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Sample records for breath samples collected

  1. Methodological Issues of Sample Collection and Analysis of Exhaled Breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recommended standardized procedures have been developed for measurement of exhaled lower respiratory nitric oxide (NO) and nasal NO. It would be desirable to develop similar guidelines for the sampling of exhaled breath related to other compounds. For such systemic volatile o...

  2. Self-collected breath sampling for monitoring low-level benzene exposures among automobile mechanics.

    PubMed

    Egeghy, Peter P; Nylander-French, Leena; Gwin, Kristin K; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Rappaport, Stephen M

    2002-07-01

    Automobile mechanics are exposed to benzene through their contact with gasoline vapor and engine exhaust. This study investigated the benzene uptake associated with these exposures. We first evaluated the reliability of self-collected breath samples among a subset of subjects and found good agreement between these samples and those collected under expert supervision (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.79, n = 69). We then used self-monitoring together with a longitudinal sampling design (with up to three measurements per worker) to measure benzene in air and benzene in end-exhaled breath among 81 workers from 12 automobile repair garages in North Carolina. A statistically significant difference (P < 0.0001, Mann-Whitney rank sum test) was observed between non-smokers and smokers for post-exposure benzene concentration in breath (median values of 18.9 and 39.1 micro g/m(3), respectively). Comparing pre- and post-exposure breath concentrations within these two groups, the difference was significant among non-smokers (P < 0.0001) but not significant among smokers (P > 0.05). Mixed effects regression analysis using backwards elimination yielded five significant predictors of benzene concentration in breath, namely benzene exposure (P < 0.0001), pre-exposure benzene concentration in breath (P = 0.021), smoking status (P < 0.0001), fuel system work (P = 0.0043) and carburetor cleaner use (P < 0.0001). The between-person variance component comprised only 28% of the total variance in benzene levels in breath, indicating that differences among individuals related to physiological and metabolic characteristics had little influence on benzene uptake among these workers. PMID:12176763

  3. A method for collecting breath samples from individual chickens for analysis of 13CO(2), H(2), and CH(4).

    PubMed

    Hughes, R J; Tivey, D R; Butler, R N

    2008-09-01

    This study describes experiments using simple helmets to collect breath samples from individual birds for measurement of (13)CO(2), H(2), and CH(4), which form the basis for various diagnostic tests for intestinal dysfunction in humans. Peak enrichment in (13)C in breath CO(2) occurred between 5 and 30 min postingestion by 18-d-old chickens administered a gelatin capsule containing approximately 3.6 mg of (13)C-octanoic acid dissolved in vegetable oil. For 25-d-old chickens given 10 mL of homogenized cooked corn by oral gavage, peak enrichment occurred 60 to 90 min postingestion. In fully fed 25-d-old chickens, H(2) and CH(4) concentrations in breath ranged from 7 to 115 ppm and from 0 to 5.5 ppm, respectively. Following an overnight fast, H(2) and CH(4) concentrations in breath ranged from 0.5 to 7.5 ppm and 0 to 3.0 ppm, respectively, in the same chickens. Ranges in H(2) (1.0 to 56.5 ppm) and CH(4) (0 to 8.0 ppm) concentrations widened considerably 3 h after oral gavage with approximately 130 mg of lactulose (an indigestible disaccharide) dissolved in 5 mL of water. The results from these investigations indicate that collection of re-breathed air samples from chickens is plausible, which opens the way for development of noninvasive methods for evaluating gastrointestinal functions in chickens. PMID:18753448

  4. Extending the Collection Duration of Breath Samples for Enteric Methane Emission Estimation Using the SF? Tracer Technique.

    PubMed

    Pinares-Patio, Csar; Gere, Jos; Williams, Karen; Gratton, Roberto; Juliarena, Paula; Molano, German; MacLean, Sarah; Sandoval, Edgar; Taylor, Grant; Koolaard, John

    2012-01-01

    The daily sample collection protocol of the sulphur hexafluoride (SF?) tracer technique for the estimation of methane (CH?) emissions from ruminants may not be practical under extensive grazing systems. Here, under controlled conditions, we evaluated extended periods of sampling as an alternative to daily sample collections. Eight rumen-fistulated cows were housed and fed lucerne silage to achieve common daily feed intakes of 6.4 kg dry matter per cow. Following SF? permeation tube dosing, eight sampling lines were fitted to the breath collection harness, so that a common gas mix was available to each line. Half of the lines collected samples into PVC yokes using a modified capillary system as commonly used in New Zealand (NZL), and half collected samples into stainless steel cylinders using a ball-bearing flow restrictor as used in Argentina (ARG), all within a 10-day time frame, either daily, across two consecutive 5-day periods or across one 10-day period (in duplicate). The NZL system had greater sampling success (97.3 vs. 79.5%) and yielded more consistent CH? emission estimates than the ARG system. Emission estimates from NZL daily, NZL 5-day and NZL 10-day samplings were 114, 110 and 111 g d(-1), respectively. Extended sample collection protocol may be feasible, but definitive evaluation of this alternative as well as sample collection systems is required under grazing situations before a decision on recommendation can be made. PMID:26486921

  5. ALVEOLAR BREATH SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS IN HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alveolar breath sampling and analysis can be extremely useful in exposure assessment studies involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over recent years scientists from the EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory have developed and refined an alveolar breath collection ...

  6. Collecting Samples

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Collecting Samples at Embden 3. Embden 3 is a 60-degree V trapezoidal flume in a bured concreate culvert located on the other side of the north-south road east of the large data shelter. The flow is measured and sampled from the V flume underground and periodic QW grab samples are taken form the blu...

  7. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to el...

  8. Study on the sampling of methadone from exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof; Sandqvist, Sören; Böttcher, Michael; Eriksen, Paul; Franck, Johan; Palmskog, Göran

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed at develop and validate the procedure for collecting exhaled breath for drug testing. Patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment were recruited for the study. Methadone levels were measured using liquid chromatography- electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. The sampling device was based on a 47-mm C(18) filter and used under pressure to aid flow through the filter. The mouth was rinsed before sampling, and the device was constructed to protect against any saliva contamination. Methadone was present in breath samples before and after the daily intake of methadone. The mean (± SD) pre-dose level was found to be 135 ± 109 pg/min (n = 48, median 121). The exhaled methadone increased after dose intake. Saliva levels of methadone were high in comparison with exhaled breath levels. Saliva contamination was suspected in about 10% of the collected samples. Similar results were obtained using 1, 3, and 10 min sampling times. The inter- and intraindividual variability were found to be similar and in the order of 50%. Alternative sampling using XAD-2 beads and solid-phase microextraction fiber was found to be possible and enables sampling with low back pressure and with no need for pump assistance. The presented results confirm that breath testing is a new possibility for the detection of drugs of abuse. PMID:21619719

  9. A breath sampling system assessing the influence of respiratory rate on exhaled breath composition.

    PubMed

    Lomonaco, T; Salvo, P; Ghimenti, S; Biagini, D; Bellagambi, F; Fuoco, R; Di Francesco, F

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a computerized system to monitor mouth pressure, tidal volume, exhaled airflow, respiration rate and end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 during breath collection. The system was used to investigate the effect of different respiratory rates on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations in exhaled breath. For this purpose, VOCs with well-defined biochemical pathways and different chemical and physical properties were selected as biomarkers related to metabolism (acetone and isopropyl alcohol), cholesterol synthesis (isoprene) and intestinal microflora activity (ethanol). Mixed breath was collected from a nominally healthy volunteer in resting conditions by filling a Nalophan bag. The subject followed a regimented breathing pattern at different respiratory rates (10, 30 and 50 breaths per minute). Results highlight that ventilation pattern strongly influences the concentration of the selected compounds. The proposed system allows exhaled breath to be collected also in patients showing dyspnea such as in case of chronic heart failure, asthma and pulmonary diseases. PMID:26738056

  10. An improved method for collecting breath from 3- to 7-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anthony A; Paige, Katie N; Gaskins, H Rex; Teran-Garcia, Margarita

    2014-05-01

    Breath sampling and analysis provide healthcare professionals with a practical, noninvasive diagnostic measurement for children with a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. New biomarkers found in human breath have been investigated and provide the opportunity to diagnose bacterial overgrowth and other underlying causes of GI dysfunction. Although several protocols have been described previously regarding breath sampling, few have demonstrated the feasibility of collection in young children. This communication introduces a simple game that allows for 3- to 7-year-old children to practice breath exhalation to give a proper breath sample in a relaxed and comfortable environment. The technique described offers clinicians a creative approach for obtaining breath samples from a child by reducing the apprehension and anxiety associated with the research and clinical environment. PMID:23538295

  11. Exhaled breath condensate collection in the mechanically ventilated patient.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stewart R; Davis, Christopher S; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2012-05-01

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a non-invasive means of sampling the airway-lining fluid of the lungs. EBC contains numerous measurable mediators, whose analysis could change the management of patients with certain pulmonary diseases. While initially popularized in investigations involving spontaneously breathing patients, an increasing number of studies have been performed using EBC in association with mechanical ventilation. Collection of EBC in mechanically ventilated patients follows basic principles of condensation, but is influenced by multiple factors. Effective collection requires selection of a collection device, adequate minute ventilation, low cooling temperatures, and sampling times of greater than 10 min. Condensate can be contaminated by saliva, which needs to be filtered. Dilution of samples occurs secondary to distilled water in vapors and humidification in the ventilator circuit. Dilution factors may need to be employed when investigating non-volatile biomarkers. Storage and analysis should occur promptly at -70 °C to -80 °C to prevent rapid degradation of samples. The purpose of this review is to examine and describe methodologies and problems of EBC collection in mechanically ventilated patients. A straightforward and safe framework has been established to investigate disease processes in this population, yet technical aspects of EBC collection still exist that prevent clinical practicality of this technology. These include a lack of standardization of procedure and analysis of biomarkers, and of normal reference ranges for mediators in healthy individuals. Once these procedural aspects have been addressed, EBC could serve as a non-invasive alternative to invasive evaluation of lungs in mechanically ventilated patients. PMID:22398157

  12. Exhaled Breath Condensate Collection in the Mechanically Ventilated Patient

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Stewart R; Davis, Christopher S; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2012-01-01

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a non-invasive means of sampling the airway-lining fluid of the lungs. EBC contains numerous measurable mediators, whose analysis could change the management of patients with certain pulmonary diseases. While initially popularized in investigations involving spontaneously breathing patients, an increasing number of studies have been performed using EBC in association with mechanical ventilation. Collection of EBC in mechanically ventilated patients follows basic principles of condensation, but is influenced by multiple factors. Effective collection requires selection of a collection device, adequate minute ventilation, low cooling temperatures, and sampling times of greater than ten minutes. Condensate can be contaminated by saliva, which needs to be filtered. Dilution of samples occurs secondary to distilled water in vapors and humidification in the ventilator circuit. Dilution factors may need to be employed when investigating non-volatile biomarkers. Storage and analysis should occur promptly at −70° C to −80° C to prevent rapid degradation of samples. The purpose of this review is to examine and describe methodologies and problems of EBC collection in mechanically ventilated patients. A straightforward and safe framework has been established to investigate disease processes in this population, yet technical aspects of EBC collection still exist that prevent clinical practicality of this technology. These include a lack of standardization of procedure and analysis of biomarkers, and of normal reference ranges for mediators in healthy individuals. Once these procedural aspects have been addressed, EBC could serve as a non-invasive alternative to invasive evaluation of lungs in mechanically ventilated patients. PMID:22398157

  13. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; di Natale, Corrado; D’Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-11-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath.

  14. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs.

    PubMed

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; Di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath. PMID:26559776

  15. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    PubMed Central

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; Di Natale, Corrado; D’Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath. PMID:26559776

  16. METHODS FOR SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF BREATH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research program surveyed and evaluated the methods and procedures used to identify and quantitate chemical constituents in human breath. Methods have been evaluated to determine their ease and rapidity, as well as cost, accuracy, and precision. During the evaluation, a secon...

  17. Collection and analysis of breath and breath condensate exhaled by feral pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Hatt, J-M; Zollinger, E; Boehler, A; Hofer, M; Steinmetz, H W; Clauss, M

    2009-10-17

    Samples of exhaled breath and breath condensate were collected from 20 feral pigeons (Columba livia) while they were anaesthetised and intubated, and when they were kept unanaesthetised in an acrylic box. Samples were also collected from six chickens (Gallus domesticus) while they were kept in an acrylic box. The samples were analysed for pH, nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide and leukotriene B4. The volume of condensate collected from the pigeons was independent of bodyweight and significantly more (1.66 [0.64] ml/kg) was obtained while they were in the acrylic box than when they were intubated (0.87 [0.32] ml/kg). The mean volume collected from the chickens was 0.15 (0.06) ml/kg. Cooled samples had higher concentrations of NO than uncooled samples. The pH of the samples of condensate collected from birds in the acrylic box were significantly higher (7.9 [0.3]) than those from the intubated birds (5.3 [0.1]), and samples from the chickens had significantly higher pH values than samples from the pigeons (8.2 [0.2] v 7.9 [0.3]). PMID:19850854

  18. Collecting Samples for Testing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Samples | Samples from Within | Conclusion | Sources Overview Today's technologies allow testing on an impressively wide variety of samples collected from the human body. Most often, all that is required is ...

  19. Seawater sampling and collection.

    PubMed

    Zaikova, Elena; Hawley, Alyse; Walsh, David A; Hallam, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    This video documents methods for collecting coastal marine water samples and processing them for various downstream applications including biomass concentration. nucleic acid purification, cell abundance, nutrient and trace gas analyses. For today's demonstration samples were collected from the deck of the HMS John Strickland operating in Saanich Inlet. An A-frame derrick, with a multi-purpose winch and cable system, is used in combination with Niskin or Go-Flo water sampling bottles. A Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth (CTD) sensor is also be used to sample the underlying water mass. To minimize outgassing, trace gas samples are collected first. Then, nutrients, chemistry, and cell counts are determined. Finally, waters are collected for biomass filtration. The set-up and collection time for a single cast is approximately 1.5 hours at a maximum depth of 215 meters. Therefore, a total of 6 hours is generally needed to complete the four-part collection series described here. PMID:19536065

  20. The effect of temperature on exhaled breath condensate collection.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Aditya; Zhang, Qi; Gunaratne, Shyamini; Lee, Wei; Lin, Jiun-Lih; Lin, Jiun-Shiang; Warwick, Geoffrey; Thomas, Paul S

    2012-09-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection is an innovative method of non-invasively sampling the lung, and can detect a variety of volatile and non-volatile biomarkers, but the disadvantage is the small volume of sample collected. It was hypothesized that a collection system at a lower temperature would increase the volume collected, but may alter the relative concentration of the biomarkers of interest. EBC was collected in a cross-over study using a custom-made collection system, cooled using either wet (4 °C) or dry ice (-20 °C) in randomized order in normal non-smoking volunteers. The volume of the EBC collected per unit time was determined as were conductivity, the concentrations and total amount of protein, hydrogen peroxide, and nitrite/nitrate concentrations. Dry ice was associated with a 79% greater volume of EBC than the wet ice (1387 ± 612 µL; 773 ± 448 µL respectively, p < 0.0001). Conductivity was influenced by the temperature of collection (18.78 ± 6.71 µS cm(-1) for wet ice and 15.32 ± 6.28 µS cm(-1) for dry ice, p = 0.02) as was hydrogen peroxide (1.34 ± 0.88 µg mL(-1) for wet ice and 0.68 ± 0.32 µg mL(-1) for dry ice, p = 0.009) while the concentrations and total values for protein and nitrate/nitrite were not significantly different (p > 0.05). This pilot study suggests that lower collection temperatures facilitate the collection of a larger sample volume. This larger volume is not simply more dilute, with increased water content, nor is there a simple correction factor that can be applied to the EBC biomarkers to correct for the different methods. PMID:22740588

  1. Collecting Volcanic Gas Samples

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Steven Ingebritsen (lower right, in blue hat) kneels in the warm mud as he collects samples of the gases emitted from the fumaroles on the north side of Crater Rock on Mount Hood. The samples are taken back to the laboratory for an analysis of the gases' chemical composition. By routinely collecting...

  2. MEASUREMENTS OF EXHALED BREATH USING A NEW PORTABLE SAMPLING METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the development and demonstration of a new breath sampling method for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The project, part of EPA's Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (TEAM) Program, was aimed at improving the existing field method for sampling exhaled br...

  3. Detection of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in exhaled breath collected from cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof; Sandqvist, Sören; Dubbelboer, Ilse; Franck, Johan

    2011-10-01

    Exhaled breath has recently been proposed as a new possible matrix for drugs of abuse testing. A key drug is cannabis, and the present study was aimed at investigating the possibility of detecting tetrahydrocannabinol and tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid in exhaled breath after cannabis smoking. Exhaled breath was sampled from 10 regular cannabis users and 8 controls by directing the exhaled breath by suction through an Empore C(18) disk. The disk was extracted with hexane/ethyl acetate, and the resulting extract was evaporated to dryness and redissolved in 100 μL hexane/ethyl acetate. A 3-μL aliquot was injected onto the LC-MS-MS system and analyzed using positive electrospray ionization and selected reaction monitoring. In samples collected 1-12 h after cannabis smoking, tetrahydrocannabinol was detected in all 10 subjects. The rate of excretion was between 9.0 and 77.3 pg/min. Identification of tetrahydrocannabinol was based on correct retention time relative to tetrahydrocannabinol-d(3) and correct product ion ratio. In three samples, peaks were observed for tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid, but these did not fulfill identification criteria. Neither tetrahydrocannabinol or tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid was detected in the controls. These results confirm older reports that tetrahydrocannabinol is present in exhaled breath following cannabis smoking and extend the detection time from minutes to hours. The results further support the idea that exhaled breath is a promising matrix for drugs-of-abuse testing. PMID:22004672

  4. Collecting Grab Samples

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Bill Damschen(USGS) collecting a grab sample after a rain event from the outflow pipe drain tiles, at the North Dakota Discoery Farms Embden Farm located in southeast Cass County about 8 miles south of Embden, North Dakota....

  5. Method for the collection and analysis of volatile compounds in the breath.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M; Greenberg, J

    1991-03-01

    A new method is described for the collection and assay of volatile compounds in the breath. Subjects expired into a pump-assisted collecting apparatus in which the breath was drawn through a water trap and then through an adsorptive trap where the volatile compounds were captured on graphitized carbon and molecular sieve. The sample was subsequently eluted from the trap by thermal desorption, concentrated by two-stage cryofocusing, then assayed by gas chromatography with flame ionization and flame photometric detection. Several compounds were regularly observed in the breath of normal human volunteers, including peaks eluting with the same retention times as isoprene, ethanol, acetone, acetaldehyde and carbon disulfide. As a quantitative assay for endogenous isoprene in the breath, the method was sensitive, linear, accurate and reproducible. This method provided a number of advantages: the collection technique was acceptable to volunteers and could be used at sites remote from the laboratory. The automated assay allowed isoprene and several other volatile compounds in the breath to be observed consistently and with improved sensitivity. PMID:1860917

  6. Characterization of exhaled breath particles collected by an electret filter technique.

    PubMed

    Tinglev, Åsa Danielsson; Ullah, Shahid; Ljungkvist, Göran; Viklund, Emilia; Olin, Anna-Carin; Beck, Olof

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol particles that are present in exhaled breath carry nonvolatile components and have gained interest as a specimen for potential biomarkers. Nonvolatile compounds detected in exhaled breath include both endogenous and exogenous compounds. The aim of this study was to study particles collected with a new, simple and convenient filter technique. Samples of breath were collected from healthy volunteers from approximately 30 l of exhaled air. Particles were counted with an optical particle counter and two phosphatidylcholines were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, phosphatidylcholines and methadone was analysed in breath from patients in treatment with methadone and oral fluid was collected with the Quantisal device. The results demonstrated that the majority of particles are  <1 μm in size and that the fraction of larger particle contributes most to the total mass. The phosphatidylcholine PC(16 : 0/16 : 0) dominated over PC(16 : 0/18 : 1) and represented a major constituent of the particles. The concentration of the PC(16 : 0/16 : 0) homolog was significantly correlated (p  <  0.001) with total mass. From the low concentration of the two phosphatidylcholines and their relative abundance in oral fluid a major contribution from the oral cavity could be ruled out. The concentration of PC(16 : 0/16 : 0) in breath was positively correlated with age (p  <  0.01). An attempt to use PC(16 : 0/16 : 0) as a sample size indicator for methadone was not successful, as the large intra-individual variability between samplings even increased after normalization. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that exhaled breath sampled with the filter device represents a specimen corresponding to surfactant. The possible use of PC(16 : 0/16 : 0) as a sample size indicator was supported and deserves further investigations. We propose that the direct and selective collection of the breath aerosol particles is a promising strategy for measurement of nonvolatiles in breath. PMID:26987381

  7. Collecting Protein Biomarkers in Breath Using Electret Filters: A Preliminary Method on New Technical Model and Human Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wang; Pi, Xitian; Qiao, Panpan; Liu, Hongying

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers in exhaled breath are useful for respiratory disease diagnosis in human volunteers. Conventional methods that collect non-volatile biomarkers, however, necessitate an extensive dilution and sanitation processes that lowers collection efficiencies and convenience of use. Electret filter emerged in recent decade to collect virus biomarkers in exhaled breath given its simplicity and effectiveness. To investigate the capability of electret filters to collect protein biomarkers, a model that consists of an atomizer that produces protein aerosol and an electret filter that collects albumin and carcinoembryonic antigen-a typical biomarker in lung cancer development- from the atomizer is developed. A device using electret filter as the collecting medium is designed to collect human albumin from exhaled breath of 6 volunteers. Comparison of the collecting ability between the electret filter method and other 2 reported methods is finally performed based on the amounts of albumin collected from human exhaled breath. In conclusion, a decreasing collection efficiency ranging from 17.6% to 2.3% for atomized albumin aerosol and 42% to 12.5% for atomized carcinoembryonic antigen particles is found; moreover, an optimum volume of sampling human exhaled breath ranging from 100 L to 200 L is also observed; finally, the self-designed collecting device shows a significantly better performance in collecting albumin from human exhaled breath than the exhaled breath condensate method (p<0.05) but is not significantly more effective than reported 3-stage impactor method (p>0.05). In summary, electret filters are potential in collecting non-volatile biomarkers in human exhaled breath not only because it was simpler, cheaper and easier to use than traditional methods but also for its better collecting performance. PMID:26934615

  8. Collecting Protein Biomarkers in Breath Using Electret Filters: A Preliminary Method on New Technical Model and Human Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Wang; Pi, Xitian; Qiao, Panpan; Liu, Hongying

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers in exhaled breath are useful for respiratory disease diagnosis in human volunteers. Conventional methods that collect non-volatile biomarkers, however, necessitate an extensive dilution and sanitation processes that lowers collection efficiencies and convenience of use. Electret filter emerged in recent decade to collect virus biomarkers in exhaled breath given its simplicity and effectiveness. To investigate the capability of electret filters to collect protein biomarkers, a model that consists of an atomizer that produces protein aerosol and an electret filter that collects albumin and carcinoembryonic antigen-a typical biomarker in lung cancer development- from the atomizer is developed. A device using electret filter as the collecting medium is designed to collect human albumin from exhaled breath of 6 volunteers. Comparison of the collecting ability between the electret filter method and other 2 reported methods is finally performed based on the amounts of albumin collected from human exhaled breath. In conclusion, a decreasing collection efficiency ranging from 17.6% to 2.3% for atomized albumin aerosol and 42% to 12.5% for atomized carcinoembryonic antigen particles is found; moreover, an optimum volume of sampling human exhaled breath ranging from 100 L to 200 L is also observed; finally, the self-designed collecting device shows a significantly better performance in collecting albumin from human exhaled breath than the exhaled breath condensate method (p<0.05) but is not significantly more effective than reported 3-stage impactor method (p>0.05). In summary, electret filters are potential in collecting non-volatile biomarkers in human exhaled breath not only because it was simpler, cheaper and easier to use than traditional methods but also for its better collecting performance. PMID:26934615

  9. Methodological aspects of exhaled breath condensate collection and analysis.

    PubMed

    Rosias, Philippe

    2012-06-01

    The collection and analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) may be useful for the management of patients with chronic respiratory disease at all ages. It is a promising technique due to its apparent simplicity and non-invasiveness. EBC does not disturb an ongoing respiratory inflammation. However, the methodology remains controversial, as it is not yet standardized. The current diversity of the methods used to collect and preserve EBC, the analytical pitfalls and the high degree of within-subject variability are the main issues that hamper further development into a clinical useful technique. In order to facilitate the process of standardization, a simplified schematic approach is proposed. An update of available data identified open issues on EBC methodology. These issues were then classified into three separate conditions related to their influence before, during or after the condensation process: (1) pre-condenser conditions related to subject and/or environment; (2) condenser conditions related to condenser equipment; and (3) post-condenser conditions related to preservation and/or analysis. This simplified methodological approach highlights the potential influence of the many techniques used before, during and after condensation of exhaled breath. It may also serve as a methodological checklist for a more systematical approach of EBC research and development. PMID:22522968

  10. Modular Sampling and Analysis Techniques for the Real-Time Analysis of Human Breath

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, M; Farquar, G; Adams, K; Bogan, M; Martin, A; Benner, H; Spadaccini, C; Steele, P; Davis, C; Loyola, B; Morgan, J; Sankaran, S

    2007-07-09

    At LLNL and UC Davis, we are developing several techniques for the real-time sampling and analysis of trace gases, aerosols and exhaled breath that could be useful for a modular, integrated system for breath analysis. Those techniques include single-particle bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) for the analysis of exhaled aerosol particles or droplets as well as breath samplers integrated with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or MEMS-based differential mobility spectrometry (DMS). We describe these techniques and present recent data obtained from human breath or breath condensate, in particular, addressing the question of how environmental exposure influences the composition of breath.

  11. Application of end-expired breath sampling to estimate carboxyhemoglobin levels in community air pollution exposure assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, William E.; Colome, Steven D.; Wojciechowski, Sandra L.

    Measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) in end-expired air after breath-holding permits the estimation of blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels. Some literature suggests that the precision of the method decreases at low COHb levels. As part of a community exposure and health study, the end-expired breath method was applied to estimate COHb levels in 28 men with ischemic heart disease. Paired samples of blood and breath were collected at the beginning and end of the 24-h CO monitoring periods. The aggregate regression of all subjects' COHb on breath CO displayed high variability. However, the variability was substantially reduced for any particular subject, promoting the use of individualized blood-breath standard curves to improve the precision of COHb estimates made from breath CO. The ultimate accuracy of the blood-breath relationship could not be resolved by our data. Two major sources of error are identified. The observed person-to-person variability may be caused by physiologic factors or differences in ability to deliver an end-expired breath sample representative of alveolar air. This variation may also be due to instrumentation factors, specifically the accuracy of the IL282 CO-Oximeter at 0-3% levels. Further research into the sources of variability in the end-expired breath method is recommended. Epidemiologists using similar end-expired breath measurements to predict COHb levels should be cognizant of the magnitude and probable direction of the error in COHb estimates. This non-invasive method should continue to allow evaluation of the success of personal monitoring efforts and pharmacokinetic modeling of CO uptake in community exposure research.

  12. COLLECTION OF A SINGLE ALVEOLAR EXHALED BREATH FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurement of specific organic compounds in exhaled breath has been used as an indicator of recent exposure to pollutants or as an indicator of the health of an individual. Typical application involves the collection of multiple breaths onto a sorbent cartridge or into an evacua...

  13. Volatile Biomarkers in Breath Associated With Liver Cirrhosis — Comparisons of Pre- and Post-liver Transplant Breath Samples

    PubMed Central

    Fernández del Río, R.; O'Hara, M.E.; Holt, A.; Pemberton, P.; Shah, T.; Whitehouse, T.; Mayhew, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of liver disease in the UK has risen dramatically and there is a need for improved diagnostics. Aims To determine which breath volatiles are associated with the cirrhotic liver and hence diagnostically useful. Methods A two-stage biomarker discovery procedure was used. Alveolar breath samples of 31 patients with cirrhosis and 30 healthy controls were mass spectrometrically analysed and compared (stage 1). 12 of these patients had their breath analysed after liver transplant (stage 2). Five patients were followed longitudinally as in-patients in the post-transplant period. Results Seven volatiles were elevated in the breath of patients versus controls. Of these, five showed statistically significant decrease post-transplant: limonene, methanol, 2-pentanone, 2-butanone and carbon disulfide. On an individual basis limonene has the best diagnostic capability (the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) is 0.91), but this is improved by combining methanol, 2-pentanone and limonene (AUROC curve 0.95). Following transplant, limonene shows wash-out characteristics. Conclusions Limonene, methanol and 2-pentanone are breath markers for a cirrhotic liver. This study raises the potential to investigate these volatiles as markers for early-stage liver disease. By monitoring the wash-out of limonene following transplant, graft liver function can be non-invasively assessed. PMID:26501124

  14. Alveolar breath sampling and analysis to assess exposures to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) during motor vehicle refueling.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, A B; Pleil, J D

    1996-07-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is added to gasoline (15% by volume) in many areas of the U.S. to help control carbon monoxide emissions from motor vehicles. In this study we present a sampling and analytical methodology that can be used to assess consumers' exposures to MTBE that may result from routine vehicle refueling operations. The method is based on the collection of alveolar breath samples using evacuated one-liter stainless steel canisters and analysis using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer equipped with a patented "valveless" cryogenic preconcentrator. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, a series of breath samples was collected from two individuals (the person pumping the fuel and a nearby observer) immediately before and for 64 min after a vehicle was refueled with premium grade gasoline. Results demonstrate low levels of MTBE in both subjects' breaths before refueling, and levels that increased by a factor of 35 to 100 after the exposure. Breath elimination models fitted to the post exposure measurements indicate that the half-life of MTBE in the first physiological compartment was between 1.3 and 2.9 min. Analysis of the resulting models suggests that breath elimination of MTBE during the 64 min monitoring period was approximately 115 micrograms for the refueling subject while it was only 30 micrograms for the nearby observer. This analysis also shows that the post exposure breath elimination of other gasoline constituents was consistent with previously published observations. These results demonstrate that this new methodology can be used effectively in studies designed to assess exposures to MTBE. The method can be used to objectively demonstrate recent exposures, the relative magnitude of an exposure, and the approximate duration of the resulting bloodborne dose. Once a blood/breath partition coefficient for MTBE has been firmly established, the bloodborne concentration of the absorbed material can be determined using these techniques as well. PMID:9028175

  15. MEASUREMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN EXHALED BREATH AS COLLECTED IN EVACUATED ELECTROPOLISHED CANISTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A set of three complementary analytical methods were developed specifically for exhaled breath as collected in evacuated stainless steel canisters using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry detection. The first is a screening method to quantify the carbon dioxide component (gen...

  16. Automated microorganism Sample Collection Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gall, L. S.; Graham, M. D.; Umbreit, W.

    1969-01-01

    Modified Gelman Sampler obtains representative sample of microorganism population. Proposed Sample Collection Module is based on direct inoculation of selected solid growth media encased in a cartridge at all times except during inoculation. Cartridge can be handled with no danger of contamination to sample or operator.

  17. Subsurface Samples: Collection and Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Philip E.; Griffin, W. Timothy; Phelps, Tommy J.

    2002-12-01

    Microbiological data, interpretation, and conclusions from subsurface samples ultimately depend on the quality and representative character of the samples. Subsurface samples for environmental microbiology ideally contain only the microbial community and geochemical properties that are representative of the subsurface environment from which the sample was taken. To that end, sample contamination by exogenous microorganisms or chemical constituents must be eliminated or minimized, and sample analyses need to begin before changes in the microbial community or geochemical characteristics occur. This article presents sampling methods and sample processing techniques for collecting representative samples from a range of subsurface environments. Factors that should be considered when developing a subsurface sampling program are discussed, including potential benefits, costs, and limitations enabling researchers to evaluate the techniques that are presented and match them to their project requirements. Methods and protocols to address coring, sampling, processing and quality assessment issues are presented.

  18. Methodology of the H2 breath test. I. Collection and storage for gas measurement.

    PubMed

    Corazza, G R; Sorge, M; Maurio, E; Strocchi, A; Lattanzi, M C; Gasbarrini, G

    1990-08-01

    The measurement of hydrogen and methane in expired air is widely used in the field of gastrointestinal diagnosis. Techniques as simple and as reliable as possible are therefore requested for the collection and storage of breath samples. As far as collection is concerned, we compared three systems of end-expiratory sampling: a modified Haldane-Priestley tube, a Y-piece device fitted to a plastic syringe and a commercially available two-bag system. There was a significant correlation between the results obtained with all three systems, suggesting that all are sufficiently reliable. However, the two-bag system does not require particular training on behalf of the operator or particular cooperation from the patients and also makes it possible to take samples from more than one patient at the same time. For the storage of breath samples plastic syringes are the most commonly used device. Nonetheless, at room temperature there is a leakage of hydrogen equal to 9% after 24 hours, increasing to 29% after 5 days of storage. Refrigeration of the syringes at -20 degrees C prevents any loss in the first 48 hours and limits it to 5% after 5 days. The stability of the methane was higher than that of the hydrogen: after 5 days the loss is 4% at room temperature and 2% at -20 degrees C. For both gases the losses increase significantly at a temperature of 37 degrees C and are not affected by the initial concentration of the stored gas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2131946

  19. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject`s body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  20. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject's body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  1. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Robert Lawrence

    The solubility of inhaled radionuclides in the human lung is an important characteristic of the compounds needed to perform internal dosimetry assessments for exposed workers. A solubility testing method for uranium and several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALSspler ) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of Usb3Osb8. This makes it possible to characterize solubility profiles in every section of operating facilities where airborne nuclides are found using common breathing zone air samples. The new method was evaluated by analyzing uranium compounds from two uranium mills whose product had been previously analyzed by in vitro solubility testing in the laboratory and in vivo solubility testing in rodents. The new technique compared well with the in vivo rodent solubility profiles. The method was then used to evaluate the solubility profiles in all process sections of an operating in situ uranium plant using breathing zone and area air samples collected during routine plant operations. The solubility profiles developed from this work showed excellent agreement with the results of the worker urine bioassay program at the plant and identified a significant error in existing internal dose assessments at this facility.

  2. Molecular and Microscopic Analysis of Bacteria and Viruses in Exhaled Breath Collected Using a Simple Impaction and Condensing Method

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhenqiang; Shen, Fangxia; Li, Xiaoguang; Wu, Yan; Chen, Qi; Jie, Xu; Yao, Maosheng

    2012-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is increasingly being used as a non-invasive method for disease diagnosis and environmental exposure assessment. By using hydrophobic surface, ice, and droplet scavenging, a simple impaction and condensing based collection method is reported here. Human subjects were recruited to exhale toward the device for 1, 2, 3, and 4 min. The exhaled breath quickly formed into tiny droplets on the hydrophobic surface, which were subsequently scavenged into a 10 µL rolling deionized water droplet. The collected EBC was further analyzed using culturing, DNA stain, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and colorimetry (VITEK 2) for bacteria and viruses. Experimental data revealed that bacteria and viruses in EBC can be rapidly collected using the method developed here, with an observed efficiency of 100 µL EBC within 1 min. Culturing, DNA stain, SEM, and qPCR methods all detected high bacterial concentrations up to 7000 CFU/m3 in exhaled breath, including both viable and dead cells of various types. Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Kocuria variants were found dominant in EBC samples using VITEK 2 system. SEM images revealed that most bacteria in exhaled breath are detected in the size range of 0.5–1.0 µm, which is able to enable them to remain airborne for a longer time, thus presenting a risk for airborne transmission of potential diseases. Using qPCR, influenza A H3N2 viruses were also detected in one EBC sample. Different from other devices restricted solely to condensation, the developed method can be easily achieved both by impaction and condensation in a laboratory and could impact current practice of EBC collection. Nonetheless, the reported work is a proof-of-concept demonstration, and its performance in non-invasive disease diagnosis such as bacterimia and virus infections needs to be further validated including effects of its influencing matrix. PMID:22848436

  3. Molecular and microscopic analysis of bacteria and viruses in exhaled breath collected using a simple impaction and condensing method.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenqiang; Shen, Fangxia; Li, Xiaoguang; Wu, Yan; Chen, Qi; Jie, Xu; Yao, Maosheng

    2012-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is increasingly being used as a non-invasive method for disease diagnosis and environmental exposure assessment. By using hydrophobic surface, ice, and droplet scavenging, a simple impaction and condensing based collection method is reported here. Human subjects were recruited to exhale toward the device for 1, 2, 3, and 4 min. The exhaled breath quickly formed into tiny droplets on the hydrophobic surface, which were subsequently scavenged into a 10 µL rolling deionized water droplet. The collected EBC was further analyzed using culturing, DNA stain, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and colorimetry (VITEK 2) for bacteria and viruses.Experimental data revealed that bacteria and viruses in EBC can be rapidly collected using the method developed here, with an observed efficiency of 100 µL EBC within 1 min. Culturing, DNA stain, SEM, and qPCR methods all detected high bacterial concentrations up to 7000 CFU/m(3) in exhaled breath, including both viable and dead cells of various types. Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Kocuria variants were found dominant in EBC samples using VITEK 2 system. SEM images revealed that most bacteria in exhaled breath are detected in the size range of 0.5-1.0 µm, which is able to enable them to remain airborne for a longer time, thus presenting a risk for airborne transmission of potential diseases. Using qPCR, influenza A H3N2 viruses were also detected in one EBC sample. Different from other devices restricted solely to condensation, the developed method can be easily achieved both by impaction and condensation in a laboratory and could impact current practice of EBC collection. Nonetheless, the reported work is a proof-of-concept demonstration, and its performance in non-invasive disease diagnosis such as bacterimia and virus infections needs to be further validated including effects of its influencing matrix. PMID:22848436

  4. Standardised exhaled breath collection for the measurement of exhaled volatile organic compounds by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exhaled breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis for airway disease monitoring is promising. However, contrary to nitric oxide the method for exhaled breath collection has not yet been standardized and the effects of expiratory flow and breath-hold have not been sufficiently studied. These manoeuvres may also reveal the origin of exhaled compounds. Methods 15 healthy volunteers (34 ± 7 years) participated in the study. Subjects inhaled through their nose and exhaled immediately at two different flows (5 L/min and 10 L/min) into methylated polyethylene bags. In addition, the effect of a 20 s breath-hold following inhalation to total lung capacity was studied. The samples were analyzed for ethanol and acetone levels immediately using proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometer (PTR-MS, Logan Research, UK). Results Ethanol levels were negatively affected by expiratory flow rate (232.70 ± 33.50 ppb vs. 202.30 ± 27.28 ppb at 5 L/min and 10 L/min, respectively, p < 0.05), but remained unchanged following the breath hold (242.50 ± 34.53 vs. 237.90 ± 35.86 ppb, without and with breath hold, respectively, p = 0.11). On the contrary, acetone levels were increased following breath hold (1.50 ± 0.18 ppm) compared to the baseline levels (1.38 ± 0.15 ppm), but were not affected by expiratory flow (1.40 ± 0.14 ppm vs. 1.49 ± 0.14 ppm, 5 L/min vs. 10 L/min, respectively, p = 0.14). The diet had no significant effects on the gasses levels which showed good inter and intra session reproducibility. Conclusions Exhalation parameters such as expiratory flow and breath-hold may affect VOC levels significantly; therefore standardisation of exhaled VOC measurements is mandatory. Our preliminary results suggest a different origin in the respiratory tract for these two gasses. PMID:23837867

  5. Detection of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath using a device for rapid collection: comparison with plasma, urine and self-reporting in 47 drug users.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof; Stephanson, Niclas; Sandqvist, Sören; Franck, Johan

    2013-06-01

    Exhaled breath has recently been identified as a matrix for the detection of drugs of abuse. This work aims to further document this application using a new and simple collection device in patients following recovery from acute intoxication. Breath, plasma and urine samples were collected from 47 patients (38 males, age range 25-74) together with interview data. Analysis of breath and plasma samples was done by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. Urine was screened using immunochemical reagents and positive findings confirmed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The 12 analytes investigated were: methadone, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 6-acetylmorphine, morphine, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, diazepam, oxazepam, alprazolam, buprenorphine and tetrahydrocannabinol. In all 47 cases, recent intake of an abused substance prior to admission was reported, but in one case the substance (ketobemidone) was not investigated. In 40 of the remaining cases (87%) breath analysis gave a positive finding of any of the substances that were part of the analytical investigation. Identifications were based on correct chromatographic retention time and product ion ratios obtained in selected reaction monitoring mode. In general, data from breath, plasma, urine and self-reporting were in good agreement, but in 23% of the cases substances were detected that had not been self-reported. All substances covered were detected in a number of breath samples. Considering that breath sampling was often done about 24 h after intake, the detection rate was considered to be high for most substances. Analytes with low detection rates were benzodiazepines, and a further increase in analytical sensitivity is needed to overcome this. This study further supports use of exhaled breath as a new matrix in clinical toxicology. PMID:23619392

  6. Energy expenditures in four men estimated by D/sub 2/ /sup 18/O method at two times. II. From once daily samples of urine or breath

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, C.W.; Seale, J.L.; Collins, J.S.; Barnes, R.; Canary, J.J.; Bodwell, C.E.

