous GHB in

  7. Exposure Assessment of Infants to Aflatoxin M₁ through Consumption of Breast Milk and Infant Powdered Milk in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Angélica T; Takabayashi-Yamashita, Cássia R; Ono, Elisabete Y S; Bagatin, Artur K; Rigobello, Fabiana F; Kawamura, Osamu; Hirooka, Elisa Y; Itano, Eiko N

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁) is an important biomarker that can be used to evaluate aflatoxin exposure in both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure degree of infants to AFM₁ through consumption of breast milk and infant powdered milk in Brazil. For this purpose, the estimated daily intake (EDI) for infants was calculated based on the AFM₁ levels analyzed in 94 breast milk (BM) samples collected in Southern Brazil, and 16 infant powdered milk (IPM) samples commonly commercialized in Brazil. AFM₁ was detected in 5.3% (n = 5) and 43.8% (n = 7) of BM and IPM samples, with mean levels of 0.003 ng/g and 0.011 ng/g, respectively. All the IPM samples showed AFM₁ levels lower than those established by the Brazilian guidelines (5 ng/g), and in most of the samples (81.25%) levels were below the maximum limit tolerated by the European Commission (0.025 ng/g). The EDI of AFM₁ for infants aged zero to 12 months old showed values from 0.018 to 0.069 ng/kg body weight/day for BM, and 0.078 to 0.306 ng/kg body weight/day for IPM. Hazard index (HI) values for BM and IPM were less than one, except for IPM intended for infants up to one month. In conclusion, the exposure of infants to AFM₁ was low, but continuous monitoring of mycotoxin levels is essential to minimize infant health risk. PMID:27589799

  8. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activity by purified human breast milk mucin (MUC1) in an inhibition assay.

    PubMed

    Habte, Habtom H; de Beer, Corena; Lotz, Zoë E; Tyler, Marilyn G; Kahn, Delawir; Mall, Anwar S

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that breast-feeding is responsible for approximately 40% of the HIV transmissions from HIV-positive mothers to children. Human breast milk, however, is known to contain numerous biologically active components which protect breast-fed infants against bacteria, viruses, and toxins. The purpose of this study was to purify and characterize breast milk mucin and to determine its anti-HIV-1 activity in an HIV inhibition assay. Sepharose CL-4B column chromatography and caesium chloride isopycnic density gradient purification were used to isolate and purify the mucin. Following Western blotting and amino acid analysis, an HIV-1 inhibition assay was carried out to determine the anti-HIV-1 activity of crude breast milk and purified milk mucin (MUC1) by incubating them with HIV-1 prior to infection of the human T lymphoblastoid cell line (CEM SS cells). SDS-PAGE analysis of the mucin, together with its amino acid composition and Western blotting, suggested that this purified mucin from human breast milk was MUC1. The HIV inhibition assay revealed that while the purified milk mucin (MUC1) inhibited the HIV-1 activity by approximately 97%, there was no inhibition of the HIV-1 activity by crude breast milk. Although the reason for this is not clear, it is likely that because the MUC1 in crude milk is enclosed by fat globules, there may not be any physical contact between the mucin and the virus in the crude breast milk. Thus, there is a need to free the mucin from the fat globules for it to be effective against the virus. PMID:17878743

  9. Feeding Babies: From Breast Milk to the Family Dish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masse-Raimbault, Anne-Marie

    1992-01-01

    Focusing on the issue of feeding infants, this journal covers a wide range of information, research, and issues related to breast-feeding and its alternatives for feeding infants in both developing and industrialized countries. The journal is divided into the following sections: (1) "The Epidemiology of Breast-feeding: Frequency and Duration,"…

  10. Validation of an optimized method for the determination of iodine in human breast milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) after tetramethylammonium hydroxide extraction.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Dao; Zhou, Shao Jia; Gibson, Robert; Palmer, Lyndon; Muhlhausler, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    In this study a novel method to determine iodine concentrations in human breast milk was developed and validated. The iodine was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) following tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) extraction at 90°C in disposable polypropylene tubes. While similar approaches have been used previously, this method adopted a shorter extraction time (1h vs. 3h) and used antimony (Sb) as the internal standard, which exhibited greater stability in breast milk and milk powder matrices compared to tellurium (Te). Method validation included: defining iodine linearity up to 200μgL(-1); confirming recovery of iodine from NIST 1549 milk powder. A recovery of 94-98% was also achieved for the NIST 1549 milk powder and human breast milk samples spiked with sodium iodide and thyroxine (T4) solutions. The method quantitation limit (MQL) for human breast milk was 1.6μgL(-1). The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficient of variation for the breast milk samples and NIST powder were <1% and <3.5%, respectively. NIST 1549 milk powder, human breast milk samples and calibration standards spiked with the internal standard were all stable for at least 2.5 months after extraction. The results of the validation process confirmed that this newly developed method provides greater accuracy and precision in the assessment of iodine concentrations in human breast milk than previous methods and therefore offers a more reliable approach for assessing iodine concentrations in human breast milk. PMID:25153367

  11. Determination of hyaluronan molecular mass distribution in human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Han; Amin, Ripal; Ye, Xin; de la Motte, Carol A; Cowman, Mary K

    2015-04-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) in human milk mediates host responses to microbial infection via TLR4- and CD44-dependent signaling. Signaling by HA is generally size specific. Because pure HA with average molecular mass (M) of 35 kDa can elicit a protective response in intestinal epithelial cells, it has been proposed that human milk HA may have a bioactive low-M component. Here we report the size distribution of HA in human milk samples from 20 unique donors. A new method for HA analysis, employing ion exchange (IEX) chromatography to fractionate HA by size and specific quantification of each size fraction by competitive enzyme-linked sorbent assay (ELSA), was developed. When separated into four fractions, milk HA with M⩽20 kDa, M∼20 to 60 kDa, and M∼60 to 110 kDa comprised averages of 1.5, 1.4, and 2.0% of the total HA, respectively. The remaining 95% was HA with M⩾110 kDa. Electrophoretic analysis of the higher M HA from 13 samples showed nearly identical M distributions, with an average M of approximately 440 kDa. This higher M HA component in human milk is proposed to bind to CD44 and to enhance human beta defensin 2 (HBD2) induction by the low-M HA components. PMID:25579786

  12. Determination of Hyaluronan Molecular Mass Distribution in Human Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Han; Amin, Ripal; Ye, Xin; De La Motte, Carol A.; Cowman, Mary K.

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) in human milk mediates host responses to microbial infection, via TLR4- and CD44-dependent signaling. Signaling by HA is generally size-specific. Because pure HA with average molecular mass (M) of 35 kDa can elicit a protective response in intestinal epithelial cells, it has been proposed that human milk HA may have a bioactive low M component. Here we report the size distribution of HA in human milk samples from twenty unique donors. A new method for HA analysis, employingion exchange (IEX) chromatography to fractionate HA by size, and specific quantification of each size fraction by competitive Enzyme Linked Sorbent Assay (ELSA), was developed. When separated into four fractions, milk HA with M ≤ 20 kDa, M ≈20-60 kDa, and M ≈ 60-110 kDa comprised an average of 1.5%, 1.4% and 2% of the total HA, respectively. The remaining 95% was HA with M≥110 kDa. Electrophoretic analysis of the higher M HA from thirteen samples showed nearly identical M distributions, with an average M of ∼440 kDa. This higher M HA component in human milk is proposed to bind to CD44 and to enhance human beta defensin 2 (HBD2) induction by the low M HA components. PMID:25579786

  13. Pesticide residues in human breast milk: risk assessment for infants from Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Bedi, J S; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Kaur, P; Sharma, A; Pooni, P A

    2013-10-01

    Punjab state in India is an agrarian society, where agriculture is the lifeline of farming community. To keep pace with increasing demands of food for growing population the indiscriminate use of pesticides has led to the contamination of environment and food commodities in this region. Analysis of human breast milk samples (n=53) for pesticide residues revealed the presence of β-, γ-HCH, p,p' DDD, p,p' DDE, p,p' DDT and endrin with mean concentration of 97.9, 101.7, 239.8, 1574.1, 100.3 and 90.7 ng g(-1) lipid wt., respectively. In addition, occurrence of β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulphate, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos in this study have also been reported for the first time in human breast milk in Punjab, India. With increase in parity, HCH and DDT residue burden in donor's milk decreased. Although levels of HCH and DDT residues in breast milk samples have decreased significantly, yet estimated daily intake values for DDT are higher than the FAO/WHO permissible tolerable daily intake values for few infants. PMID:23850662

  14. Infants’ Exposure to Aflatoxin M1 from Mother’s Breast Milk in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghiasian, SA; Maghsood, AH

    2012-01-01

    Background The occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk, especially breast milk, is a valuable biomarker for exposure determination to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). In the present study, the risk of exposure to AFM1 in infants fed breast milk was investigated. Methods: An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the analysis of AFM1 in breast milk samples from 132 lactating mothers referred to four urban Mothers and Babies Care Unit of Hamadan, western Iran. Results: AFM1 was detected in eight samples (6.06%) at mean concentration of 9.45 ng/L. The minimum and maximum of concentration was 7.1 to 10.8 ng/L, respectively. Although the concentration of AFM1 in none of the samples was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by USA and European Union (25 ng/kg) however, 25% had a level of AFM1 above the allowable level of Australia and Switzerland legal limit (10 ng/L). Conclusions: Lactating mothers and infants in western parts of Iran could be at risk for AFB1 and AFM1 exposure, respectively. Considering all this information, the investigation of AFM1 in lactating mothers as a biomarker for post-natal exposure of infants to this carcinogen deserves further studies in various seasons and different parts of Iran. PMID:23113156

  15. Presence and dynamics of leptin, GLP-1, and PYY in human breast milk at early postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Schueler, Jessica; Alexander, Brenda; Hart, Ann Marie; Austin, Kathleen; Enette Larson-Meyer, D

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The presence of appetite hormones, namely glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and leptin in breast milk may be important in infant feeding regulation and infant growth. This study evaluated whether concentrations of GLP-1, PYY, and leptin change across a single feeding (from fore- to hindmilk), and are associated with maternal and infant anthropometrics. Design and Methods: Thirteen postpartum women (mean ± SD: 25.6 ± 4.5 years, 72.0 ± 11.9 kg) provided fore- and hindmilk samples 4-5 weeks after delivery and underwent measurements of body weight and composition by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry. GLP-1, PYY, and leptin concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay, and milk fat content was determined by creamatocrit. Results: Concentration of GLP-1 and content of milk fat was higher in hindmilk than foremilk (P ≤ 0.05). PYY and leptin concentrations did not change between fore- and hindmilk. Both leptin concentration and milk fat content were correlated with indices of maternal adiposity, including body mass index (r = 0.65-0.85, P < 0.02), and fat mass (r = 0.65-0.84, P < 0.02). Hindmilk GLP-1 was correlated with infant weight gain from birth to 6 months (r = −0.67, P = 0.034). Conclusion: The presence of appetite hormones in breast milk may be important in infant appetite and growth regulation. PMID:23408760

  16. Levels and profiles of brominated and chlorinated contaminants in human breast milk from Thessaloniki, Greece.

    PubMed

    Dimitriadou, Lida; Malarvannan, Govindan; Covaci, Adrian; Iossifidou, Eleni; Tzafettas, John; Zournatzi-Koiou, Vassiliki; Kalantzi, Olga-Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk samples (n=87) collected between July 2004 and July 2005 from primipara and multipara mothers from Thessaloniki, Greece were analysed for six groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs): polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). DDTs [median: 410ng/g lipid weight (lw)], PCBs (median: 90ng/g lw) and HCHs (median: 40ng/g lw) were the predominantly identified compounds in all the breast milk samples. Levels of PBDEs (median: 1.5ng/g lw) in human breast milk samples from Thessaloniki, Greece were lower compared to other countries. Maternal age had a positive correlation with most compounds, but not with PBDEs. Women with a higher occupational exposure to PBDEs (i.e., working in office environments) had higher PBDE concentrations than all others and showed strong correlations, especially for BDE 47 and BDE 153. None of the analysed compounds showed any correlation with parity. Based on these levels, the daily intake of each group of POPs via human milk was calculated and compared with the tolerable daily intakes (TDI) or the reference doses (RfD). For the majority of samples (85 out of 87) a higher daily intake of PCBs than the TDI was calculated, while 11 out of 87 samples had a higher HCB intake than the TDI. The TDI and the RfD were not exceeded for DDTs and PBDEs, respectively. This is the first report of brominated flame retardants in human breast milk from Greece. PMID:26367190

  17. Analysis of the health risk of exposure to breast milk mercury in infants in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chien, Ling-Chu; Han, Bor-Cheng; Hsu, Chun-Sen; Jiang, Cheun-Bin; You, Hung-Jiun; Shieh, Ming-Jer; Yeh, Ching-Ying

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the total concentration and health risk to infants of breast milk mercury in urban mothers and mothers married to fishermen in relation to fish intake in Taiwan. A total of sixty-eight healthy mothers were recruited for the study. The breast milk mercury geometric mean concentration was 2.02 microgl(-1) (n=56, range: 0.24-9.45 microgl(-1)) for the city group and 2.04 microgl(-1) (n=12, range: 0.26-8.62 microgl(-1)) for the fishermen's group. Of the three sources of mercury exposure (i.e., ingestion (breast milk), inhalation (ambient air), and dermal exposure (shower)), breast-feeding was found to be the largest (96.3-99.6% of the total). From a Monte Carlo simulation, in which methyl mercury accounted for about 50% of total mercury, the hazard quotient (exposure estimate/oral minimal risk level or target organ toxicity dose) exceeded 1.0 for 12.9% of urban babies and 18.8% of fishermen's babies (chronic oral minimal risk level and target organ toxicity dose: 3 x 10(-4)mgkg(-1)d(-1)). The calculated mercury exposure was 3.02 x 10(-1) microgkg(-1)d(-1) for a 3.49 kg urban baby boy and 3.06 x 10(-1) microgkg(-1)d(-1) for a 3.44 kg urban baby girl. These results suggest the life style of mothers (eating raw fish and shellfish such as used in "Sashimi" and "Sushi," and vitamin supplementation) may influence the mercury concentration in breast milk. PMID:16442149

  18. Elevated levels of short carbon-chain PFCAs in breast milk among Korean women: Current status and potential challenges.

    PubMed

    Kang, Habyeong; Choi, Kyungho; Lee, Haeng-Shin; Kim, Do-Hee; Park, Na-Youn; Kim, Sunmi; Kho, Younglim

    2016-07-01

    Breast milks can be contaminated with perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Exposure to PFASs during early stages of life may lead to adverse health effects among breastfed infants. To date, perfluorootanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been most frequently measured PFASs in breast milks worldwide. Information on shorter carbon-chain PFASs in breast milk is scarce. In this study, breast milks were sampled from 264 Korean lactating women, and measured for seventeen PFASs, including ten perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), four perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, and three perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides. PFOA and PFOS were detected in 98.5% of the breast milk samples, with median concentrations of 0.072 and 0.050ng/mL, respectively. Perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) were detected in higher frequencies, ranging between 67.4% and 81.8%. The concentrations of short carbon-chain PFCAs in breast milk such as PFPeA and PFHxA were the highest ever reported to date, and were comparable to that of PFOS. Concentrations of shorter chain PFCA in breast milk tended to be higher among the women with longer lactation period, while those of PFOA showed the opposite trend, suggesting a possibility that breastfeeding might be an important route of excretion for PFOA among lactating women. Fish consumption and the use of consumer products, e.g., skin care products, cosmetics and non-stick coated cooking utensils, were identified as significant predictors of PFAS concentrations in breast milk. Health risks associated with PFOA and PFOS exposure through breastfeeding were estimated negligible, however, risks of the short carbon-chain PFCAs could not be assessed because of lack of relevant toxicological information. Further efforts for source identification and exposure management measures for shorter chain PFCAs are necessary. PMID:27111244

  19. Breastfeeding and transmission of cytomegalovirus to preterm infants. Case report and kinetic of CMV-DNA in breast milk

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding has a major impact on CMV epidemiology. Postnatal CMV reactivation's incidence during lactation is nearby the maternal seroprevalence. Although perinatal CMV infection has practically no consequences in term newborn, it may cause, in some cases, a severe symptomatic disease in preterm newborns. The aims of the present study are to evaluate the rate and clinical expression of CMV infection breast milk transmitted in preterm infants and to check the safety of the freezing treated breast milk. Methods The study included fifty-seven preterm infants and their CMV seropositive mothers. Fresh breast milk samples have been collected from 1st to 9th postpartum week. Both fresh breast milk and 72, 96, 120 hours frozen samples have been examined, checking the presence of CMV; urine samples have been tested too. Results 70.2% of tested mothers showed reactivation of the infection, and CMV-positive breast milk during the six weeks postpartum has been found. However, only one infant was infected by CMV, developing hepatic affection concomitantly with a multi-system involvement, as shown CMV DNA detection in urine, saliva, blood, gastric aspirate, and stools. Conclusion Freezing breast milk at -20°C and pasteurization may respectively reduce or eliminate the viral load. PMID:21247481

  20. Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant run by Tokyo Electric Power Company in 2011, breast milk samples obtained from volunteers living in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures were examined and small amounts of I-131 (2.2-36.3 Bq/kg) were detected in some samples. In this work, the I-131 concentrations in breast milk from nursing mothers in Ibaraki prefecture were calculated based on the iodine biokinetic model during lactation together with time-variable intake scenarios by inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of tap water, using the authors' code. The calculated I-131 concentrations in breast milk generally agreed with those measured for the volunteers. Based on the results, thyroid equivalent doses to breast-fed infants were estimated for each place of residence of the volunteers on the assumption that these infants consumed 800 ml of breast milk every day, resulting in 10-11 mSv for Mito and Kasama cities and 1.1-1.8 mSv for Tsukuba and Moriya cities. It was suggested that breast milk consumption could be a major contributor to internal dose of breast-fed infants in areas with mild I-131 pollution; however, further studies considering personal behavior surveys would be necessary to estimate individual doses. PMID:26198990

  1. Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant run by Tokyo Electric Power Company in 2011, breast milk samples obtained from volunteers living in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures were examined and small amounts of I-131 (2.2-36.3 Bq/kg) were detected in some samples. In this work, the I-131 concentrations in breast milk from nursing mothers in Ibaraki prefecture were calculated based on the iodine biokinetic model during lactation together with time-variable intake scenarios by inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of tap water, using the authors’ code. The calculated I-131 concentrations in breast milk generally agreed with those measured for the volunteers. Based on the results, thyroid equivalent doses to breast-fed infants were estimated for each place of residence of the volunteers on the assumption that these infants consumed 800 ml of breast milk every day, resulting in 10-11 mSv for Mito and Kasama cities and 1.1-1.8 mSv for Tsukuba and Moriya cities. It was suggested that breast milk consumption could be a major contributor to internal dose of breast-fed infants in areas with mild I-131 pollution; however, further studies considering personal behavior surveys would be necessary to estimate individual doses.

  2. Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant run by Tokyo Electric Power Company in 2011, breast milk samples obtained from volunteers living in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures were examined and small amounts of I-131 (2.2–36.3 Bq/kg) were detected in some samples. In this work, the I-131 concentrations in breast milk from nursing mothers in Ibaraki prefecture were calculated based on the iodine biokinetic model during lactation together with time-variable intake scenarios by inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of tap water, using the authors’ code. The calculated I-131 concentrations in breast milk generally agreed with those measured for the volunteers. Based on the results, thyroid equivalent doses to breast-fed infants were estimated for each place of residence of the volunteers on the assumption that these infants consumed 800 ml of breast milk every day, resulting in 10–11 mSv for Mito and Kasama cities and 1.1–1.8 mSv for Tsukuba and Moriya cities. It was suggested that breast milk consumption could be a major contributor to internal dose of breast-fed infants in areas with mild I-131 pollution; however, further studies considering personal behavior surveys would be necessary to estimate individual doses. PMID:26198990

  3. Breastfeeding after Anesthesia: A Review for Anesthesia Providers Regarding the Transfer of Medications into Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Benjamin; Liu, Renyu; Valentine, Elizabeth; Onuoha, Onyi

    2015-01-01

    Brief Summary Doctors, nurses, and midwives often inform mothers to “pump and dump” their breast milk for 24 hours after receiving anesthesia to avoid passing medications to the infant. This advice, though cautious, is probably outdated. This review highlights the more recent literature regarding common anesthesia medications, their passage into breast milk, and medication effects observed in breastfed infants. We suggest continuing breastfeeding after anesthesia when the mother is awake, alert, and able to hold her infant. We recommend multiple types of medications for pain relief while minimizing sedating medications. Few medications can have sedating effects to the infant, but those medications are specifically outlined. For additional safety, anesthesia providers and patients may screen medications using the National Institute of Health’ LactMed database. PMID:26413558

  4. Human Breast Milk miRNA, Maternal Probiotic Supplementation and Atopic Dermatitis in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Melanie Rae; Brede, Gaute; Johansen, Jostein; Johnsen, Roar; Storrø, Ola; Sætrom, Pål; Øien, Torbjørn

    2015-01-01

    Background Perinatal probiotic ingestion has been shown to prevent atopic dermatitis (AD) in infancy in a number of randomised trials. The Probiotics in the Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim (ProPACT) trial involved a probiotic supplementation regime given solely to mothers in the perinatal period and demonstrated a ~40% relative risk reduction in the cumulative incidence of AD at 2 years of age. However, the mechanisms behind this effect are incompletely understood. Micro-RNAs (miRNA) are abundant in mammalian milk and may influence the developing gastrointestinal and immune systems of newborn infants. The objectives of this study were to describe the miRNA profile of human breast milk, and to investigate breast milk miRNAs as possible mediators of the observed preventative effect of probiotics. Methods Small RNA sequencing was conducted on samples collected 3 months postpartum from 54 women participating in the ProPACT trial. Differential expression of miRNA was assessed for the probiotic vs placebo and AD vs non-AD groups. The results were further analysed using functional prediction techniques. Results Human breast milk samples contain a relatively stable core group of highly expressed miRNAs, including miR-148a-3p, miR-22-3p, miR-30d-5p, let-7b-5p and miR-200a-3p. Functional analysis of these miRNAs revealed enrichment in a broad range of biological processes and molecular functions. Although several miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed on comparison of the probiotic vs placebo and AD vs non-AD groups, none had an acceptable false discovery rate and their biological significance in the development of AD is not immediately apparent from their predicted functional consequences. Conclusion Whilst breast milk miRNAs have the potential to be active in a diverse range of tissues and biological process, individual miRNAs in breast milk 3 months postpartum are unlikely to play a major role in the prevention of atopic dermatitis in infancy

  5. Aflatoxin M1 contamination of human breast milk in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jafarian-Dehkordi, Abbas; Pourradi, Nasibeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: During the last decades there has been great attention paid to aflatoxins. They are highly toxic, immunosuppressive, mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic compounds. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), is formed in the liver and excreted into the breast milk. It is considered to cause certain hygienic risks for infant health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of the AFM1 in the breast milk using AFM1 in milk as a biomarker for exposure to aflatoxin B1 and determine the level of AFM1 contamination in the lactating mothers in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 80 lactating women randomly selected from two urban health centers. Mother's milk samples and information on food intake were collected from the participants using structured food-frequency questionnaire. Breast milk samples were tested for AFM1 by a competitive ELISA technique. Results: Our findings showed that only one sample was contaminated with AFM1 with concentrations of 6.8 ng/L. However, the AFM1 level in this sample was lower than the maximum tolerable limit (25 ng/L) accepted by the European Communities and Codex Alimentarius. Conclusion: Although the concentration of AFM1 in none of the samples was higher than the acceptable level, the presence of AFM1 in only one of them confirms the need for developing strategies to reduce exposure to aflatoxin in foods and to carry out biological monitoring of aflatoxins as a food quality control measure routinely. PMID:24524032

  6. Transfer of Nicotine, Cotinine and Caffeine Into Breast Milk in a Smoker Mother Consuming Caffeinated Drinks.

    PubMed

    Calvaresi, Valeria; Escuder, Diana; Minutillo, Adele; Bastons-Compta, Adriana; García-Algar, Oscar; Pallás Alonso, Carmen Rosa; Pacifici, Roberta; Pichini, Simona

    2016-07-01

    Although the habits of cigarette smoking and associated coffee drinking are generally ceased during pregnancy, they are often reinitiated after delivery when the breastfeeding period starts. This is a case report of a 32-year-old lactating smoker mother who consumed caffeinated drinks and who agreed to donate breast milk after smoking one cigarette (containing 0.6 mg of nicotine) and drinking one cup of espresso (containing 80 mg of caffeine) for an investigation of the excretion of nicotine, its major metabolite cotinine and caffeine into the breast milk and subsequent transfer to the infant. Nicotine and its metabolite cotinine peaked in the breast milk at 0.5 h after the cigarette smoking, and caffeine peaked 2 h after drinking coffee. Moreover, the nicotine disappeared from the milk by 3 h, the caffeine required 24 h and the cotinine required 72 h. The relative infant doses of caffeine, nicotine and cotinine were found to be 8.9, 12.8 and 77.6%, respectively. In the light of these results obtained after the mother smoked only one cigarette and consumed one cup of espresso, if a lactating mother cannot refrain from smoking cigarettes, she should extend the time between the last smoked cigarette and breastfeeding to at least 3 h when the nicotine has been completely eliminated from the milk. Similarly, nursing mothers should also drink coffee sparingly and immediately after nursing and avoid coffee or caffeinated beverages for at least 4 h prior to breastfeeding to minimize the infant's exposure to caffeine. PMID:27129353

  7. Nature and biosynthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides related to oligosaccharides in human breast milk

    PubMed Central

    Intanon, Montira; Arreola, Sheryl Lozel; Pham, Ngoc Hung; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Haltrich, Dietmar; Nguyen, Thu-Ha

    2014-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are prominent among the functional components of human breast milk. While HMO have potential applications in both infants and adults, this potential is limited by the difficulties in manufacturing these complex structures. Consequently, functional alternatives such as galacto-oligosaccharides are under investigation, and nowadays, infant formulae are supplemented with galacto-oligosaccharides to mimic the biological effects of HMO. Recently, approaches toward the production of defined human milk oligosaccharide structures using microbial, fermentative methods employing single, appropriately engineered microorganisms were introduced. Furthermore, galactose-containing hetero-oligosaccharides have attracted an increasing amount of attention because they are structurally more closely related to HMO. The synthesis of these novel oligosaccharides, which resemble the core of HMO, is of great interest for applications in the food industry. PMID:24571717

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04, Isolated from Human Breast Milk.

    PubMed

    Tao, XueYing; Jiang, Meiling; Zhang, Feng; Xu, Feng; Wei, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04, a novel strain, was isolated from a breast milk sample from a healthy woman and demonstrated several probiotic functions. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of this strain, which contains 3,192,587 bp, a G+C content of 44.52%, 3,158 protein-coding genes, and 53 tRNA genes. PMID:26659683

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04, Isolated from Human Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Tao, XueYing; Jiang, Meiling; Zhang, Feng; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04, a novel strain, was isolated from a breast milk sample from a healthy woman and demonstrated several probiotic functions. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of this strain, which contains 3,192,587 bp, a G+C content of 44.52%, 3,158 protein-coding genes, and 53 tRNA genes. PMID:26659683

  10. PBDEs and PBBs in human serum and breast milk from cohabiting UK couples.

    PubMed

    Bramwell, Lindsay; Fernandes, Alwyn; Rose, Martin; Harrad, Stuart; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja

    2014-12-01

    Concentrations of PBDEs and PBBs were measured in matched blood and breast milk samples from 10 UK couples collected in 2011-12. These data are the first measurements in human serum from the UK since the 2004 EU ban on all uses of the penta-and octa-BDE formulations and the 2008 ban on the use of the deca-BDE formulation in some applications. Serum ∑PBDE tri-hepta concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 16 ng g(-1) lipid weight, with median 4.0 ng g(-1) lw were measured. Breast milk ∑PBDE tri-hepta concentrations ranged from 1.3 to 21 ng g(-1) lw, with median 5.7 ng g(-1) lw. Couples had similar serum congener concentrations unless one of them frequently stayed away from home for work (different diet and dust exposures) or one had occupational exposure to foams and furnishings or electronics. BB-153 were measured above LOD in 40% of sera and 100% of breast milks samples, with median concentrations of 0.04 and 0.06, and maximums of 0.91 and 0.79 ng g(-1) lw respectively. Concentrations in this study indicated a modest decrease from pre-ban levels reported for the UK. BDE-209 was detected above the limit of detection (LOD) in 15% of sera and 83% of breast milks, with ranges <1.2-20 and <0.2-1.0 ng g(-1) lw respectively. Average daily infant intakes were estimated at 17, 5, 5 and 3 ng kg(-1) bw for BDE-47,-99,-153 and -209 respectively, all well below relevant US-EPA threshold reference dose values (RfDs). PMID:24745556

  11. Effects of breast milk from allergic and non-allergic mothers on mitogen- and allergen-induced cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Malin F; Fredriksson, Jenny; Hellquist, Anna; Jenmalm, Maria C

    2003-02-01

    Breast milk contains several components that provide specific immunity and affect the maturation of the infant's immune system. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of breast milk, on mitogen- and allergen-induced cytokine production from cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC), and if those effects differ between allergic and non-allergic mothers. The cells were incubated for 96 h with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), ovalbumin or cat dander in the presence of various dilutions of colostrum. Colostrum inhibited both mitogen- and cat-induced IFN-gamma and mitogen-induced interleukin-4 (IL-4) production. The inhibition on IFN-gamma production was to some extent caused by TGF-beta, as the effect was modified when an anti-TGF-beta antibody was added to the cultures. In contrast, colostrum enhanced allergen-induced production of the Th2-like cytokines IL-5 and IL-13, and this was accompanied with increased production of IL-10. No differences were found between allergic and non-allergic mothers. The inhibitory effect of breast milk on IFN-gamma production, which was partly due to the high levels of TGF-beta, together with the enhancing effect on IL-10 secretion, confirm that breast milk is anti-inflammatory. Although the production of IL-5 and IL-13 was enhanced by colostrum, this was accompanied with an increased production of IL-10. Together with the high levels of TGF-beta in breast milk and inhibitory effect of colostrum on IL-4 production, this suggests a possible mechanism whereby breast-feeding may protect against the development of allergy. Despite differences in the composition of breast milk between allergic and non-allergic mothers, the effects of breast milk on cytokine production from CBMC were independent of the atopic status of the mothers. PMID:12603708

  12. Viral and immunological factors associated with breast milk transmission of SIV in rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Amedee, Angela M; Rychert, Jenna; Lacour, Nedra; Fresh, Lynn; Ratterree, Marion

    2004-01-01

    Background The viral and host factors involved in transmission of HIV through breastfeeding are largely unknown, and intervention strategies are urgently needed to protect at-risk populations. To evaluate the viral and immunological factors directly related to milk transmission of virus, we have evaluated the disease course of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) in lactating rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) as a model of natural breast milk transmission of HIV. Results Fourteen lactating macaques were infected intravenously with SIV/DeltaB670, a pathogenic isolate of SIV and were pair-housed with their suckling infants throughout the disease course. Transmission was observed in 10 mother-infant pairs over a one-year period. Two mothers transmitted virus during the period of initial viremia 14–21 days post inoculation (p.i.) and were classified as early transmitters. Peak viral loads in milk and plasma of early transmitters were similar to other animals, however the early transmitters subsequently displayed a rapid progressor phenotype and failed to control virus expression as well as other animals at 56 days p.i. Eight mothers were classified as late transmitters, with infant infection detected at time points in the chronic stage of the maternal SIV disease course (81 to 360 days). Plasma viral loads, CD4+ T cell counts and SIV-specific antibody titers were similar in late transmitters and non-transmitters. Late breast milk transmission, however, was correlated with higher average milk viral loads and more persistent viral expression in milk 12 to 46 weeks p.i. as compared to non-transmitters. Four mothers failed to transmit virus, despite disease progression and continuous lactation. Conclusion These studies validate the SIV-infected rhesus macaque as a model for breast milk transmission of HIV. As observed in studies of HIV-infected women, transmission occurred at time points throughout the period of lactation. Transmission during the chronic stage of SIV

  13. Lack of evidence for existence of vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D sulfates in human breast and cow's milk.

    PubMed

    Okano, T; Kuroda, E; Nakao, H; Kodama, S; Matsuo, T; Nakamichi, Y; Nakajima, K; Hirao, N; Kobayashi, T

    1986-10-01

    The presence of water-soluble vitamin D and 25-OH-D sulfates in human breast and cow's milk was studied. We first confirmed that synthetic vitamin D2 and D3 sulfates could not be hydrolyzed by alkali but by acid. Breast or cow's milk was separated into milk whey containing water-soluble components and milk curd containing crude proteins and lipophilic components. The separated milk whey and curd were hydrolyzed by acid or alkali and each lipid extract was subjected to HPLC analysis. Neither peak due to vitamin D and 25-OH-D was observed in the chromatograms of acid- and alkali-hydrolyzed milk whey, whereas the peaks due to vitamin D3 and 25-OH-D3 were found in the chromatograms of both acid- and alkali-hydrolyzed milk curd and there was no significant difference between the respective peak heights. The eluates corresponding to the respective peaks observed on the latter's chromatograms were collected and subjected to UV, HPLC, GC-MS and GLC to identify the existence of vitamin D3 and 25-OH-D3, respectively. We concluded from these results that neither breast nor cow's milk contained water-soluble vitamin D and 25-OH-D sulfates, whereas they contained fat-soluble vitamin D3 and 25-OH-D3. The concentrations of vitamin D3 and 25-OH-D3 in breast milk were about 125 and 350 ng/liter, while those in cow's milk were about 420 and 270 ng/liter, respectively. The experiments on the transfer of 3H-D3 and 3H-25-OH-D3 perorally dosed to lactating rats into suckling pups through their milk also supported the above conclusion. PMID:3494111

  14. Determinants of brominated flame retardants in breast milk from a large scale Norwegian study.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Cathrine; Stigum, Hein; Frøshaug, May; Broadwell, Sharon L; Becher, Georg; Eggesbø, Merete

    2010-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), are widely present in human populations. In order to investigate human exposure pathways and associations with socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, 393 breast milk samples from mothers living in various regions throughout Norway were analyzed. Up to ten PBDE congeners were measured in all the samples, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and BDE-209 in subsets of 310 and 46, respectively. The median concentrations of the sum of the seven most prominent PBDEs (BDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154 and 183), BDE-209 and HBCD were 2.1, 0.32 and 0.86ng/g lipids, respectively. These concentrations are comparable to the levels generally observed in human populations in Europe. The frequency distributions were quite skewed with long tails towards higher concentrations. Maternal age, parity, education, having a cohabitant employed as electrician, and ventilation were factors significantly associated with some of the BFRs, although these factors only explained a small amount of the variability (R(2) 0.04-0.16). The mothers' diet was not found to influence the breast milk PBDE and HBCD levels. Our results show that sources other than the diet are important for the variability seen in breast milk BFR concentrations and that exposure from the indoor atmosphere should be emphasized in future studies. PMID:19889457

  15. Specific pattern of persistent organochlorine residues in human breast milk from South India

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Gondaira, Futoshi; Ramesh, A.; Tatsukawa, Ryo ); Subramanian, A.; Mohan, D.; Kumaran, P.; Venugopalan, V.K. )

    1990-03-01

    Human breast milk samples collected from four locations in Tamil Nadu state, South India, were analyzed for understanding the levels of persistent organochlorines such as 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH (BHC)) isomers, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) compounds, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). On the basis of the overall concentrations of these compounds, {Sigma}HCH (sum of {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, and {delta} isomers) levels were higher than the other two. Unlike that of developed countries, the concentration of HCH isomers in Indian breast milk was more in vegetarians than nonvegetarians. Interestingly, high levels of HCH isomers indicated a shift toward their preferential accumulation in the body relative to DDT compounds, which had higher levels than HCH isomers in earlier years. In view of the increase usage of technical HCH for agriculture and vector control, the body burden of HCH isomers may still go up in Indians. The authors also detected PCBs in Indian breast milk, but at low levels.

  16. Rapid sample preparation procedure for determination of retinol and α-tocopherol in human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Kašparová, Markéta; Plíšek, Jiří; Solichová, Dagmar; Krčmová, Lenka; Kučerová, Barbora; Hronek, Miloslav; Solich, Petr

    2012-05-15

    The liposoluble vitamins (retinol and α-tocopherol) concentration in human breast milk is of a cardinal knowledge especially for nutrition of prematurely born. It enables the feeding optimization of these important micronutrients for preterm infants. The novel rapid liquid-liquid extraction procedure for human breast milk investigation was developed and validated according to FDA guidelines. The recovery of retinol was 82-90% measured at three concentration levels 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 μmol/L, for α-tocopherol 92-109% at concentration levels 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 μmol/L. The repeatability of extraction procedure expressed as relative standard deviation was 3.26% for retinol and 4.79% for α-tocopherol. Developed extraction procedure was applied on 120 human breast milk samples. The separation of vitamins was completed using advantages of a monolithic column which accomplished demands of acceleration made by modern bio-analytical HPLC methodology. The analytes of interest were detected by diode-array detector at wavelengths 325 nm for retinol and 290 nm for α-tocopherol. PMID:22483891

  17. Trends in the enantiomeric composition of polychlorinated biphenyl atropisomers in human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Yoshimasa; Kakimoto, Kensaku; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Nakano, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    For the precise estimation of the risk to human health caused by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), it is important to discuss enantiomer fraction value (EF value) because it is reported that behaviors such as stability and toxicity of enantiomers are quite different in human body. Among POPs, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is known as one of the most persistent compounds in human breast milk samples. The main exposure source of PCB for human body is mostly from food especially in seafood. The contamination of fish and shellfish has been a serious problem for the Japanese, who consume a large amount of fish in their diet. PCBs have 19 congeners which are chlorine-substituted in 3- or 4- ortho positions are known to have enantiomers. In this study, we analyzed PCB 183 (2,2',3,4,4',5',6-hepta CB) in human breast milk and fish samples enantioselectively and revealed the time trends of the EF value. Though EF value of PCB 183 in fish samples sustained close to racemate (EF = 0.5) from 1982 to 2012, that in breast milk increased over time. This fact indicates that (+)-PCB-183 has greater bioaccumulation potential than (-)-PCB-183 in human body; therefore, the toxicity of (+)-PCB-183 should be emphasized. PMID:26081770

  18. Breast milk protects against the development of necrotizing enterocolitis through inhibition of Toll Like Receptor 4 in the intestinal epithelium via activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Good, Misty; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Egan, Charlotte E.; Afrazi, Amin; Jia, Hongpeng; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Lu, Peng; Branca, Maria F.; Ma, Congrong; Prindle, Thomas; Mielo, Samantha; Pompa, Anthony; Hodzic, Zerina; Ozolek, John A.; Hackam, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk is the most effective strategy to protect infants against necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a devastating disease which is characterized by severe intestinal necrosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that the lipopolysaccharide receptor toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a critical role in NEC development via deleterious effects on mucosal injury and repair. We now hypothesize that breast milk protects against NEC by inhibiting TLR4 within the intestinal epithelium, and sought to determine the mechanisms involved. Breast milk protected against NEC and reduced TLR4 signaling in wild-type neonatal mice, but not in mice lacking the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), while selective removal of EGF from breast milk reduced its protective properties, indicating that breast milk inhibits NEC and attenuates TLR4 signaling via EGF/EGFR activation. Over-expression of TLR4 in the intestinal epithelium reversed the protective effects of breast milk. The protective effects of breast milk occurred via inhibition of enterocyte apoptosis and restoration of enterocyte proliferation. Importantly, in IEC-6 enterocytes, breast milk inhibited TLR4 signaling via inhibition of GSK3β. Taken together, these findings offer mechanistic insights into the protective role for breast milk in NEC, and support a link between growth factor and innate immune receptors in NEC pathogenesis. PMID:25899687

  19. Simultaneous determination of 20 pharmacologically active substances in cow's milk, goat's milk, and human breast milk by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Azzouz, Abdelmonaim; Jurado-Sánchez, Beatriz; Souhail, Badredine; Ballesteros, Evaristo

    2011-05-11

    This paper reports a systematic approach to the development of a method that combines continuous solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of 20 pharmacologically active substances including antibacterials (chloramphenicol, florfenicol, pyrimethamine, thiamphenicol), nonsteroideal anti-inflammatories (diclofenac, flunixin, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, mefenamic acid, niflumic acid, phenylbutazone), antiseptic (triclosan), antiepileptic (carbamazepine), lipid regulator (clofibric acid), β-blockers (metoprolol, propranolol), and hormones (17α-ethinylestradiol, estrone, 17β-estradiol) in milk samples. The sample preparation procedure involves deproteination of the milk, followed by sample enrichment and cleanup by continuous solid-phase extraction. The proposed method provides a linear response over the range of 0.6-5000 ng/kg and features limits of detection from 0.2 to 1.2 ng/kg depending on the particular analyte. The method was successfully applied to the determination of pharmacologically active substance residues in food samples including whole, raw, half-skim, skim, and powdered milk from different sources (cow, goat, and human breast). PMID:21469656

  20. Bacterial microbiome of breast milk and child saliva from low-income Mexican-American women and children

    PubMed Central

    Davé, Veronica; Street, Kelly; Francis, Stephen; Bradman, Asa; Riley, Lee; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Background The childhood salivary microbiome, which plays an important role in healthy development, may be influenced by breast milk consumption. The composition of the milk microbiome and the role it plays in the establishment of the infant microbiome are not well understood. Methods Here, we sequenced the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to characterize microbial communities in breast milk and 5-year-old child saliva from ten low-income, Mexican-American mother-child pairs with a high prevalence of obesity. Results Members of the genus Streptococcus dominated both milk and salivary microbial communities in most subjects. Staphylococcus was observed predominately in milk samples while Prevotella was more prevalent in child saliva. No statistically significant relationships were observed between maternal and child microbiomes or between child microbiome and BMI. However, pre-pregnancy BMI was correlated with both lower Streptococcus abundance (r = −0.67) and higher microbial diversity (r = 0.77) in breast milk (P < 0.05 for both). Diversity estimates were notably similar to data from other low-income cohorts or children. Conclusion These findings contribute to the currently-limited state of knowledge regarding the breast milk and salivary microbiomes in mother-child pairs and may inform future studies seeking to elucidate the relationship between early-life microbial exposures and pediatric health. PMID:26756784

  1. Cytokine modulation (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) by human breast milk lipids on intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2).