    1986-03-01

    To make the doubly labelled water method for determining energy expenditure more applicable in a free-living population, collection of a single daily urine or breath sample would have advantages compared to a 24-hr urine collection. Coward et al. reported the use of a single daily urine sample. In the previously described study, a single urine collection and a fasting morning breath sample were collected from four men during two 21-day periods (fall, F, spring, S) while maintaining their body wts. on controlled diets (20% calories from protein, 40% from fat, 60% from CHO (F); 20% protein, 20% fat, 60% CHO (S)). Urine and breath samples were analyzed to determine disappearance rates of D and /sup 18/O for up to 21 days. Values were compared with metabolizable energy intake levels (EI), with or without corrections for estimated changes in body composition assessed by several methods. Preliminary evaluations suggest that the single daily urine sample values may overestimate and values from the fasting breath samples may underestimate energy expenditure compared to EI.

  7. Evaluation of H2O2 and pH in exhaled breath condensate samples: methodical and physiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Knobloch, Henri; Becher, Gunther; Decker, Manfred; Reinhold, Petra

    2008-05-01

    This veterinary study is aimed at further standardization of H(2)O(2) and pH measurements in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Data obtained in the study provide valuable information for many mammalian species including humans, and may help to avoid general pitfalls in interpretation of EBC data. EBC was sampled via the 'ECoScreen' in healthy calves (body weight 63-98 kg). Serum samples and condensates of ambient (indoor) air were collected in parallel. In the study on H(2)O(2), concentrations of H(2)O(2) in EBC, blood and ambient air were determined with the biosensor system 'ECoCheck'. In EBC, the concentration of H(2)O(2) was found to be dependent on food intake and increased significantly in the course of the day. Physiologically, lowest H(2)O(2) concentrations at 06:00 varied within the range 138-624 nmol l(-1) EBC or 0.10-0.94 nmol per 100 l exhaled breath and individual concentrations were significantly different indicating a remarkable intersubject variability. Highly reproducible results were seen within each subject (three different days within 4 weeks). No correlation existed between H(2)O(2) concentrations in EBC and blood, and EBC-H(2)O(2) was not influenced by variables of spontaneous breathing. Further results confirmed that standardization of H(2)O(2) measurements in EBC requires (1) the re-calculation of the concentration exhaled per 100 l exhaled breath (because the analyzed concentration in the liquid condensate underlies multiple methodological sources of variability given by the collection process), and (2) subtracting the concentration of inspired indoor H(2)O(2). In the study on pH use of the ISFET electrode (Sentron, the Netherlands) and a blood gas analyzer ABL 550 (Radiometer, Denmark) led to comparable results for EBC-pH (r=0.89, R(2)=79.3%, psamples varied between 5.3 and 6.5, and were not significantly different between subjects, but were significantly higher in the evening compared with the morning. EBC-pH was not dependent on variables of spontaneous breathing pattern or ambient conditions, and no significant correlation was found between serum and EBC for pH. PMID:18415804

  8. Effect of release rate of the SF(6) tracer on methane emission estimates based on ruminal and breath gas samples.

    PubMed

    Martin, C; Koolaard, J; Rochette, Y; Clark, H; Jouany, J P; Pinares-Patiño, C S

    2012-03-01

    The release rate (RR) of sulphur hexafluoride (SF(6)) gas from permeation tube in the rumen appears to be positively related with methane (CH(4)) emissions calculated using the SF(6) tracer technique. Gas samples of breath and ruminal headspace were collected simultaneously in order to evaluate the hypothesis that transactions of SF(6) in the rumen are the source for this relationship. Six non-lactating dairy cows fitted with rumen cannulae were subdivided into two groups and randomly assigned to a two-period crossover design to permeation tubes with low RR (LRR = 1.577 mg/day) or two-times higher RR (HRR = 3.147 mg/day) RR. The cows were fed limited amounts of maize silage (80% ad libitum) split into two meals (40% at 0800 h and 60% at 1600 h). Each period consisted of 3-day gas sampling. Immediately before the morning feed and then each hour over 8 h, ruminal gas samples (50 ml) were withdrawn through the cannula fitted with stoppers to prevent opening. Simultaneously, 8-h integrated breath gas samples were collected over the same period. Ratios of concentration of CH(4)/SF(6), CO(2)/SF(6) and CO(2)/CH(4) and emission estimates of CH(4) and CO(2) were calculated for each sample source using the SF(6) tracer technique principles. The LRR treatment yielded higher (P < 0.001) ruminal CH(4)/SF(6) (by 1.79 times) and CO(2)/SF(6) (by 1.90 times) ratios than the HRR treatment; however, these differences were lower than the 2.0 times difference expected from the RR between the LRR and HRR. Consequently, the LRR treatment was associated with lower (P < 0.01) ruminal emissions of CH(4) over the 8-h collection period than with the HRR treatment (+11%), a difference also confirmed by the breath samples (+11%). RR treatments did not differ (P = 0.53) in ruminal or breath CO(2) emissions; however, our results confirm that the SF(6) tracer seems inappropriate for CO(2) emissions estimation in ruminants. Irrespective of the RR treatment, breath samples yielded 8% to 9% higher CH(4) emission estimates than the ruminal samples (P = 0.01). The relationship between rumen and breath sources for CH(4) emissions was better for LRR than for HRR treatment, suggesting that tracer performance decreases with the highest RR of SF(6) tested in our study (3.1 mg/day). A hypothesis is discussed with regard to the mechanism responsible for the relationship between RR and CH(4) emission estimates. The use of permeation tubes with small range in RR is recommended in animal experiments to decrease variability in CH(4) emission estimates using the SF(6) tracer technique. PMID:22436232

  9. A novel physiologic sampling pump capable of rapid response to breathing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Larry; Flemmer, Michael; Lee, Eun Gyung; Harper, Martin; Lin, Ming-I; Groves, William; Freivalds, Andris; Slaven, James

    2009-05-01

    The merits of using physiologic sampling pumps (PSPs) instead of using constant-flow sampling pumps, i.e., "traditional sampling pumps" (TSPs), are discussed. A novel PSP that overcomes shortcomings of previous PSP designs is presented. Calibrated valves are used to obviate pump inertia that has limited the system response and accuracy of prior work. Technologies that provide minute ventilation (V[combining dot above](E)) of subjects in real time may therefore be used to the limit of their own accuracies to sample inhalation exposures. Analysis of the design and data from a prototype are presented to show how air sampling can be modulated to follow breathing. PMID:19436860

  10. A long-term field experience with breath ethanol collection employing silica gel.

    PubMed

    Goldberger, B A; Caplan, Y H; Zettl, J R

    1986-01-01

    Breath specimens (N = 143) from human subjects initially analyzed for ethanol content by infrared spectroscopy were collected onto silica gel. The specimens were retained 1.25 to 2.75 years following adsorption and subsequently analyzed by headspace gas chromatography. The results revealed good overall correlation between the direct and delayed ethanol determinations (r = 0.900). Specimens were collected by police officers following a defined protocol and the results are presented to illustrate practical use and limitations of such a technique. PMID:3022069

  11. SAMPLING AND MASS SPECTROMETRY APPROACHES FOR THE DETECTION OF DRUGS AND FOREIGN CONTAMINANTS IN BREATH FOR HOMELAND SECURITY APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, A N

    2009-01-27

    Homeland security relies heavily on analytical chemistry to identify suspicious materials and persons. Traditionally this role has focused on attribution, determining the type and origin of an explosive, for example. But as technology advances, analytical chemistry can and will play an important role in the prevention and preemption of terrorist attacks. More sensitive and selective detection techniques can allow suspicious materials and persons to be identified even before a final destructive product is made. The work presented herein focuses on the use of commercial and novel detection techniques for application to the prevention of terrorist activities. Although drugs are not commonly thought of when discussing terrorism, narcoterrorism has become a significant threat in the 21st century. The role of the drug trade in the funding of terrorist groups is prevalent; thus, reducing the trafficking of illegal drugs can play a role in the prevention of terrorism by cutting off much needed funding. To do so, sensitive, specific, and robust analytical equipment is needed to quickly identify a suspected drug sample no matter what matrix it is in. Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) is a novel technique that has previously been applied to biological and chemical detection. The current work applies SPAMS to drug analysis, identifying the active ingredients in single component, multi-component, and multi-tablet drug samples in a relatively non-destructive manner. In order to do so, a sampling apparatus was created to allow particle generation from drug tablets with on-line introduction to the SPAMS instrument. Rules trees were developed to automate the identification of drug samples on a single particle basis. A novel analytical scheme was also developed to identify suspect individuals based on chemical signatures in human breath. Human breath was sampled using an RTube{trademark} and the trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were preconcentrated using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and identified using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Modifications to the sampling apparatus allowed for increased VOC collection efficiency, and reduced the time of sampling and analysis by over 25%. The VOCs are present in breath due to either endogenous production, or exposure to an external source through absorption, inhalation, or ingestion. Detection of these exogenous chemicals can provide information on the prior location and activities of the subject. Breath samples collected before and after exposure in a hardware store and nail salon were analyzed to investigate the prior location of a subject; breath samples collected before and after oral exposure to terpenes and terpenoid compounds, pseudoephedrine, and inhalation exposure to hexamine and other explosive related compounds were analyzed to investigate the prior activity of a subject. The elimination of such compounds from the body was also monitored. In application, this technique may provide an early warning system to identify persons of interest in the prevention and preemption stages of homeland security.

  12. Stability of selected volatile breath constituents in Tedlar, Kynar and Flexfilm sampling bags.

    PubMed

    Mochalski, Pawe?; King, Julian; Unterkofler, Karl; Amann, Anton

    2013-03-01

    The stability of 41 selected breath constituents in three types of polymer sampling bags, Tedlar, Kynar, and Flexfilm, was investigated using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The tested molecular species belong to different chemical classes (hydrocarbons, ketones, aldehydes, aromatics, sulphurs, esters, terpenes, etc.) and exhibit close-to-breath low ppb levels (3-12 ppb) with the exception of isoprene, acetone and acetonitrile (106 ppb, 760 ppb, 42 ppb respectively). Stability tests comprised the background emission of contaminants, recovery from dry samples, recovery from humid samples (RH 80% at 37 C), influence of the bag's filling degree, and reusability. Findings yield evidence of the superiority of Tedlar bags over remaining polymers in terms of background emission, species stability (up to 7 days for dry samples), and reusability. Recoveries of species under study suffered from the presence of high amounts of water (losses up to 10%). However, only heavier volatiles, with molecular masses higher than 90, exhibited more pronounced losses (20-40%). The sample size (the degree of bag filling) was found to be one of the most important factors affecting the sample integrity. To sum up, it is recommended to store breath samples in pre-conditioned Tedlar bags up to 6 hours at the maximum possible filling volume. Among the remaining films, Kynar can be considered as an alternative to Tedlar; however, higher losses of compounds should be expected even within the first hours of storage. Due to the high background emission Flexfilm is not suitable for sampling and storage of samples for analyses aiming at volatiles at a low ppb level. PMID:23323261

  13. Characterization of a portable method for the collection of exhaled breath condensate and subsequent analysis of metal content.

    PubMed

    Fox, Julie R; Spannhake, Ernst W; Macri, Kristin K; Torrey, Christine M; Mihalic, Jana N; Eftim, Sorina E; Lees, Peter S J; Geyh, Alison S

    2013-04-01

    Using exhaled breath condensate (EBC) as a biological media for analysis of biomarkers of exposure may facilitate the understanding of inhalation exposures. In this study, we present method validation for the collection of EBC and analysis of metals in EBC. The collection method was designed for use in a small scale longitudinal study with the goal of improving reproducibility while maintaining economic feasibility. We incorporated the use of an Rtube with additional components as an assembly, and trained subjects to breathe into the apparatus. EBC was collected from 8 healthy adult subjects with no known elevated exposures to Mn, Cr, Ni, and Cd repeatedly (10 times) within 7 days and analyzed for these metals via ICP-MS. Method detection limits were obtained by mimicking the process of EBC collection with ultrapure water, and resulted in 46-62% of samples falling in a range less than the method detection limit. EBC metal concentrations were found to be statistically significantly associated (p < 0.05) with room temperature and relative humidity during collection, as well as with the gender of the subject. The geometric mean EBC metal concentrations in our unexposed subjects were 0.57 μg Mn per L, 0.25 μg Cr per L, 0.87 μg Ni per L, and 0.14 μg Cd per L. The overall standard deviation was greater than the mean estimate, and the major source in EBC metals concentrations was due to fluctuations in subjects' measurements over time rather than to the differences between separate subjects. These results suggest that measurement and control of EBC collection and analytical parameters are critical to the interpretation of EBC metals measurements. In particular, rigorous estimation of method detection limits of metals in EBC provides a more thorough evaluation of accuracy. PMID:23450296

  14. Dynamic Method for Identifying Collected Sample Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John

    2008-01-01

    G-Sample is designed for sample collection missions to identify the presence and quantity of sample material gathered by spacecraft equipped with end effectors. The software method uses a maximum-likelihood estimator to identify the collected sample's mass based on onboard force-sensor measurements, thruster firings, and a dynamics model of the spacecraft. This makes sample mass identification a computation rather than a process requiring additional hardware. Simulation examples of G-Sample are provided for spacecraft model configurations with a sample collection device mounted on the end of an extended boom. In the absence of thrust knowledge errors, the results indicate that G-Sample can identify the amount of collected sample mass to within 10 grams (with 95-percent confidence) by using a force sensor with a noise and quantization floor of 50 micrometers. These results hold even in the presence of realistic parametric uncertainty in actual spacecraft inertia, center-of-mass offset, and first flexibility modes. Thrust profile knowledge is shown to be a dominant sensitivity for G-Sample, entering in a nearly one-to-one relationship with the final mass estimation error. This means thrust profiles should be well characterized with onboard accelerometers prior to sample collection. An overall sample-mass estimation error budget has been developed to approximate the effect of model uncertainty, sensor noise, data rate, and thrust profile error on the expected estimate of collected sample mass.

  15. Techniques and issues in breath and clinical sample headspace analysis for disease diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Turner, Claire

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from breath or clinical samples for disease diagnosis is an attractive proposition because it is noninvasive and rapid. There are numerous studies showing its potential, yet there are barriers to its development. Sampling and sample handling is difficult, and when coupled with a variety of analytical instrumentation, the same samples can give different results. Background air and the environment a person has been exposed to can greatly affect the VOCs emitted by the body; however, this is not an easy problem to solve. This review investigates the use of VOCs in disease diagnosis, the analytical techniques employed and the problems associated with sample handling and standardization. It then suggests the barriers to future development. PMID:26978667

  16. USGS Collects Sample at Gulf Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists collected environmental data and samples in coastal areas affected by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.  Samples of water, sediments, benthic invertebrates, and microorganisms were collected by the USGS at beach, barrier island,...

  17. Collection and storage of invertebrate samples.

    PubMed

    Dick, M; Bridge, D M; Wheeler, W C; DeSalle, R

    1993-01-01

    The validity of any comparative study is dependent on the reliability of the identification of the samples in the study. Not all researchers are experts in the field of identification of samples, nor do all researchers have quick and ready access to expert systematists who can accomplish the task of identification. The importance of verification of sample identity for comparative studies is vital. We describe several methods by which researchers can obtain and identify samples from the wild, and we suggest methods by which voucher samples can be obtained for future reference to these collected samples. We outline alternatives to collection of samples from the wild, such as purchase from stock centers and biological supply companies. Museum collections can also be extremely helpful in obtaining complete organismal samples for comparative studies. PMID:8264406

  18. Sample collection system for gel electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Olivares, Jose A.; Stark, Peter C.; Dunbar, John M.; Hill, Karen K.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Roybal, Gustavo

    2004-09-21

    An automatic sample collection system for use with an electrophoretic slab gel system is presented. The collection system can be used with a slab gel have one or more lanes. A detector is used to detect particle bands on the slab gel within a detection zone. Such detectors may use a laser to excite fluorescently labeled particles. The fluorescent light emitted from the excited particles is transmitted to low-level light detection electronics. Upon the detection of a particle of interest within the detection zone, a syringe pump is activated, sending a stream of buffer solution across the lane of the slab gel. The buffer solution collects the sample of interest and carries it through a collection port into a sample collection vial.

  19. Chapter A4. Collection of Water Samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By)

    1999-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data that are used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter addresses preparations and appropriate methods for the collection of surface-water, groundwater, and associated quality-control samples. Among the topics covered are considerations and procedures to prevent sample contamination; establishing site files; instructions for collecting depth-integrated isokinetic and nonisokinetic samples at flowing- and still-water sites; and guidelines for collecting formation water from wells having various types of construction and hydraulic and aquifer characteristics.

  20. Water sample-collection and distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Collection and distribution system samples water from six designated stations, filtered if desired, and delivers it to various analytical sensors. System may be controlled by Water Monitoring Data Acquisition System or operated manually.

  1. Asteroid Redirect Mission: EVA and Sample Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul; Stich, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) Overview (1) Notional Development Schedule, (2) ARV Crewed Mission Accommodations; Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) Mission Summary; ARCM Accomplishments; Sample collection/curation plan (1) CAPTEM Requirements; SBAG Engagement Plan

  2. Biologists Collecting Biological Samples from Grizzly Bear

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS biologists collecting biological information from a grizzly bear they have captured. Biologists collect hair samples for genetic analysis, weigh the bear, and gather numerous measurements of the body, such as the head, paws, claws, teeth, etc. Overall condition of the bear is assessed as well, ...

  3. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, R.L.; Jessop, B.H.; McDowell, B.L.

    1996-02-01

    A solubility testing method for several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS{reg_sign}) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Profiles developed for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} samples show good agreement with in vitro and in vivo tests performed by other investigators on samples from the same uranium mills.

  4. Final Report BW Sample Collection& Preparation Device

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, R P; Belgrader, P; Meyer, G; Benett, W J; Richards, J B; Hadley, D R; Stratton, P L; Milanovich, F P

    2002-01-31

    The objective of this project was to develop the technique needed to prepare a field collected sample for laboratory analysis and build a portable integrated biological detection instrument with new miniaturized and automated sample purification capabilities. The device will prepare bacterial spores, bacterial vegetative cells, and viral particles for PCR amplification.

  5. 75 FR 43989 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Sample Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Sample Collection Plan for Dogs Treated With SLENTROL AGENCY: Food and Drug... response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on the sample collection plan for dogs treated with... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Sample Collection Plan for Dogs Treated With...

  6. Detection of gaseous compounds by needle trap sampling and direct thermal-desorption photoionization mass spectrometry: concept and demonstrative application to breath gas analysis.

    PubMed

    Kleeblatt, Juliane; Schubert, Jochen K; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2015-02-01

    A fast detection method to analyze gaseous organic compounds in complex gas mixtures was developed, using a needle trap device (NTD) in conjunction with thermal-desorption photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TD-PI-TOFMS). The mass spectrometer was coupled via a deactivated fused silica capillary to an injector of a gas chromatograph. In the hot injector, the analytes collected on the NTD were thermally desorbed and directly transferred to the PI-TOFMS ion source. The molecules are softly ionized either by single photon ionization (SPI, 118 nm) or by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI, 266 nm), and the molecular ion signals are detected in the TOF mass analyzer. Analyte desorption and the subsequent PI-TOFMS detection step only lasts ten seconds. The specific selectivity of REMPI (i.e., aromatic compounds) and universal ionization characteristics render PI-MS as a promising detection system. As a first demonstrative application, the alveolar phase breath gas of healthy, nonsmoking subjects was sampled on NTDs. While smaller organic compounds such as acetone, acetaldehyde, isoprene, or cysteamine can be detected in the breath gas with SPI, REMPI depicts the aromatic substances phenol and indole at 266 nm. In the breath gas of a healthy, smoking male subject, several xenobiotic substances such as benzene, toluene, styrene, and ethylbenzene can be found as well. Furthermore, the NTD-REMPI-TOFMS setup was tested for breath gas taken from a mechanically ventilated pig under continuous intravenous propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol, narcotic drug) infusion. PMID:25517186

  7. Automated Sample collection and Analysis unit

    SciTech Connect

    Latner, Norman; Sanderson, Colin G.; Negro, Vincent C.

    1999-03-31

    Autoramp is an atmospheric radionuclide collection and analysis unit designed for unattended operation. A large volume of air passes through one of 31 filter cartridges which is then moved from a sampling chamber and past a bar code reader, to a shielded enclosure. The collected dust-borne radionuclides are counted with a high resolution germanium gamma-ray detector. An analysis is made and the results are transmitted to a central station that can also remotely control the unit.

  8. Deconvolving an Estimate of Breath Measured Blood Alcohol Concentration from Biosensor Collected Transdermal Ethanol Data

    PubMed Central

    Dumett, M; Rosen, G; Sabat, J; Shaman, A; Tempelman, L; Wang, C; Swift, RM

    2008-01-01

    Biosensor measurement of transdermal alcohol oncentration in perspiration exhibits significant variance from subject to subject and device to device. Short duration data collected in a controlled clinical setting is used to calibrate a forward model for ethanol transport from the blood to the sensor. The calibrated model is then used to invert transdermal signals collected in the field (short or long duration) to obtain an estimate for breath measured blood alcohol concentration. A distributed parameter model for the forward transport of ethanol from the blood through the skin and its processing by the sensor is developed. Model calibration is formulated as a nonlinear least squares fit to data. The fit model is then used as part of a spline based scheme in the form of a regularized, non-negatively constrained linear deconvolution. Fully discrete, steepest descent based schemes for solving the resulting optimization problems are developed. The adjoint method is used to accurately and efficiently compute requisite gradients. Efficacy is demonstrated on subject field data. PMID:19255617

  9. USGS Collects Sediments Samples at Pascagoula Beach

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists collected environmental data and samples at beach, barrier island, and wetland sites in response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.  The USGS Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas Science Centers collaborated to ...

  10. USGS Collects Sediments Samples at Pascagoula Beach

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists collected environmental data and samples at beach, barrier island, and wetland sites in response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The USGS Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas Science Centers collaborated to ...

  11. Automated collection and processing of environmental samples

    DOEpatents

    Troyer, Gary L. (Richland, WA); McNeece, Susan G. (Richland, WA); Brayton, Darryl D. (Richland, WA); Panesar, Amardip K. (Kennewick, WA)

    1997-01-01

    For monitoring an environmental parameter such as the level of nuclear radiation, at distributed sites, bar coded sample collectors are deployed and their codes are read using a portable data entry unit that also records the time of deployment. The time and collector identity are cross referenced in memory in the portable unit. Similarly, when later recovering the collector for testing, the code is again read and the time of collection is stored as indexed to the sample collector, or to a further bar code, for example as provided on a container for the sample. The identity of the operator can also be encoded and stored. After deploying and/or recovering the sample collectors, the data is transmitted to a base processor. The samples are tested, preferably using a test unit coupled to the base processor, and again the time is recorded. The base processor computes the level of radiation at the site during exposure of the sample collector, using the detected radiation level of the sample, the delay between recovery and testing, the duration of exposure and the half life of the isotopes collected. In one embodiment, an identity code and a site code are optically read by an image grabber coupled to the portable data entry unit.

  12. IMPROVEMENT OF EXPOSURE-DOSE MODELS: APPLICATION OF CONTINUOUS BREATH SAMPLING TO DETERMINE VOC DOSE AND BODY BURDEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a continuation of an Internal Grant research project with the focus on completing the research due to initial funding delays and then analyzing and reporting the research results. This project will employ a new continuous breath sampling methodology to investigate dose a...

  13. Tissue sample collection for proteomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Jose I; Cazares, Lisa H; Semmes, O John

    2008-01-01

    Successful collection of tissue samples for molecular analysis requires critical considerations. We describe here our procedure for tissue specimen collection for proteomic purposes with emphasis on the most important steps, including timing issues and the procedures for immediate freezing, storage, and microdissection of the cells of interest or "tissue targets" and the lysates for protein isolation for SELDI, MALDI, and 2DGE applications. The pathologist is at the cornerstone of this process and is an invaluable collaborator. In most institutions, pathologists are responsible for "tissue custody," and they closely supervise the tissue bank. In addition, they are optimally trained in histopathology in order to they assist investigators to correlate tissue morphology with molecular findings. In recent years, the advent of the laser capture microscope, a tool ideally designed for pathologists, has tremendously facilitated the efficiency of collecting tissue targets for molecular analysis. PMID:18287767

  14. Astronaut John Young photographed collecting lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, is photographed collecting lunar samples near North Ray crater during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. This picture was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. Young is using the lunar surface rake and a set of tongs. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked in the field of large boulders in the background.

  15. Four-sample lactose hydrogen breath test for diagnosis of lactose malabsorption in irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-Feng; Fox, Mark; Chu, Hua; Zheng, Xia; Long, Yan-Qin; Pohl, Daniel; Fried, Michael; Dai, Ning

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To validate 4-sample lactose hydrogen breath testing (4SLHBT) compared to standard 13-sample LHBT in the clinical setting. METHODS: Irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea (IBS-D) and healthy volunteers (HVs) were enrolled and received a 10 g, 20 g, or 40 g dose lactose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) in a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. The lactase gene promoter region was sequenced. Breath samples and symptoms were acquired at baseline and every 15 min for 3 h (13 measurements). The detection rates of lactose malabsorption (LM) and lactose intolerance (LI) for a 4SLHBT that acquired four measurements at 0, 90, 120, and 180 min from the same data set were compared with the results of standard LHBT. RESULTS: Sixty IBS-D patients and 60 HVs were studied. The genotype in all participants was C/C-13910. LM and LI detection rates increased with lactose dose from 10 g, 20 g to 40 g in both groups (P < 0.001). 4SLHBT showed excellent diagnostic concordance with standard LHBT (97%-100%, Kappa​​ 0.815-0.942) with high sensitivity (90%-100%) and specificity (100%) at all three lactose doses in both groups. CONCLUSION: Reducing the number of measurements from 13 to 4 samples did not significantly impact on the accuracy of LHBT in health and IBS-D. 4SLHBT is a valid test for assessment of LM and LI in clinical practice. PMID:26140004

  16. The Relationship between Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Hypertension in a Nationally Representative Sample

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, Sarah Dee; Shankar, Anoop

    2015-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), characterized by abnormal respiratory patterns or inadequate quantity of ventilation, is common in adults. A positive association between SDB and hypertension has been established, in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. One void in the literature concerns the role of race/ethnicity in the association between SDB and hypertension. In this context, a cross-sectional study was performed on 6,783 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 20052008. Participants were ?age 20 and free from cardiovascular disease. The outcome of interest was hypertension, defined as ?140?mmHg systolic blood pressure (BP), and/or ?90?mmHg diastolic BP or antihypertensive medication use. Self-reported SDB was positively associated with hypertension, independent of confounders such as depression, diabetes, cholesterol levels, and body mass index, among others. The association persisted in subgroup analyses by gender, with a stronger association among males than females, as well as by race/ethnicity, with non-Hispanic blacks displaying the strongest association. In the multivariable-adjusted model, compared to a sleep summary score of zero (referent), the OR (95% CI) of hypertension for non-Hispanic blacks was 1.34 (0.981.83) for a sleep summary score of 1, 1.44 (1.061.97) for a score of 2 and 3.72 (1.987.00) for a score of >3; p-trend < 0.0001. SDB was positively associated with hypertension in a large, nationally representative sample of US adults. Along with being prevalent, SDB is also treatable. Therefore, our results are important for minority race/ethnic groups who typically experience a higher baseline for negative health outcomes. PMID:26064690

  17. NEW METHODOLOGY FOR IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL HUMAN BIOMARKERS BY COLLECTION AND CONCENTRATION OF EXHALED BREATH CONDENSATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In many studies of human exposure, the measurement of pollutant chemicals in the environment (air, water, food, soil, etc.) is being supplemented by their additional measurement in biological media such as human breath, blood, and urine. This allows an unambiguous confirmation...

  18. Sample Acquisition and Analytical Chemistry Challenges to Verifying Compliance to Aviators Breathing Oxygen (ABO) Purity Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been developing and testing two different types of oxygen separation systems. One type of oxygen separation system uses pressure swing technology, the other type uses a solid electrolyte electrochemical oxygen separation cell. Both development systems have been subjected to long term testing, and performance testing under a variety of environmental and operational conditions. Testing these two systems revealed that measuring the product purity of oxygen, and determining if an oxygen separation device meets Aviator's Breathing Oxygen (ABO) specifications is a subtle and sometimes difficult analytical chemistry job. Verifying product purity of cryogenically produced oxygen presents a different set of analytical chemistry challenges. This presentation will describe some of the sample acquisition and analytical chemistry challenges presented by verifying oxygen produced by an oxygen separator - and verifying oxygen produced by cryogenic separation processes. The primary contaminant that causes gas samples to fail to meet ABO requirements is water. The maximum amount of water vapor allowed is 7 ppmv. The principal challenge of verifying oxygen produced by an oxygen separator is that it is produced relatively slowly, and at comparatively low temperatures. A short term failure that occurs for just a few minutes in the course of a 1 week run could cause an entire tank to be rejected. Continuous monitoring of oxygen purity and water vapor could identify problems as soon as they occur. Long term oxygen separator tests were instrumented with an oxygen analyzer and with an hygrometer: a GE Moisture Monitor Series 35. This hygrometer uses an aluminum oxide sensor. The user's manual does not report this, but long term exposure to pure oxygen causes the aluminum oxide sensor head to bias dry. Oxygen product that exceeded the 7 ppm specification was improperly accepted, because the sensor had biased. The bias is permanent - exposure to air does not cause the sensor to return to its original response - but the bias can be accounted for by recalibrating the sensor. After this issue was found, continuous measurements of water vapor in the oxygen product were made using an FTIR. The FTIR cell is relatively large, so response time is slow - but moisture measurements were repeatable and accurate. Verifying ABO compliance for oxygen produced by commercial cryogenic processes has a different set of sample acquisition and analytical chemistry challenges. Customers want analytical chemists to conserve as much as possible. Hygrometers are not exposed to hours of continuous flow of oxygen, so they don't bias, but small amounts of contamination in valves can cause a "fail". K bottles are periodically cleaned and recertified - after cleaning residual moisture can cause a "fail". Operators let bottle pressure drop to room pressure, introduce outside air into the bottle, and the subsequent fill will "fail". Outside storage of K-bottles has allowed enough in-leakage, so contents will "fail".

  19. Timing of the breath analyzer: does it make a difference?

    PubMed

    Cherpitel, C J

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine in an emergency room (ER) population the concordance of self-reports of no alcohol consumption prior to injury with breath-analyzer readings in two groups: (1) those patients from whom reports were obtained after they were breath analyzed compared to (2) patients from whom reports were obtained prior to obtaining the breath-analyzer reading. Data were collected on a probability sample of patients attending three health maintenance organization ERs. Among those sampled were 159 patients admitted for initial treatment of an injury, who were breath analyzed within 6 hours of the event and reported no drinking following the event that lead to injury. Of these, 119 were breath analyzed prior to the interview, and none who reported not drinking were positive on the breath analyzer, while of the 37 breath analyzed after the interview, only one was positive who had reported not drinking. Obtaining the breath-analyzer reading following the interview was not found to affect the rate of refusal to provide a breath-analyzer reading; however, it was found to adversely affect obtaining the breath-analyzer reading for other reasons. The data suggest that the concordance of negative self-reports of consumption with breath-analyzer readings remains high in ER populations regardless of when the breath-analyzer reading is obtained; however, it appears best to obtain the reading prior to interviewing the patient for reasons explained below. PMID:8412139

  20. Study of exhaled breath condensate sample preparation for metabolomics analysis by LC-MS/MS in high resolution mode.

    PubMed

    Fernndez-Peralbo, M A; Caldern Santiago, M; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2015-11-01

    Metabolomic analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) requires an unavoidable sample preparation step because of the low concentration of its components, and potential cleanup for possible interferents. Sample preparation based on protein precipitation (PP), solid-phase extraction (SPE) by hydrophilic and lipophilic sorbents or lyophilization has demonstrated that the analytical sample from the last is largely the best because lyophilization allows reconstitution in a volume as small as required (preconcentration factors up to 80-times with respect to the original sample), thus doubling the number of detected compounds as compared with the other alternatives (47 versus 25). In addition, PP and/or SPE cleanup are unnecessary as no effect from the EBC components removed by these steps appears in the chromatograms. The total 49 EBC compounds tentatively identified and confirmed by MS/MS in this research include amino acids, fatty acids, fatty amides, fatty aldehydes, sphingoid bases, oxoanionic compounds, imidazoles, hydroxy acids and aliphatic acyclic acids. PMID:26452970

  1. Development of a miniaturized diffusive sampler for true breathing-zone sampling and thermal desorption gas chromatographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Roger; Levin, Jan-Olof; Sundgren, Margit

    2009-07-01

    Exposure measurements should be performed as close as possible to the nose and mouth for a more correct assessment of exposure. User-friendly sampling equipment, with a minimum of handling before, during and after measurement, should not affect ordinary work. In diffusive (passive) sampling, no extra equipment as sampling pumps is needed, making the measurements more acceptable to the user. The diffusive samplers are normally attached on a shoulder, on a breast-pocket or on the lapel. There are, however, difficulties if true breathing-zone sampling is to be performed, since available diffusive samplers normally cannot be arranged close to the nose/mouth. The purpose of this work was to study the performance of a miniaturized tube type diffusive sampler attached to a headset for true breathing-zone sampling. The basis for this miniaturization was the Perkin Elmer ATD tube. Both the size of the tube and the amount of adsorbent was decreased for the miniaturized sampler. A special tube holder to be used with a headset was designed for the mini tube. The mini tube is thermally desorbed inside a standard PE tube. The new sampler was evaluated for the determination of styrene, both in laboratory experiments and in field measurements. As reference method, diffusive sampling with standard Perkin Elmer tubes, thermal desorption and gas chromatographic (GC) analysis was used. The sampling rate was determined to 0.356 mL min(-1) (CV 9.6%) and was not significantly affected by concentration, sampling time or relative humidity. PMID:20449222

  2. Sensitive determination of isoprostanes in exhaled breath condensate samples with use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Janicka, Monika; Kubica, Paweł; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Kot, Jacek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2012-04-15

    Oxidative stress is the hallmark of various inflammatory lung diseases. Increased concentrations of reactive oxygen species in the lungs are reflected by elevated concentrations of oxidative stress markers in the breath, airways, lung tissue and blood. The aim of this work was to develop a method for the fast measurement of F2-isoprostanes in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples using equipment which is nowadays available and routinely exploited in analytical laboratories, liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Because of the limited volume of an EBC sample and the very low concentrations of biomarkers, we chose lyophilization as the preconcentration technique. The diastereoisomers determined show similar fragmentation patterns, which is why complete chromatographic separation with excellent peak shapes was essential for accurate quantitation. Isoprostanes were separated using a narrow-bore Agilent Extend C-18 column in isocratic elution mode using acetonitrile/methanol and water with the addition of 0.01%(v/v) formic acid. The limits of determination and quantitation for the determination of four isoprostanes in samples of EBC ranged from 1 to 3 pg/ml. The recoveries of all isoprostanes ranged from 96.7 to 101.7, with a relative standard deviation of <7%. The stability of the isoprostanes at different temperatures was measured as well. PMID:22445305

  3. Assessment of the impact of collection temperature and sampler design on the measurement of exhaled breath condensate pH in healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Andrew G; Love, Sandy; Parkin, Timothy D H; Duz, Marco; Cathcart, Michael; Hughes, Kristopher J

    2012-02-01

    The pH measurement of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) may provide a non-invasive method of assessing the lower airways of horses but the methodology used may influence findings. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two sampling devices and three methods of condensation surface cooling (ethanol slush, -100°C; dry ice, -75°C; water ice, 0°C) on EBC pH. Each method was tested 30 times using six healthy ponies. Sample pH was determined before and after de-aeration with argon for 10 min. Sampler design was found to significantly affect pH. Samples collected as a liquid had a significantly higher pH than samples frozen during collection (P<0.05). De-aeration resulted in significantly higher pH (P<0.05) with less variation. This study has shown that device design and condensation surface temperature will influence EBC pH, which will prevent a direct comparison of results when different methodologies are used. PMID:21251858

  4. Total airborne mold particle sampling: evaluation of sample collection, preparation and counting procedures, and collection devices.

    PubMed

    Godish, Diana; Godish, Thad

    2008-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate (i) procedures used to collect, prepare, and count total airborne mold spore/particle concentrations, and (ii) the relative field performance of three commercially available total airborne mold spore/particle sampling devices. Differences between factory and laboratory airflow calibration values of axial fan-driven sampling instruments (used in the study) indicated a need for laboratory calibration using a mass flow meter to ensure that sample results were accurately calculated. An aniline blue-amended Calberla's solution adjusted to a pH of 4.2-4.4 provided good sample mounting/counting results using Dow Corning high vacuum grease, Dow Corning 280A adhesive, and Dow Corning 316 silicone release spray for samples collected using mini-Burkard and Allergenco samplers. Count variability among analysts was most pronounced in 5% counts of relatively low mold particle deposition density samples and trended downward with increased count percentage and particle deposition density. No significant differences were observed among means of 5, 10, and 20% counts and among analysts; a significant interaction effect was observed between analysts' counts and particle deposition densities. Significantly higher mini-Burkard and Air-O-Cell total mold spore/particle counts for 600x vs. 400x (1.9 and 2.3 x higher, respectively), 1000x vs. 600x (1.9 and 2.2 x higher, respectively) and 1000x vs. 400x (3.6 and 4.6 x higher, respectively) comparisons indicated that 1000x magnification counts best quantified total airborne mold spore/particles using light microscopy, and that lower magnification counts may result in unacceptable underreporting of airborne mold spore/particle concentrations. Modest but significantly higher (1.2x) total mold spore concentrations were observed with Allergenco vs. mini-Burkard samples collected in co-located, concurrently operated sampler studies; moderate but significantly higher mini-Burkard count values (1.4x) were observed in similar studies with Air-O-Cell samplers. These count differences were relatively small compared with the large differences observed among three count magnifications. PMID:18085480

  5. Designing an enhanced groundwater sample collection system

    SciTech Connect

    Schalla, R.

    1994-10-01

    As part of an ongoing technical support mission to achieve excellence and efficiency in environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory for Energy and Health-Related Research (LEHR), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided guidance on the design and construction of monitoring wells and identified the most suitable type of groundwater sampling pump and accessories for monitoring wells. The goal was to utilize a monitoring well design that would allow for hydrologic testing and reduce turbidity to minimize the impact of sampling. The sampling results of the newly designed monitoring wells were clearly superior to those of the previously installed monitoring wells. The new wells exhibited reduced turbidity, in addition to improved access for instrumentation and hydrologic testing. The variable frequency submersible pump was selected as the best choice for obtaining groundwater samples. The literature references are listed at the end of this report. Despite some initial difficulties, the actual performance of the variable frequency, submersible pump and its accessories was effective in reducing sampling time and labor costs, and its ease of use was preferred over the previously used bladder pumps. The surface seals system, called the Dedicator, proved to be useful accessory to prevent surface contamination while providing easy access for water-level measurements and for connecting the pump. Cost savings resulted from the use of the pre-production pumps (beta units) donated by the manufacturer for the demonstration. However, larger savings resulted from shortened field time due to the ease in using the submersible pumps and the surface seal access system. Proper deployment of the monitoring wells also resulted in cost savings and ensured representative samples.

  6. USE OF EXHALED BREATH CONDENSATE IN A HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a noninvasive, repeatable collection technique to sample biomarkers of lung inflammation, oxidative stress, and environmental exposure. It is unclear whether EBC is an effective tool in human environmental exposure studies with multi-day samplin...

  7. News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-05-23

    This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 11 to 14 September 2011. The meeting, which was jointly organized by the International Association for Breath Research and the University of Parma, was attended by more than 250 delegates from 33 countries, and offered 34 invited lectures and 64 unsolicited scientific contributions. The summit was organized to provide a forum to scientists, engineers and clinicians to present their latest findings and to meet industry executives and entrepreneurs to discuss key trends, future directions and technologies available for breath analysis. A major focus was on nitric oxide, exhaled breath condensate, electronic nose, mass spectrometry and newer sensor technologies. Medical applications ranged from asthma and other respiratory diseases to gastrointestinal disease, occupational diseases, critical care and cancer. Most people identify breath tests with breathalysers used by police to estimate ethanol concentration in blood. However, breath testing has far more sophisticated applications. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as a new frontier in medical testing for disease states in the lung and beyond. Every individual has a breath fingerprint-or 'breathprint'-that can provide useful information about his or her state of health. This breathprint comprises the many thousands of molecules that are expelled with each breath we exhale. Breath research in the past few years has uncovered the scientific and molecular basis for such clinical observations. Relying on mass spectrometry, we have been able to identify many such unique substances in exhaled breath, including gases, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), and a wide array of volatile organic compounds. Exhaled breath also carries aerosolized droplets that can be collected as an exhaled breath condensate that contains endogenously produced non-volatile compounds. Breath analysis is now used to diagnose and monitor asthma, check for transplant organ rejection, detect lung cancer and test for Helicobacter pyloriinfection-and the list is growing. A major milestone in the scientific study of breath was marked in the 1970s when Linus Pauling demonstrated that there is more to exhaled breath than the classic gases of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapour-a lot more. Based on the gas-liquid partition chromatography analysis, Pauling reported the presence of 250 substances in exhaled breath. We now have the technology to test for any and all of these components. The field of breath analysis has made considerable advances in the 21st century and the utility of breath analysis in health care is advancing quickly. The science is rapidly expanding, the technology is improving and several new applications have been developed or are under commercial development. Breath analysis may rely on both direct (on line) and indirect (off line) reading methods: in the on-line method, breath analysis is immediately available, whereas the use of indirect methods generally involves collecting and trapping the breath sample and subsequently transferring it to an analytical instrument for analysis. Various kinds of breath samples have been used in biological monitoring, including mixed expired air and end expired air: end exhaled air represents the alveolar air concentration and mixed exhaled air represents the gas mixture coming from the dead space of the bronchial tree and the alveolar gas-exchange space. Exhaled breath analysis is an area where the modern day advances in technology and engineering meet the ever expanding need in medicine for more sensitive, specific and non-invasive tests which makes this area a major front in the interface between medicine and engineering. A major breakthrough over the past decade has been the increase in breath-based tests approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Devices measuring common breath gases (oxygen, nitrogen, water vapour and CO(2)) in patient respiratory monitoring have served as a platform for technological growth in clinical breath-testing applications. A few exhaled breath tests have demonstrated clinical utility and are in widespread use, and several FDA-approved devices are available. These widely used exhaled breath tests include detection of blood alcohol concentration and exhaled CO(2). Other clinical applications of exhaled breath analysis include testing for H. pylori infection, lactose intolerance, heart transplant rejection and, more recently, monitoring of airway inflammation by means of exhaled NO. Examination of exhaled breath has the potential to change the existing routine approaches in human medicine. The rapidly developing new analytical and computer technologies along with novel, unorthodox ideas are prerequisites for future advances in this field. Scientists who participated in the Breath Analysis Summit 2011 were invited to submit a full length paper to the Journal of Breath Research and this issue includes eight articles which describe the different applications of breath analysis. We thank all the authors for their valuable contribution and we trust that this collection will provide useful information and an update to this rapidly evolving field, giving an example of integration among scientists who address the same topic-breath analysis-from different and complementary perspectives, from basic to clinical research. PMID:22622266

  8. Bedside diagnosis of alcohol intoxication with a pocket-size breath-alcohol device: sampling from unconscious subjects and specificity for ethanol.

    PubMed

    Falkensson, M; Jones, W; Srbo, B

    1989-06-01

    We describe a novel mouth-cup device for sampling breath from unconscious subjects and analysis with a hand-held breath-alcohol instrument, the "Alcolmeter SD-2." This equipment was evaluated in healthy volunteers after they drank a moderate dose of alcohol. Three kinds of breath were analyzed: (a) end-expired air from a conventional mouth-tube, (b) breath sampled from the mouth-cup, and (c) air from a nasal tube supplied with the breath analyzer. The ethanol concentration in breath from the mouth-cup was slightly less than in end-expired air but significantly greater than in nasal air. Results with mouth-tube and mouth-cup correlated highly with blood-ethanol concentration as determined by gas chromatography; nasal-tube air correlated less well. The Alcolmeter responded not only to ethanol but also to methanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol, whereas ethylene glycol gave no response. The time-response curve for methanol was different, and this might permit differential diagnosis of methanol poisoning. PMID:2731363

  9. Breath-based biomarkers for tuberculosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolk, Arend H. J.; van Berkel, Joep J. B. N.; Claassens, Mareli M.; Walters, Elisabeth; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Dallinga, Jan W.; van Schooten, Fredrik-Jan

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the potential of breath analysis by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to discriminate between samples collected prospectively from patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB). Samples were obtained in a TB endemic setting in South Africa where 28% of the culture proven TB patients had a Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) negative sputum smear. A training set of breath samples from 50 sputum culture proven TB patients and 50 culture negative non-TB patients was analyzed by GC-MS. A classification model with 7 compounds resulted in a training set with a sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 86% and accuracy of 79% compared with culture. The classification model was validated with an independent set of breath samples from 21 TB and 50 non-TB patients. A sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 84% and accuracy of 77% was found. We conclude that the 7 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that discriminate breath samples from TB and non-TB patients in our study population are probably host-response related VOCs and are not derived from the VOCs secreted by M. tuberculosis. It is concluded that at present GC-MS breath analysis is able to differentiate between TB and non-TB breath samples even among patients with a negative ZN sputum smear but a positive culture for M. tuberculosis. Further research is required to improve the sensitivity and specificity before this method can be used in routine laboratories.

  10. Snow White Trench Prepared for Sample Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The informally named 'Snow White' trench is the source for the next sample to be acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander for analysis by the wet chemistry lab.

    The Surface Stereo Imager on Phoenix took this shadow-enhanced image of the trench, on the eastern end of Phoenix's work area, on Sol 103, or the 103rd day of the mission, Sept. 8, 2008. The trench is about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide.

    The wet chemistry lab is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Collection and Preparation of Thin Sections of Oriented Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Vicki Lynn

    1990-01-01

    Outlined is a method for collecting and cutting oriented samples for microstructural analysis including handling the samples in the laboratory, cutting and orienting chips parallel to the motion plane, and cutting and orienting chips normal to Le and foliation. (CW)

  12. The development of a Martian atmospheric Sample collection canister

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulczycki, E.; Galey, C.; Kennedy, B.; Budney, C.; Bame, D.; Van Schilfgaarde, R.; Aisen, N.; Townsend, J.; Younse, P.; Piacentine, J.

    The collection of an atmospheric sample from Mars would provide significant insight to the understanding of the elemental composition and sub-surface out-gassing rates of noble gases. A team of engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology have developed an atmospheric sample collection canister for Martian application. The engineering strategy has two basic elements: first, to collect two separately sealed 50 cubic centimeter unpressurized atmospheric samples with minimal sensing and actuation in a self contained pressure vessel; and second, to package this atmospheric sample canister in such a way that it can be easily integrated into the orbiting sample capsule for collection and return to Earth. Sample collection and integrity are demonstrated by emulating the atmospheric collection portion of the Mars Sample Return mission on a compressed timeline. The test results achieved by varying the pressure inside of a thermal vacuum chamber while opening and closing the valve on the sample canister at Mars ambient pressure. A commercial off-the-shelf medical grade micro-valve is utilized in the first iteration of this design to enable rapid testing of the system. The valve has been independently leak tested at JPL to quantify and separate the leak rates associated with the canister. The results are factored in to an overall system design that quantifies mass, power, and sensing requirements for a Martian atmospheric Sample Collection (MASC) canister as outlined in the Mars Sample Return mission profile. Qualitative results include the selection of materials to minimize sample contamination, preliminary science requirements, priorities in sample composition, flight valve selection criteria, a storyboard from sample collection to loading in the orbiting sample capsule, and contributions to maintaining Earth clean exterior surfaces on the orbiting sample capsule.

  13. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide...

  14. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide...

  15. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide...

  16. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide...

  17. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide...

  18. Scientific guidelines for preservation of samples collected from Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, James L. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The maximum scientific value of Martian geologic and atmospheric samples is retained when the samples are preserved in the conditions that applied prior to their collection. Any sample degradation equates to loss of information. Based on detailed review of pertinent scientific literature, and advice from experts in planetary sample analysis, number values are recommended for key parameters in the environmental control of collected samples with respect to material contamination, temperature, head-space gas pressure, ionizing radiation, magnetic fields, and acceleration/shock. Parametric values recommended for the most sensitive geologic samples should also be adequate to preserve any biogenic compounds or exobiological relics.

  19. Application of cabin atmosphere monitors to rapid screening of breath samples for the early detection of disease states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, J. L.; Bryant, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    Analysis of human breath is a nonintrusive method to monitor both endogenous and exogenous chemicals found in the body. Several technologies were investigated and developed which are applicable to monitoring some organic molecules important in both physiological and pathological states. Two methods were developed for enriching the organic molecules exhaled in the breath of humans. One device is based on a respiratory face mask fitted with a polyethylene foam wafer; while the other device is a cryogenic trap utilizing an organic solvent. Using laboratory workers as controls, two organic molecules which occurred in the enriched breath of all subjects were tentatively identified as lactic acid and contisol. Both of these substances occurred in breath in sufficient amounts that the conventional method of gas-liquid chromatography was adequate for detection and quantification. To detect and quantitate trace amounts of chemicals in breath, another type of technology was developed in which analysis was conducted using high pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF CORE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, A.; Duncan, A.

    2010-01-28

    During the month of September 2008, grout core samples were collected from the Saltstone Disposal Facility, Vault 4, cell E. This grout was placed during processing campaigns in December 2007 from Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment Batch 2 salt solution. The 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria sample collected on 11/16/07 represents the salt solution in the core samples. Core samples were retrieved to initiate the historical database of properties of emplaced Saltstone and to demonstrate the correlation between field collected and laboratory prepared samples. Three samples were collected from three different locations. Samples were collected using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit. In April 2009, the core samples were removed from the evacuated sample container, inspected, transferred to PVC containers, and backfilled with nitrogen. Samples furthest from the wall were the most intact cylindrically shaped cored samples. The shade of the core samples darkened as the depth of coring increased. Based on the visual inspection, sample 3-3 was selected for all subsequent analysis. The density and porosity of the Vault 4 core sample, 1.90 g/cm{sup 3} and 59.90% respectively, were comparable to values achieved for laboratory prepared samples. X-ray diffraction analysis identified phases consistent with the expectations for hydrated Saltstone. Microscopic analysis revealed morphology features characteristic of cementitious materials with fly ash and calcium silicate hydrate gel. When taken together, the results of the density, porosity, x-ray diffraction analysis and microscopic analysis support the conclusion that the Vault 4, Cell E core sample is representative of the expected waste form.

  1. Matrix isolation apparatus with extended sample collection capability

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, Gerald T. (Bourbonnais, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A gas-sample collection device provides for the matrix isolation of increased amounts of a sample material for spectrographic analysis from a gas chromatographic separation. The device includes an evacuated sample collection chamber containing a disc-like specular carousel having a generally circular lateral surface upon which the sample is deposited in an inert gas matrix for infrared (IR) spectral analysis. The evacuated sample chamber is mounted in a fixed manner and is coupled to and supports a rotating cryostatic coupler which, in turn, supports the specular carousel within the collection chamber. A rotational drive system connected to the cryostatic coupler provides for its rotational displacement as well as that of the sample collecting carousel. In addition, rotation of the cryostatic coupler effects vertical displacement of the carousel to permit the collection of an extended sample band in a helical configuration on the entire lateral surface of the carousel. The various components of the carousel's angular/linear displacement drive system are located exterior to the cryostatic coupler for easy access and improved operation. The cryostatic coupler includes a 360.degree. rotary union assembly for permitting the delivery of a high pressure working fluid to the cryostatic coupler in a continuous flow manner for maintaining the specular carousel at a low temperature, e.g., 10.degree.-20.degree. K., for improved uninterrupted gas sample collection and analysis.

  2. A perception and manipulation system for collecting rock samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, T.; Delingette, H.; Deluise, M.; Hsin, Y.; Hebert, M.; Ikeuchi, Katsushi

    1991-01-01

    An important part of a planetary exploration mission is to collect and analyze surface samples. As part of the Carnegie Mellon University Ambler Project, researchers are investigating techniques for collecting samples using a robot arm and a range sensor. The aim of this work is to make the sample collection operation fully autonomous. Described here are the components of the experimental system, including a perception module that extracts objects of interest from range images and produces models of their shapes, and a manipulation module that enables the system to pick up the objects identified by the perception module. The system was tested on a small testbed using natural terrain.

  3. Collecting Ground Samples for Balloon-Borne Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack; Zimmerman, Wayne; Wu, Jiunn Jenq

    2009-01-01

    A proposed system in a gondola containing scientific instruments suspended by a balloon over the surface of the Saturn moon Titan would quickly acquire samples of rock or ice from the ground below. Prototypes of a sample-collecting device that would be a major part of the system have been tested under cryogenic and non-cryogenic conditions on Earth. Systems like this one could also be used in non-cryogenic environments on Earth to collect samples of rock, soil, ice, mud, or other ground material from such inaccessible or hazardous locations as sites of suspected chemical spills or biological contamination. The sample-collecting device would be a harpoonlike device that would be connected to the balloon-borne gondola by a tether long enough to reach the ground. The device would be dropped from the gondola to acquire a sample, then would be reeled back up to the gondola, where the sample would be analyzed by the onboard instruments. Each prototype of the sample-collecting device has a sharp front (lower) end, a hollow core for retaining a sample, a spring for holding the sample in the hollow core, and a rear (upper) annular cavity for retaining liquid sample material. Aerodynamic fins at the rear help to keep the front end pointed downward. In tests, these prototype devices were dropped from various heights and used to gather samples of dry sand, moist sand, cryogenic water ice, and warmer water ice.

  4. Breath analysis in disease diagnosis: methodological considerations and applications.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Célia; Turner, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Breath analysis is a promising field with great potential for non-invasive diagnosis of a number of disease states. Analysis of the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath with an acceptable accuracy are assessed by means of using analytical techniques with high sensitivity, accuracy, precision, low response time, and low detection limit, which are desirable characteristics for the detection of VOCs in human breath. "Breath fingerprinting", indicative of a specific clinical status, relies on the use of multivariate statistics methods with powerful in-built algorithms. The need for standardisation of sample collection and analysis is the main issue concerning breath analysis, blocking the introduction of breath tests into clinical practice. This review describes recent scientific developments in basic research and clinical applications, namely issues concerning sampling and biochemistry, highlighting the diagnostic potential of breath analysis for disease diagnosis. Several considerations that need to be taken into account in breath analysis are documented here, including the growing need for metabolomics to deal with breath profiles. PMID:24957037

  5. Breath Analysis in Disease Diagnosis: Methodological Considerations and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Célia; Turner, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Breath analysis is a promising field with great potential for non-invasive diagnosis of a number of disease states. Analysis of the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath with an acceptable accuracy are assessed by means of using analytical techniques with high sensitivity, accuracy, precision, low response time, and low detection limit, which are desirable characteristics for the detection of VOCs in human breath. “Breath fingerprinting”, indicative of a specific clinical status, relies on the use of multivariate statistics methods with powerful in-built algorithms. The need for standardisation of sample collection and analysis is the main issue concerning breath analysis, blocking the introduction of breath tests into clinical practice. This review describes recent scientific developments in basic research and clinical applications, namely issues concerning sampling and biochemistry, highlighting the diagnostic potential of breath analysis for disease diagnosis. Several considerations that need to be taken into account in breath analysis are documented here, including the growing need for metabolomics to deal with breath profiles. PMID:24957037

  6. Bad Breath

    MedlinePLUS

    ... breath? Maybe you shouldn't have put extra onions on your hamburger at lunch. What's a kid ... bad breath: foods and drinks, such as garlic, onions, cheese, orange juice, and soda poor dental hygiene ( ...

  7. Breathing Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... re not getting enough air. Sometimes mild breathing problems are from a stuffy nose or hard exercise. ... emphysema or pneumonia cause breathing difficulties. So can problems with your trachea or bronchi, which are part ...

  8. The ABN Database: Sampling Strategies for Collection Overlap Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochester, Maxine K.

    1987-01-01

    Reports the methodology and results of a study which explored the potential of three approaches to sampling the Australian Bibliographic Network (ABN) database files for determining collection overlap among Australian libraries. (Author/CLB)

  9. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...

  10. SAMPLE COLLECTION AND HANDLING FOR MICROBIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this presentation is to discuss sample collection and handling methods currently in use for detection and enumeration of microorganisms in biosolids and municipal wastewater sludges. Untreated sludges and biosolids are rarely homogeneous and present a challenge ...

  11. Carol Simons Collecting Water Samples at Zephyr Cove, Lake Tahoe

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Carol Simons, from the Carnelian Bay Field Office of the California Water Science Center, collecting recreational water QW point-sampling for fecal indicator Bacteria at Zephyr Cove in Lake Tahoe....

  12. COLLECTING REPRESENTATIVE SOIL SAMPLES FOR N AND P FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil fertilizer recommendations in modern crop production rely on laboratory analysis of representative soil samples. Regardless on where the samples were collected (grid points, management zones, or whole fields) the accuracy and precision of the fertilizer recommendation can be improved by consid...

  13. COLLECTING REPRESENTATIVE SOIL SAMPLES FOR N AND P FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil fertilizer recommendations in modern crop production rely on laboratory analysis of representative soil samples. Regardless of where the samples were collected (grid points, management zones, or whole fields), the accuracy and precision of the fertilizer recommendation can be improved by consi...

  14. USGS Technician Collects Water Sample at a Weir

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A USGS technician collects a water sample at the Faka Union Canal Weir #1, Collier County, Florida. The sample was used to help determine the source of the warm water responsible for the site's popularity among manatees as a warm water refuge....

  15. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... lawfully admitted for permanent residence as defined in 8 CFR 1.1(p). Unless otherwise directed by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample...

  16. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lawfully admitted for permanent residence as defined in 8 CFR 1.1(p). Unless otherwise directed by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample...

  17. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lawfully admitted for permanent residence as defined in 8 CFR 1.1(p). Unless otherwise directed by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample...

  18. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... lawfully admitted for permanent residence as defined in 8 CFR 1.1(p). Unless otherwise directed by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample...

  19. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lawfully admitted for permanent residence as defined in 8 CFR 1.1(p). Unless otherwise directed by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample...

  20. Collection requirements for trace-element analyses of extraterrestrial samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, George J.; Sutton, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    Trace-element abundances have proven important in understanding the evolution of and interrelationships between different meteorites. Preliminary investigations of the trace-element contents of interplanetary dust particles indicate that trace-element abundances will prove equally important in distinguishing between micrometeorites of different types, comparing the interplanetary dust to the meteorites, and assessing the degree of thermal alteration experienced either on the parent body or during the collection process. Sample collection, delivery, and curation must be accomplished in a manner to avoid contamination with even trace amounts of the elements to be analyzed. The present SXRF sensitivity for micrometeorite analysis is of order 1 femtogram, but anticipated improvements in sensitivity will require sample contamination substantially below this level. Sample collection and handling equipment should be constructed from materials selected for ultrahigh purity, and serious consideration should be given in selecting the particular set of elements from which the collection apparatus is composed so as not to compromise useful information.

  1. Aerosol sampling system for collection of Capstone depleted uranium particles in a high-energy environment.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Thomas D; Guilmette, Raymond A; Cheng, Yung Sung; Parkhurst, Mary Ann; Hoover, Mark D

    2009-03-01

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study was undertaken to obtain aerosol samples resulting from a large-caliber DU penetrator striking an Abrams or Bradley test vehicle. The sampling strategy was designed to (1) optimize the performance of the samplers and maintain their integrity in the extreme environment created during perforation of an armored vehicle by a DU penetrator, (2) collect aerosols as a function of time post perforation, and (3) obtain size-classified samples for analysis of chemical composition, particle morphology, and solubility in lung fluid. This paper describes the experimental setup and sampling methodologies used to achieve these objectives. Custom-designed arrays of sampling heads were secured to the inside of the target in locations approximating the breathing zones of the crew locations in the test vehicles. Each array was designed to support nine filter cassettes and nine cascade impactors mounted with quick-disconnect fittings. Shielding and sampler placement strategies were used to minimize sampler loss caused by the penetrator impact and the resulting fragments of eroded penetrator and perforated armor. A cyclone train was used to collect larger quantities of DU aerosol for measurement of chemical composition and solubility. A moving filter sample was used to obtain semicontinuous samples for DU concentration determination. Control for the air samplers was provided by five remotely located valve control and pressure monitoring units located inside and around the test vehicle. These units were connected to a computer interface chassis and controlled using a customized LabVIEW engineering computer control program. The aerosol sampling arrays and control systems for the Capstone study provided the needed aerosol samples for physicochemical analysis, and the resultant data were used for risk assessment of exposure to DU aerosol. PMID:19204482

  2. Aerosol Sampling System for Collection of Capstone Depleted Uranium Particles in a High-Energy Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Thomas D.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Hoover, Mark D.

    2009-03-01

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Study was undertaken to obtain aerosol samples resulting from a kinetic-energy cartridge with a large-caliber depleted uranium (DU) penetrator striking an Abrams or Bradley test vehicle. The sampling strategy was designed to (1) optimize the performance of the samplers and maintain their integrity in the extreme environment created during perforation of an armored vehicle by a DU penetrator, (2) collect aerosols as a function of time post-impact, and (3) obtain size-classified samples for analysis of chemical composition, particle morphology, and solubility in lung fluid. This paper describes the experimental setup and sampling methodologies used to achieve these objectives. Custom-designed arrays of sampling heads were secured to the inside of the target in locations approximating the breathing zones of the vehicle commander, loader, gunner, and driver. Each array was designed to support nine filter cassettes and nine cascade impactors mounted with quick-disconnect fittings. Shielding and sampler placement strategies were used to minimize sampler loss caused by the penetrator impact and the resulting fragments of eroded penetrator and perforated armor. A cyclone train was used to collect larger quantities of DU aerosol for chemical composition and solubility. A moving filter sample was used to obtain semicontinuous samples for depleted uranium concentration determination. Control for the air samplers was provided by five remotely located valve control and pressure monitoring units located inside and around the test vehicle. These units were connected to a computer interface chassis and controlled using a customized LabVIEW engineering computer control program. The aerosol sampling arrays and control systems for the Capstone study provided the needed aerosol samples for physicochemical analysis, and the resultant data were used for risk assessment of exposure to DU aerosol.

  3. A low cost multi-level sampling device for synchronous aseptic collection of environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Michael L; Banishki, Nikola; Powell, Sarah; Rumack, Amy; Garrett, Jinnie M

    2014-10-01

    We describe a simple device for the aseptic collection of environmental water samples at high spatial resolution to depths of 50m. To demonstrate the utility of this technique we present geochemical and archaeal community data from samples collected throughout the water column of a stratified lake. PMID:25043843

  4. Breath-by-breath alveolar gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Giezendanner, D; Cerretelli, P; Di Prampero, P E

    1983-08-01

    A method is described for breath-by-breath measurement of alveolar gas exchange corrected for changes of lung gas stores. In practice, the subject inspires from a spirometer, and each expired tidal volume is collected into a rubber bag placed inside a rigid box connected to the same spirometer. During the inspiration following any given expiration the bag is emptied by a vacuum pump. A computer monitors inspiratory and expiratory tidal volumes, drives four solenoid valves allowing appropriate operation of the system, and memorizes end-tidal gas fractions as well as mixed expired gas composition analyzed by mass spectrometer. Thus all variables for calculating alveolar gas exchange, based on the theory developed by Auchincloss et al. (J. Appl. Physiol. 21: 810-818, 1966), are obtained on a single-breath basis. Mean resting and steady-state exercise gas exchange data are equal to those obtained by conventional open-circuit measurements. Breathing rates up to 30 X min-1 can be followed. The breath-to-breath variability of O2 uptake at the alveolar level is less (25-35%) than that measured at the mouth as the difference between the inspired and expired volumes, both at rest and during exercise up to 0.7 of maximum O2 consumption. PMID:6618950

  5. On the improvement of blood sample collection at clinical laboratories

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood samples are usually collected daily from different collection points, such hospitals and health centers, and transported to a core laboratory for testing. This paper presents a project to improve the collection routes of two of the largest clinical laboratories in Spain. These routes must be designed in a cost-efficient manner while satisfying two important constraints: (i) two-hour time windows between collection and delivery, and (ii) vehicle capacity. Methods A heuristic method based on a genetic algorithm has been designed to solve the problem of blood sample collection. The user enters the following information for each collection point: postal address, average collecting time, and average demand (in thermal containers). After implementing the algorithm using C programming, this is run and, in few seconds, it obtains optimal (or near-optimal) collection routes that specify the collection sequence for each vehicle. Different scenarios using various types of vehicles have been considered. Unless new collection points are added or problem parameters are changed substantially, routes need to be designed only once. Results The two laboratories in this study previously planned routes manually for 43 and 74 collection points, respectively. These routes were covered by an external carrier company. With the implementation of this algorithm, the number of routes could be reduced from ten to seven in one laboratory and from twelve to nine in the other, which represents significant annual savings in transportation costs. Conclusions The algorithm presented can be easily implemented in other laboratories that face this type of problem, and it is particularly interesting and useful as the number of collection points increases. The method designs blood collection routes with reduced costs that meet the time and capacity constraints of the problem. PMID:24406140

  6. Cannabinoids in Exhaled Breath following Controlled Administration of Smoked Cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Sarah K.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Beck, Olof; Gorelick, David A.; Desrosiers, Nathalie A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), and cannabinol (CBN) were measured in breath following controlled cannabis smoking to characterize the time course and window of detection of breath cannabinoids. METHODS Exhaled breath was collected from chronic (≥4 times per week) and occasional (Sample analysis included methanol extraction from breath pads, solid-phase extraction, and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry quantification. RESULTS THC was the major cannabinoid in breath; no sample contained THCCOOH and only 1 contained CBN. Among chronic smokers (n = 13), all breath samples were positive for THC at 0.89 h, 76.9% at 1.38 h, and 53.8% at 2.38 h, and only 1 sample was positive at 4.2 h after smoking. Among occasional smokers (n = 11), 90.9% of breath samples were THC-positive at 0.95 h and 63.6% at 1.49 h. One occasional smoker had no detectable THC. Analyte recovery from breath pads by methanolic extraction was 84.2%–97.4%. Limits of quantification were 50 pg/pad for THC and CBN and 100 pg/pad for THCCOOH. Solid-phase extraction efficiency was 46.6%–52.1% (THC) and 76.3%–83.8% (THCCOOH, CBN). Matrix effects were −34.6% to 12.3%. Cannabinoids fortified onto breath pads were stable (≤18.2% concentration change) for 8 h at room temperature and −20°C storage for 6 months. CONCLUSIONS Breath may offer an alternative matrix for testing for recent driving under the influence of cannabis, but is limited to a short detection window (0.5–2 h). PMID:24046200

  7. Ethylene and ammonia traces measurements from the patients' breath with renal failure via LPAS method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, C.; Dutu, D. C. A.; Cernat, R.; Matei, C.; Bratu, A. M.; Banita, S.; Dumitras, D. C.

    2011-11-01

    The application of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) for fast and precise measurements of breath biomarkers has opened up new promises for monitoring and diagnostics in recent years, especially because breath test is a non-invasive method, safe, rapid and acceptable to patients. Our study involved assessment of breath ethylene and breath ammonia levels in patients with renal failure receiving haemodialysis (HD) treatment. Breath samples from healthy subjects and from patients with renal failure were collected using chemically inert aluminized bags and were subsequently analyzed using the LPAS technique. We have found out that the composition of exhaled breath in patients with renal failure contains not only ethylene, but also ammonia and gives valuable information for determining efficacy and endpoint of HD. Analysis of ethylene and ammonia traces from the human breath may provide insight into severity of oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances and may ensure optimal therapy and prevention of pathology at patients on continuous HD.

  8. Urine sampling and collection system optimization and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Geating, J. A.; Koesterer, M. G.

    1975-01-01

    A Urine Sampling and Collection System (USCS) engineering model was developed to provide for the automatic collection, volume sensing and sampling of urine from each micturition. The purpose of the engineering model was to demonstrate verification of the system concept. The objective of the optimization and testing program was to update the engineering model, to provide additional performance features and to conduct system testing to determine operational problems. Optimization tasks were defined as modifications to minimize system fluid residual and addition of thermoelectric cooling.

  9. Apparatus and process for collection of gas and vapor samples

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Dennis G. (Augusta, GA); Peterson, Kurt D. (Aiken, SC); Riha, Brian D. (Augusta, GA)

    2008-04-01

    A gas sampling apparatus and process is provided in which a standard crimping tool is modified by an attached collar. The collar permits operation of the crimping tool while also facilitating the introduction of a supply of gas to be introduced into a storage vial. The introduced gas supply is used to purge ambient air from a collection chamber and an interior of the sample vial. Upon completion of the purging operation, the vial is sealed using the crimping tool.

  10. USGS Collects Sediment Samples at East Ship Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists collected environmental data and samples at beach, barrier island, and wetland sites in response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.  The USGS Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas Science Centers collaborated to ...

  11. USGS Collects Sediment Samples at Grand Isle Beach

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists collected environmental data and samples at beach, barrier island, and wetland sites in response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.  The USGS Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas Science Centers collaborated to ...

  12. Characteristics of the samples in the FNG fission deposit collection

    SciTech Connect

    Meadows, J.W.

    1990-12-01

    Information concerning the samples in the Fast Neutron Generator (FNG) Group's fission deposit collection has been assembled. This includes the physical dimensions, isotopic analyses, half-lives, alpha emission rates specific activities and deposit weights. 10 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. USGS Collects Sediment Samples at East Ship Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists collected environmental data and samples at beach, barrier island, and wetland sites in response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The USGS Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas Science Centers collaborated to ...

  14. 21 CFR 1230.30 - Collection of samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Collection of samples. 1230.30 Section 1230.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT...

  15. 21 CFR 1230.31 - Where samples may be collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Where samples may be collected. 1230.31 Section 1230.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER...

  16. 21 CFR 1230.31 - Where samples may be collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Where samples may be collected. 1230.31 Section 1230.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON...

  17. 21 CFR 1230.31 - Where samples may be collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Where samples may be collected. 1230.31 Section 1230.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER...

  18. Molecular epidemiology biomarkers-Sample collection and processing considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Nina T. . E-mail: ninah@berkeley.edu; Pfleger, Laura; Berger, Eileen; Ho, Alan; Bastaki, Maria

    2005-08-07

    Biomarker studies require processing and storage of numerous biological samples with the goals of obtaining a large amount of information and minimizing future research costs. An efficient study design includes provisions for processing of the original samples, such as cryopreservation, DNA isolation, and preparation of specimens for exposure assessment. Use of standard, two-dimensional and nanobarcodes and customized electronic databases assure efficient management of large sample collections and tracking results of data analyses. Standard operating procedures and quality control plans help to protect sample quality and to assure validity of the biomarker data. Specific state, federal and international regulations are in place regarding research with human samples, governing areas including custody, safety of handling, and transport of human samples. Appropriate informed consent must be obtained from the study subjects prior to sample collection and confidentiality of results maintained. Finally, examples of three biorepositories of different scale (European Cancer Study, National Cancer Institute and School of Public Health Biorepository, University of California, Berkeley) are used to illustrate challenges faced by investigators and the ways to overcome them. New software and biorepository technologies are being developed by many companies that will help to bring biological banking to a new level required by molecular epidemiology of the 21st century.

  19. Experimental Design for the INL Sample Collection Operational Test

    SciTech Connect

    Amidan, Brett G.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Matzke, Brett D.; Filliben, James J.; Jones, Barbara

    2007-12-13

    This document describes the test events and numbers of samples comprising the experimental design that was developed for the contamination, decontamination, and sampling of a building at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This study is referred to as the INL Sample Collection Operational Test. Specific objectives were developed to guide the construction of the experimental design. The main objective is to assess the relative abilities of judgmental and probabilistic sampling strategies to detect contamination in individual rooms or on a whole floor of the INL building. A second objective is to assess the use of probabilistic and Bayesian (judgmental + probabilistic) sampling strategies to make clearance statements of the form “X% confidence that at least Y% of a room (or floor of the building) is not contaminated. The experimental design described in this report includes five test events. The test events (i) vary the floor of the building on which the contaminant will be released, (ii) provide for varying or adjusting the concentration of contaminant released to obtain the ideal concentration gradient across a floor of the building, and (iii) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. The ideal contaminant gradient would have high concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations decreasing to zero in rooms at the opposite end of the building floor. For each of the five test events, the specified floor of the INL building will be contaminated with BG, a stand-in for Bacillus anthracis. The BG contaminant will be disseminated from a point-release device located in the room specified in the experimental design for each test event. Then judgmental and probabilistic samples will be collected according to the pre-specified sampling plan. Judgmental samples will be selected based on professional judgment and prior information. Probabilistic samples will be selected in sufficient numbers to provide desired confidence for detecting contamination or clearing uncontaminated (or decontaminated) areas. Following sample collection for a given test event, the INL building will be decontaminated using Cl2O gas. For possibly contaminated areas (individual rooms or the whole floor of a building), the numbers of probabilistic samples were chosen to provide 95% confidence of detecting contaminated areas of specified sizes. The numbers of judgmental samples were chosen based on guidance from experts in judgmental sampling. For rooms that may be uncontaminated following a contamination event, or for whole floors after decontamination, the numbers of judgmental and probabilistic samples were chosen using a Bayesian approach that provides for combining judgmental and probabilistic samples to make a clearance statement of the form “95% confidence that at least 99% of the room (or floor) is not contaminated”. The experimental design also provides for making 95%/Y% clearance statements using only probabilistic samples, where Y < 99. For each test event, the numbers of samples were selected for a minimal plan (containing fewer samples) and a preferred plan (containing more samples). The preferred plan is recommended over the minimal plan. The preferred plan specifies a total of 1452 samples, 912 after contamination and 540 after decontamination. The minimal plan specifies a total of 1119 samples, 744 after contamination and 375 after decontamination. If the advantages of the “after decontamination” portion of the preferred plan are judged to be small compared to the “after decontamination” portion of the minimal plan, it is an option to combine the “after contamination” portion of the preferred plan (912 samples) with the “after decontamination” portion of the minimal plan (375 samples). This hybrid plan would involve a total of 1287 samples.