    PubMed

    Barrera, Girolamo J; Sánchez, Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    Human breast milk is the best form of nourishment for infants during the first year of life. It is composed by a complex mixture of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Breast milk provides nutrients and bioactive factors that themselves modulate maturation and development of the gastrointestinal tract. Many studies have shown that it provides protection against gastrointestinal tract inflammation. In this sense, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of human breast milk lipids on epithelial intestinal cells (Caco-2) cytokine regulation and the fatty acid transporter protein (FATP) involved in this process. Caco-2 cells were cultivated and stimulated with different concentration of human milk lipids from healthy human mothers (18-30-year-olds) or single commercial lipids for 48 h. We measured the concentrations and mRNA levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 cytokines by immunoassay (ELISA) and quantitative-PCR (qRT-PCR) technique, respectively. We observed a two to three times decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (p < 0.01) as well as an increase in anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels in cells stimulated with increasing concentrations of breast milk lipids. These results suggest that human breast milk lipids could have an important role on the cytokine modulation in the newborn bowel. PMID:26441050

  2. Dioxins levels in breast milk of women living in Caserta and Naples: assessment of environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Armando; Rivezzi, Gaetano; Carideo, Pietro; Ceci, Roberta; Diletti, Gianfranco; Ippoliti, Carla; Migliorati, Giacomo; Piscitelli, Prisco; Ripani, Alessandro; Salini, Romolo; Scortichini, Giampiero

    2014-01-01

    Naples and Caserta provinces are extensively affected by the illegal dumping of hazardous and urban wastes, which were periodically set to fire. Several studies were made on the possible health impact of this illegal waste management. The aim of the study was to detect dioxins levels in breast milk of volunteer primiparae and to assess the possible source of dioxins in the affected areas. The authors determined dioxins levels in breast milk from 100 primiparae from the study area and collected anamnestic information on donors. We determined dioxins levels in breast milk from 100 primiparae from the study area and collected anamnestic information on donors. As a measure of environmental risk of dioxins (EDR) we used the interpolated values of dioxins concentration in buffalo milk samples collected in the study area. Correlations between the EDR, age of the mother, smoking habit, cheese consumption, occupation in activity at risk, presence of plants for the disposal of toxic waste or illegal burning of solid waste near the residence of the donor and dioxin level in breast milk were investigated. The dioxin level in breast milk is significantly correlated to the EDR, the age of the sampled women and the presence of illegal burning of solid waste. PMID:24120012

  3. Maternal risk factors associated with increased dioxin concentrations in breast milk in a hot spot of dioxin contamination in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Maruzeni, Shoko; Morikawa, Yuko; Anh, Tran Hai; Van Luong, Hoang; Dam, Pham Minh; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Son, Le Ke; Nishijo, Hisao

    2014-01-01

    This study looked to identify determinants of exposure to dioxin in breast milk from breast-feeding women in a hot spot of dioxin exposure in Vietnam. Breast milk was collected from 140 mothers 1 month after delivery. The risk factors investigated included length of residency, drinking of well water and the frequency of animal food consumption. Cluster analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns of fish and meat portions, fish variety and egg variety. Residency, age and parity were clearly associated with increased dioxin levels. Drinking well water and the consumption of marine crab and shrimps were related to higher levels of furans in breast milk. The consumption of quail eggs also appeared to be associated with increased levels of some dioxin isomers in this area. Some mothers who ate no or less meat than fish and mothers who consumed more freshwater fish than marine fish had lower levels of dioxins in their breast milk. However, the type of water and the eating habits of mothers contributed only partly to the increased dioxin levels in their breast milk; the length of residency was the most important risk factor associated with increased dioxin body burdens of mothers. PMID:24149970

  4. Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to DDT by Breast Milk Analysis in Canary Islands

    PubMed Central

    Vall, Oriol; Gomez-Culebras, Mario; Puig, Carme; Rodriguez-Carrasco, Ernesto; Gomez Baltazar, Arelis; Canchucaja, Lizzeth; Joya, Xavier; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The use of p,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been banned since the late 1970s due to its toxicity. However, its long half-life makes it persistent in the environment and, consequently, almost everyone has DDT residues in the body. Human milk constitutes an ideal non-conventional matrix to investigate environmental chronic exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs) residues. The study aimed to identify potential population risk factors of exposure to DDT due to the proximity to countries where it is still used. Methods Seventy-two consecutive lactating women were prospectively included in Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain). A validated questionnaire was used to obtain socioeconomic, demographics data, and daily habits during pregnancy. DDT levels in breast milk were measured by gas chromatography with-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Anthropometrics measurements in newborns were obtained. Results Thirty-four out of 72 (47.2%) of the analysed milk samples presented detectable levels of DDT (mean: 0.92 ng/g), ranging between 0.08 to 16.96 ng/g. The socio-demographic variables did not significantly differ between detectable DDT and non-detectable DDT groups. We found positive association between DDT levels and vegetables (OR (95%CI): 1.23 (1.01–1.50)) and poultry meat (OR (95%CI): 2.05 (1.16–3.60)) consumption, and also between the presence of DDT in breast milk and gestational age (OR (95%CI): 0.59 (0.40–0.90)). Conclusions DDT is present in breast milk of women at the time of delivery. Residual levels and the spread from countries still using DDT explain DDT detection from vegetables and from animal origin food. The presence of this compound in breast milk represents a pre- and postnatal exposure hazard for foetuses and infants due to chronic bioaccumulation and poor elimination, with possible deleterious effects on health. This data should be used to raise awareness of the risks of OCs exposure and to help establish health policies

  5. Molecular descriptors that influence the amount of drugs transfer into human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, S; Ling, L H; Tham, S Y; Alany, R G

    2002-06-20

    Most drugs are excreted into breast milk to some extent and are bioavailable to the infant. The ability to predict the approximate amount of drug that might be present in milk from the drug structure would be very useful in the clinical setting. The aim of this research was to simplify and upgrade the previously developed model for prediction of the milk to plasma (M/P) concentration ratio, given only the molecular structure of the drug. The set of 123 drug compounds, with experimentally derived M/P values taken from the literature, was used to develop, test and validate a predictive model. Each compound was encoded with 71 calculated molecular structure descriptors, including constitutional descriptors, topological descriptors, molecular connectivity, geometrical descriptors, quantum chemical descriptors, physicochemical descriptors and liquid properties. Genetic algorithm was used to select a subset of the descriptors that best describe the drug transfer into breast milk and artificial neural network (ANN) to correlate selected descriptors with the M/P ratio and develop a QSAR. The averaged literature M/P values were used as the ANN's output and calculated molecular descriptors as the inputs. A nine-descriptor nonlinear computational neural network model has been developed for the estimation of M/P ratio values for a data set of 123 drugs. The model included the percent of oxygen, parachor, density, highest occupied molecular orbital energy (HOMO), topological indices (chiV2, chi2 and chi1) and shape indices (kappa3, kappa2), as the inputs had four hidden neurons and one output neuron. The QSPR that was developed indicates that molecular size (parachor, density) shape (topological shape indices, molecular connectivity indices) and electronic properties (HOMO) are the most important for drug transfer into breast milk. Unlike previously reported models, the QSPR model described here does not require experimentally derived parameters and could potentially provide a

  6. Milk derived colloid as a novel drug delivery carrier for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Masamichi; Silanikove, Nissim; Chang, Xiaofei; Ravi, Rajani; Pham, Vui; Baia, Gilson; Paz, Keren; Brait, Mariana; Sidransky, David; Koch, Wayne M

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer has an extremely poor prognosis when chemotherapy is no longer effective. To overcome drug resistance, novel drug delivery systems based on nanoparticles have had remarkable success. We produced a novel nanoparticle component ‘MDC’ from milk-derived colloid. In order to evaluate the anti-cancer effect of MDC, we conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments on cancer cell lines and a primary tumor derived breast xenograft. Doxorubicin (Dox) conjugated to MDC (MDC-Dox) showed higher cancer cell growth inhibition than MDC alone especially in cell lines with high EGFR expression. In a mouse melanoma model, MDC-Dox significantly suppressed tumor growth when compared with free Dox. Moreover, in a primary tumor derived breast xenograft, one of the mice treated with MDC-Dox showed partial regression, while mice treated with free Dox failed to show any suppression of tumor growth. We have shown that a novel nanoparticle compound made of simple milk-derived colloid has the capability for drug conjugation, and serves as a tumor-specific carrier of anti-cancer drugs. Further research on its safety and ability to carry various anti-cancer drugs into multiple drug-resistant primary breast models is warranted. PMID:26046946

  7. Breast-milk radioactivity after a Tc-99m DTPA aerosol/Tc-99m MAA lung study

    SciTech Connect

    Mountford, P.J.; Hall, F.M.; Wells, C.P.; Coakley, A.J.

    1984-10-01

    Measurements were made of the concentration of Tc-99m activity in samples of breast milk following an administration of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol for a lung ventilation image and one of Tc-99m MAA for lung perfusion. The activity was 222 nCi/ml of milk (8.2 kBq/ml) at 2 hr after the MAA injection, and it was found to be excreted exponentially with an effective half-life of 4.6 hr. There was a small incorporation of Tc-99m into breast-milk protein. The authors conclude that the combined use of these two Tc-99m agents did not indicate the interruption of breast feeding beyond 24 hr after administration of the MAA, and that for an aerosol ventiliation study alone, breast feeding need not be interrupted for more than 4 hr after the test.

  8. Breast-feeding in preterm twins: Development of feeding behavior and milk intake during hospital stay and related caregiving practices.

    PubMed

    Nyqvist, Kerstin Hedberg

    2002-08-01

    In a prospective study of 13 preterm twins still in the hospital, 85% were breast-fed, of which 46% were breast-fed exclusively. Most mothers preferred simultaneous breast-feeding, using the football hold. Observations and maternal descriptions showed differences between the twins in their development of breast-feeding behavior, especially in sucking. The mothers' suggestions regarding special support for the breast-feeding mothers of preterm twins involved synchronizing feeding with the twins' behavioral states; twin cobedding; appropriate armchairs and breast-feeding pillows; experimenting with breast-feeding positions; information about breast milk production; nurses' spontaneous practical assistance, encouragement, and emotional support; the provision of privacy; the availability of parent rooms; and opportunities for fathers' presence in the hospital. PMID:12219324

  9. Dairy cattle serum and milk factors contributing to the risk of colon and breast cancers.

    PubMed

    zur Hausen, Harald; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele

    2015-08-15

    The analysis of published epidemiological data on colon and breast cancer reveals a remarkable concordance for most regions of the world. A low incidence for both cancers has been recorded in Mongolia and Bolivia. Discrepant data, however, have been reported for India, Japan and Korea. In India, the incidence of breast cancer is significantly higher than for colon cancer, in Japan and Korea colon cancer exceeds by far the rate of breast cancer. Here, studies are summarized pointing to a species-specific risk for colon cancer after consumption of beef originating from dairy cattle. Uptake of dairy products of Bos taurus-derived milk cattle, particularly consumed at early age, is suggested to represent one of the main risk factors for the development of breast cancer. A recent demonstration of reduced breast cancer rates in individuals with lactose intolerance (Ji et al., Br J Cancer 2014; 112:149-52) seems to be in line with this interpretation. Species-specific risk factors for these cancers are compatible with the transmission of different infectious factors transferred via meat or dairy products. Countries with discordant rates of colon and breast cancer reveal a similar discordance between meat and milk product consumption of dairy cattle. The recent isolation of a larger number of novel presumably viral DNAs from serum, meat and dairy products of healthy dairy cows, at least part of them infectious for human cells, deserves further investigation. Systemic infections early in life, resulting in latency and prevention of subsequent infections with the same agent by neutralizing antibodies, would require reconsideration of ongoing prospective studies conducted in the adult population. PMID:25648405

  10. DDT AND ITS METABOLITES IN BREAST MILK FROM THE MADEIRA RIVER BASIN IN THE AMAZON, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Azeredo, Antonio; Torres, João P. M.; de Freitas Fonseca, Márlon; Britto, José Lailson; Bastos, Wanderley Rodrigues; Azevedo e Silva, Cláudio E.; Cavalcanti, Giselle; Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Sarcinelli, Paula N.; Claudio, Luz; Markowitz, Steven; Malm, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    Until the 1990’s the 1,1,1-trichloro-bis-2,2′-(4chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) was sprayed in the walls of the house in the along the Madeira River basin, Brazilian Amazon, a region well known by its large number of malaria cases. In the 1910, the relate of Oswaldo Cruz about health conditions in Madeira River region describes the presence of malaria in rates ranging until 100% of infected people in some localities. Data available in the literature points to the DDT contamination in fishes captured in Madeira River region. Fish is the major source of dietary protein to this people. DDT tends to accumulate in lipid rich tissues being eliminated by different events, including lactation. Considering the importance of the breast milk to the children feeding, the associated risks of DDT exposure via breast milk intake to children must be assessed. This is the main objective of this work: to analyse the presence of the p,p′-DDT and its metabolites p,p′-DDE and p,p′-DDD in 69 human milk samples and to estimate the intake of DDT and its metabolite in terms of total DDT (total DDT = p,p′-DDE+ p,p′-DDD+ p,p′-DDT). All sample showed contamination with DDT and its metabolites ranging from 25.4 to 9361.9 ng of total DDT / g of lipid (median=369.6 ng of total DDT / g of lipid) and 8.7 % of the Estimated Daily Intake (EDI), in terms of total DDT, was higher than the Acceptable Daily Intake proposed by the WHO. Key words: DDT, breast milk, children, organochlorine pesticide, fish. PMID:18495200

  11. Levels of innate immune factors in preterm and term mothers' breast milk during the 1st month postpartum.

    PubMed

    Trend, Stephanie; Strunk, Tobias; Lloyd, Megan L; Kok, Chooi Heen; Metcalfe, Jessica; Geddes, Donna T; Lai, Ching Tat; Richmond, Peter; Doherty, Dorota A; Simmer, Karen; Currie, Andrew

    2016-04-14

    There is a paucity of data on the effect of preterm birth on the immunological composition of breast milk throughout the different stages of lactation. We aimed to characterise the effects of preterm birth on the levels of immune factors in milk during the 1st month postpartum, to determine whether preterm milk is deficient in antimicrobial factors. Colostrum (days 2-5 postpartum), transitional milk (days 8-12) and mature milk (days 26-30) were collected from mothers of extremely preterm (<28 weeks of gestation, n 15), very preterm (28-<32 weeks of gestation, n 15), moderately preterm (32-<37 weeks of gestation, n 15) and term infants (37-41 weeks of gestation, n 15). Total protein, lactoferrin, secretory IgA, soluble CD14 receptor (sCD14), transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2), α defensin 5 (HD5), β defensins 1 (HBD1) and 2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, interferon-γ, TNF-α and lysozyme (LZ) were quantified in milk. We examined the effects of lactation stage, gestational age, volume of milk expressed, mode of delivery, parity and maternal infection on milk immune factor concentrations using repeated-measures regression analysis. The concentrations of all factors except LZ and HD5 decreased over the 1st month postpartum. Extremely preterm mothers had significantly higher concentrations of HBD1 and TGF-β2 in colostrum than term mothers did. After controlling for other variables in regression analyses, preterm birth was associated with higher concentrations of HBD1, LZ and sCD14 in milk samples. In conclusion, preterm breast milk contains significantly higher concentrations of some immune proteins than term breast milk. PMID:26891901

  12. Body fat and bone mineral content of infants fed breast-milk, cow's-milk formula, or soy formula during the first year of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to characterize growth, fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM), and bone mineral content (BMC) longitudinally in breast-fed (BF), cow's milk formula-fed (CMF), or soy formula-fed (SF) healthy infants during the first year of life. Infants were assessed at ages 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo. Growt...

  13. Compartments within a compartment

    PubMed Central

    Blacque, Oliver E; Sanders, Anna AWM

    2014-01-01

    The primary cilium has emerged as a hotbed of sensory and developmental signaling, serving as a privileged domain to concentrate the functions of a wide number of channels, receptors and downstream signal transducers. This realization has provided important insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the ciliopathies, an ever expanding spectrum of multi-symptomatic disorders affecting the development and maintenance of multiple tissues and organs. One emerging research focus is the subcompartmentalised nature of the organelle, consisting of discrete structural and functional subdomains such as the periciliary membrane/basal body compartment, the transition zone, the Inv compartment and the distal segment/ciliary tip region. Numerous ciliopathy, transport-related and signaling molecules localize at these compartments, indicating specific roles at these subciliary sites. Here, by focusing predominantly on research from the genetically tractable nematode C. elegans, we review ciliary subcompartments in terms of their structure, function, composition, biogenesis and relationship to human disease. PMID:24732235

  14. Dietary exposure to phenolic and methoxylated organohalogen contaminants in relation to their concentrations in breast milk and serum in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yukiko; Nishimura, Eri; Kato, Yoshihisa; Harada, Kouji H; Koizumi, Akio; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated human exposure to neutral, phenolic, and methoxylated organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) in a duplicate diet study to evaluate their concentrations in breast milk and serum of Okinawan people from Japan during 2004-2009. Dietary intakes of phenolic OHCs were predominantly 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TriBP), followed by tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and 6-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE47). After exposure, TriBP and TBBPA were transferred to breast milk, whereas 6-OH-BDE47 was selectively retained in serum. Despite a lower dietary exposure to pentachlorophenol and 4-hydroxy-CB187, both were retained in serum. For the methoxylated OHCs, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TriBA) and 6-methoxy-BDE47 were the predominant dietary contaminants, of which TriBA was present in both breast milk and serum, whereas 6-methoxy-BDE47 was selectively transferred to breast milk. These findings suggest that dietary exposure to phenolic and methoxylated OHCs may result in differential partitioning between breast milk and serum with different pharmacokinetic or exposure routes. PMID:24263137

  15. Correlation between lactoferrin and beneficial microbiota in breast milk and infant's feces.

    PubMed

    Mastromarino, Paola; Capobianco, Daniela; Campagna, Giuseppe; Laforgia, Nicola; Drimaco, Pietro; Dileone, Alessandra; Baldassarre, Maria E

    2014-10-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a natural component of human milk with antimicrobial, immunostimulatory and immunomodulatory properties. Several in vitro studies suggest that LF could promote an environment in the gut of neonates that favors colonization with beneficial bacteria. However, clinical studies on the correlation between the concentration of LF in breast milk and feces of infants and the gut microbiota in infants are lacking. In our study we analyzed the content of LF and the microbiota of breast milk and feces of infants of 48 mother-infant pairs (34 full-term and 14 pre-term infants) at birth and 30 days after delivery. In the term group, a significant decrease of mean LF concentration between colostrum (7.0 ± 5.1 mg/ml) and mature milk (2.3 ± 0.4 mg/ml) was observed. In pre-term group, breast milk LF levels were similar to those observed in full-term group. Fecal LF concentration of healthy infants was extremely high both in term and pre-term infants, higher than the amount reported in healthy children and adults. In term infants mean fecal LF levels significantly increased from birth (994 ± 1,828 μg/ml) to 1 month of age (3,052 ± 4,323 μg/ml). The amount of LF in the feces of 30 day-old term infants was significantly associated with maternal mature milk LF concentration (p = 0.030) confirming that breast milk represents the main source of LF found in the gut of infants. A linear positive correlation between colostrum and mature milk LF concentration was observed (p = 0.008) indicating that milk LF levels reflect individual characteristics. In pre-term infants higher mean concentrations of fecal LF at birth (1,631 ± 2,206 μg/ml) and 30 days after delivery (7,633 ± 9,960 μg/ml) were observed in comparison to full-term infants. The amount of fecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli resulted associated with the concentration of fecal LF 3 days after delivery (p = 0.017 and p = 0.026, respectively). These results suggest that

  16. Biomonitoring of Mycotoxins in Human Breast Milk: Current State and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Warth, Benedikt; Braun, Dominik; Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Turner, Paul C; Degen, Gisela H; Marko, Doris

    2016-07-18

    Human breast milk is considered as the best and ideal form of nutrition for infants. However, food contaminants such as mycotoxins, which may be transferred from maternal blood to milk, are poorly described. Mycotoxins are a major group of natural toxins frequently detected in foods. Here, we review the current state-of-the-art in the monitoring of mycotoxins in human breast milk, i.e., knowledge on occurrence, metabolism, and analytical assays utilized for their quantification. We highlight that most of the data captured to date have not been verified with the precision now capable utilizing LC-MS/MS and LC-HRMS approaches. One concern is that some studies may overestimate individual measures, and most cannot capture the patterns and levels of mycotoxin mixtures. We propose accurate assessment as a priority, especially for aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, and deoxynivalenol as well as their major metabolites. However, also so-called emerging toxins such as citrinin, the enniatins, beauvericin, aurofusarin, or Alternaria toxins should be considered to evaluate their potential relevance. Key requirements for analytical quality assurance are identified and discussed to guide future developments in this area. Moreover, research needs including investigations of lactational transfer rates, the role of human metabolism for bioactivation or detoxification, and an evaluation of potential combinatory effects of different mycotoxins are pointed out. It is hoped that LC-MS based multianalyte methods will enable more accurate, rapid and affordable human biomonitoring approaches that support informed decisions for maternal and infant health. PMID:27300310

  17. Persistent organic pollutants in matched breast milk and infant faeces samples.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiqin; Wang, Xianyu; Li, Yan; Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Gallen, Michael; Hearn, Laurence; Aylward, Lesa L; McLachlan, Michael S; Sly, Peter D; Mueller, Jochen F

    2015-01-01

    Assessing blood concentration of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in infants is difficult due to the ethical and practical difficulties in obtaining sufficient quantities of blood. To determine whether measuring POPs in faeces might reflect blood concentration during infancy, we measured the concentrations of a range of POPs (i.e. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)) in a pilot study using matched breast milk and infant faecal samples obtained from ten mother–child pairs. All infants were breast fed, with 8 of them also receiving solid food at the time of faecal sampling. In this small dataset faecal concentrations (range 0.01–41 ng g(−1) lipid) are strongly associated with milk concentrations (range 0.02–230 ng g(−1) lipid). Associations with other factors generally could not be detected in this dataset, with the exception of a small effect of age or growth. Different sources (external or internal) of exposure appeared to directly influence faecal concentrations of different chemicals based on different inter-individual variability in the faeces-to-milk concentration ratio Rfm. Overall, the matrix of faeces as an external measure of internal exposure in infants looks promising for some chemicals and is worth assessing further in larger datasets. PMID:25463255

  18. Strontium biokinetic model for the lactating woman and transfer to breast milk: application to Techa River studies.

    PubMed

    Shagina, N B; Tolstykh, E I; Fell, T P; Smith, T J; Harrison, J D; Degteva, M O

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a biokinetic model for strontium metabolism in the lactating woman and transfer to breast milk for members of Techa River communities exposed as a result of discharges of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak plutonium production facility (Russia) in the early 1950s. This model was based on that developed for the International Commission for Radiological Protection with modifications to account for population specific features of breastfeeding and maternal bone mineral metabolism. The model is based on a biokinetic model for the adult female with allowances made for changes in mineral metabolism during periods of exclusive and partial breast-feeding. The model for females of all ages was developed earlier from extensive data on (90)Sr-body measurements for Techa Riverside residents. Measurements of (90)Sr concentrations in the maternal skeleton and breast milk obtained in the1960s during monitoring of global fallout in the Southern Urals region were used for evaluation of strontium transfer to breast and breast milk. The model was validated with independent data from studies of global fallout in Canada and measurements of (90)Sr body-burden in women living in the Techa River villages who were breastfeeding during maximum (90)Sr-dietary intakes. The model will be used in evaluations of the intake of strontium radioisotopes in breast milk by children born in Techa River villages during the radioactive releases and quantification of (90)Sr retention in the maternal skeleton. PMID:26295519

  19. Cross-flow microfiltration for lab-on-chip defatting of human breast milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Meifang; Lai, Ching Tat; Keating, Adrian; Dell, John; Liu, Yinong

    2008-12-01

    Determining the lactose concentration in human breast milk (HBM) via standard assay techniques requires fat removal from the milk (defatting), followed by lactose detection in the remaining skim milk. This work focuses on methods of defatting which can be subsequently integrated in the same Lab-on-Chip (LOC) as the lactose measurement. One method under study for defatting HBM is the use of a cross-flow microfiltration structure. This kind of microfiltration prevents clogging and separates the large fat globules from the smaller nutrition constituents of milk, of which lactose is amongst the smallest. To test if large fat globules may clog the channel or not, the biocompatibility of PMMA and HBM was studied. The weight of absorbed fat on the surface of PMMA was found to be 3-orders of magnitude lower than that of the total fat in HBM. Photolithgraphy using SU-8 was applied for mold fabrication; however, hot-embossing using SU-8 mold has not been successful due to the high stress resulting in the demolding process. To improve mold strength, nickel molds were fabricated by electroplating using different current densities. As expected, the deposition rates were found to have a linear relationship with applied current density, while the smaller features have a higher deposition rate than larger features.

  20. Selenium concentration in the milk of breast-feeding mothers and its geographic distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Zachara, B A; Pilecki, A

    2000-01-01

    A total of 905 human milk samples collected in all provinces of Poland, between 12 and 75 days of lactation, were analyzed for selenium concentration. The distribution of Se levels in milk between the provinces was narrow and varied from 8.81 to 11.58 ng/mL, with the mean value (+/- SD) of 10.24 +/- 2.82 ng/mL. The regions with lower levels of Se were in the central and eastern part of Poland; the areas with higher values were in the northern, western, and southern parts of Poland. No significant correlations were found between Se levels in milk and the age of lactating mothers or between Se levels and the postpartum period. The calculated daily Se intakes by breast-fed infants varied from 6.46 to 8.50 microg/day, with the mean value of 7.52 microg/day. This amount does not meet the recommended dietary allowances for infants between 0 and 6 months of age. Based on Se levels in human milk, we present a selenium map of Poland. PMID:11102294

  1. Mercury in women exposed to methylmercury through fish consumption, and in their newborn babies and breast milk

    SciTech Connect

    Skerfving, S.

    1988-10-01

    The presence of methylmercury in fish is a major environmental problem. During the major epidemics of methylmercury poisoning through sea food in Minamata in Japan, and through dressed seed in Iraq, there was a high prevalence of infants, who developed cerebral palsy. This was generally assumed to be due to intrauterine methylmercury poisoning, as it is well known, that methylmercury is transferred through the placenta into the fetus. There is also a possibility that exposure occurred through breast milk, as high levels of mercury in breast milk have been reported in mothers from Minamata. Information on the relationship between methylmercury exposure, mercury levels in blood of mothers and their babies, and levels in breast milk are reported here.

  2. Transfer of Silver Nanoparticles through the Placenta and Breast Milk during in vivo Experiments on Rats

    PubMed Central

    Melnik, E. A.; Buzulukov, Yu. P.; Demin, V. F.; Demin, V. A.; Gmoshinski, I. V.; Tyshko, N. V.; Tutelyan, V. A.

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs), widely used in the manufacture of various types of consumer products and for medical applications, belong to novel types of materials that pose potential risks to human health. The potential negative effects of the influence of these NPs on reproduction are insufficiently researched. A quantitative assessment of the transfer of metallic silver nanoparticles through the placenta and breast milk was carried out during an in vivo experiment. We used 34.9 ± 14.8 nm in size silver NPs that were stabilized by low-molecularweight polyvinylpyrrolidone and labeled with the 110mAg radioactive isotope using thermal neutron irradiation in a nuclear reactor. [110mAg]-labeled NPs preparations were administered intragastrically via a gavage needle to pregnant (20th day of gestation) or lactating (14–16th day of lactation) female rats at a dose of 1.69–2.21 mg/kg of body weight upon conversion into silver. The accumulation of NPs in rat fetuses and infant rats consuming their mother’s breast milk was evaluated using a low-background semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometer 24 and 48 hours following labeling, respectively. In all cases, we observed a penetration of the [110mAg]-labeled NPs through the placenta and ther entry into the mother’s milk in amounts exceeding by 100-1,000 times the sensitivity of the utilized analytical method. The average level of accumulation of NPs in fetuses was 0.085–0.147% of the administered dose, which was comparable to the accumulation of the label in the liver, blood, and muscle carcass of adult animals and exceeded the penetration of NPs across the hematoencephalic barrier into the brain of females by a factor of 10-100. In lactating females, the total accumulation of [110mAg]-labeled NPs into the milk exceeded 1.94 ± 0.29% of the administered dose over a 48 h period of lactation; not less than 25% of this amount was absorbed into the gastrointestinal tract of infant rats. Thus, this was the first time

  3. Factors associated with total mercury concentrations in maternal blood, cord blood, and breast milk among pregnant women in Busan, Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Yoojun; Lee, Chae-Kwan; Kim, Kun-Hyung; Lee, Jong-Tae; Suh, Chunhui; Kim, Se-Yeong; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Son, Byung-Chul; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Lee, Sangyoon

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the concentration of total mercury (THg) in maternal blood, cord blood, and breast milk, and its association with dietary factors. A total of 127 pregnant women in Busan, Korea were recruited. Maternal blood, cord blood, and breast milk were collected at 36 weeks of gestation, at delivery, and at one week after birth, respectively. Information about dietary habits and other factors were obtained from each subject. The mean THg concentrations in maternal blood, cord blood, and breast milk were 3.12±1.36 μg/L, 5.46±2.41 μg/L, and 0.91±2.08 μg/L, respectively. Positive correlations were found between log-transformed THg concentrations in maternal blood and cord blood (r=0.829, p<0.001), and between maternal blood and breast milk (r=0.296, p=0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the log-transformed concentration of THg in maternal blood was positively correlated with fish consumption (β=0.345, p<0.0001) and negatively correlated with bean consumption (β=-0.055, p=0.048). Fish consumption (β=0.482, p<0.0001) and maternal age (β=0.025, p=0.033) were positively associated with the concentration of THg in cord blood, while negative correlations were found for bean consumption (β=-0.134, p=0.027) and parity (β=-0.172, p=0.015). Beef consumption (β=0.031, p=0.007) was positively associated with log-transformed THg concentrations in breast milk, while negative correlations were found for bean consumption (β=-0.019, p=0.003) and maternal age (β=-0.083, p=0.004). Our study found that both the dietary and demographic factors differently affected to THg concentrations among samples of maternal blood, cord blood, and breast milk. PMID:27222418

  4. Radiocesium levels measured in breast milk one year after the reactor accident at Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Ioannides, K.G.; Pakou, A.A.; Lolis, D.; Zikopoulos, K.; Dusias, B.

    1989-01-01

    One hundred-two samples of colostral milk, collected during spring of 1987, approximately one year after the reactor accident at Chernobyl, were measured for radiocesium contamination. The data showed a normal-type distribution with a mean contamination concentration of 16.4 Bq L-1. A weak correlation of the data to the mothers' diet was established by taking into account four of the main staples in the area. The corresponding transfer coefficient was deduced with a value of fm = 0.06 +/- 0.03 d L-1. The resultant effective dose received by breast-feeding infants was estimated, on the average, as 0.012 mrem d-1.

  5. Exposure of newborns to aflatoxin M1 and B1 from mothers' breast milk in Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gürbay, A; Sabuncuoğlu, S Atasayar; Girgin, G; Sahin, G; Yiğit, S; Yurdakök, M; Tekinalp, G

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are important risks for human health due to their widespread presence in foods and environment. However, contamination risk of breast milk with different pollutants including AFs is high in today's life conditions. Since breast milk is a major nutrient for infants, feeding of infants with safe milk is essential. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the levels of AF M(1) and B(1) in breast milk samples collected from 75 mothers in Ankara, Turkey. AF M(1) and B(1) levels were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescence detector following an extraction procedure. The limit of detection was found to be 5 ng/l. Both AFs were detected in diverse degrees in all breast milk samples: The level of AF M(1) were in the ranges of 60.90-299.99 ng/l, and AF B(1) were in the ranges of 94.50-4123.80 ng/l. These results pointed out the exposure of mothers and neonates to AF M(1) and B(1), and the necessity of further research on mycotoxin contamination both in foods and biological fluids as well as protection strategies. PMID:19850097

  6. α-Tocopherol in breast milk of women with preterm delivery after a single postpartum oral dose of vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Pires Medeiros, Jeane Franco; Ribeiro, Karla Danielly da Silva; Lima, Mayara Santa Rosa; das Neves, Renata Alexandra Moreira; Lima, Amanda Cibely Pinheiro; Dantas, Raquel Costa Silva; da Silva, Alyne Batista; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated the effect of maternal vitamin E supplementation on the α-tocopherol concentrations of colostrum, transitional milk and mature milk of women who had given birth prematurely. This longitudinal randomised-controlled trial divided eighty-nine women into two groups: a control group and a supplemented group. Blood and breast milk were collected from all the participants after delivery. Next, each woman in the supplemented group received 400 IU of RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate. Further breast milk samples were collected 24 h after the first collection, as well as 7 and 30 d after delivery. α-Tocopherol concentrations were determined by HPLC. The baseline α-tocopherol concentrations in the maternal serum of the two groups were similar: 1159·8 (sd 292·4) μg/dl (27·0 (SD 6·8) μmol/l) for the control group and 1128·3 (sd 407·2) μg/dl (26·2 (SD 9·5) μmol/l) for the supplemented group. None of the women was vitamin E deficient. Breast milk α-tocopherol concentrations increased by 60 % 24 h after supplementation in the intervention group and did not increase at all in the control group. α-Tocopherol concentration of the transitional milk in the supplemented group was 35 % higher compared with the control group. α-Tocopherol concentrations of the mature milk in both groups were similar. Maternal supplementation with 400 IU of RRR-α-tocopherol increased the vitamin E concentrations of the colostrum and transitional milk, but not of the mature milk. This study presents relevant information for the design of strategies to prevent and combat vitamin E deficiency in the risk group of preterm infants. PMID:26931347

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) concentrations in the breast milk of women in Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P; Laliberté, C; Weber, J P; Gingras, S; Nantel, A J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study documented the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) in the breast milk of women from Quebec, Canada, and assessed the impact of various sociodemographic and lifestyle factors on these levels. METHODS: From 1988 to 1990, milk samples were obtained from 536 Quebec women and analyzed for seven PCB congeners and p,p'-DDE. Information was obtained on subjects' physical, sociodemographic, and lifestyle characteristics. RESULTS: Mean concentrations were 0.52 mg/kg lipids (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.50, 0.54) and 0.34 mg/kg lipids (95% CI = 0.32, 0.35) for PCBs (Aroclor 1260) and DDE, respectively. Age and history of breast-feeding showed statistically significant correlations with PCB and DDE concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of PCBs and DDE measured in this study are at the lower end of the concentration range recently reported for women living in industrialized countries. The modulating factors identified here should be considered when conducting studies on organochlorine exposure and disease. PMID:8806375

  8. Assessment of Dose to the Nursing Infant from Radionuclides in Breast Milk

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-03-01

    A computer software package was developed to predict tissue doses to an infant due to intake of radionuclides in breast milk based on bioassay measurements and exposure data for the mother. The package is intended mainly to aid in decisions regarding the safety of breast feeding by a mother who has been acutely exposed to a radionuclide during lactation or pregnancy, but it may be applied to previous intakes during the mother s adult life. The package includes biokinetic and dosimetric information needed to address intake of Co-60, Sr-90, Cs-134, Cs-137, Ir-192, Pu-238, Pu-239, Am-241, or Cf-252 by the mother. It has been designed so that the library of biokinetic and dosimetric files can be expanded to address a more comprehensive set of radionuclides without modifying the basic computational module. The methods and models build on the approach used in Publication 95 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 2004), Doses to Infants from Ingestion of Radionuclides in Mothers Milk . The software package allows input of case-specific information or judgments such as chemical form or particle size of an inhaled aerosol. The package is expected to be more suitable than ICRP Publication 95 for dose assessment for real events or realistic planning scenarios in which measurements of the mother s excretion or body burden are available.

  9. Pyrethroids in human breast milk: occurrence and nursing daily intake estimation.

    PubMed

    Corcellas, Cayo; Feo, Maria Luisa; Torres, Joao Paulo; Malm, Olaf; Ocampo-Duque, William; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià

    2012-10-15

    There is an assumption that pyrethroid pesticides are converted to non-toxic metabolites by hydrolysis in mammals. However, some recent works have shown their bioaccumulation in human breast milk collected in areas where pyrethroids have been widely used for agriculture or malaria control. In this work, thirteen pyrethroids have been studied in human breast milk samples coming from areas without pyrethroid use for malaria control, such as Brazil, Colombia and Spain. The concentrations of pyrethroids ranged from 1.45 to 24.2 ng g⁻¹ lw. Cypermethrin, λ-cyhalothrin, permethrin and esfenvalerate/fenvalerate were present in all the studied samples. The composition of pyrethroid mixture depended on the country of origin of the samples, bifenthrin being the most abundant in Brazilian samples, λ-cyhalothrin in Colombian and permethrin in Spanish ones. When the pyrethroid concentrations were confronted against the number of gestations, an exponential decay was observed. Moreover, a time trend study was carried out in Brazil, where additional archived pool samples were analyzed, corresponding to years when pyrethroids were applied for dengue epidemic control. In these cases, total pyrethroid levels reached up to 128 ng g⁻¹ lw, and concentrations decreased when massive use was not allowed. Finally, daily intake estimation of nursing infants was calculated in each country and compared to acceptable WHO levels. The estimated daily intakes for nursing infants were always below the acceptable daily intake levels, nevertheless in certain samples the detected concentrations were very close to the maximum acceptable levels. PMID:22717642

  10. Levels and Concentration Ratios of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Serum and Breast Milk in Japanese Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kayoko; Harada, Kouji; Takenaka, Katsunobu; Uehara, Shigeki; Kono, Makoto; Shimizu, Takashi; Takasuga, Takumi; Senthilkumar, Kurunthachalam; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Koizumi, Akio

    2006-01-01

    Blood and/or breast milk have been used to assess human exposure to various environmental contaminants. Few studies have been available to compare the concentrations in one matrix with those in another. The goals of this study were to determine the current levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Japanese women, with analysis of the effects of lifestyle and dietary habits on these levels, and to develop a quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) with which to predict the ratio of serum concentration to breast milk concentration. We measured PBDEs and PCBs in 89 paired samples of serum and breast milk collected in four regions of Japan in 2005. The geometric means of the total concentrations of PBDE (13 congeners) in milk and serum were 1.56 and 2.89 ng/g lipid, respectively, whereas those of total PCBs (15 congeners) were 63.9 and 37.5 ng/g lipid, respectively. The major determinant of total PBDE concentration in serum and milk was the geographic area within Japan, whereas nursing duration was the major determinant of PCB concentration. BDE-209 was the most predominant PBDE congener in serum but not in milk. The excretion of BDE 209 in milk was lower than that of BDE 47 and BDE 153. QSAR analysis revealed that two parameters, calculated octanol/water partition and number of hydrogen-bond acceptors, were significant descriptors. During the first weeks of lactation, the predicted partitioning of PBDE and PCB congeners from serum to milk agreed with the observed values. However, the prediction became weaker after 10 weeks of nursing. PMID:16882522

  11. Identification of Infantile Diarrhea Caused by Breast Milk-Transmitted Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong; Pan, Wei-Guang; Xian, Wei-Yi; Cheng, Hang; Zheng, Jin-Xin; Hu, Qing-Hua; Yu, Zhi-Jian; Deng, Qi-Wen

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a well-known organism which is responsible for a variety of human infectious diseases including skin infections, pneumonia, bacteremia, and endocarditis. Few of the microorganisms can be transmitted from mother to the newborn or infant by milk breastfeeding. This study aims to identify transmission of S. aureus from healthy, lactating mothers to their infants by breastfeeding. Stool specimens of diarrheal infants and breast milk of their mother (totally three pairs) were collected and six Staphylococcus aureus isolates were cultured positively. Homology and molecular characters of isolated strains were tested using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, and multilocus sequence typing. Furthermore, toxin genes detection was also performed. Each pair of isolates has the same PFGE type and spa type. Four Sequence types (STs) were found among all the isolates; they are ST15, ST188, and ST59, respectively. Among the strains, seb, sec, and tst genes were found, and all were negative for pvl gene. The homology of the S. aureus strains isolated from the infants' stool and the mothers' milk was genetically demonstrated, which indicated that breastfeeding may be important in the transmission of S. aureus infection, and the character of S. aureus needed to be further evaluated. PMID:27344596

  12. Breast Milk Concentration of Rubidium in Lactating Mothers by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Method

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Seyedeh-Fatemeh; Parvaresh, Pouya; Parvaresh, Parviz; Madani Kouchak, Sara Sadat; Khorsandi, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little is known about the trace elements content of human milk from different countries. This has not been fully investigated especially among Iranian women. This study aimed to assess the concentration of Rubidium (Rb) as a poisonous trace element in transitional breast milk of lactating mothers living in Mashhad. Methods: Forty nursing mothers in early lactation 3 days to 15 days postpartum, free from any medical disorder and/or medication were randomly selected. We have applied Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to assess the long-lived isotope trace element Rb in transitional milk of these economically moderate 18–39 year old Iranian women. Findings: The average concentration level of Rb was 32.176 ppm dry weight (min 8.660, max 107.210 ppm). No significant correlation was observed between Rb concentration and maternal weight and age (P=0.06, P=0.05 respectively) and newborns’ weight, age and sex (P=0.07, P=0.2, P=0.2 respectively). Conclusion: Although the Rubidium concentration found in this study is among the highest reported in the literature, it could not be compared to other studies because of differences in analytical performance, state of lactation, and unavailable reference ranges, so this finding needs further investigations. PMID:26019773

  13. Transfer of Maternal Immune Cells by Breastfeeding: Maternal Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Present in Breast Milk Localize in the Peyer’s Patches of the Nursed Infant

    PubMed Central

    Tang, May; Zumba, Osvaldo; Mehta, Hetali; Toma, Annmarie; Sant’Angelo, Derek; Laouar, Yasmina

    2016-01-01

    Despite our knowledge of the protective role of antibodies passed to infants through breast milk, our understanding of immunity transfer via maternal leukocytes is still limited. To emulate the immunological interface between the mother and her infant while breast-feeding, we used murine pups fostered after birth onto MHC-matched and MHC-mismatched dams. Overall, data revealed that: 1) Survival of breast milk leukocytes in suckling infants is possible, but not significant after the foster-nursing ceases; 2) Most breast milk lymphocytes establish themselves in specific areas of the intestine termed Peyer’s patches (PPs); 3) While most leukocytes in the milk bolus were myeloid cells, the majority of breast milk leukocytes localized to PPs were T lymphocytes, and cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) in particular; 4) These CTLs exhibit high levels of the gut-homing molecules α4β7 and CCR9, but a reduced expression of the systemic homing marker CD62L; 5) Under the same activation conditions, transferred CD8 T cells through breast milk have a superior capacity to produce potent cytolytic and inflammatory mediators when compared to those generated by the breastfed infant. It is therefore possible that maternal CTLs found in breast milk are directed to the PPs to compensate for the immature adaptive immune system of the infant in order to protect it against constant oral infectious risks during the postnatal phase. PMID:27285085

  14. Breast milk intake is not reduced more by the introduction of energy dense complementary food than by typical infant porridge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of different energy densities of complementary foods on breast milk consumption is not well understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that provision of fortified spread (FS), a micronutrient fortified, energy-dense (22 kJ/g), ready-to-use food, to Malawian infants would not decr...

  15. Improving the Risk Assessment of Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic (PBT) Chemicals in Breast Milk: Workshop Summary Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides a summary of discussions held at an EPA-sponsored workshop in Research Triangle Park, NC in October, 2012. Workshop participants discussed approaches to improve risk assessment of PBT chemicals in breast milk, data gaps, uncertainties, and suggested solutions...

  16. Improving Infant Exposure and Health Risk Estimates: Using Serum Data to Predict Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Concentrations in Breast Milk

    EPA Science Inventory

    Women in the United States have breast milk concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) that are among the highest in the world, leading to concerns over the potential health implications to breastfeeding infants during critical stages of growth and development. Deve...

  17. REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES IN WHOLE BLOOD, BLOOD PLASMA AND BREAST MILK: VALIDATION OF A POTENTIAL MARKER OF EXPOSURE AND EFFECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are recognized to contribute to the pathobiology of many diseases. We have applied a simple chemiluminescent (CL) probe to detect ROS in various biological fluids (plasma, whole blood, urine and breast milk) in an environmental arsenic drinking wate...

  18. Variation of the cholesterol content in breast milk during 10 days collection at early stages of lactation.

    PubMed

    Kamelska, Anna M; Pietrzak-Fiećko, Renata; Bryl, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    More and more research is done concerning nutritional programming. Human milk nutrients which are consumed by infants can influence their health in later life. High level of cholesterol in human milk paradoxically lowers the cholesterol concentration in blood in adults. During the course of human lactation the cholesterol concentration decreases from 31 mg/100cm(3) (colostrum) to 16 mg/100 cm(3) (mature milk). According to Scopesi et al., 2002, Clin Nutr 21: 379-384, cholesterol concentration in mature milk ranged from 6.5 to 18.4 mg/100 cm(3). The aim of the study was to assess the variations in breast milk cholesterol content during 10 day collection at early lactation. 48 samples of human milk were analyzed. Mean age of women was 31 years. Women were collecting samples during 10 days of an early lactation stage (1-3 months after delivery). An Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR-ATR) method for easy and rapid determination of cholesterol in human milk was elaborated. Cholesterol content assessed by the FTIR method ranged from 3.36 to 12.98 mg/100 cm(3). Results indicate that milk cholesterol concentration during 10 consecutive days of early lactation is highly variable. Cholesterol content depends on an individual. Therefore it is suggested that not only the period of lactation but also mother's diet, age, season and place of residence are important factors determining cholesterol content. PMID:22540113

  19. The Magnitude and Kinetics of the Mucosal HIV-Specific CD8+ T Lymphocyte Response and Virus RNA Load in Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Mahlokozera, Tatenda; Kang, Helen H.; Goonetilleke, Nilu; Stacey, Andrea R.; Lovingood, Rachel V.; Denny, Thomas N.; Kalilani, Linda; Bunn, James E. G.; Meshnick, Steve R.; Borrow, Persephone; Letvin, Norman L.; Permar, Sallie R.

    2011-01-01

    Background The risk of postnatal HIV transmission is associated with the magnitude of the milk virus load. While HIV-specific cellular immune responses control systemic virus load and are detectable in milk, the contribution of these responses to the control of virus load in milk is unknown. Methods We assessed the magnitude of the immunodominant GagRY11 and subdominant EnvKY9-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte response in blood and milk of 10 A*3002+, HIV-infected Malawian women throughout the period of lactation and correlated this response to milk virus RNA load and markers of breast inflammation. Results The magnitude and kinetics of the HIV-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte responses were discordant in blood and milk of the right and left breast, indicating independent regulation of these responses in each breast. However, there was no correlation between the magnitude of the HIV-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte response and the milk virus RNA load. Further, there was no correlation between the magnitude of this response and markers of breast inflammation. Conclusions The magnitude of the HIV-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte response in milk does not appear to be solely determined by the milk virus RNA load and is likely only one of the factors contributing to maintenance of low virus load in milk. PMID:21886819

  20. Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria in Human Breast Milk: Influence of Antibiotherapy and Other Host and Clinical Factors

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Ana; Martín, Virginia; Jiménez, Esther; Mader, Isabelle; Rodríguez, Juan M.; Fernández, Leonides

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of this work was to study the lactobacilli and bifidobacteria population in human milk of healthy women, and to investigate the influence that several factors (including antibioteraphy during pregnancy and lactation, country and date of birth, delivery mode, or infant age) may exert on such population. Methods: A total of 160 women living in Germany or Austria provided the breast milk samples. Initially, 66 samples were randomly selected and cultured on MRS-Cys agar plates. Then, the presence of DNA from the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and from most of the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species that were isolated, was assessed by qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using genus- and species-specific primers. Results: Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria could be isolated from the milk of 27 (40.91%) and 7 (10.61%), respectively, of the 66 cultured samples. On the contrary, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium sequences were detected by PCR in 108 (67.50%) and 41 (25.62%), respectively, of the 160 samples analyzed. The Lactobacillus species most frequently isolated and detected was L salivarius (35.00%), followed by L fermentum (25.00%) and L gasseri (21.88%), whereas B breve (13.75%) was the bifidobacterial species most commonly recovered and whose DNA was most regularly found. The number of lactobacilli- or bifidobacteria-positive samples was significantly lower in women who had received antibiotherapy during pregnancy or lactation. Conclusions: Our results suggest that either the presence of lactobacilli and/or bifidobacteria or their DNA may constitute good markers of a healthy human milk microbiota that has not been altered by the use of antibiotics. PMID:24590211

  1. Transfer of antibodies across the placenta and in breast milk from mothers on intravenous immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Palmeira, Patricia; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz T; Arslanian, Christina; Pontes, Gerlândia N; Nagao, Aparecida T; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda M S

    2009-09-01

    We studied the levels of immunoglobulins in colostrum, milk and sera from two common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) mothers (M1 and M2), and in sera from their newborn infants. During pregnancy they continued intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIG). Antibody levels from maternal and cord blood collected at delivery and colostrum and milk, collected on the 3rd and 7th post-partum days, respectively, were analyzed. Although cord/maternal blood ratios of total immunoglobulins and subclasses, as well as specific antibodies differed between M1 and M2, both showed good placental transfer of anti-protein and anti-polysaccharide antibodies, despite lower cord/maternal blood ratios in M2. Anti-Streptococcus pneumoniae antibody avidity indexes were similar between paired maternal and cord serum. Both mothers' colostrum and milk samples showed only traces of IgA, and IgM and IgG levels in colostrum were within normal range in M1, whereas M2 presented elevated IgG and low IgM levels, when compared with healthy mothers. The study of colostrum and milk activity showed that they strongly inhibited enteropathogenic Escherichia coli adhesion in vitro. CVID patients must be informed about the relevance of regular IVIG administration during pregnancy, not only for their own health but also for their immune immature offspring. Breast-feeding should be encouraged as colostra from these CVID patients strongly inhibited E. coli adhesion to human epithelial cells thus providing immunological protection plus nutritional and psychological benefits for the infant. PMID:19220771

  2. Specimen plastic containers used to store expressed breast milk in neonatal care units: a case of precautionary principle.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Mélissa; Coulombe, Martin; Rhainds, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Breast milk is the only milk that meets both the nutritional and immunitary needs of infants. Since breastfeeding is widely promoted, public health measures to preserve the nutritional qualities of expressed breast milk (EBM) should be applied in hospital care settings. The Health Technology Assessment Unit (HTAU) of the Centre hospitalier universitaire de Québec was requested by the Neonatal Care Unit to assess the acceptability of a plastic specimen container, designed to harvest tissues and body fluids, for storing collected EBM. An evidence-based public health perspective approach was taken to evaluate the safety of the specimen container. The HTAU recommended that plastic specimen containers no longer be used for storing EBM and that other options should be evaluated for neonatal care units. These recommendations are in accordance with the public health precaution principle and with legal considerations. PMID:25165843

  3. Excretion of iodine-123-hippuran, technetium-99m-red blood cells, and technetium-99m-macroaggregated albumin into breast milk

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, M.R.; Prescott, M.C.; Herman, K.J. )

    1990-06-01

    The amount of radioactivity excreted in breast milk following three different nuclear medicine procedures on twelve nursing mothers has been measured. Some of this information has already been incorporated into the latest guidelines on suspension of feeding after maternal radiopharmaceutical administration. The overall radiation dose that the patients' babies would have sustained had breast feeding not been interrupted has been estimated as an effective dose equivalent. A model has been developed to describe the relationship between clearance of activity from the milk, time between expressions, and the fraction of milk expressed. Some simple guidance is given on calculation of suitable interruption times for any individual mother from counts on her milk samples.