  20. Comparison of aquatic macroinvertebrate samples collected using different field methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lenz, Bernard N.; Miller, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Government agencies, academic institutions, and volunteer monitoring groups in the State of Wisconsin collect aquatic macroinvertebrate data to assess water quality. Sampling methods differ among agencies, reflecting the differences in the sampling objectives of each agency. Lack of infor- mation about data comparability impedes data shar- ing among agencies, which can result in duplicated sampling efforts or the underutilization of avail- able information. To address these concerns, com- parisons were made of macroinvertebrate samples collected from wadeable streams in Wisconsin by personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey- National Water Quality Assessment Program (USGS-NAWQA), the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR), the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Forest Service (USDA-FS), and volunteers from the Water Action Volunteer-Water Quality Monitoring Program (WAV). This project was part of the Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality (ITFM) Wisconsin Water Resources Coordination Project. The numbers, types, and environmental tolerances of the organ- isms collected were analyzed to determine if the four different field methods that were used by the different agencies and volunteer groups provide comparable results. Additionally, this study com- pared the results of samples taken from different locations and habitats within the same streams.

  1. Current and future uses of breath analysis as a diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Wyse, C A; Preston, T; Yam, P S; Sutton, D G M; Christley, R M; Hotchkiss, J W; Mills, C A; Glidle, A; Cumming, D R S; Cooper, J M; Love, S

    2004-03-20

    The analysis of exhaled breath is a potentially useful method for application in veterinary diagnostics. Breath samples can be easily collected from animals by means of a face mask or collection chamber with minimal disturbance to the animal. After the administration of a 13C-labelled compound the recovery of 13C in breath can be used to investigate gastrointestinal and digestive functions. Exhaled hydrogen can be used to assess orocaecal transit time and malabsorption, and exhaled nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and pentane can be used to assess oxidative stress and inflammation. The analysis of compounds dissolved in the aqueous phase of breath (the exhaled breath condensate) can be used to assess airway inflammation. This review summarises the current status of breath analysis in veterinary medicine, and analyses its potential for assessing animal health and disease. PMID:15074325

  2. Stardust Sample Collection at Wild 2 and Its Preliminary Examination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, P.; Brownlee, D. E.; Hoerz, F.; Newburn, R. L.; Sandford, S. A.; Sekanina, Z.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of STARDUST is to collect coma samples from 81P/Wild 2. This was made on January 2, 2004. Before the encounter three significant model predictions existed for the number and size of samples to be captured. Three investigations during the Wild 2 encounter (Dust Flux Monitor, Comet and Interstellar Dust Analyzer and Dynamic Science) made in situ measurements of the dust. Spectacular images were captured of the Wild 2 nucleus and dust jets. This abstract compares the model predictions with the in situ measurements and Wild 2 images and assesses the likely samples to be returned for analysis on January 15, 2006. To give some lead time for sample analysts to prepare for the analyses of the returned samples, the organization of the Preliminary Examination is presented.

  3. Evaluation of Bio-VOC Sampler for Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in Exhaled Breath

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jae; Fan, Maomian; Harshman, Sean W.; Garrison, Catherine E.; Dershem, Victoria L.; Phillips, Jeffrey B.; Grigsby, Claude C.; Ott, Darrin K.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from exhaled breath has been used to determine exposures of humans to chemicals. Prior to analysis of VOCs, breath samples are often collected with canisters or bags and concentrated. The Bio-VOC breath sampler, a commercial sampling device, has been recently introduced to the market with growing use. The main advantage for this sampler is to collect the last portion of exhaled breath, which is more likely to represent the air deep in the lungs. However, information about the Bio-VOC sampler is somewhat limited. Therefore, we have thoroughly evaluated the sampler here. We determined the volume of the breath air collected in the sampler was approximately 88 mL. When sampling was repeated multiple times, with the succeeding exhalations applied to a single sorbent tube, we observed linear relationships between the normalized peak intensity and the number of repeated collections with the sampler in many of the breath VOCs detected. No moisture effect was observed on the Tenax sorbent tubes used. However, due to the limitation in the collection volume, the use of the Bio-VOC sampler is recommended only for detection of VOCs present at high concentrations unless repeated collections of breath samples on the sampler are conducted. PMID:25532709

  4. Evaluation of Bio-VOC Sampler for Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in Exhaled Breath.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jae; Fan, Maomian; Harshman, Sean W; Garrison, Catherine E; Dershem, Victoria L; Phillips, Jeffrey B; Grigsby, Claude C; Ott, Darrin K

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from exhaled breath has been used to determine exposures of humans to chemicals. Prior to analysis of VOCs, breath samples are often collected with canisters or bags and concentrated. The Bio-VOC breath sampler, a commercial sampling device, has been recently introduced to the market with growing use. The main advantage for this sampler is to collect the last portion of exhaled breath, which is more likely to represent the air deep in the lungs. However, information about the Bio-VOC sampler is somewhat limited. Therefore, we have thoroughly evaluated the sampler here. We determined the volume of the breath air collected in the sampler was approximately 88 mL. When sampling was repeated multiple times, with the succeeding exhalations applied to a single sorbent tube, we observed linear relationships between the normalized peak intensity and the number of repeated collections with the sampler in many of the breath VOCs detected. No moisture effect was observed on the Tenax sorbent tubes used. However, due to the limitation in the collection volume, the use of the Bio-VOC sampler is recommended only for detection of VOCs present at high concentrations unless repeated collections of breath samples on the sampler are conducted. PMID:25532709

  5. Collection, isolation, and flow cytometric analysis of human endocervical samples.

    PubMed

    Juno, Jennifer A; Boily-Larouche, Genevieve; Lajoie, Julie; Fowke, Keith R

    2014-01-01

    Despite the public health importance of mucosal pathogens (including HIV), relatively little is known about mucosal immunity, particularly at the female genital tract (FGT). Because heterosexual transmission now represents the dominant mechanism of HIV transmission, and given the continual spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), it is critical to understand the interplay between host and pathogen at the genital mucosa. The substantial gaps in knowledge around FGT immunity are partially due to the difficulty in successfully collecting and processing mucosal samples. In order to facilitate studies with sufficient sample size, collection techniques must be minimally invasive and efficient. To this end, a protocol for the collection of cervical cytobrush samples and subsequent isolation of cervical mononuclear cells (CMC) has been optimized. Using ex vivo flow cytometry-based immunophenotyping, it is possible to accurately and reliably quantify CMC lymphocyte/monocyte population frequencies and phenotypes. This technique can be coupled with the collection of cervical-vaginal lavage (CVL), which contains soluble immune mediators including cytokines, chemokines and anti-proteases, all of which can be used to determine the anti- or pro-inflammatory environment in the vagina. PMID:25045942

  6. Variability of collagen crosslinks: impact of sample collection period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Dillon, E. L.; DeKerlegand, D. E.; Davis-Street, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    Because of the variability of collagen crosslinks, their use as markers for bone resorption is often criticized. We hypothesized that the variability could be reduced by collecting urine for 24 hours (or longer) instead of using single voids, and by not normalizing to creatinine. Urine samples were collected from 22 healthy subjects during two or more 24-hour periods. Each 24-hour pool and each 2nd void of the day were analyzed for N-telopeptide (NTX), pyridinium (PYD), and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks. Data were analyzed by using linear regression. For NTX, R2 for the two, 2nd-void samples (n = 38) was 0.55, whereas R2 for the two 24-hour pools was 0.51 or 0.52, expressed per day or per creatinine. For PYD and DPD, R2 for the 2nd-void samples was 0.26 and 0.18, R2 for the 24-hour pools expressed per day was 0.58 and 0.74, and R2 for the 24-hour pools expressed per creatinine was 0.65 and 0.76, respectively. Regression of the 2nd void and the corresponding 24-hour pool, expressed per day, yielded R2 = 0.19, 0.19, and 0.08, for NTX, PYD, and DPD, respectively (n = 76 each). For the 2nd-void sample and its corresponding 24-hour pool, expressed per creatinine, R2 = 0.24, 0.33, and 0.08, respectively. In a separate study, the coefficient of variation for NTX was reduced (P < 0.05) when data from more than one 24-hour collection were combined. Thus, the variability inherent in crosslink determinations can be reduced by collecting urine for longer periods. In research studies, the high variability of single-void collections, compounded by creatinine normalization, may alter or obscure findings.

  7. Fluid sample collection and distribution system. [qualitative analysis of aqueous samples from several points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. L. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A multipoint fluid sample collection and distribution system is provided wherein the sample inputs are made through one or more of a number of sampling valves to a progressive cavity pump which is not susceptible to damage by large unfiltered particles. The pump output is through a filter unit that can provide a filtered multipoint sample. An unfiltered multipoint sample is also provided. An effluent sample can be taken and applied to a second progressive cavity pump for pumping to a filter unit that can provide one or more filtered effluent samples. The second pump can also provide an unfiltered effluent sample. Means are provided to periodically back flush each filter unit without shutting off the whole system.

  8. Astronaut Charles Duke photographed collecting lunar samples at Station 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, is photographed collecting lunar samples at Station no. 1 during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity at the Descartes landing site. This picture, looking eastward, was taken by Astronaut John W. Young, commander. Duke is standing at the rim of Plum crater, which is 40 meters in diameter and 10 meters deep. The parked Lunar Roving Vehicle can be seen in the left background.

  9. Experimental and Sampling Design for the INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2009-02-16

    This report describes the experimental and sampling design developed to assess sampling approaches and methods for detecting contamination in a building and clearing the building for use after decontamination. An Idaho National Laboratory (INL) building will be contaminated with BG (Bacillus globigii, renamed Bacillus atrophaeus), a simulant for Bacillus anthracis (BA). The contamination, sampling, decontamination, and re-sampling will occur per the experimental and sampling design. This INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test is being planned by the Validated Sampling Plan Working Group (VSPWG). The primary objectives are: 1) Evaluate judgmental and probabilistic sampling for characterization as well as probabilistic and combined (judgment and probabilistic) sampling approaches for clearance, 2) Conduct these evaluations for gradient contamination (from low or moderate down to absent or undetectable) for different initial concentrations of the contaminant, 3) Explore judgment composite sampling approaches to reduce sample numbers, 4) Collect baseline data to serve as an indication of the actual levels of contamination in the tests. A combined judgmental and random (CJR) approach uses Bayesian methodology to combine judgmental and probabilistic samples to make clearance statements of the form "X% confidence that at least Y% of an area does not contain detectable contamination” (X%/Y% clearance statements). The INL-2 experimental design has five test events, which 1) vary the floor of the INL building on which the contaminant will be released, 2) provide for varying the amount of contaminant released to obtain desired concentration gradients, and 3) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. Desirable contaminant gradients would have moderate to low concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations down to zero in other rooms. Such gradients would provide a range of contamination levels to challenge the sampling, sample extraction, and analytical methods to be used in the INL-2 study. For each of the five test events, the specified floor of the INL building will be contaminated with BG using a point-release device located in the room specified in the experimental design. Then quality control (QC), reference material coupon (RMC), judgmental, and probabilistic samples will be collected according to the sampling plan for each test event. Judgmental samples will be selected based on professional judgment and prior information. Probabilistic samples were selected with a random aspect and in sufficient numbers to provide desired confidence for detecting contamination or clearing uncontaminated (or decontaminated) areas. Following sample collection for a given test event, the INL building will be decontaminated. For possibly contaminated areas, the numbers of probabilistic samples were chosen to provide 95% confidence of detecting contaminated areas of specified sizes. For rooms that may be uncontaminated following a contamination event, or for whole floors after decontamination, the numbers of judgmental and probabilistic samples were chosen using the CJR approach. The numbers of samples were chosen to support making X%/Y% clearance statements with X = 95% or 99% and Y = 96% or 97%. The experimental and sampling design also provides for making X%/Y% clearance statements using only probabilistic samples. For each test event, the numbers of characterization and clearance samples were selected within limits based on operational considerations while still maintaining high confidence for detection and clearance aspects. The sampling design for all five test events contains 2085 samples, with 1142 after contamination and 943 after decontamination. These numbers include QC, RMC, judgmental, and probabilistic samples. The experimental and sampling design specified in this report provides a good statistical foundation for achieving the objectives of the INL-2 study.

  10. A microfluidic cigarette smoke collecting platform for simultaneous sample extraction and multiplex analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shan-Wen; Xu, Bi-Yi; Qiao, Shu; Zhao, Ge; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan; Xie, Fu-Wei

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we report a novel microfluidic gas collecting platform aiming at simultaneous sample extraction and multiplex mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. An alveolar-mimicking elastic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) structures was designed to move dynamically driven by external pressure. The movement was well tuned both by its amplitude and rhythm following the natural process of human respiration. By integrating the alveolar units into arrays and assembling them to gas channels, a cyclic contraction/expansion system for gas inhale and exhale was successfully constructed. Upon equipping this system with a droplet array on the alveolar array surface, we were able to get information of inhaled smoke in a new strategy. Here, with cigarette smoke as an example, analysis of accumulation for target molecules during passive smoking is taken. Relationships between the breathing times, distances away from smokers and inhaled content of nicotine are clarified. Further, by applying different types of extraction solvent droplets on different locations of the droplet array, simultaneous extraction of nicotine, formaldehyde and caproic acid in sidestream smoke (SS) are realized. Since the extract droplets are spatially separated, they can be directly analyzed by MS which is fast and can rid us of all complex sample separation and purification steps. Combining all these merits, this small, cheap and portable platform might find wide application in inhaled air pollutant analysis both in and outdoors. PMID:26838430

  11. MEASUREMENTS OF AIR POLLUTANT BIOMARKERS WITH EXHALED BREATH TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has appeal as a noninvasive surrogate sample for lung-derived fluid. Additionally, EBC can be collected multiple times over the course of a study, unlike many other lung sampling techniques which can be performed fewer times. However validat...

  12. Apollo 17 Astronaut Harrison Schmitt Collects Lunar Rock Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    In this Apollo 17 onboard photo, Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt collects rock samples from a huge boulder near the Valley of Tourus-Littrow on the lunar surface. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Schmitt; Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan; and Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans, lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE) and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center designed Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The mission ended on December 19, 1972

  13. Plume Collection Strategies for Icy World Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neveu, M.; Glavin, D. P.; Tsou, P.; Anbar, A. D.; Williams, P.

    2015-01-01

    Three icy worlds in the solar system display evidence of pluming activity. Water vapor and ice particles emanate from cracks near the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus. The plume gas contains simple hydrocarbons that could be fragments of larger, more complex organics. More recently, observations using the Hubble and Herschel space telescopes have hinted at transient water vapor plumes at Jupiter's moon Europa and the dwarf planet Ceres. Plume materials may be ejected directly from possible sub-surface oceans, at least on Enceladus. In such oceans, liquid water, organics, and energy may co-exist, making these environments habitable. The venting of habitable ocean material into space provides a unique opportunity to capture this material during a relatively simple flyby mission and return it to Earth. Plume collection strategies should enable investigations of evidence for life in the returned samples via laboratory analyses of the structure, distribution, isotopic composition, and chirality of the chemical components (including biomolecules) of plume materials. Here, we discuss approaches for the collection of dust and volatiles during flybys through Enceladus' plume, based on Cassini results and lessons learned from the Stardust comet sample return mission. We also highlight areas where sample collector and containment technology development and testing may be needed for future plume sample return missions.

  14. Effects of sample collection device and filter pore size on concentrations of metals in groundwater samples

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, S.B.; Park, N.M.; Tuckfield, R.C.

    1990-12-31

    The Savannah River Site has conducted a study to statistically quantify differences in metals concentrations as a function of sampling device and filter treatment. Twelve wells screened in unconsolidated coastal plain sediments were sampled for the study. All wells had histories of detectable toxic metals concentrations. Unfiltered and filtered (using 10 and 0.45 micron filters) samples were collected from all wells to evaluate the effects of filtering. To compare the effects of sampling device, the wells were sampled twice, once with a bladder pump and once with a centrifugal pump. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) method was used to assess the effects of sampling device and filtration on metals concentrations considering the variation in pH, conductivity, and turbidity among samples. This study demonstrates that when controlled sampling techniques are employed, differences in toxic metals concentrations between filtered and unfiltered samples are not statistically significant. However, variations in sampling devices yield samples with statistically different metals concentrations. The centrifugal pumps, which cause more agitation of the sample and the screened zone than bladder pumps, yield samples with statistically higher metals concentrations.

  15. Effects of sample collection device and filter pore size on concentrations of metals in groundwater samples

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, S.B.; Park, N.M.; Tuckfield, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Savannah River Site has conducted a study to statistically quantify differences in metals concentrations as a function of sampling device and filter treatment. Twelve wells screened in unconsolidated coastal plain sediments were sampled for the study. All wells had histories of detectable toxic metals concentrations. Unfiltered and filtered (using 10 and 0.45 micron filters) samples were collected from all wells to evaluate the effects of filtering. To compare the effects of sampling device, the wells were sampled twice, once with a bladder pump and once with a centrifugal pump. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) method was used to assess the effects of sampling device and filtration on metals concentrations considering the variation in pH, conductivity, and turbidity among samples. This study demonstrates that when controlled sampling techniques are employed, differences in toxic metals concentrations between filtered and unfiltered samples are not statistically significant. However, variations in sampling devices yield samples with statistically different metals concentrations. The centrifugal pumps, which cause more agitation of the sample and the screened zone than bladder pumps, yield samples with statistically higher metals concentrations.

  16. Predicting species distributions from samples collected along roadsides.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Kyle P; Fletcher, Robert J; Rota, Christopher T; Hutto, Richard L

    2012-02-01

    Predictive models of species distributions are typically developed with data collected along roads. Roadside sampling may provide a biased (nonrandom) sample; however, it is currently unknown whether roadside sampling limits the accuracy of predictions generated by species distribution models. We tested whether roadside sampling affects the accuracy of predictions generated by species distribution models by using a prospective sampling strategy designed specifically to address this issue. We built models from roadside data and validated model predictions at paired locations on unpaved roads and 200 m away from roads (off road), spatially and temporally independent from the data used for model building. We predicted species distributions of 15 bird species on the basis of point-count data from a landbird monitoring program in Montana and Idaho (U.S.A.). We used hierarchical occupancy models to account for imperfect detection. We expected predictions of species distributions derived from roadside-sampling data would be less accurate when validated with data from off-road sampling than when it was validated with data from roadside sampling and that model accuracy would be differentially affected by whether species were generalists, associated with edges, or associated with interior forest. Model performance measures (kappa, area under the curve of a receiver operating characteristic plot, and true skill statistic) did not differ between model predictions of roadside and off-road distributions of species. Furthermore, performance measures did not differ among edge, generalist, and interior species, despite a difference in vegetation structure along roadsides and off road and that 2 of the 15 species were more likely to occur along roadsides. If the range of environmental gradients is surveyed in roadside-sampling efforts, our results suggest that surveys along unpaved roads can be a valuable, unbiased source of information for species distribution models. PMID:22010858

  17. Appendix C. Collection of Samples for Chemical Agent Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, C; Thompson, C; Doerr, T; Scripsick, R

    2005-09-23

    This chapter describes procedures for the collection and analysis of samples of various matrices for the purpose of determining the presence of chemical agents in a civilian setting. This appendix is intended to provide the reader with sufficient information to make informed decisions about the sampling and analysis process and to suggest analytical strategies that might be implemented by the scientists performing sampling and analysis. This appendix is not intended to be used as a standard operating procedure to provide detailed instructions as to how trained scientists should handle samples. Chemical agents can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Table 1 lists the chemical agents considered by this report. In selecting sampling and analysis methods, we have considered procedures proposed by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and peer-reviewed scientific literature. EPA analytical methods are good resources describing issues of quality assurance with respect to chain-of-custody, sample handling, and quality control requirements.

  18. Bad Breath

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for lunch. But certain strong-smelling foods like onions and garlic can cause bad breath. So can ... leave behind strong smells, like cabbage, garlic, raw onions, and coffee. If you’re trying to lose ...

  19. A model to predict the breathing zone concentrations of particles emitted from surfaces.

    PubMed

    Thornburg, Jonathan; Kominsky, John; Brown, G Gordon; Frechtel, Peter; Barrett, William; Shaul, Glenn

    2010-04-01

    Activity based sampling (ABS) is typically performed to assess inhalation exposure to particulate contaminants known to have low, heterogeneous concentrations on a surface. Activity based sampling determines the contaminant concentration in a person's breathing zone as they perform a scripted activity, such as raking a specified area of soil, while wearing appropriate sample collection instrumentation. As an alternative approach, a probabilistic model based on aerosol physics and fluid dynamics was developed to predict the breathing zone concentration of a particulate contaminant emitted from a surface during activities of variable intensity. The model predicted the particle emission rate, tracked particle transport to the breathing zone, and calculated the breathing zone concentration for two scenarios. One scenario used an Eulerian model based on a Gaussian concentration distribution to quantify aerosol exposure in the trailing wake of a moving object. The second scenario modeled exposure in a quiescent environment. A Lagrangian model tracked the cumulative number of individual particles entering the breathing zone volume at a particular time. A Monte Carlo simulation calculated the breathing zone concentration probability distribution for each scenario. Both models predicted probability distributions of asbestos breathing zone concentrations that bracketed experimentally measured personal exposure concentrations. Modeled breathing zone concentrations were statistically correlated (p-value < 0.001) with independently collected ABS concentrations. The linear regression slope of 0.70 and intercept of 0.03 were influenced by the quantity of ABS data collected and model parameter input distributions at a site broader than those at other sites. PMID:20383380

  20. Exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing - evaluation in criminal justice settings.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Exhaled breath is being developed as a possible specimen for drug testing based on the collection of aerosol particles originating from the lung fluid. The present study was aimed to evaluate the applicability of exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing in criminal justice settings. Particles in exhaled breath were collected with a new device in parallel with routine urine testing in two Swedish prisons, comprising both genders. Urine screening was performed according to established routines either by dipstick or by immunochemical methods at the Forensic Chemistry Laboratory and confirmations were with mass spectrometry methods. A total of 247 parallel samples were studied. Analysis of exhaled breath samples was done with a sensitive mass spectrometric method and identifications were made according to forensic standards. In addition tested subjects and personnel were asked to fill in a questionnaire concerning their views about drug testing. In 212 cases both the urine and breath testing were negative, and in 22 cases both urine and breath were positive. Out of 6 cases where breath was negative and urine positive 4 concerned THC. Out of 7 cases where, breath was positive and urine negative 6 concerned amphetamine. Detected substances in breath comprised: amphetamine, methamphetamine, THC, methylphenidate, buprenorphine, 6-acetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, diazepam and tramadol. Both the prison inmates and staff members reported breath testing to be preferable due to practical considerations. The results of this study documented that drug testing using exhaled breath provided as many positives as urine testing despite an expected shorter detection window, and that the breath sampling procedure was well accepted and provided practical benefits reported both by the prison inmates and testing personnel. PMID:24438778

  1. Lunar Samples: Apollo Collection Tools, Curation Handling, Surveyor III and Soviet Luna Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    The 6 Apollo missions that landed on the lunar surface returned 2196 samples comprised of 382 kg. The 58 samples weighing 21.5 kg collected on Apollo 11 expanded to 741 samples weighing 110.5 kg by the time of Apollo 17. The main goal on Apollo 11 was to obtain some material and return it safely to Earth. As we gained experience, the sampling tools and a more specific sampling strategy evolved. A summary of the sample types returned is shown in Table 1. By year 1989, some statistics on allocation by sample type were compiled [2]. The "scientific interest index" is based on the assumption that the more allocations per gram of sample, the higher the scientific interest. It is basically a reflection of the amount of diversity within a given sample type. Samples were also set aside for biohazard testing. The samples set aside and used for biohazard testing were represen-tative, as opposed to diverse. They tended to be larger and be comprised of less scientifically valuable mate-rial, such as dust and debris in the bottom of sample containers.

  2. Biological sample collection for clinical proteomics: existing SOPs.

    PubMed

    Lygirou, Vasiliki; Makridakis, Manousos; Vlahou, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    Proteomic study of clinical samples aims at the better understanding of physiological and pathological conditions, as well as the discovery of diagnostic and prognostic markers for the latter. Quantitative and/or qualitative variations of body fluid proteome may reflect health- or disease-associated events connected to the adjacent or distant body regions of the fluid production/secretion/excretion and/or systemic reactions to the presence of disease. Sample collection and preparation is a critical step in order to obtain useful and valid information in clinical proteomics analysis. In this chapter, we present the current protocols and guidelines for human body fluid collection and storage, prior to proteomic analysis. A variety of body fluids that are currently being used in proteomic analysis and have potential interest in clinical practice are presented including blood plasma and serum, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, cerumen, nasal secretions, saliva, tears, breast milk, bronchoalveolar fluid, nipple aspirate fluid, amniotic fluid, bile, cervico-vaginal fluid, and seminal plasma. With no doubt these body fluids differ in the extent of their application in clinical proteomics investigations, hence in some cases the presented SOPs are established following more extensive testing (e.g., plasma, serum, urine, CSF) than others (nasal secretions, saliva, tears, breast milk, bronchoalveolar fluid, nipple aspirate fluid, amniotic fluid, bile, cervico-vaginal fluid, and seminal plasma). However, even in these latter cases, the presented protocols were reported by at least two independent groups according to the literature. We hope they can thus serve as a reliable guide for sample collection based on our current knowledge in the field and excellent starting points for proteomics investigators. It should also be pointed that variations to these protocols exist and their further refinement in the future is foreseen following the evolution of the proteomics technologies. PMID:25384737

  3. Measurement of isotopic abundances in collected stratospheric ozone samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schueler, B.; Morton, J.; Mauersberger, K.

    1990-01-01

    Enrichment of heavy O3 isotopes has been measured in collected stratospheric samples. A balloon-borne cryogenic sampler was used to gather six O3 samples between 26 and 35 km in three flights. Subsequent laboratory mass spectrometer analysis of rare O3 isotopes at both mass 49 and 50 has resulted in more precise measurements than have previously been reported with in situ and ground-based techniques. In one flight, (O-50)3 was enriched by 12-16 percent and (O-49)3 by 9-11 percent, both increasing with altitude. In the remaining two flights, the isotope enrichment was nearly mass-independent at 8-9 percent. The enrichments in O3 at mass 50 are less than the large 40 percent value observed in some stratospheric measurements but similar to (O-49)3 and (O-50)3 fractionations produced in laboratory-generated ozone.

  4. Chemical analysis of rain samples collected over the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamoto, C.; Parungo, F.; Kopcewicz, B.; Zhou, M. Y.

    1990-12-01

    During seven research cruises in the Pacific Ocean from 1984 to 1989 we collected rain samples for chemical analyses. The geographical and temporal variations of rain chemistry were studied in relation to natural and anthropogenic sources and transport of the constituents. The pH values of rain samples ranged from 3.9 to 7.2, with a mean of 5.6 (n = 104, ? = 0.5). The most acidic rain was found near the big ports, where SO4= and NO3- concentrations in rain were also the highest. The data indicated that wet deposition transports anthropogenic pollution from continents to oceans. Enrichments of Ca++ and K+, which are compared to Na+ in seawater, were observed in all rain samples throughout the ocean. However, their enrichment factors (EF) decrease with distance from land, signifying the extent of transport of crustal elements through cloud process and wet deposition. The EFs of Mg++ were close to unity, indicating its common origin with Na+. The EFs of Cl- in most rain samples were less than l, indicating loss of Cl- in aerosols, cloud droplets, or rain drops. High EFs of SO4= were also observed at the equatorial regions, where biogenic production of dimethyl sulfide is well known. During the 1987 El Nio anomaly the sulfate aerosol distribution and rainfall patterns altered with air trajectories. The effects of sulfate aerosol on cloud condensation and rainfall amount in various regions during normal years and the El Nio anomaly are discussed.

  5. Modeling evaporative loss of oil mist collected by sampling filters.

    PubMed

    Raynor, P C; Volckens, J; Leith, D

    2000-01-01

    Oil mists can cause respiratory distress and have been linked to skin and gastrointestinal cancers in workers. Standard concentration assessment methods call for sampling these mists with fibrous or membrane filters. Previous experimental studies using glass fiber (GF) filters and polyvinyl chloride and polytetrafluoroethylene membrane filters indicate that mist sampled onto filters may volatilize. A model has been developed to predict the evaporation of mist collected on a fibrous sampling filter. Evaporation of retained fluid from membrane filters can be modeled by treating the filter as though it is a fibrous filter. Predictions from the model exhibit good agreement with experimental results. At low mist concentrations, the model indicates that evaporation of retained mineral oil occurs readily. At high mist concentrations, significant evaporation from the filters is not expected because the vapor accompanying the airborne mist is already saturated with the compounds in the oil. The findings from this study indicate that sampling mineral oil mist with filters in accordance with standard methods can lead to estimates of worker exposure to oil mist that are too low. PMID:10660993

  6. Detection of cancer through exhaled breath: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Krilaviciute, Agne; Heiss, Jonathan Alexander; Leja, Marcis; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Haick, Hossam; Brenner, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Background Timely diagnosis of cancer represents a challenging task; in particular, there is a need for reliable non-invasive screening tools that could achieve high levels of adherence at virtually no risk in population-based screening. In this review, we summarize the current evidence of exhaled breath analysis for cancer detection using standard analysis techniques and electronic nose. Methods Relevant studies were identified searching Pubmed and Web of Science databases until April 30, 2015. Information on breath test performance, such as sensitivity and specificity, was extracted together with volatile compounds that were used to discriminate cancer patients from controls. Performance of different breath analysis techniques is provided for various cancers together with information on methodological issues, such as breath sampling protocol and validation of the results. Results Overall, 73 studies were included, where two-thirds of the studies were conducted on lung cancer. Good discrimination usually required a combination of multiple biomarkers, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve or accuracy reached levels of 0.9 or higher in multiple studies. In 25% of the reported studies, classification models were built and validated on the same datasets. Huge variability was seen in different aspects among the studies. Conclusions Analyses of exhaled breath yielded promising results, although standardization of breath collection, sample storage and data handling remain critical issues. In order to foster breath analysis implementation into practice, larger studies should be implemented in true screening settings, paying particular attention to standardization in breath collection, consideration of covariates, and validation in independent population samples. PMID:26440312

  7. Breath malodor.

    PubMed

    van Steenberghe, D

    1997-01-01

    Breath odor research has recently received increasing attention from periodontologists. Because a large portion of the adult population suffers from gingivitis and eventually periodontitis, the etiologic factor in all cases at risk must be considered. The first patient visit should, therefore, systematically include examination of the paranasal cavities and throat to avoid unnecessary time loss and frustration. Metabolic diseases and imaginary malodor should also be considered. Not only the mere presence of a chairside volatile sulfide monitor but also of that of an ear, nose, and throat specialist and eventually a psychiatrist or psychologist who determines whether a breath odor clinic merits its denomination. Volatile sulfur components are an important cause of breath malodor but they are not the sole cause. This explains why organoleptic and gas chromatographic diagnosis scores better than a portable sulfide monitor. Other than etiologic therapy, masking can be achieved for a number of hours by toothpastes containing a combination of triclosan and zinc chloride. PMID:9655033

  8. Breath acetaldehyde following ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Wong, M K; Scott, B K; Peterson, C M

    1992-01-01

    Five pairs of volunteers were studied to determine the effect of drinking ethanol on breath acetaldehyde levels. On a given study day, samples of breath were obtained for measurement of acetaldehyde and ethanol from both participants at t = -1 h, t = -0.5 h, and at t = 0 to obtain baseline values. The drinkers were then given ethanol (0.3 g/kg body weight), and the controls given an equal volume of tap water. Breath samples were then taken at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 h, and hourly until t = 6 h. The last sample taken was at t = 23.5 h. Acetaldehyde levels in breath were quantified with a fluorigenic high-performance liquid chromatographic assay. Blood ethanol was approximated using a breath analyzer. Acetaldehyde in breath rose 50-fold at the 0.5-h, time point and returned to levels not significantly different from baseline values by 3-4 h. The mean peak blood ethanol values reached 0.055%. The t 1/2 elimination for ethanol was 1.6 h, and that for acetaldehyde was 2.25 h. Elimination of both acetaldehyde and ethanol in breath were initially 0 order. A significant correlation (r = 0.74) was found between baseline breath acetaldehyde levels and peak acetaldehyde levels. We conclude that acetaldehyde resulting from ethanol intake rapidly partitions into breath. The correlation of baseline breath acetaldehyde values with peak values found after an ethanol challenge indicate that measurement of breath acetaldehyde may be useful in the identification of individual differences in ethanol metabolism. PMID:1605884

  9. Reproducibility of within-subject breath alcohol analysis.

    PubMed

    Gullberg, R G; Logan, B K

    1998-04-01

    Random samples from normal distributions are an important assumption for many statistical methods. The present study evaluates this assumption with regard to quantitative breath alcohol analyses. Eight individuals (six male and two female) consumed alcoholic beverages and subsequently provided replicate (n ranging from 22 to 69) breath samples to an infrared breath alcohol instrument within short time intervals. The serially collected data were treated with several descriptive and inferential methods. Descriptive results among the eight individuals included: mean 0.0420-0.1175 g/210 L, SD 0.0008-0.0045 g/210 L and CV: 1.9%-4.7%. Statistical tests for normality showed seven of the distributions to be reasonably normal (p > or = 0.25) and the other marginal (p = 0.051). A test for runs about the median showed random results (p > or = 0.10) for four individuals and non-random (p < or = 0.01) for the other four. The results suggest an individual's breath alcohol measurement, when appropriately collected and analysed, should be considered a random sample from a normal within-subject distribution. The existing variability in breath alcohol analysis, due largely to biological and sampling considerations, is acceptably minimized to warrant forensic application. PMID:9604655

  10. Collection, storage, and electrophoretic analysis of nanoliter microdialysis samples collected from awake animals in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Hershey, Neil D.; Mabrouk, Omar S.

    2011-01-01

    Microdialysis sampling is an important tool for chemical monitoring in living systems. Temporal resolution is an important figure of merit that is determined by sampling frequency, assay sensitivity, and dispersion of chemical zones during transport from sampling device to fraction collector or analytical system. Temporal resolution has recently been improved by segmenting flow into plugs, so that nanoliter fractions are collected at intervals of 0.1–2 s, thus eliminating temporal distortion associated with dispersion in continuous flow. Such systems, however, have yet to be used with behaving subjects. Furthermore, long-term storage of nanoliter samples created by segmented flow has not been reported. In this work, we have addressed these challenges. A microdialysis probe was integrated to a plug generator that could be stably mounted onto behaving animals. Long-term storage of dialysate plugs was achieved by collecting plugs into high-purity perfluoroalkoxy tubes, placing the tube into hexane and then freezing at −80°C. Slow warming with even temperatures prevented plug coalescence during sample thawing. As a demonstration of the system, plugs were collected from the striatum of behaving rats using a 0.5-mm-long microdialysis probe. Resulting plugs were analyzed 1–4 days later by chip-based electrophoresis. To improve throughput of plug analysis over previous work, the speed of electrophoretic separation was increased by using forced air cooling and 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate as a separation buffer additive, allowing resolution of six neuroactive amino acids in 30 s. Concentration changes induced by K+ microinjections were monitored with 10 s temporal resolution. The improvements reported in this work make it possible to apply segmented flow microdialysis to the study of behaving animals and enable experiments where the analytical system cannot be placed close to the animal. PMID:21465093

  11. Extravehicular Activity Asteroid Exploration and Sample Collection Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoville, Zebulon; Sipila, Stephanie; Bowie, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) is challenged with primary mission objectives of demonstrating deep space Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and tools, and obtaining asteroid samples to return to Earth for further study. Although the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) is used for the EVAs, it has limited mobility which increases fatigue and decreases the crews' capability to perform EVA tasks. Furthermore, previous Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) spacewalks have benefited from EVA interfaces which have been designed and manufactured on Earth. Rigid structurally mounted handrails, and tools with customized interfaces and restraints optimize EVA performance. For ARCM, some vehicle interfaces and tools can leverage heritage designs and experience. However, when the crew ventures onto an asteroid capture bag to explore the asteroid and collect rock samples, EVA complexity increases due to the uncertainty of the asteroid properties. The variability of rock size, shape and composition, as well as bunching of the fabric bag will complicate EVA translation, tool restraint and body stabilization. The unknown asteroid hardness and brittleness will complicate tool use. The rock surface will introduce added safety concerns for cut gloves and debris control. Feasible solutions to meet ARCM EVA objectives were identified using experience gained during Apollo, Shuttle, and ISS EVAs, terrestrial mountaineering practices, NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 16 mission, and during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory testing in the MACES suit. The proposed concept utilizes expandable booms and integrated features of the asteroid capture bag to position and restrain the crew at the asteroid worksite. These methods enable the capability to perform both finesse, and high load tasks necessary to collect samples for scientific characterization of the asteroid. This paper will explore the design trade space and options that were examined for EVA, the overall concept for the EVAs including translation paths and body restraint methods, potential tools used to extract the samples, design implications for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) for EVA, the results of early development testing of potential EVA tasks, and extensibility of the EVA architecture to NASA's exploration missions.