  4. Compartment syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by repetitive activities, such as running. The pressure in a compartment only increases during that activity. Compartment syndrome is most common in the lower leg and forearm. It can also occur in the hand, foot, thigh, and upper arm.

  5. Production of Conjugated Linoleic and Conjugated α-Linolenic Acid in a Reconstituted Skim Milk-Based Medium by Bifidobacterial Strains Isolated from Human Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Villar-Tajadura, María Antonia; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luis Miguel; Martín, Virginia; Gómez de Segura, Aránzazu; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Fontecha, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Eight bifidobacterial strains isolated from human breast milk have been tested for their abilities to convert linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (LNA) to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and conjugated α-linolenic acid (CLNA), respectively. These bioactive lipids display important properties that may contribute to the maintenance and improvement human health. Three selected Bifidobacterium breve strains produced CLA from LA and CLNA from LNA in MRS (160–170 and 210–230 μg mL−1, resp.) and, also, in reconstituted skim milk (75–95 and 210–244 μg mL−1, resp.). These bifidobacterial strains were also able to simultaneously produce both CLA (90–105 μg mL−1) and CLNA (290–320 μg mL−1) in reconstituted skim milk. Globally, our findings suggest that these bifidobacterial strains are potential candidates for the design of new fermented dairy products naturally containing very high concentrations of these bioactive lipids. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing CLNA production and coproduction of CLA and CLNA by Bifidobacterium breve strains isolated from human milk in reconstituted skim milk. PMID:25110689

  6. EFFECTS OF BREAST MILK, MILK FORMULA AND SOY FORMULA ON GLOBAL FIELD POWER OF EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS TO SPEECH SOUNDS AT 6, 9, AND 12 MONTHS OF AGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have indicated that milk formula fed (MF) infants have different brain reactions to auditory stimuli than breast fed (BF) infants, e.g., auditory evoked responses with prolonged latency are elicited from infants fed regular milk formula. Whether a similar effect is present in infant...

  7. In Vitro Apoptosis Triggering in the BT-474 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line by Lyophilised Camel's Milk.

    PubMed

    Hasson, Sidgi S A A; Al-Busaidi, Juma Zaid; Al-Qarni, Zahra A M; Rajapakse, S; Al-Bahlani, Shadia; Idris, Mohamed Ahmed; Sallam, Talal A

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a global health concern and is a major cause of death among women. In Oman, it is the most common cancer in women, with an incidence rate of 15.6 per 100,000 Omani females. Various anticancer remedies have been discovered from natural products in the past and the search is continuing for additional examples. Cytotoxic natural compounds may have a major role in cancer therapy either in potentiating the effect of chemotherapy or reducing its harmful effects. Recently, a few studies have reported advantages of using crude camel milk in treating some forms of cancer. However, no adequate data are available on the lyophilised camel's milk responsibility for triggering apoptosis and oxidative stress associated with human breast cancer. The present study aimed to address the role of the lyophilised camel's milk in inducing proliferation repression of BT-474 and HEp-2 cells compared with the non-cancer HCC1937 BL cell line. Lyophilized camel's milk fundamentally repressed BT-474 cells growth and proliferation through the initiation of either the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways as indicated by both caspase-3 mRNA and its action level, and induction of death receptors in BT-474 but not the HEp-2 cell line. In addition, lyophilised camel's milk enhanced the expression of oxidative stress markers, heme-oxygenase-1 and reactive oxygen species production in BT-474 cells. Increase in caspase-3 mRNA levels by the lyophilised camel's milk was completely prevented by the actinomycin D, a transcriptional inhibitor. This suggests that lyophilized camel's milk increased newly synthesized RNA. Interestingly,it significantly (p<0.003) repressed the growth of HEp-2 cells and BT-474 cells after treatment for 72 hours while 24 hours treatment repressed BT-474 cells alone. This finding suggests that the lyophilised camel's milk might instigate apoptosis through initiation of an alternative apoptotic pathway. PMID:26434890

  8. Evidence that palmitic acid is absorbed as sn-2 monoacylglycerol from human milk by breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Innis, S M; Dyer, R; Nelson, C M

    1994-08-01

    Milk fatty acids consist of about 20-25% palmitic acid (16:0), with about 70% of 16:0 esterified to the sn-2 position of the milk triacylglycerols. Hydrolysis of dietary triacylglycerols by endogeneous lipases produces sn-2 monoacylglycerols and free fatty acids, which are absorbed, reesterified, and then secreted into plasma. Unesterified 16:0 is not well absorbed and readily forms soaps with calcium in the intestine. The positioning of 16:0 at the sn-2 position of milk triacylglycerols could explain the high coefficient of absorption of milk fat. However, the milk lipase, bile salt-stimulated lipase, has been suggested to complete the hydrolysis of milk fat to free fatty acids and glycerol. These studies determined whether 16:0 is absorbed from human milk as sn-2 monopalmitin by comparison of the plasma triacylglycerol total and sn-2 position fatty acid composition between breast-fed and formula-fed term gestation infants. The human milk and formula had 21.0 and 22.3% of 16:0, respectively, with 54.2 and 4.8% 16:0 in the fatty acids esterified to the 2 position. The plasma triacylglycerol total fatty acids had 26.0 +/- 0.6 and 26.2 +/- 0.6% of 16:0, and the sn-2 position fatty acids had 23.3 +/- 3.3 and 7.4 +/- 0.7% of 16:0 in the three-month-old exclusively breast-fed (n = 17) and formula-fed (n = 18) infants, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7990660

  9. Radio-photothermal therapy mediated by a single compartment nanoplatform depletes tumor initiating cells and reduces lung metastasis in the orthotopic 4T1 breast tumor model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Zhao, Jun; Tian, Mei; Song, Shaoli; Zhang, Rui; Gupta, Sanjay; Tan, Dongfeng; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro; Li, Chun

    2015-12-14

    Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs) are resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and are believed to be responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Combination therapies can overcome the limitation of conventional cancer treatments, and have demonstrated promising application in the clinic. Here, we show that dual modality radiotherapy (RT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) mediated by a single compartment nanosystem copper-64-labeled copper sulfide nanoparticles ([(64)Cu]CuS NPs) could suppress breast tumor metastasis through eradication of TICs. Positron electron tomography (PET) imaging and biodistribution studies showed that more than 90% of [(64)Cu]CuS NPs was retained in subcutaneously grown BT474 breast tumor 24 h after intratumoral (i.t.) injection, indicating the NPs are suitable for the combination therapy. Combined RT/PTT therapy resulted in significant tumor growth delay in the subcutaneous BT474 breast cancer model. Moreover, RT/PTT treatment significantly prolonged the survival of mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast tumors compared to no treatment, RT alone, or PTT alone. The RT/PTT combination therapy significantly reduced the number of tumor nodules in the lung and the formation of tumor mammospheres from treated 4T1 tumors. No obvious side effects of the CuS NPs were noted in the treated mice in a pilot toxicity study. Taken together, our data support the feasibility of a therapeutic approach for the suppression of tumor metastasis through localized RT/PTT therapy. PMID:26376843

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in South China maternal and fetal blood and breast milk.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xinhui; Qu, Weiyue; Sheng, Guoying; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Bixian; Chen, Dunjin; Yu, Lin; Fu, Jiamo

    2006-12-01

    Twenty-one-paired human fetal and maternal serum and 27 breast milk samples at South China were analyzed for concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Seven PBDE congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, and -183) were quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This is the first report to present the residue levels of PBDEs in human samples of China. The concentrations of total PBDEs ranged from 1.5 to 17 ng/g in the samples and were within the range reported in European samples for a similar population, but lower than human tissue levels in North America. BDE-47 and -153 were the dominant PBDE congeners in all samples and accounted for 60% of the total PBDEs. Further research is needed to determine the exposure route of PBDEs and their health effects. PMID:16564120

  11. Penetration of cefonicid into human breast milk and various body fluids and tissues.

    PubMed

    Lou, M A; Wu, Y H; Jacob, L S; Pitkin, D H

    1984-01-01

    A new cephalosporin, cefonicid (1 g), was given intramuscularly to 49 patients 1 hr before they were to undergo surgery and to 10 healthy lactating women. The concentration of cefonicid was assayed by disk agar diffusion with the use of Bacillus subtilis as the test organism. Concentrations of cefonicid in tissue and fluid specimens were obtained. The data demonstrate that within 1 hr of intramuscular injection of cefonicid, effective concentrations of cefonicid in serum and tissue for common microbial pathogens were achieved. This finding suggests that cefonicid would be useful for perioperative prophylaxis in surgical patients. Although the concentration of cefonicid in breast milk was low at 1 hr after injection, more information is needed regarding the subsequent secretion of cefonicid before a conclusive statement can be made concerning the danger of sensitization in infants of nursing mothers. PMID:6522923

  12. Association between Several Persistent Organic Pollutants in Serum and Adipokine Levels in Breast Milk among Lactating Women of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunmi; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Lee, Duk Hee; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to several persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been linked to alteration of lipid metabolism. Adipokines, such as leptin and adiponectin, are hormones that play roles in lipid metabolism, and have been suggested as markers of health effects that may lead to obesity. To date, only serum adipokines have been associated with POPs exposure. In the present study, for the first time, the associations between leptin and adiponectin in breast milk, and several POPs in serum were investigated among 82 lactating Korean women between 25 and 46 years of age. Breast milk adipokines are important because adipokine intake of infant through breastfeeding may influence the growth of infants. The median concentrations of leptin and adiponectin in skimmed milk of the Korean lactating women were 17.9 ng/L and 16.5 μg/L, respectively. Leptin concentrations in breast milk were negatively associated with ∑hexachlorohexane (HCH), oxychlordane, ∑chlordane, or 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB 153) levels in maternal serum. Linear relationships between adiponectin and POPs concentrations were not observed, however, nonmonotonic relationship which showed generally positive associations was suggested for p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and ∑chlordane in quartile analysis. Our observations show that POPs at the current level of exposure may be associated with the alteration of lipid metabolism among lactating women. Implication of adipokine transfer to breastfed infants is of concern and deserves further investigation. PMID:26054256

  13. Monitoring of pesticide residues in human breast milk from Punjab, India and its correlation with health associated parameters.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anupama; Gill, J P S; Bedi, J S; Pooni, P A

    2014-10-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the present status of pesticide residues in breast milk from Punjab. A total of 127 breast milk samples were analyzed and pesticide residues were detected in 25 % of the milk samples. Residues of cyfluthrin, fenvalerate, cypermethrin, profenophos, γ-HCH, β-HCH, chlorpyriphos, monocrotophos, p,p' DDE and phosalone were detected with mean levels of 63.04, 11.69, 3.63, 2.66, 2.64, 2.29, 1.91, 1.63, 0.56 and 0.29 ng g(-1), respectively. Cyfluthrin was leading pesticide detected in breast milk contributing 31.28 % to the total residue load. It was observed that the residue levels were decreasing with increase in parity and age of mother and cyfluthrin had highest mean concentration of 90.63 ng g(-1) in the first parity and 21.11 ng g(-1) in youngest age group. Residue levels were higher in urban population than the rural population although, statistically non-significant difference was found between the two (p > 0.05). PMID:25011502

  14. Characterization of bacterial isolates from the microbiota of mothers' breast milk and their infants.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Kimberly; Charbonneau, Duane; Sanozky-Dawes, Rosemary; Klaenhammer, Todd

    2015-01-01

    This investigation assessed the potential of isolating novel probiotics from mothers and their infants. A subset of 21 isolates among 126 unique bacteria from breast milk and infant stools from 15 mother-infant pairs were examined for simulated GI transit survival, adherence to Caco-2 cells, bacteriocin production, and lack of antibiotic resistance. Of the 21 selected isolates a Lactobacillus crispatus isolate and 3 Lactobacillus gasseri isolates demonstrated good profiles of in vitro GI transit tolerance and Caco-2 cell adherence. Bacteriocin production was observed only by L. gasseri and Enterococcus faecalis isolates. Antibiotic resistance was widespread, although not universal, among isolates from infants. Highly similar isolates (≥ 97% similarity by barcode match) of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (1 match), Lactobacillus fermentum (2 matches), Lactobacillus gasseri (6 matches), and Enterococcus faecalis (1 match) were isolated from 5 infant-mother pairs. Antibiotic resistance profiles between these isolate matches were similar, except in one case where the L. gasseri isolate from the infant exhibited resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline, not observed in matching mother isolate. In a second case, L. gasseri isolates differed in resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and vancomycin between the mother and infant. In this study, gram positive bacteria isolated from mothers' breast milk as well as their infants exhibited diversity in GI transit survival and acid inhibition of pathogens, but demonstrated limited ability to produce bacteriocins. Mothers and their infants offer the potential for identification of probiotics; however, even in the early stages of development, healthy infants contain isolates with antibiotic resistance. PMID:26727418

  15. Association between chemical pattern in breast milk and congenital cryptorchidism: modelling of complex human exposures.

    PubMed

    Krysiak-Baltyn, K; Toppari, J; Skakkebaek, N E; Jensen, T S; Virtanen, H E; Schramm, K-W; Shen, H; Vartiainen, T; Kiviranta, H; Taboureau, O; Audouze, K; Brunak, S; Main, K M

    2012-06-01

    During the past four decades, there has been an increase in the incidence rate of male reproductive disorders in some, but not all, Western countries. The observed increase in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders is suspected to be ascribable to environmental factors as the increase has been too rapid to be explained by genetics alone. To study the association between complex chemical exposures of humans and congenital cryptorchidism, the most common malformation of the male genitalia, we measured 121 environmental chemicals with suspected or known endocrine disrupting properties in 130 breast milk samples from Danish and Finnish mothers. Half the newborns were healthy controls, whereas the other half was boys with congenital cryptorchidism. The measured chemicals included polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl-ethers, dioxins (OCDD/PCDFs), phthalates, polybrominated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides. Computational analysis of the data was performed using logistic regression and three multivariate machine learning classifiers. Furthermore, we performed systems biology analysis to explore the chemical influence on a molecular level. After correction for multiple testing, exposure to nine chemicals was significantly different between the cases and controls in the Danish cohort, but not in the Finnish cohort. The multivariate analysis indicated that Danish samples exhibited a stronger correlation between chemical exposure patterns in breast milk and cryptorchidism than Finnish samples. Moreover, PCBs were indicated as having a protective effect within the Danish cohort, which was supported by molecular data recovered through systems biology. Our results lend further support to the hypothesis that the mixture of environmental chemicals may contribute to observed adverse trends in male reproductive health. PMID:22519522

  16. Assessment of aflatoxin M1 in maternal breast milk in Eastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Atasever, Meryem; Yildirim, Yeliz; Atasever, Mustafa; Tastekin, Ayhan

    2014-04-01

    Breastfeeding may be considered as a risk factor for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) exposure in early infancy. Hence, AFM1 levels in maternal breast milk (MBM) and the correlation between moldy cheese consumption of lactating mothers and infant exposure to AFM1 were investigated in this study. MBM samples from 73 lactating women randomly selected in hospitals located in Eastern Turkey were analysed for the presence of AFM1 using competitive ELISA. Out of 73 lactating mothers, 44 of them had the habit of cheese consumption (at least once a week), while remaining 29 had no such habit. AFM1 was detected in MBM of 18 out of 73 samples (24.6%); 12 MBM of 44 lactating mothers with moldy cheese consumption habit (27.2%) and 6 MBM of 29 mothers with no such habit (20.6%) with the range of 1.3-6.0 ng/l. None of the samples exceeded the limit set by EU and Turkish legislations. Moldy cheese consumption habit of lactating mothers exhibited no significant correlation with the presence of AFM1 in their milk (p>0.05). The results indicated that the relative risk of infant AFM1 exposure via MBM of moldy cheese consuming mother was not higher than MBM of mothers with no such habit. PMID:24486626

  17. The transfer of drugs and therapeutics into human breast milk: an update on selected topics.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Hari Cheryl

    2013-09-01

    Many mothers are inappropriately advised to discontinue breastfeeding or avoid taking essential medications because of fears of adverse effects on their infants. This cautious approach may be unnecessary in many cases, because only a small proportion of medications are contraindicated in breastfeeding mothers or associated with adverse effects on their infants. Information to inform physicians about the extent of excretion for a particular drug into human milk is needed but may not be available. Previous statements on this topic from the American Academy of Pediatrics provided physicians with data concerning the known excretion of specific medications into breast milk. More current and comprehensive information is now available on the Internet, as well as an application for mobile devices, at LactMed (http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov). Therefore, with the exception of radioactive compounds requiring temporary cessation of breastfeeding, the reader will be referred to LactMed to obtain the most current data on an individual medication. This report discusses several topics of interest surrounding lactation, such as the use of psychotropic therapies, drugs to treat substance abuse, narcotics, galactagogues, and herbal products, as well as immunization of breastfeeding women. A discussion regarding the global implications of maternal medications and lactation in the developing world is beyond the scope of this report. The World Health Organization offers several programs and resources that address the importance of breastfeeding (see http://www.who.int/topics/breastfeeding/en/). PMID:23979084

  18. Association between breast milk fatty acids and HIV-1 transmission through breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Badiou, S; Tuaillon, E; Viljoen, J; Escudié, J B; Cristol, J P; Newell, M L; Van de Perre, P; Neveu, D

    2016-02-01

    A residual mother-to-child transmission of HIV through breastfeeding persists despite prophylaxis. We identified breast milk fatty acids (FA) associated with postnatal HIV transmission through breastfeeding in a case-control study. Cases (n=23) were HIV-infected women with an infant who acquired HIV after 6 weeks of age. Controls (n=23) were matched on infant׳s age at sample collection. Adjusting for maternal antenatal plasma CD4 T cell count, cis-vaccenic acid (18:1n-7) and eicosatrienoic acid (20:3n-3) were associated with HIV transmission in opposite dose-response manner: OR (tertile 3 versus tertile 1): 10.8 and 0.16, p for trend=0.02 and 0.03, respectively. These fatty acids correlated with HIV RNA load, T helper-1 related cytokines, IL15, IP10, and β2 microglobulin, positively for cis-vaccenic acid, negatively for eicosatrienoic acid. These results suggested a change in FA synthesis by mammary gland cells leading to increased cis-vaccenic acid in milk of mothers who transmitted HIV to their infant during breastfeeding. PMID:26869089

  19. Evaluation of mycotoxins and their metabolites in human breast milk using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rubert, Josep; León, Nuria; Sáez, Carmen; Martins, Claudia P B; Godula, Michal; Yusà, Vicent; Mañes, Jordi; Soriano, José Miguel; Soler, Carla

    2014-04-11

    Humans can be exposed to mycotoxins through the food chain. Mycotoxins are mainly found as contaminants in food and could be subsequently excreted via biological fluids such as urine or human breast milk in native or metabolised form. Since breast milk is usually supposed as the only food for new-borns, the occurrence of mycotoxins in thirty-five human milk samples was evaluated by a newly developed method based on QuEChERS extraction and UHPLC-HRMS detection. The method described here allows the detection of target mycotoxins in order to determine the quality of this initial feeding. The method has been fully validated, with recoveries ranging from 64% to 93% and relative standard deviations (RSD, %) being lower than 20%. Using the method described, non-metabolised mycotoxins such as ZEA, NEO, NIV, ENA, ENA1, ENB, ENB1 and metabolites, such as ZEA metabolites, HT-2, DOM and T-2 triol were detected in human milk samples. Results obtained help to estimate the exposure of mothers and infants to mycotoxins. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first work describing the simultaneous detection, quantification and screening of mycotoxins and their metabolites in human mature milk. PMID:24745736

  20. The Predominance of Type I Oligosaccharides Is a Feature Specific to Human Breast Milk123

    PubMed Central

    Urashima, Tadasu; Asakuma, Sadaki; Leo, Fiame; Fukuda, Kenji; Messer, Michael; Oftedal, Olav T.

    2012-01-01

    Human milk and colostrum contain ∼12–13 g/L and ∼22–24 g/L of oligosaccharides, respectively. The chemical structures of >100 human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) have been characterized to date. We determined the concentrations of 10 neutral and 9 acidic colostrum HMO collected during the first 3 d of lactation by using reverse phase HPLC after derivatization with 2-aminopyridine or 1-methyl-3-phenyl-5-pyrazolon. The predominant oligosaccharides were Fuc(α1-2)Gal(β1-4Glc (2′-FL), Fuc(α1-2)Gal(β1-3)GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (LNFP I), Fuc(α1-2)Gal(β1-3)[Fuc(α1-4)]GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (LNDFH I), and Gal(β1-3)GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (LNT), the concentration of each of which was ∼1–3 g/L. Because these HMO, other than 2′-FL, all contain the Lacto-N-biose type I structure [Gal(β1-3)GlcNAc], we conclude that HMO containing the type I structure predominate over those containing the N-acetyllactosamine type II structure [Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc]. This appears to be a feature that is specific to humans, because the milk and colostrum of other species, including apes and monkeys, either contain only type II oligosaccharides or type II predominate over type I. It is possible that type I HMO may have importance as substrates for beneficial bifidobacteria in breast-fed infants. The biological importance of type I HMO predominance warrants further study, both in relation to human health and to human evolution. PMID:22585927

  1. Dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in human breast milk collected in the area of Taranto (Southern Italy): first case study.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Giuliana; Zianni, Rosalia; Anzillotta, Giuseppe; Palma, Achille; Vitacco, Vincenzo; Scrano, Laura; Cataldi, Tommaso R I

    2013-03-01

    We report on the content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in 15 breast milk samples of nursing women living in the city of Taranto (Southern, Italy) or nearby. Breast milk samples were collected over the 2008-2009 period and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) upon accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) using acetone/n-hexane mixture 1:1 (v/v). The method was validated demonstrating good performing features. Profiles of PCDD/PCDF congeners in breast milk samples exhibited a prevalence of PCDFs compared to PCDDs. Toxic equivalents (TEQs in picogram per gram fat) of four breast milk were far above the legal limit for human consumption of 3.0 pg/g; their estimated daily and weekly dietary intake were almost 5-20 and 10-40 times higher, respectively, than the tolerable intake values established by the World Health Organization. PMID:23344638

  2. Association of HIV-1 Envelope-Specific Breast Milk IgA Responses with Reduced Risk of Postnatal Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Pollara, Justin; McGuire, Erin; Fouda, Genevieve G.; Rountree, Wes; Eudailey, Josh; Overman, R. Glenn; Seaton, Kelly E.; Deal, Aaron; Edwards, R. Whitney; Tegha, Gerald; Kamwendo, Deborah; Kumwenda, Jacob; Nelson, Julie A. E.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Brinkley, Christie; Denny, Thomas N.; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Ellington, Sascha; King, Caroline C.; Jamieson, Denise J.; van der Horst, Charles; Kourtis, Athena P.; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Ferrari, Guido

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers in resource-limited areas where replacement feeding is unsafe and impractical are repeatedly exposed to HIV-1 throughout breastfeeding. Despite this, the majority of infants do not contract HIV-1 postnatally, even in the absence of maternal antiretroviral therapy. This suggests that immune factors in breast milk of HIV-1-infected mothers help to limit vertical transmission. We compared the HIV-1 envelope-specific breast milk and plasma antibody responses of clade C HIV-1-infected postnatally transmitting and nontransmitting mothers in the control arm of the Malawi-based Breastfeeding Antiretrovirals and Nutrition Study using multivariable logistic regression modeling. We found no association between milk or plasma neutralization activity, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, or HIV-1 envelope-specific IgG responses and postnatal transmission risk. While the envelope-specific breast milk and plasma IgA responses also did not reach significance in predicting postnatal transmission risk in the primary model after correction for multiple comparisons, subsequent exploratory analysis using two distinct assay methodologies demonstrated that the magnitudes of breast milk total and secretory IgA responses against a consensus HIV-1 envelope gp140 (B.con env03) were associated with reduced postnatal transmission risk. These results suggest a protective role for mucosal HIV-1 envelope-specific IgA responses in the context of postnatal virus transmission. This finding supports further investigations into the mechanisms by which mucosal IgA reduces risk of HIV-1 transmission via breast milk and into immune interventions aimed at enhancing this response. IMPORTANCE Infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers are repeatedly exposed to the virus in breast milk. Remarkably, the transmission rate is low, suggesting that immune factors in the breast milk of HIV-1-infected mothers help to limit transmission. We compared the antibody

  3. Outcome of Preterm Infants With Postnatal Cytomegalovirus Infection via Breast Milk: A Two-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Jim, Wai-Tim; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Ho, Che-Sheng; Shu, Chyong-Hsin; Chang, Jui-Hsing; Hung, Han-Yang; Kao, Hsin-An; Chang, Hung-Yang; Peng, Chun-Chih; Yui, Bey-Hwa; Chuu, Chih-Pin

    2015-10-01

    Approximately 15% of preterm infants may develop postnatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection from seropositive mothers via breast milk and are at risk for neurological sequelae in childhood. The aims of this study were to assess the effects and outcomes on growth, neurodevelopmental status, and hearing in very low birth weight (VLBW) premature infants with postnatal CMV infection via breast milk at the corrected age of 12 and 24 months.The prospective follow-up study population comprised all living preterm children (n = 55) with a birth weight ≤1500 g and gestational age of ≤35 weeks, who had been participated in our "postnatal CMV infection via breast milk" studies in 2000 and 2009, respectively. The cohort of children was assessed at 12 and 24 months. Clinical outcomes were documented during hospitalization and after discharge. Long-term outcomes included anthropometry, audiologic tests, gross motor quotient, Infant International Battery, and neurodevelopmental outcomes; all were assessed at postcorrected age in 12 and 24 months during follow-up visits.Of the 55 infants enrolled in the study (4 noninfected infants were excluded because their parents did not join this follow-up program later), 14 infants postnatally acquired CMV infection through breast-feeding (infected group) and were compared with 41 infants without CMV infection (control group). No significant differences were observed between the groups with regard to baseline characteristics, clinical outcomes, anthropometry, or psychomotor and mental development on the Bayley scale of infant development. None of the infants had CMV-related death or permanent sensorineural hearing loss.Transmission of CMV from seropositive mother via breast milk to preterm infants does not appear at this time to have major adverse effects on clinical outcomes, growth, neurodevelopmental status, and hearing function at 12 and 24 months corrected age. PMID:26512588

  4. Milk cytokines and subclinical breast inflammation in Tanzanian women: effects of dietary red palm oil or sunflower oil supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Filteau, S M; Lietz, G; Mulokozi, G; Bilotta, S; Henry, C J K; Tomkins, A M

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we have found that subclinical breast inflammation, as indicated by raised breastmilk concentrations of sodium and the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-8 (IL-8), was highly prevalent in Bangladesh and associated with poor infant growth. In order to investigate further the prevalence of subclinical breast inflammation and to assess the impact of dietary intervention, we studied rural Tanzanian women taking part in a study of dietary sunflower or red palm oil supplementation during late pregnancy and lactation. We measured breastmilk concentrations of IL-8, the anti-inflammatory cytokine, transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β) and the ratio of sodium to potassium. We also estimated systemic inflammation by plasma concentrations of the acute phase proteins, α1-acid glycoprotein and C-reactive protein. There were highly significant intercorrelations among milk Na/K ratio and concentrations of IL-8 and TGF-β, the last only after treatment with bile salts which also improved TGF-β recovery in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Plasma acute phase protein concentrations tended to correlate with milk Na/K ratio and IL-8, suggesting that subclinical breast inflammation was related to systemic inflammation. Dietary supplementation with vitamin E-rich sunflower oil but not provitamin A-containing red palm oil decreased milk Na/K, IL-8 and TGF-β at 3 months postpartum; however, the effect was significant only for Na/K ratio. The results suggest that milk Na/K ratio, IL-8, and TGF-β all measure the same phenomenon of subclinical breast inflammation but that Na/K ratio, having the lowest assay variability, is the most useful. Subclinical breast inflammation may result in part from systemic inflammation and may be improved by increased dietary intake of vitamin E-rich sunflower oil. PMID:10457212

  5. Mother-to-Child HIV-1 Transmission Events Are Differentially Impacted by Breast Milk and Its Components from HIV-1-Infected Women

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ruizhong; Achenbach, Jenna; Shen, Yue; Palaia, Jana; Rahkola, Jeremy T.; Nick, Heidi J.; Smythies, Lesley E.; McConnell, Michelle; Fowler, Mary G.; Smith, Phillip D.; Janoff, Edward N.

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk is a vehicle of infection and source of protection in post-natal mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission (MTCT). Understanding the mechanism by which breast milk limits vertical transmission will provide critical insight into the design of preventive and therapeutic approaches to interrupt HIV-1 mucosal transmission. However, characterization of the inhibitory activity of breast milk in human intestinal mucosa, the portal of entry in postnatal MTCT, has been constrained by the limited availability of primary mucosal target cells and tissues to recapitulate mucosal transmission ex vivo. Here, we characterized the impact of skimmed breast milk, breast milk antibodies (Igs) and non-Ig components from HIV-1-infected Ugandan women on the major events of HIV-1 mucosal transmission using primary human intestinal cells and tissues. HIV-1-specific IgG antibodies and non-Ig components in breast milk inhibited the uptake of Ugandan HIV-1 isolates by primary human intestinal epithelial cells, viral replication in and transport of HIV-1- bearing dendritic cells through the human intestinal mucosa. Breast milk HIV-1-specific IgG and IgA, as well as innate factors, blocked the uptake and transport of HIV-1 through intestinal mucosa. Thus, breast milk components have distinct and complementary effects in reducing HIV-1 uptake, transport through and replication in the intestinal mucosa and, therefore, likely contribute to preventing postnatal HIV-1 transmission. Our data suggests that a successful preventive or therapeutic approach would require multiple immune factors acting at multiple steps in the HIV-1 mucosal transmission process. PMID:26680219

  6. Mother-to-Child HIV-1 Transmission Events Are Differentially Impacted by Breast Milk and Its Components from HIV-1-Infected Women.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ruizhong; Achenbach, Jenna; Shen, Yue; Palaia, Jana; Rahkola, Jeremy T; Nick, Heidi J; Smythies, Lesley E; McConnell, Michelle; Fowler, Mary G; Smith, Phillip D; Janoff, Edward N

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk is a vehicle of infection and source of protection in post-natal mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission (MTCT). Understanding the mechanism by which breast milk limits vertical transmission will provide critical insight into the design of preventive and therapeutic approaches to interrupt HIV-1 mucosal transmission. However, characterization of the inhibitory activity of breast milk in human intestinal mucosa, the portal of entry in postnatal MTCT, has been constrained by the limited availability of primary mucosal target cells and tissues to recapitulate mucosal transmission ex vivo. Here, we characterized the impact of skimmed breast milk, breast milk antibodies (Igs) and non-Ig components from HIV-1-infected Ugandan women on the major events of HIV-1 mucosal transmission using primary human intestinal cells and tissues. HIV-1-specific IgG antibodies and non-Ig components in breast milk inhibited the uptake of Ugandan HIV-1 isolates by primary human intestinal epithelial cells, viral replication in and transport of HIV-1- bearing dendritic cells through the human intestinal mucosa. Breast milk HIV-1-specific IgG and IgA, as well as innate factors, blocked the uptake and transport of HIV-1 through intestinal mucosa. Thus, breast milk components have distinct and complementary effects in reducing HIV-1 uptake, transport through and replication in the intestinal mucosa and, therefore, likely contribute to preventing postnatal HIV-1 transmission. Our data suggests that a successful preventive or therapeutic approach would require multiple immune factors acting at multiple steps in the HIV-1 mucosal transmission process. PMID:26680219

  7. Comparison of digestion procedures and methods for quantification of trace lead in breast milk by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J.; Jayawardene, Innocent; Lupoli, Nicola; Barnes, Ramon M.; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of lead in breast milk is an important public health consideration and can be technically quite challenging. The reliable and accurate determination of trace lead in human breast milk is difficult for several reasons including: potential for contamination during sample collection, storage, and analysis; complexities related to the high fat content of human milk; and poor analytic sensitivity at low concentrations. Breast milk lead levels from previous published studies should therefore be reviewed with caution. Due to the difficulty in identifying a method that would successfully digest samples with 100% efficiency, we evaluated three different digestion procedures including: (1) dry ashing in a muffle furnace, (2) microwave oven digestion, and (3) digestion in high pressure asher. High temperature, high pressure asher digestion was selected as the procedure of choice for the breast milk samples. Trace lead analysis was performed using isotope dilution (ID) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Measured lead concentrations in breast milk samples (n = 200) from Mexico ranged from 0.2 to 6.7 ng ml−1. The precision for these measurements ranged from 0.27–7.8% RSD. Use of strict contamination control techniques and of a very powerful digestion procedure, along with an ID-ICP-MS method for lead determination, enables us to measure trace lead levels as low as 0.2 ng ml−1 in milk (instrument detection limit = 0.01 ng ml−1). PMID:24808927

  8. Comparison of digestion procedures and methods for quantification of trace lead in breast milk by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Jayawardene, Innocent; Lupoli, Nicola; Barnes, Ramon M; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Ettinger, Adrienne S

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of lead in breast milk is an important public health consideration and can be technically quite challenging. The reliable and accurate determination of trace lead in human breast milk is difficult for several reasons including: potential for contamination during sample collection, storage, and analysis; complexities related to the high fat content of human milk; and poor analytic sensitivity at low concentrations. Breast milk lead levels from previous published studies should therefore be reviewed with caution. Due to the difficulty in identifying a method that would successfully digest samples with 100% efficiency, we evaluated three different digestion procedures including: (1) dry ashing in a muffle furnace, (2) microwave oven digestion, and (3) digestion in high pressure asher. High temperature, high pressure asher digestion was selected as the procedure of choice for the breast milk samples. Trace lead analysis was performed using isotope dilution (ID) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Measured lead concentrations in breast milk samples (n = 200) from Mexico ranged from 0.2 to 6.7 ng ml(-1). The precision for these measurements ranged from 0.27-7.8% RSD. Use of strict contamination control techniques and of a very powerful digestion procedure, along with an ID-ICP-MS method for lead determination, enables us to measure trace lead levels as low as 0.2 ng ml(-1) in milk (instrument detection limit = 0.01 ng ml(-1)). PMID:24808927

  9. Lessons from the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): precautionary principle, primary prevention, and the value of community-based body-burden monitoring using breast milk.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Kim; She, Jianwen

    2003-01-01

    Levels of chemicals in humans (body burdens) are useful indicators of environmental quality and of community health. Chemical body burdens are easily monitored using breast milk samples collected from first-time mothers (primiparae) with infants 2-8 weeks of age. Currently, there is no body-burden monitoring program using breast milk in the United States, although ad hoc systems operate successfully in several European countries. In this article we describe the value of such monitoring and important considerations of how it might be accomplished, drawing from our experiences with pilot monitoring projects. Breast milk has several advantages as a sampling matrix: It is simple and noninvasive, with samples collected by the mother. It monitors body burdens in reproductive-age women and it estimates in utero and nursing-infant exposures, all important to community health. Time-trend data from breast milk monitoring serve as a warning system that identifies chemicals whose body burdens and human exposures are increasing. Time trends also serve as a report card on how well past regulatory actions have reduced environmental chemical exposures. Body-burden monitoring using breast milk should include educational programs that encourage breast-feeding. Finally, and most important, clean breast milk matters to people and leads to primary prevention--the limiting of chemical exposures. We illustrate these advantages with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a formerly obscure group of brominated flame retardants that rose to prominence and were regulated in Sweden when residue levels were found to be rapidly increasing in breast milk. A community-based body-burden monitoring program using breast milk could be set up in the United States in collaboration with the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). WIC has a large number of lactating first-time mothers: It has 6,000 clinics nationwide and serves almost half (47%) the infants born in

  10. Human Breast Milk Enrichment in Conjugated Linoleic Acid After Consumption of a Conjugated Linoleic Acid–rich Food Product: a Pilot Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human breast milk is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds. Some compounds, such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), come partly from the mother's diet and are produced by the mother's body and secreted into the milk. Although several studies have examined the effect of chronic CLA sup...

  11. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from various locations in Tunisia: levels of contamination, influencing factors, and infant risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ennaceur, S; Gandoura, N; Driss, M R

    2008-09-01

    The concentrations of dichlorodiphenytrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), dieldrin, and 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 237 human breast milk samples collected from 12 locations in Tunisia. Gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was used to identify and quantify residue levels on a lipid basis of organochlorine compounds (OCs). The predominant OCs in human breast milk were PCBs, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, HCHs, and HCB. Concentrations of DDTs in human breast milk from rural areas were significantly higher than those from urban locations (p<0.05). With regard to PCBs, we observed the predominance of mid-chlorinated congeners due to the presence of PCBs with high K(ow) such as PCB 153, 138, and 180. Positive correlations were found between concentrations of OCs in human breast milk and age of mothers and number of parities, suggesting the influence of such factors on OC burdens in lactating mothers. The comparison of daily intakes of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and HCB to infants through human breast milk with guidelines proposed by WHO and Health Canada shows that some individuals accumulated OCs in breast milk close to or higher than these guidelines. PMID:18614165

  12. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from various locations in Tunisia: Levels of contamination, influencing factors, and infant risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ennaceur, S. Gandoura, N.; Driss, M.R.

    2008-09-15

    The concentrations of dichlorodiphenytrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), dieldrin, and 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 237 human breast milk samples collected from 12 locations in Tunisia. Gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was used to identify and quantify residue levels on a lipid basis of organochlorine compounds (OCs). The predominant OCs in human breast milk were PCBs, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, HCHs, and HCB. Concentrations of DDTs in human breast milk from rural areas were significantly higher than those from urban locations (p<0.05). With regard to PCBs, we observed the predominance of mid-chlorinated congeners due to the presence of PCBs with high K{sub ow} such as PCB 153, 138, and 180. Positive correlations were found between concentrations of OCs in human breast milk and age of mothers and number of parities, suggesting the influence of such factors on OC burdens in lactating mothers. The comparison of daily intakes of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and HCB to infants through human breast milk with guidelines proposed by WHO and Health Canada shows that some individuals accumulated OCs in breast milk close to or higher than these guidelines.

  13. Concentrations of phthalate metabolites in breast milk in Korea: estimating exposure to phthalates and potential risks among breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Jangwoo; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Cho, Geumjoon; Kim, Gun-Ha; Eun, So-Hee; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Suh, Eunsook; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Young Don; Kim, Sung Koo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Seunghyo; Eom, Soyong; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-03-01

    Phthalates have been associated with endocrine disruption and developmental effects in many experimental and epidemiological studies. Developing infants are among the most susceptible populations to endocrine disruption. However, limited information is available on phthalate exposure and its associated risks among breast-fed newborn infants. In the present study, breast milk samples were collected from 62 lactating mothers at 1 month post-partum from four cities of Korea in 2012 and were evaluated for six phthalate metabolites (mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and monoethyl phthalate (MEP)). MEP was detected in all breast milk samples, with a median concentration of 0.37 μg/L, and MiBP, MnBP and MEHP were detected in 79-89% of samples, with median concentrations of 1.10, 1.70, and 2.08 μg/L, respectively. However, MEHHP and MEOHP, the oxidized forms of di-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP), were detected in only one sample. For exposure assessment, the levels of phthalate diesters were estimated based on the parent:metabolite ratios in the breast milk that are reported elsewhere. For risk assessment, the endocrine-related toxicity of the monoester was assumed to be the same as that of its diester form. Median daily intake estimates of phthalates, including both monoester and diester forms, through breast milk consumption ranged between 0.91 and 6.52 μg/kg body weight (bw) for DEHP and between 0.38 and 1.43 μg/kg bw for di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). Based on the estimated daily intake, up to 8% of infants exceeded the reference dose of anti-androgenicity (RfD AA) for DEHP, and 6% of infants exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for DnBP. Breast milk MiBP and MnBP concentrations showed significant positive associations with maternal consumption of whipped cream or purified water. Considering vulnerability of

  14. Comparison of breast milk vitamin A concentration measured in fresh milk by a rapid field assay (the iCheck FLUORO) with standard measurement of stored milk by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Engle-Stone, R; Haskell, M J; La Frano, M R; Ndjebayi, A O; Nankap, M; Brown, K H

    2014-08-01

    Availability of rapid, point-of-contact analytical methods would facilitate the use of breast milk vitamin A concentration (BMVA) to assess vitamin A (VA) status. We compared BMVA concentrations measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (the standard technique) with those by iCheck FLUORO, a new portable fluorometer that can rapidly quantify BMVA. Casual breast milk samples (n=154) were collected during a representative survey in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon. Milk fat and BMVA concentrations (by iCheck) were measured in fresh milk in the field. After storage at <-20 °C, BMVA concentrations were also measured by HPLC. BMVA values from the two methods were highly correlated (R(2)=0.72 for BMVA/l; R(2)=0.62 for BMVA/g fat, both P<0.0001). HPLC values were greater than iCheck values on average, and the difference increased with increasing BMVA. The iCheck FLUORO could be useful for monitoring fortification programs, but before-after surveys to assess change in BMVA concentrations should use one method consistently. PMID:24736678

  15. The Effect of Herbal Tea Containing Fenugreek Seed on the Signs of Breast Milk Sufficiency in Iranian Girl Infants

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Vida; Kheirkhah, Masoomeh; Vahedi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the important reasons behind termination of breast-feeding in the first six months after childbirth is insufficient production of breast milk. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of herbal tea containing fenugreek seed on the signs of breast milk sufficiency in Iranian girl infants aged 0 - 4 months, at the medical health centers of Tehran university of medical sciences. Patients and Methods: This study was a clinical trial with a control group. Seventy-eight girl infants, 0 - 4 months old that were exclusively breastfed by their mothers, were randomly assigned to the intervention group (received herbal tea containing 7.5 g fenugreek seed powder in addition to 3 g of black tea, three times a day) and the control group (received herbal tea containing 3 g of black tea powder, three times a day). Before and during the four weeks of study, the signs of breast milk sufficiency were evaluated through measurement of growth parameters and use of follow-up forms for measuring the number of wet diapers in one day, frequency of defecation and infant breast-feeding times in a day. Results: Before the intervention there was no significant difference between weight, height, head circumference, the number of wet diapers and frequency of defecation between the two groups (P > 0.05), yet the number of breast feeding times of the control group was more than the Fenugreek group. At the end of the fourth week in proportion to the pre-intervention conditions, the weight of the infants in the fenugreek group increased significantly from 5282.0513 ± 1021.51121 to 6383.0769 ± 952.06190, while head circumference increased from 38.3103 ± 1.62736 to 39.9256 ± 1.50660, number of wet diapers from 5.2821 ± 0.93044 to 8.1648 ± 1.20620, frequency of defecation from 1.8846 ± 1.08495 to 2.7326 ± 0.94771 and the number of breast feeding times from 9.1795 ± 1.39778 to 15.9597 ± 1.45056 (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant effect on

  16. Maternal and neonatal hair and breast milk in the assessment of perinatal exposure to drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Joya, Xavier; Pacifici, Roberta; Salat-Batlle, Judith; García-Algar, Oscar; Pichini, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to one or more drugs of abuse can affect the neonate temporarily or permanently. In addition to meconium, the evaluation of perinatal exposure to drugs of abuse has been achieved by testing biological matrices coming from the newborn (neonatal hair) and from the pregnant or nursing mother (maternal hair and breast milk). These matrices have the advantage of noninvasive collection and account for a sizable time window of active and passive exposure. Sensitive and specific analytical methods are required to determine minute amounts of drugs of abuse and metabolites in these matrices. The present manuscript reviews the newest analytical methods developed to detect drugs of abuse as well as ethanol biomarkers in maternal and neonatal hair and breast milk. PMID:26045006

  17. Breast Milk from Tanzanian Women Has Divergent Effects on Cell-Free and Cell-Associated HIV-1 Infection In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lyimo, Magdalena A.; Mosi, Matilda Ngarina; Housman, Molly L.; Zain-Ul-Abideen, Muhammad; Lee, Frederick V.; Howell, Alexandra L.; Connor, Ruth I.

    2012-01-01

    Transmission of HIV-1 during breastfeeding is a significant source of new pediatric infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Breast milk from HIV-positive mothers contains both cell-free and cell-associated virus; however, the impact of breast milk on HIV-1 infectivity remains poorly understood. In the present study, breast milk was collected from HIV-positive and HIV-negative Tanzanian women attending antenatal clinics in Dar es Salaam. Milk was analyzed for activity in vitro against both cell-free and cell-associated HIV-1. Potent inhibition of cell-free R5 and X4 HIV-1 occurred in the presence of milk from all donors regardless of HIV-1 serostatus. Inhibition of cell-free HIV-1 infection positively correlated with milk levels of sialyl-LewisX from HIV-positive donors. In contrast, milk from 8 of 16 subjects enhanced infection with cell-associated HIV-1 regardless of donor serostatus. Milk from two of these subjects contained high levels of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MCP-1 and IP-10, and enhanced cell-associated HIV-1 infection at dilutions as high as 1∶500. These findings indicate that breast milk contains innate factors with divergent activity against cell-free and cell-associated HIV-1 in vitro. Enhancement of cell-associated HIV-1 infection by breast milk may be associated with inflammatory conditions in the mother and may contribute to infant infection during breastfeeding. PMID:22952771

  18. Choline intakes exceeding recommendations during human lactation improve breast milk choline content by increasing PEMT pathway metabolites.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Crystal; Yan, Jian; Taesuwan, Siraphat; Shields, Kelsey; West, Allyson A; Jiang, Xinyin; Perry, Cydne A; Malysheva, Olga V; Stabler, Sally P; Allen, Robert H; Caudill, Marie A

    2015-09-01

    Demand for the vital nutrient choline is high during lactation; however, few studies have examined choline metabolism and requirements in this reproductive state. The present study sought to discern the effects of lactation and varied choline intake on maternal biomarkers of choline metabolism and breast milk choline content. Lactating (n=28) and control (n=21) women were randomized to 480 or 930 mg choline/day for 10-12 weeks as part of a controlled feeding study. During the last 4-6 weeks, 20% of the total choline intake was provided as an isotopically labeled choline tracer (methyl-d9-choline). Blood, urine and breast milk samples were collected for choline metabolite quantification, enrichment measurements, and gene expression analysis of choline metabolic genes. Lactating (vs. control) women exhibited higher (P < .001) plasma choline concentrations but lower (P ≤ .002) urinary excretion of choline metabolites, decreased use of choline as a methyl donor (e.g., lower enrichment of d6-dimethylglycine, P ≤ .08) and lower (P ≤ .02) leukocyte expression of most choline-metabolizing genes. A higher choline intake during lactation differentially influenced breast milk d9- vs. d3-choline metabolite enrichment. Increases (P ≤ .03) were detected among the d3-metabolites, which are generated endogenously via the hepatic phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT), but not among the d9-metabolites generated from intact exogenous choline. These data suggest that lactation induces metabolic adaptations that increase the supply of intact choline to the mammary epithelium, and that extra maternal choline enhances breast milk choline content by increasing supply of PEMT-derived choline metabolites. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01127022. PMID:26025328

  19. Albendazole and its metabolites in the breast milk of lactating women following a single oral dose of albendazole

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-tawab, Ahmed M; Bradley, Mark; Ghazaly, Essam A; Horton, John; El-Setouhy, Maged

    2009-01-01

    AIMS Albendazole (ABZ) is used in several anthelminthic drug programmws. ABZ side-effects are generally mild, but ABZ-induced pancytopenia may be serious. In filariasis programmes, it may be necessary to administer ABZ to breastfeeding women. Few data are available on safety of ABZ for breastfed infants. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of ABZ and its metabolites in human milk is insufficiently investigated. The aim was to study pharmacokinetics of ABZ and its metabolites [ABZ sulphoxide (ABSX) and ABZ sulphone] in the breast milk lactating women after one single oral dose of ABZ. METHODS Thirty-three lactating women (age 18–40 years) participated in the study. They received a single oral 400-mg dose of ABZ. Five milk samples were taken at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. One serum sample was taken after 6 h. Samples were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. RESULTS ABZ was detectable in milk samples 6 h after the oral dose. The mean concentration of serum ABZ was 63.7 ± 11.9 ng ml−1. The pharmacokinetic parameters for ABSX were calculated as follows: 351.9 ± 32.4 ng ml−1, 6.9 ± 0.5 h, 12.4 ± 2.2 h and 5190.3 ± 482.8 ng*h ml−1 for Cmax, Tmax, t½ and AUC0–36, respectively. The milk-to-serum ratios (range) for ABZ and ABSX were 0.9 (0.2–6.5) and 0.6 (0.1–1.5), respectively. CONCLUSIONS After an oral dose of 400 mg, ABZ and ABSX attain low concentrations in breast milk that are unlikely to be considered harmful for the breastfed infant. PMID:19916998

  20. Determination of Glyphosate Levels in Breast Milk Samples from Germany by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Steinborn, Angelika; Alder, Lutz; Michalski, Britta; Zomer, Paul; Bendig, Paul; Martinez, Sandra Aleson; Mol, Hans G J; Class, Thomas J; Pinheiro, Nathalie Costa

    2016-02-17

    This study describes the validation and application of two independent analytical methods for the determination of glyphosate in breast milk. They are based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), respectively. For LC-MS/MS, sample preparation involved an ultrafiltration followed by chromatography on an anion exchange column. The analysis by GC-MS/MS involved an extraction step, cleanup on a cation exchange column, and derivatization with heptafluorobutanol and trifluoroacetic acid anhydride. Both methods were newly developed for breast milk and are able to quantify glyphosate residues at concentrations as low as 1 ng/mL. The methods were applied to quantify glyphosate levels in 114 breast milk samples, which had been collected from August to September of 2015 in Germany. The mothers participated at their own request and thus do not form a representative sample. In none of the investigated samples were glyphosate residues above the limit of detection found. PMID:26808680

  1. Dioxins and furans in breast milk: a case study of mothers from southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Aldo Pacheco; Moreira, Maria de Fátima Ramos

    2015-05-01

    A study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) was conducted in a pooled sample of breast milk from 27 primiparous mothers living in 12 locations in the meso-region industrial area of southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between August 2012 and July 2013. Questionnaires with questions regarding food habits, social and economic conditions and places of dwelling were applied. Milk was collected between four and six weeks after delivery from mothers were breast-feeding only one infant. The toxic equivalency (TEQ) of PCDD/Fs, and dl-PCBs were 10.6, 4.77, 6.96 TEQ pg/g, respectively. The understanding and identification of pollution sources may be helpful for applying better counter measures against breast milk dioxin contamination. It is important for pregnant women to have a diet that is as free as possible from chemical contaminants. Further research must be undertaken in the context of epidemiological investigations to more accurately assess the effects of these compounds. The background contamination by PCDD/Fs, and dl-PCBs in mothers living at industrial area in Rio de Janeiro is lower than that generally found in industrialized countries. PMID:26083184

  2. Determination and quantitation of sildenafil and its major metabolite in the breast milk of a lactating woman.

    PubMed

    Wollein, Uwe; Schech, Bernd; Hardt, Jochen; Schramek, Nicholas

    2016-02-20

    A heavily pregnant woman was treated with Revatio(®) (Sildenafil) against idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, prior to and after her accouchement. To investigate the transfer of sildenafil into breast milk and its metabolism shortly before breastfeeding to the neonatal, a new analytical method was developed and validated, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Additionally, while using linear ion trap scan mode experiments, further metabolites could be identified. Sample preparation was carried out, using solid-phase extraction. For quantification of sildenafil and its major metabolite N-desmethylsildenafil, sildenafil-d8 was used as an internal standard. Within a time frame of 17h covering two Revatio(®) intakes and three breast milk samplings, a concentration range from 1.64 to 4.49ng/ml (sildenafil) and from 1.18 to 1.82ng/ml (N-desmethylsildenafil) could be observed. The current method proved to be accurate and precise in a very low concentration range and establishes the first reported determination of sildenafil and N-desmethylsildenafil in human breast milk. PMID:26717019

  3. Radio-photothermal therapy mediated by a single compartment nanoplatform depletes tumor initiating cells and reduces lung metastasis in the orthotopic 4T1 breast tumor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Min; Zhao, Jun; Tian, Mei; Song, Shaoli; Zhang, Rui; Gupta, Sanjay; Tan, Dongfeng; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro; Li, Chun

    2015-11-01

    Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs) are resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and are believed to be responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Combination therapies can overcome the limitation of conventional cancer treatments, and have demonstrated promising application in the clinic. Here, we show that dual modality radiotherapy (RT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) mediated by a single compartment nanosystem copper-64-labeled copper sulfide nanoparticles ([64Cu]CuS NPs) could suppress breast tumor metastasis through eradication of TICs. Positron electron tomography (PET) imaging and biodistribution studies showed that more than 90% of [64Cu]CuS NPs was retained in subcutaneously grown BT474 breast tumor 24 h after intratumoral (i.t.) injection, indicating the NPs are suitable for the combination therapy. Combined RT/PTT therapy resulted in significant tumor growth delay in the subcutaneous BT474 breast cancer model. Moreover, RT/PTT treatment significantly prolonged the survival of mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast tumors compared to no treatment, RT alone, or PTT alone. The RT/PTT combination therapy significantly reduced the number of tumor nodules in the lung and the formation of tumor mammospheres from treated 4T1 tumors. No obvious side effects of the CuS NPs were noted in the treated mice in a pilot toxicity study. Taken together, our data support the feasibility of a therapeutic approach for the suppression of tumor metastasis through localized RT/PTT therapy.Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs) are resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and are believed to be responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Combination therapies can overcome the limitation of conventional cancer treatments, and have demonstrated promising application in the clinic. Here, we show that dual modality radiotherapy (RT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) mediated by a single compartment nanosystem copper-64-labeled copper sulfide nanoparticles ([64Cu]CuS NPs) could suppress

  4. One Step Forward, Two Steps Back; Xeno-MicroRNAs Reported in Breast Milk Are Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    Bağcı, Caner; Allmer, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNA sequences that guide post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression via complementarity to their target mRNAs. Discovered only recently, miRNAs have drawn a lot of attention. Multiple protein complexes interact to first cleave a hairpin from nascent RNA, export it into the cytosol, trim its loop, and incorporate it into the RISC complex which is important for binding its target mRNA. This process works within one cell, but circulating miRNAs have been described suggesting a role in cell-cell communication. Motivation Viruses and intracellular parasites like Toxoplasma gondii use miRNAs to manipulate host gene expression from within the cellular environment. However, recent research has claimed that a rice miRNA may regulate human gene expression. Despite ongoing debates about these findings and general reluctance to accept them, a recent report claimed that foodborne plant miRNAs pass through the digestive tract, travel through blood to be incorporated by alveolar cells excreting milk. The miRNAs are then said to have some immune-related function in the newborn. Principal Findings We acquired the data that supports their claim and performed further analyses. In addition to the reported miRNAs, we were able to detect almost complete mRNAs and found that the foreign RNA expression profiles among samples are exceedingly similar. Inspecting the source of the data helped understand how RNAs could contaminate the samples. Conclusion Viewing these findings in context with the difficulties foreign RNAs face on their route into breast milk and the fact that many identified foodborne miRNAs are not from actual food sources, we can conclude beyond reasonable doubt that the original claims and evidence presented may be due to artifacts. We report that the study claiming their existence is more likely to have detected RNA contamination than miRNAs. PMID:26824347

  5. Evaluation of probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04 isolated from human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Meiling; Zhang, Fen; Wan, Cuixiang; Xiong, Yonghua; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua; Tao, Xueying

    2016-03-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04, a specific strain isolated from human breast milk, was investigated for its survival capacity (acid and bile salt tolerance, survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract, inhibition of pathogens, antibiotic susceptibility, yield of exopolysaccharides) and probiotic properties (antiadhesion of pathogens, protection from harmful effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate, and antiinflammatory stress on Caco-2 cells). The results showed that Lb. plantarum WLPL04 had broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive strains (Listeria monocytogenes CMCC54007, Bacillus cereus ATCC14579, and Staphylococcus aureus CMCC26003) and gram-negative strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCC10104, Shigella sonnei ATCC25931, Enterobacter sakazakii ATCC29544, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC13311, and Escherichia coli O157:H7). Antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that Lb. plantarum WLPL04 was susceptible to 8 of 14 antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin and nitrofurantoin) and resistant to 6 of 14 antibiotics (e.g., kanamycin and bacitracin). Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04 was able to survive at pH 2.5 for 3h and at 0.45% bile salt for 12h, suggesting that it can survive well in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the exopolysaccharide yield of Lb. plantarum WLPL04 reached 426.73 ± 65.56 mg/L at 24h. With strategies of competition, inhibition, and displacement, Lb. plantarum WLPL04 reduced the adhesion of E. coli O157:H7 (35.51%), Sal. typhimurium ATCC 13311 (8.10%), and Staph. aureus CMCC 26003 (40.30%) on Caco-2 cells by competition, and subsequently by 59.80, 62.50, and 42.60%, respectively, for the 3 pathogens through inhibition, and by 75.23, 39.97, and 52.88%, respectively, through displacement. Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04 attenuated the acute stress induced by sodium dodecyl sulfate on Caco-2 cells and significantly inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α) on Caco-2 cells but increased IL-10 expression in vitro

  6. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in primipara breast milk from Taiwan: estimation of dioxins and furans intake for breastfed infants.

    PubMed

    Chao, How-Ran; Wang, Shu-Li; Su, Pen-Hua; Yu, Hui-Yen; Yu, Sheng-Tsung; Päpke, Olaf

    2005-05-20

    Postnatal exposure to dioxins in breastfed infants occurs mainly during breast-feeding. The exposure to a substantial amount of endocrine disruptors in the early days of life may cause long-term health effects. Test subjects were healthy and primiparous mothers with a mean age of 28 (S.D. = 3.8) in 2001. The PCDD/F congeners were analyzed in the breast milk using gas chromatograph/high resolution mass spectrometry. The mean level of PCDD/Fs was 7.4 pg-WHO-TEQ/g lipid, which is significantly lower than the level found in individuals from other countries. The total PCDD WHO-TEQ levels in breast milk had a significant positive association with maternal age and a slightly negative association with perinatal BMI (body mass index of the period before and after the delivery). The estimated daily intake of 10.5 pg-WHO-TEQ/kg/day from individual breast milk was predicted for a breastfed infant at 6 months of age with proper assumption of 8 kg body weight, 854 milk per day of consumption, 95% of dioxin absorption rate, and linear decline of dioxin during lactation. Based on the lower WHO-TEQ levels in the breast milk, breast-feeding should still be encouraged and continued in Taiwan. PMID:15885400

  7. Administration of a multistrain probiotic product (VSL#3) to women in the perinatal period differentially affects breast milk beneficial microbiota in relation to mode of delivery.

    PubMed

    Mastromarino, Paola; Capobianco, Daniela; Miccheli, Alfredo; Praticò, Giulia; Campagna, Giuseppe; Laforgia, Nicola; Capursi, Teresa; Baldassarre, Maria E

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic supplementation to a mother during the perinatal period can have a positive impact on the breast milk composition. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral supplementation with the probiotic VSL#3, during late pregnancy and lactation, on breast milk levels of beneficial bacteria and some functional components (oligosaccharides and lactoferrin) potentially able to have a positive influence on the microbiota. Breast milk microbiota was analyzed by conventional and quantitative real-time PCR. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 66 women took daily either the probiotic (n=33) or a placebo (n=33). Intergroup analysis demonstrated that the amounts of both lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were significantly higher in the colostrum and mature milk of the mothers taking VSL#3 in comparison to those taking placebo. The analysis of bacterial strains and species present in breast milk of VSL#3 supplemented mothers indicated that the administered probiotic microorganisms did not pass from maternal gut to mammary gland. In women with vaginal delivery, significantly higher amounts of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were detected in colostrum and mature milk of probiotic treated group in comparison to placebo group, whereas no significant difference was observed between groups in women who had caesarean section, neither in colostrum nor in mature milk. Milk levels of oligosaccharides and lactoferrin were similar in placebo and probiotic supplemented groups at all timepoints and regardless of the mode of delivery. Our results indicate a probiotic-dependent modulation of breast milk microbiota in vaginally delivering women, possibly exerted through a systemic effect. PMID:25836922

  8. (C2) Saliva, breast milk, and mucosal fluids in HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Page-Shafer, K; Sweet, S; Kassaye, S; Ssali, C

    2006-01-01

    The oral environment has received various amounts of attention in association with HIV infection and pathogenesis. Since HIV infection occurs through mucosal tissue, oral factors-including tissue, fluids, and compartments-are of interest in furthering our understanding of the diagnosis, infectivity, transmission, and pathogenesis of disease. This report reviews: (1) HIV testing and diagnoses with oral fluids; (2) post-natal acquisition of HIV in association with breast-feeding from HIV-positive mothers; and (3) oral sex and HIV transmission. In the first, we examine how oral fluids are used to detect HIV infection and review current consensus on the role of salivary molecules as markers for immunosuppression. Second, lactation-associated HIV acquisition is reviewed, with special consideration of emerging issues associated with the impact of anti-retroviral therapies. Last, we consider current data on the risk of HIV infection in association with oral sex. Investigation of these diverse topics has a common goal: understanding how HIV presents in the oral environment, with an aim to rapid and accessible HIV diagnosis, and improved prevention and treatment of infection. PMID:16672566

  9. The relationship between bioactive components in breast milk and bone mass in infants

    PubMed Central

    Casazza, Krista; Hanks, Lynae J; Fields, David A

    2014-01-01

    Human breast milk (HBM) contains numerous bioactive components, recently shown to be associated with growth and body composition in breastfed offspring. Reciprocity in adipogenic and osteogenic pathways suggests bone mass may also be influenced by these components. The association between bioactive components found in HBM and bone mineral content (BMC), to our knowledge, is unknown. The purpose of this proof-of-principle study was to evaluate the association between specific bioactive components in HBM in exclusively breastfed infants and skeletal health in the first 6 months of life and examine potential gender differences in these associations. Thirty-five mother–infant dyads were followed from 1 to 6 months. The contents of a single breast expression were used for analyses of bioactive components (insulin, glucose, leptin, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), whereas BMC was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In the total sample, there was a positive association between TNFα and BMC at 1 (P=0.004) and 6 months (P=0.007). When stratified by sex, females exhibited a positive association between BMC and glucose and an inverse relationship between BMC and TNF-α at 1 month with TNF-α strengthening (P=0.006) at 6 months. In males, at 6 months a positive relationship between BMC and HBM glucose and an inverse relationship with HBM leptin were observed with no associations observed at 1 month. Although preliminary, the associations between bioactive components in HBM highlight the importance HBM has on bone accretion. It is critically important to identify factors in HBM that contribute to optimal bone health. PMID:25328673

  10. In Vitro Fermentation of caprine milk oligosaccharides by bifidobacteria isolated from breast-fed infants

    PubMed Central

    Thum, Caroline; Roy, Nicole C; McNabb, Warren C; Otter, Don E; Cookson, Adrian L

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the catabolism and fermentation of caprine milk oligosaccharides (CMO) by selected bifidobacteria isolated from 4 breast-fed infants. Seventeen bifidobacterial isolates consisting of 3 different species (Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum and Bifidobacterium bifidum) were investigated. A CMO-enriched fraction (CMOF) (50% oligosaccharides, 10% galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), 20% lactose, 10% glucose and 10% galactose) from caprine cheese whey was added to a growth medium as a sole source of fermentable carbohydrate. The inclusion of the CMOF was associated with increased bifidobacterial growth for all strains compared to glucose, lactose, GOS, inulin, oligofructose, 3'-sialyl-lactose and 6'-sialyl-lactose. Only one B. bifidum strain (AGR2166) was able to utilize the sialyl-CMO, 3'-sialyl-lactose and 6'-sialyl-lactose, as carbohydrate sources. The inclusion of CMOF increased the production of acetic and lactic acid (P < 0.001) after 36 h of anaerobic fermentation at 37°C, when compared to other fermentable substrates. Two B. bifidum strains (AGR2166 and AGR2168) utilised CMO, contained in the CMOF, to a greater extent than B. breve or B. longum subsp longum isolates, and this increased CMO utilization was associated with enhanced sialidase activity. CMOF stimulated bifidobacterial growth when compared to other tested fermentable carbohydrates and also increased the consumption of mono- and disaccharides, such as galactose and lactose present in the CMOF. These findings indicate that the dietary consumption of CMO may stimulate the growth and metabolism of intestinal Bifidobacteria spp. including B. bifidum typically found in the large intestine of breast-fed infants. PMID:26587678

  11. In Vitro Fermentation of caprine milk oligosaccharides by bifidobacteria isolated from breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Thum, Caroline; Roy, Nicole C; McNabb, Warren C; Otter, Don E; Cookson, Adrian L

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the catabolism and fermentation of caprine milk oligosaccharides (CMO) by selected bifidobacteria isolated from 4 breast-fed infants. Seventeen bifidobacterial isolates consisting of 3 different species (Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum and Bifidobacterium bifidum) were investigated. A CMO-enriched fraction (CMOF) (50% oligosaccharides, 10% galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), 20% lactose, 10% glucose and 10% galactose) from caprine cheese whey was added to a growth medium as a sole source of fermentable carbohydrate. The inclusion of the CMOF was associated with increased bifidobacterial growth for all strains compared to glucose, lactose, GOS, inulin, oligofructose, 3'-sialyl-lactose and 6'-sialyl-lactose. Only one B. bifidum strain (AGR2166) was able to utilize the sialyl-CMO, 3'-sialyl-lactose and 6'-sialyl-lactose, as carbohydrate sources. The inclusion of CMOF increased the production of acetic and lactic acid (P < 0.001) after 36 h of anaerobic fermentation at 37 °C, when compared to other fermentable substrates. Two B. bifidum strains (AGR2166 and AGR2168) utilised CMO, contained in the CMOF, to a greater extent than B. breve or B. longum subsp longum isolates, and this increased CMO utilization was associated with enhanced sialidase activity. CMOF stimulated bifidobacterial growth when compared to other tested fermentable carbohydrates and also increased the consumption of mono- and disaccharides, such as galactose and lactose present in the CMOF. These findings indicate that the dietary consumption of CMO may stimulate the growth and metabolism of intestinal Bifidobacteria spp. including B. bifidum typically found in the large intestine of breast-fed infants. PMID:26587678

  12. Role of extrahepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1: Advances in understanding breast milk-induced neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Ryoichi; Maruo, Yoshihiro; Chen, Shujuan; Tukey, Robert H

    2015-11-15

    Newborns commonly develop physiological hyperbilirubinemia (also known as jaundice). With increased bilirubin levels being observed in breast-fed infants, breast-feeding has been recognized as a contributing factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Bilirubin undergoes selective metabolism by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 and becomes a water soluble glucuronide. Although several factors such as gestational age, dehydration and weight loss, and increased enterohepatic circulation have been associated with breast milk-induced jaundice (BMJ), deficiency in UGT1A1 expression is a known cause of BMJ. It is currently believed that unconjugated bilirubin is metabolized mainly in the liver. However, recent findings support the concept that extrahepatic tissues, such as small intestine and skin, contribute to bilirubin glucuronidation during the neonatal period. We will review the recent advances made towards understanding biological and molecular events impacting BMJ, especially regarding the role of extrahepatic UGT1A1 expression. PMID:26342858

  13. Oligosaccharide Composition of Breast Milk Influences Survival of Uninfected Children Born to HIV-Infected Mothers in Lusaka, Zambia12

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Louise; Kim, Hae-Young; Hsiao, Lauren; Nissan, Caroline; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwiya, Mwiya; Thea, Donald M; Aldrovandi, Grace M; Bode, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have multiple immunomodulatory functions that influence child health. Objective: In this study we investigated whether HMO composition influences survival to 2 y of age in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) children during and after breastfeeding. Methods: In the context of an early weaning trial in 958 HIV-infected women in Lusaka, Zambia, we conducted a nested case-cohort analysis of mortality to 2 y of age among 103 HIV-infected and 143 HEU children. Breast-milk samples collected at 1 mo postpartum were analyzed for HMO content. Samples were selected to include mothers of all HIV-infected children detected by 6 wk of age, of whom 63 died at <2 y of age; mothers of all HEU children who died at <2 y of age (n = 66); and a random sample of 77 HEU survivors. Associations before and after weaning in HIV-infected and HEU infants separately were investigated by using Cox models. Results: Among HEU children, higher maternal breast-milk concentrations of 2-linked fucosylated HMOs [2′-fucosyllactose and lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFP) I] (HR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.74) as well as non–2-linked fucosylated HMOs (3-fucosyllactose and LNFP II/III; HR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.67) were significantly associated with reduced mortality during, but not after, breastfeeding after adjustment for confounders. Breastfeeding was protective against mortality only in HEU children with high concentrations of fucosylated HMOs. Among HIV-infected children, no consistent associations between HMOs and mortality were observed, but breastfeeding was protective against mortality. Conclusions: The oligosaccharide composition of breast milk may explain some of the benefits of breastfeeding in HEU children. HIV infection may modulate some of the consequences of HMOs on child survival. PMID:25527660

  14. A study on lipid content and fatty acid of breast milk and its association with mother’s diet composition

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Hadi, Bagher; Iranpour, Ramin; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Mirmoghtadaee, Parisa; Farajian, Sanam; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of our study was to determine the content of fat and fatty acid composition of breast milk, and its association with the mother’s diet. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant mothers who came to health care centers for last prenatal care in Isfahan, Iran. Eight to 72 hours after delivery, 2 to 5 ml of colostrum was collected by hand into tubes. They were kept in an ice box and sent within half an hour to the collaborating health centre for freezing at -20°C until analysis, which was performed at the laboratory of NNFTRI in Tehran. The milk samples were homogenized by Vortex (Heidolph Vortex Shaker REAX 1. 220 V. 30 W Germany) at 2400 rpm for 30 sec. Results: The data of 86 out of 91 samples were complete. The mean maternal age and gestational age was 28.37 ± 5.55 years old and 38.7 ± 1.2 weeks, respectively. The content of fat was 2.17 ± 1.22 g/100 ml breast milk. Arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) and docosohexaanoic acid DHA (22:6n-3) made 0.8 ± 0.4% and 0.3 ± 0.2% of total fatty acids. Although the AA/DHA ratio in our study is suitable, but the content of DHA is nearly low. Conclusion: Dietary habits of women in reproductive age group should be improved, with special emphasis on the fatty acid content of breast milk. This may have long-term impact on health promotion and disease prevention. PMID:23826007

  15. Compartment syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jobe MT. Compartment syndromes and Volkmann contracture. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. ... and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...

  16. Compartment syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  17. High levels of PCBs in breast milk of Inuit women from arctic Quebec

    SciTech Connect

    Dewailly, E. ); Nantel, A.; Weber, J.P. ); Meyer, F. )

    1989-11-01

    In the last twenty years polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been identified as major contaminants of the natural environment. More recently, the presence of such toxic compounds was described in arctic regions. In this regions, PCBs have been found in water, snow, ice and air. The level of PCB contamination was significantly lower than that found at midlatitudes. PCB levels are often monitored because they could also reflect exposure to several other chemical contaminants such as other organochlorines. Other highly toxic compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were found in the blubber from arctic ringed seals caught near the west coast of Spitzbergen. Since the closest known sources of PCDD and PCDF were several thousands of kilometers away, these results were surprising. The consumption of fish and marine mammals by the Inuit people is markedly higher than in the rest of the Canadian population and in some communities, sea mammals represent a significant part of the diet. It is possible that Inuit are exposed to an undesirably high of PCBs and other organochlorinated compounds. Levels of PCBs in the Inuit diet were assessed in Broughton Island, North West Territories, Canada. The present study was designed to assess the PCB levels in the breast milk of lactating Inuit women from the Hudson Bay region of Northern Quebec and of women from Southern Quebec.

  18. Kinetic differences of legacy organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in Vietnamese human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Sudaryanto, Agus; Minh, Tu Binh; Nhat, Bui Hong; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-11-01

    The present study investigated the current contamination status and evaluated several kinetic-related features of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and PCBs in human breast milk collected from northern Vietnam. The variation in the levels of these contaminants was found to be strongly associated with total lactation time and dietary habits. OCPs exhibited the characteristics of steadily declining compounds: the overall levels of DDTs and HCHs in the population decreased with a half-time of only 5years and it can be suggested that OCPs depurated relatively fast with breastfeeding (5% per month). PCBs were slower in both regards, with a temporal decrease half-time of 12years and a suggested depuration rate via breastfeeding of 2.5% per month, indicating that the exposure level was still high relative to the human body burden. It was found that the PCB exposure levels of infant from breastfeeding exceeded the reference dose, and this situation may continue for the next two or three decades. Knowledge of these kinetic-related characteristics not only is useful for risk assessment and prediction of future trends of legacy contaminants but also may provide insight regarding similar kinetic processes of emerging persistent pollutants. PMID:20870263

  19. Residual congener pattern of dioxins in human breast milk in southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tawara, Kenji; Nishijo, Muneko; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Kido, Teruhiko; Naganuma, Rie; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Nhu, Dang Duc; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Thom, Le Thi Hong

    2011-08-01

    This study evaluated residual congener patterns of dioxin/furan (=PCDD/DF) related to tactical herbicides aerially sprayed over the regions of southern Vietnam through Operation Ranch Hand. The study focused on Cam Chinh (CC) commune, Quang Tri province (an area sprayed with tactical herbicides), and the Cam Phuc (CP) commune, Ha Tinh province (a non-sprayed area). Breast milk samples for analysis were collected in September 2002 and July 2003 from lactating primiparous and multiparous mothers born after the war (<31 years old). We found the levels of each congener in the CC commune were higher than in the CP commune, and determined specificity in the PCDD/DF congener pattern in CC commune samples by cluster analysis. The congener pattern is characterized by higher (the hexa-, the hepta-, and the octa-) chlorinated PCDD/DFs; this appears to be the same profile as that presented by pentachlorophenol (PCP), rather than 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acid (2,4,5-T) contaminated with 2,3,7,8-TCDD. A GC/MS study in the 1970s detected the chlorophenols 2,4-di and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in some Agent Orange samples, which contained, like PCP, a wide variety of PCDD/DF congeners. In this context, it may be expected that certain tactical herbicides contaminated with various chlorophenol impurities, have a unique congener pattern when compared with pure 2,4,5-T formulations. PMID:21680010

  20. Antibiotic susceptibility, antibacterial activity and characterisation of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from breast milk

    PubMed Central

    Kıvanç, Sertaç Argun; Kıvanç, Merih; Yiğit, Tülay

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci, which have useful biotechnological applications, produce bacteriocins, including those that exert anti-Listerial activity. The present study aimed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns and antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from human breast milk. The strains were identified using carbohydrate fermentation tests and ribotyping. Subsequently, the antibacterial activity of the isolates was investigated, and the quantities of lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide produced, and the proteolytic activity of E. faecium, were determined. In addition, biofilm formation by E. faecium strains was assessed. E. faecium strains exhibited antimicrobial activity against food-borne and clinical bacterial isolates. Furthermore, following 24 h incubation, the tested strains exhibited resistance to a pH range of 2.0–9.5 and tolerance of bile acid, lysozyme activity and phenol. Supernatants of the E. faecium TM13, TM15, TM17 and TM18 strains were shown to be effective against Listeria monocytogenes, and were also resistant to heat. Further studies are required in order to determine whether certain strains of E. faecium may be used for the development of novel antibacterial agents. PMID:27602088

  1. PCR-DGGE assessment of the bacterial diversity of breast milk in women with lactational infectious mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Susana; Arroyo, Rebeca; Martín, Rocío; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2008-01-01

    Background Infectious mastitis is a common condition during lactation and in fact, represents one of the main causes leading to a precocious weaning. The number of studies dealing with lactational mastitis is low and, up to now, the etiological diagnosis is frequently made on the basis of unspecific clinical signs. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial diversity of breast milk in 20 women with lactational mastitis employing culture-dependent and culture-independent (PCR-DGGE) approaches. Methods Breast milk samples were cultured in different media to investigate the presence of bacteria and/or yeasts, and a total of 149 representative isolates were identified to the species level by 16S rRNA gene PCR sequencing. The microorganisms recovered were compared with those found by PCR-DGGE analysis. To identify the DGGE profiles two reference markers of different microbial species were constructed. Sequence analysis of unknown bands was also performed. Results Staphylococci were the dominant bacterial group and Staphylococcus epidermidis was the dominant species. In a lower number of samples, other bacteria (mainly streptococci and a few gram-negative species) were also identified. Globally, PCR-DGGE results showed a good correlation with those obtained by culture-based methods. However, although DNA bands corresponding to different lactic acid bacteria were detected, such bacteria could not be isolated from the milk samples. Conclusion Staphylococci seem to be the main etiological agents of human lactational mastitis. The combined use of culture and molecular techniques allowed a better characterization of the bacterial diversity in milk from women suffering from infectious mastitis. Our results suggest that this condition could be the result of a disbiotic process where some of the bacterial species usually present in human milk outgrow (staphylococci) while others disappear (lactobacilli or lactococci). PMID:18423017

  2. Occurrence of synthetic musks in human breast milk samples from 12 provinces in China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie; Wang, Hao; Li, Jingguang; Wu, Yongning; Shao, Bing

    2016-07-01

    The levels of 12 synthetic musks and one musk metabolite in 24 pooled human milk samples were examined in order to assess the health risks of these contaminants to breast-feeding infants of China. The 24 pooled samples comprised of 1237 individual human milk samples collected from 12 provinces of China according to WHO guidelines. Among the 13 target analytes, OTNE ([1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-2,3,8,8-tetramethylnaphthalen-2yl]ethan-1-one), HHCB (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[γ]-2-benzopyran), AHTN (7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene), musk ketone (4-tert-butyl-2,6-dimethyl-3,5-dinitroacetophenone, MK), Musk T (1,4-dioxacyclohepta decane-5,17-dione), HHCB-lactone (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl cyclopenta[γ]-2-benzopyran-1-one) and musk ambrette (1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-2-methoxy-4-methyl-3,5-dinitrobenzene, MA), were found in the milk samples analysed with mean (median) concentrations of 3.96 (3.91), 18.03 (15.10), 10.30 (9.38), 4.68 (4.45), < 3.70 (< 3.70), 10.02 (9.20) and < 5.20 (< 5.20) ng g(-1) lipid weight, respectively, whereas ADBI (4-acetyl-1,1-dimethyl-6-tert-butylindan), AHDI (6-acetyl-1,1,2,3,3,5-hexamethylindan), ATII (5-acetyl-1,1,2,6-tetramethyl-3-isopropylindan), musk xylene (1-tert-butyl-3,5-dimethyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, MX), musk tibetene (1-tert-butyl-3,4,5-trimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzene, MT) and musk moskene (1,1,3,3,5-pentamethyl-4,6-dinotroindane, MM) were not detected. Significantly positive associations were observed in concentration levels between HHCB and AHTN (p < 0.001), HHCB and HHCB-lactone (p < 0.05), AHTN and HHCB-lactone (p < 0.001), and MK and OTNE (p < 0.05). No statistical difference was found in musk concentrations between rural and urban areas in China (p > 0.05). The mean (median) estimated daily intakes by infants were 20.5 (20.2), 93.4 (78.2), 53.4 (48.6), 24.2 (23.0) and 51.9 (47.6) ng kg(-1) body weight for OTNE, HHCB, AHTN, MK and HHCB

  3. Breast Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Most women experience breast changes at some time. Your age, hormone levels, and medicines you take may cause lumps, bumps, and discharges (fluids that are not breast milk). If you have a breast lump, pain, ...

  4. Leptin in maternal serum and breast milk: association with infants' body weight gain in a longitudinal study over 6 months of lactation.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Susanne; Hechler, Charlotte; Gebauer, Corinna; Kiess, Wieland; Kratzsch, Juergen

    2011-12-01

    The adipokine leptin has been detected in human breast milk, but its effect on postnatal growth and development remains largely unclear. We hypothesized that leptin could affect infant's body weight gain during early lactation in the first 6 mo of life. Therefore, we evaluated leptin levels in maternal serum and breast milk of 23 healthy, lactating mothers and their neonates in a prospective, longitudinal study. Leptin concentration was quantified by a commercially available human leptin RIA. Our results showed that leptin levels in breast milk were 22-fold lower than in maternal serum, but both parameters were positively correlated to each other (r = 0.431, p = 0.001) and to maternal BMI (serum: r = 0.512, p < 0.001; milk: r = 0.298, p < 0.001) over 6 mo of lactation. A negative association was found between breast milk leptin levels during the first week after delivery and the infant weight gain from the end of the first to the sixth month (r = -0.681, p = 0.007). This suggests that milk-borne leptin provides a link between maternal body composition and infant growth and development and plays a critical role in regulating appetite and food intake during early infancy. PMID:21857386

  5. The effect of a controlled manipulation of maternal dietary fat intake on medium and long chain fatty acids in human breast milk in Saskatoon, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Few studies in recent years have demonstrated the effect of maternal diet on fatty acid composition of human milk. Methods Fourteen free-living lactating women participated in a cross-over dietary intervention study, consuming a low fat diet (17.6% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 68.0% of energy as carbohydrate) and a high fat diet (40.3% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 45.3% of energy as carbohydrate) each for periods of 4 days, in randomised order. Each mother was her own control. Mature milk samples were collected during each period and analysed for medium and long chain fatty acids. Results The concentration of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA), was 13.6% in breast milk for the low fat diet compared to 11.4% for the high fat (p < 0.05). Arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6) levels were significantly higher in breast milk when women consumed the low fat diet. Increased dietary intake of stearic acid (C18:0) and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) on the high fat diet significantly increased proportions of these fatty acids in breast milk (p < 0.05) in 4 days. Conclusions Changing maternal dietary fat intake has a rapid response in terms of changes to fatty acids in breast milk. PMID:20170476

  6. Phthalate Diesters and Their Metabolites in Human Breast Milk, Blood or Serum, and Urine as Biomarkers of Exposure in Vulnerable Populations

    PubMed Central

    Högberg, Johan; Hanberg, Annika; Berglund, Marika; Skerfving, Staffan; Remberger, Mikael; Calafat, Antonia M.; Filipsson, Agneta Falk; Jansson, Bo; Johansson, Niklas; Appelgren, Malin; Håkansson, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Background Phthalates may pose a risk for perinatal developmental effects. An important question relates to the choice of suitable biological matrices for assessing exposure during this period. Objectives This study was designed to measure the concentrations of phthalate diesters or their metabolites in breast milk, blood or serum, and urine and to evaluate their suitability for assessing perinatal exposure to phthalates. Methods In 2001, 2–3 weeks after delivery, 42 Swedish primipara provided breast milk, blood, and urine samples at home. Special care was taken to minimize contamination with phthalates (e.g., use of a special breast milk pump, heat treatment of glassware and needles, addition of phosphoric acid). Results Phthalate diesters and metabolites in milk and blood or serum, if detected, were present at concentrations close to the limit of detection. By contrast, most phthalate metabolites were detectable in urine at concentrations comparable to those from the general population in the United States and in Germany. No correlations existed between urine concentrations and those found in milk or blood/serum for single phthalate metabolites. Our data are at odds with a previous study documenting frequent detection and comparatively high concentrations of phthalate metabolites in Finnish and Danish mothers’ milk. Conclusions Concentrations of phthalate metabolites in urine are more informative than those in milk or serum. Furthermore, collection of milk or blood may be associated with discomfort and potential technical problems such as contamination (unless oxidative metabolites are measured). Although urine is a suitable matrix for health-related phthalate monitoring, urinary concentrations in nursing mothers cannot be used to estimate exposure to phthalates through milk ingestion by breast-fed infants. PMID:18335100

  7. Relation of Lake Ontario fish consumption, lifetime lactation, and parity to breast milk polychlorobiphenyl and pesticide concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Kostyniak, P.J.; Stinson, C.; Hreizerstein, H.B.; Vena, J.; Buck, G.; Mendola, P.

    1999-02-01

    Lactating female members and spouses of male members of the New York State Angler Cohort who agreed to provide breast milk samples were the subjects of this study. Milk samples were analyzed for 77 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (DDE), a metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 1,1a,2,2,3,3a,4,5,5,5a,5b,6-dodecachlorooctahydro-1,3,4-methano-1H-cyclobuta[cd]pentalene (Mirex). The percentage of samples with quantifiable levels, above the limit of detection (LOD), varied among the individual congeners from 10 to 100%. Nine PCB congeners and DDE were found in all of the 100 samples analyzed. Fish eaters had a significantly higher level of several major PCB congeners with congeners 153 and 138 being 1.36 and 1.34 times higher, respectively. PCB and DDE concentrations, expressed on a lipid basis, varied inversely with parity. The total number of months of lifetime lactation varied inversely with the total PCB concentration in breast milk.

  8. Simultaneous presence of DDT and pyrethroid residues in human breast milk from a malaria endemic area in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, H; Sereda, B; Meinhardt, H M

    2006-12-01

    DDT and pyrethroids were determined in 152 breast-milk samples from three towns in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, one of which had no need for DDT for malaria control. All compounds were found present in breast milk. Primiparae from one town had the highest mean SigmaDDT whole milk levels (238.23 microg/l), and multiparae from the same town had the highest means for permethrin (14.51 microg/l), cyfluthrin (41.74 microg/l), cypermethrin (4.24 microg/l), deltamethrin (8.39 microg/l), and Sigmapyrethroid (31.5 microg/l), most likely derived from agriculture. The ADI for DDT was only exceeded by infants from one town, but the ADI for pyrethroids was not exceeded. Since the ADI for DDT was recently reduced from 20 to 10 microg/kg/bw, we suggest that this aspect be treated with concern. We therefore raise a concern based on toxicant interactions, due to the presence of four different pyrethroids and DDT. Breastfeeding however, remains safe under prevailing conditions. PMID:16564119

  9. Longitudinal Study of Cytokine Expression, Lipid Profile and Neuronal Growth Factors in Human Breast Milk from Term and Preterm Deliveries

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Santaella, Marina; Mira-Pascual, Laia; Martínez-Arias, Elena; Khodayar-Pardo, Parisá; Ros, Gaspar; Martínez-Costa, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk (BM) is considered as a reference for infant nutrition. The role of bioactive components, such as cytokines, hormones, growth factors (GFs) and fatty acids (FAs) is poorly known, but they might be implicated in immune response development. The aim of this study was to identify the lipid profile and the spectrum of cytokines and neuronal GF in BM samples and analyse the influence of gestational age and lactation time on these components. This study used a longitudinal prospective method for the characterization of cytokines, FAs and GFs global profiles in 120 BM samples from 40 healthy mothers (20 preterm and 20 term) collected as colostrum, transitional and mature milk. The cytokines were analysed by protein array (Ray Bio® Human Cytokine Array G6. Ray Biotech, Inc. Norcross, GA, USA) and the FAs were analysed by gas chromatography. The FA profile was similar between the term and the preterm BM samples. Omega-3-α-linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and omega-6-linoleic acid were the most abundant in the term and preterm samples during lactation. Omega-3 ETA and omega-3 EPA we observed exclusively in the preterm samples. The cytokine profile showed a different trend based on gestational age. A significantly higher expression of neurotrophic factors was found in the mature preterm milk samples as compared to the mature term samples. Our study is the first to identify the influence and interactions of perinatal factors on cytokine, GFs and FAs in human milk. PMID:26492267

  10. Longitudinal Study of Cytokine Expression, Lipid Profile and Neuronal Growth Factors in Human Breast Milk from Term and Preterm Deliveries.

    PubMed

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Santaella, Marina; Mira-Pascual, Laia; Martínez-Arias, Elena; Khodayar-Pardo, Parisá; Ros, Gaspar; Martínez-Costa, Cecilia

    2015-10-01

    Breast milk (BM) is considered as a reference for infant nutrition. The role of bioactive components, such as cytokines, hormones, growth factors (GFs) and fatty acids (FAs) is poorly known, but they might be implicated in immune response development. The aim of this study was to identify the lipid profile and the spectrum of cytokines and neuronal GF in BM samples and analyse the influence of gestational age and lactation time on these components. This study used a longitudinal prospective method for the characterization of cytokines, FAs and GFs global profiles in 120 BM samples from 40 healthy mothers (20 preterm and 20 term) collected as colostrum, transitional and mature milk. The cytokines were analysed by protein array (Ray Bio® Human Cytokine Array G6. Ray Biotech, Inc. Norcross, GA, USA) and the FAs were analysed by gas chromatography. The FA profile was similar between the term and the preterm BM samples. Omega-3-α-linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and omega-6-linoleic acid were the most abundant in the term and preterm samples during lactation. Omega-3 ETA and omega-3 EPA we observed exclusively in the preterm samples. The cytokine profile showed a different trend based on gestational age. A significantly higher expression of neurotrophic factors was found in the mature preterm milk samples as compared to the mature term samples. Our study is the first to identify the influence and interactions of perinatal factors on cytokine, GFs and FAs in human milk. PMID:26492267

  11. Camel Milk Triggers Apoptotic Signaling Pathways in Human Hepatoma HepG2 and Breast Cancer MCF7 Cell Lines through Transcriptional Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Korashy, Hesham M.; Maayah, Zaid H.; Abd-Allah, Adel R.; El-Kadi, Ayman O. S.; Alhaider, Abdulqader A.