  12. Sulfate and nitrate collected by filter sampling near the tropopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humenik, F. M.; Lezberg, E. A.; Otterson, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Filter samples collected near the tropopause with an F-106 aircraft and two Boeing 747 aircraft were analyzed for sulfate and nitrate ion content. Within the range of routine commercial flight altitudes (at or below 12.5 km), stratospheric mass mixing ratios for the winter-spring group averaged 0.26 ppbm for sulfate and 0.35 ppbm for nitrate. For the summer-fall group, stratosphere mixing ratios averaged 0.13 ppbm and 0.25 ppbm for sulfate and nitrate, respectively. Winter-spring group tropospheric mass mixing ratios averaged 0.08 ppbm for sulfate and 0.10 ppbm for nitrate, while summer-fall group tropospheric mixing ratios averaged 0.05 ppbm for sulfate and 0.08 ppbm for nitrate. Correlations of the filter data with available ozone data suggest that the sulfate and nitrate are transported from the stratosphere to the troposphere.

  13. Miniature Blimps for Surveillance and Collection of Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Miniature blimps are under development as robots for use in exploring the thick, cold, nitrogen atmosphere of Saturn's moon, Titan. Similar blimps can also be used for surveillance and collection of biochemical samples in buildings, caves, subways, and other, similar structures on Earth. The widely perceived need for means to thwart attacks on buildings and to mitigate the effects of such attacks has prompted consideration of the use of robots. Relative to rover-type (wheeled) robots that have been considered for such uses, miniature blimps offer the advantage of ability to move through the air in any direction and, hence, to perform tasks that are difficult or impossible for wheeled robots, including climbing stairs and looking through windows. In addition, miniature blimps are expected to have greater range and to cost less, relative to wheeled robots.

  14. Abdominal 4D Flow MR Imaging in a Breath Hold: Combination of Spiral Sampling and Dynamic Compressed Sensing for Highly Accelerated Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Dyvorne, Hadrien; Knight-Greenfield, Ashley; Jajamovich, Guido; Besa, Cecilia; Cui, Yong; Stalder, Aurlien; Markl, Michael; Taouli, Bachir

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop a highly accelerated phase contrast cardiac-gated volume flow measurement (4D flow) MR imaging technique based on spiral sampling and dynamic compressed sensing, and to compare with established phase contrast imaging techniques for the quantification of blood flow in abdominal vessels. Methods In this prospective IRB approved study, 10 subjects (9 males, mean age 51 y) including 7 patients with liver disease were enrolled. Two 4D flow acquisitions were performed, one using Cartesian sampling with respiratory tracking, the other using spiral sampling and acquired in a breath hold. Cartesian 2D cine phase contrast was also acquired in the portal vein. Two independent observers assessed vessel conspicuity on phase contrast 3D angiogram. Quantitative flow parameters were measured by two independent observers in major abdominal vessels. Inter-technique concordance was quantified using Bland-Altman analysis and Pearson correlation. Results There was no significant difference in vessel conspicuity between 4D flow acquisitions (p >0.069, for both observers), while more artifacts were observed with spiral 4D flow (p <0.016). Quantitative measurements in abdominal vessels showed strong correlation between spiral and Cartesian 4D flow techniques (for total flow r = 0.96, p <0.001). For portal venous flow, spiral 4D flow was in better agreement with 2D cine phase contrast (?8.8/9.3 mL/s) than was Cartesian 4D flow (?10.6/14.6 mL/s). Conclusion Combining highly efficient spiral sampling with dynamic compressed sensing results in major acceleration for 4D flow MR imaging, which allows comprehensive assessment of abdominal vessel hemodynamics in a breath hold. PMID:25325326

  15. A Novel Approach to Prediction of Mild Obstructive Sleep Disordered Breathing in a Population-Based Sample: The Sleep Heart Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Caffo, Brian; Diener-West, Marie; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Samet, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript considers a data-mining approach for the prediction of mild obstructive sleep disordered breathing, defined as an elevated respiratory disturbance index (RDI), in 5,530 participants in a community-based study, the Sleep Heart Health Study. The prediction algorithm was built using modern ensemble learning algorithms, boosting in specific, which allowed for assessing potential high-dimensional interactions between predictor variables or classifiers. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, the data were split into training and validation sets for varying thresholds for predicting the probability of a high RDI (? 7 events per hour in the given results). Based on a moderate classification threshold from the boosting algorithm, the estimated post-test odds of a high RDI were 2.20 times higher than the pre-test odds given a positive test, while the corresponding post-test odds were decreased by 52% given a negative test (sensitivity and specificity of 0.66 and 0.70, respectively). In rank order, the following variables had the largest impact on prediction performance: neck circumference, body mass index, age, snoring frequency, waist circumference, and snoring loudness. Citation: Caffo B; Diener-West M; Punjabi NM; Samet J. A novel approach to prediction of mild obstructive sleep disordered breathing in a population-based sample: the Sleep Heart Health Study. SLEEP 2010;33(12):1641-1648. PMID:21120126

  16. Collection, chemical analysis, and evaluation of coal samples in 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Vernon Emanuel; Medlin, J.H.; Hatch, J.R.; Coleman, S.L.; Wood, G.H., Jr.; Woodruff, S.D.; Hildebrand, R.T.

    1976-01-01

    During 1975, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with other Federal and State agencies, university groups, and private companies, continued its program to augment and refine information on the composition of coal in the United States. This report includes all analytical data on 799 channel samples of coal beds from major operating mines and core holes in 28 States, collected mainly by State Geological Surveys under a cooperative program funded largely by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. For each sample, the U.S. Geological Survey has quantitatively determined the amounts of 24 major, minor, and trace elements (including AI, As, Cd, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Na, Pb, Se, U, and Zn), and has semiquantitatively determined the concentrations of 15 to 20 additional trace elements (including B, Be, Cr, Ge, Mo, Ni, and V). In addition, the U.S. Bureau of Mines has provided proximate and ultimate analyses, and Btu and forms-of-sulfur determinations on 488 of the samples. Statistical summaries of the data are given for all coal samples in the United States, for coal divided by rank (53 anthracite, 509 bituminous coal, 183 subbituminous coal, and 54 lignite samples), and the arithmetic means, ranges, and geometric means and deviations are given for the coal in each of seven different major coal areas in the United States. For example, the average coal in the United States contains 11.3 percent ash, 10.0 percent moisture, 2.0 percent sulfur, and has 11,180 Btu per pound; of the 10 major oxides determined on the 525?C ash, the average SiO2 content is 38 percent, Al2O3 20 percent, and Na2O 0.67 percent; the average Cd content is 7.3 ppm, Pb 114 ppm, and Zn 151 ppm (range 1 ppm to 6.0 percent). As determined on the raw coal, the average Hg content is 0.18 ppm (range <0.01 to 63.0 ppm), the Se content 4.1 ppm (range <0.1 to 150 ppm), and the U content 1.8 ppm (range <0.2 to 42.9 ppm).

  17. Air sampling filtration media: Collection efficiency for respirable size-selective sampling

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Monaghan, Keenan; Lee, Taekhee; Kashon, Mike; Harper, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The collection efficiencies of commonly used membrane air sampling filters in the ultrafine particle size range were investigated. Mixed cellulose ester (MCE; 0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polycarbonate (0.4, 0.8, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE; 0.45, 1, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polyvinyl chloride (PVC; 0.8 and 5 μm pore sizes), and silver membrane (0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes) filters were exposed to polydisperse sodium chloride (NaCl) particles in the size range of 10–400 nm. Test aerosols were nebulized and introduced into a calm air chamber through a diffusion dryer and aerosol neutralizer. The testing filters (37 mm diameter) were mounted in a conductive polypropylene filter-holder (cassette) within a metal testing tube. The experiments were conducted at flow rates between 1.7 and 11.2 l min−1. The particle size distributions of NaCl challenge aerosol were measured upstream and downstream of the test filters by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Three different filters of each type with at least three repetitions for each pore size were tested. In general, the collection efficiency varied with airflow, pore size, and sampling duration. In addition, both collection efficiency and pressure drop increased with decreased pore size and increased sampling flow rate, but they differed among filter types and manufacturer. The present study confirmed that the MCE, PTFE, and PVC filters have a relatively high collection efficiency for challenge particles much smaller than their nominal pore size and are considerably more efficient than polycarbonate and silver membrane filters, especially at larger nominal pore sizes. PMID:26834310

  18. Classification of Asthma Based on Nonlinear Analysis of Breathing Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Raoufy, Mohammad Reza; Ghafari, Tara; Darooei, Reza; Nazari, Milad; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Eslaminejad, Ali Reza; Almasnia, Mehdi; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar; Mani, Ali R.; Hajizadeh, Sohrab

    2016-01-01

    Normal human breathing exhibits complex variability in both respiratory rhythm and volume. Analyzing such nonlinear fluctuations may provide clinically relevant information in patients with complex illnesses such as asthma. We compared the cycle-by-cycle fluctuations of inter-breath interval (IBI) and lung volume (LV) among healthy volunteers and patients with various types of asthma. Continuous respiratory datasets were collected from forty age-matched men including 10 healthy volunteers, 10 patients with controlled atopic asthma, 10 patients with uncontrolled atopic asthma, and 10 patients with uncontrolled non-atopic asthma during 60 min spontaneous breathing. Complexity of breathing pattern was quantified by calculating detrended fluctuation analysis, largest Lyapunov exponents, sample entropy, and cross-sample entropy. The IBI as well as LV fluctuations showed decreased long-range correlation, increased regularity and reduced sensitivity to initial conditions in patients with asthma, particularly in uncontrolled state. Our results also showed a strong synchronization between the IBI and LV in patients with uncontrolled asthma. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that nonlinear analysis of breathing pattern has a diagnostic value in asthma and can be used in differentiating uncontrolled from controlled and non-atopic from atopic asthma. We suggest that complexity analysis of breathing dynamics may represent a novel physiologic marker to facilitate diagnosis and management of patients with asthma. However, future studies are needed to increase the validity of the study and to improve these novel methods for better patient management. PMID:26824900

  19. Classification of Asthma Based on Nonlinear Analysis of Breathing Pattern.

    PubMed

    Raoufy, Mohammad Reza; Ghafari, Tara; Darooei, Reza; Nazari, Milad; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Eslaminejad, Ali Reza; Almasnia, Mehdi; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar; Mani, Ali R; Hajizadeh, Sohrab

    2016-01-01

    Normal human breathing exhibits complex variability in both respiratory rhythm and volume. Analyzing such nonlinear fluctuations may provide clinically relevant information in patients with complex illnesses such as asthma. We compared the cycle-by-cycle fluctuations of inter-breath interval (IBI) and lung volume (LV) among healthy volunteers and patients with various types of asthma. Continuous respiratory datasets were collected from forty age-matched men including 10 healthy volunteers, 10 patients with controlled atopic asthma, 10 patients with uncontrolled atopic asthma, and 10 patients with uncontrolled non-atopic asthma during 60 min spontaneous breathing. Complexity of breathing pattern was quantified by calculating detrended fluctuation analysis, largest Lyapunov exponents, sample entropy, and cross-sample entropy. The IBI as well as LV fluctuations showed decreased long-range correlation, increased regularity and reduced sensitivity to initial conditions in patients with asthma, particularly in uncontrolled state. Our results also showed a strong synchronization between the IBI and LV in patients with uncontrolled asthma. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that nonlinear analysis of breathing pattern has a diagnostic value in asthma and can be used in differentiating uncontrolled from controlled and non-atopic from atopic asthma. We suggest that complexity analysis of breathing dynamics may represent a novel physiologic marker to facilitate diagnosis and management of patients with asthma. However, future studies are needed to increase the validity of the study and to improve these novel methods for better patient management. PMID:26824900

  20. DS — Software for analyzing data collected using double sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, Jonathan; Hartley, Dana

    2011-01-01

    DS analyzes count data to estimate density or relative density and population size when appropriate. The software is available at http://iwcbm.dev4.fsr.com/IWCBM/default.asp?PageID=126. The software was designed to analyze data collected using double sampling, but it also can be used to analyze index data. DS is not currently configured to apply distance methods or methods based on capture-recapture theory. Double sampling for the purpose of this report means surveying a sample of locations with a rapid method of unknown accuracy and surveying a subset of these locations using a more intensive method assumed to yield unbiased estimates. "Detection ratios" are calculated as the ratio of results from rapid surveys on intensive plots to the number actually present as determined from the intensive surveys. The detection ratios are used to adjust results from the rapid surveys. The formula for density is (results from rapid survey)/(estimated detection ratio from intensive surveys). Population sizes are estimated as (density)(area). Double sampling is well-established in the survey sampling literature—see Cochran (1977) for the basic theory, Smith (1995) for applications of double sampling in waterfowl surveys, Bart and Earnst (2002, 2005) for discussions of its use in wildlife studies, and Bart and others (in press) for a detailed account of how the method was used to survey shorebirds across the arctic region of North America. Indices are surveys that do not involve complete counts of well-defined plots or recording information to estimate detection rates (Thompson and others, 1998). In most cases, such data should not be used to estimate density or population size but, under some circumstances, may be used to compare two densities or estimate how density changes through time or across space (Williams and others, 2005). The Breeding Bird Survey (Sauer and others, 2008) provides a good example of an index survey. Surveyors record all birds detected but do not record any information, such as distance or whether each bird is recorded in subperiods, that could be used to estimate detection rates. Nonetheless, the data are widely used to estimate temporal trends and spatial patterns in abundance (Sauer and others, 2008). DS produces estimates of density (or relative density for indices) by species and stratum. Strata are usually defined using region and habitat but other variables may be used, and the entire study area may be classified as a single stratum. Population size in each stratum and for the entire study area also is estimated for each species. For indices, the estimated totals generally are only useful if (a) plots are surveyed so that densities can be calculated and extrapolated to the entire study area and (b) if the detection rates are close to 1.0. All estimates are accompanied by standard errors (SE) and coefficients of variation (CV, that is, SE/estimate).

  1. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF URINE SAMPLES (SOP-2.14)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collecting urine samples from the study participants (children and their primary caregivers). Urine samples will be approximate 48-hr collections, collected as spot urine samples accumulated over the 48-hr sampling period. If the household or da...

  2. COLLECTION EFFICIENCY OF FIELD SAMPLING CASSETTES: INTERAGENCY ENERGY/ENVIRONMENT R AND D PROGRAM REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Industrial hygiene particulate samples are often collected under anisokinetic sampling conditions and in crosswinds. Experiments were conducted to quantitate errors associated with sampling under these non-ideal conditions. Three types of field sampling cassetts were tested to de...

  3. Breath hydrogen concentration and small intestinal malabsorption in calves.

    PubMed

    Holland, R E; Herdt, T H; Refsal, K R

    1986-09-01

    Breath hydrogen concentrations were measured to assess intestinal carbohydrate malabsorption in preruminating calves. Oral administration of 1.25 g of lactulose (a nonabsorbable carbohydrate)/kg to calves produced breath hydrogen concentrations significantly (P less than 0.001) higher than values determined after calves were fed milk and before the treatment was given. This indicates that, in the calf, fermentation of nonabsorbed carbohydrates results in increased breath hydrogen values. To induce small intestinal malabsorption, chloramphenicol was administered orally at 50 mg/kg, 2 times a day, to 5 calves for 3 days. Before therapy was started, each calf was fitted with a duodenal cannula to facilitate collection of intestinal mucosal biopsy samples during treatment. Chloramphenicol therapy significantly (P less than 0.001) increased breath hydrogen concentrations from those values measured after calves were fed milk alone. Concurrently, chloramphenicol administration significantly decreased intestinal villous length (P less than 0.001) and D-xylose absorption (P less than 0.05), compared with those values before treatment was given. These results demonstrate that decreased intestinal absorptive capacity is associated with an increase in breath hydrogen concentrations and that breath hydrogen may be useful in evaluating malabsorption in calves with naturally occurring enteric disease. PMID:3767107

  4. Respiratory protection for firefighters-Evaluation of CBRN canisters for use during overhaul II: In mask analyte sampling with integrated dynamic breathing machine.

    PubMed

    Jones, Leaton; Burgess, Jefferey L; Evans, Heath; Lutz, Eric A

    2016-03-01

    According to the National Fire Protection Association there were 487,500 structural fires in the U.S. in 2013. After visible flames are extinguished firefighters begin the overhaul stage where remaining hot spots are identified and further extinguished. During overhaul, a significant amount of potentially hazardous chemicals can remain in the ambient environment. Previous research suggests that the use of air purifying respirators fitted with chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) canisters may reduce occupational exposure. This study used large scale burns of representative structural materials to perform side-by-side, filtering, and service-life evaluations of commercially available CBRN filters using two head forms fitted with full-face respirators and a dynamic breathing machine. Three types of CBRN canisters and one non-CBRN cartridge were challenged in repetitive post-fire environments. Tests were conducted with two different breathing volumes and rates for two sampling durations (0-15min and 0-60min). Fifty-five different chemicals were selected for evaluation and results indicate that 10 of the 55 chemicals were present in the post-fire overhaul ambient environment. Acetaldehyde and formaldehyde were found to be the only two chemicals detected post filter but were effectively filtered to below ACGIH TLVs. Counter to our prior published work using continuous flow filter evaluation, this study indicates that, regardless of brand, CBRN filters were effective at reducing concentrations of post-fire ambient chemicals to below occupational exposure limits. However, caution should be applied when using CBRN filters as the ambient formaldehyde level in the current study was 8.9 times lower than during the previous work. PMID:26554925

  5. 24 CFR 35.1315 - Collection and laboratory analysis of samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... authorized by EPA in accordance with 40 CFR part 745, subpart Q, or by the EPA in accordance with 40 CFR 745... Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. All paint chip, dust, or soil samples shall be collected...

  6. Sample Collection for Investigation of Mars (SCIM): An Early Mars Sample Return Mission Through the Mars Scout Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leshin, L. A.; Yen, A.; Bomba, J.; Clark, B.; Epp, C.; Forney, L.; Gamber, T.; Graves, C.; Hupp, J.; Jones, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Sample Collection for Investigation of Mars (SCIM) mission is designed to: (1) make a 40 km pass through the Martian atmosphere; (2) collect dust and atmospheric gas; and (3) return the samples to Earth for analysis. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...general. (1)(i) Use a square-based grid system to overlay the entire area to be sampled. Orient the grid...) of this section for locating sampling points after the recleaning, but reorient the grid axes....5 meters apart oriented to the grid axes. The sampling points shall proceed in every direction...

  8. Combined sensing platform for advanced diagnostics in exhaled mouse breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortes, Paula R.; Wilk, Andreas; Seichter, Felicia; Cajlakovic, Merima; Koestler, Stefan; Ribitsch, Volker; Wachter, Ulrich; Vogt, Josef; Radermacher, Peter; Carter, Chance; Raimundo, Ivo M.; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Breath analysis is an attractive non-invasive strategy for early disease recognition or diagnosis, and for therapeutic progression monitoring, as quantitative compositional analysis of breath can be related to biomarker panels provided by a specific physiological condition invoked by e.g., pulmonary diseases, lung cancer, breast cancer, and others. As exhaled breath contains comprehensive information on e.g., the metabolic state, and since in particular volatile organic constituents (VOCs) in exhaled breath may be indicative of certain disease states, analytical techniques for advanced breath diagnostics should be capable of sufficient molecular discrimination and quantification of constituents at ppm-ppb - or even lower - concentration levels. While individual analytical techniques such as e.g., mid-infrared spectroscopy may provide access to a range of relevant molecules, some IR-inactive constituents require the combination of IR sensing schemes with orthogonal analytical tools for extended molecular coverage. Combining mid-infrared hollow waveguides (HWGs) with luminescence sensors (LS) appears particularly attractive, as these complementary analytical techniques allow to simultaneously analyze total CO2 (via luminescence), the 12CO2/13CO2 tracer-to-tracee (TTR) ratio (via IR), selected VOCs (via IR) and O2 (via luminescence) in exhaled breath, yet, establishing a single diagnostic platform as both sensors simultaneously interact with the same breath sample volume. In the present study, we take advantage of a particularly compact (shoebox-size) FTIR spectrometer combined with novel substrate-integrated hollow waveguide (iHWG) recently developed by our research team, and miniaturized fiberoptic luminescence sensors for establishing a multi-constituent breath analysis tool that is ideally compatible with mouse intensive care stations (MICU). Given the low tidal volume and flow of exhaled mouse breath, the TTR is usually determined after sample collection via gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometric detection. Here, we aim at potentially continuously analyzing the TTR via iHWGs and LS flow-through sensors requiring only minute (< 1 mL) sample volumes. Furthermore, this study explores non-linearities observed for the calibration functions of 12CO2 and 13CO2 potentially resulting from effects related to optical collision diameters e.g., in presence of molecular oxygen. It is anticipated that the simultaneous continuous analysis of oxygen via LS will facilitate the correction of these effects after inclusion within appropriate multivariate calibration models, thus providing more reliable and robust calibration schemes for continuously monitoring relevant breath constituents.

  9. Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Shortness of Breath Overview What is shortness of breath? When you are short of breath, you may feel ... lungs and scarring of the lung tissue. Diagnosis & Tests What tests will my doctor perform? Your doctor ...

  10. Breath-Holding Spells

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a minute before a child regains consciousness and resumes breathing normally. Breath-holding spells can happen in ... begin administering CPR if your child does not resume breathing When to See the Doctor If this ...

  11. Pursed lip breathing (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    How to do pursed lip breathing: 1. Breath in (inhale) slowly through your nose for 2 counts. 2. Feel your belly get larger as you breathe in. 3. Pucker your lips, as if you were going to whistle or ...

  12. What Causes Bad Breath?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bad breath that are not true: Myth #1: Mouthwash will make bad breath go away. Mouthwash only gets rid of bad breath temporarily. If you do use mouthwash, look for an antiseptic (kills the germs that ...

  13. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePLUS

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  14. Deep breathing after surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... One way to do so is by doing deep breathing exercises. Deep breathing keeps your lungs well-inflated and healthy ... be uncomfortable. But if you do not practice deep breathing after surgery, you may develop lung problems, ...

  15. Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Todd, Nancy S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC has undertaken a 4-year data restoration project effort for the lunar science community funded by the LASER program (Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research) to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images. These sample photographs are not easily accessible outside of JSC, and currently exist only on degradable film in the Curation Data Storage Facility

  16. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... location, take a minimum of three samples for each type of bulk PCB remediation waste or porous surface at the cleanup site, regardless of the amount of each type of waste that is present. There is no upper... minimum number of samples to take appears in parentheses after each type of waste for each cleanup...

  17. Curating NASA's Past, Present, and Future Extraterrestrial Sample Collections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Allton, J. H.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Righter, K.; Zeigler, R. A.; Zolensky, M.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "...curation of all extra-terrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "...documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the past, present, and future activities of the NASA Curation Office.

  18. Chemical Analysis of Whale Breath Volatiles: A Case Study for Non-Invasive Field Health Diagnostics of Marine Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Cumeras, Raquel; Cheung, William H.K.; Gulland, Frances; Goley, Dawn; Davis, Cristina E.

    2014-01-01

    We explored the feasibility of collecting exhaled breath from a moribund gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) for potential non-invasive health monitoring of marine mammals. Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) profiling is a relatively new field of research, in which the chemical composition of breath is used to non-invasively assess the health and physiological processes on-going within an animal or human. In this study, two telescopic sampling poles were designed and tested with the primary aim of collecting whale breath exhalations (WBEs). Once the WBEs were successfully collected, they were immediately transferred onto a stable matrix sorbent through a custom manifold system. A total of two large volume WBEs were successfully captured and pre-concentrated onto two Tenax®-TA traps (one exhalation per trap). The samples were then returned to the laboratory where they were analyzed using solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 70 chemicals were identified (58 positively identified) in the whale breath samples. These chemicals were also matched against a database of VOCs found in humans, and 44% of chemicals found in the whale breath are also released by healthy humans. The exhaled gray whale breath showed a rich diversity of chemicals, indicating the analysis of whale breath exhalations is a promising new field of research. PMID:25222833

  19. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, John (Bethel Park, PA)

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  20. 40 CFR 761.310 - Collecting the sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) area to represent surface area PCB concentrations of each square meter or fraction of a square meter of a nearly flat, non-porous surface. For small surfaces, use the same procedure as for the standard wipe test, only sample the entire area, rather than 10 centimeter by 10 centimeter squares....

  1. 40 CFR 761.310 - Collecting the sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) area to represent surface area PCB concentrations of each square meter or fraction of a square meter of a nearly flat, non-porous surface. For small surfaces, use the same procedure as for the standard wipe test, only sample the entire area, rather than 10 centimeter by 10 centimeter squares....

  2. Agreement Between Exhaled Breath Carbon Monoxide Threshold Levels and Self-Reported Cigarette Smoking in a Sample of Male Adolescents in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Mangnall, Linda J Thomson; Gallagher, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to measure the percent agreement between Exhaled Breath Carbon Monoxide (eBCO) measure using a piCO+ smokerlyzer® and self-reported cigarette smoking status and to determine the optimal thresholds for definite identification of cigarette smokers of male school students in Jordan. A descriptive, cross sectional, study of a random sample of male adolescents in grades 7 and 8 from four public high schools in Irbid, completed an adaptation of a standardized Arabic-language tobacco smoking questionnaire and an eBCO measure. Sensitivity and specificity of the eBCO were calculated against self-reported cigarette smoking. Participants (n = 439) had a mean age of 12.5 years (SD = 0.50) and 174 (39.9%) reported being an ever smoker of whom 59 (33.9%) reported being a recent (30-day) smoker. The optimal eBCO cut-off point for recent smoking was 4.5 ppm with a sensitivity of 84.7% and specificity of 65.5%. Overall, eBCO can accurately identify recent smokers and distinguish them from non-smokers. The eBCO use enables healthcare professionals and researchers to assess efficacy of smoking cessation and prevention programs without necessarily relying on self-report. Further research is indicated to validate our findings and should be expanded to include females, detailed characteristics of cigarette and waterpipe smoking. PMID:25599375

  3. 24 CFR 35.1315 - Collection and laboratory analysis of samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... authorized by EPA in accordance with 40 CFR part 745, subpart Q, or by the EPA in accordance with 40 CFR 745... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Collection and laboratory analysis... Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. All paint chip, dust, or soil samples shall be collected...

  4. 24 CFR 35.1315 - Collection and laboratory analysis of samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... authorized by EPA in accordance with 40 CFR part 745, subpart Q, or by the EPA in accordance with 40 CFR 745... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Collection and laboratory analysis... Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. All paint chip, dust, or soil samples shall be collected...

  5. 24 CFR 35.1315 - Collection and laboratory analysis of samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... authorized by EPA in accordance with 40 CFR part 745, subpart Q, or by the EPA in accordance with 40 CFR 745... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Collection and laboratory analysis... Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. All paint chip, dust, or soil samples shall be collected...

  6. 24 CFR 35.1315 - Collection and laboratory analysis of samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... authorized by EPA in accordance with 40 CFR part 745, subpart Q, or by the EPA in accordance with 40 CFR 745... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Collection and laboratory analysis... Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. All paint chip, dust, or soil samples shall be collected...

  7. Inherent variability in lead and copper collected during standardized sampling.

    PubMed

    Masters, Sheldon; Parks, Jeffrey; Atassi, Amrou; Edwards, Marc A

    2016-03-01

    Variability in the concentration of lead and copper sampled at consumers' taps poses challenges to assessing consumer health threats and the effectiveness of corrosion control. To examine the minimum variability that is practically achievable, standardized rigs with three lead and copper containing plumbing materials (leaded brass, copper tube with lead solder, and a lead copper connection) were deployed at five utilities and sampled with regimented protocols. Variability represented by relative standard deviation (RSD) in lead release was high in all cases. The brass had the lowest variability in lead release (RSD?=?31%) followed by copper-solder (RSD?=?49%) and lead-copper (RSD?=?80%). This high inherent variability is due to semi-random detachment of particulate lead to water, and represents a modern reality of water lead problems that should be explicitly acknowledged and considered in all aspects of exposure, public education, and monitoring. PMID:26896965

  8. Detection of Torque teno virus DNA in exhaled breath by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Chikasue, Kumiko; Kimura, Miyuki; Ikeda, Kazuyuki; Ohnishi, Takuma; Kawanishi, Satoshi; Iio, Tomoe; Kataoka, Mikio; Arao, Yujiro

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether exhaled breath contains Torque teno virus (TTV) or not, we tested exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples by semi-nested PCR assay. We detected TTV DNA in 35% (7/20) of EBC samples collected from the mouth of one of the authors, demonstrating that TTV DNA is excreted in exhaled breath with moderate frequency. TTV DNA was detected also in oral EBC samples from 4 of 6 other authors, indicating that TTV DNA excretion in exhaled breath is not an exception but rather a common phenomenon. Furthermore, the same assay could amplify TTV DNA from room air condensate (RAC) samples collected at distances of 20 and 40cm from a human face with 40 (8/20) and 35% (7/20) positive rates, respectively. TTV transmission has been reported to occur during infancy. These distances seem equivalent to that between an infant and its household members while caring for the infant. Taken together, it seems that exhaled breath is one of the possible transmission routes of TTV. We also detected TTV DNA in 25% (10/40) of RAC samples collected at a distance of more than 180cm from any human face, suggesting the risk of airborne infection with TTV in a room. PMID:23093057

  9. "Breathing" vesicles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shaoyong; Azzam, Tony; Rouiller, Isabelle; Eisenberg, Adi

    2009-08-01

    A vesicle system is described that possesses a pH-induced "breathing" feature and consists of a three-layered wall structure. The "breathing" feature consists of a highly reversible vesicle volume change by a factor of ca. 7, accompanied by diffusion of species into and out of the vesicles with a relaxation time of ca. 1 min. The triblock copolymer poly(ethylene oxide)(45)-block-polystyrene(130)-block-poly(2-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate)(120) (PEO(45)-b-PS(130)-b-PDEA(120)) was synthesized via ATRP. Self-assembly into vesicles was carried out at a pH of ca.10.4. The vesicle wall was shown by cryo-TEM to consist of a sandwich of two external ca. 4 nm thick continuous PS layers and one ca. 17 nm thick PDEA layer in the middle. As the pH decreases, both the vesicle size and the thickness of all three layers increase. The increase of the thickness of the intermediate PDEA layer arises from the protonation and hydration, but the swelling is constrained by the PS layers. The increase of the thickness of the two PS layers is a result of an increasing incompatibility and an accompanying sharpening of the interface between the PS layers and the PDEA layer. Starting at a pH slightly below 6, progressive swelling of the PDEA layer with decreasing pH induces a cracking of the two PS layers and also a sharp increase of the vesicle size and the wall thickness. By pH 3.4, the vesicle size has increased by a factor of approximately 1.9 and the wall shows a cracked surface. These changes between pH 10.4 and 3.4 are highly reversible with the relaxation time of ca. 1 min and can be performed repeatedly. The change in the wall structure not only increases dramatically the wall permeability to water but also greatly expands the rate of proton diffusion from practically zero to extremely rapid. PMID:19722630

  10. Extravehicular Activity Asteroid Exploration and Sample Collection Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipila, Stephanie A.; Scoville, Zebulon C.; Bowie, Jonathan T.; Buffington, Jesse A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenging primary objectives associated with NASA's Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) is to demonstrate deep space Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and tools and to obtain asteroid samples to return to Earth for further study. Prior Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) spacewalks have benefited from engineered EVA interfaces which have been designed and manufactured on Earth. Rigid structurally mounted handrails, and tools with customized interfaces and restraints optimize EVA performance. For ARCM, EVA complexity increases due to the uncertainty of the asteroid properties. The variability of rock size, shape and composition, as well as behavior of the asteroid capture mechanism will complicate EVA translation, tool restraint, and body stabilization. The unknown asteroid hardness and brittleness will complicate tool use. The rock surface will introduce added safety concerns for cut gloves and debris control. Feasible solutions to meet ARCM EVA objectives were identified using experience gained during Apollo, Shuttle, and ISS EVAs, terrestrial mountaineering practices, NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 16 mission, and during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory testing in the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) suit. This paper will summarize the overall operational concepts for conducting EVAs for the ARCM mission including translation paths and body restraint methods, potential tools used to extract the samples, design implications for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) for EVA, and the results of early development testing of potential EVA tasks.

  11. Self-Collected versus Clinician-Collected Sampling for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Screening: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lunny, Carole; Taylor, Darlene; Hoang, Linda; Wong, Tom; Gilbert, Mark; Lester, Richard; Krajden, Mel; Ogilvie, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Background The increases in STI rates since the late 1990s in Canada have occurred despite widespread primary care and targeted public health programs and in the setting of universal health care. More innovative interventions are required that would eliminate barriers to STI testing such as internet-based or mail-in home and community service testing for patients that are hard to reach, who refuse to go for clinician-based testing, or who decline an examination. Jurisdictions such as New Zealand and some American states currently use self-collected sampling, but without the required evidence to determine whether self-collected specimens are as accurate as clinician-collected specimens in terms of chlamydia and gonorrhea diagnostic accuracy. The objective of the review is to compare self-collected vaginal, urine, pharyngeal and rectal samples to our reference standard - clinician-collected cervical, urethral, pharyngeal and rectal sampling techniques to identify a positive specimen using nucleic acid amplification test assays. Methods The hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic and the fixed effect models were used to assess the accuracy of comparable specimens that were collected by patients compared to clinicians. Sensitivity and specificity estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported as our main outcome measures. Findings We included 21 studies based on over 6100 paired samples. Fourteen included studies examined chlamydia only, 6 compared both gonorrhea and chlamydia separately in the same study, and one examined gonorrhea. The six chlamydia studies comparing self-collection by vaginal swab to a clinician-collected cervical swab had the highest sensitivity (92%, 95% CI 87-95) and specificity (98%, 95% CI 97-99), compared to other specimen-types (urine/urethra or urine/cervix). Six studies compared urine self-samples to urethra clinician-collected samples in males and produced a sensitivity of 88% (95% CI 83-93) and a specificity of 99% (95% CI 0.94-0.99). Taking into account that urine samples may be less sensitive than cervical samples, eight chlamydia studies that compared urine self-collected verses clinician-collected cervical samples had a sensitivity of 87% (95% CI 81-91) and high specificity of 99% (95% CI 0.98-1.00). For gonorrhea testing, self-collected urine samples compared to clinician-collected urethra samples in males produced a sensitivity of 92% (95% CI 83-97) and specificity of 99% (95% CI 0.98-1.00). Conclusion The sensitivity and specificity of vaginal self-collected swabs compared to swabs collected by clinicians supports the use of vaginal swab as the recommended specimen of choice in home-based screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea. Urine samples for gonorrhea collected by men had comparably high sensitivity and specificity, so could be recommended as they can be left at room temperature for several days, allowing for the possibility of mail-in home-based testing. In populations that may not go for testing at all, do not have the option of clinical testing, or who refuse a clinical examination, self-collected screening would be a good alternative. We recommend that guidelines on how to self-collect gonorrhea and chlamydia urine, vaginal, rectal and pharyngeal specimens be published. PMID:26168051

  12. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Implementing Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With... locations for bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces destined to remain at a cleanup site after cleanup. (a) Minimum number of samples. (1) At each separate cleanup site at a PCB remediation...

  13. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Implementing Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With... locations for bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces destined to remain at a cleanup site after cleanup. (a) Minimum number of samples. (1) At each separate cleanup site at a PCB remediation...

  14. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Implementing Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With... locations for bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces destined to remain at a cleanup site after cleanup. (a) Minimum number of samples. (1) At each separate cleanup site at a PCB remediation...

  15. ANALYSIS OF ACID PRECIPITATION SAMPLES COLLECTED BY STATE AGENCIES--SAMPLING PERIOD JAN 1988 - DEC 1988

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents analytical data from the 30 acid precipitation collection sites in the State-operated Network. amples are collected weekly in plastic bag liners and shipped in 500 mL polyethylene bottles to Global Geochemistry Corporation (the central laboratory for the netw...

  16. ANALYSIS OF ACID PRECIPITATION SAMPLES COLLECTED BY STATE AGENCIES SAMPLING PERIOD: JANUARY 1992 - DECEMBER 1992

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents analytical data from 30 acid precipitation collection sites in the State-Operated Network. amples are collected weekly in plastic bag bucket liners and shipped in 500 mL polyethylene bottled to Global Geochemistry Corporation, the central laboratory for the n...

  17. ANALYSIS OF ACID PRECIPITATION SAMPLES COLLECTED BY STATE AGENCIES SAMPLING PERIOD JANUARY 1990 - DECEMBER 1990

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents analytical data from the 30 acid precipitation collection sites in the State-Operated Network. amples are collected weekly in plastic bag liners and shipped in 500 mL polyethylene bottles to Global Geochemistry Corporation (the central laboratory for the netw...