    2012-01-01

    Few published studies have reported the use of crude camel milk in the treatment of stomach infections, tuberculosis and cancer. Yet, little research was conducted on the effect of camel milk on the apoptosis and oxidative stress associated with human cancer. The present study investigated the effect and the underlying mechanisms of camel milk on the proliferation of human cancer cells using an in vitro model of human hepatoma (HepG2) and human breast (MCF7) cancer cells. Our results showed that camel milk, but not bovine milk, significantly inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells proliferation through the activation of caspase-3 mRNA and activity levels, and the induction of death receptors in both cell lines. In addition, Camel milk enhanced the expression of oxidative stress markers, heme oxygenase-1 and reactive oxygen species production in both cells. Mechanistically, the increase in caspase-3 mRNA levels by camel milk was completely blocked by the transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D; implying that camel milk increased de novo RNA synthesis. Furthermore, Inhibition of the mitogen activated protein kinases differentially modulated the camel milk-induced caspase-3 mRNA levels. Taken together, camel milk inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells survival and proliferation through the activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. PMID:22654482

  12. Application of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) to the handling of expressed breast milk on a neonatal unit.

    PubMed

    Hunter, P R

    1991-02-01

    Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a powerful procedure for ensuring quality and safety and has gained widespread use in industry. This paper describes the basic method which is a four-stage process including process analysis, hazard identification, identification of critical control points and devising effective control options. Suggestions as to how the method can be adapted to the control of hospital infection are made. A HACCP analysis, on the supply of expressed human breast milk to babies on a Special Care Baby Unit, is presented. Although only the mother's own milk was given to babies on the unit, several potential hazards were identified and suggestions have been made for their control. PMID:1674260

  13. Influence of organic diet on the amount of conjugated linoleic acids in breast milk of lactating women in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Rist, Lukas; Mueller, André; Barthel, Christiane; Snijders, Bianca; Jansen, Margje; Simões-Wüst, A Paula; Huber, Machteld; Kummeling, Ischa; von Mandach, Ursula; Steinhart, Hans; Thijs, Carel

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out whether the incorporation of organic dairy and meat products in the maternal diet affects the contents of the conjugated linoleic acid isomers (CLA) and trans-vaccenic acid (TVA) in human breast milk. To this purpose, milk samples from 312 breastfeeding mothers participating in the KOALA Birth Cohort Study have been analysed. The participants had documented varying lifestyles in relation to the use of conventional or organic products. Breast milk samples were collected 1 month postpartum and analysed for fatty acid composition. The content of rumenic acid (the main CLA) increased in a statistically significant way while going from a conventional diet (no organic dairy/meat products, 0.25 weight % (wt%), n 186) to a moderately organic diet (50-90 % organic dairy/meat, 0.29 wt%, n 33, P = 0.02) and to a strict organic diet (>90 % organic dairy/meat, 0.34 wt%, n 37, P milk can be modulated if breastfeeding mothers replace conventional dairy and/or meat products by organic ones. A potential contribution of CLA and TVA to health improvement is briefly discussed. PMID:17349086

  14. Traditional Oral Remedies and Perceived Breast Milk Insufficiency Are Major Barriers to Exclusive Breastfeeding in Rural Zimbabwe123

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Amy; Mbuya, Mduduzi N.N.; Chigumira, Ancikaria; Chasekwa, Bernard; Humphrey, Jean H.; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Pelto, Gretel; Gerema, Grace; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Only 5.8% of Zimbabwean infants are exclusively breastfed for the first 6 mo of life despite substantial investment in exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) promotion throughout the country. We conducted a survey of 295 mothers of infants <6 mo of age who were recruited from rural immunization clinics and outreach sites in the Midlands Province of Zimbabwe. We explored infant feeding knowledge, beliefs and attitudes, and details regarding facilitators for EBF mothers and first foods fed by non-EBF mothers to identify and understand barriers to EBF. Among mothers of infants <1 mo, 1 to <2 mo, and 2–6 mo of age, 54%, 30%, and 12%, respectively, were practicing EBF. In adjusted multivariate analyses, EBF practice was positively associated with belief in the sufficiency of EBF (P = 0.05), belief in the avoidance of cooking oil feeding (a common traditional practice) in the first 6 mo (P = 0.001), and perceived pressure from others regarding infant feeding and traditional medicine use (P = 0.03). Psychosocial support and viewing breast milk as sufficient were reported as primary facilitators of EBF practice. Maternal responses to open-ended questions identified protection, nutrition, and crying as the main reasons for EBF interruption. During the first 2 mo of life, “protection feedings” using traditional oral remedies (such as cooking oil and water) to prevent or treat perceived illness, specifically colic and sunken/depressed fontanel, made up 78.5% of the non-breast milk feeds. From the second month of life, “nutrition feedings,” mainly of water and porridge, were given when mothers believed their breast milk was insufficient in quantity or quality to meet the hunger or thirst needs of their infants. Our findings underscore the importance of exploring cultural beliefs and practices as they pertain to infant feeding and care and present insights for designing and targeting EBF promotion interventions. PMID:24828026

  15. Traditional oral remedies and perceived breast milk insufficiency are major barriers to exclusive breastfeeding in rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Desai, Amy; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Chigumira, Ancikaria; Chasekwa, Bernard; Humphrey, Jean H; Moulton, Lawrence H; Pelto, Gretel; Gerema, Grace; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2014-07-01

    Only 5.8% of Zimbabwean infants are exclusively breastfed for the first 6 mo of life despite substantial investment in exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) promotion throughout the country. We conducted a survey of 295 mothers of infants <6 mo of age who were recruited from rural immunization clinics and outreach sites in the Midlands Province of Zimbabwe. We explored infant feeding knowledge, beliefs and attitudes, and details regarding facilitators for EBF mothers and first foods fed by non-EBF mothers to identify and understand barriers to EBF. Among mothers of infants <1 mo, 1 to <2 mo, and 2-6 mo of age, 54%, 30%, and 12%, respectively, were practicing EBF. In adjusted multivariate analyses, EBF practice was positively associated with belief in the sufficiency of EBF (P = 0.05), belief in the avoidance of cooking oil feeding (a common traditional practice) in the first 6 mo (P = 0.001), and perceived pressure from others regarding infant feeding and traditional medicine use (P = 0.03). Psychosocial support and viewing breast milk as sufficient were reported as primary facilitators of EBF practice. Maternal responses to open-ended questions identified protection, nutrition, and crying as the main reasons for EBF interruption. During the first 2 mo of life, "protection feedings" using traditional oral remedies (such as cooking oil and water) to prevent or treat perceived illness, specifically colic and sunken/depressed fontanel, made up 78.5% of the non-breast milk feeds. From the second month of life, "nutrition feedings," mainly of water and porridge, were given when mothers believed their breast milk was insufficient in quantity or quality to meet the hunger or thirst needs of their infants. Our findings underscore the importance of exploring cultural beliefs and practices as they pertain to infant feeding and care and present insights for designing and targeting EBF promotion interventions. PMID:24828026

  16. Spoiled breast milk and bad water; local understandings of diarrhea causes and prevention in rural Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Globally, diarrhea remains a leading killer of young children. In Sierra Leone, one in seven children die before their fifth birthday and diarrhea is a leading cause. Studies that emphasize the demand-side of health interventions -- how caregivers understand causation and prevention of diarrhea -- have been neglected in research and programming. Methods We undertook applied qualitative research including 68 in-depth interviews and 36 focus group discussions with mothers, fathers and older female caretakers to examine the causes and prevention of childhood diarrhea in villages near and far from health facilities across four rural districts. Verbal consent was obtained. Results Respondents reported multiple, co-existing descriptions of causation including: contaminated water and difficulties accessing clean water; exposure to an unclean environment and poor food hygiene; contaminated breast milk due to sexual intercourse, overheated breast milk or bodily maternal conditions such as menstruation or pregnancy; and dietary imbalances and curses. Respondents rarely discussed the role of open defecation or the importance of handwashing with soap in preventing diarrhea. Conclusions Categorizing behaviors as beneficial, harmful, non-existent or benign enables tailored programmatic recommendations. For example, respondents recognized the value of clean water and we correspondingly recommend interventions that reinforce consumption of and access to clean water. Second, respondents report denying “contaminated” breast milk to breastfeeding children. This is a harmful practice that merits attention. Third, the role of open defecation and poor hygiene in causing diarrhea is less understood and warrants introduction or clarification. Finally, the role of exposed feet or curses in causing diarrhea is relatively benign and does not necessitate programmatic attention. Further research supportive of communication and social mobilization strategies building on these

  17. The Relationship between Dioxin Congeners in the Breast Milk of Vietnamese Women and Sister Chromatid Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Kido, Teruhiko; Okamoto, Rie; Nhu, Dang Duc; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Tawara, Kenji; Horikawa, Hiroaki; Sato, Yuko; Dung, Phung Tri; Thom, Le Hong; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between dioxin concentrations in breast milk and the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency in women from herbicide-sprayed and non sprayed areas. Blood samples were taken from 21 women with high TCDD (tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) levels from sprayed areas, 23 women with moderate TCDD levels from sprayed areas, and 19 women from non sprayed areas to determine their SCE frequency. The SCE frequencies for the high and moderate TCDD groups from the sprayed area and for the non sprayed area group were 2.40, 2.19, and 1.48 per cell, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that the standardized β values for 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexaCDD (β = 0.60), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptaCDD (β = 0.64), and octaCDD (β = 0.65) were higher than those for TCDD (β = 0.34) and 1,2,3,7,8-pentaCDD (β = 0.42). The adjusted R2 value for polyCDDs (R2 = 0.38) was higher than that for polyCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ (toxic equivalents); R2 = 0.23). This study therefore shows that levels of hexa-, hepta-, and octaCDD, which were previously regarded as being less toxic than TCDD, are closely related to SCE frequency and that the level of dioxin (pg/g lipid) is potentially more useful as an indicator than TEQ value for explaining SCE frequency. PMID:24786289

  18. The influence of impact delivery mode, lactation time, infant gender, maternal age and rural or urban life on total number of Lactobacillus in breast milk Isfahan - Iran

    PubMed Central

    Taghizadeh, Mansoureh; Mirlohi, Maryam; Poursina, Farkhondeh; Madani, Golnoush; Khoshhali, Mehri; Bahreini, Nimah; Safaei, Hajieh Ghasemian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast milk is known as the most crucial postpartum issue in metabolic and immunologic programming of neonatal health. Human milk microbial changes over Lactation. The factors influencing the milk microbiome as well as potential impact of microbes on infant health have not yet been discovered. The objective was to identify pre- and post-natal factors that can potentially influence the bacterial communities inhabiting human milk. Materials and Methods: Breast milk samples (n = 40) with all full-term breastfed infants were collected from lactating randomized. Information on personal characteristics, dietary habits, information about infants were collected after birth. The samples were plated with serial dilutions on three selective culture media man rogosa sharp and then colonies were counted. Colonies tested for catalase reaction, Gram-staining and microscopic examination. Results: The result of this study showed that the overall incidence of positive Lactobacillus in mother's milk was 87.5%. The results based on (infant gender, mode of delivery, rural or urban and lactation time) rural or urban and lactation time were significant (P < 0.05). The results showed that all of the variables were significant in this regression model (P < 0.001). The median of log10 Lactobacillus counts in rural mothers, vaginal delivery, infant male gender and Lactation time for first 3-month were meaningfully high. Conclusions: The findings of this study about the breast milk Lactobacillus potential probiotic bacteria of healthy Iranian mothers, suggested that the breast milk microbiome is significantly influenced by several factors, mode of delivery, rural or urban and lactation time. PMID:26322289

  19. Fumonisin B1 contamination in breast milk and its exposure in infants under 6 months of age in Rombo, Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Magoha, Happy; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Kimanya, Martin; Hipolite, Danstan; Lachat, Carl; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    The carry-over of fumonisin B1 from contaminated feed into dairy milk also suggests its carry-over from contaminated food into breast milk. This study assessed fumonisin B1 contamination in breast milk and associated exposures of infants under 6 months of age. Breast milk samples were collected from 131 lactating mothers and the weight of their infants was measured during the first month of lactation. Fumonisin B1 was extracted using methanol:acetone, cleaned up with Strong Anion Exchange columns and quantified by HPLC. Fumonisin B1 exposure in each child was estimated using deterministic approach. Out of the 131 samples, 58 (44.3%) contained fumonisin B1 at levels ranging from 6.57 to 471.05 ng/ml. Of the contaminated samples, 10.3% had fumonisin B1 levels above the EU limit of 200 ppb for fumonisins in infants' food. Exposure in the infants ranged from 0.78 to 64.93 µg/kg body weight (bw) per day (median, 3 µg/kg bw/day) and exceeded the provisional maximum tolerable limit of 2 µg/kg bw/day in 29% of the infants. In conclusion, breast milk from mothers in Northern Tanzania is contaminated with fumonisins at levels that lead to unacceptable exposures in infants. Strategies to prevent lactating mothers from fumonisin exposure are urgently needed to minimise fumonisin exposure in infants. PMID:25280923

  20. Interaction between mercury (Hg), arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) affects the activity of glutathione S-transferase in breast milk; possible relationship with fish and sellfish intake.

    PubMed

    Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Celis de la Rosa, Alfredo de Jesús; Acosta-Vargas, Baudilio; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía Celina; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2014-01-01

    Breast milk is regarded as an ideal source of nutrients for the growth and development of neonates, but it can also be a potential source of pollutants. Mothers can be exposed to different contaminants as a result of their lifestyle and environmental pollution. Mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) could adversely affect the development of fetal and neonatal nervous system. Some fish and shellfish are rich in selenium (Se), an essential trace element that forms part of several enzymes related to the detoxification process, including glutathione S-transferase (GST). The goal of this study was to determine the interaction between Hg, As and Se and analyze its effect on the activity of GST in breast milk. Milk samples were collected from women between day 7 and 10 postpartum. The GST activity was determined spectrophotometrically; total Hg, As and Se concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. To explain the possible association of Hg, As and Se concentrations with GST activity in breast milk, generalized linear models were constructed. The model explained 44% of the GST activity measured in breast milk. The GLM suggests that GST activity was positively correlated with Hg, As and Se concentrations. The activity of the enzyme was also explained by the frequency of consumption of marine fish and shellfish in the diet of the breastfeeding women. PMID:25208800

  1. [Detection of bactericidal antibody in the breast milk of a mother infected with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7].

    PubMed

    Adachi, E; Tanaka, H; Toyoda, N; Takeda, T

    1999-05-01

    A 21 years-old pregnant woman developed diarrhea, fresh bloody stools and abdominal pain on April 6th 1997 at 32 weeks of gestation, and was admitted to the hospital on April 11th. The stool culture on admission was positive for enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 (Stx1 and 2). Clinical laboratory data during admission showed only slight elevation of beta-microglobulin and N-acetyl glucosaminidase in the urine, and no neurological or hemolytic symptoms were seen. After the antibiotic and lactobacillus administration, all her symptoms were relieved and no abnormal findings in pregnancy were observed. She delivered a baby girl normally on May 30th. Serum (between 41 and 120 days from the onset) and milk (between 4 and 64 days post partum) samples from the mother, and serum (64 days of age) from a baby and cord blood were obtained to monitor the immune status against EHEC O157:H7 and against Shiga toxins (Stx). Anti-E. coli O157 LPS antibodies (IgA, G and M) were assayed by the ELISA method. Neutralizing anti-Stx antibodies were measured by using ACHN cell cytotoxicity assay. In the colostrum and mature milk, high levels of IgA and IgM, and no IgG antibodies against EHEC O157 LPS were detected. In one of the control colostrum samples obtained from 4 healthy mothers IgA antibody against EHEC O157 LPS was detected. To assess the potency of protection against EHEC O157:H7 by the breast milk, we monitored it by the bactericidal activity for the organism under complement-coincubation experiment, and by the neutralization test for the Stx cytotoxicity. As a result, breast milk samples (both colostrum and mature milk) from a patient were demonstrated to kill the organisms. One of 4 healthy milk samples, showed bactericidal activity though it was negative in O157-LPS antibody. This bactericidal activity seen in one healthy colostrum is possibly due to a nonspecific reaction caused by non-O157 E. coli infection. From these observations, it was suggested that the

  2. Human milk banking.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Esther Marie; Wood, Angela; Fiske, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Forms of human milk banking and donation have been present for more than a century worldwide, but, since 1985, the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HM BANA) has established guidelines to make the use of donor's breast milk safe and the second best form of feeding to maternal breast milk for a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant. The Indiana Mother's Human Milk Bank provides an extensive and meticulous process of selecting breast milk donors. The process begins with a phone interview with a potential donor and includes the review of the donor's medical records, blood laboratory screening, medication and dietary intake, as well as consent from the donor's pediatrician. The milk bank follows steps of collecting, storing, and receiving the breast milk in accordance with the guidelines of the HM BANA. Pasteurization is the method used to ensure the proper heating and cooling of breast milk. Despite the rigorous pasteurization method, the donor's breast milk will not lose most of the important beneficial components needed for sick or ill NICU infants. Every batch of pasteurized breast milk will be cultured for any possible contamination and shipped to NICUs after it has been cleared by laboratory testing. PMID:23666187

  3. Analysis of human breast milk cells: gene expression profiles during pregnancy, lactation, involution, and mastitic infection.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Julie A; Lefèvre, Christophe; Watt, Ashalyn; Nicholas, Kevin R

    2016-05-01

    The molecular processes underlying human milk production and the effects of mastitic infection are largely unknown because of limitations in obtaining tissue samples. Determination of gene expression in normal lactating women would be a significant step toward understanding why some women display poor lactation outcomes. Here, we demonstrate the utility of RNA obtained directly from human milk cells to detect mammary epithelial cell (MEC)-specific gene expression. Milk cell RNA was collected from five time points (24 h prepartum during the colostrum period, midlactation, two involutions, and during a bout of mastitis) in addition to an involution series comprising three time points. Gene expression profiles were determined by use of human Affymetrix arrays. Milk cells collected during milk production showed that the most highly expressed genes were involved in milk synthesis (e.g., CEL, OLAH, FOLR1, BTN1A1, and ARG2), while milk cells collected during involution showed a significant downregulation of milk synthesis genes and activation of involution associated genes (e.g., STAT3, NF-kB, IRF5, and IRF7). Milk cells collected during mastitic infection revealed regulation of a unique set of genes specific to this disease state, while maintaining regulation of milk synthesis genes. Use of conventional epithelial cell markers was used to determine the population of MECs within each sample. This paper is the first to describe the milk cell transcriptome across the human lactation cycle and during mastitic infection, providing valuable insight into gene expression of the human mammary gland. PMID:26909879

  4. Maintenance of breast milk Immunoglobulin A after high-pressure processing.

    PubMed

    Permanyer, M; Castellote, C; Ramírez-Santana, C; Audí, C; Pérez-Cano, F J; Castell, M; López-Sabater, M C; Franch, A

    2010-03-01

    Human milk is considered the optimal nutritional source for infants. Banked human milk is processed using low-temperature, long-time pasteurization, which assures microbial safety but involves heat denaturation of some desirable milk components such as IgA. High-pressure processing technology, the subject of the current research, has shown minimal destruction of food macromolecules. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of pressure treatments on IgA content. Moreover, bacterial load was evaluated after pressure treatments. The effects of high-pressure processing on milk IgA content were compared with those of low-temperature, long-time pasteurization. Mature human milk samples were heat treated at 62.5 degrees C for 30min or pressure processed at 400, 500, or 600MPa for 5min at 12 degrees C. An indirect ELISA was used to measure IgA in human milk whey obtained after centrifugation at 800xg for 10min at 4 degrees C. All 3 high-pressure treatments were as effective as low-temperature, long-time pasteurization in reducing the bacterial population of the human milk samples studied. After human milk pressure processing at 400MPa, 100% of IgA content was preserved in milk whey, whereas only 72% was retained in pasteurized milk whey. The higher pressure conditions of 500 and 600MPa produced IgA retention of 87.9 and 69.3%, respectively. These results indicate that high-pressure processing at 400MPa for 5min at 12 degrees C maintains the immunological protective capacity associated with IgA antibodies. This preliminary study suggests that high-pressure processing may be a promising alternative to pasteurization in human milk banking. PMID:20172207

  5. Contribution of breast milk and formula to arsenic exposure during the first year of life in a US prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Carignan, Courtney C; Karagas, Margaret R; Punshon, Tracy; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Cottingham, Kathryn L

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogen that can also affect the cardiac, respiratory, neurological and immune systems. Children have higher dietary arsenic exposure than adults owing to their more restricted diets and greater intake per unit body mass. We evaluated the potential contributions of breast milk and formula to arsenic exposure throughout the first year of life for 356 infants in the prospective New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study (NHBCS) using infant diets reported by telephone at 4, 8 and 12 months of age; measured household water arsenic concentrations; and literature data. Based on our central-tendency models, population-wide geometric mean (GM) estimated arsenic exposures in the NHBCS were relatively low, decreasing from 0.1 μg/kg/day at 4 months of age to 0.07 μg/kg/day at 12 months of age. At all three time points, exclusively formula-fed infants had GM arsenic exposures ~8 times higher than exclusively breastfed infants owing to arsenic in both tap water and formula powder. Estimated maximum exposures reached 9 μg/kg/day among exclusively formula-fed infants in households with high tap water arsenic (80 μg/l). Overall, modeled arsenic exposures via breast milk and formula were low throughout the first year of life, unless formula was prepared with arsenic-contaminated tap water. PMID:26531802

  6. Synthetic musk compounds and benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers in breast milk: Occurrence, time-course variation and infant health risk.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic musk compounds (SMCs) and benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers (BUVSs) are used as additives in many consumer products. Limited data are available on the accumulation of SMCs in human fluids, and no data are available on BUVSs. In this study, 208 human breast milk samples were collected from 87 participants during the lactation period at <7, 15, 30, and 90 days after delivery in Korea. The total concentrations of SMCs and BUVSs ranged from breast milk consumption in Korea. PMID:25988989

  7. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in breast milk and associated health risks to nursing infants in Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Müller, M H B; Polder, A; Brynildsrud, O B; Lie, E; Løken, K B; Manyilizu, W B; Mdegela, R H; Mokiti, F; Murtadha, M; Nonga, H E; Skaare, J U; Lyche, J L

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in breast milk in the Northern parts of Tanzania. Ninety-five colostrum samples from healthy, primiparous mothers at Mount Meru Regional Referral Hospital (MMRRH), Arusha Tanzania, were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), (2,3-dibromopropyl) (2,4,6-tribromophenyl) ether (DPTE), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB) and 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromotoluene (PBT). The Ʃ7PBDE (BDE 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183) ranged from below level of detection (breast milk than mothers who did not eat clay soil/Pemba. Infant birth weight and birth length were significantly correlated with the levels of BDE 47, 99, 100 and 153. The estimated daily intake (ng/kg body weight/day) of BDE 47 and 99 exceeded the US EPA Reference doses (RfD) in four and eight mothers, respectively, suggesting a potential health risk to the nursing infants. PMID:26826361

  8. Breastfeeding trends in Cambodia, and the increased use of breast-milk substitute-why is it a danger?

    PubMed

    Prak, Sophonneary; Dahl, Miriam Iuell; Oeurn, Sam; Conkle, Joel; Wise, Aaron; Laillou, Arnaud

    2014-07-01

    A cross-sectional analysis of the Cambodia Demographic Health Surveys from 2000, 2005 and 2010 was conducted to observe the national trends in infant and young child feeding practices. The results showed that rates of exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged 0-5.9 months have increased substantially since 2000, concurrent with an increase in the rates of early initiation of breastfeeding and a reduction in the giving of pre-lacteal feeds. However, the proportion of infants being fed with breast-milk substitutes (BMS) during 0-5.9 months doubled in 5 years (3.4% to 7.0%) from 2000 to 2005, but then did not increase from 2005, likely due to extensive public health campaigns on exclusive breastfeeding. BMS use increased among children aged 6-23.9 months from 2000 to 2010 (4.8% to 9.3%). 26.1% of women delivering in a private clinic provided their child with breast-milk substitute at 0-5.9 months, which is five times more than women delivering in the public sector (5.1%), and the greatest increase in bottle use happened among the urban poor (5.8% to 21.7%). These findings are discussed with reference to the increased supply and marketing of BMS that is occurring in Cambodia. PMID:25054552

  9. MiRNA Analysis by Quantitative PCR in Preterm Human Breast Milk Reveals Daily Fluctuations of hsa-miR-16-5p

    PubMed Central

    Floris, Ilaria; Billard, Hélène; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Joram-Gauvard, Evelyne; Simon, Laure; Legrand, Arnaud; Boscher, Cécile; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Bolaños-Jiménez, Francisco; Kaeffer, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Human breast milk is an extremely dynamic fluid containing many biologically-active components which change throughout the feeding period and throughout the day. We designed a miRNA assay on minimized amounts of raw milk obtained from mothers of preterm infants. We investigated changes in miRNA expression within month 2 of lactation and then over the course of 24 hours. Materials and Methods Analyses were performed on pooled breast milk, made by combining samples collected at different clock times from the same mother donor, along with time series collected over 24 hours from four unsynchronized mothers. Whole milk, lipids or skim milk fractions were processed and analyzed by qPCR. We measured hsa-miR-16-5p, hsa-miR-21-5p, hsa-miR-146-5p, and hsa-let-7a, d and g (all -5p). Stability of miRNA endogenous controls was evaluated using RefFinder, a web tool integrating geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper and the comparative ΔΔCt method. Results MiR-21 and miR-16 were stably expressed in whole milk collected within month 2 of lactation from four mothers. Analysis of lipids and skim milk revealed that miR-146b and let-7d were better references in both fractions. Time series (5H-23H) allowed the identification of a set of three endogenous reference genes (hsa-let-7d, hsa-let-7g and miR-146b) to normalize raw quantification cycle (Cq) data. We identified a daily oscillation of miR-16-5p. Perspectives Our assay allows exploring miRNA levels of breast milk from mother with preterm baby collected in time series over 48–72 hours. PMID:26474056

  10. Relationship of dietary intake to DDE residues in breast milk of nursing mothers in Beirut.

    PubMed

    Dagher, S M; Talhouk, R S; Nasrallah, S S; Tannous, R I; Mroueh, S M

    1999-07-01

    Milk samples were collected from 32 nursing mothers living in the Beirut area, Lebanon. Dietary intakes of participating mothers were obtained from data of their diet histories, 24 h dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires. Milk samples were screened for the presence of organochlorine pesticide residues and DDE levels were estimated using gas chromatographic techniques. The relationship between consumption of various food groups and DDE content of milk was investigated. A positive correlation was found between the consumption of either/or high fat meat, tuna fish and DDE levels in milk. Consumption of poultry products showed a weak correlation with DDE content of milk, whereas consumption of vegetable oils showed a negative correlation. PMID:10656056

  11. The inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from breast milk on gastrointestinal pathogenic bacteria of nosocomial origin.

    PubMed

    Jara, Solange; Sánchez, Magaly; Vera, Rodrigo; Cofré, Jaime; Castro, Erica

    2011-12-01

    Milk acts as a mean for transporting many essential substances from the mother to the child. In human beings, milk includes several predominant bacteria, such as staphylococci, streptococci, micrococci, lactobacilli, enterococci, lactococci and bifidobacteria. Besides, its intake favors the predominance of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the child's intestinal microbiota. The present work explores the isolation and selection of lactobacilli strains with probiotic potential, focusing in their degree of hydrophobicity and antagonism against important gastrointestinal nosocomial pathogens. 98 lactobacilli were isolated from 48 breast milk samples, with most strains belonging to the obligately homofermentative group (36.7%). 63% of the isolated strains showed a high degree of hydrophobicity when tested on three solvents and were selected for detecting antimicrobial activity against gastrointestinal pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Shigella spp, Pseudomonas spp and Salmonella spp strains. When applying the agar diffusion test, many isolated strains presented inhibitory activity against pathogenic strains. We observed that: Salmonella enteriditis was the most inhibited pathogen, and the strains with the most inhibitory power were AR2 and O1 (both highly hydrophobic lactic acid bacteria), which showed an opposing effect against all nosocomial pathogens tested. Although more in vitro, in vivo or clinical data would be needed before any conclusion on the probiotic properties of the strains can be drawn, our results demonstrate that some of the tested strains may have good probiotic potential for their inclusion in products targeting infants. PMID:21846506

  12. Specific accumulation of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia: levels, distribution, accumulation kinetics and infant health risk.

    PubMed

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Iwata, Hisato; Adibroto, Tussy A; Hartono, Phillipus; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-01-01

    This study determined concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine compound (OC) pesticides in the milk samples of women from the general population in four locations of Indonesia. The most prevalent residues of OCs were DDTs, PCBs and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), whereas other OCs such as chlordane compounds (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane and hexachlorobenzene were lower. The levels of OCs varied between locations and individuals, with DDTs higher in suburban and rural areas than urban localities, may be due to the differences in food habits and sources between the individuals and locations. Data from Purwakarta site indicated continuing DDT exposure, which may confirm recent usage of DDT in Indonesia. A positive correlation was observed between concentration of OCs in human milk and age of mothers, primiparas women having higher OCs than multiparas, suggesting these parameters play an important role influencing the OC burdens in lactating women. Some individuals accumulated DDTs and HCHs in breast milk close to or even higher than the TDI (tolerable daily intake) guidelines proposed by Health Canada. PMID:15992976

  13. Strategies for the Legal Implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes: Report on a WHO Meeting (Copenhagen, Denmark, November 10-12, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    For various reasons, several countries have had difficulty implementing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. To address those problems, a meeting was convened under the auspices of the World Health Organization. Specific purposes of the meeting were to inform member states about the Code and to develop national…

  14. Development of an ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for the determination of antichagasic drugs in human breast milk: Optimization by central composite design.

    PubMed

    Padró, Juan M; Pellegrino Vidal, Rocío B; Echevarria, Romina N; Califano, Alicia N; Reta, Mario R

    2015-05-01

    Chagas disease constitutes a major public health problem in Latin America. Human breast milk is a biological sample of great importance for the analysis of therapeutic drugs, as unwanted exposure through breast milk could result in pharmacological effects in the nursing infant. Thus, the goal of breast milk drug analysis is to inquire to which extent a neonate may be exposed to a drug during lactation. In this work, we developed an analytical technique to quantify benznidazole and nifurtimox (the two antichagasic drugs currently available for medical treatment) in human breast milk, with a simple sample pretreatment followed by an ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and UV detection. For this technique, the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate has been used as the "extraction solvent." A central composite design was used to find the optimum values for the significant variables affecting the extraction process: volume of ionic liquid, volume of dispersant solvent, ionic strength, and pH. At the optimum working conditions, the average recoveries were 77.5 and 89.7%, the limits of detection were 0.06 and 0.09 μg/mL and the interday reproducibilities were 6.25 and 5.77% for benznidazole and nifurtimox, respectively. The proposed methodology can be considered sensitive, simple, robust, accurate, and green. PMID:25711461

  15. Breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations of Guatemalan women are correlated with maternal but not infant vitamin B–12 status at 12 months postpartum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our previous studies one third of lactating Guatemalan women, infants and children had deficient or marginal serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Relationships among maternal and infant status and breast milk vitamin B-12, however, have not been investigated in such populations. Our purpose was to ...

  16. EEG POWER SPECTRAL CHANGES IN BREAST FED, MILK-FORMULA FED OR SOY-FORMULA FED INFANTS IN THE FIRST 6 MONTHS OF LIFE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of infant soy formula (SF) on brain maturation in the first 6 months of life were investigated in full-term infants by comparing spectral power of resting EEGs. Recordings (124 electrode sites on the scalp) were obtained from 38 breast fed (BF), 47 milk formula fed (MF) and 32 soy formula fe...

  17. Transcriptome profiling of microRNA by next-gen deep sequencing reveals known and novel miRNA species in the lipid fraction of human breast milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While breast milk has unique health advantages for infants, the mechanisms by which it regulates the physiology of newborns are incompletely understood. miRNAs have been described as functioning transcellularly, and have been previously isolated in cell-free and exosomal form from bodily liquids (se...

  18. Levels of perfluorinated compounds in human breast milk in Jordan: the impact of sociodemographic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Al-sheyab, Nihaya A; Al-Qudah, Khaled M; Tahboub, Yahya R

    2015-08-01

    There is scarcity in literature in regards to the exact levels of such compounds in the Middle Eastern region including Jordan. This study was conducted to measure the presence and levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) (perfluoroocane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)) in human milk and local fresh cow milk in northern Jordan and also to investigate the relationship between levels of PFASs and some sociodemographic characteristics of breastfeeding mothers and their infants as well as usage of Teflon kitchenware products. Seventy-nine milk samples were collected from breastfeeding women and 25 samples from local fresh cow milk in northern Jordan. Levels of PFOS and PFOA were liquid/liquid extracted (LLE) by acetone followed by purification on an Oasis hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) solid-phase extraction (SPE). Separations and detections were performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) were 10 ng/L for both PFOA and PFOS. The measured concentrations ranged between non-detectable (ND) and 178 ng/L for PFOS and between 24 and 1120 ng/L for PFOA in human milk and between ND-178 ng/L and LOQ-160 ng/L in fresh cow milk, respectively. Median concentrations of PFOS in human milk samples from Jordan in this study were lower than those found in a recent study from Italy. Moreover, mean concentrations of PFOA and PFOS were significantly higher in milk samples provided by older women. Also, mean concentrations of PFOA was much higher in multiparas and those who have younger infants. The mean rank of PFOA was twice as high in the milk of women who had older Teflon products in kitchen compared to those who had relatively new Teflon products. PMID:25903175

  19. Testing for polychlorinated biphenyls in human milk

    SciTech Connect

    Wickizer, T.M.; Brilliant, L.B.

    1981-09-01

    Reports of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of human milk have raised questions about the possible risks of breast-feeding and whether nursing mothers ought to have their breast milk tested. Current data on contamination of human milk are needed so that pediatricians can make informed recommendations about breast milk testing and breast-feeding. With consideration of recent findings of PCB contamination of human milk in Michigan, recommendations concerning breast milk testing and breast-feeding are made. No major changes in current breast-feeding practices are advised. However, breast milk testing is recommended for certain nursing mothers who have had potentially high exposure to PCBs. Limiting the duration of breast-feeding may also be advisable for mothers with high PCB milk fat levels in order to reduce infant exposure to PCBs.

  20. Comparison of bacterial counts in expressed breast milk following standard or strict infection control regimens in neonatal intensive care units: compliance of mothers does matter.

    PubMed

    Haiden, N; Pimpel, B; Assadian, O; Binder, C; Kreissl, A; Repa, A; Thanhäuser, M; Roberts, C D; Berger, A

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial counts in 1466 expressed breast milk (EBM) samples from women following one of two infection control regimens (standard vs strict) were investigated. Overall, 12% of samples yielded Gram-negative bacteria, with no significant differences between the standard [11.9% (94/788)] and strict [12.1% (82/678)] regimens (P = 0.92). Significantly more samples were contaminated when expressed at home (standard regimen home/hospital: 17.9% vs 6.1%; strict regimen home/hospital: 19.6% vs 3.4%; P < 0.001). Bacterial contamination of EBM was not associated with the regimen, but was associated with the location of breast milk expression. Attempts to improve personal hygiene during milk collection seem to be of limited value. Good hygiene of collection and storage equipment is likely to be the most important way to ensure the microbiological quality of EBM. PMID:26850928

  1. Human breast milk excretion of iodine-131 following diagnostic and therapeutic administration to a lactating patient with Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Dydek, G.J.; Blue, P.W.

    1988-03-01

    Previous reports on the excretion of /sup 131/I into human breast milk have recommended discontinuance of breast feeding from 1 to 12 days following diagnostic tracer doses of /sup 131/I. Recent excretion models have calculated that breast feeding could safely resume 56 days following a 5 microCi (0.185 MBq) /sup 131/I maternal tracer dose. We studied a postpartum patient with Graves' disease following first an uptake dose of 8.6 microCi (0.317 MBq) and then for 38 days following a 9.6 mCi (355 MBq) therapy dose of Na/sup 131/I. We calculated from our data that although nursing could not be safely resumed for 46 days following the 8.6-microCi uptake dose, nursing could resume in this patient 8 days after a 100-nCi (3.7 KBq) dose. Extrapolating this data to impure /sup 123/I (p, 2n or p, 5n) we feel that standard 100-microCi (3.7 MBq) doses of either /sup 123/I preparation is not suitable if nursing is to be resumed.

  2. Development and validation of a method for the determination of buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine in breast milk by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Panagiota; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Pistos, Constantinos; Dona, Artemis; Spiliopoulou, Chara

    2012-03-01

    Buprenorphine (BUP) is used for the maintenance of opioid-addicted pregnant women. Because BUP and its main metabolite nor-BUP are excreted into breast milk, a sensitive and specific GC/MS method has been developed, optimized and validated for their determination in breast milk. BUP-d4 was used as internal standard. The sample preparation includes combination of protein precipitation with solid-phase extraction and derivatization (acetylation). The absolute recovery for both analytes was found to be higher than 87.3%. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.07 and 0.20 µg/L, respectively. The calibration curves were linear within the dynamic range 0.20-20.0 µg/L, with a correlation coefficient higher than 0.996. Intra- and inter-day accuracies were ranged from -7.06 to 4.50 and from -5.88 to 7.00%, respectively, while intra- and inter-day precision were less than 5.7 and 6.1%. The analytes were found to be stable in breast milk at 4 °C for one week, at -20 °C for one month, and after three freeze-thaw cycles. The method can be used for the determination of BUP and nor-BUP in breast milk of BUP-maintained mothers, in order to calculate the amount of drug that could pass to the newborn via breast milk and to avoid toxic consequences of breastfeeding. PMID:21721023

  3. Investigating the Relationship between Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) in diabetic mother’s breast milk and the blood serum of their babies

    PubMed Central

    Mohsen, Abdel Hakeem Abdel; Sallam, Salem; Ramzy, Maggie M.; Hamed, Eman Kamel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Since research investigating IGF-1 levels in breast milk are few, the goal of this study was to analyze the IGF-1 levels in the breast milk of diabetic mothers as well as in the serum of their newborn babies and to identify what relationship exists between blood serum and IGF-1 milk levels through patient measurement of mothers and their babies. Methods This case control study was undertaken under the auspices of the Clinic of Neonatology at Al Minia University Pediatric Hospital over May 2012 through May 2013. With a total of 30 diabetic mothers and their babies forming the experimental group and the control group consisting of 15 non-diabetic mothers and their babies. A detailed medical history, anthropometric assessments, as well as the measurement of the baby’s serum IGF-1 and their mother’s breast milk IGF-1 levels were taken from all participants using ELSIA. The resulting data were analyzed via Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 and measurements of descriptive statistics, t-test, Chi-square test, as well as the Pearson Correlation Coefficient. Results The Infants born to Diabetic Mothers (IDMs) demonstrated significantly greater anthropometric measurement. Both the serum levels and the milk IGF-1 levels as well as all of the physical measurements taken were found to have a positive correlation between the level of IGF-1 in mother’s milk and all of the anthropometric measurements studied with the exception of delivered baby’s length. Conclusion Higher levels of IGF-1 are present in the milk of diabetic mothers and the blood serum of their babies and this characteristic could be used as a prenatal biomarker for macrosomia. PMID:27504171

  4. Analysis of Moms Across America report suggesting bioaccumulation of glyphosate in U.S. mother's breast milk: Implausibility based on inconsistency with available body of glyphosate animal toxicokinetic, human biomonitoring, and physico-chemical data.

    PubMed

    Bus, James S

    2015-12-01

    The non-peer-reviewed biomonitoring report published online by Moms Across America (MAA; Honeycutt and Rowlands, 2014) does not support the conclusion that glyphosate concentrations detected in a limited number of urine samples from women, men and children, or breast milk from nursing mothers, pose a health risk to the public, including nursing children. Systemically absorbed doses of glyphosate estimated from the MAA urine biomonitoring data and from other published biomonitoring studies indicate that daily glyphosate doses are substantially below health protective reference standards (ADIs; RfDs) established by regulatory agencies. The MAA report also suggested that detection of relatively high glyphosate concentrations in breast milk in 3 of 10 sampled women raised a concern for bioaccumulation in breast milk. However, the breast milk concentrations reported by MAA are highly implausible when considered in context to low daily systemic doses of glyphosate estimated from human urine biomonitoring data, and also are inconsistent with animal toxicokinetic data demonstrating no evidence of retention in tissues or milk after single- or multiple-dose glyphosate treatment. In addition, toxicokinetic studies in lactating goats have shown that glyphosate does not partition into milk at concentrations greater than blood, and that only a very small percentage of the total administered dose (<0.03%) is ultimately excreted into milk. The toxicokinetic studies also indicate that human glyphosate exposures estimated from urine biomonitoring fall thousands-of-fold short of external doses capable of producing blood concentrations sufficient to result in the breast milk concentrations described in the MAA report. Finally, in contrast to highly lipophilic compounds with bioaccumulation potential in breast milk, the physico-chemical properties of glyphosate indicate that it is highly hydrophilic (ionized) at physiological pH and unlikely to preferentially distribute into breast

  5. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content is increased in the milk of women with pregnancy associated breast cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Pregnancy associated breast cancer (PABC) is aggressive and difficult to diagnose. High intake of most types of dietary fat is thought to increase breast cancer risk, however results in humans supporting this premise remain equivocal. Fatty acid (FA) concentrations in the body comprise b...

  6. MoMuLV-ts-1: A Unique Mouse Model of Retrovirus-Induced Lymphoma Transmitted by Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, J.; Okonta, H.; Bagalb, H.; Duggan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Our laboratory has developed a murine model of lymphoma via breast milk transmission of MoMuLV-ts-1 (Moloney murine leukemia virus-temperature sensitive mutant-1). Uninfected offspring suckled from infected surrogate mothers become infected and develop lymphoma. Multiple gene integration sites of ts-1 into the infected mouse genome including tacc3, aurka, ndel1, tpx2, p53, and rhamm were identified, and mRNA expressions were quantitated. These genes produce centrosomal proteins, which may be involved in abnormal chromosomal segregation leading to aneuploidy or multiploidy, thus causing lymphoma. Since there is no report to date on this retroviral model leading to centrosomal abnormality, and causing lymphoma development, this is a valuable and unique model to study the centrosomal involvement in lymphomagenesis. PMID:22312355

  7. Levels of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs in breast milk of women living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator: assessment of the temporal trend.