  18. Trichloroethene levels in human blood and exhaled breath from controlled inhalation exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Pleil, J D; Fisher, J W; Lindstrom, A B

    1998-01-01

    The organic constituents of exhaled human breath are representative of bloodborne concentrations through gas exchange in the blood/breath interface in the lungs. The presence of specific compounds can be an indicator of recent exposure or represent a biological response of the subject. For volatile organic compounds, sampling and analysis of breath is preferred to direct measurement from blood samples because breath collection is noninvasive, potentially infectious waste is avoided, the sample supply is essentially limitless, and the measurement of gas-phase analytes is much simpler in a gas matrix rather than in a complex biological tissue such as blood. However, to assess the distribution of a contaminant in the body requires a reasonable estimate of the blood level. We have investigated the use of noninvasive breath measurements as a surrogate for blood measurements for (high) occupational levels of trichloroethene in a controlled exposure experiment. Subjects were placed in an exposure chamber for 24 hr; they were exposed to 100 parts per million by volume trichloroethene for the initial 4 hr and to purified air for the remaining 20 hr. Matched breath and blood samples were collected periodically during the experiment. We modeled the resulting concentration data with respect to their time course and assessed the blood/breath relationship during the exposure (uptake) period and during the postexposure (elimination) period. Estimates for peak blood levels, compartmental distribution, and time constants were calculated from breath data and compared to direct blood measurements to assess the validity of the breath measurement methodology. Blood/breath partition coefficients were studied during both uptake and elimination. At equilibrium conditions at the end of the exposure, we could predict actual blood levels using breath elimination curve calculations and a literature value partition coefficient with a mean ratio of calculated:measured of 0.98 and standard error (SE) = 0.12 across all subjects. blood/breath comparisons at equilibrium resulted in calculated in vivo partition coefficients with a mean of 10.8 and SE = 0.60 across all subjects and experiments and 9.69 with SE = 0.93 for elimination-only experiments. We found that about 78% of trichloroethene entering the body during inhalation exposure is metabolized, stored, or excreted through routes other than exhalation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9721257

  19. An adaptive breath sampler for use with human subjects with an impaired respiratory function.

    PubMed

    Basanta, M; Koimtzis, T; Singh, D; Wilson, I; Thomas, C L P

    2007-02-01

    An adaptive sampler for collecting 2.5 dm(3) samples of exhaled air from human subjects with an impaired respiratory function is described. Pressure in the upper respiratory tract is continuously monitored and the data used to control an automated system to collect select portions of the expired breathing cycle onto a mixed bed Tenax(trade mark) and Carbotrap(trade mark) adsorbent trap for analysis by GC-MS. The sampling approach is intended for use in metabolomic profiling of volatiles in human breath at concentrations greater than microg m(-3). The importance of experimental reproducibility in metabolomic data is emphasised and consequently a high purity air supply is used to maintain a stable exogenous volatile organic compound profile at concentrations in the range 5 to 30 microg m(-3). The results of a 90 day stability study showed that exogenous VOCs were maintained at significantly lower levels (40 times lower for isopropyl alcohol) and with significantly higher reproducibility (80 times lower standard deviation for isopropyl alcohol) than would have been be the case if ambient air had been used. The sampling system was evaluated with healthy controls alongside subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Subjects were able to breathe normally with control subjects observed to breathe at a rate of 9 to 17 breaths per minute, compared to 16 to 30 breaths per minute for subjects with COPD. This study presents, for the first time, observations and estimates of intra-subject breath sample reproducibility from human subjects. These reproducibility studies indicated that VOCs in exhaled breath exhibit a variety of dynamic behaviours, with some species recovered with a RSD <30%, while other species were observed to have significantly more variable concentrations, 30 to 130% RSD. The approach was also demonstrated to reliably differentiate the differences in the VOC profiles between alveolar and dead space air. PMID:17260076

  20. EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that...

  1. SampLink: a new system for the collection of donor blood samples.

    PubMed

    Shinar, E; Michlin, H

    1996-06-01

    Increasing demands for screening tests on blood donors, which require a large number of undiluted samples, and the rising concern for the safety of the phlebotomists have led to the development of a new blood sampling system. The new device was evaluated during the collection of 60 blood units, and compared with 50 control units collected using the "cut and drip' method. The time required for both blood donation and donor samples collection, blood component quality, coagulation factors activation and haemolysis were studied. In addition, reports and recommendations of Magen David Adom phlebotomists were evaluated after collecting 75000 units using the new device. Donor sample collection with the new device was comparable and somewhat shorter than with the "cut and drip' method, while the blood unit collection time remained unchanged. There were no differences in plasma haemoglobin, factor VIII and platelet yields and morphology scores in blood units and donor samples collected by the two methods. There were no reported instances of needle-sticks among phlebotomists using either method. The new device was simple to operate, improved blood donor samples collection practice and enabled the collection of as many undiluted donor samples as required for routine testing. In addition, the use of vacuum tubes ensured sterility, safety and standardization of samples. The components provided were comparable in quality to those prepared from units collected by other methods. PMID:8809964

  2. Laboratory and field evaluation of a SAW microsensor array for measuring perchloroethylene in breath.

    PubMed

    Groves, William A; Achutan, Chandran

    2004-12-01

    This article describes the laboratory and field performance evaluation of a small prototype instrument employing an array of six polymer-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors and a thermal desorption preconcentration unit for rapid analysis of perchloroethylene in breath. Laboratory calibrations were performed using breath samples spiked with perchloroethylene to prepare calibration standards spanning a concentration range of 0.1-10 ppm. A sample volume of 250 mL was preconcentrated on 40 mg of Tenax GR at a flow rate of 100 mL/min, followed by a dry air purge and thermal desorption at a temperature of 200 degrees C. The resulting pulse of vapor was passed over the sensor array at a flow rate of 20 mL/min and sensor responses were recorded and displayed using a laptop computer. The total time per analysis was 4.5 min. SAW sensor responses were linear, and the instrument's limit of detection was estimated to be 50 ppb based on the criterion that four of the six sensors show a detectable response. Field performance was evaluated at a commercial dry-cleaning operation by comparing prototype instrument results for breath samples with those of a portable gas chromatograph (NIOSH 3704). Four breath samples were collected from a single subject over the course of the workday and analyzed using the portable gas chromatograph (GC) and SAW instruments. An additional seven spiked breath samples were prepared and analyzed so that a broader range of perchloroethylene concentrations could be examined. Linear regression analysis showed excellent agreement between prototype instrument and portable GC breath sample results with a correlation coefficient of 0.99 and a slope of 1.04. The average error for the prototype instrument over a perchloroethylene breath concentration range of 0.9-7.2 ppm was 2.6% relative to the portable GC. These results demonstrate the field capabilities of SAW microsensor arrays for rapid analysis of organic vapors in breath. PMID:15742707

  3. Collection and analysis of NASA clean room air samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, L. S.; Keever, J.

    1985-01-01

    The environment of the HALOE assembly clean room at NASA Langley Research Center is analyzed to determine the background levels of airborne organic compounds. Sampling is accomplished by pumping the clean room air through absorbing cartridges. For volatile organics, cartridges are thermally desorbed and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, compounds are identified by searching the EPA/NIH data base using an interactive operator INCOS computer search algorithm. For semivolatile organics, cartridges are solvent entracted and concentrated extracts are analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection, compound identification is made by matching gas chromatogram retention times with known standards. The detection limits for the semivolatile organics are; 0.89 ng cu m for dioctylphlhalate (DOP) and 1.6 ng cu m for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The detection limit for volatile organics ranges from 1 to 50 parts per trillion. Only trace quantities of organics are detected, the DOP levels do not exceed 2.5 ng cu m and the PCB levels do not exceed 454 ng cu m.

  4. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6... PCB remediation waste or porous surfaces, collect at least 20 milliliters of waste, or a portion...

  5. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6... PCB remediation waste or porous surfaces, collect at least 20 milliliters of waste, or a portion...

  6. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6... PCB remediation waste or porous surfaces, collect at least 20 milliliters of waste, or a portion...

  7. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6... PCB remediation waste or porous surfaces, collect at least 20 milliliters of waste, or a portion...

  8. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6... PCB remediation waste or porous surfaces, collect at least 20 milliliters of waste, or a portion...

  9. Feasibility of Using Subject-Collected Dust Samples in Epidemiologic and Clinical Studies of Indoor Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Arbes, Samuel J.; Sever, Michelle; Vaughn, Ben; Mehta, Jigna; Lynch, Jeffrey T.; Mitchell, Herman; Hoppin, Jane A.; Spencer, Harvey L.; Sandler, Dale P.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2005-01-01

    Studies of indoor allergen exposures are often limited by the cost and logistics of sending technicians to homes to collect dust. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of having subjects collect their own dust samples. The objectives were to compare allergen concentrations between subject- and technician-collected samples and to examine the sample return rate. Using a dust collection device and written instructions provided to them by mail, 102 subjects collected a combined dust sample from a bed and bedroom floor. Later the same day, a technician collected a side-by-side sample. Dust samples were weighed and analyzed for the cat allergen Fel d 1 and the dust mite allergen Der p 1. Fifty additional subjects who were enrolled by telephone were mailed dust collection packages and asked to return a dust sample and questionnaire by mail. A technician did not visit their homes. Correlations between subject- and technician-collected samples were strong for concentrations of Fel d 1 (r = 0.88) and Der p 1 (r = 0.87). With allergen concentrations dichotomized at lower limits of detection and clinically relevant thresholds, agreements between methodologies ranged from 91 to 98%. Although dust weights were correlated (r = 0.48, p < 0.001), subjects collected lighter samples. Among the group of 50 subjects, 46 returned a dust sample and completed questionnaire. The median number of days to receive a sample was 15. With some limitations, subject-collected dust sampling appears to be a valid and practical option for epidemiologic and clinical studies that report allergen concentration as a measure of exposure. PMID:15929886

  10. Feasibility of using subject-collected dust samples in epidemiologic and clinical studies of indoor allergens.

    PubMed

    Arbes, Samuel J; Sever, Michelle; Vaughn, Ben; Mehta, Jigna; Lynch, Jeffrey T; Mitchell, Herman; Hoppin, Jane A; Spencer, Harvey L; Sandler, Dale P; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2005-06-01

    Studies of indoor allergen exposures are often limited by the cost and logistics of sending technicians to homes to collect dust. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of having subjects collect their own dust samples. The objectives were to compare allergen concentrations between subject- and technician-collected samples and to examine the sample return rate. Using a dust collection device and written instructions provided to them by mail, 102 subjects collected a combined dust sample from a bed and bedroom floor. Later the same day, a technician collected a side-by-side sample. Dust samples were weighed and analyzed for the cat allergen Fel d 1 and the dust mite allergen Der p 1. Fifty additional subjects who were enrolled by telephone were mailed dust collection packages and asked to return a dust sample and questionnaire by mail. A technician did not visit their homes. Correlations between subject- and technician-collected samples were strong for concentrations of Fel d 1 (r = 0.88) and Der p 1 (r = 0.87). With allergen concentrations dichotomized at lower limits of detection and clinically relevant thresholds, agreements between methodologies ranged from 91 to 98%. Although dust weights were correlated (r = 0.48, p < 0.001), subjects collected lighter samples. Among the group of 50 subjects, 46 returned a dust sample and completed questionnaire. The median number of days to receive a sample was 15. With some limitations, subject-collected dust sampling appears to be a valid and practical option for epidemiologic and clinical studies that report allergen concentration as a measure of exposure. PMID:15929886

  11. Medical applications of breath hydrogen measurements.

    PubMed

    Shin, Woosuck

    2014-06-01

    In this article, technical developments in breath analysis and its applications in the field of clinical diagnosis and the monitoring of various symptoms, particularly molecular hydrogen in breath, are introduced. First, a brief overview of the current uses of the hydrogen breath test is provided. The principles of the test and how hydrogen can be used as a biomarker for various symptoms, and monitoring microbial metabolism, are introduced. Ten case-study applications of breath hydrogen measurements for which hydrogen exhibits beneficial effects for diagnosis, including the contexts of oxidative stress, gastrointestinal disease, and metabolic disorders, are discussed. The technologies and problems involved in breath hydrogen testing, sampling, pretreatment, and detection in exhaled breath are discussed, and research including current analytical systems and new sensors is focused on in the context of hydrogen detection. PMID:24481621

  12. Differentiation between genetic mutations of breast cancer by breath volatolomics

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Qing-Ling; Pan, Yue-Yin; Kayal, Haneen; Khoury, Kayan; Liu, Hu; Davies, Michael P.A.; Haick, Hossam

    2015-01-01

    Mapping molecular sub-types in breast cancer (BC) tumours is a rapidly evolving area due to growing interest in, for example, targeted therapy and screening high-risk populations for early diagnosis. We report a new concept for profiling BC molecular sub-types based on volatile organic compounds (VOCs). For this purpose, breath samples were collected from 276 female volunteers, including healthy, benign conditions, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and malignant lesions. Breath samples were analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and artificially intelligent nanoarray technology. Applying the non-parametric Wilcoxon/Kruskal-Wallis test, GC-MS analysis found 23 compounds that were significantly different (p < 0.05) in breath samples of BC patients with different molecular sub-types. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) of the nanoarray identified unique volatolomic signatures between cancer and non-cancer cases (83% accuracy in blind testing), and for the different molecular sub-types with accuracies ranging from 82 to 87%, sensitivities of 81 to 88% and specificities of 76 to 96% in leave-one-out cross-validation. These results demonstrate the presence of detectable breath VOC patterns for accurately profiling molecular sub-types in BC, either through specific compound identification by GC-MS or by volatolomic signatures obtained through statistical analysis of the artificially intelligent nanoarray responses. PMID:26540569

  13. Differentiation between genetic mutations of breast cancer by breath volatolomics.

    PubMed

    Barash, Orna; Zhang, Wei; Halpern, Jeffrey M; Hua, Qing-Ling; Pan, Yue-Yin; Kayal, Haneen; Khoury, Kayan; Liu, Hu; Davies, Michael P A; Haick, Hossam

    2015-12-29

    Mapping molecular sub-types in breast cancer (BC) tumours is a rapidly evolving area due to growing interest in, for example, targeted therapy and screening high-risk populations for early diagnosis. We report a new concept for profiling BC molecular sub-types based on volatile organic compounds (VOCs). For this purpose, breath samples were collected from 276 female volunteers, including healthy, benign conditions, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and malignant lesions. Breath samples were analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and artificially intelligent nanoarray technology. Applying the non-parametric Wilcoxon/Kruskal-Wallis test, GC-MS analysis found 23 compounds that were significantly different (p < 0.05) in breath samples of BC patients with different molecular sub-types. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) of the nanoarray identified unique volatolomic signatures between cancer and non-cancer cases (83% accuracy in blind testing), and for the different molecular sub-types with accuracies ranging from 82 to 87%, sensitivities of 81 to 88% and specificities of 76 to 96% in leave-one-out cross-validation. These results demonstrate the presence of detectable breath VOC patterns for accurately profiling molecular sub-types in BC, either through specific compound identification by GC-MS or by volatolomic signatures obtained through statistical analysis of the artificially intelligent nanoarray responses. PMID:26540569

  14. Breath Analysis in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Cikach, Frank S.; Tonelli, Adriano R.; Barnes, Jarrod; Paschke, Kelly; Newman, Jennie; Grove, David; Dababneh, Luma; Wang, Sihe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive and devastating condition characterized by vascular cell proliferation and is associated with several metabolic derangements. We hypothesized that metabolic derangements in PAH can be detected by measuring metabolic by-products in exhaled breath. Methods: We collected breath and blood samples from patients with PAH at the time of right-sided heart catheterization (n = 31) and from healthy control subjects (n = 34). Breath was analyzed by selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry in predetermined training and validation cohorts. Results: Patients with PAH were 51.5 ± 14 years old, and 27 were women (85%). Control subjects were 38 ± 13 years old, and 22 were women (65%). Discriminant analysis in the training set identified three ion peaks (H3O+29+, NO+56+, and O2+98+) and the variable age that correctly classified 88.9% of the individuals. In an independent validation cohort, 82.8% of the individuals were classified correctly. The concentrations of the volatile organic compounds 2-propanol, acetaldehyde, ammonia, ethanol, pentane, 1-decene, 1-octene, and 2-nonene were different in patients with PAH compared with control subjects. Exhaled ammonia was higher in patients with PAH (median [interquartile range]: 94.7 parts per billion (ppb) [70-129 ppb] vs 60.9 ppb [46-77 ppb], P < .001) and was associated with right atrial pressure (ρ = 0.57, P < .001), mean pulmonary artery pressure (ρ = 0.43, P = .015), cardiac index by thermodilution (ρ = −0.39, P = .03), pulmonary vascular resistance (ρ = 0.40, P = .04), mixed venous oxygen (ρ = −0.59, P < .001), and right ventricular dilation (ρ = 0.42, P = .03). Conclusions: Breathprint is different between patients with PAH and healthy control subjects. Several specific compounds, including ammonia, were elevated in the breath of patients with PAH. Exhaled ammonia levels correlated with severity of disease. PMID:24091389

  15. The use of Vacutainer tubes for collection of soil samples for helium analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Margaret E.; Kilburn, James E.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of the helium concentration of soil samples collected and stored in Vacutainer-brand evacuated glass tubes show that Vacutainers are reliable containers for soil collection. Within the limits of reproducibility, helium content of soils appears to be independent of variations in soil temperature, barometric pressure, and quantity of soil moisture present in the sample.

  16. Collecting cometary soil samples? Development of the ROSETTA sample acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coste, P. A.; Fenzi, M.; Eiden, Michael

    1993-01-01

    In the reference scenario of the ROSETTA CNRS mission, the Sample Acquisition System is mounted on the Comet Lander. Its tasks are to acquire three kinds of cometary samples and to transfer them to the Earth Return Capsule. Operations are to be performed in vacuum and microgravity, on a probably rough and dusty surface, in a largely unknown material, at temperatures in the order of 100 K. The concept and operation of the Sample Acquisition System are presented. The design of the prototype corer and surface sampling tool, and of the equipment for testing them at cryogenic temperatures in ambient conditions and in vacuum in various materials representing cometary soil, are described. Results of recent preliminary tests performed in low temperature thermal vacuum in a cometary analog ice-dust mixture are provided.

  17. Detection of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath from users following recovery from intoxication.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof; Stephanson, Niclas; Sandqvist, Sören; Franck, Johan

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that amphetamine, methadone and tetrahydrocannabinol are detectable in exhaled breath following intake. Exhaled breath, therefore, constitutes a new possible matrix for drugs-of-abuse testing. The present work aims to further explore this possibility by a study on patients treated for acute intoxication with abused drugs. Fifty-nine patients (44 males, age range 24-74) were included in the study, and breath, plasma and urine samples were collected following recovery, together with interview data. Analyses of breath and plasma samples were conducted with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. Urine was screened using immunochemical reagents and positive findings confirmed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The following analytes were investigated: methadone, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, codeine, 6-acetylmorphine, diazepam, oxazepam, morphine, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, buprenorphine and tetrahydrocannabinol. In 53 of the studied cases, recent intake of an abused substance prior to admission was reported. In 35 of these (66%), the breath analysis gave a positive finding. Identifications were based on correct chromatographic retention time and product ion ratios obtained in selected reaction monitoring mode. Generally, data from breath, plasma, urine and self-report were in agreement. Detected substances in breath included amphetamine, methamphetamine, buprenorphine, 6-acetylmorphine, morphine, codeine, methadone, tetrahydrocannabinol, diazepam, oxazepam and cocaine. Problem analytes with low detection rates were benzodiazepines and tetrahydrocannabinol. This study gives further support to the possibility of developing exhaled breath into a new matrix for drugs-of-abuse testing by extending the number of analytes that are documented to be detectable in breath. PMID:23045289

  18. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    SciTech Connect

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives.

  19. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    SciTech Connect

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site in support of DOE`s environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE`s General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives.

  20. Analysis of acid precipitation samples collected by state agencies. Sampling period: January-December 1990. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, L.S.

    1992-02-01

    The report presents analytical data from the 30 acid precipitation collection sites in the State-Operated Network. Samples are collected weekly in plastic bag liners and shipped in 500 mL polyethylene bottles to Global Geochemistry Corporation (the central laboratory for the network). This report contains maps showing the location of each site, plots of analytical data, tables of all field and analytical data, plots comparing field and laboratory pH and conductivity, and information on data quality. Samples are analyzed for pH, strong acid, conductivity, fluoride, chloride, nitrite, phosphate, bromide, nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. The central laboratory renders technical assistance to the collection sites on problems concerning pH and conductivity. Each of the 10 participating state agencies receives analytical reports for the samples analyzed the previous month. Analyte concentration data are put on tape for later inclusion in the Acid Deposition System (ADS) Data Base.

  1. Breath alcohol test (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The breath alcohol test measures the amount of alcohol in the blood by testing exhaled air. The test is performed by blowing into a breath machine 15 minutes after alcohol consumption. The test determines how much alcohol it ...

  2. [Hydrogen Breath Tests].

    PubMed

    Häussler, Ulrich; Götz, Martin

    2016-02-01

    In the field of gastroenterology hydrogen breath test are used for the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption and small intestine bacterial overgrowth. This paper provides information on performing a hydrogen breath test and shows potential sources of error. PMID:26886040

  3. Rapid shallow breathing

    MedlinePLUS

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... your oxygen level is too low and nebulized respiratory treatments if you are having an asthma or ...

  4. Prototype Device for Computerized Blood Sampling and Data Collection in Freely Moving Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collecting biofluid samples or physiological and behavioral data from animals presents challenges from excessive human intervention, and the stress of manual sampling. Our objective was to construct a device capable of protecting external leads and tubing used to facilitate automated sampling, dosin...

  5. A method to determine collection efficiency of particles by swipe sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkouteren, J. R.; Coleman, J. L.; Fletcher, R. A.; Smith, W. J.; Klouda, G. A.; Gillen, G.

    2008-11-01

    A methodology was developed to evaluate particle collection efficiencies from swipe sampling of trace residues. Swipe sampling is used for many applications where trace residues must be collected, including the evaluation of radioactive particle contamination and the analysis of explosives and contraband at screening checkpoints using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). Collection efficiencies were evaluated for micrometer-sized polystyrene latex (PSL) spheres with respect to the particle size and mode of deposition, collection trap, surface type and swiping force. Test surfaces containing particles were prepared under controlled conditions and swiped with a reproducible technique that allows for the evaluation of frictional forces. Collection efficiencies were determined by optical imaging and particle counting. Of the two IMS collection traps studied, the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) trap has significantly lower collection efficiencies. This is likely to be due to a combination of texture and composition. The larger (42 m diameter) particles are collected more efficiently than the smaller (9 m diameter) particles. Particles in a matrix similar to latent fingerprints are collected more efficiently than dry particles. Applying greater force during swiping does not greatly improve collection efficiencies. This fact, coupled with the observation that many particles are detached but not collected, implies that improvements in collection efficiency are dependent on improvements in adhesion of the particles to the collection surface, rather than larger forces to detach the particles.

  6. Collecting Samples in Gale Crater, Mars; an Overview of the Mars Science Laboratory Sample Acquisition, Sample Processing and Handling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Jandura, L.; Okon, A. B.; Sunshine, D.; Roumeliotis, C.; Beegle, L. W.; Hurowitz, J.; Kennedy, B.; Limonadi, D.; McCloskey, S.; Robinson, M.; Seybold, C.; Brown, K.

    2012-09-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Mission (MSL), scheduled to land on Mars in the summer of 2012, consists of a rover and a scientific payload designed to identify and assess the habitability, geological, and environmental histories of Gale crater. Unraveling the geologic history of the region and providing an assessment of present and past habitability requires an evaluation of the physical and chemical characteristics of the landing site; this includes providing an in-depth examination of the chemical and physical properties of Martian regolith and rocks. The MSL Sample Acquisition, Processing, and Handling (SA/SPaH) subsystem will be the first in-situ system designed to acquire interior rock and soil samples from Martian surface materials. These samples are processed and separated into fine particles and distributed to two onboard analytical science instruments SAM (Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite) and CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) or to a sample analysis tray for visual inspection. The SA/SPaH subsystem is also responsible for the placement of the two contact instruments, Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS), and the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), on rock and soil targets. Finally, there is a Dust Removal Tool (DRT) to remove dust particles from rock surfaces for subsequent analysis by the contact and or mast mounted instruments (e.g. Mast Cameras (MastCam) and the Chemistry and Micro-Imaging instruments (ChemCam)).

  7. Assembly for collecting samples for purposes of identification or analysis and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Cyril V. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Smith, Rob R. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-02-02

    An assembly and an associated method for collecting a sample of material desired to be characterized with diagnostic equipment includes or utilizes an elongated member having a proximal end with which the assembly is manipulated by a user and a distal end. In addition, a collection tip which is capable of being placed into contact with the material to be characterized is supported upon the distal end. The collection tip includes a body of chemically-inert porous material for binding a sample of material when the tip is placed into contact with the material and thereby holds the sample of material for subsequent introduction to the diagnostic equipment.

  8. Mass spectrometry for real-time quantitative breath analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, David; pan?l, Patrik; Herbig, Jens; Beauchamp, Jonathan

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis research is being successfully pursued using a variety of analytical methods, prominent amongst which are gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, GC-MS, ion mobility spectrometry, IMS, and the fast flow and flow-drift tube techniques called selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, and proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, PTR-MS. In this paper the case is made for real-time breath analysis by obviating sample collection into bags or onto traps that can suffer from partial degradation of breath metabolites or the introduction of impurities. Real-time analysis of a broad range of volatile chemical compounds can be best achieved using SIFT-MS and PTR-MS, which are sufficiently sensitive and rapid to allow the simultaneous analyses of several trace gas metabolites in single breath exhalations. The basic principles and the ion chemistry that underpin these two analytical techniques are briefly described and the differences between them, including their respective strengths and weaknesses, are revealed, especially with reference to the analysis of the complex matrix that is exhaled breath. A recent innovation is described that combines time-of-flight mass spectrometry with the proton transfer flow-drift tube reactor, PTR-TOFMS, which provides greater resolution in the analytical mass spectrometer and allows separation of protonated isobaric molecules. Examples are presented of some recent data that well illustrate the quality and real-time feature of SIFT-MS and PTR-MS for the analysis of exhaled breath for physiological/biochemical/pharmacokinetics studies and for the identification and quantification of biomarkers relating to specific disease states. PMID:24682047

  9. Quantitative breath analysis of volatile organic compounds of lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Song, Geng; Qin, Tao; Liu, Hu; Xu, Guo-Bing; Pan, Yue-Yin; Xiong, Fu-Xing; Gu, Kang-Sheng; Sun, Guo-Ping; Chen, Zhen-Dong

    2010-02-01

    Due to state-of-art analytical techniques, non-invasive exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analysis has become a potential method for early diagnosis of lung cancer. We collected breath samples from 43 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 41 normal controls using Tedlar gas bags. The VOCs were extracted with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS). The number of VOCs detected in each breath sample ranged from 68 to 114. Among the VOCs 1-butanol and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone were found at significantly higher concentrations in breath of the lung cancer patients compared to the controls. VOCs levels were not significantly different between early stage lung cancer patients and late stage lung cancer patients. Lung adenocarcinoma was significantly related to higher VOCs concentrations in the breath. Our data showed that 1-butanol and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone in breath could possibly be taken as useful breath biomarkers for discerning potential lung cancer patients and VOCs analysis could be used as a complementary test for the diagnosis of lung cancer. PMID:19409642

  10. Occurrence of Leptospira DNA in water and soil samples collected in eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Wjcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zaj?c, Violetta; Wasi?ski, Bernard; Sroka, Jacek; Cisak, Ewa; Sawczyn, Anna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Leptospira is an important re-emerging zoonotic human pathogen, disseminated by sick and carrier animals, water and soil. Weather calamities, such as flooding or cyclones favour the spreading of these bacteria. To check a potential role of natural water and soil in the persistence and spread of Leptospira on the territory of eastern Poland, 40 samples of natural water and 40 samples of soil were collected from areas exposed to flooding, and 64 samples of natural water and 68 samples of soil were collected from areas not exposed to flooding. Samples of water were taken from various reservoirs (rivers, natural lakes, artificial lakes, canals, ponds, farm wells) and samples of soils were taken at the distance of 1-3 meters from the edge of the reservoirs. The samples were examined for the presence of Leptospira DNA by nested-PCR. Two out of 40 samples of water (5.0%) collected from the area exposed to flooding showed the presence of Leptospira DNA, while all 40 samples of soil from this area were negative. All samples of water and soil (64 and 68, respectively) collected from the areas not exposed to flooding were negative. No significant difference were found between the results obtained in the areas exposed and not exposed to flooding. In conclusion, these results suggest that water and soil have only limited significance in the persistence and dissemination of Leptospira in eastern Poland. PMID:25528911

  11. The representativeness of pore water samples collected from the unsaturated zone using pressure-vacuum lysimeters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, C.A.; Healy, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Studies have indicated that the chemistry of water samples may be altered by the collection technique, creating concern about the representativeness of the pore water samples obtained. A study using soil water pressure-vacuum lysimeters in outwash sand and glacial till deposits demonstrates that for non-dilute-solution samples the effect of pH of sampling with lysimeters is minimal, and that measured major cation and anion concentrations are representative of the natural pore water; trace-metal concentrations can be significantly altered by collection procedures at low concentrations. -from Authors

  12. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a device... sterile, it is exempt from the current good manufacturing practice requirements of the quality...

  13. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a device... sterile, it is exempt from the current good manufacturing practice requirements of the quality...

  14. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a device... sterile, it is exempt from the current good manufacturing practice requirements of the quality...

  15. Mars Rover Sample Return: A sample collection and analysis strategy for exobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, M. H.; Fischler, M.; Schwartz, D. E.; Rosenthal, Donald A.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.; Nedell, Susan S.; Gamble, E.; Mckay, Christopher P.

    1989-01-01

    For reasons defined elsewhere it is reasonable to search for biological signatures, both chemical and morphological, of extinct life on Mars. Life on Earth requries the presence of liquid water, therefore, it is important to explore sites on Mars where standing bodies of water may have once existed. Outcrops of layered deposits within the Valles Marineris appear to be ancient lake beds. Because the outcrops are well exposed, relatively shallow core samples would be very informative. The most important biological signature to detect would be organics, microfossils, or larger stromato-like structures, although the presence of cherts, carbonates, clays, and shales would be significant. In spite of the limitations of current robotics and pattern recognition, and the limitations of rover power, computation, Earth communication bandwidth, and time delays, a partial scenario was developed to implement such a scientific investigation. The rover instrumentation and the procedures and decisions and IR spectrometer are described in detail. Preliminary results from a collaborative effort are described, which indicate the rover will be able to autonomously detect stratification, and hence will ease the interpretation burden and lead to greater scientific productivity during the rover's lifetime.

  16. The Internet of Samples in the Earth Sciences: Providing Access to Uncurated Collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, M. R.; Lehnert, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Vast amounts of physical samples have been collected in the Earth Sciences for studies that address a wide range of scientific questions. Only a fraction of these samples are well curated and preserved long-term in sample repositories and museums. Many samples and collections are stored in the offices and labs of investigators, or in basements and sheds of institutions and investigators' homes. These 'uncurated' collections often contain samples that have been well studied, or are unique and irreplaceable. They may also include samples that could reveal new insights if re-analyzed using new techniques, or specimens that could have unanticipated relevance to research being conducted in fields other than the one for which they were collected. Currently, these samples cannot be accessed or discovered online by the broader science community. Investigators and departments often lack the resources to properly catalog and curate the samples and respond to requests for splits. Long-term preservation of and access to these samples is usually not provided for. iSamplES, a recently-funded EarthCube Research Coordination Network (RCN), seeks to integrate scientific samples, including 'uncurated' samples, into digital data and information infrastructure in the Earth Sciences and to facilitate their curation, discovery, access, sharing, and analysis. The RCN seeks to develop and implement best practices that increase digital access to samples with the goal of establishing a comprehensive infrastructure not only for the digital, but also physical curation of samples. The RCN will engage a broad group of individuals from domain scientists to curators to publishers to computer scientists to define, articulate, and address the needs and challenges of digital sample management and recommend community-endorsed best practices and standards for registering, describing, identifying, and citing physical specimens, drawing upon other initiatives and existing or emerging software tools for digital sample and collection management. Community engagement will include surveys, in-person workshops and outreach events, the creation of the iSamplES knowledge hub (semantic wiki) and a registry of collections. iSamplES will specifically engage early career scientists to encourage that no samples go uncurated.

  17. AUTOMATED SYSTEM FOR COLLECTING MULTIPLE, SEQUENTIAL SAMPLES FROM SOIL WATER SAMPLERS UNDER CONTINUOUS VACUUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manually collecting a series of sequential, discrete water samples from soil water percolation samplers, or similar devices, that withdraw water from unsaturated porous media under continuous vacuum is a logistical challenge, though the resulting collection can provide valuable information on the dy...

  18. Collecting Samples of Workplace Air. Module 8. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on collecting samples of workplace air. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) collecting information about

  19. ANALYSIS OF ACID PRECIPITATION SAMPLES COLLECTED BY STATE AGENCIES: JANUARY 1987 - DECEMBER 1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents the analytical data from the 31 acid precipitation collection sites in the State Operated Network. Samples are collected weekly in plastic bag liners and shipped in 500 mL polyethylene bottles to Global Geochemistry Corp. (the central laboratory for the networ...

  20. A simple and novel method for retrieval of Pasteurellaceae from swab samples collected in the field.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mie J; Bertelsen, Mads F; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Bojesen, Anders M

    2013-10-01

    Traditionally it has been difficult or impossible to collect and preserve bacterial samples of especially fastidious bacteria in mixed primary cultures, unless the samples could be transported to a laboratory within approximately 24 h. Therefore, a simple novel method for preserving swab samples until bacterial isolation can be completed in the laboratory was developed and evaluated. Pasteurellaceae bacteria were used as a representative for fastidious bacteria. A 7.5% glucose serum medium was used as freeze medium. Swab samples were soaked in the medium a maximum of 2 h after collection and stored at -20C. As a control study, 15 samples were collected from the oral cavity of a captive brown bear. One was immediately plated, while the remaining 12 swabs were stored at -20C for 7 days and multiples of 30 days up to 330 days prior to plating. Two samples were stored without the medium for 7 and 30 days prior to plating. From a field setting in Greenland, eight polar bear samples were collected and subsequently stored for 240 to 259 days at -20C before incubation. Pasteurellaceae bacteria were isolated and genotyped from all samples stored in the freeze medium, indicating that the medium enabled the bacteria to survive for at least 330 days at -20C. The 100% recovery of target organisms in the polar bear samples even following lengthy storage and transport demonstrates that the method is very useful under remote field conditions. PMID:23897719

  1. A simple and novel method for retrieval of Pasteurellaceae from swab samples collected in the field

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Mie J; Bertelsen, Mads F; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Bojesen, Anders M

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally it has been difficult or impossible to collect and preserve bacterial samples of especially fastidious bacteria in mixed primary cultures, unless the samples could be transported to a laboratory within approximately 24 h. Therefore, a simple novel method for preserving swab samples until bacterial isolation can be completed in the laboratory was developed and evaluated. Pasteurellaceae bacteria were used as a representative for fastidious bacteria. A 7.5% glucose serum medium was used as freeze medium. Swab samples were soaked in the medium a maximum of 2 h after collection and stored at ?20C. As a control study, 15 samples were collected from the oral cavity of a captive brown bear. One was immediately plated, while the remaining 12 swabs were stored at ?20C for 7 days and multiples of 30 days up to 330 days prior to plating. Two samples were stored without the medium for 7 and 30 days prior to plating. From a field setting in Greenland, eight polar bear samples were collected and subsequently stored for 240 to 259 days at ?20C before incubation. Pasteurellaceae bacteria were isolated and genotyped from all samples stored in the freeze medium, indicating that the medium enabled the bacteria to survive for at least 330 days at ?20C. The 100% recovery of target organisms in the polar bear samples even following lengthy storage and transport demonstrates that the method is very useful under remote field conditions. PMID:23897719

  2. OSIRIS-REx Touch-and-Go (TAG) Mission Design for Asteroid Sample Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Alexander; Sutter, Brian; Linn, Timothy; Bierhaus, Beau; Berry, Kevin; Mink, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in September 2016 to rendezvous with the near-Earth asteroid Bennu in October 2018. After several months of proximity operations to characterize the asteroid, OSIRIS-REx flies a Touch-And-Go (TAG) trajectory to the asteroid's surface to collect at least 60 g of pristine regolith sample for Earth return. This paper provides mission and flight system overviews, with more details on the TAG mission design and key events that occur to safely and successfully collect the sample. An overview of the navigation performed relative to a chosen sample site, along with the maneuvers to reach the desired site is described. Safety monitoring during descent is performed with onboard sensors providing an option to abort, troubleshoot, and try again if necessary. Sample collection occurs using a collection device at the end of an articulating robotic arm during a brief five second contact period, while a constant force spring mechanism in the arm assists to rebound the spacecraft away from the surface. Finally, the sample is measured quantitatively utilizing the law of conservation of angular momentum, along with qualitative data from imagery of the sampling device. Upon sample mass verification, the arm places the sample into the Stardust-heritage Sample Return Capsule (SRC) for return to Earth in September 2023.

  3. Collecting and preserving biological samples from challenging environments for DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Bu?, Magdalena M; Allen, Marie

    2014-02-01

    Biological materials collected in harsh environments such as archaeological excavations, at crime scenes, after mass disasters, in museums, or non-invasively in the field constitute a highly valuable source of genetic information. However, poor quality and limited quantity of the DNA extracted from these samples can be extremely challenging during further analyses. Here we have reviewed how degradation, decomposition, and contamination can affect DNA analysis, and how correct sample collection and storage methods will ensure the best possible conditions for further genetic analysis. Furthermore, highly efficient protocols for collection, decontamination, and extraction of DNA from minute amounts of biological material are presented. PMID:24620766

  4. Efficiency of Different Sampling Tools for Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Collections in Malaysian Streams

    PubMed Central

    Ghani, Wan Mohd Hafezul Wan Abdul; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Hamid, Suhaila Abd; Al-Shami, Salman Abdo

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the sampling performance of three benthic sampling tools commonly used to collect freshwater macroinvertebrates. Efficiency of qualitative D-frame and square aquatic nets were compared to a quantitative Surber sampler in tropical Malaysian streams. The abundance and diversity of macroinvertebrates collected using each tool evaluated along with their relative variations (RVs). Each tool was used to sample macroinvertebrates from three streams draining different areas: a vegetable farm, a tea plantation and a forest reserve. High macroinvertebrate diversities were recorded using the square net and Surber sampler at the forested stream site; however, very low species abundance was recorded by the Surber sampler. Relatively large variations in the Surber sampler collections (RVs of 36% and 28%) were observed for the vegetable farm and tea plantation streams, respectively. Of the three sampling methods, the square net was the most efficient, collecting a greater diversity of macroinvertebrate taxa and a greater number of specimens (i.e., abundance) overall, particularly from the vegetable farm and the tea plantation streams (RV<25%). Fewer square net sample passes (<8 samples) were sufficient to perform a biological assessment of water quality, but each sample required a slightly longer processing time (±20 min) compared with those gathered via the other samplers. In conclusion, all three apparatuses were suitable for macroinvertebrate collection in Malaysian streams and gathered assemblages that resulted in the determination of similar biological water quality classes using the Family Biotic Index (FBI) and the Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP). However, despite a slightly longer processing time, the square net was more efficient (lowest RV) at collecting samples and more suitable for the collection of macroinvertebrates from deep, fast flowing, wadeable streams with coarse substrates.