    PubMed

    Schuhmacher, Marta; Kiviranta, Hannu; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L

    2013-11-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in breast milk from women living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Catalonia, Spain. The results were compared with the levels obtained in previous surveys carried out in the same area in 1998 (baseline study), 2002 and 2007. The current total concentrations of 2,3,7,8-chlorinated PCDD/Fs in breast milk ranged from 18 to 126 pg g(-1)fat (1.1-12. 3 pg WHO2005-TEQPCDD/F), while the total levels of PCBs ranged from 27 to 405 pg g(-1)fat(0.7-5.3 pg WHO2005-TEQPCB). In turn, PBDE concentrations (sum of 15 congeners) ranged 0.3-5.1 g g(-1)fat, with a mean value of 1.3 ng g(-1)fat. A general decrease in the concentrations for PCDD/Fs, both planar and total PCBs, and PBDEs in breast milk was observed. The levels of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs in milk of women living in urban zones were higher than those corresponding to industrial zones (41%, 26%, and 8%, respectively). For PCDD/Fs and PCBs, the current decreases are in accordance with the reduction in the dietary intake of these pollutants that we have also observed in recent studies carried out in the same area of study. PMID:23978672

  8. Application of core-shell technology for determination of retinol and alpha-tocopherol in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Plíšek, Jiří; Kašparová, Markéta; Solichová, Dagmar; Krčmová, Lenka; Kučerová, Barbora; Sobotka, Luboš; Solich, Petr

    2013-03-30

    Breast milk is a main source of fat-soluble vitamins for newborns and it is needful to monitor the nutritional status prior to its application. In this work a novel, high-throughput and low-cost method for monitoring of retinol and alpha-tocopherol in breast milk was developed, validated and compared with reference method using monolithic column. For this purpose five various porous shell and monolithic columns were tested on the basis of relationship between HETP and linear mobile phase velocity, analysis time and consumption of solvents. Finally the core-shell analytical column Kinetex C18 (2.6 μm, 100 Å, 100×4.6 mm) was chosen as the best and optimal values of flow rate, injection volume and temperature of analysis were established. The detection of retinol and alpha-tocopherol was carried out at 325 and 295 nm, respectively by diode array detector. The LOD 0.004 μmol/L and 0.078 μmol/L, the LOQ 0.012 μmol/L and 0.182 μmol/L for retinol and alpha-tocopherol, respectively were calculated. The validation data showed good linearity, repeatability of retention time with RSD 0.22% and 0.12%, repeatability of peak area with RSD 6.94% and 1.75%, recovery 114.1-116.3% and 99.0-108.6% for retinol and alpha-tocopherol, respectively. Moreover, the newly developed method substantially decreased the solvent consumption by about 263 mL per 100 samples with the total time of analysis 1.75 min in comparison with analysis time 1.80 of the reference method. PMID:23598238

  9. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in breast milk samples from three dioxin-contaminated hotspots of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Manh, Ho Dung; Kido, Teruhiko; Tai, Pham The; Okamoto, Rie; Honma, Seijiro; Liang, Sun Xian; Anh, Le Thai; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nhu, Dang Duc; Van Tung, Dao; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Son, Le Ke

    2015-04-01

    We determined polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in breast milk of 143 primiparae living around the three most dioxin-contaminated areas of Vietnam. The women sampled lived in the vicinity of former U.S. air bases at Bien Hoa (n=51), Phu Cat (n=23), and Da Nang (n=69), which are known as dioxin hotspots. Breast milk samples from Bien Hoa City, where residents live very close to the air base, showed high levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), with 18% of the samples containing >5 pgTCDD/g lipid. However, Phu Cat residents lived far from the air base and their samples showed lower TCDD levels, with none containing >5 pgTCDD/g lipid. In Da Nang, TCDD levels in mothers from Thanh Khe (close to the air base, n=43) were significantly higher than those in mothers from Son Tra (far from the air base, n=26), but not other PCDD and PCDF (PCDD/F) congeners. Although TCDD levels in Bien Hoa were the highest among these hotspots, levels of other PCDD/F congeners as well as the geometric mean concentration of total PCDD/F level in Bien Hoa (9.3 pg toxic equivalents [TEQ]/g lipid) were significantly lower than the level observed in Phu Cat (14.1 pgTEQ/g lipid), Thanh Khe (14.3 pgTEQ/g lipid), and Son Tra (13.9 pgTEQ/g lipid). Our findings indicated that residents living close to former U.S. air bases were exposed to elevated levels of TCDD, but not of other PCDD/F congeners. PMID:25569577

  10. Lactose in human breast milk an inducer of innate immunity with implications for a role in intestinal homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Cederlund, Andreas; Kai-Larsen, Ylva; Printz, Gordana; Yoshio, Hiroyuki; Alvelius, Gunvor; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Strömberg, Roger; Jörnvall, Hans; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur H; Agerberth, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum, infants have not yet established a fully functional adaptive immune system and are at risk of acquiring infections. Hence, newborns are dependent on the innate immune system with its antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and proteins expressed at epithelial surfaces. Several factors in breast milk are known to confer immune protection, but which the decisive factors are and through which manner they work is unknown. Here, we isolated an AMP-inducing factor from human milk and identified it by electrospray mass spectrometry and NMR to be lactose. It induces the gene (CAMP) that encodes the only human cathelicidin LL-37 in colonic epithelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The induction was suppressed by two different p38 antagonists, indicating an effect via the p38-dependent pathway. Lactose also induced CAMP in the colonic epithelial cell line T84 and in THP-1 monocytes and macrophages. It further exhibited a synergistic effect with butyrate and phenylbutyrate on CAMP induction. Together, these results suggest an additional function of lactose in innate immunity by upregulating gastrointestinal AMPs that may lead to protection of the neonatal gut against pathogens and regulation of the microbiota of the infant. PMID:23326523

  11. Development of a method for the determination of cocaine, cocaethylene and norcocaine in human breast milk using liquid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Gabriela de Oliveira; Belitsky, Íris Tikkanen; Loddi, Silvana; Rodrigues de Oliveira, Carolina Dizioli; Zucoloto, Alexandre Dias; Fruchtengarten, Ligia Veras Gimenez; Yonamine, Mauricio

    2016-08-01

    Most licit and illicit substances consumed by the nursing mother might be excreted in breast milk, which may cause potential short and long term harmful effects for the breastfed infant. The extraction of substances from this matrix represents an analytical challenge due to its high protein and fat content as well as the fact that its composition changes during postpartum period. The aim of the present study was to develop a liquid phase microextraction (LPME) method for detection of the active substances: cocaine (COC), cocaethylene (CE) and norcocaine (NCOC) in human breast milk using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Validation was performed working on spiked human breast milk samples. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were of 6 and 12ng/mL, respectively, for all analytes. Calibration curves were linear over a concentration range of 12.0ng/mL-1000ng/mL (r(2)=0.99). No interferences were noticed at the retention times of interest. Within-run and between-run precision was always less or equal to 15 as % relative standard deviation, and bias ranged from 3 to 18%. Forty six milk samples were analyzed. Only one sample was confirmed to be COC positive (138ng/mL) and another one presented COC concentration near the LOD (6ng/mL). This method has shown to be a reliable alternative for the determination of cocaine, cocaethylene and norcocaine in human breast milk in the fields of clinical and forensic toxicology. LPME extraction procedure demonstrated to be a rather promising, low cost and environmental-friendly technique for the purpose of this study. PMID:26826849

  12. Analysis of breast milk to assess exposure to chlorinated contaminants in Kazakstan: high levels of 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in agricultural villages of southern Kazakstan.

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, K; Petreas, M X; Chuvakova, T; Kazbekova, G; Druz, N; Seminova, G; Sharmanov, T; Hayward, D; She, J; Visita, P; Winkler, J; McKinney, M; Wade, T J; Grassman, J; Stephens, R D

    1998-01-01

    To assess levels of chlorinated contaminants in breast milk, we measured organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in breast milk samples collected in 1994 according to the World Health Organization protocol from 92 donors that were representative of regional populations in southern Kazakstan. High levels (10-120 pg/g fat) of 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most toxic of the PCDD/PCDF congeners, were found in breast milk samples from an agricultural region. TCDD was the major contributor (75%) to the international toxicity equivalents of these samples. The same distinctive PCDD/PCDF congener pattern was found in 15 breast milk samples and 4 serum samples collected in 1996 in a follow-up study, and has now been confirmed by three analytical laboratories. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9831540

  13. Quality of powdered substitutes for breast milk with regard to members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Muytjens, H L; Roelofs-Willemse, H; Jaspar, G H

    1988-01-01

    Members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were cultured from 52.5% of 141 milk substitute infant formulas which were obtained in 35 countries. The concentration did not exceed a level of 1 CFU/g in any product. The species which were isolated most frequently were Enterobacter agglomerans, cloacae, Enterobacter sakazakii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. If infections due to these organisms occur, it can be useful to include a check of the hygienic precautions which are taken during the preparation and storage of the formula. Milk powders without members of the Enterobacteriaceae might offer extra protection to the newborn if some multiplication does occur in the formula. PMID:3284901

  14. A Correlation Study of DHA Dietary Intake and Plasma, Erythrocyte and Breast Milk DHA Concentrations in Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meng-Jiao; Li, Hong-Tian; Yu, Li-Xia; Xu, Gao-Sheng; Ge, Hua; Wang, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhou, Yu-Bo; Li, You; Bai, Man-Xi; Liu, Jian-Meng

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the correlation between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intake and the plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk DHA concentrations in lactating women residing in the coastland, lakeland and inland areas of China. A total of 408 healthy lactating women (42 ± 7 days postpartum) were recruited from four hospitals located in Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland) and Baotou (inland) city. The categories of food containing DHA, the average amount consumed per time and the frequency of consumption in the past month were assessed by a tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, the DHA Intake Evaluation Tool (DIET). DHA dietary intake (mg/day) was calculated according to the Chinese Food Composition Table (Version 2009). In addition, fasting venous blood (5 mL) and breast milk (10 mL) were collected from lactating women. DHA concentrations in plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and were reported as absolute concentration (μg/mL) and relative concentration (weight percent of total fatty acids, wt. %). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation between intakes of DHA and its concentrations in biological specimens. The study showed that the breast milk, plasma and erythrocyte DHA concentrations were positively correlated with DHA dietary intake; corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.36, 0.36 and 0.24 for relative concentration and 0.33, 0.32, and 0.18 for absolute concentration (p < 0.05). The median DHA dietary intake varied significantly across areas (p < 0.05), which was highest in the coastland (24.32 mg/day), followed by lakeland (13.69 mg/day), and lowest in the inland (8.84 mg/day). The overall relative and absolute DHA concentrations in breast milk were 0.36% ± 0.23% and 141.49 ± 107.41 μg/mL; the concentrations were significantly lower in inland women than those from coastland and lakeland. We conclude that DHA dietary intake is positively correlated with DHA

  15. A Correlation Study of DHA Dietary Intake and Plasma, Erythrocyte and Breast Milk DHA Concentrations in Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng-Jiao; Li, Hong-Tian; Yu, Li-Xia; Xu, Gao-Sheng; Ge, Hua; Wang, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhou, Yu-Bo; Li, You; Bai, Man-Xi; Liu, Jian-Meng

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the correlation between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intake and the plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk DHA concentrations in lactating women residing in the coastland, lakeland and inland areas of China. A total of 408 healthy lactating women (42 ± 7 days postpartum) were recruited from four hospitals located in Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland) and Baotou (inland) city. The categories of food containing DHA, the average amount consumed per time and the frequency of consumption in the past month were assessed by a tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, the DHA Intake Evaluation Tool (DIET). DHA dietary intake (mg/day) was calculated according to the Chinese Food Composition Table (Version 2009). In addition, fasting venous blood (5 mL) and breast milk (10 mL) were collected from lactating women. DHA concentrations in plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and were reported as absolute concentration (μg/mL) and relative concentration (weight percent of total fatty acids, wt. %). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation between intakes of DHA and its concentrations in biological specimens. The study showed that the breast milk, plasma and erythrocyte DHA concentrations were positively correlated with DHA dietary intake; corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.36, 0.36 and 0.24 for relative concentration and 0.33, 0.32, and 0.18 for absolute concentration (p < 0.05). The median DHA dietary intake varied significantly across areas (p < 0.05), which was highest in the coastland (24.32 mg/day), followed by lakeland (13.69 mg/day), and lowest in the inland (8.84 mg/day). The overall relative and absolute DHA concentrations in breast milk were 0.36% ± 0.23% and 141.49 ± 107.41 μg/mL; the concentrations were significantly lower in inland women than those from coastland and lakeland. We conclude that DHA dietary intake is positively correlated with DHA

  16. Fibroblast growth factor 21 in breast milk controls neonatal intestine function

    PubMed Central

    Gavaldà-Navarro, Aleix; Hondares, Elayne; Giralt, Marta; Mampel, Teresa; Iglesias, Roser; Villarroya, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    FGF21 is a hormonal factor with important functions in the control of metabolism. FGF21 is found in rodent and human milk. Radiolabeled FGF21 administered to lactating dams accumulates in milk and is transferred to neonatal gut. The small intestine of neonatal (but not adult) mice highly expresses β-Klotho in the luminal area. FGF21-KO pups fed by FGF21-KO dams showed decreased expression and circulating levels of incretins (GIP and GLP-1), reduced gene expression of intestinal lactase and maltase-glucoamylase, and low levels of galactose in plasma, all associated with a mild decrease in body weight. When FGF21-KO pups were nursed by wild-type dams (expressing FGF21 in milk), intestinal peptides and digestive enzymes were up-regulated, lactase enzymatic activity was induced, and galactose levels and body weight were normalized. Neonatal intestine explants were sensitive to FGF21, as evidenced by enhanced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Oral infusion of FGF21 into neonatal pups induced expression of intestinal hormone factors and digestive enzymes, lactase activity and lactose absorption. These findings reveal a novel role of FGF21 as a hormonal factor contributing to neonatal intestinal function via its presence in maternal milk. Appropriate signaling of FGF21 to neonate is necessary to ensure optimal digestive and endocrine function in developing intestine. PMID:26329882

  17. Fibroblast growth factor 21 in breast milk controls neonatal intestine function.

    PubMed

    Gavaldà-Navarro, Aleix; Hondares, Elayne; Giralt, Marta; Mampel, Teresa; Iglesias, Roser; Villarroya, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    FGF21 is a hormonal factor with important functions in the control of metabolism. FGF21 is found in rodent and human milk. Radiolabeled FGF21 administered to lactating dams accumulates in milk and is transferred to neonatal gut. The small intestine of neonatal (but not adult) mice highly expresses β-Klotho in the luminal area. FGF21-KO pups fed by FGF21-KO dams showed decreased expression and circulating levels of incretins (GIP and GLP-1), reduced gene expression of intestinal lactase and maltase-glucoamylase, and low levels of galactose in plasma, all associated with a mild decrease in body weight. When FGF21-KO pups were nursed by wild-type dams (expressing FGF21 in milk), intestinal peptides and digestive enzymes were up-regulated, lactase enzymatic activity was induced, and galactose levels and body weight were normalized. Neonatal intestine explants were sensitive to FGF21, as evidenced by enhanced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Oral infusion of FGF21 into neonatal pups induced expression of intestinal hormone factors and digestive enzymes, lactase activity and lactose absorption. These findings reveal a novel role of FGF21 as a hormonal factor contributing to neonatal intestinal function via its presence in maternal milk. Appropriate signaling of FGF21 to neonate is necessary to ensure optimal digestive and endocrine function in developing intestine. PMID:26329882

  18. Mother's milk: an existential perspective on negative reactions to breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Cox, Cathy R; Goldenberg, Jamie L; Arndt, Jamie; Pyszczynski, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Drawing from an existential perspective rooted in terror management theory, four studies examined the hypothesis that breast-feeding women serve as reminders of the physical, animal nature of humanity and that such recognition is threatening in the face of one's unalterable mortality. Study 1 demonstrated that mortality salience (MS) led to more negative reactions toward a scenario depicting a woman breast-feeding her infant in public, and in Study 2, MS decreased liking and increased physical avoidance of a potential task partner described as breast-feeding in another room. Further supporting the hypothesis that such reactions are rooted in threats associated with human creatureliness, MS in conjunction with a breast-feeding prime led to an increase in the accessibility of creaturely related cognitions (Study 3) and priming human/animal similarities (i.e., creatureliness) led to increased negativity toward a magazine cover depicting a woman breast-feeding her child (Study 4). Implications of this research are discussed. PMID:17178934

  19. A Metalloproteomics Study on the Association of Mercury With Breast Milk in Samples From Lactating Women in the Amazon Region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Felipe André; Cavecci, Bruna; Vieira, José Cavalcante Souza; Franzini, Vanessa Pezza; Santos, Ademir; de Lima Leite, Aline; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Zara, Luiz Fabrício; de Magalhães Padilha, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to identify metalloproteins that lose their metal ions in the presence of mercury (Hg) and bind to Hg in breast milk samples collected from the riverine population of the Madeira River, a tributary of the Amazon River. Initially, total Hg was determined from the hair of lactating women to identify individuals who were contaminated followed by a proteomic analysis of breast milk samples through two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after acetone precipitation. The presence of Hg in the obtained protein spots was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. These determinations indicated the presence of Hg in one protein spot, which was then characterized through electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Based on searches in the UniProt database, this protein spot was identified as lysozyme C. PMID:25981408

  20. Environmental health and justice and the right to research: institutional review board denials of community-based chemical biomonitoring of breast milk.

    PubMed

    Saxton, Dvera I; Brown, Phil; Seguinot-Medina, Samarys; Eckstein, Lorraine; Carpenter, David O; Miller, Pamela; Waghiyi, Vi

    2015-01-01

    Recently, conflicts and challenges have emerged regarding environmental justice and research ethics for some indigenous communities. Alaska Community Action on Toxics (ACAT) responded to community requests for breast milk biomonitoring and conceived the Breast Milk Pilot Study (BMPS). Despite having community support and federal and private funding, the BMPS remains incomplete due to repeated disapprovals by the Alaska Area IRB (Institutional Review Board). In this commentary, we explore the consequences of years of IRB denials, in terms of health inequalities, environmental justice, and research ethics. We highlight the greater significance of this story with respect to research in Alaska Native communities, biomonitoring, and global toxics regulation. We offer suggestions to community-based researchers conducting biomonitoring projects on how to engage with IRBs in order to cultivate reflective, context-based research ethics that better consider the needs and concerns of communities. PMID:26606980

  1. From milk to malignancy: the role of mammary stem cells in development, pregnancy and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tiede, Benjamin; Kang, Yibin

    2011-01-01

    Adult stem cells of the mammary gland (MaSCs) are a highly dynamic population of cells that are responsible for the generation of the gland during puberty and its expansion during pregnancy. In recent years significant advances have been made in understanding how these cells are regulated during these developmentally important processes both in humans and in mice. Understanding how MaSCs are regulated is becoming a particularly important area of research, given that they may be particularly susceptible targets for transformation in breast cancer. Here, we summarize the identification of MaSCs, how they are regulated and the evidence for their serving as the origins of breast cancer. In particular, we focus on how changes in MaSC populations may explain both the increased risk of developing aggressive ER/PR(−) breast cancer shortly after pregnancy and the long-term decreased risk of developing ER/PR(+) tumors. PMID:21243011

  2. The Role of Maternal Breast Milk in Preventing Infantile Diarrhea in the Developing World

    PubMed Central

    Turin, Christie G.; Ochoa, Theresa J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple interventions have been designed to decrease mortality and disability in children. Among these, breastfeeding is the most cost effective intervention for protecting children against diarrhea and all causes of mortality. Human milk is uniquely suited to the human infant, both in its nutritional composition and in the nonnutritive bioactive factors that promote survival and healthy development. Suboptimal breastfeeding has been linked with numerous adverse child health outcomes including increased incidence of diarrhea and pneumonia. This review provides an update regarding recent studies on the effect of breastfeeding on diarrhea morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries, describes major human milk components responsible for this protective effect (oligosaccharides, secretory immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, bacterial microbiota, etc.), and highlights areas for future research in this topic. Breastfeeding promotion remains an intervention of enormous public health potential to decrease global mortality and promote better growth and neurodevelopment in children. PMID:24883263

  3. Postnatally-transmitted HIV-1 Envelope variants have similar neutralization-sensitivity and function to that of nontransmitted breast milk variants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is a leading cause of infant HIV-1 infection in the developing world, yet only a minority of infants exposed to HIV-1 via breastfeeding become infected. As a genetic bottleneck severely restricts the number of postnatally-transmitted variants, genetic or phenotypic properties of the virus Envelope (Env) could be important for the establishment of infant infection. We examined the efficiency of virologic functions required for initiation of infection in the gastrointestinal tract and the neutralization sensitivity of HIV-1 Env variants isolated from milk of three postnatally-transmitting mothers (n=13 viruses), five clinically-matched nontransmitting mothers (n=16 viruses), and seven postnatally-infected infants (n = 7 postnatally-transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses). Results There was no difference in the efficiency of epithelial cell interactions between Env virus variants from the breast milk of transmitting and nontransmitting mothers. Moreover, there was similar efficiency of DC-mediated trans-infection, CCR5-usage, target cell fusion, and infectivity between HIV-1 Env-pseudoviruses from nontransmitting mothers and postnatal T/F viruses. Milk Env-pseudoviruses were generally sensitive to neutralization by autologous maternal plasma and resistant to breast milk neutralization. Infant T/F Env-pseudoviruses were equally sensitive to neutralization by broadly-neutralizing monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies as compared to nontransmitted breast milk Env variants. Conclusion Postnatally-T/F Env variants do not appear to possess a superior ability to interact with and cross a mucosal barrier or an exceptional resistance to neutralization that define their capability to initiate infection across the infant gastrointestinal tract in the setting of preexisting maternal antibodies. PMID:23305422

  4. Levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in breast milk in relation to birth weight in a Norwegian cohort

    PubMed Central

    Eggesbø, Merete; Stigum, Hein; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Polder, Anuschka; Aldrin, Magne; Basso, Olga; Thomsen, Cathrine; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Becher, Georg; Magnus, Per

    2009-01-01

    Background Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that, even at low doses, causes destruction of ovarian primordial germ cells in experimental studies. However, its potential for reproductive toxicity in humans exposed to background levels has not been fully evaluated. Here we examined the association between maternal levels of HCB and their infants’ birth weight. Methods HCB was measured in milk samples from a subset of women in the Norwegian Human Milk Study (HUMIS), 2003–2006. 300 subjects were randomly chosen from the cohort and 26 from all small for gestational age (SGA) children. Additional information was obtained through questionnaires and the Medical Birth Registry. Results Overall, HCB was associated with birth weight (adjusted b=−90 g per eight μg/kg milk fat, 95 % CI −275 to 8) and with SGA (OR 1.8, 95 % CI 0.9–3.7 per eight μg/kg milk fat (difference between the 10th and the 90th percentile)). After stratification, however, the association was present only among smokers. For birth weight for past or current smokers: b=−282, CI −467 to −98; for never smokers: b=0.5, CI −149 to 150, p-value for interaction: 0.01. Similar results were observed for head circumference, crown-heel length, and SGA. Conclusions We saw a moderate association between HCB and markers of impaired fetal growth among past and current smokers. This finding may be non-causal and due to underlying genetic variants tied to both growth and breakdown of HCB or to confounding by unmeasured toxicants that coexist in exposure sources. It may, however, also result from HCB exposure. PMID:19410245

  5. Impact of maternal BMI and sampling strategy on the concentration of leptin, insulin, ghrelin and resistin in breast milk across a single feed: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Andreas, Nicholas J; Hyde, Matthew J; Herbert, Bronwen R; Jeffries, Suzan; Santhakumaran, Shalini; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Holmes, Elaine; Modi, Neena

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We tested the hypothesis that there is a positive association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and the concentration of appetite-regulating hormones leptin, insulin, ghrelin and resistin in breast milk. We also aimed to describe the change in breast milk hormone concentration within each feed, and over time. Setting Mothers were recruited from the postpartum ward at a university hospital in London. Breast milk samples were collected at the participants’ homes. Participants We recruited 120 healthy, primiparous, breastfeeding mothers, aged over 18 years. Mothers who smoked, had multiple births or had diabetes were excluded. Foremilk and hindmilk samples were collected from 105 women at 1 week postpartum and 92 women at 3 months postpartum. Primary and secondary outcome measures We recorded maternal and infant anthropometric measurements at each sample collection and measured hormone concentrations using a multiplex assay. Results The concentration of leptin in foremilk correlated with maternal BMI at the time of sample collection, at 7 days (r=0.31, p=0.02) and 3 months postpartum (r=0.30, p=<0.00). Foremilk insulin correlated with maternal BMI at 3 months postpartum (r=0.22, p=0.04). Breast milk ghrelin and resistin were not correlated with maternal BMI. Ghrelin concentrations at 3 months postpartum were increased in foremilk compared with hindmilk (p=0.01). Concentrations of ghrelin were increased in hindmilk collected at 1  week postpartum compared with samples collected at 3 months postpartum (p=0.03). A trend towards decreased insulin concentrations in hindmilk was noted. Concentrations of leptin and resistin were not seen to alter over a feed. Conclusions A positive correlation between maternal BMI and foremilk leptin concentration at both time points studied, and foremilk insulin at 3 months postpartum was observed. This may have implications for infant appetite regulation and obesity risk. PMID:27388351

  6. The influence of infant diet on early developmental changes in processing human voice speech stimuli: ERP variations in breast and milk formula-fed infants at three and six months after birth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if processing of language stimuli during the first half year of life in breast-fed infants differs from that of formula-fed infants. This question was addressed by examining the brain event-related potentials of healthy infants receiving breast milk...

  7. Oral Tolerance Induced by Transfer of Food Antigens via Breast Milk of Allergic Mothers Prevents Offspring from Developing Allergic Symptoms in a Mouse Food Allergy Model

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takeshi; Tsubota, Yuma; Kodama, Toshihisa; Kageyama-Yahara, Natsuko; Kadowaki, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether maternal exposure to food antigens during lactation and maternal allergic status would affect the development of food allergy in offspring. OVA-sensitized or OVA-nonsensitized BALB/c female mice were exposed or unexposed to OVA during lactation. After weaning, their offspring were systemically sensitized twice with OVA and repeatedly given OVA by oral intubation. While 97.1% of the mice breastfed by OVA-nonsensitized and OVA-unexposed mothers developed allergic diarrhea, 59.7% of the mice breastfed by OVA-exposed nonallergic mothers during lactation and 24.6% of the mice breastfed by OVA-exposed allergic mothers during lactation developed food allergy. Furthermore, OVA was detected in breast-milk from OVA-exposed nonallergic mothers during lactation (4.6 ± 0.5 μg/mL). In addition, OVA-specific IgG1 titers were markedly increased in breast milk from allergic mothers (OVA-sensitized and OVA-unexposed mother: 11.0 ± 0.5, OVA-sensitized and OVA-exposed mother: 12.3 ± 0.3). Our results suggest that oral tolerance induced by breast milk-mediated transfer of dietary antigens along with their specific immunoglobulins to offspring leads to antigen-specific protection from food allergy. PMID:22505952

  8. Contamination of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in breast milk in Korea: time-course variation, influencing factors, and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, In-Seok; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2013-11-01

    Breast milk is a noninvasive specimen to assess maternal and infant exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). In this study, 206 breast milk samples were collected from 87 participants during lactation, at <7, 15, 30, or 90 days postpartum in four cities in Korea. The total concentrations of PCBs (ΣPCB) and OCPs (ΣOCP) ranged from breast milk had a potential health risk which deserves further investigation. PMID:24112654

  9. A very simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection for the determination of gemifloxacin in human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Sagirli, Olcay; Demirci, Seda; Önal, Armağan

    2015-12-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection was developed and validated for the determination of gemifloxacin in human breast milk. The proposed method allows the determination of gemifloxacin in breast milk samples without complex sample preparation. The samples were mixed with a mobile phase and filtered with a 0.45 µm polytetrafluoroethylene filter before analysis. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm I.D.) using methanol:50 mM ortho-phosphoric acid solution (40:60) as the mobile phase with a 1.0 mL/min flow rate. Quantitation was performed using fluorescence detection with an excitation wavelength at 272 nm and an emission wavelength at 395 nm. The linear range was found to be 0.1-2.5 µg/mL. The method was applied successfully for the determination of gemifloxacin in breast milk obtained from a breastfeeding mother after oral administration of a single tablet that included 320 mg gemifloxacin per gemifloxacin tablet. PMID:25808579

  10. Dying for milk: A neonate with severe hypernatremia associated with inadequate breast feeding

    PubMed Central

    Suliman, Omer S M

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate breastfeeding may result in malnutrition, hypernatremic dehydration and catastrophic outcomes. We describe a case of severe breast feeding associated hypernatremia which was complicated by acute seizures and severe hyperglycemia. The baby’s condition was initially confused with neonatal diabetes mellitus. PMID:27493437

  11. Lead Levels in the Breast Milk of Nursing Andean Mothers Living in a Lead-Contaminated Environment

    PubMed Central

    Counter, S. Allen; Buchanan, Leo H.; Ortega, Fernando; Chiriboga, Roberto; Correa, Rommy; Collaguaso, María Angela

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of lead (Pb) in breast milk (PbM) and blood (PbB) were measured in a current cohort of lactating mothers living in Andean communities where women of child-bearing age engage in the occupational use of Pb, and compared to results obtained in earlier studies. Mean PbM concentration in the current group of breastfeeding mothers tested in 2012/2013 was 3.73 μg/l (SD: 7.3; range: 0.049 - 28.04), and significantly lower than the 9.83 μg/l (SD: 12.75; range: 0.2 - 49) previously observed in breastfeeding mothers in the study area from 1999 to 2007. Breastfeeding women in the current cohort showed an average PbM/PbB ratio of 3.6%, which is in agreement with other studies. The mean PbB level obtained for the current cohort was 7.8 μg/dl (SD: 5.2; range: 1.4 - 21), and significantly lower than the mean PbB level of 20.8 μg/dl (SD: 16.4; range: 4-73) obtained for the comparison group of breastfeeding mothers tested between 1999-2007. A correlation of .687 between paired PbM and maternal PbB was found, indicating that maternal PbB level is a significant predictor of PbM. Current PbM levels remain higher than international averages, but indicate that maternal Pb exposure has declined over time in the environmentally Pb-contaminated study area. The current reduction in Pb in milk and blood of breastfeeding mothers may be due to adherence to a Pb-exposure education and prevention program initiated by the authors in the study area years earlier, as well as recent improvements in local healthcare delivery. PMID:25072821

  12. Risks of Breast Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... larger and longer than these conducted so far. Breastfeeding Some women who undergo breast augmentation can successfully ... breast implant silicone shell into breast milk during breastfeeding. Although there are currently no established methods for ...

  13. Transcriptome Profiling of microRNA by Next-Gen Deep Sequencing Reveals Known and Novel miRNA Species in the Lipid Fraction of Human Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Benham, Ashley L.; Pejerrey, Sasha M.; Showalter, Lori; Hu, Min; Shope, Cynthia D.; Maningat, Patricia D.; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; Haymond, Morey; Aagaard, Kjersti

    2013-01-01

    While breast milk has unique health advantages for infants, the mechanisms by which it regulates the physiology of newborns are incompletely understood. miRNAs have been described as functioning transcellularly, and have been previously isolated in cell-free and exosomal form from bodily liquids (serum, saliva, urine) and tissues, including mammary tissue. We hypothesized that breast milk in general, and milk fat globules in particular, contain significant numbers of known and limited novel miRNA species detectable with massively parallel sequencing. Extracted RNA from lactating mothers before and following short-term treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) was smRNA-enriched. smRNA-Seq was performed to generate 124,110,646 36-nt reads. Of these, 31,102,927 (25%) exactly matched known human miRNAs; with relaxing of stringency, 74,716,151 (60%) matched known miRNAs including 308 of the 1018 (29%) mature miRNAs (miRBase 16.0). These miRNAs are predicted to target 9074 genes; the 10 most abundant of these predicted to target 2691 genes with enrichment for transcriptional regulation of metabolic and immune responses. We identified 21 putative novel miRNAs, of which 12 were confirmed in a large validation set that included cohorts of lactating women consuming enriched diets. Of particular interest, we observed that expression of several novel miRNAs were altered by the perturbed maternal diet, notably following a high-fat intake (p<0.05). Our findings suggest that known and novel miRNAs are enriched in breast milk fat globules, and expression of several novel miRNA species is regulated by maternal diet. Based on robust pathway mapping, our data supports the notion that these maternally secreted miRNAs (stable in the milk fat globules) play a regulatory role in the infant and account in part for the health benefits of breast milk. We further speculate that regulation of these miRNA by a high fat maternal diet enables modulation of fetal metabolism to

  14. Urinary and breast milk biomarkers to assess exposure to naphthalene in pregnant women: an investigation of personal and indoor air sources

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Naphthalene exposures for most non-occupationally exposed individuals occur primarily indoors at home. Residential indoor sources include pest control products (specifically moth balls), incomplete combustion such as cigarette smoke, woodstoves and cooking, some consumer and building products, and emissions from gasoline sources found in attached garages. The study aim was to assess naphthalene exposure in pregnant women from Canada, using air measurements and biomarkers of exposure. Methods Pregnant women residing in Ottawa, Ontario completed personal and indoor air sampling, and questionnaires. During pregnancy, pooled urine voids were collected over two 24-hour periods on a weekday and a weekend day. At 2–3 months post-birth, they provided a spot urine sample and a breast milk sample following the 24-hour air monitoring. Urines were analyzed for 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol and breast milk for naphthalene. Simple linear regression models examined associations between known naphthalene sources, air and biomarker samples. Results Study recruitment rate was 11.2% resulting in 80 eligible women being included. Weekday and weekend samples were highly correlated for both personal (r = 0.83, p < 0.0001) and indoor air naphthalene (r = 0.91, p < 0.0001). Urine specific gravity (SG)-adjusted 2-naphthol concentrations collected on weekdays and weekends (r = 0.78, p < 0.001), and between pregnancy and postpartum samples (r = 0.54, p < 0.001) were correlated. Indoor and personal air naphthalene concentrations were significantly higher post-birth than during pregnancy (p < 0.0001 for signed rank tests); concurrent urine samples were not significantly different. Naphthalene in breast milk was associated with urinary 1-naphthol: a 10% increase in 1-naphthol was associated with a 1.6% increase in breast milk naphthalene (95% CI: 0.2%-3.1%). No significant associations were observed between naphthalene sources reported in self

  15. Dietary Epicatechin Is Available to Breastfed Infants through Human Breast Milk in the Form of Host and Microbial Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Khymenets, Olha; Rabassa, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Palmero, María; Rivero-Urgell, Montserrat; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Tulipani, Sara; Brandi, Pilar; Campoy, Cristina; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2016-07-01

    Polyphenols play an important role in human health. To address their accessibility to a breastfed infant, we planned to evaluate whether breast milk (BM) (colostrum, transitional, and mature) epicatechin metabolites could be related to the dietary habits of mothers. The polyphenol consumption of breastfeeding mothers was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and 24 h recalls. Solid-phase extraction-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UPLC-MS/MS) was applied for direct epicatechin metabolite analysis. Their bioavailability in BM as a result of dietary ingestion was confirmed in a preliminary experiment with a single dose of dark chocolate. Several host and microbial phase II metabolites of epicatechin were detected in BM among free-living lactating mothers. Interestingly, a modest correlation between dihydroxyvalerolactone sulfate and the intake of cocoa products was observed. Although a very low percentage of dietary polyphenols is excreted in BM, they are definitely in the diet of breastfed infants. Therefore, evaluation of their role in infant health could be further promoted. PMID:27285570

  16. Temporal Changes of Protein Composition in Breast Milk of Chinese Urban Mothers and Impact of Caesarean Section Delivery.

    PubMed

    Affolter, Michael; Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; Jenni, Rosemarie; Roggero, Iris; Avanti-Nigro, Ornella; de Castro, Carlos Antonio; Zhao, Ai; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K; Favre, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk (BM) protein composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present study aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BM major proteins over lactation stages and the impact of mode of delivery on immune factors, in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. 450 BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities, covering 8 months of lactation were analyzed for α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, serum albumin, total caseins, immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM and IgG) and transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 and β2 content by microfluidic chip- or ELISA-based quantitative methods. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, IgA, IgM and TGF-β1 contents followed similar variations characterized by highest concentrations in early lactation that rapidly decreased before remaining stable up to end of lactation. TGF-β2 content displayed same early dynamics before increasing again. Total caseins followed a different pattern, showing initial increase before decreasing back to starting values. Serum albumin and IgG levels appeared stable throughout lactation. In conclusion, BM content in major proteins of urban mothers in China was comparable with previous studies carried out in other parts of the world and C-section delivery had only very limited impact on BM immune factors. PMID:27548208

  17. Temporal Changes of Protein Composition in Breast Milk of Chinese Urban Mothers and Impact of Caesarean Section Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Affolter, Michael; Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L.; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; Jenni, Rosemarie; Roggero, Iris; Avanti-Nigro, Ornella; de Castro, Carlos Antonio; Zhao, Ai; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K.; Favre, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk (BM) protein composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present study aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BM major proteins over lactation stages and the impact of mode of delivery on immune factors, in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. 450 BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities, covering 8 months of lactation were analyzed for α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, serum albumin, total caseins, immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM and IgG) and transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 and β2 content by microfluidic chip- or ELISA-based quantitative methods. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, IgA, IgM and TGF-β1 contents followed similar variations characterized by highest concentrations in early lactation that rapidly decreased before remaining stable up to end of lactation. TGF-β2 content displayed same early dynamics before increasing again. Total caseins followed a different pattern, showing initial increase before decreasing back to starting values. Serum albumin and IgG levels appeared stable throughout lactation. In conclusion, BM content in major proteins of urban mothers in China was comparable with previous studies carried out in other parts of the world and C-section delivery had only very limited impact on BM immune factors. PMID:27548208

  18. Organochlorine pesticide residues in breast milk and maternal psychopathologies and infant growth from suburban area of Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yalçın, Songul Siddika; Örün, Emel; Yalçın, Suzan; Aykut, Osman

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the breast milk; to assess the effect of detectable OCPs on maternal-infant characteristics and; to evaluate the relation between OCPs and the maternal psychopathologies [Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ), Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale (MIBS) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)] and infant growth. DDT, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin and heptachlor were detected in 89.3, 70.7, 58.7 and 34.7 % of the samples, respectively. Mothers with low monthly family income had detectable DDTs less frequently. The frequencies of detectable heptachlor epoxide were significantly higher in mothers with gestational nausea. Anaemic mothers had more frequently detectable alpha-HCH. Z scores of head circumference were inversely correlated with beta-HCH and DDT levels. The heptachlor epoxide levels were positively correlated with PBQ, MIBS and indexes of BSI. No relation was detected between EPDS and OCPs. Further studies are needed for changes in maternal psychopathologies. PMID:25155352

  19. Perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) levels and profiles in breast milk, maternal and cord serum of French women and their newborns.

    PubMed

    Cariou, Ronan; Veyrand, Bruno; Yamada, Ami; Berrebi, Alain; Zalko, Daniel; Durand, Sophie; Pollono, Charles; Marchand, Philippe; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    One major concern regarding perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) is their potential role in onset of health troubles consecutive to early exposure during the perinatal period. In the present work, the internal exposure levels of 18 targeted PFAAs were determined in ca. 100 mother-newborn pairs recruited in France between 2010 and 2013. In serum, the cumulated concentrations of the 7 most frequently detected compounds were 5.70ng/mL and 2.83ng/mL (median values) in maternal and cord serum, respectively. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexylesulfonic acid (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) contributed to around 90% of the total PFAAs contamination, with concentration levels and contamination profiles in accordance with other published work in Europe. Levels measured in breast milk were far lower (20 to 150 fold) than those determined in serum. Associations between the different monitored substances as well as between levels determined in the different investigated biological matrices mostly do not appear statistically significant. The estimated materno-foetal transfer would be thus substance-dependant, mainly driven by the physico-chemical properties of the different PFAAs (nature of polar group and length of alkylated side chain). We conclude that trans-placental passage and breastfeeding are both significant routes of human exposure to PFAAs. PMID:26232143

  20. Mucosal Immunization of Lactating Female Rhesus Monkeys with a Transmitted/Founder HIV-1 Envelope Induces Strong Env-Specific IgA Antibody Responses in Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Fouda, Genevieve G. A.; Amos, Joshua D.; Wilks, Andrew B.; Pollara, Justin; Ray, Caroline A.; Chand, Anjali; Kunz, Erika L.; Liebl, Brooke E.; Whitaker, Kaylan; Carville, Angela; Smith, Shannon; Colvin, Lisa; Pickup, David J.; Staats, Herman F.; Overman, Glenn; Eutsey-Lloyd, Krissey; Parks, Robert; Chen, Haiyan; LaBranche, Celia; Barnett, Susan; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Ferrari, Guido; Montefiori, David C.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Letvin, Norman L.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2013-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that vaccination of lactating rhesus monkeys with a DNA prime/vector boost strategy induces strong T-cell responses but limited envelope (Env)-specific humoral responses in breast milk. To improve vaccine-elicited antibody responses in milk, hormone-induced lactating rhesus monkeys were vaccinated with a transmitted/founder (T/F) HIV Env immunogen in a prime-boost strategy modeled after the moderately protective RV144 HIV vaccine. Lactating rhesus monkeys were intramuscularly primed with either recombinant DNA (n = 4) or modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) poxvirus vector (n = 4) expressing the T/F HIV Env C.1086 and then boosted twice intramuscularly with C.1086 gp120 and the adjuvant MF59. The vaccines induced Env-binding IgG and IgA as well as neutralizing and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses in plasma and milk of most vaccinated animals. Importantly, plasma neutralization titers against clade C HIV variants MW965 (P = 0.03) and CAP45 (P = 0.04) were significantly higher in MVA-primed than in DNA-primed animals. The superior systemic prime-boost regimen was then compared to a mucosal-boost regimen, in which animals were boosted twice intranasally with C.1086 gp120 and the TLR 7/8 agonist R848 following the same systemic prime. While the systemic and mucosal vaccine regimens elicited comparable levels of Env-binding IgG antibodies, mucosal immunization induced significantly stronger Env-binding IgA responses in milk (P = 0.03). However, the mucosal regimen was not as potent at inducing functional IgG responses. This study shows that systemic MVA prime followed by either intranasal or systemic protein boosts can elicit strong humoral responses in breast milk and may be a useful strategy to interrupt postnatal HIV-1 transmission. PMID:23596289

  1. Fortifier and cream improve fat delivery in continuous enteral infant feeding of breast milk.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Mika; Abdelrahman, Khaled; Hair, Amy B; Hawthorne, Keli M; Chen, Zhensheng; Abrams, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    Premature and high-risk infants require accurate delivery of nutrients to promote appropriate growth. Continuous enteral feeding methods may result in significant fat and micronutrient loss. This study evaluated fat loss in enteral nutrition using current strategies for providing high-risk infants fortified human milk (HM). The fat content of HM was measured by IR analyzer in a simulated feeding system using the Kangaroo epumpTM and the MedFusionTM 2010 pump. Comparisons in fat loss were made between HM, HM supplemented with donor HM-derived fortifier Prolacta+H2MFTM (H2MF), and HM supplemented with H2MF and donor HM-derived cream ProlactCRTM (cream). When using the Kangaroo epumpTM, the addition of H2MF and cream to HM increased fat delivery efficiency from 75.0%±1.2% to 83.7%±1.0% (p<0.0001). When using the MedFusionTM 2010 pump, the addition of H2MF to HM increased fat delivery efficiency from 83.2%±2.8% to 88.8%±0.8% (p<0.05), and the addition of H2MF and cream increased fat delivery efficiency to 92.0%±0.3% (p<0.01). The addition of H2MF and cream to HM provides both the benefits of bioactive elements from mother's milk and increased fat delivery, making the addition of H2MF and cream an appropriate method to improve infant weight gain. PMID:25679230

  2. Fortifier and Cream Improve Fat Delivery in Continuous Enteral Infant Feeding of Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Tabata, Mika; Abdelrahman, Khaled; Hair, Amy B.; Hawthorne, Keli M.; Chen, Zhensheng; Abrams, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Premature and high-risk infants require accurate delivery of nutrients to promote appropriate growth. Continuous enteral feeding methods may result in significant fat and micronutrient loss. This study evaluated fat loss in enteral nutrition using current strategies for providing high-risk infants fortified human milk (HM). The fat content of HM was measured by IR analyzer in a simulated feeding system using the Kangaroo ePump™ and the MedFusion™ 2010 pump. Comparisons in fat loss were made between HM, HM supplemented with donor HM-derived fortifier Prolacta + H2MF™ (H2MF), and HM supplemented with H2MF and donor HM-derived cream ProlactCR™ (cream). When using the Kangaroo ePump™, the addition of H2MF and cream to HM increased fat delivery efficiency from 75.0% ± 1.2% to 83.7% ± 1.0% (p < 0.0001). When using the MedFusion™ 2010 pump, the addition of H2MF to HM increased fat delivery efficiency from 83.2% ± 2.8% to 88.8% ± 0.8% (p < 0.05), and the addition of H2MF and cream increased fat delivery efficiency to 92.0% ± 0.3% (p < 0.01). The addition of H2MF and cream to HM provides both the benefits of bioactive elements from mother’s milk and increased fat delivery, making the addition of H2MF and cream an appropriate method to improve infant weight gain. PMID:25679230

  3. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    PubMed

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy. PMID:22226014

  4. Direct Analysis of Leucine and Its Metabolites β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyric Acid, α-Ketoisocaproic Acid, and α-Hydroxyisocaproic Acid in Human Breast Milk by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ehling, Stefan; Reddy, Todime M

    2015-09-01

    A direct, quantitative, and confirmatory method based on stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed and validated for the analysis of leucine and metabolites β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric acid (HMB), α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC), and α-hydroxyisocaproic acid (HICA) in human breast milk. Chromatographic resolution was achieved between isobaric leucine and isoleucine. Accuracy and intermediate precision were 89-117% and <10% relative standard deviation (RSD) across three validation runs. Limits of quantitation for HMB, KIC, HICA, and leucine in human breast milk were 20 μg/L, 20 μg/L, 10 μg/L, and 1 mg/L. Measured concentrations of HMB, KIC, HICA, and free leucine in human breast milk from six donors at various stages of lactation were 42-164 μg/L, < 20-1057 μg/L, < 10 μg/L, and 2.1-88.5 mg/L. HMB and KIC were confirmed in human breast milk by orthogonal hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC). This work provides a tool for further study of human breast milk composition and its effect on protein turnover in developing infants. PMID:26271627

  5. Cow's milk - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... your baby only breast milk or iron-fortified formula during the first 12 months of life, not ... baby's diet. If breastfeeding is not possible, infant formulas provide a healthy diet for your infant. Whether ...

  6. A comparison of the concentrations of certain chlorinated hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in bone marrow and fat tissue of children and their concentrations in breast milk

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, J.; Teufel, M.; Niessen, K.H.

    1995-12-31

    Chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in the bone marrow of 57 children were compared with the concentrations in adipose tissue of 50 children and the concentrations in breast milk in the Federal Republic of Germany from 1984 to 1991. The concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the dichlorodiphenyl-trichlorethane (DDT)-metabolites, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners no. 138 and no. 153 were increased threefold, while the concentrations of several hexachloro-cyclohexane (HCH)-isomers and PCB congener no. 180 were only increased two fold. Because breast feeding is the primary source of CHC and PCB in toddlers and infants we also compared the concentrations in bone marrow of children with the concentrations in breast milk and found approximately fourfold higher concentrations for the most highly chlorinated PCB congener no. 180, but only threefold higher concentrations for PCB 138 and 153 and the DDT-metabolites. The concentrations of {beta}-HCH and HCB were only slightly higher in bone marrow. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Different Levels of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) and Chlorinated Compounds in Breast Milk from Two U.K. Regions

    PubMed Central

    Kalantzi, Olga I.; Martin, Francis L.; Thomas, Gareth O.; Alcock, Ruth E.; Tang, Huiru R.; Drury, Suzanne C.; Carmichael, Paul L.; Nicholson, Jeremy K.; Jones, Kevin C.

    2004-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners are constituents of flame retardants, and there is growing concern regarding their persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity. We collected breast milk samples between late 2001 and early 2003 from 54 U.K.-resident mothers. Of these, 27 originated from southeast England (London), and the other 27 originated from northwest England (Lancaster). Analysis of milk-fat extracts by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was performed to determine the levels of 15 PBDE congeners, 15 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and other selected chlorinated compounds. PCB and organochlorine (OC) levels in southeast samples were consistently higher, and significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed. ∑PBDE levels ranged from 0.3 to 69 ng/g lipid (geometric mean, 6.6 ng/g), and PBDE-47 was the most abundant congener. ∑PCB levels ranged from 26 to 530 ng/g lipid (geometric mean, 150 ng/g) and were composed mainly of PCB-153 (26%), PCB-138 (20%), and PCB-180 (13%). OC levels for 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p′-DDT) and its metabolites (∑DDX) ranged from 24 to 2,300 ng/g lipid (geometric mean, 160 ng/g); hexachlorobenzene ranged from nondetectable levels to 180 ng/g lipid (geometric mean, 17 ng/g); and ∑hexachlorocyclohexane levels ranged from 1.2 to 1,500 ng/g lipid (geometric mean, 16 ng/g). Using nuclear magnetic resonance–based metabonomics, samples (n = 7) containing the highest contaminant levels were compared with samples (n = 7) containing the lowest levels. Excellent separation along the first principal component implied that the chemical constituents of the two groups were significantly different. Although reasons for such differences remain obscure, lifestyle factors associated with a more heterogeneous London cohort could be responsible. Identifying primary routes of contaminant exposures and their biologic effects is of great importance. PMID:15238282

  8. The effect of neutral oligosaccharides on fecal microbiota in premature infants fed exclusively with breast milk: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Armanian, Amir-Mohammad; Sadeghnia, Alireza; Hoseinzadeh, Maryam; Mirlohi, Maryam; Feizi, Awat; Salehimehr, Nima; Torkan, Moloud; Shirani, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of enteral supplementation of a prebiotic mixture (SCGOS/LCFOS) on faecal microbiota in very premature infants who fed exclusively with human-milk. Methods: This double-center randomized control trial was conducted from December 2012 to November 2013 in the tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Units of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Fifty preterm infants (birth weight ≤1500 g who were not fed with formula) were randomly allocated to have enteral (tube feeding) supplementation with a prebiotic mixture (SCGOS/LCFOS; 9:1) or receive no prebiotics. Findings: The primary outcome (e.g., the effect of the prebiotic mixture on fecal microbiota pattern) was clearly different between the two groups. Despite greater coliforms colony counts in first stool cultures in the prebiotic group (Group P) (P = 0.67), coliforms were significantly lower in the third stool cultures in the Group P (P < 0.001). Furthermore, despite the much higher Lactobacillus colony counts, in the first stool cultures, in the control group (Group C) (P = 0.005); there was a trend toward significantly increased Lactobacillus colony counts in the Group P during the study, but the difference between Lactobacillus colony counts, in the third stool cultures, between two groups was no longer statistically significant (P = 0.11). Interestingly, the median length of hospital stay was significantly less in the Group P (16 [12.50–23.50] vs. 25 [19.50–33.00] days; P = 0.003). Conclusion: This suggests that it might have been “the complete removal of formula” which manifests a synergistic effect between nonhuman neutral oligosaccharides (prebiotics) and human oligosaccharides, which in turn, led to the rapid growth of beneficial Lactobacillus colonies in the gut of breast milk-fed preterm infants, while decreasing the number of pathogenic coliforms microorganisms. Therefore, further studies with larger sample sizes are

  9. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids in human breast milk from Spain and estimation of infant's daily intake.

    PubMed

    Motas Guzmàn, Miguel; Clementini, Chiara; Pérez-Cárceles, Maria Dolores; Jiménez Rejón, Sandra; Cascone, Aurora; Martellini, Tania; Guerranti, Cristiana; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2016-02-15

    Human milk samples were collected from 67 mothers in 2014 at a Primary Care Centre in Murcia (Spain) and analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Concentrations measured for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) ranged from

  10. Cyclic AMP stimulation of transferrin secretion by breast cancer cell grown on extracellular matrix or in two-compartment culture chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Vandewalle, B.; Hornez, L.; Revillion, F.; Lefebvre, J. )

    1991-06-28

    Extrahepatic synthesis and secretion of transferrin (Tf), the major iron-carrying protein, have been described in normal and tumoral tissues suggesting a potential role for paracrine or autocrine function. In breast tumor cell MCF-7, we have previously shown a Tf secretion stimulated by estradiol which might confer selective growth advantages of these rapidly proliferating cells. The present work refers to possible additional Tf functions related to differentiation of breast tumor cells. We induced MCF-7 cell differentiation by the cyclic AMP derivative, dibutyryl cAMP (dB cAMP) and studied Tf secretion in different culture conditions after labeling with (35S) methionine. Our results demonstrate that dB cAMP stimulates Tf secretion only in culture environment that permits access to the basolateral surface and caters to the polarity requirements of the cell. These results suggest that Tf may also act as a modulator of cellular differentiation in breast cancer cells.

  11. Selective molecularly imprinted polymer combined with restricted access material for in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS of parabens in breast milk samples.

    PubMed

    Souza, Israel D; Melo, Lidervan P; Jardim, Isabel C S F; Monteiro, Juliana C S; Nakano, Ana Marcia S; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia C

    2016-08-17

    A new molecularly imprinted polymer modified with restricted access material (a hydrophilic external layer), (MIP-RAM) was synthesized via polymerization in situ in an open fused silica capillary. This stationary phase was used as sorbent for in-tube solid phase microextraction (in-tube SPME) to determine parabens in breast milk samples by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) illustrate MIP surface modification after glycerol dimethacrylate (hydrophilic monomer) incorporation. The interaction between parabens and MIP-RAM was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The Scatchard plot for MIP-RAM presented two linear parts with different slopes, illustrating binding sites with high- and low-affinity. Endogenous compounds exclusion from the MIP-RAM capillary was demonstrated by in-tube SPME/LC-UV assays carried out with blank milk samples. The in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS method presented linear range from 10 ng mL(-1) (LLOQ) to 400 ng mL(-1) with coefficients of determination higher than 0.99, inter-assay precision with coefficient of variation (CV) values ranging from 2 to 15%, and inter-assay accuracy with relative standard deviation (RSD) values ranging from -1% to 19%. Analytical validation parameters attested that in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS is an appropriate method to determine parabens in human milk samples to assess human exposure to these compounds. Analysis of breast milk samples from lactating women demonstrated that the proposed method is effective. PMID:27286769

  12. What to Know When Buying or Using a Breast Pump

    MedlinePlus

    ... devices? If you’re giving your baby breast milk, you probably know there can be times when ... be used to maintain or increase a woman’s milk supply, relieve engorged breasts and plugged milk ducts, ...

  13. Effects of menthol essence and breast milk on the improvement of nipple fissures in breastfeeding women

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Sedigheh Amir Ali; Alamolhoda, Seideh Hanieh; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh; Mirabi, Parvaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nipple fissure is a common disorder during breastfeeding. With high prevalence of nipple fissures and its impacts on breastfeeding, as well as the existence of evidence in favor of the application of peppermint as an antiinflammatory and antiinfection herb, the purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Menthol essence on improving nipple fissures in the primiparous breastfeeding women. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted using a clinical trial method. Samples were divided randomly into two groups of 55 women. The women in the peppermint group applied four drops of Menthol essence on their nipple and areola after each feeding. The control group applied four drops of their own milk on the nipple and areola after each feeding. Then, the two groups were studied on days 10 and 14 postpartum. For intensity of pain, the visual analog scale (0-10 cm) and to measure the severity of damage, Amir scale (1-10 cm) were applied and the existence or lack of nipple discharge was also recorded. The data were analyzed using SPSS 17 software. Results: The mean intensity of pain and nipple fissure before treatment (8.55 ± 1.74) and day 10 after delivery (4.26 ± 1.57) and before treatment and day 14 after delivery in the case group (1.32 ± 1.02) had a significant difference (P < 0.001). Nipple discharge between the two groups, before treatment (%75.2) and day 10 after delivery (%31.6) and before treatment and day 14 after delivery (%15.7), the case group had a significant difference (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Menthol essence can improve nipple fissures in the primiparous breastfeeding women. PMID:25364362

  14. Current pediatric and maternal lead levels in blood and breast milk in Andean inhabitants of a lead-glazing enclave.

    PubMed

    Counter, S Allen; Buchanan, Leo H; Ortega, Fernando

    2004-09-01

    Prenatal and postnatal lead (Pb) exposure may induce neurodevelopmental disabilities in children. As part of an ongoing health-monitoring study, blood lead (PbB) levels were compared in 90 children tested in 2003 (current group) and 166 children tested between 1996 and 2000 (reference group) in Ecuadorian Andean villages with high Pb contamination. The mean PbB level for children in the reference group was 40 microg/dL (range, 6.2-119.1), and significantly higher than the mean PbB level of 25.5 microg/dL (range, 2.1-94.3) for the current group (t test, P = 0.0001). An analysis of variance revealed no significant main effects for age and gender and no significant interaction between age and gender for the current group but a significant age by gender interaction for the reference group (F = 5.96, P = 0.01). Regression analysis revealed a significant correlation (r = 0.258, P = 0.01) between PbB level and age for males but not for females in the reference group. The Pb levels in breast milk from nursing mothers ranged from 0.4-20.5 microg/L (mean, 4.6), and the PbB levels in the breastfeeding mothers ranged from 4.5-35.2 microg/dL (mean, 17.1). The PbB levels of mother-infant pairs ranged from 4.6-27.4 microg/dL for mothers and 3.9-33.5 microg/dL for infants. The results showed significantly reduced PbB levels in children in the study area and suggest that a Pb education and prevention program contributed to the current reduction in Pb intoxication. PMID:15354063

  15. Phospholipid Species in Newborn and 4 Month Old Infants after Consumption of Different Formulas or Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, Olaf; Fleddermann, Manja; Hellmuth, Christian; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for neuronal and cognitive development and are ingredients of infant formulae that are recommended but there is no evidence based minimal supplementation level available. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the effect of supplemented AA and DHA on phospholipid metabolism. Methods Plasma samples of a randomized, double-blind infant feeding trial were used for the analyses of phospholipid species by flow-injection mass spectrometry. Healthy term infants consumed isoenergetic formulae (intervention formula with equal amounts of AA and DHA—IF, control formula without additional AA and DHA—CF) from the first month of life until the age of 120 days. A group of breast milk (BM) -fed infants was followed as a reference. Results The plasma profile detected in newborns was different from 4 month old infants, irrespective of study group. Most relevant changes were seen in higher level of LPC16:1, LPC20:4, PC32:1, PC34:1 and PC36:4 and lower level of LPC18:0, LPC18:2, PC32:2, PC36:2 and several ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in newborns. The sum of all AA and DHA species at 4 month old infants in the CF group showed level of 40% (AA) and 51% (DHA) of newborns. The supplemented amount of DHA resulted in phospholipid level comparable to BM infants, but AA phospholipids were lower than in BM infants. Interestingly, relative contribution of DHA was higher in ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in CF fed infants, but IF and BM fed infants showed higher overall ether-linked phosphatidylcholines levels. Conclusion In conclusion, we have shown that infant plasma phospholipid profile changes remarkably from newborn over time and is dependent on the dietary fatty acid composition. A supplementation of an infant formula with AA and DHA resulted in increased related phospholipid species. PMID:27571269

  16. Compliance with the International Code of Marketing of breast-milk substitutes: an observational study of pediatricians' waiting rooms.

    PubMed

    Dodgson, Joan E; Watkins, Amanda L; Bond, Angela B; Kintaro-Tagaloa, Cheryl; Arellano, Alondra; Allred, Patrick A

    2014-04-01

    Abstract The importance of breastmilk as a primary preventative intervention is widely known and understood by most healthcare providers. The actions or non-actions that heathcare providers take toward promoting and supporting breastfeeding families make a difference in the success and duration of breastfeeding. Recognizing this relationship, the World Health Organization developed the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code), which defines best practices in breastfeeding promotion, including physicians' offices. The pediatric practices' waiting rooms are often a family's first experience with pediatric care. The specific aims of this study were to describe (1) Code compliance, (2) the demographic factors affecting the Code compliance, and (3) the amount and type of breastfeeding-supportive materials available in the pediatricians' waiting rooms. An observational cross-sectional design was used to collect data from 163 (82%) of the pediatric practices in Maricopa County, Arizona. None of the 100 waiting rooms that had any materials displayed (61%) was found to be completely Code compliant, with 81 of the offices having formula-promotional materials readily available. Waiting rooms in higher income areas offered more non-Code-compliant materials and gifts. Breastfeeding support information and materials were lacking in all but 18 (18%) offices. A positive relationship (t97=-2.31, p=0.02) occurred between the presence of breastfeeding educational materials and higher income areas. We were able to uncover some practice-related patterns that impact families and potentially undermine breastfeeding success. To move current practices toward breastfeeding-friendly physicians' offices, change is needed. PMID:24283957

  17. “One-shot” analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their hydroxylated and methoxylated analogs in human breast milk and serum using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Butryn, Deena; Gross, Michael; Chi, Lai-Har; Schecter, Arnold; Olson, James; Aga, Diana

    2015-01-01

    The presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their hydroxylated (OH-BDE) and methoxylated (MeO-BDE) analogs in humans is an area of high interest to public health due to their neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting effects. Consequently, there is a rise involving the investigation of these three classes of compounds together in order to understand their bioaccumulation patterns in environmental matrices and in humans. Analysis of PBDEs, OH-BDEs, and MeO-BDEs using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can be accomplished simultaneously, but detection limits for PBDEs and MeO-BDEs in LC-MS is insufficient for trace level quantification. Therefore, fractionation steps of the phenolic (OH-BDEs) and neutral (PBDEs and MeO-BDEs) compounds during sample preparation are typically performed so different detection techniques can be used to achieve the needed sensitivities. However, this approach involves multiple injections, ultimately increasing analysis time. In this study, an analytical method was developed for a “one-shot” analysis of 12 PBDEs, 12 OH-BDEs, and 13 MeO-BDEs using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). This overall method includes simultaneous extraction of all analytes via pressurized liquid extraction followed by lipid removal steps to reduce matrix interferences. The OH-BDEs were derivatized using N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide, producing OH-TMDS derivatives that can be analyzed with PBDEs and MeO-BDEs by GC-MS/MS in “one shot” within a 25-min run. The overall recoveries were generally greater than 65%, and the limits of detection ranged from 2–14 pg in both breast milk and serum. The applicability of the method was successfully validated on four paired human breast milk and serum samples. The mean concentrations of total PBDEs, OH-BDEs, and MeO-BDEs in breast milk were 59, 2.2, and 0.57 ng g−1 lipid, respectively. In serum, the mean total concentrations were 79, 38, and 0.96 ng g

  18. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Maternal Serum, Breast Milk, Umbilical Cord Serum, and House Dust in a South Korean Birth Panel of Mother-Neonate Pairs.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mi-Yeon; Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Park, Jeongim; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon

    2016-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used as flame retardants. Although many reports have indicated an association between exposure to PBDEs and developmental neurotoxicity, the relative contributions of different sources of dust PBDE congeners to the levels in various tissues of mother-baby pairs is not well understood. The aims of this study were thus to measure the quantitative relationship between the level of PBDEs in house dust and tissues of mother-neonate pairs, and to investigate the chemical sources of the PBDEs. Forty-one mother-neonate pairs were recruited and provided samples of maternal serum (n = 29), umbilical cord serum (n = 25), breast milk (n = 50), and house dust (n = 41), where PBDEs were determined with high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. While deca- (e.g., BDE 209, detected 100%), nona- (BDE 206/207, 95.1%), octa- (BDE 183, 100%), penta- (BDE 99/153, 100%, 98%) and tetra-BDEs (BDE 47, 100%) were detected abundantly in dust, penta- (BDE 99, 76%, 92%) and tetra-BDEs (BDE 47, 84%, 98%) were detected abundantly in umbilical cord serum and breast milk, respectively; tetra-BDEs (BDE 47, 86%) were detected more often relative to other congeners in maternal serum. Spearman's pairwise comparison showed that the levels of BDE 47 (ρ = 0.52, p < 0.001) and -99 (ρ = 0.64, p < 0.01) in umbilical cord serum were associated with BDE 209 levels in dust; BDE 47 in maternal serum also showed correlation with BDE 99 in cord serum (ρ = 0.48, p < 0.01) but there was no significant correlation between maternal BDE 47 and dust BDE 209. On the other hand, a comparison of the distribution among congeners suggested probable associations of BDE 47 in maternal serum, breast milk, and umbilical cord serum with BDE 209 in dust; and of BDE 99 in maternal and umbilical cord serum, breast milk, and dust with BDE 209 in dust. Although further studies are needed, a radar chart-based distributional comparison among

  19. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Maternal Serum, Breast Milk, Umbilical Cord Serum, and House Dust in a South Korean Birth Panel of Mother-Neonate Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mi-Yeon; Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Park, Jeongim; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon

    2016-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used as flame retardants. Although many reports have indicated an association between exposure to PBDEs and developmental neurotoxicity, the relative contributions of different sources of dust PBDE congeners to the levels in various tissues of mother–baby pairs is not well understood. The aims of this study were thus to measure the quantitative relationship between the level of PBDEs in house dust and tissues of mother-neonate pairs, and to investigate the chemical sources of the PBDEs. Forty-one mother-neonate pairs were recruited and provided samples of maternal serum (n = 29), umbilical cord serum (n = 25), breast milk (n = 50), and house dust (n = 41), where PBDEs were determined with high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. While deca- (e.g., BDE 209, detected 100%), nona- (BDE 206/207, 95.1%), octa- (BDE 183, 100%), penta- (BDE 99/153, 100%, 98%) and tetra-BDEs (BDE 47, 100%) were detected abundantly in dust, penta- (BDE 99, 76%, 92%) and tetra-BDEs (BDE 47, 84%, 98%) were detected abundantly in umbilical cord serum and breast milk, respectively; tetra-BDEs (BDE 47, 86%) were detected more often relative to other congeners in maternal serum. Spearman’s pairwise comparison showed that the levels of BDE 47 (ρ = 0.52, p < 0.001) and −99 (ρ = 0.64, p < 0.01) in umbilical cord serum were associated with BDE 209 levels in dust; BDE 47 in maternal serum also showed correlation with BDE 99 in cord serum (ρ = 0.48, p < 0.01) but there was no significant correlation between maternal BDE 47 and dust BDE 209. On the other hand, a comparison of the distribution among congeners suggested probable associations of BDE 47 in maternal serum, breast milk, and umbilical cord serum with BDE 209 in dust; and of BDE 99 in maternal and umbilical cord serum, breast milk, and dust with BDE 209 in dust. Although further studies are needed, a radar chart-based distributional comparison

  20. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) from human breast milk activates PAR-2 receptors, of the intestinal epithelial cells HT-29, regulating cytokines and defensins.

    PubMed

    Barrera, G J; Tortolero, G Sanchez

    2016-01-01

    Trefoil factors are effector molecules in gastrointestinal tract physiology. Each one improves healing of the gastrointestinal tract. Trefoil factors may be grouped into three classes: the gastric peptides (TFF1), spasmolytic peptide (TFF2) and intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3). Significant amounts of TFF3 are present in human breast milk. Previously, we have reported that trefoil factor 3 isolated from human breast milk produces down regulation of cytokines and promotes human beta defensins expression in intestinal epithelial cells. This study aimed to determine the molecular mechanism involved. Here we showed that the presence of TFF3 strongly correlated with protease activated receptors 2 (PAR-2) activation in human intestinal cells. Intracellular calcium ((Ca2+)i)mobilization was induced by the treatment with: 1) TFF3, 2) synthetic PAR-2 agonist peptide. The co-treatment with a synthetic PAR-2 antagonist peptide and TFF3 eliminates the latter's effect. Additionally, we demonstrated the existence of interactions among TFF3 and PAR-2 receptors through far Western blot and co-precipitation. Finally, down regulation of PAR-2 by siRNA resulted in a decrease of TFF3 induced intracellular (Ca2+)i mobilization, cytokine regulation and defensins expression. These findings suggest that TFF3 activates intestinal cells through PAR-2 (Fig. 4, Ref. 19). PMID:27546365

  1. Validated and optimized high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of tizoxanide, the main active metabolite of nitazoxanide in human urine, plasma and breast milk.

    PubMed

    Hadad, Ghada M; Abdel Salam, Randa A; Emara, Samy

    2012-07-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was optimized and validated for the determination of desacetyl nitazoxanide (tizoxanide), the main active metabolite of nitazoxanide in human plasma, urine and breast milk. The proposed method used a CN column with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-12mM ammonium acetate-diethylamine in the ratio of 30:70:0.1 (v/v/v) and buffered at pH 4.0 with acetic acid, with a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. Quantitation was achieved with UV detection at 260 nm using nifuroxazide as internal standard. A simplified direct injection of urine samples without extraction in addition to the urinary excretion pattern were calculated using the proposed method. Also, the effectiveness of protein precipitation and a clean-up procedure were investigated for biological plasma and human breast milk samples. The validation study of the proposed method was successfully carried out in an assay range between 0.2 and 20 µg/mL. PMID:22525879

  2. The deuterium oxide-to-the-mother method documents adequate breast-milk intake among Sri Lankan infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The WHO recommends that exclusive breastfeeding should last up to 6 months. However, human milk intake of Sri Lankan infants has not been quantified scientifically. The objectives of this study were to measure the human milk intake of Sri Lankan infants during the first 6 months of age and to docume...

  3. Interaction of enrofloxacin with breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2): influence of flavonoids and role in milk secretion in sheep.

    PubMed

    Pulido, Mivis M; Molina, Antonio J; Merino, Gracia; Mendoza, Gracia; Prieto, Julio G; Alvarez, Ana I

    2006-08-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)/ABCG2 is a high-capacity efflux transporter with wide substrate specificity located in apical membranes of epithelia, which is involved in drug availability. BCRP is responsible for the active secretion of clinically and toxicologically important substrates to milk. The present study shows BCRP expression in sheep and cow by immunoblotting with MAb (BXP-53). Vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity with specific BCRP substrates and inhibitors was measured in bovine mammary gland homogenates. To assess the role of BCRP in ruminant mammary gland we tested the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin (ENRO). In polarized cell lines, ENRO was transported by Bcrp1/BCRP with secretory/absorptive ratios of 6.5 and 2 respectively. The efflux was blocked by the BCRP inhibitor Ko143. ENRO pharmacokinetics in plasma and milk was studied in sheep after co-administration of drug (2.5 mg/kg, i.v.) and genistein (0.8 mg/kg, i.m.) or albendazole sulfoxide (2 mg/kg, i.v) as BCRP inhibitors. Concomitant administration of BCRP inhibitors with ENRO had no significant effect on the plasma disposition kinetics of ENRO but decreased ENRO concentrations in milk. PMID:16846465

  4. Breast-Milk Substitutes: A New Old-Threat for Breastfeeding Policy in Developing Countries. A Case Study in a Traditionally High Breastfeeding Country

    PubMed Central

    Barennes, Hubert; Empis, Gwenaelle; Quang, Thao Duong; Sengkhamyong, Khouanheuan; Phasavath, Phonethepa; Harimanana, Aina; Sambany, Emercia M.; Koffi, Paulin N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Developing countries with traditionally breastfeeding are now experiencing the increasing pressure of formula milk marketing. This may endanger lives and undermine the efforts of national policies in achieving the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals. We examined the use of, and factors for use, of all available breast-milk substitutes (BMS) in a country with a traditionally high rate of breastfeeding. Methods Randomised multi-stage sampling surveys in 90 villages in 12/17 provinces in Laos. Participants: 1057 mothers with infants under 24 months of age. Tools: 50-query questionnaire and a poster of 22 BMS (8 canned or powdered milk; 6 non-dairy; 6 formulas; 2 non-formulas). Outcome measures included: prevalence of use and age of starting BMS in relation to socio-demographic characteristics and information sources, by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Of 1057 mothers: 72.5% currently breastfed; 25.4% gave BMS (10.6% infant formula); 19.6% gave BMS before 6 months of age (of them: 83% non-dairy or cereals; mean age: 2.9 months; 95% Confidence interval: 2.6–3.2). One formula and one non-formula product accounted for 85% of BMS. BMS were considered as milk by the majority of mothers. Thai TV was the main source of information on BMS for mothers. Lao Loum mothers (the main ethnic group) living in concrete houses with good sanitary conditions, were more likely than others to use BMS before 6 months (OR: 1.79, (1.15–2.78), p<0.009). Mothers who fed their infants colostrum at birth were less likely to use BMS before 6 months of age (OR: 0.63, (0.41–0.99), p = 0.04). Unemployed mothers living in rural areas were less likely to consider BMS better than breast milk. Conclusion In Laos, mothers with the highest socio-economic status are showing a tendency to give up breastfeeding. Successful educational strategies and advocacy measures should be urgently developed to promote and sustain breastfeeding in developing countries. PMID

  5. A Clinical Tool for Reducing Central Nervous System Depression among Neonates Exposed to Codeine through Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Lauren E.; Chaudhry, Shahnaz A.; Rieder, Michael J.; ‘t Jong, Geert; Moretti, Myla E.; Lausman, Andrea; Ross, Colin; Berger, Howard; Carleton, Bruce; Hayden, Michael R.; Madadi, Parvaz; Koren, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Background Neonates are commonly exposed to maternal codeine through breast milk. Central Nervous System (CNS) depression has been reported in up to 24% of nurslings following codeine exposure. In 2009, we developed guidelines to improve the safety of codeine use during breastfeeding based on previously established pharmacogenetic and clinical risk factors. The primary objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the effectiveness of these guidelines in ensuring neonatal safety. Methods and Findings Women taking codeine for pain following caesarean section were given safety guidelines, including advice to use the lowest codeine dose for no longer than four days and to switch to a non-opioid when possible. Mothers provided a saliva sample for analysis of genes involved in opioid disposition, metabolism and response. A total of 238 consenting women participated. Neonatal sedation was reported in 2.1% (5/238) of breastfeeding women taking codeine according to our safety guidelines. This rate was eight fold lower than that reported in previous prospective studies. Women reporting sedated infants were taking codeine for a significantly longer period of time (4.80±2.59 days vs. 2.52±1.58 days, p = 0.0018). While following the codeine safety guidelines, mothers were less likely to supplement with formula, reported lower rates of sedation in themselves and breastfed more frequently throughout the day when compared to previously reported rates. Genotyping analysis of cytochrome p450 2D6 (CYP2D6), uridine-diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7, p-glycoprotein (ABCB1), the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) and catechol-o-demethyltransferase (COMT) did not predict codeine response in breastfeeding mother/infant pairs when following the safety guidelines. Conclusions The only cases of CNS depression occurred when the length of codeine use exceeded the guideline recommendations. Neonatal safety of codeine can be improved using evidence-based guidelines, even in

  6. Simultaneous analysis of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and ochratoxin A in breast milk by high-performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence after liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification (LLE-LTP).

    PubMed

    Andrade, Patricia Diniz; Gomes da Silva, Julyane Laine; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2013-08-23

    The aims of this study were to optimize and validate a methodology for the simultaneous analysis of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in breast milk, and to analyze these mycotoxins in samples obtained from human milk banks in the Federal District, Brazil. The optimized analytical method was based on liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification (3.25mL of acidified acetonitrile+0.75mL of ethyl acetate), followed by analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC/FLD) and a photochemical post-column reactor. Limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.005 to 0.03ng/mL, recoveries from 73 to 99.5%, and relative standard deviations (RSD) from 1.8 to 17.3%. The LLE-LTP extraction method was shown to be simple and cost-effective, since no columns were needed for clean-up. Only 2 of the 224 breast milk samples analyzed were positive for the mycotoxins, both samples containing AFB2 at the LOQ level (0.005ng/mL). The identity of the mycotoxin detected was confirmed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This result indicates that infants who are fed with breast milk from the milk banks are not at risk from aflatoxin and ochratoxin exposure. PMID:23871563

  7. Accumulation of brominated flame retardants and polychlorinated biphenyls in human breast milk and scalp hair from the Philippines: levels, distribution and profiles.

    PubMed

    Malarvannan, Govindan; Isobe, Tomohiko; Covaci, Adrian; Prudente, Maricar; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    Paired human breast milk and scalp hair samples (n=30) were obtained in 2008 from primipara and multipara mothers living in two locations in the Philippines viz., Payatas, a waste dumpsite, and Malate, a non-dumpsite. Samples were analyzed for three groups of organohalogenated compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). PCBs were the predominantly identified compounds (median: 70 ng/g lipid wt.) in all the breast milk samples. In the human milk, CB-153 was the most dominant PCB congener (17-44% contribution to the sum PCB), closely followed by CB-138 (12-35%), CB-118 (4-12%), CB-180 (2-13%), CB-187 (3-13%), and CB-170 (1.5-10%). Levels of PBDEs (median: 3.0 ng/g lipid wt.) in human milk samples from the Philippines were similar to other Asian or European countries. BDE-47, -99, -100 and -153 were the major PBDE congeners. For HBCDs, the α-isomer was predominant followed by the γ-HBCD isomer in the both locations. PBDE levels in human milk were significantly higher in the dumpsite (3.9 ng/g lipid wt.) than in the non-dump site (2.2 ng/g lipid wt.). PBDE concentrations (including BDE-209) were significantly higher (median: 70 ng/g hair) than those of PCBs (median: 30 ng/g hair) and HBCDs (median: 1.0 ng/g hair) in all the scalp hair samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report on HBCDs in human scalp hair. PBDE congeners in scalp hair were dominated by BDE-209 and BDE-47. On a congener basis, the levels of PBDEs found in scalp hair were higher than those in Spain (children and adults) and China (general people). PCB levels found in scalp hair were higher than those in Greece, Romania and Belgium, but lower than those in China. In this study, there were no significant differences in the concentration of PCBs and HBCDs in human milk; and PCBs, HBCDs and PBDEs in human scalp hair from the two different locations. No significant correlations were observed between PCBs, PBDEs and

  8. Compartmented electrode structure

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi; Gay, Eddie C.; Martino, Fredric J.

    1977-06-14

    Electrodes for secondary electrochemical cells are provided with compartments for containing particles of the electrode reactant. The compartments are defined by partitions that are generally impenetrable to the particles of reactant and, in some instances, to the liquid electrolyte used in the cell. During cycling of the cell, reactant material initially loaded into a particular compartment is prevented from migrating and concentrating within the lower portion of the electrode or those portions of the electrode that exhibit reduced electrical resistance.

  9. Effect of daily consumption of ß-cryptoxanthin-rich tangerines and ß-carotene-rich sweet potatoes on vitamin A and carotenoid concentrations in plasma and breast milk of Bangladeshi women with low vitamin A status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The potential of ß-cryptoxanthin-rich foods to form vitamin A (VA) in humans is not well understood. Objective: To measure the effects of consuming ß-cryptoxanthin (CX) and ß-carotene-rich (BC) foods on breast milk and plasma VA and carotenoids in VA deficient lactating women. Design: Su...

  10. Compartment Syndrome in Children.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Pooya; Hayes, Christopher B

    2016-07-01

    Compartment syndrome in children can present differently than adults. Increased analgesic need should be considered the first sign of evolving compartment syndrome in children. Children with supracondylar humerus fractures, floating elbow injuries, operatively treated forearm fractures, and tibia fractures are at high risk for developing compartment syndrome. Elbow flexion beyond 90° in supracondylar humerus fractures and closed treatment of forearm fractures in floating elbow injuries are associated with increased risk of compartment syndrome. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with fasciotomy in children result in excellent long-term outcomes. PMID:27241380

  11. Effect of breast milk of healthy and allergic mothers on in vitro stimulation of cord blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Zizka, Jan; Hrdý, Jirí; Lodinová-Zádníková, Raja; Kocourková, Ingrid; Novotná, Olga; Sterzl, Ivan; Prokesová, Ludmila

    2007-09-01

    Maternal milk has beneficial effects on the development and function of the newborn's immune system. Whether the milk of allergic mother has the same effects as the milk of healthy mothers is not yet quite clear. To contribute to the characterization of its immunomodulatory action, we tested the effect of milk of healthy and allergic mothers on the proliferation and immunoglobulin formation in cultures of cord blood mononuclear leucocytes (CBML) of newborns of healthy and allergic mothers. CBML proliferation was tested by (3)H-thymidine incorporation, IgM, IgG and IgA production by reverse ELISPOT. CBML response was examined in unstimulated cultures and after stimulation with polyclonal activators in the presence or absence of colostrum or milk. The cells of children of allergic mothers have a significantly higher proliferative activity than those of children of healthy mothers. Maternal colostrum/milk in high doses markedly suppresses cell proliferation after stimulation with polyclonal activators, whereas lower milk doses in the cultures have no such effect and exert a rather stimulatory action. Immunoglobulin production by cord blood lymphocytes is also different in the two groups of children. Low basal immunoglobulin formation is increased after stimulation with a strong polyclonal activator of B cells--Bacillus firmus, CBML of children of allergic mothers produce more IgA than those of children of healthy mothers. The stimulated production of all immunoglobulin classes in cells of children of healthy mothers is still enhanced by colostrum/milk. Children of allergic mothers show a markedly increased production of only IgM and IgA. The effect of healthy and allergic colostrum and milk on cell proliferation and immunoglobulin production is similar. The lymphocytes of children of allergic mothers differ from the lymphocytes of children of healthy mothers in their proliferative activity and the ability to form immunoglobulin already at birth. PMID:17651385

  12. Levels of dioxins and dibenzofurans in breast milk of women residing in two cities in the Irkutsk Region of Russian Siberia compared with American levels.

    PubMed

    Schecter, A; Piskac, A L; Grosheva, E I; Matorova, N I; Ryan, J J; Fürst, P; Päpke; Adibi, J; Pavuk, M; Silver, A; Ghaffar, S

    2002-04-01

    The presence of dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human tissue, food, and environmental samples from Russia has been monitored since 1988 as part of a research collaboration between a number of countries including Finland, the United States, Germany, the former Soviet Union, and Canada. Although elevated TCDD and PnCDD levels have previously been found in blood of male and female Russian chemical manufacturing workers and in their children, dioxin levels in the general population have usually been found to be lower than in Americans and Europeans. This study continues earlier work in the Irkutsk region of Russian Siberia, where we report levels of dioxin, dibenzofurans, and PCBs in human milk samples taken from general population women living in the industrialized cities of Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye, near Lake Baikal. Total polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) toxic equivalents (TEQs) compared in this paper for the industrialized regions of Siberia, Ukraine, and the US are similar, ranging from 6.1 to 7 parts per trillion (ppt). Recent 1998 milk samples from Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye have total mean polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) TEQs of 10 and 21.7 ppt, respectively, with the other industrialized countries ranging from 2.3 to 6.7 ppt. Although dioxin-like PCBs were not measured for the city of Usolye-Sibirskoye (1998), total mean PCDD/F TEQ from Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye (1998) were the two highest levels in this study, with 26.9 and 28.5 ppt, respectively, followed by 1993-1994 Ukraine samples with 24 ppt, 1989 Siberian samples with 13.6 ppt, and 1996 USA with 11.4 ppt total TEQ. In this study, higher levels of dioxins are noted in milk from Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye than found in earlier Russian studies, with mean levels also exceeding 1996 and 1999 US breast milk dioxin levels. PMID:11993631

  13. [Human milk and various resistence factors against infections].

    PubMed

    Cravioto, J; Arrieta-Milán, R

    1980-07-01

    The statement that breast milk can provide infants with better resistence against infections stems from 3 main lines of investigation: 1) biochemical, immunologic, and bacteriologic analyses of breast milk and of the feces of breast fed infants; 2) epidemiological studies on infant morbidity and mortality of children fed with breast milk or with cow milk; and, 3) the study of dozens of clinical cases. This long article examines data from all kinds of studies, especially regarding immunization against infant diarrhea, and suggests a few possible lines of investigation on the advantages of breast milk. PMID:7429077

  14. Brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in the breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: is there a relationship to levels in food?

    PubMed

    Pratt, Iona; Anderson, Wayne; Crowley, Dominique; Daly, Sean; Evans, Rhodri; Fernandes, Alwyn; Fitzgerald, Margaret; Geary, Michael; Keane, Declan; Morrison, John J; Reilly, Alan; Tlustos, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants - polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and others - have been measured in 11 pooled breast milk samples from 109 first-time mothers in Ireland. Additionally, the study has measured levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs), mixed halogenated dioxins (PXCC/Fs) and biphenyls (PXBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) in these samples. The mean sum of 19 PBDEs including BDE-209 was 4.85 ng g(-1) fat, which is comparable with that found in other European countries. BDE-47, BDE-153, BDE-209, BDE-99 and BDE-100 were found at the highest concentrations. The only PBBs detected consistently were BB-77, BB-126 and BB-153, with highest concentrations being found for BB-153 (mean = 0.13 ng g(-1) fat). The mean sum of HBCD enantiomers was 3.52 ng g(-1) fat, with α-HBCD representing over 70% of the total. Of the other brominated flame retardants - tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), hexabromobenzene (HBB), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) and bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxyethane) (BTBPE) - examined, only TBBP-A was detected above the limit of detection (LOD), in two of the 11 pools analysed. All measured PBDF congeners were observed (at 0.02-0.91 pg g(-1) fat), but 2,3,7,8-tetrabromo-dibenzodioxin (TeBDD) was the only PBDD detected, with a mean concentration of 0.09 pg g(-1) fat. The occurrence of the mixed chlorinated/brominated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls, 2-B-3,7,8-CDD, 2,3-B-7,8-CDF, 4-B-2,3,7,8-CDF, PXB 105, PXB 118, PXB 126 and PCB 156 in breast milk in the current study may indicate that levels of these contaminants are increasing in the environment. Polychlorinated naphthalenes were detected in all samples, but not perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other PFAS. The pattern of occurrence of these brominated and fluorinated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Irish breast milk shows a general relationship

  15. Breast Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  16. Single compartment drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Cima, Michael J.; Lee, Heejin; Daniel, Karen; Tanenbaum, Laura M.; Mantzavinou, Aikaterini; Spencer, Kevin C.; Ong, Qunya; Sy, Jay C.; Santini, John; Schoellhammer, Carl M.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Drug design is built on the concept that key molecular targets of disease are isolated in the diseased tissue. Systemic drug administration would be sufficient for targeting in such a case. It is, however, common for enzymes or receptors that are integral to disease to be structurally similar or identical to those that play important biological roles in normal tissues of the body. Additionally, systemic administration may not lead to local drug concentrations high enough to yield disease modification because of rapid systemic metabolism or lack of sufficient partitioning into the diseased tissue compartment. This review focuses on drug delivery methods that physically target drugs to individual compartments of the body. Compartments such as the bladder, peritoneum, brain, eye and skin are often sites of disease and can sometimes be viewed as “privileged,” since they intrinsically hinder partitioning of systemically administered agents. These compartments have become the focus of a wide array of procedures and devices for direct administration of drugs. We discuss the rationale behind single compartment drug delivery for each of these compartments, and give an overview of examples at different development stages, from the lab bench to phase III clinical trials to clinical practice. We approach single compartment drug delivery from both a translational and a technological perspective. PMID:24798478

  17. EVIDENCE FOR THE PRESENCE OF MUTAGENIC ARYL AMINES IN HUMAN BREAST MILK AND DNA ADDUCTS IN EXFOLIATED BREAST-DUCT EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aromatic (AA) and heterocyclic amines (HAA) are ubiquitous environmental mutagens present in combustions emissions, fried meats, tobacco smoke, etc., and are suspect human mammary carcinogens. To determine the presence of aryl amines in breast tissue and fluid, we examined exfol...

  18. A multiresidue method for the determination of selected endocrine disrupting chemicals in human breast milk based on a simple extraction procedure.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gómez, R; Jiménez-Díaz, I; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A

    2014-12-01

    In recent decades, in parallel to industrial development, a large amount of new chemicals have emerged that are able to produce disorders in human endocrine system. These groups of substances, so-called endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), include many families of compounds, such as parabens, benzophenone-UV filters and bisphenols. Given the demonstrated biological activity of those compounds, it is necessary to develop new analytical procedures to evaluate the exposure with the final objective of establishing, in an accurate way, relationships between EDCs concentrations and the harmful health effects observed in population. In the present work, a method based on a simplified sample treatment involving steps of precipitation, evaporation and clean-up of the extracts with C18 followed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis for the determination of bisphenol A and its chlorinated derivatives (monochloro-, dichloro-, trichloro- and tetrachlorobisphenol A), parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butylparaben) and benzophenone-UV filters (benzophenone -1,-2, -3, -6, -8 and 4-hydroxybenzophenone) in human breast milk samples is proposed and validated. The limits of detections found ranged from 0.02 to 0.05 ng mL(-1). The method was validated using matrix-matched standard calibration followed by a recovery assay with spiked samples. Recovery rates ranged from 91% to 110% and the precision (evaluated as relative standard deviation) was lower than 15% for all compounds, being within the acceptable limits for the selected bioanalytical method validation guide. The method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of these compounds in human breast milk samples collected from 10 randomly selected women. PMID:25159447

  19. Inverse association of highly chlorinated dioxin congeners in maternal breast milk with dehydroepiandrosterone levels in three-year-old Vietnamese children.

    PubMed

    Kido, Teruhiko; Honma, Seijiro; Nhu, Dang Duc; Manh, Ho Dung; Van Tung, Dao; Liang, Sun Xian; Anh, Le Thai; Okamoto, Rie; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Son, Le Ke

    2016-04-15

    This study aims to evaluate the endocrine-disrupting effect of dioxin congeners on adrenal steroid hormones in mother-child pairs. In our previous study, we found that cortisol and cortisone levels were higher in the blood and the saliva of mothers living in a dioxin hotspot area than in mothers from a non-exposed region in Vietnam. In this follow-up study, we determined the salivary steroid hormone levels in 49 and 55 three-year-old children of these mothers in the hotspot and non-exposed region, respectively. Steroid hormones were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and dioxin in the maternal breast milk was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dioxin levels in the breast milk of mothers from the hotspot (median total toxic equivalents polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans; (TEQ PCDD/Fs) of 11pg/g lipid) were three to four times higher than those of mothers in the non-exposed region (median TEQ PCDD/Fs of 3.07pg/g lipid). Salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels in children were found to be significantly lower in the hotspot than in the non-exposed region, while cortisol and cortisone levels were not different between the two regions. Highly chlorinated dioxin congeners, such as octacholorodibenzodioxin (OCDD), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptacholorodibenzodioxin (HpCDD) and 1,2,3,4 (or 6), 7,8-hexachlorodibenzodioxin Hx(CDD), showed stronger inverse associations with the children's salivary DHEA than other lowly chlorinated dioxin congeners. Glucocorticoid levels in the mothers exhibited a significantly positive correlation with OCDD and HpCDD/F (polychlorinated dibenzofurans). In conclusion, highly chlorinated dioxin congeners are more strongly correlated with endocrine-disrupting effects on adrenal hormones, resulting in high cortisol levels in the mothers and low DHEA levels in their three-year-old children. PMID:26820928

  20. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lina; de Waard, Marita; Verheijen, Hester; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A.; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    Here we provide data from shot-gun proteomics, using filtered-aided sample preparation (FASP), dimethyl labeling and LC–MS/MS, to quantify the changes in the repertoire of human milk proteins over lactation. Milk serum proteins were analyzed at week 1, 2, 3 4, 8, 16, and 24 in milk from four individual mothers. A total of 247 proteins were identified, of which 200 proteins were quantified. The data supplied in this article supports the accompanying publication (Zhang et al., 2006) [1]. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (Vizcaíno et al., 2016) [2] via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD003465. PMID:26977438

  1. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lina; de Waard, Marita; Verheijen, Hester; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-06-01

    Here we provide data from shot-gun proteomics, using filtered-aided sample preparation (FASP), dimethyl labeling and LC-MS/MS, to quantify the changes in the repertoire of human milk proteins over lactation. Milk serum proteins were analyzed at week 1, 2, 3 4, 8, 16, and 24 in milk from four individual mothers. A total of 247 proteins were identified, of which 200 proteins were quantified. The data supplied in this article supports the accompanying publication (Zhang et al., 2006) [1]. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (Vizcaíno et al., 2016) [2] via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD003465. PMID:26977438

  2. [THE ROLE OF MOTHER'S MILK AND BREAST FEEDING. MEDICAL PROBLEMS DURING THE LACTATION PERIOD LACTOBACILUS FERMENTUM--A NEW APPROACH TOWARDS THE PREVENTION AND THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE AND SUBACUTE MASTITIS].

    PubMed

    Popova, B; Mitev, D; Nikolov, A

    2016-01-01

    Breast feeding provides a lot of short and long-term benefits for the mother and the baby. It prevents the baby of gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory infections, atopical conditions and assures long-term protection of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The breast feeding decreases the risk for the mother of ovary and breast carcinoma and creates a positive emotional bond between the mother and the baby Mother's milk is a species specific; its content is relatively stable regardless of mother's age race, way and place of living. Mother's milk is not sterile. There is a 10 year international trial held in Spanish and Finnish universities. It has identified and count all microorganisms in mother's milk (more than 700) and proved that their content and quantity varies according the age of the baby. Mother's milk is a source of lactobacillus for baby's intestines and most of them have probiotic potential. Lactobacillus fermentum Lc40 (hereditum) is isolated from mother's milk. It has a good viability in gastrointestinal system, high level of adhesion to intestinal epithelium cells, produces glutation--strong antioxidant, good antibacterial activity to entero-pathogens and potential of increasing the immunologic response. Clinical trials reveal that Lactobacillus fermentum plays important role to microflora balance of mother's milk in mastitis during lactation. Many trials estimating the efficiency of lactobacillus fermentum in prevention and treatment of acute and subacute mastitis have been carried out. The results of them open a new door in front of us in the treatment of these conditions--treatment with probiotics instead of antibiotics. PMID:27514147

  3. Estimation of adipose compartment volumes in CT images of a mastectomy specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imran, Abdullah-Al-Zubaer; Pokrajac, David D.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Bakic, Predrag R.

    2016-03-01

    Anthropomorphic software breast phantoms have been utilized for preclinical quantitative validation of breast imaging systems. Efficacy of the simulation-based validation depends on the realism of phantom images. Anatomical measurements of the breast tissue, such as the size and distribution of adipose compartments or the thickness of Cooper's ligaments, are essential for the realistic simulation of breast anatomy. Such measurements are, however, not readily available in the literature. In this study, we assessed the statistics of adipose compartments as visualized in CT images of a total mastectomy specimen. The specimen was preserved in formalin, and imaged using a standard body CT protocol and high X-ray dose. A human operator manually segmented adipose compartments in reconstructed CT images using ITK-SNAP software, and calculated the volume of each compartment. In addition, the time needed for the manual segmentation and the operator's confidence were recorded. The average volume, standard deviation, and the probability distribution of compartment volumes were estimated from 205 segmented adipose compartments. We also estimated the potential correlation between the segmentation time, operator's confidence, and compartment volume. The statistical tests indicated that the estimated compartment volumes do not follow the normal distribution. The compartment volumes are found to be correlated with the segmentation time; no significant correlation between the volume and the operator confidence. The performed study is limited by the mastectomy specimen position. The analysis of compartment volumes will better inform development of more realistic breast anatomy simulation.