  5. Adsorptive Films in Support of In-field UF6 Destructive Assay Sample Collection and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, Christopher A.; Martinez, Alonzo; McNamara, Bruce K.; Cannon, Bret D.; Anheier, Norman C.

    2014-07-20

    International Atom Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguard verification measures in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) rely on environmental sampling, non-destructive assay (NDA), and destructive assay (DA) sampling and analysis to determine uranium enrichment. UF6 bias defect measurements are made by DA sampling and analysis to assure that enrichment is consistent with declarations. DA samples are collected from a limited number of cylinders for high precision, offsite mass spectrometer analysis. Samples are typically drawn from a sampling tap into a UF6 sample bottle, then packaged, sealed, and shipped under IAEA chain of custody to an offsite analytical laboratory. Future DA safeguard measures may require improvements in efficiency and effectiveness as GCEP capacities increase and UF6 shipping regulations become increasingly more restrictive. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) DA sampler concept and Laser Ablation Absorption Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) assay method are under development to potentially provide DA safeguard tools that increase inspection effectiveness and reduce sample shipping constraints. The PNNL DA sampler concept uses a handheld sampler to collect DA samples for either onsite LAARS assay or offsite laboratory analysis. The DA sampler design will use a small sampling planchet that is coated with an adsorptive film to collect controlled quantities of UF6 gas directly from a cylinder or process sampling tap. Development efforts are currently underway at PNNL to enhance LAARS assay performance to allow high-precision onsite bias defect measurements. In this paper, we report on the experimental investigation to develop adsorptive films for the PNNL DA sampler concept. These films are intended to efficiently capture UF6 and then stabilize the collected DA sample prior to onsite LAARS or offsite laboratory analysis. Several porous material composite films were investigated, including a film designed to maximize the chemical adsorption and binding of gaseous UF6 onto the sampling planchet.

  6. Soil sample collection and analysis for the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashbaugh, Lowell L.; Carvacho, Omar F.; Brown, Michael S.; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Magliano, Karen C.

    A unique set of soil samples was collected as part of the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study. The study was carried out to establish whether or not source profiles could be constructed using novel analytical methods that could distinguish soil dust sources from each other. The soil sources sampled included fields planted in cotton, almond, tomato, grape, and safflower, dairy and feedlot facilities, paved and unpaved roads (both urban and rural), an agricultural staging area, disturbed land with salt buildup, and construction areas where the topsoil had been removed. The samples were collected using a systematic procedure designed to reduce sampling bias, and were stored frozen to preserve possible organic signatures. For this paper the samples were characterized by particle size (percent sand, silt, and clay), dry silt content (used in EPA-recommended fugitive dust emission factors), carbon and nitrogen content, and potential to emit both PM 10 and PM 2.5. These are not the "novel analytical methods" referred to above; rather, it was the basic characterization of the samples to use in comparing analytical methods by other scientists contracted to the California Air Resources Board. The purpose of this paper is to document the methods used to collect the samples, the collection locations, the analysis of soil type and potential to emit PM 10, and the sample variability, both within field and between fields of the same crop type.

  7. 77 FR 36567 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application and Approval To Manipulate, Examine, Sample...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... Approval To Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP... burden, CBP invites the general public and other Federal agencies to comment on an information collection requirement concerning the: Application and Approval to Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods....

  8. 77 FR 51818 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Application and Approval To Manipulate, Examine, Sample...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... agencies. This information collection was previously published in the Federal Register (77 FR 36567) on... Approval To Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... Approval to Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods. This is a proposed extension of an...

  9. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF ZOOPLANKTON SAMPLES COLLECTED DURING PHASE II OF THE EASTERN LAKE SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples from 146 lakes in the northeastern United States, collected during Phase II of the Eastern Lake Survey (ELS-II) were analyzed for abundance of each species and each size class of zooplankton. n estimate of sampling and counting error was provided by replication of lake sa...

  10. 9 CFR 147.12 - Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples, cloacal swabs, chick box papers, and meconium samples. 147.12 Section 147.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  11. 9 CFR 147.12 - Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples, cloacal swabs, chick box papers, and meconium samples. 147.12 Section 147.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  12. Is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes? A historical review on breath acetone measurements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhennan; Wang, Chuji

    2013-09-01

    Since the ancient discovery of the 'sweet odor' in human breath gas, pursuits of the breath analysis-based disease diagnostics have never stopped. Actually, the 'smell' of the breath, as one of three key disease diagnostic techniques, has been used in Eastern-Medicine for more than three thousand years. With advancement of measuring technologies in sensitivity and selectivity, more specific breath gas species have been identified and established as a biomarker of a particular disease. Acetone is one of the breath gases and its concentration in exhaled breath can now be determined with high accuracy using various techniques and methods. With the worldwide prevalence of diabetes that is typically diagnosed through blood testing, human desire to achieve non-blood based diabetic diagnostics and monitoring has never been quenched. Questions, such as is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes and how is the breath acetone related to the blood glucose (BG) level (the golden criterion currently used in clinic for diabetes diagnostic, monitoring, and management), remain to be answered. A majority of current research efforts in breath acetone measurements and its technology developments focus on addressing the first question. The effort to tackle the second question has begun recently. The earliest breath acetone measurement in clearly defined diabetic patients was reported more than 60years ago. For more than a half-century, as reviewed in this paper, there have been more than 41 independent studies of breath acetone using various techniques and methods, and more than 3211 human subjects, including 1581 healthy people, 242 Type 1 diabetic patients, 384 Type 2 diabetic patients, 174 unspecified diabetic patients, and 830 non-diabetic patients or healthy subjects who are under various physiological conditions, have been used in the studies. The results of the breath acetone measurements collected in this review support that many conditions might cause changes to breath acetone concentrations; however, the results from the six independent studies using clearly-defined Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients unanimously support that an elevated mean breath acetone concentration exists in Type 1 diabetes. Note that there is some overlap between the ranges of breath acetone concentration in individual T1D patients and healthy subjects; this reminds one to be careful when using an acetone breath test on T1D diagnostics. Comparatively, it is too early to draw a general conclusion on the relationship between a breath acetone level and a BG level from the very limited data in the literature. PMID:23959840

  13. A new device for collecting time-integrated water samples from springs and surface water bodies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panno, S.V.; Krapac, I.G.; Keefer, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    A new device termed the 'seepage sampler' was developed to collect representative water samples from springs, streams, and other surface-water bodies. The sampler collects composite, time-integrated water samples over short (hours) or extended (weeks) periods without causing significant changes to the chemical composition of the samples. The water sample within the sampler remains at the ambient temperature of the water body and does not need to be cooled. Seepage samplers are inexpensive to construct and easy to use. A sampling program of numerous springs and/or streams can be designed at a relatively low cost through the use of these samplers. Transient solutes migrating through such flow systems, potentially unnoticed by periodic sampling, may be detected. In addition, the mass loading of solutes (e.g., agrichemicals) may be determined when seepage samplers are used in conjunction with discharge measurements.

  14. Collecting Comet Samples by ER-2 Aircraft: Cosmic Dust Collection During the Draconid Meteor Shower in October 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastien, Ron; Burkett, P. J.; Rodriquez, M.; Frank, D.; Gonzalez, C.; Robinson, G.-A.; Zolensky, M.; Brown, P.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Broce, S.; Kapitzke, M.; Moes, T.; Steel, D.; Williams, T.; Gearheart, D.

    2014-01-01

    Many tons of dust grains, including samples of asteroids and comets, fall from space into the Earth's atmosphere each day. NASA periodically collects some of these particles from the Earth's stratosphere using sticky collectors mounted on NASA's high-flying aircraft. Sometimes, especially when the Earth experiences a known meteor shower, a special opportunity is presented to associate cosmic dust particles with a known source. NASA JSC's Cosmic Dust Collection Program has made special attempts to collect dust from particular meteor showers and asteroid families when flights can be planned well in advance. However, it has rarely been possible to make collections on very short notice. In 2012, the Draconid meteor shower presented that opportunity. The Draconid meteor shower, originating from Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner, has produced both outbursts and storms several times during the last century, but the 2012 event was not predicted to be much of a show. Because of these predictions, the Cosmic Dust team had not targeted a stratospheric collection effort for the Draconids, despite the fact that they have one of the slowest atmospheric entry velocities (23 km/s) of any comet shower, and thus offer significant possibilities of successful dust capture. However, radar measurements obtained by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar during the 2012 Draconids shower indicated a meteor storm did occur October 8 with a peak at 16:38 (+/-5 min) UTC for a total duration of approximately 2 hours.

  15. Comparison of surgical and endoscopic sample collection for pancreatic cyst fluid biomarker identification.

    PubMed

    Partyka, Katie; McDonald, Mitchell; Maupin, Kevin A; Brand, Randall; Kwon, Richard; Simeone, Diane M; Allen, Peter; Haab, Brian B

    2012-05-01

    Significant efforts are underway to develop new biomarkers from pancreatic cyst fluid. Previous research has made use of cyst fluid collected from surgically removed cysts, but the clinical implementation of biomarkers would use cyst fluid collected by endoscopic ultrasound-guided, fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical applicability of cyst fluid research obtained using surgical specimens. Matched pairs of operating-room collected (OR) and EUS-FNA samples from 12 patients were evaluated for the levels of three previously described biomarkers, CA 19-9, CEA, and glycan levels detected by wheat germ agglutinin on MUC5AC (MUC5AC-WGA). CA 19-9 and MUC5AC-WGA correlated well between the sample types, although CEA was more variable between the sample types for certain patients. The variability was not due to the time delay between EUS-FNA and OR collection or differences in total protein concentrations but may be caused by contamination of the cyst fluid with blood proteins. The classification of each patient based on thresholds for each marker was perfectly consistent between sample types for CA 19-9 and MUC5AC-WGA and mostly consistent for CEA. Therefore, results obtained using OR-collected pancreatic cyst fluid samples should reliably transfer to the clinical setting using EUS-FNA samples. PMID:22439797

  16. A Cryosampler Payload for Aseptic Air Sample Collection at Stratospheric Altitudes Using Balloons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivasan, S.; Dutt, C. B. S.; Bhargava, P.; Shivaji, S.; Manchanda, R. K.

    A balloon borne Astrobiology program is being conducted from the National Balloon Facility of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research at Hyderabad India in which a liquid Neon cooled cryo pump collects air samples under sterile conditions in the altitude regime 19 - 41 Km Pursuant to the encouraging results obtained from an earlier experiment conducted on January 2001 a new payload was configured and the balloon flight was conducted on April 20 2005 after implementing much more rigorous and enhanced sterilization protocol to completely rule out contamination from ground Air samples were collected in the altitude region 20 - 41 Km and are under analysis in the National laboratories in India for detecting the presence of living microbial cells In this paper we discuss the design and fabrication of the air sample collection probes the stringent sterilization protocol evolved for ensuring that the probes are aseptic before the commencement of the experiment and the sample retrival methods for analysis in the laboratory

  17. Design and Evaluation of a Breath Analysis System for Occupational Exposure Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Soldat, Kelvin L.; Thrall, Karla D.

    2001-06-01

    Exposure assessment is an integral part of industrial hygiene and occupational health. To ensure the health and safety of workers, integrated industrial hygiene methodologies often include biological monitoring strategies. Exhaled breath is an ideal matrix for measuring volatile biomarkers, particularly since the non-invasive collection of breath may improve volunteer participation. A real-time, field-portable system was developed to analyze undiluted exhaled air from experimental animals and humans. The system combines (1) an ion-trap mass spectrometer capable of atmospheric sampling; (2) a breath interface for continual analysis of the exhaled breath stream; (3) chemical dosimeters that are analyzed in the field/workplace; and (4) physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to estimate total exposure and internal target tissue dosimetry. The intent of this development was to provide new instrumentation to evaluate volatile chemical exposures as part of a daily monitoring pro gram. For example, the system was designed to monitor a worker every time they enter and leave a work environment - a vast improvement over current 8-hr integrated monitoring strategies. To evaluate the system in actual work environments, field tests were conducted using volunteers providing exhaled breath samples before and after each specific job task. In these field studies, several volunteers had post-task breath levels higher than pre-task levels. Compared to the breath analysis findings, chemical dosimeters underpredicted exposures, particularly for longer sampling intervals where the volume of air sampled may have diluted exposures. The results of these field studies illustrate the utility of monitoring workers for exposures at numerous times throughout the day, particularly when job-specific tasks may indicate a potential for exposure.

  18. JSC Advanced Curation: Research and Development for Current Collections and Future Sample Return Mission Demands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fries, M. D.; Allen, C. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Curation of NASA's astromaterials sample collections is a demanding and evolving activity that supports valuable science from NASA missions for generations, long after the samples are returned to Earth. For example, NASA continues to loan hundreds of Apollo program samples to investigators every year and those samples are often analyzed using instruments that did not exist at the time of the Apollo missions themselves. The samples are curated in a manner that minimizes overall contamination, enabling clean, new high-sensitivity measurements and new science results over 40 years after their return to Earth. As our exploration of the Solar System progresses, upcoming and future NASA sample return missions will return new samples with stringent contamination control, sample environmental control, and Planetary Protection requirements. Therefore, an essential element of a healthy astromaterials curation program is a research and development (R&D) effort that characterizes and employs new technologies to maintain current collections and enable new missions - an Advanced Curation effort. JSC's Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office is continually performing Advanced Curation research, identifying and defining knowledge gaps about research, development, and validation/verification topics that are critical to support current and future NASA astromaterials sample collections. The following are highlighted knowledge gaps and research opportunities.

  19. Noninvasive detection of lung cancer by analysis of exhaled breath

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death in Europe and the western world. At present, diagnosis of lung cancer very often happens late in the course of the disease since inexpensive, non-invasive and sufficiently sensitive and specific screening methods are not available. Even though the CT diagnostic methods are good, it must be assured that "screening benefit outweighs risk, across all individuals screened, not only those with lung cancer". An early non-invasive diagnosis of lung cancer would improve prognosis and enlarge treatment options. Analysis of exhaled breath would be an ideal diagnostic method, since it is non-invasive and totally painless. Methods Exhaled breath and inhaled room air samples were analyzed using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and solid phase microextraction with subsequent gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GCMS). For the PTR-MS measurements, 220 lung cancer patients and 441 healthy volunteers were recruited. For the GCMS measurements, we collected samples from 65 lung cancer patients and 31 healthy volunteers. Lung cancer patients were in different disease stages and under treatment with different regimes. Mixed expiratory and indoor air samples were collected in Tedlar bags, and either analyzed directly by PTR-MS or transferred to glass vials and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). Only those measurements of compounds were considered, which showed at least a 15% higher concentration in exhaled breath than in indoor air. Compounds related to smoking behavior such as acetonitrile and benzene were not used to differentiate between lung cancer patients and healthy volunteers. Results Isoprene, acetone and methanol are compounds appearing in everybody's exhaled breath. These three main compounds of exhaled breath show slightly lower concentrations in lung cancer patients as compared to healthy volunteers (p < 0.01 for isoprene and acetone, p = 0.011 for methanol; PTR-MS measurements). A comparison of the GCMS-results of 65 lung cancer patients with those of 31 healthy volunteers revealed differences in concentration for more than 50 compounds. Sensitivity for detection of lung cancer patients based on presence of (one of) 4 different compounds not arising in exhaled breath of healthy volunteers was 52% with a specificity of 100%. Using 15 (or 21) different compounds for distinction, sensitivity was 71% (80%) with a specificity of 100%. Potential marker compounds are alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and hydrocarbons. Conclusion GCMS-SPME is a relatively insensitive method. Hence compounds not appearing in exhaled breath of healthy volunteers may be below the limit of detection (LOD). PTR-MS, on the other hand, does not need preconcentration and gives much more reliable quantitative results then GCMS-SPME. The shortcoming of PTR-MS is that it cannot identify compounds with certainty. Hence SPME-GCMS and PTR-MS complement each other, each method having its particular advantages and disadvantages. Exhaled breath analysis is promising to become a future non-invasive lung cancer screening method. In order to proceed towards this goal, precise identification of compounds observed in exhaled breath of lung cancer patients is necessary. Comparison with compounds released from lung cancer cell cultures, and additional information on exhaled breath composition in other cancer forms will be important. PMID:19788722

  20. Comparison of water-quality samples collected by siphon samplers and automatic samplers in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, David J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Steur, Jeffrey J.

    2000-01-01

    In small streams, flow and water-quality concentrations often change quickly in response to meteorological events. Hydrologists, field technicians, or locally hired stream ob- servers involved in water-data collection are often unable to reach streams quickly enough to observe or measure these rapid changes. Therefore, in hydrologic studies designed to describe changes in water quality, a combination of manual and automated sampling methods have commonly been used manual methods when flow is relatively stable and automated methods when flow is rapidly changing. Auto- mated sampling, which makes use of equipment programmed to collect samples in response to changes in stage and flow of a stream, has been shown to be an effective method of sampling to describe the rapid changes in water quality (Graczyk and others, 1993). Because of the high cost of automated sampling, however, especially for studies examining a large number of sites, alternative methods have been considered for collecting samples during rapidly changing stream conditions. One such method employs the siphon sampler (fig. 1). also referred to as the "single-stage sampler." Siphon samplers are inexpensive to build (about $25- $50 per sampler), operate, and maintain, so they are cost effective to use at a large number of sites. Their ability to collect samples representing the average quality of water passing though the entire cross section of a stream, however, has not been fully demonstrated for many types of stream sites.

  1. An instrument for collecting discrete large-volume water samples suitable for ecological studies of microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wommack, K. Eric; Williamson, Shannon J.; Sundbergh, Arthur; Helton, Rebekah R.; Glazer, Brian T.; Portune, Kevin; Craig Cary, S.

    2004-11-01

    Microbiological investigations utilizing molecular genetic approaches to characterize microbial communities can require large volume water samples, tens to hundreds of liters. The requirement for large volume samples can be especially challenging in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments of the oceanic ridge system. By and large studies of these environments rely on deep submergence vehicles. However collection of large volume (>100 L) water samples adjacent to the benthos is not feasible due to weight considerations. To address the technical difficulty of collecting large volume water samples from hydrothermal diffuse flow environments, a semi-autonomous large-volume water sampler (LVWS) was designed. The LVWS is capable of reliably collecting and bringing to the surface 120 L water samples from diffuse flow environments. Microscopy, molecular genetic and chemical analyses of water samples taken from 9°N East Pacific Rise are shown to demonstrate the utility of the LVWS for studies of near-benthos environments. To our knowledge this is the first report of virioplankton abundance within diffuse-flow waters of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent environment. Because of its simple design and relatively low cost, the LVWS should be applicable to a variety of studies which require large-volume water samples collected immediately adjacent to the benthos.

  2. A sampling system for collecting gas-tight time-series hydrothermal fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S.; Yang, C.; Ding, K.

    2012-12-01

    It is known that the hydrothermal venting has temporal variations associated with tectonic and geochemical processes. To date, the methods for long-term monitoring of the seafloor hydrothermal systems are rare. A new sampling system has been designed to be deployed at seafloor for long term to collect gas-tight time-series samples from hydrothermal vents. Based on the modular design principle, the sampling system is currently composed of a control module and six sampling modules, which is convenient to be upgraded by adding more sampling modules if needed. The control module consists of a rechargeable battery pack and a circuit board with functions of sampling control, temperature measurement, data storage and communication. Each sampling module has an independent sampling valve, a valve actuator and a sampling cylinder. The sampling cylinder consists of a sample chamber and an accumulator chamber. Compressed nitrogen gas is used to maintain the sample at in-situ pressure. A prototype of the sampling system has been constructed and tested. First, the instrument was tested in a high-pressure vessel at a pressure of 40 MPa. Six sampling modules were successfully triggered and water samples were collected and kept at in-situ pressure after experiment. Besides, the instrument was field tested at the shallow hydrothermal field near off Kueishantao islet (24°51'N, 121°55'E), which is located offshore of northeastern Taiwan, from May 25 to May 28, 2011. The sampling system worked at an automatic mode. Each sampling module was triggered according to the preset time. Time-series hydrothermal fluids have been collected from a shallow hydrothermal vent with a depth of 16 m. The preliminary tests indicated the success of the design and construction of the prototype of the sampling system. Currently, the sampling system is being upgraded by integration of a DC-DC power conversion and serial-to-Ethernet conversion module, so that it can utilize the continuous power supply and network communication of seafloor cabled observatories. In this case, the sampling system will be remotely controlled through Internet. Then the sampling modules can be triggered manually based on the judgment of temperature anomaly. The upgraded sampling system will be tested on the Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) in this fall.

  3. sup 14 C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S.J.; Tytgat, K.M.; Hollingsworth, J.; Jalali, S.; Rshid, F.A.; Bowen, B.M.; Goldie, J.; Goodacre, R.L.; Riddell, R.H.; Hunt, R.H. )

    1990-04-01

    The high urease activity of Helicobacter pylori can be used to detect this bacterium by noninvasive breath tests. We have developed a {sup 14}C-urea breath test which uses 5 microCi {sup 14}C with 50 mg nonradioactive urea. Breath samples are collected at baseline and every 30 min for 2 h. Our study compared the outcome of the breath test to the results of histology and culture of endoscopically obtained gastric biopsies in 84 patients. The breath test discriminated well between the 50 positive patients and the 34 patients negative for Helicobacter pylori: the calculated sensitivity was 100%, specificity 88%, positive predictive value 93%, and negative predictive value 100%. Treatment with bismuth subsalicylate and/or ampicillin resulted in lower counts of exhaled {sup 14}CO{sub 2} which correlated with histological improvement in gastritis. The {sup 14}C-urea breath test is a better gold standard for the detection of Helicobacter pylori than histology and/or culture.

  4. A Study on the Perceived Risk of Surface Sample Collection Systems in Proposal Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunday, Cecily M.

    2012-01-01

    This project compares design and proposal elements from multiple proposals and presents conclusions and recommendations for sampling systems. Contributions from this project include a list of common evaluation themes, concept and proposal-related strengths and weaknesses and ways in which self-identified risks relate the evaluation of the mission. XXXX After identifying and analyzing the commonalities between different sample acquisition systems, results can be provided in the following three areas: 1. Common debrief discussion themes 2. Proposal versus concept-related strengths and weaknesses 3. Relationship between debrief comments and self-identified risks Sample collection methods can be categorized as either Touch-and-Go or Surface Sampling missions. The "Touch-and-Go" (TAG) collection method is used to acquire samples from bodies with a zero or negligible-gravity force such as asteroids, comets or small moons. In TAG missions, a spacecraft descends and touches the surface of the target body for a few seconds to collect the sample. A boom or robotic arm with an end-effector, or mechanism located at the end of the sampling arm, is used to acquire and verify the collection of a sample (Neal et. al.). To complete the maneuver, the sample is transferred into a return canister and the spacecraft ascends. Hayabusa, a mission developed by the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency, used the TAG method with a projectile end-effector to dismantle, collect and return samples from the near-earth asteroid Itokawa (see Figure 1). Other end-effectors mechanisms include Brush Wheel Samplers, penetrators, and gel-pad collectors. Figure 2 illustrates the sequence and functionality of a Brush-Wheel Sampling concept (Behar, 2003). Surface Sampling missions are more complex than the TAG maneuvers because they require both a spacecraft and lander element. Once on the surface of another planet or moon, a robotic arm on the lander collects the sample. Surface Sampling end-effectors cover a wide range of technologies including penetrators, drills, and scoops. The Mars lander Phoenix (proposed in 2002, landed in 2008) uses a robotic arm and scoop to retrieve regolith and ice from the Martian Polar region

  5. Planning Considerations Related to Collecting and Analyzing Samples of the Martian Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yang; Mellon, Mike T.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Noble, Sarah K.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Beaty, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (E2E-iSAG [1]) established scientific objectives associ-ated with Mars returned-sample science that require the return and investigation of one or more soil samples. Soil is defined here as loose, unconsolidated materials with no implication for the presence or absence of or-ganic components. The proposed Mars 2020 (M-2020) rover is likely to collect and cache soil in addition to rock samples [2], which could be followed by future sample retrieval and return missions. Here we discuss key scientific consid-erations for sampling and caching soil samples on the proposed M-2020 rover, as well as the state in which samples would need to be preserved when received by analysts on Earth. We are seeking feedback on these draft plans as input to mission requirement formulation. A related planning exercise on rocks is reported in an accompanying abstract [3].

  6. Sample collection of virulent and non-virulent B. anthracis and Y. pestis for bioforensics analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hong-geller, Elizabeth; Valdez, Yolanda E; Shou, Yulin; Yoshida, Thomas M; Marrone, Babetta L; Dunbar, John

    2009-01-01

    Validated sample collection methods are needed for recovery of microbial evidence in the event of accidental or intentional release of biological agents into the environment. To address this need, we evaluated the sample recovery efficiencies of two collection methods -- swabs and wipes -- for both non-virulent and virulent strains of B. anthracis and Y. pestis from four types of non-porous surfaces: two hydrophilic surfaces, stainless steel and glass, and two hydrophobic surfaces, vinyl and plastic. Sample recovery was quantified using Real-time qPCR to assay for intact DNA signatures. We found no consistent difference in collection efficiency between swabs or wipes. Furthermore, collection efficiency was more surface-dependent for virulent strains than non-virulent strains. For the two non-virulent strains, B. anthracis Sterne and Y. pestis A1122, collection efficiency was approximately 100% and 1 %, respectively, from all four surfaces. In contrast, recovery of B. anthracis Ames spores and Y. pestis C092 from vinyl and plastic was generally lower compared to collection from glass or stainless steel, suggesting that surface hydrophobicity may playa role in the strength of pathogen adhesion. The surface-dependent collection efficiencies observed with the virulent strains may arise from strain-specific expression of capsular material or other cell surface receptors that alter cell adhesion to specific surfaces. These findings contribute to validation of standard bioforensics procedures and emphasize the importance of specific strain and surface interactions in pathogen detection.

  7. Ultrasensitive silicon nanowire for real-world gas sensing: noninvasive diagnosis of cancer from breath volatolome.

    PubMed

    Shehada, Nisreen; Brnstrup, Gerald; Funka, Konrads; Christiansen, Silke; Leja, Marcis; Haick, Hossam

    2015-02-11

    We report on an ultrasensitive, molecularly modified silicon nanowire field effect transistor that brings together the lock-and-key and cross-reactive sensing worlds for the diagnosis of (gastric) cancer from exhaled volatolome. The sensor is able to selectively detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are linked with gastric cancer conditions in exhaled breath and to discriminate them from environmental VOCs that exist in exhaled breath samples but do not relate to the gastric cancer per se. Using breath samples collected from actual patients with gastric cancer and from volunteers who do not have cancer, blind analysis validated the ability of the reported sensor to discriminate between gastric cancer and control conditions with >85% accuracy, irrespective of important confounding factors such as tobacco consumption and gender. The reported sensing approach paves the way to use the power of silicon nanowires for simple, inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive diagnosis of cancer and other disease conditions. PMID:25494909

  8. The Importance of Meteorite Collections to Sample Return Missions: Past, Present, and Future Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welzenbach, L. C.; McCoy, T. J.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Abell, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    While much of the scientific community s current attention is drawn to sample return missions, it is the existing meteorite and cosmic dust collections that both provide the paradigms to be tested by these missions and the context for interpreting the results. Recent sample returns from the Stardust and Hayabusa missions provided us with new materials and insights about our Solar System history and processes. As an example, Stardust sampled CAIs among the population of cometary grains, requiring extensive and unexpected radial mixing in the early solar nebula. This finding would not have been possible, however, without extensive studies of meteoritic CAIs that established their high-temperature, inner Solar System formation. Samples returned by Stardust also revealed the first evidence of a cometary amino acid, a discovery that would not have been possible with current in situ flight instrument technology. The Hayabusa mission provided the final evidence linking ordinary chondrites and S asteroids, a hypothesis that developed from centuries of collection and laboratory and ground-based telescopic studies. In addition to these scientific findings, studies of existing meteorite collections have defined and refined the analytical techniques essential to studying returned samples. As an example, the fortuitous fall of the Allende CV3 and Murchison CM2 chondrites within months before the return of Apollo samples allowed testing of new state-of-the-art analytical facilities. The results of those studies not only prepared us to better study lunar materials, but unanticipated discoveries changed many of our concepts about the earliest history and processes of the solar nebula. This synergy between existing collections and future space exploration is certainly not limited to sample return missions. Laboratory studies confirmed the existence of meteorites from Mars and raised the provocative possibility of preservation of ancient microbial life. The laboratory studies in turn led to a new wave of Mars exploration that ultimately could lead to sample return focused on evidence for past or present life. This partnership between collections and missions will be increasingly important in the coming decades as we discover new questions to be addressed and identify targets for for both robotic and human exploration . Nowhere is this more true than in the ultimate search for the abiotic and biotic processes that produced life. Existing collections also provide the essential materials for developing and testing new analytical schemes to detect the rare markers of life and distinguish them from abiotic processes. Large collections of meteorites and the new types being identified within these collections, which come to us at a fraction of the cost of a sample return mission, will continue to shape the objectives of future missions and provide new ways of interpreting returned samples.

  9. Medical Issues: Breathing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Article University of Utah Respiratory Management website Support & Care For Newly Diagnosed Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life Grief & Loss ...

  10. Sample Collection of Ash and Burned Soils from the October 2007 Southern California Wildfires

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Martin, Deborah A.; Rochester, Carlton; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Mendez, Greg; Reichard, Eric G.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2009-01-01

    Between November 2 through 9, 2007 scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected samples of ash and burned soils from 28 sites in six areas burned as a result of the Southern California wildfires of October 2007, including the Harris, Witch, Santiago, Ammo, Canyon, and Grass Valley Fires. The primary goal of this sampling and analysis effort was to understand how differences in ash and burned soil composition relate to vegetation type, underlying bedrock geology, burn intensity, and residential versus wildland. Sampling sites were chosen with the input of local experts from the USGS Water Resources and Biological Resources Disciplines to help understand possible effects of the fires on water supplies, ecosystems, and endangered species. The sampling was also carried out in conjunction with detailed field analysis of the spectral reflectance characteristics of the ash, so that chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the field samples could be used to help interpret data collected as part of an airborne, hyperspectral remote-sensing survey of several of the burned areas in mid-late November, 2007. This report presents an overview of the field sampling methodologies used to collect the samples, includes representative photos of the sites sampled, and summarizes important characteristics of each of the collection sites. In this report we use the term 'ash' to refer collectively to white mineral ash, which results from full combustion of vegetation and black charred organic matter from partial combustion of vegetation or other materials. These materials were found to be intermingled as a deposited residue on the soil surface following the Southern California fires of 2007.

  11. Swabs as DNA collection devices for sampling different biological materials from different substrates.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Timothy J; Mitchell, Robert J; van Oorschot, Roland A H

    2014-07-01

    Currently, there is a variety of swabs for collection of biological evidence from crime scenes, but their comparative efficiency is unknown. Here, we report the results of an investigation into the efficiency of different swab types to collect blood, saliva and touch DNA from a range of substrates. The efficiency of extracting blood and saliva from each swab type was also tested. Some swabs were significantly more effective than others for sampling biological materials from different substrates. Swabs with the highest sampling efficiency, however, often did not have the highest extraction efficiency. Observations were recorded regarding practicality of each swab in a variety of situations. Our study demonstrates that selection of sampling device impacts greatly upon successful collection and extraction of DNA. We present guidelines to assist in evaluation of swab choice. PMID:24502761

  12. Analysis of acid-precipitation samples collected by state agencies: January-December 1988. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, L.S.

    1990-03-01

    This report presents analytical data from the 30 acid-precipitation collection sites in the State-Operated Network. Samples are collected weekly in plastic bag liners and shipped in 500 mL polyethylene bottles to Global Geochemistry Corporation (the central laboratory for the network). The report contains maps showing the location of each site, plots of analytical data, tables of all field and analytical data, plots comparing field and laboratory pH and conductivity, and information on data quality. Samples are analyzed for pH, strong acid, conductivity, fluoride, chloride, nitrite, phosphate, bromide, nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. The central laboratory renders technical assistance to the collection sites on problems concerning pH and conductivity. Each of the 11 participating state agencies receives analytical reports for the samples analyzed the previous month. Analyte concentration data are sent to the Acid Deposition System (ADS) for inclusion in the National Acid Precipitation Data Base.

  13. Pesticide content in drinking water samples collected from orchard areas in central Poland.

    PubMed

    Badach, Hanna; Nazimek, Teresa; Kami?ska, Iwona A

    2007-01-01

    Samples of drinking water collected in Warka-Grjec region of central Poland were tested for the presence of pesticides. Data obtained from analysis of water samples will be used for future epidemiological and environmental studies in the region. Samples were collected during spring and autumn of 2002-2003 from dug wells, deep wells and water mains in 81 randomly-selected rural households scattered throughout this region of extensive agriculture. The concentration of pesticides from four main chemical groups was determined by gas chromatography: organochlorines (lindane, DDT, methoxychlor), triazines (atrazine, simazine), organophosphates (acephate, diazinon, fenitrothion) and pyrethroids (alpha-cypermethrin, deltamethrin). Two-year monitoring of drinking water samples indicated the presence of DDT and methoxychlor contamination. Pyrethroids were generally not detected, with the exception of alpha-cypermethrin found in only a few samples. Triazines were also found in water samples collected in the course of the study with higher incidence during spring period. Organophosphates were by far the most common contaminants of drinking water in this region. Almost all samples were contaminated by significant amounts of fenitrothion. The present study reveals an urgent need for systematic monitoring of drinking water quality in regions of intensive agriculture, since they are highly vulnerable to pesticide contamination. Consumption of pesticide-contaminated water may have a negative impact on the population living in this area, which also requires scientific assessment. PMID:17655187

  14. Archival policies and collections database for the Woods Hole Science Center's marine sediment samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buczkowski, Brian J.; Kelsey, Sarah A.

    2007-01-01

    The Woods Hole Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been an active member of the Woods Hole research community, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, for over 40 years. In that time there have been many projects that involved the collection of sediment samples conducted by USGS scientists and technicians for the research and study of seabed environments and processes. These samples were collected at sea or near shore and then brought back to the Woods Hole Science Center (WHSC) for analysis. While at the center, samples are stored in ambient temperature, refrigerated and freezing conditions ranging from +2º Celsius to -18º Celsius, depending on the best mode of preparation for the study being conducted or the duration of storage planned for the samples. Recently, storage methods and available storage space have become a major concern at the WHSC. The core and sediment archive program described herein has been initiated to set standards for the management, methods, and duration of sample storage. A need has arisen to maintain organizational consistency and define storage protocol. This handbook serves as a reference and guide to all parties interested in using and accessing the WHSC's sample archive and also defines all the steps necessary to construct and maintain an organized collection of geological samples. It answers many questions as to the way in which the archive functions.

  15. Effect of breath-hold on blood gas analysis in captive Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens).

    PubMed

    Terasawa, Fumio; Ohizumi, Hiroshi; Ohshita, Isao

    2010-09-01

    The effect of a breath-hold on blood gas was evaluated in captive Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens). Serial blood collections were performed from a vessel on the ventral surface of the flukes during breath-hold. In total, 178 blood samples were taken from three dolphins for five trials in each animal. During a breath-hold, partial pressure of oxygen (Po?) decreased from 152.5 to 21.8 mmHg and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Po?) conversely increased from 31.8 to 83.6 mmHg. The range of pH was 7.54 to 7.25, suggesting drastic change from alkalemia to acidemia. These wide ranges of blood gas imply a considerable change of oxygen affinity caused by the Bohr effect during breath-hold, which enable effective uptake and distribution of oxygen to metabolizing tissues. PMID:20424395

  16. Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeson, Phillip E., (Edited By); Ehlke, T.A.; Irwin, G.A.; Lium, B.W.; Slack, K.V.

    1977-01-01

    Chapter A4 contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to collect, preserve, and analyze waters to determine their biological and microbiological properties. Part 1 discusses biological sampling and sampling statistics. The statistical procedures are accompanied by examples. Part 2 consists of detailed descriptions of more than 45 individual methods, including those for bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, seston, periphyton, macrophytes, benthic invertebrates, fish and other vertebrates, cellular contents, productivity, and bioassays. Each method is summarized, and the application, interferences, apparatus, reagents, collection, analysis, calculations, reporting of results, precision and references are given. Part 3 consists of a glossary. Part 4 is a list of taxonomic references.

  17. Analysis of acid-precipitation samples collected by state agencies: January-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    McCracken, R.; Shepard, L.

    1989-02-01

    This report presents the analytical data from the 31 acid-precipitation collection sites in the State Operated Network. Samples are collected weekly in plastic-bag liners and shipped in 500 ml polyethylene bottles to Global Geochemistry Corp. (the central laboratory for the network). The report contains maps showing the location of each site, plots of analytical data, tables of all field and analytical data, plots comparing field and laboratory pH and conductivity, and information on data quality. Samples are analyzed for pH, strong acid, conductivity, fluoride, chloride, nitrite, phosphate, bromide, nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium.

  18. Satisfaction survey with DNA cards method to collect genetic samples for pharmacogenetics studies

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Taboada, Jose M; Cucala, Mercedes; Mas Herrero, Sergio; Lafuente, Amalia; Cobos, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenetic studies are essential in understanding the interindividual variability of drug responses. DNA sample collection for genotyping is a critical step in genetic studies. A method using dried blood samples from finger-puncture, collected on DNA-cards, has been described as an alternative to the usual venepuncture technique. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the implementation of the DNA cards method in a multicentre clinical trial, and to assess the degree of investigators' satisfaction and the acceptance of the patients perceived by the investigators. Methods Blood samples were collected on DNA-cards. The quality and quantity of DNA recovered were analyzed. Investigators were questioned regarding their general interest, previous experience, safety issues, preferences and perceived patient satisfaction. Results 151 patients' blood samples were collected. Genotyping of GST polymorphisms was achieved in all samples (100%). 28 investigators completed the survey. Investigators perceived patient satisfaction as very good (60.7%) or good (39.3%), without reluctance to finger puncture. Investigators preferred this method, which was considered safer and better than the usual methods. All investigators would recommend using it in future genetic studies. Conclusion Within the clinical trial setting, the DNA-cards method was very well accepted by investigators and patients (in perception of investigators), and was preferred to conventional methods due to its ease of use and safety. PMID:16681846

  19. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs... Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing (...