  4. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Braver, Richard T

    2016-04-01

    Increased tissue pressure within a fascial compartment may be the result from any increase in volume within its contents, or any decrease in size of the fascial covering or its distensibility. This may lead to symptoms of leg tightness, pain or numbness brought about by exercise. There are multiple differential diagnoses of exercise induced leg pain and the proper diagnoses of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is made by a careful history and by exclusion of other maladies and confirmed by compartment syndrome testing as detailed in this text. Surgical fasciotomies for the anterior, lateral, superficial and deep posterior compartments are described in detail along with ancillary procedures for chronic shin splints that should allow the athlete to return to competitive activity. PMID:27013413

  5. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    George, Christopher A; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2012-04-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is a relatively common, but often overlooked cause of leg pain in athletes. A careful history and physical examination is essential in the diagnosis of CECS. Affected individuals have recurrent, activity-related leg pain that recurs at a consistent duration or intensity and is only relieved by rest. Measurement of baseline and postexercise compartment pressures confirms the diagnosis and helps in the planning of treatment. Surgical treatment with fasciotomy of the involved compartments is successful in allowing patients to return to full activity levels. With surgical treatment, it is critical to address all affected compartments as well as releasing any fascial defects, both of which may cause recurrent symptoms if neglected. With appropriate diagnosis and treatment, excellent outcomes can be achieved and allow athletes to return to full, unrestricted activity levels. PMID:22341019

  6. Milk metabolites and neurodegeneration: Is there crosstalk?

    PubMed

    Thakur, Keshav; Anand, Akshay

    2015-10-01

    Milk has been considered as a natural source of nutrition for decades. Milk is known to be nutrient-rich which aids the growth and development of the human body. Milk contains both macro- and micronutrients. Breast milk is widely regarded as the optimal source of neonatal nutrition due to its composition of carbohydrates, proteins, minerals and antibodies. However, despite the wide use of milk products, investigations into the role of milk in degenerative diseases have been limited. This review will examine the relationship between the β-casein gene found in bovine milk and disease states by using age-related macular degeneration as an example. PMID:26526864

  7. Plasma and breast-milk selenium in HIV-infected Malawian mothers are positively associated with infant selenium status but are not associated with maternal supplementation: results of the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study123

    PubMed Central

    Flax, Valerie L; Bentley, Margaret E; Combs, Gerald F; Chasela, Charles S; Kayira, Dumbani; Tegha, Gerald; Kamwendo, Debbie; Daza, Eric J; Fokar, Ali; Kourtis, Athena P; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles M; Adair, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Selenium is found in soils and is essential for human antioxidant defense and immune function. In Malawi, low soil selenium and dietary intakes coupled with low plasma selenium concentrations in HIV infection could have negative consequences for the health of HIV-infected mothers and their exclusively breastfed infants. Objective: We tested the effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) that contained 1.3 times the Recommended Dietary Allowance of sodium selenite and antiretroviral drugs (ARV) on maternal plasma and breast-milk selenium concentrations. Design: HIV-infected Malawian mothers in the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study were randomly assigned at delivery to receive: LNS, ARV, LNS and ARV, or a control. In a subsample of 526 mothers and their uninfected infants, we measured plasma and breast-milk selenium concentrations at 2 or 6 (depending on the availability of infant samples) and 24 wk postpartum. Results: Overall, mean (±SD) maternal (range: 81.2 ± 20.4 to 86.2 ± 19.9 μg/L) and infant (55.6 ± 16.3 to 61.0 ± 15.4 μg/L) plasma selenium concentrations increased, whereas breast-milk selenium concentrations declined (14.3 ± 11.5 to 9.8 ± 7.3 μg/L) from 2 or 6 to 24 wk postpartum (all P < 0.001). Compared with the highest baseline selenium tertile, low and middle tertiles were positively associated with a change in maternal plasma or breast-milk selenium from 2 or 6 to 24 wk postpartum (both P < 0.001). With the use of linear regression, we showed that LNS that contained selenium and ARV were not associated with changes in maternal plasma and breast-milk selenium, but maternal selenium concentrations were positively associated with infant plasma selenium at 2 or 6 and 24 wk postpartum (P < 0.001) regardless of the study arm. Conclusions: Selenite supplementation of HIV-infected Malawian women was not associated with a change in their plasma or breast-milk selenium concentrations. Future research should examine

  8. Relationship between atmospheric pollution in the residential area and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Pulkrabova, Jana; Stupak, Michal; Svarcova, Andrea; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Ambroz, Antonin; Sram, Radim; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-08-15

    Human milk is an important source of beneficial nutrients and antibodies for newborns and infants and, under certain circumstances, its analysis may provide information on mothers' and infants' exposure to various contaminants. In the presented study, we have introduced the new analytical approach for analysis of 24 highly occurring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this indicator matrix. The sample preparation procedure is based on an ethyl acetate extraction of milk; the transfer of analytes into an organic layer is enhanced by addition of inorganic salts, i.e. sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate. Following the clean-up of a crude extract on silica SPE columns, gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry is used for PAH identification and quantitation. The average recoveries of targeted PAHs from spiked samples were in the range of 68-110% with repeatabilities below 30% and method quantitation limits ranging from 0.03 to 0.3ng/g lipid weight. This newly validated method was successfully applied for analyses of 324 human milk samples collected from nonsmoking women during two sampling periods (summer and winter) in two residential areas in the Czech Republic differing in atmospheric pollution by PAHs. From 24 targeted analytes 17 were detected at least in one sample. Phenantherene, fluoranthrene, pyrene and fluorene were the most abundant compounds found at average concentration of 13.81, 1.80, 0.86, and 2.01ng/g lipid weight respectively. Comparing the data from two sampling periods, in both areas higher concentrations were measured in samples collected during winter. Also in the highly industrialized locality with heavily contaminated air PAH amounts in milk were higher than in the control locality. These first data on PAH concentrations in human milk collected in the Czech Republic are comparable with measurements for nonsmoking women reported earlier in the United States but significantly lower than results from China, Turkey

  9. Abdominal Compartment Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maluso, Patrick; Olson, Jody; Sarani, Babak

    2016-04-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare but potentially morbid diagnoses. Clinical index of suspicion for these disorders should be raised following massive resuscitation, abdominal wall reconstruction/injury, and in those with space-occupying disorders in the abdomen. Gold standard for diagnosis involves measurement of bladder pressure, with a pressure greater than 12 mm Hg being consistent with IAH and greater than 25 mm Hg being consistent with ACS. Decompressive laparotomy is definitive therapy but paracentesis can be equally therapeutic in properly selected patients. Left untreated, ACS can lead to multisystem organ failure and death. PMID:27016163

  10. Spacecraft Compartment Venting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.

    1998-01-01

    At various time concerns have been expressed that rapid decompressions of compartments of gas pockets and thermal blankets during spacecraft launches may have caused pressure differentials across their walls sufficient to cause minor structural failures, separations of adhesively-joined parts, ballooning, and flapping of blankets. This paper presents a close form equation expressing the expected pressure differentials across the walls of a compartment as a function of the external to the volume pressure drops, the pressure at which the rates occur and the vent capability of the compartment. The pressure profiles measured inside the shrouds of several spacecraft propelled by several vehicles and some profiles obtained from ground vacuum systems have been included. The equation can be used to design the appropriate vent, which will preclude excessive pressure differentials. Precautions and needed approaches for the evaluations of the expected pressures have been indicated. Methods to make a rapid assessment of the response of the compartment to rapid external pressure drops have been discussed. These are based on the evaluation of the compartment vent flow conductance, the volume and the length of time during which the rapid pressure drop occurs.

  11. The Reasons for Early Weaning, Perceived Insufficient Breast Milk, and Maternal Dissatisfaction: Comparative Studies in Two Belgian Regions

    PubMed Central

    Coppieters, Yves; Swennen, Béatrice; Dramaix, Michéle

    2014-01-01

    Objective and Method. To report on the weaning reasons at the maternity ward, at 3, 6, and 12 months and to report the socioeconomic characteristics of mothers not satisfied with breastfeeding duration as well as of those who have weaned their child because of perceived insufficient milk (PIM). Two cross-sectional studies were performed in 2012. Results. 62.9% of mothers in Wallonia and 56.8% in Brussels are dissatisfied with the duration of breastfeeding. In the two regions, younger mothers, ignoring the WHO recommendations, having a low level of education, or thinking not having sufficient milk production, were more likely to be dissatisfied. According to the analysed period, PIM and return to work are the two leading causes of weaning. While in Brussels PIM seemed to be associated only with partial BF at the maternity ward, in Wallonia, PIM was associated with a less educated environment and with ignoring the WHO recommendations. Conclusions. Too many mothers, especially destitute, are dissatisfied. They more often evoke PIM as reason for weaning. However, the literature shows that the real lack of milk only affects 1–5% of the mothers. Professionals need to be better informed of this discrepancy between mothers' perception and physiology. They should be more supportive, especially among more precarious mothers.

  12. Effect of short term oral zinc supplementation on the concentration of zinc in breast milk of American and Egyptian women

    SciTech Connect

    Karra, M.V.; Kirksey, A.; Bassily, N.

    1986-03-01

    The present study was conducted to observe the effects of short-term maternal oral zinc supplementation on concentration of zinc in milk obtained from American and Egyptian women. Thirty-three American women and 30 Egyptian women were divided into four groups. One group, in each country, was supplemented with 50 mg of zinc as zinc sulfate while the other group did not receive any extra zinc over that obtained from the diet. Milk samples were obtained before supplementation was begun and then again after 10, 15, 20 and 30 days on the supplement and analyzed for zinc by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Concentration of zinc in milk among the four groups was not significantly different at the beginning of the study. Concentration of zinc decreased in all four groups during the study. However, the unsupplemented American women had a significantly (p < .05) greater decrease (-24.45 +/- 9.57% Mean +SE) than those who received the 50 mg zinc supplement (-4.35 +/- 9.57%). Between the unsupplemented and supplemented groups in Egypt, however, there was no significant difference in the change in zinc levels during this 34-day period (-9.47 +/- 5.12% and -8.94 +/- 5.23% respectively.

  13. Vitamin Content of Breast Milk From HIV-1–Infected Mothers Before and After Flash-Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Israel-Ballard, Kiersten A.; Abrams, Barbara F.; Coutsoudis, Anna; Sibeko, Lindiwe N.; Cheryk, Lynn A.; Chantry, Caroline J.

    2010-01-01

    Background World Health Organization advocates heat treatment of expressed breastmilk (EBM) as one method to reduce postnatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in developing countries. Flash-heat is a simple heat treatment method shown to inactivate cell-free HIV. Objective To determine the effect of flash-heat on vitamin content of milk. Methods Fresh EBM was collected from 50 HIV+ mothers in Durban, South Africa. Mothers washed their hands and then manually expressed 75–150 mL EBM into sterile jars. Milk was aliquoted to unheated controls or flash-heat (50 mL EBM in a glass jar heated in a 450-mL water jacket in an aluminum pan until water boiled, then EBM removed) simulating field conditions with an open flame. Samples were stored at −70°C and then analyzed for the effect of flash-heat on vitamins [A, ascorbic acid, riboflavin (B2), pyridoxal-5-phosphate (B6), folate, and B12]. Results Vitamin A was not significantly affected by flash-heat and vitamins B12 and C and folate increased significantly. Vitamins B2 and B6 were decreased to 59% (95% confidence interval 44 to 81) and 96% (95% confidence interval 92 to 99), respectively, of that found in unheated milk. Conclusions The percentage remaining after flash-heat suggests that most vitamin concentrations are retained after heating. Flash-heat may be a practical and nutritious infant feeding method for mothers in developing countries. PMID:18614920

  14. Analysis of breast milk to assess exposure to chlorinated contaminants in Kazakhstan: sources of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposures in an agricultural region of southern Kazakhstan.

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, K; Chuvakova, T; Kazbekova, G; Hayward, D; Tulenova, A; Petreas, M X; Wade, T J; Benedict, K; Cheng, Y Y; Grassman, J

    1999-01-01

    High levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; up to 208 pg/g fat) were measured in samples of breast milk collected in 1997 from 64 donors [41 first-time mothers (primiparae)] living on state farms in southern Kazakhstan. TCDD was the major contributor (70%) to the toxic equivalents, matching the congener patterns found in breast milk and serum samples collected in 1994 and 1996 from donors in nearby villages. The highest TCDD levels were found in state farms adjacent to a reservoir (zone A), which receives agricultural runoff from cotton fields. TCDD levels in zone A were significantly higher than levels in a region more distant (zone B; > 10 miles) from the reservoir (zone A: mean 53 pg/g, n = 17; zone B: mean 21 pg/g, n = 24; p = 0.0017). Levels of TCDD in breast milk and animal-derived foodstuffs were 10 times U.S. levels. Body burden and dietary data suggest that exposures to TCDD are chronic, environmental, and long term and may be related to the use of chemicals in cotton agriculture. The data suggest that the most likely source is the use of cotton defoliants contaminated with TCDD, and the most likely pathway for human exposure is via the consumption of contaminated foodstuffs. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10515712

  15. Aggravation of atopic dermatitis in breast-fed infants by tree nut-related foods and fermented foods in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Uenishi, Toshiaki; Sugiura, Hisashi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Uehara, Masami

    2011-02-01

    Ninety-two exclusively breast-fed Japanese infants with atopic dermatitis were studied to see whether tree nut-related foods (chocolate and coffee) and fermented foods (cheese, yogurt, bread, soy sauce, miso soup and fermented soy beans) eaten by their mothers affected their skin condition. Of the 92 infants, 67 (73%) showed improvement of skin lesions when their mothers avoided these foods and showed aggravation of skin lesions when these foods were reintroduced. The predominant offending foods were chocolate, yogurt, soy sauce and miso soup. A long-term maternal exclusion of the trigger foods brought about progressive improvement of skin lesions in the majority of the infants. These findings suggest that tree nut-related foods and fermented foods are important offending foods of atopic dermatitis in breast-fed infants. PMID:21269309

  16. [Milk fat globules, as determinants of the nutritional and biological value of goat milk].

    PubMed

    Skidan, I N; Gulyaev, A E; Kaznacheev, K S

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the most complete information on such fundamentally important quality parameters of goat milk as the cellular composition of somatic cells and the structure of cytoplasmic debris in milk. It also focuses on the characterization of an essential component of the energetic value and nutritional content of milk--milk fat globules and milk fat globule membranes. The survey also clarifies some of the terms and meanings of physiological processes associated with the formation of the milk of various ruminants and breast milk. PMID:26841561

  17. The Crew Compartment Trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-93 crew emergency egress training in the Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT). The five crewmembers of STS-93 in the middeck mock-up are from left to right: Mission Specialist Michel Tognini, Mission Specialist Catherine 'Cady' Coleman, Pilot Jeffrey Ashby, Commander Eileen Collins and Mission Specialist Stephen Hawley.

  18. [Chronic exertional compartment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Rom, Eyal; Tenenbaum, Shay; Chechick, Ofir; Burstein, Gideon; Amit, Yehuda; Thein, Ran

    2013-10-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is an uncommon phenomenon first reported in the mid 50's. This condition is characterized by sharp pain during physical activity, causing reduction in activity frequency or intensity and even abstention. This syndrome is caused by elevation of the intra-compartmental pressure which leads to decreased tissue perfusion, thus ischemic damage to the tissue ensues. Chronic exertional syndrome is usually related to repetitive physical activity, usually in young people and athletes. The physical activity performed by the patient causes a rise in intra-compartmental pressure and thereby causes pain. The patient discontinues the activity and the pain subsides within minutes of rest. Chronic exertional syndrome is reported to occur in the thigh, shoulder, arm, hand, foot and gluteal region, but most commonly in the leg, especially the anterior compartment. The diagnosis of chronic exertional syndrome is primarily based on patients' medical history, supported by intramuscular pressure measurement of the specific compartment involved. Treatment of chronic exertional syndrome, especially the anterior and lateral compartment of the leg is mainly by surgery i.e. fasciotomy. If the patient is reluctant to undergo a surgical procedure, the conservative treatment is based on abstention from the offending activity, changing footwear or using arch support. However, the conservative approach is not as successful as surgical treatment. PMID:24450036

  19. Excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk following administration of /sup 125/I-fibrinogen, /sup 99/Tc/sup m/-MAA and /sup 51/Cr-EDTA

    SciTech Connect

    Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.; Nosslin, B.; Ahlgren, L.

    1981-06-01

    Very few biokinetic and dosimetric data for estimating the absorbed dose to a breast-feeding child are available in the literature. The few available are usually case reports. We have measured the activity concentration in breast milk from one patient after administration of /sup 125/I-fibrinogen, from two patients after administration of /sup 99/Tc/sup m/-macroaggregated albumin, and from one patient after administration of /sup 51/Cr-EDTA. We have compared our data with earlier published results and estimated the absorbed dose to the breast-feeding child using biokinetic data presented in this work and recently published S-values for new-born children.

  20. Anti-breast cancer effects of live, heat-killed and cytoplasmic fractions of Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus hominis isolated from human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Zubaida; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Isa, Nurulfiza Mat

    2016-03-01

    Development of tumour that is resistant to chemotherapeutics and synthetic drugs, coupled with their life-threatening side effects and the adverse effects of surgery and hormone therapies, led to increased research on probiotics' anticancer potentials. The current study investigated the potential of live, heat-killed cells (HKC) and the cytoplasmic fractions (CF) of Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus hominis as anti-breast cancer agents. MCF-7 cell line was treated with 25, 50, 100 and 200 μg/mL each of live, HKC and CF of the bacteria; and cytotoxicity was evaluated for 24, 48 and 72 h using MTT assay. The morphological features of the treated cells were examined by fluorescence microscopy. The stage of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were quantified by flow cytometry. The bacterial effect on non-malignant breast epithelial cell line, MCF-10A, was assessed using MTT assay for 24, 48 and 72 h. All the three forms of the bacteria caused a significant decrease in MCF-7 (up to 33.29%) cell proliferation in concentration- and time-dependent manner. Morphological features of apoptosis like cell death, cell shrinkage and membrane blebbing were observed. Flow cytometry analyses suggested that about 34.60% of treated MCF-7 was undergoing apoptosis. A strong anti-proliferative activity was efficiently induced through sub-G1 accumulation (up to 83.17%) in treated MCF-7 and decreased number in the G0/G1 phase (74.39%). MCF-10A cells treated with both bacteria showed no significant difference with the untreated (>90% viability). These bacteria can be used as good alternative nutraceutical with promising therapeutic indexes for breast cancer because of their non-cytotoxic effects to normal cells. PMID:26659392

  1. Cocaine and crack cocaine abuse by pregnant or lactating mothers and analysis of its biomarkers in meconium and breast milk by LC-MS-A review.

    PubMed

    D'Avila, Felipe Bianchini; Limberger, Renata Pereira; Fröehlich, Pedro Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Abusive use of drugs is a public health problem worldwide. The use of these substances by pregnant or lactating women can have many serious side effects in newborns. Among the commonest causes of addiction in drug users is cocaine in powdered form, inhaled, intravenously injected or smoked form (crack). Fast screening and a confirmation test using high specificity and sensitivity instruments such as LC-MS or GC/MS, can provide data to qualify and quantify chemical substances present in biological samples such as breast milk or meconium. Cocaine and/or crack can be detected through biomarkers or the unchanged molecule, enabling the form of cocaine use to be distinguished through the analytes. These methods must be carefully developed and validated according to internationally recognized guidelines. Thus, the study of biological matrices in which it can be detected through the development of simple and quick analytical methods can help prevent intoxication and diagnose the symptoms of dependency such as seizures, especially in babies, providing appropriate medical care. PMID:26827634

  2. Enforcing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes for Better Promotion of Exclusive Breastfeeding: Can Lessons Be Learned?

    PubMed

    Barennes, Hubert; Slesak, Guenther; Goyet, Sophie; Aaron, Percy; Srour, Leila M

    2016-02-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding, one of the best natural resources, needs protection and promotion. The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code), which aims to prevent the undermining of breastfeeding by formula advertising, faces implementation challenges. We reviewed frequently overlooked challenges and obstacles that the Code is facing worldwide, but particularly in Southeast Asia. Drawing lessons from various countries where we work, and following the example of successful public health interventions, we discussed legislation, enforcement, and experiences that are needed to successfully implement the Code. Successful holistic approaches that have strengthened the Code need to be scaled up. Community-based actions and peer-to-peer promotions have proved successful. Legislation without stringent enforcement and sufficient penalties is ineffective. The public needs education about the benefits and ways and means to support breastfeeding. It is crucial to combine strong political commitment and leadership with strict national regulations, definitions, and enforcement. National breastfeeding committees, with the authority to improve regulations, investigate violations, and enforce the laws, must be established. Systematic monitoring and reporting are needed to identify companies, individuals, intermediaries, and practices that infringe on the Code. Penalizing violators is crucial. Managers of multinational companies must be held accountable for international violations, and international legislative enforcement needs to be established. Further measures should include improved regulations to protect the breastfeeding mother: large-scale education campaigns; strong penalties for Code violators; exclusion of the formula industry from nutrition, education, and policy roles; supportive legal networks; and independent research of interventions supporting breastfeeding. PMID:26416439

  3. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Milk Allergy KidsHealth > For Teens > Milk Allergy Print A ... on to find out. What Happens With a Milk Allergy? Food allergies involve the body's immune system, ...

  4. Milk stimulates growth of prostate cancer cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Tate, Patricia L; Bibb, Robert; Larcom, Lyndon L

    2011-11-01

    Concern has been expressed about the fact that cows' milk contains estrogens and could stimulate the growth of hormone-sensitive tumors. In this study, organic cows' milk and two commercial substitutes were digested in vitro and tested for their effects on the growth of cultures of prostate and breast cancer cells. Cows' milk stimulated the growth of LNCaP prostate cancer cells in each of 14 separate experiments, producing an average increase in growth rate of over 30%. In contrast, almond milk suppressed the growth of these cells by over 30%. Neither cows' milk nor almond milk affected the growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells or AsPC-1 pancreatic cancer cells significantly. Soy milk increased the growth rate of the breast cancer cells. These data indicate that prostate and breast cancer patients should be cautioned about the possible promotional effects of commercial dairy products and their substitutes. PMID:22043817

  5. Determination of PCDD/Fs in breast milk of women living in the vicinities of Da Nang Agent Orange hot spot (Vietnam) and estimation of the infant's daily intake.

    PubMed

    Hue, N T M; Nam, V D; Thuong, N V; Huyen, N T; Phuong, N T H; Hung, N X; Tuan, N H; Son, L K; Minh, N H

    2014-09-01

    Seventeen toxic congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in breast milks using the high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) method. Twenty seven breast milk samples were collected from primiparae who have lived over 5 years in wards namely Chinh Gian, An Khe, Khue Trung, and Hoa Thuan Tay which are located near the Da Nang Agent Orange hot spot (the AO/Dioxin hot spot). The samples were then analyzed for PCDD/F residues in order to assess the human exposure to dioxins from the AO/Dioxin hot spot, especially health risk to the breast-fed infants. The average TEQ levels in the four studied cohorts ranged from 8.1 to 26 pg/g lipid, with the highest level up to 51 pg TEQ/g lipid found in the An Khe ward. The TEQ level was correlated with geographical position and ranking in the order of Khue Trung, Hoa Thuan Tay, Chinh Gian and An Khe. The mean estimated PCDD/Fs infant's daily intake in the cohort of Khue Trung, Hoa Thuan Tay, Chinh Gian and An Khe was about 41, 122, 124, and 134 pg TEQ/kg bw/day, respectively, which are much higher than the tolerable daily intake proposed by the World Health Organization (4 pg TEQ/kg bw/day). PMID:24613651

  6. Acute Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Andrew H

    2016-07-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is a well-known pathophysiologic complication of trauma or tissue ischemia. ACS affects the appearance, function, and even the viability of the involved limb, and demands immediate diagnosis and treatment. However, ACS is difficult to diagnose and the only effective treatment is decompressive surgical fasciotomy. The clinical signs and symptoms may easily be attributed to other aspects of the injury, which further complicates the diagnosis. This article highlights the latest information regarding the diagnosis of ACS, how to perform fasciotomies, how to manage fasciotomy wounds, and also reviews complications and outcomes of ACS. PMID:27241376

  7. Simultaneous determination of parabens, alkylphenols, phenylphenols, bisphenol A and triclosan in human urine, blood and breast milk by continuous solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Azzouz, Abdelmonaim; Rascón, Andrés J; Ballesteros, Evaristo

    2016-02-01

    A highly sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the determination of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) including parabens, alkylphenols, phenylphenols, bisphenol A and triclosan in human breast milk, blood and urine samples is proposed. Blood and milk require a pretreatment to remove proteins and other substances potentially interfering with the continuous solid-phase extraction (SPE) system used; on the other hand, urine samples can be directly introduced into the system after filtering. Analytes are retained on a LiChrolut EN column and derivatized by silylation following elution with acetonitrile. The resulting trimethylsilyl derivatives are determined by GC-MS. The proposed method exhibited good linearity (r(2)>0.995) for all target EDCs over the concentration range 0.7-10,000ng/l in urine, and 3.3-50,000ng/l in blood and milk. Also, it provided low limits of detection (0.2-1.8ng/l in urine, and 1.0-9.0ng/l in blood and milk), good precision (relative standard deviations less than 7%) and recoveries from 86 to 104%. A total of 24 human fluid samples were analyzed and most found to contain some target EDC at concentrations from 0.10 to 14μg/l. PMID:26637951

  8. Human Milk for Ill and Medically Compromised Infants: Strategies and Ongoing Innovation.

    PubMed

    DiLauro, Sara; Unger, Sharon; Stone, Debbie; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2016-08-01

    The use of human milk (mother's own milk and/or donor milk) in ill or medically compromised infants frequently requires some adaptation to address medical diagnoses and/or altered nutrition requirements. This tutorial describes the nutrition and immunological benefits of breast milk as well as provides evidence for the use of donor milk when mother's own milk is unavailable. Several strategies used to modify human milk to meet the medical and nutrition needs of an ill or medically compromised infant are reviewed. These strategies include (1) the standard fortification of human milk to support adequate growth, (2) the novel concept of target fortification in preterm infants, (3) instructions on how to alter maternal diet to address cow's milk protein intolerance and/or allergy in breast milk-fed infants, and (4) the removal and modification of the fat in breast milk used in infants diagnosed with chylothorax. PMID:26903304

  9. Occurrence of perfluorinated alkylated substances in breast milk of French women and relation with socio-demographical and clinical parameters: results of the ELFE pilot study.

    PubMed

    Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Veyrand, Bruno; Kadar, Hanane; Marchand, Philippe; Oleko, Amivi; Le Bizec, Bruno; Vandentorren, Stéphanie

    2013-05-01

    A previously developed and validated methodology based on liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry was used for determine the concentration levels of 14 perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in a set of 48 breast milk samples collected from French women in the frame of the ELFE pilot study. In accordance with other similar studies conducted at european and international levels, PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS were detected and quantified in most of the analyzed samples (90%, 98% and 100%, respectively), and appeared as major contributors to the total PFAS exposure (38%, 37%, 25%, respectively), whereas the other targeted PFAS were very rarely, if not, found at the limits of detection of the method. Also in agreement with other published data, the concentration levels measured for the detected substances varied from <0.05 to 0.33μg/L for PFOS (median=0.079), from <0.05 to 0.22μg/L for PFOA (median=0.075), and from 0.04 to 0.07μg/L for PFHxS (median=0.050). On the basis of this relatively limited data set, no statistically significant relation was observed between these exposure levels and developmental outcomes, in particular the weight at birth. Similarly, no relation was observed between the measured PFAS levels and various socio-demographical parameters including the consumption of seafood, alcohol, smoking, or socio-economical level. These results suggest a need for further research and better knowledge regarding the sources, pharmacokinetics, and factors of exposure for other substances belonging to this class of emerging contaminants. PMID:23473698

  10. Soluble CD14, α-and β-defensins in breast milk: association with the emergence of allergy in a high-risk population.

    PubMed

    Savilahti, Emma M; Kukkonen, Anna K; Kuitunen, Mikael; Savilahti, Erkki

    2015-04-01

    As innate immunity factors in breast milk (BM) modulate infants' immune responses, we investigated whether soluble CD14 (sCD14) and defensin levels in BM are associated with the emergence of allergy in childhood. The randomly selected group of 260 mother-child pairs belonged to a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial where 1223 mothers with fetuses at high risk for allergy received for the 4 last wk of pregnancy a mixture of probiotics, or placebo; after birth, the child received the treatment for 6 mo. Children were followed for the emergence of sensitization and allergic symptoms for 5 yr. IgE-mediated allergic disorder was diagnosed in 80 children by the age of 5 yr. Levels of sCD14, human neutrophil peptide (HNP) 1-3 and β-defensin 2 (HBD2) in colostrum and in BM 3 mo post-partum were measured with ELISA. BM sCD14 levels decreased from 0 to 3 mo. HNP1-3 and HBD2 were detected in colostrum, but not in BM 3 mo post-partum. High sCD14 levels in BM 3 mo post-partum were associated with children developing an IgE-mediated allergic disorder by the age of 5 yr. BM HNP1-3, HBD2 or sCD14 levels were not associated with probiotics treatment. Our results suggest that sCD14 in BM influences the emergence of allergy in children with atopic heredity. PMID:25432966

  11. Dechlorane Plus and its dechlorinated analogs from an e-waste recycling center in maternal serum and breast milk of women in Wenling, China.

    PubMed

    Ben, Yu-Jie; Li, Xing-Hong; Yang, You-Lin; Li, Long; Di, Jun-Ping; Wang, Wen-Yue; Zhou, Ren-Fang; Xiao, Ke; Zheng, Mei-Yun; Tian, Yuan; Xu, Xiao-Bai

    2013-02-01

    We measured Dechlorane Plus (DP) and its dechlorinated analogs in the blood and milk from women living in e-waste recycling sites in Wenling of Taizhou region, China (n = 49). Both syn-DP and anti-DP were detected in all samples. Another compound, Cl(11)-DP, was detected in 45% and 84% of milk and serum samples, respectively. DP levels in blood and milk from residents living in the local environment >20 yrs (R(20) group) were significantly higher than those living in Taizhou <3 yrs (R(3) group) (p < 0.05). The milk/serum partition coefficient from the same women was approximately 0.43 and 0.47 for syn-DP and anti-DP, respectively. A similar value in milk compared with anti-DP/∑DPs (f(anti)) in serum suggested that stereoselective DP bio-accumulation did not occur during the DP transport from blood to milk. This result indicate that DP can bio-accumulate in blood and milk with the low milk/serum partition coefficient and similar blood and milk stereoselective bio-accumulation profiles. PMID:23202648

  12. Compartment Syndrome of the Hand.

    PubMed

    Oak, Nikhil R; Abrams, Reid A

    2016-07-01

    Hand compartment syndrome has many etiologies; untreated, it has dire functional consequences. Intracompartmental pressure exceeding capillary filling pressure causes decreased tissue perfusion resulting in progressive ischemic death of compartment contents. Clinical findings can evolve. Serial physical examinations are recommended and, if equivocal, interstitial pressure monitoring is indicated. Definitive management is emergent fasciotomies with incisions designed to decompress the involved hand compartments, which could include the thenar, hypothenar, and interosseous compartments, and the carpal tunnel. Careful wound care, edema management, splinting, and hand therapy are critical. Therapy should start early postoperatively, possibly before wound closure. PMID:27241383

  13. Reflections about possible nutritional supplements in infant milk formula.

    PubMed

    Böhles, H; Gebhardt, B; Beeg, T

    1998-06-01

    The composition of infant milk formula intends to mirror breast milk as close as possible. However, there are a variety of substances, like amino acids, fatty acids, polyamines, nucleotides, oligosaccharides, functional proteins, hormones, vitamins, and minerals, which are attributed effects in special situations. A concept is proposed to develop problem oriented "supplementation packages" for infant milk formula. PMID:9698641

  14. COMPARTMENTED REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Cain, F.M. Jr.

    1962-09-11

    A method of making a nuclear reactor fuel element of the elongated red type is given wherein the fissionable fuel material is enclosed within a tubular metal cladding. The method comprises coating the metal cladding tube on its inside wall with a brazing alloy, inserting groups of cylindrical pellets of fissionable fuel material into the tube with spacing members between adjacent groups of pellets, sealing the ends of the tubes to leave a void space therewithin, heating the tube and its contents to an elevated temperature to melt the brazing alloy and to expand the pellets to their maximum dimensions under predetermined operating conditions thereby automatically positioning the spacing members along the tube, and finally cooling the tube to room temperature whereby the spacing disks become permanently fixed at their edges in the brazing alloy and define a hermetically sealed compartment for each fl group of fuel pellets. Upon cooling, the pellets contract thus leaving a space to accommodate thermal expansion of the pellets when in use in a reactor. The spacing members also provide lateral support for the tubular cladding to prevent collapse thereof when subjected to a reactor environment. (AEC)

  15. Inhibition of HIV-1 transmission in trans from dendritic cells to CD4+ T lymphocytes by natural antibodies to the CRD domain of DC-SIGN purified from breast milk and intravenous immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Requena, Mary; Bouhlal, Hicham; Nasreddine, Nadine; Saidi, Hela; Gody, Jean-Chrysostome; Aubry, Sylvie; Grésenguet, Gérard; Kazatchkine, Michel D; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Bélec, Laurent; Hocini, Hakim

    2008-01-01

    The present study demonstrates that human breast milk and normal human polyclonal immunoglobulins purified from plasma [intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg)] contain functional natural immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibodies directed against the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) domain of the dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) molecule, which is involved in the binding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 to dendritic cells (DCs). Antibodies to DC-SIGN CRD were affinity-purified on a matrix to which a synthetic peptide corresponding to the N-terminal CRD domain (amino-acid 342–amino-acid 371) had been coupled. The affinity-purified antibodies bound to the DC-SIGN peptide and to the native DC-SIGN molecule expressed by HeLa DC-SIGN+ cells and immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iMDDCs), in a specific and dose-dependent manner. At an optimal dose of 200 µg/ml, natural antibodies to DC-SIGN CRD peptide purified from breast milk and IVIg stained 25 and 20% of HeLa DC-SIGN+ cells and 32 and 12% of iMDDCs, respectively. Anti-DC-SIGN CRD peptide antibodies inhibited the attachment of virus to HeLa DC-SIGN by up to 78% and the attachment to iMDDCs by only 20%. Both breast milk- and IVIg-derived natural antibodies to the CRD peptide inhibited 60% of the transmission in trans of HIV-1JRCSF, an R5-tropic strain, from iMDDCs to CD4+ T lymphocytes. Taken together, these observations suggest that the attachment of HIV to DCs and transmission in trans to autologous CD4+ T lymphocytes occur through two independent mechanisms. Our data support a role of natural antibodies to DC-SIGN in the modulation of postnatal HIV transmission through breast-feeding and in the natural host defence against HIV-1 in infected individuals. PMID:17999675

  16. Persistent organic pollutants in breast milk of mothers residing around an open dumping site in Kolkata, India: specific dioxin-like PCB levels and fish as a potential source.

    PubMed

    Someya, Masayuki; Ohtake, Masako; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Subramanian, Annamalai; Takahashi, Shin; Chakraborty, Paromita; Ramachandran, Ramesh; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were measured in human breast milk collected from mothers residing near an open dumping site and a reference site in Kolkata, India during 2004-2005. POPs were detected in all the human milk samples analyzed, suggesting that residents of Kolkata are widely exposed to these contaminants. Concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs in the samples from the dumping site were significantly higher than in the reference site samples, whereas no such difference was found for PCDDs and PCDFs. In addition, significantly higher concentrations of total PCBs were also observed in the samples from the dumping site than the reference site. Interestingly, concentrations of total and dioxin-like PCBs in the breast milk of mothers from the dumping site significantly increased with the number of years of residence near the dumping site. These results indicate that significant pollution sources of PCBs are present in the dumping site of Kolkata and the residents living around are exposed to relatively higher levels of PCBs. When the residue levels of dioxins and related compounds in fish collected from ponds near the Kolkata dumping site and the reference site were measured, it was found that dioxin-like PCB and TEQ levels in fish from the dumping site were notably higher than those from the reference site. This result indicates that fish is a potential source of PCBs for residents living near the Kolkata dumping site. PMID:19854513

  17. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: impact of the 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Iona S; Anderson, Wayne A; Crowley, Dominique; Daly, Sean F; Evans, Rhodri I; Fernandes, Alwyn R; Fitzgerald, Margaret; Geary, Michael P; Keane, Declan P; Malisch, Rainer; McBride, John; Morrison, John J; Reilly, Alan; Tlustos, Christina

    2012-08-01

    The 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland resulted in elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Irish pork and pork products, due to the consumption of contaminated animal feed by pigs. In order to investigate any resulting impact on the Irish population, these contaminants were measured in pooled breast milk samples from 109 first-time mothers, collected in 2010. A comparison of the results with similar data from 2002 revealed generally lower concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in the 2010 samples, confirming the declining trend reported by many authors. Contaminant concentration levels for both 2002 and 2010 were generally slightly lower than those reported internationally, with a mean combined PCDD/F and PCB WHO-TEQ of 9.66pgg(-1)fat, for an overall pooled sample of milk from 2010. An apparent slight increase in PCDFs was observed between 2002 and 2010 (from 2.73pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat to 3.21pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat), with the main contributory congener being 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF. While it cannot be totally discounted that the slight increase in 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF and in the overall PCDF WHO-TEQ in breast milk could be attributable to consumption of Irish pork during the 2008 incident, we consider that it is more likely that this was due to other factors, including the predominantly urban/industrial sampling locations for the 2010 samples, compared to 2002. PMID:22560976

  18. Buying Human Milk via the Internet: Just a Click Away

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Kelly A.; Dillon, Chelsea E.; Hogan, Joseph S.; Kwiek, Jesse J.; Keim, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: For past centuries, infants have been fed the milk of mothers who are not their own by latching to another woman's breast. Today, the majority of lactating women use electric pumps to extract milk from their breasts; thus, an infant now may be fed another woman's milk via a bottle or cup. The Internet is an emerging avenue to acquire pumped human milk. The purpose of our study was to participate in and describe the process of buying milk via the Internet. Our goal is to help those involved with the clinical care, research, and public health policy of mothers and infants better understand that families may be buying milk in this way. Subjects and Methods: We anonymously bought 102 human milk samples via the Internet. We characterized the outside box, packing materials, milk container, temperature and condition of the milk, and cost. Results: We bought 2,131 ounces of milk at a total cost of $8,306. Eighty-nine percent of the milk arrived above the recommended frozen temperature of −20°C; 45% of it was even above the recommended refrigerator temperature (4°C). The mean surface temperature of the milk samples in each shipment was correlated with the cost of shipping, time in transit, and condition of the milk containers. Conclusions: The prevalence and potential risks of this practice currently are unknown. Research related to milk quality and infant outcomes related to milk buying via the Internet is urgently needed. PMID:23971685

  19. Donkey milk-based formula: A substitute for patients with cow’s milk protein allergy

    PubMed Central

    Osman Swar, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Cow’s milk protein allergy affects 2-7% of children using cow’s milk formulae. Fifty to eighty percent of them develop allergy to other food items and substitutes. On the search for a safe and affordable substitute, we reviewed the composition of milks of the domestic mammals in close contact with man. Milk constituents studied included fat, protein, lactose, minerals, water, pH, specific gravity and caloric value. Compared to others, donkey milk was found to be closest to breast milk when the amount of 16ml of sunflower is added to one liter of this milk. To our knowledge, no allergy to donkey milk has been reported yet.

  20. Bacterial assemblages differ between compartments within the coral holobiont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, M. J.; Croquer, A.; Bythell, J. C.

    2011-03-01

    It is widely accepted that corals are associated with a diverse and host species-specific microbiota, but how they are organized within their hosts remains poorly understood. Previous sampling techniques (blasted coral tissues, coral swabs and milked mucus) may preferentially sample from different compartments such as mucus, tissue and skeleton, or amalgamate them, making comparisons and generalizations between studies difficult. This study characterized bacterial communities of corals with minimal mechanical disruption and contamination from water, air and sediments from three compartments: surface mucus layer (SML), coral tissue and coral skeleton. A novel apparatus (the `snot sucker') was used to separate the SML from tissues and skeleton, and these three compartments were compared to swab samples and milked mucus along with adjacent environmental samples (water column and sediments). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity was significantly different between the various coral compartments and environmental samples (PERMANOVA, F = 6.9, df = 8, P = 0.001), the only exceptions being the complete crushed coral samples and the coral skeleton, which were similar, because the skeleton represents a proportionally large volume and supports a relatively rich microflora. Milked mucus differed significantly from the SML collected with the `snot sucker' and was contaminated with zooxanthellae, suggesting that it may originate at least partially from the gastrovascular cavity rather than the tissue surface. A common method of sampling the SML, surface swabs, produced a bacterial community profile distinct from the SML sampled using our novel apparatus and also showed contamination from coral tissues. Our results indicate that microbial communities are spatially structured within the coral holobiont, and methods used to describe these need to be standardized to allow comparisons between studies.

  1. Human Newborns Prefer Human Milk: Conspecific Milk Odor Is Attractive Without Postnatal Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlier, Luc; Schaal, Benoist

    2005-01-01

    Behavioral responses of 3- to 4-day-old newborns to the odors of various human milk (HM) and formula milk (FM) were examined in paired-choice tests. When both stimuli were nonfamiliar, breast-fed, as well as bottle-fed, infants oriented their head and mouthed more vigorously to HM than to FM. When breast-fed infants were exposed to nonfamiliar HM…

  2. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. PMID:24029787

  3. Your decision to breast feed is best.

    PubMed

    Agbasi, G G

    1992-01-01

    This article briefly describes the reasons for breast feeding exclusively during the first three months of life. Wet nursing was initially an appropriate alternative in cases of maternal death, abandonment, or severe mental or physical illness. The well-to-do have used wet-nurses since the 1st century as part of a popular norm. The option for alternative feeding increased during the 18th century when middle class women sent their infants to be wet-nursed. A safer means of producing infant milk formula from cow's milk was developed. Well-to-do women were the first to be able to afford the high cost of infant formula. Bottle-feeding with formula became a symbol of affluence and became widespread. Breast feeding became associated with inferiority. Women's breasts were exploited as sex symbols, and mothers experienced shame associated with breast feeding. The shift back to breast milk among the well-to-do was a recognition of the nutritional merits of breast milk. Infant formula manufacturers were never able to produce an exact substitute for breast milk. Breast milk provides complete nutrition without a need for water supplements. Breast milk is easier to digest, produces less waste, does not overwork the kidneys, cleans and strengthens the gastrointestinal tract, and has disease fighting potential. Colostrum during the first days of birth provides natural immunity to disease. Breast feeding promotes healthy skin and less incidence of respiratory, diarrheal, and constipating illnesses. Breast milk substitutes cannot produce anti-bodies to disease as breast feeding mothers can during illness. Breast milk does not have an expiration date due to contamination. Suckling by infants helps the development of the jaws. The nursing process encourages rotation of the infant's eyes and reinforces the maternal-infant bond. Babies who self-wean demonstrate independence and emotional security in later life. PMID:12179362

  4. Human Milk Bacterial and Glycosylation Patterns Differ by Delivery Mode.

    PubMed

    Hoashi, Marina; Meche, Lawrence; Mahal, Lara K; Bakacs, Elizabeth; Nardella, Deanna; Naftolin, Frederick; Bar-Yam, Naomi; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G

    2016-07-01

    Mammals have evolved to nourish their offspring exclusively with maternal milk for around half of the lactation period, a crucial developmental window. In view of oral-breast contact during lactation and the differences in oral microbiota between cesarean section (C-section) and vaginally delivered infants, we expected differences in milk composition by delivery mode. We performed a cross-sectional study of banked human milk and found changes related to time since delivery in bacterial abundance and glycosylation patterns only in milk from women who delivered vaginally. The results warrant further research into the effects of delivery mode on milk microbes, milk glycosylation, and postpartum infant development. PMID:26711314

  5. Compartments of the foot: topographic anatomy.

    PubMed

    Faymonville, C; Andermahr, J; Seidel, U; Müller, L P; Skouras, E; Eysel, P; Stein, G

    2012-12-01

    Recent publications have renewed the debate regarding the number of foot compartments. There is also no consensus regarding allocation of individual muscles and communication between compartments. The current study examines the anatomic topography of the foot compartments anew using 32 injections of epoxy-resin and subsequent sheet plastination in 12 cadaveric foot specimens. Six compartments were identified: dorsal, medial, lateral, superficial central, deep forefoot, and deep hindfoot compartments. Communication was evident between the deep hindfoot compartment and the superficial central and deep central forefoot compartments. In the hindfoot, the neurovascular bundles were located in separate tissue sheaths between the central hindfoot compartment and the medial compartment. In the forefoot, the medial and lateral bundles entered the deep central forefoot compartment. The deep central hindfoot compartment housed the quadratus plantae muscle, and after calcaneus fracture could develop an isolated compartment syndrome. PMID:22638720

  6. Breast milk - pumping and storing

    MedlinePlus

    ... a medical supply store. Most mothers find electric pumps the best. They create and release suction on their own, and you can easily learn to use one. Either a lactation consultant or the ... help you buy or rent a pump. They can also teach you how to use ...

  7. Endoscopic