  20. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs... Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing (...

  1. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs... Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing (...

  2. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs... Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing (...

  3. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs... Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing (...

  4. An unmanned mission to Mars with sample collection and in-situ resource utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The design for the Mars Analysis and Return Vehicle with In-Situ Resource Utilization (MARVIN) project is outlined. The MARVIN mission is designed to collect samples of the Martian environment; to produce fuel from local Martian resources; and to use the fuel produced to return the samples to earth. It uses only existing technologies. Exploratory Technologies' mission-design efforts have focused on methods of orbit determination, sample collection, fuel production, power, communications, control, and structural design. Lambert Targeting provided Delta-V's, launch dates, and travel times. The landing site is the Tharsis Plateau, to the southeast of Olympus Mons, chosen for its substantial scientific value. Samples of soil, dust, and atmosphere are collected with lander-based collection devices: the soil sample, with a robotic arm similar to those used in the Viking missions; the atmospheric sample, from a bleed line to the compressor in the fuel-production facility; a dust sample, from the dust-collection container in the fuel-production facility; and a redundant dust sample, with a with a passive filter system, which relies upon neither a power source nor other collection methods. The sample-return capsule (SRC) houses these samples, which are triply contained to prevent contamination. Proven technology can be used to produce methane and oxygen for fuel with relative ease at the landing site: the Sabatier reactor produces methane and water by combining carbon dioxide and hydrogen (brought from earth); the Reverse Water-Gas Shift unit combines carbon dioxide and hydrogen to form carbon monoxide and water; a water-electrolysis unit splits the water into hydrogen and oxygen. The Mars-lander vehicle (MLV) transports the equipment from earth to Mars. The Mars-ascent vehicle (MAV) contains the SRC and the engine, which is the same for both the MLV and the MAV. All equipment that is unnecessary for the Mars-Earth trajectory remains on Mars. This report presents detailed sizing information, for which a spreadsheet has been developed. The trends suggest possibilities for expansion, and suggestions for future work in these areas are offered.

  5. An unmanned mission to Mars with sample collection and in-situ resource utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    The design for the Mars Analysis and Return Vehicle with In-Situ Resource Utilization (MARVIN) project is outlined. The MARVIN mission is designed to collect samples of the Martian environment; to produce fuel from local Martian resources; and to use the fuel produced to return the samples to earth. It uses only existing technologies. Exploratory Technologies' mission-design efforts have focused on methods of orbit determination, sample collection, fuel production, power, communications, control, and structural design. Lambert Targeting provided Delta-V's, launch dates, and travel times. The landing site is the Tharsis Plateau, to the southeast of Olympus Mons, chosen for its substantial scientific value. Samples of soil, dust, and atmosphere are collected with lander-based collection devices: the soil sample, with a robotic arm similar to those used in the Viking missions; the atmospheric sample, from a bleed line to the compressor in the fuel-production facility; a dust sample, from the dust-collection container in the fuel-production facility; and a redundant dust sample, with a with a passive filter system, which relies upon neither a power source nor other collection methods. The sample-return capsule (SRC) houses these samples, which are triply contained to prevent contamination. Proven technology can be used to produce methane and oxygen for fuel with relative ease at the landing site: the Sabatier reactor produces methane and water by combining carbon dioxide and hydrogen (brought from earth); the Reverse Water-Gas Shift unit combines carbon dioxide and hydrogen to form carbon monoxide and water; a water-electrolysis unit splits the water into hydrogen and oxygen. The Mars-lander vehicle (MLV) transports the equipment from earth to Mars. The Mars-ascent vehicle (MAV) contains the SRC and the engine, which is the same for both the MLV and the MAV. All equipment that is unnecessary for the Mars-Earth trajectory remains on Mars. This report presents detailed sizing information, for which a spreadsheet has been developed. The trends suggest possibilities for expansion, and suggestions for future work in these areas are offered.

  6. Comparative analyses of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from patients, tumors and transformed cell lines for the validation of lung cancer-derived breath markers.

    PubMed

    Filipiak, Wojciech; Filipiak, Anna; Sponring, Andreas; Schmid, Thomas; Zelger, Bettina; Ager, Clemens; Klodzinska, Ewa; Denz, Hubert; Pizzini, Alex; Lucciarini, Paolo; Jamnig, Herbert; Troppmair, Jakob; Amann, Anton

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis for the purpose of non-invasive diagnosis of lung cancer has yielded numerous candidate compounds with still questionable clinical relevance. To arrive at suitable volatile organic compounds our approach combined the analysis of different sources: isolated tumor samples compared to healthy lung tissues, and exhaled breath from lung cancer patients and healthy controls. Candidate compounds were further compared to substances previously identified in the comparison of transformed and normal lung epithelial cell lines. For human studies, a breath sampling device was developed enabling automated and CO2-controlled collection of the end-tidal air. All samples were first preconcentrated on multibed sorption tubes and analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations in all three types of cancer samples studied were observed for ethanol and n-octane. Additional metabolites (inter alia 2-methylpentane, n-hexane) significantly released by lung cancer cells were observed at higher levels in cancer lung tissues and breath samples (compared to respective healthy controls) with statistical significance (p< 0.05) only in breath samples. The results obtained confirmed the cancer-related origin of volatile metabolites, e.g. ethanol and octane that were both detected at significantly (p< 0.05) elevated concentrations in all three kinds of cancer samples studied. This work is an important step towards identification of volatile breath markers of lung cancer through the demonstration of cancer-related origin of certain volatile metabolites. PMID:24862102

  7. Field guidelines for collection, treatment, and analysis of water samples, Montana district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knapton, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    This manual provides a set of standardized guidelines and quality-control procedures for the collection and preservation of water samples and defines procedures for field analyses of unstable constituents or properties. Seldom is the water being samples of such uniformity that a single grab sample is representative of the whole. For this reason a variety of sampler types and sampling methods have been devised. Descriptions and procedures for field use are given for a number of sampler types. Several methods of sampling are described for which these samplers can be used. Sample-processing devices such as sample splitters and filtration apparatus are discussed along with methods of cleaning. Depending on the type of analysis to be performed in the laboratory, samples may need to be preserved shortly after collection. Various types of preservation are described in detail. Analyses for unstable constituents or properties are of necessity accomplished in the field. This manual addresses analytical techniques and quality assurance for: (1) Water temperature, (2) specific conductance, (3) pH, (4) alkalinity, (5) dissolved oxygen, and (6) bacteria. Examples of field report forms are given as attachments. Information pertinent to certain field calculations is also presented. (USGS)

  8. What Controls Your Breathing?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Explore How the Lungs Work What Are... The Respiratory System What Happens When You Breathe What Controls Your Breathing Lung Diseases & Conditions Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Asthma Bronchitis COPD How the Heart Works Respiratory Failure Send a link to NHLBI to someone ...

  9. Breathing-metabolic simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Breathing-metabolic simulator was developed to be used for evaluation of life support equipment. Apparatus simulates human breathing rate and controls temperature and humidity of exhaled air as well as its chemical composition. All functions are designed to correspond to various degrees of human response.

  10. From breathing to respiration.

    PubMed

    Fitting, Jean-William

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of breathing remained an enigma for a long time. The Hippocratic school described breathing patterns but did not associate breathing with the lungs. Empedocles and Plato postulated that breathing was linked to the passage of air through pores of the skin. This was refuted by Aristotle who believed that the role of breathing was to cool the heart. In Alexandria, breakthroughs were accomplished in the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. Later, Galen proposed an accurate description of the respiratory muscles and the mechanics of breathing. However, his heart-lung model was hampered by the traditional view of two non-communicating vascular systems - veins and arteries. After a period of stagnation in the Middle Ages, knowledge progressed with the discovery of pulmonary circulation. The comprehension of the purpose of breathing progressed by steps thanks to Boyle and Mayow among others, and culminated with the contribution of Priestley and the discovery of oxygen by Lavoisier. Only then was breathing recognized as fulfilling the purpose of respiration, or gas exchange. A century later, a controversy emerged concerning the active or passive transfer of oxygen from alveoli to the blood. August and Marie Krogh settled the dispute, showing that passive diffusion was sufficient to meet the oxygen needs. PMID:25532022

  11. A Mobile-Phone-Based Breath Carbon Monoxide Meter to Detect Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Mobile phones hold considerable promise for delivering evidence-based smoking cessation interventions that require frequent and objective assessment of smoking status via breath carbon monoxide (Breath CO) measurement. However, there are currently no commercially available mobile-phone-based Breath CO meters. We developed a mobile-phone-based Breath CO meter prototype that attaches to and communicates with a smartphone through an audio port. We then evaluated the reliability and the validity of Breath CO measures collected with the mobile meter prototype and assessed the usability and acceptability of the meter. Methods: Participants included 20 regular smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day), 20 light smokers (<10 cigarettes/day), and 20 nonsmokers. Expired air samples were collected 4 times from each participant: twice with the mobile meter and twice with a commercially available Breath CO meter. Results: Measures calculated by the mobile meter correlated strongly with measures calculated by the commercial meter (r = .96, p < .001). Additionally, the mobile meter accurately distinguished between smokers and nonsmokers. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for the mobile meter was 94.7%, and the meter had a combined sensitivity and specificity of 1.86 at an abstinence threshold of ≤6 ppm. Responses on an acceptability survey indicated that smokers liked the meter and would be interested in using it during a quit attempt. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that a mobile-phone-based Breath CO meter is a reliable, valid, and acceptable device for distinguishing between smokers and nonsmokers. PMID:24470633

  12. Voluntary control of breathing does not alter vagal modulation of heart rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patwardhan, A. R.; Evans, J. M.; Bruce, E. N.; Eckberg, D. L.; Knapp, C. F.

    1995-01-01

    Variations in respiratory pattern influence the heart rate spectrum. It has been suggested, hence, that metronomic respiration should be used to correctly assess vagal modulation of heart rate by using spectral analysis. On the other hand, breathing to a metronome has been reported to increase heart rate spectral power in the high- or respiratory frequency region; this finding has led to the suggestion that metronomic respiration enhances vagal tone or alters vagal modulation of heart rate. To investigate whether metronomic breathing complicates the interpretation of heart rate spectra by altering vagal modulation, we recorded the electrocardiogram and respiration from eight volunteers during three breathing trials of 10 min each: 1) spontaneous breathing (mean rate of 14.4 breaths/min); 2) breathing to a metronome at the rate of 15, 18, and 21 breaths/min for 2, 6, and 2 min, respectively; and 3) breathing to a metronome at the rate of 18 breaths/min for 10 min. Data were also collected from eight volunteers who breathed spontaneously for 20 min and breathed metronomically at each subject's mean spontaneous breathing frequency for 20 min. Results from the three 10-min breathing trials showed that heart rate power in the respiratory frequency region was smaller during metronomic breathing than during spontaneous breathing. This decrease could be explained fully by the higher breathing frequencies used during trials 2 and 3 of metronomic breathing. When the subjects breathed metronomically at each subject's mean breathing frequency, the heart rate powers during metronomic breathing were similar to those during spontaneous breathing. Our results suggest that vagal modulation of heart rate is not altered and vagal tone is not enhanced during metronomic breathing.

  13. The Autism Simplex Collection: an international, expertly phenotyped autism sample for genetic and phenotypic analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for expanding and enhancing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) samples, in order to better understand causes of ASD. Methods In a unique public-private partnership, 13 sites with extensive experience in both the assessment and diagnosis of ASD embarked on an ambitious, 2-year program to collect samples for genetic and phenotypic research and begin analyses on these samples. The program was called The Autism Simplex Collection (TASC). TASC sample collection began in 2008 and was completed in 2010, and included nine sites from North America and four sites from Western Europe, as well as a centralized Data Coordinating Center. Results Over 1,700 trios are part of this collection, with DNA from transformed cells now available through the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) measures are available for all probands, as are standardized IQ measures, Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales (VABS), the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), and physical measures (height, weight, and head circumference). At almost every site, additional phenotypic measures were collected, including the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ) and Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R), as well as the non-word repetition scale, Communication Checklist (Children’s or Adult), and Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC). Moreover, for nearly 1,000 trios, the Autism Genome Project Consortium (AGP) has carried out Illumina 1 M SNP genotyping and called copy number variation (CNV) in the samples, with data being made available through the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Whole exome sequencing (WES) has been carried out in over 500 probands, together with ancestry matched controls, and this data is also available through the NIH. Additional WES is being carried out by the Autism Sequencing Consortium (ASC), where the focus is on sequencing complete trios. ASC sequencing for the first 1,000 samples (all from whole-blood DNA) is complete and data will be released in 2014. Data is being made available through NIH databases (database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP) and National Database for Autism Research (NDAR)) with DNA released in Dist 11.0. Primary funding for the collection, genotyping, sequencing and distribution of TASC samples was provided by Autism Speaks and the NIH, including the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the National Human Genetics Research Institute (NHGRI). Conclusions TASC represents an important sample set that leverages expert sites. Similar approaches, leveraging expert sites and ongoing studies, represent an important path towards further enhancing available ASD samples. PMID:25392729

  14. Gene banking: A quality control perspective on collection, and analysis of samples for a national repository

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP) is developing a national repository for germplasm (semen, oocytes, embryos, blood, DNA, tissue) for all agricultural species in the United States. Currently, the swine collection consists of 127,479 samples from 886 boars representing 20 major, minor and...

  15. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN USING COTTON GAUZE FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure, urine samples are often needed to analyze pesticide metabolites. However, this is difficult for children wearing diapers because simple and feasible techniques suitable for field collection are not available. The objectives of this study were to t...

  16. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN USING GAUZE FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure, urine samples are often needed to analyze pesticide metabolites. However, this is difficult for children wearing diapers because simple and feasible techniques suitable for field collection are not available. The objectives of this study were to te...

  17. College Students' Perceptions of Collective Efficacy: Results from a Nonurban Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domoff, Sarah E.; Hayman, Jennifer; Tompsett, Carolyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Although the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and collective efficacy is well established in urban populations with community samples, it is unclear if this relationship holds in rural areas. The current study fills this gap by assessing the perceptions of adolescents from nonurban areas to examine the relationships between…

  18. College Students' Perceptions of Collective Efficacy: Results from a Nonurban Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domoff, Sarah E.; Hayman, Jennifer; Tompsett, Carolyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Although the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and collective efficacy is well established in urban populations with community samples, it is unclear if this relationship holds in rural areas. The current study fills this gap by assessing the perceptions of adolescents from nonurban areas to examine the relationships between

  19. 21 CFR 111.80 - What representative samples must you collect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What representative samples must you collect? 111.80 Section 111.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR...

  20. 78 FR 25308 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: 60-Day Notice. SUMMARY: The Department...

  1. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES...

  2. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES...

  3. Collecting Stream Samples for Water Quality. Module 16. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on collecting stream samples for water quality. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) using a job aid to

  4. Volatile organic compounds as breath biomarkers for active and passive smoking.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Sydney M; Wallace, Lance A; Brinkman, Marielle C; Callahan, Patrick J; Kenny, Donald V

    2002-01-01

    We used real-time breath measurement technology to investigate the suitability of some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as breath biomarkers for active and passive smoking and to measure actual exposures and resulting breath concentrations for persons exposed to tobacco smoke. Experiments were conducted with five smoker/nonsmoker pairs. The target VOCs included benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and the cigarette smoke biomarker 2,5-dimethylfuran. This study includes what we believe to be the first measurements of 1,3-butadiene in smokers' and nonsmokers' breath. The 1,3-butadiene and 2,5-dimethylfuran peak levels in the smokers' breath were similar (360 and 376 microg/m(3), respectively); the average benzene peak level was 522 microg/m(3). We found higher peak values of the target chemicals and shorter residence times in the body than previously reported, probably because of the improved time resolution made possible by the continuous breath measurement method. The real-time breath analyzer also showed the presence of the chemicals after exposure in the breath of the nonsmokers, but at greatly reduced levels. Single breath samples collected in evacuated canisters and analyzed independently with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of the target compounds in the postexposure breath of the nonsmokers but indicated that there was some contamination of the breath analyzer measurements. This was likely caused by desorption of organics from condensed tar in the analyzer tubing and on the quartz fiber filter used to remove particles. We used the decay data from the smokers to estimate residence times for the target chemicals. A two-compartment exponential model generally gave a better fit to the experimental decay data from the smokers than a single-compartment model. Residence times for benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and 2,5-dimethylfuran ranged from 0.5 (1,3-butadiene) to 0.9 min (benzene) for tau1 and were essentially constant (14 min) for tau2. These findings will be useful in models of environmental tobacco smoke exposure and risk. PMID:12117646

  5. Metabolite content profiling of bottlenose dolphin exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Aksenov, Alexander A; Yeates, Laura; Pasamontes, Alberto; Siebe, Craig; Zrodnikov, Yuriy; Simmons, Jason; McCartney, Mitchell M; Deplanque, Jean-Pierre; Wells, Randall S; Davis, Cristina E

    2014-11-01

    Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We describe the analysis workflow to profile exhaled breath metabolites and provide here a first library of volatile and nonvolatile compounds in cetacean exhaled breath. The described analytical methodology enabled us to document baseline compounds in exhaled breath of healthy animals and to study changes in metabolic content of dolphin breath with regard to a variety of factors. The method of breath analysis may provide a very valuable tool in future wildlife conservation efforts as well as deepen our understanding of marine mammals biology and physiology. PMID:25254551

  6. Metabolite Content Profiling of Bottlenose Dolphin Exhaled Breath

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We describe the analysis workflow to profile exhaled breath metabolites and provide here a first library of volatile and nonvolatile compounds in cetacean exhaled breath. The described analytical methodology enabled us to document baseline compounds in exhaled breath of healthy animals and to study changes in metabolic content of dolphin breath with regard to a variety of factors. The method of breath analysis may provide a very valuable tool in future wildlife conservation efforts as well as deepen our understanding of marine mammals biology and physiology. PMID:25254551

  7. Personal exposures, indoor-outdoor relationships, and breath levels of toxic air pollutants measured for 355 persons in New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Lance A.; Pellizzari, Edo D.; Hartwell, Ty D.; Sparacino, Charles M.; Sheldon, Linda S.; Zelon, Harvey

    EPA's TEAM Study has measured exposures to 20 volatile organic compounds in personal air, outdoor air, drinking water and the breath of 355 persons in NJ, in the fall of 1981. The NJ residents were selected by a probability sampling scheme to represent 128,000 inhabitants of Elizabeth and Bayonne. Participants carried a personal monitor to collect two 12-h air samples and gave a breath sample at the end of the day. Two consecutive 12-h outdoor air samples were also collected on identical Tenax cartridges in the back yards of 90 of the participants. About 3000 samples were collected, of which 1000 were quality control samples. Eleven compounds were often present in air. Personal exposures were consistently higher than outdoor concentrations for these chemicals, and were sometimes ten times the outdoor concentrations. Indoor sources appeared responsible for much of the difference. Breath concentrations also usually exceed outdoor concentrations, and correlated more strongly with personal exposures than with outdoor concentrations. Some activities (smoking, driving, visiting dry cleaners or service stations) and occupations (chemical, paint and plastics plants) were associated with significantly elevated exposures and breath levels for certain toxic chemicals.

  8. Electronic Nose and Use of Bags to Collect Odorous Air Samples in Meat Quality Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, G.; Masoero, G.; Battaglini, L. M.; Cornale, P.; Barbera, S.

    2009-05-01

    To test EN reliability and use of bags on meat, 17 bulls (one group of 9 and one of 8) fed similarly, except for a supplementary feedingstuff, were used. Samples were prepared according to the MCS protocol and repeated three times on different days for a total of 51 samples. Bags were used to collect raw and cooked meat air samples, and to test odour changes among samples analysed at different times. The first time analysis was performed immediately after collection then was repeated, 1 hour, 1 day and 1 week later. The Electronic Nose is very discriminant and clear differences were evident among raw, cooked and bags odorous profiles. The highest values were found in cooked samples and the broad range class (W5S) was the most representative. The EN also recognized the two tested feed treatments. In the cooked samples, all sensor responses decrease while time enhances, indicating a progressive chemical variation of the air composition in the bag, with a less correlation shown in the raw samples. When using bags, to avoid bias, is important to fix analysis in order to obtain useful results.

  9. PIXE Analysis of Aerosol and Soil Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoskowitz, Joshua; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of aerosol and soil samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the aerosol samples near Piseco Lake and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The soil samples were also collected at Piseco Lake and pressed into cylindrical pellets for experimentation. PIXE analysis of the aerosol and soil samples were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. There are higher concentrations of sulfur at smaller particle sizes (0.25-1 μm), suggesting that it could be suspended in the air for days and originate from sources very far away. Other elements with significant concentrations peak at larger particle sizes (1-4 μm) and are found in the soil samples, suggesting that these elements could originate in the soil. The PIXE analysis will be described and the resulting data will be presented.

  10. Modeling and enhanced sampling of molecular systems with smooth and nonlinear data-driven collective variables.

    PubMed

    Hashemian, Behrooz; Milln, Daniel; Arroyo, Marino

    2013-12-01

    Collective variables (CVs) are low-dimensional representations of the state of a complex system, which help us rationalize molecular conformations and sample free energy landscapes with molecular dynamics simulations. Given their importance, there is need for systematic methods that effectively identify CVs for complex systems. In recent years, nonlinear manifold learning has shown its ability to automatically characterize molecular collective behavior. Unfortunately, these methods fail to provide a differentiable function mapping high-dimensional configurations to their low-dimensional representation, as required in enhanced sampling methods. We introduce a methodology that, starting from an ensemble representative of molecular flexibility, builds smooth and nonlinear data-driven collective variables (SandCV) from the output of nonlinear manifold learning algorithms. We demonstrate the method with a standard benchmark molecule, alanine dipeptide, and show how it can be non-intrusively combined with off-the-shelf enhanced sampling methods, here the adaptive biasing force method. We illustrate how enhanced sampling simulations with SandCV can explore regions that were poorly sampled in the original molecular ensemble. We further explore the transferability of SandCV from a simpler system, alanine dipeptide in vacuum, to a more complex system, alanine dipeptide in explicit water. PMID:24320358

  11. Toward Lower Organic Environments in Astromaterial Sample Curation for Diverse Collections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.; Burkett, P. J.; Calaway, M. J.; Oehler, D. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Great interest was taken during the frenzied pace of the Apollo lunar sample return to achieve and monitor organic cleanliness. Yet, the first mission resulted in higher organic contamination to samples than desired. But improvements were accomplished by Apollo 12 [1]. Quarantine complicated the goal of achieving organic cleanliness by requiring negative pressure glovebox containment environments, proximity of animal, plant and microbial organic sources, and use of organic sterilants in protocols. A special low organic laboratory was set up at University of California Berkeley (UCB) to cleanly subdivide a subset of samples [2, 3, 4]. Nevertheless, the basic approach of handling rocks and regolith inside of a positive pressure stainless steel glovebox and restrict-ing the tool and container materials allowed in the gloveboxes was established by the last Apollo sample re-turn. In the last 40 years, the collections have grown to encompass Antarctic meteorites, Cosmic Dust, Genesis solar wind, Stardust comet grains and Hayabusa asteroid grains. Each of these collections have unique curation requirements for organic contamination monitor-ing and control. Here is described some changes allowed by improved technology or driven by changes in environmental regulations and economy, concluding with comments on organic witness wafers. Future sample return missions (OSIRIS-Rex; Mars; comets) will require extremely low levels of organic contamination in spacecraft collection and thus similarly low levels in curation. JSC Curation is undertaking a program to document organic baseline levels in current operations and devise ways to reduce those levels.

  12. Prevalence and genotyping of Cryptosporidium in stool samples collected from children in Taif City (Saudi Arabia).

    PubMed

    Shalaby, I; Gherbawy, Y; Jamjoom, M; Banaja, A

    2014-06-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the frequency of Cryptosporidium infections in Taif (Saudi Arabia). Stool samples from children under 10 years by modified Ziehl-Neelson staining and two PCR techniques were used for genotyping experiments. The microscopic examination showed that, eleven samples were positive for presence of Cryptosporidium. With 11 of 100 samples, DNA extraction and subsequent genotyping was successful. By means of RAPD technique, the genetic similarity among the collected isolates was 55%. The 18S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that all Cryptosporidium-isolates belonged to Cryptosporidium parvum. In comparison with reference strains from different species of Cryptosporidium species from GenBank, all collected isolates belonged to Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum clade. The fact that only human genotypes were detected suggests that cryptosporidiosis must primarily be considered as a non zoonotic disease in Taif region. PMID:25134890

  13. Concentration and characteristics of depleted uranium in biological and water samples collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guogang; Belli, Maria; Sansone, Umberto; Rosamilia, Silvia; Gaudino, Stefania

    2006-01-01

    During Balkan conflicts in 1994-1995, depleted uranium (DU) ordnance was employed and was left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of the environment with DU penetrators and dust. In order to evaluate the impact of DU on the environment and population in Bosnia and Herzegovina, radiological survey of DU in biological and water samples were carried out over the period 12-24 October 2002. The uranium isotopic concentrations in biological samples collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina, mainly lichens, mosses and barks, were found to be in the range of 0.27-35.7 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, 0.24-16.8 Bq kg(-1) for (234)U, and 0.02-1.11 Bq kg(-1) for (235)U, showing uranium levels to be higher than in the samples collected at the control site. Moreover, the (236)U in some of the samples was detectable. The isotopic ratios of (234)U/(238)U showed DU to be detectable in many biological samples at most sites examined, but in very low levels. The presence of DU in the biological samples was as a result of DU contamination in air. The uranium concentrations in water samples collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina were found to be in the range of 0.27-16.2 m Bq l(-1) for (238)U, 0.41-15.6 m Bq l(-1) for (234)U and 0.012-0.695 m Bq l(-1) for (235)U, and two water samples were observed to be DU positive; these values are much lower than those in mineral water found in central Italy and below the WHO guideline for public drinking water. From radiotoxicological point of view, at this moment there is no significant radiological risk related to these investigated sites in terms of possible DU contamination of water and/or plants. PMID:16806612

  14. Comparison of blood chemistry values for samples collected from juvenile chinook salmon by three methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Congleton, J.L.; LaVoie, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen blood chemistry indices were compared for samples collected by three commonly used methods: caudal transection, heart puncture, and caudal vessel puncture. Apparent biases in blood chemistry values for samples obtained by caudal transection were consistent with dilution with tissue fluids: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride, and K+ were increased and Na+ and Cl- were decreased relative to values for samples obtained by caudal vessel puncture. Some enzyme activities (ALT, AST, LDH) and K+ concentrations were also greater in samples taken by heart puncture than in samples taken by caudal vessel puncture. Of the methods tested, caudal vessel puncture had the least effect on blood chemistry values and should be preferred for blood chemistry studies on juvenile salmonids.

  15. Determination of multiple toxins in whelk and clam samples collected from the Chukchi and Bering seas.

    PubMed

    Li, Aifeng; Chen, Huidan; Qiu, Jiangbing; Lin, Heshan; Gu, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    Buccinidae whelk Neptunea varicifera (Dall), Cardiidae clam Serripes laperousii (Deshayes), and two unknown species of whelk and clam were collected from the Arctic Chukchi Sea and sub-Arctic Bering Sea in July 2014. In this study, the mollusk samples were analyzed by different liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods for multiple shellfish toxins, including okadaic acid (OA), pectenotoxin (PTX), yessotoxin (YTX), azaspiracid (AZA), cyclic imines (CI), and saxitoxin (STX) groups. PTX2 (≈2.0 μg kg(-1) whole tissues) was detected exclusively in the clam S. laperousii collected from the Chukchi Sea. OA and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) were restricted to mollusk samples collected from the Bering Sea, and OA was the dominant component of the whelk N. varicifera (63 μg kg(-1) digestive gland) and an unknown species of whelk (6.8 μg kg(-1) digestive gland). Spirolide-1 (SPX1) was confirmed in most samples except for the whelk N. varicifera collected from the Bering Sea. The highest content of SPX1 (≈18.5 μg kg(-1) digestive gland) occurred in the whelk N. varicifera collected from the Chukchi Sea, along with the suspected presence of SPX-C, SPX-D and didesMe-SPX-C. YTX, as well as its derivatives 45-OH-YTX and 45,46,47-Trinor-YTX, were found in all samples, with the highest YTX content (66 μg kg(-1) digestive gland) present in the whelk N. varicifera collected from the Chukchi Sea. Interestingly, STX and dcSTX were measured only in the whelk N. varicifera and unknown species of clam collected from the Chukchi Sea. No AZA-group toxins, gymnodimine (GYM), or pinnatoxin G were found in any samples analyzed. Results demonstrated that the mollusk samples were contaminated by multiple shellfish toxins in the Chukchi and Bering seas. This study highlights the need to monitor potentially toxic microalgae in the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions, as well as species of mollusk that may be included in future commercial or subsistence harvests. PMID:26647287

  16. Extraterrestrial samples from low Earth orbits: techniques for their collection and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, J.

    2002-08-01

    In the context of dust samples collections in space, the COMET experiment (Collecte en Orbite de Matire ExtraTerrestre) was proposed for the first time in 1982. The idea of such an experiment was to collect grains with identified cometary parent body, instead of mixing all extraterrestrial contributions present in low Earth orbit. It was thus proposed to install collectors inside hermetic boxes, to have these boxes mounted outside a space station, orbiting the Earth and to have the capability of choosing the time and duration of the collection. Since 1985, the COMET experiment has been exposed three times to space (COMET-1, in October 1985 during the encounter of the Earth with the Draconid meteor stream; the EUROMIR-95 instrument, exposing collectors, during the crossing by the Earth of the Orionid meteor stream associated to comet P/Halley and, in November 1998, during the crossing by the Earth of the Leonid meteor stream associated to comet Temple-Tuttle, COMET-99). Specific collection techniques, and corresponding analytical procedures have been developed. The collected particles are the only ones accessible in the laboratory with a known cometary origin, before the return to Earth (2006) of the Stardust mission, which will collect cometary grains in the tails of comet Wild 2. Such a challenge justifies the tremendous efforts brought into play, and that are summarized here.

  17. Optimizing detection of noble gas emission at a former UNE site: sample strategy, collection, and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkham, R.; Olsen, K.; Hayes, J. C.; Emer, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    Underground nuclear tests may be first detected by seismic or air samplers operated by the CTBTO (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization). After initial detection of a suspicious event, member nations may call for an On-Site Inspection (OSI) that in part, will sample for localized releases of radioactive noble gases and particles. Although much of the commercially available equipment and methods used for surface and subsurface environmental sampling of gases can be used for an OSI scenario, on-site sampling conditions, required sampling volumes and establishment of background concentrations of noble gases require development of specialized methodologies. To facilitate development of sampling equipment and methodologies that address OSI sampling volume and detection objectives, and to collect information required for model development, a field test site was created at a former underground nuclear explosion site located in welded volcanic tuff. A mixture of SF-6, Xe127 and Ar37 was metered into 4400 m3 of air as it was injected into the top region of the UNE cavity. These tracers were expected to move towards the surface primarily in response to barometric pumping or through delayed cavity pressurization (accelerated transport to minimize source decay time). Sampling approaches compared during the field exercise included sampling at the soil surface, inside surface fractures, and at soil vapor extraction points at depths down to 2 m. Effectiveness of various sampling approaches and the results of tracer gas measurements will be presented.

  18. Transient thermal envelope for rovers and sample collecting devices on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, P. B.; Parzinger, S.; Haarmann, R.; Walter, U.

    2015-03-01

    The requirements for the design of rovers and sample collecting devices for the Moon are driven by the harsh and diverse thermal lunar environment. Local lunar surface temperatures are governed by boulders and craters. The present work quantifies the changes in solar and infrared heat fluxes q˙Sol and q˙IR impinging on a rover or a sample collecting device, on the surface of the Moon, by combining lunar surface models, spacecraft and manipulator models, and transient thermal calculations. The interaction between a rover, boulders, and craters was simulated for three solar elevation angles (θ = 2°, 10°, and 90°), resembling lunar surface temperatures of Treg = 170, 248, and 392 K, respectively. Infrared and solar heat fluxes for paths in the vicinity of a single boulder, a field of five boulders, and a single crater were compared to a path on an unobstructed surface. The same heat fluxes were applied to closed and open sample collecting devices to investigate the temperature development of the transported regolith sample. The results show how total received infrared heat on a rover may increase by up to 331%, over the course of a transit in front of sunlit boulders compared to the same transit over an unobstructed plane. Temporary this leads to a 12-fold increased infrared heat flux at closest distance to the obstacle. A transit through a small bowl shaped crater on the other hand may decrease total received solar heat by as much as 86%. Relative as well as absolute influence of surface features on received heat fluxes increases significantly towards smaller solar elevation angles. The temperature of pristine samples, transported in closed or open sample collecting devices, increase from 120 to 150 K within 1 to 1.3 h if exposed to direct solar illumination and infrared heat. Protection from solar illumination yields in 8-fold and 5-fold increased transport times for closed and open sample devices, respectively. Closed sample transporters dampen short exposure times to solar illumination but also lead to higher sample end temperatures in the same period. The degradation of absorptivity and emissivity, due to coverage with dust or scratches obtained during operation, will significantly alter the sample temperature in a negative manner. The results indicate that transient thermal analyses, that take into account the local lunar environment, are feasible and permit more detailed thermal envelopes for future rover missions to the surface of the Moon.

  19. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Gnther; Wolff, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 ?m. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  20. Alkylphenol Polyethoxylate Derivatives in Groundwater and Blood Samples Collected from Pig Herds in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    CHIU, Tai-Shun; HSIEH, Chi-Ying; MIAW, Chang-Ling; LIN, Chao-Nan; CHANG, Tsung-Chou; YEN, Chia-Hung; CHIOU, Ming-Tang

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Alkylphenol polyethoxylate (APEO) derivatives, such as nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO), nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO), nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP), have been detected in the surface water, sediment, food and groundwater of numerous countries. Because groundwater is the main source of water for pig herds, the aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of APEO derivatives in groundwater and blood samples that were collected from pig herds raised near the Wuluo River in Southern Taiwan. The mean concentrations of NP, OP, NP1EO and NP2EO in the groundwater supply for 10 pig herds were 0.04 g/l, 0.26 0.23 g/l, 0.74 0.69 g/l and 0.17 0.22 g/l, respectively. NP was detected in all blood samples collected from 5 of the 10 pig herds. The highest concentrations detected in the blood samples collected from six-week-old piglets and sows were 12.00 g/l and 56.94 g/l, respectively. Blood samples from 4 of the 5 herds showed OP contamination. The highest OP concentrations detected in 6-week-old piglets and sows were 275.58 g/l and 566.32 g/l, respectively. These results indicate that APEO derivatives accumulated in the groundwater supply and the bloodstreams of the pigs. PMID:24694943

  1. Alkylphenol polyethoxylate derivatives in groundwater and blood samples collected from pig herds in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Tai-Shun; Hsieh, Chi-Ying; Miaw, Chang-Ling; Lin, Chao-Nan; Chang, Tsung-Chou; Yen, Chia-Hung; Chiou, Ming-Tang

    2014-07-01

    Alkylphenol polyethoxylate (APEO) derivatives, such as nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO), nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO), nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP), have been detected in the surface water, sediment, food and groundwater of numerous countries. Because groundwater is the main source of water for pig herds, the aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of APEO derivatives in groundwater and blood samples that were collected from pig herds raised near the Wuluo River in Southern Taiwan. The mean concentrations of NP, OP, NP1EO and NP2EO in the groundwater supply for 10 pig herds were 0.04 g/l, 0.26 0.23 g/l, 0.74 0.69 g/l and 0.17 0.22 g/l, respectively. NP was detected in all blood samples collected from 5 of the 10 pig herds. The highest concentrations detected in the blood samples collected from six-week-old piglets and sows were 12.00 g/l and 56.94 g/l, respectively. Blood samples from 4 of the 5 herds showed OP contamination. The highest OP concentrations detected in 6-week-old piglets and sows were 275.58 g/l and 566.32 g/l, respectively. These results indicate that APEO derivatives accumulated in the groundwater supply and the bloodstreams of the pigs. PMID:24694943

  2. Salivary cortisol results obtainable within minutes of sample collection correspond with traditional immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Shirtcliff, E.A.; Buck, R.L.; Laughlin, M.; Hart, T.; Cole, C.R.; Slowey, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cortisol is frequently assayed as a stress-responsive biomarker which changes over the course of minutes to meet the demands of an individual’s social context. Salivary cortisol is often utilized as a non-invasive sampling methodology which possesses important health implications. A critical barrier to psychobiological research involving salivary cortisol is a time-delay of days to months before cortisol results are obtained via immunoassay, long after the individual is no longer proximate to the social context in which they provided the sample. The current study was designed to address this critical barrier through creation of a lateral flow technology (LFT) cortisol device capable of measuring salivary cortisol within minutes of sample collection. LFT is frequently used within commercial point-of-care settings to obtain rapid answers to the presence/absence of a biomarker. The present study extends LFT into the research domain by presenting performance characteristics of a quantitative LFT which measures salivary cortisol within 20 minutes of sample collection. Methods Saliva samples on N=29 adults (15 males) were obtained in the morning and afternoon using Passive Drool and then the Super•SAL™ Extra Collection Device (hereafter Super•SAL™) and later assayed with LFT and a commercially available enzyme-immunoassay. Findings Results show LFT correlated well with these collection methods (R=.872 with Super•SAL™; R=.739 with Passive Drool, p-values<.0001) and at comparable levels to correspondence of Super•SAL™ with Passive Drool (R=.798, p<.0001) which were measured with the same assay. Implications These results open up an exciting new possibility to integrate this technological advance into stress research, including knowing and potentially changing the individual’s social context in a time-sensitive manner. Methodological improvements such as this have the possibility of refining conceptual models of stress reactivity and regulation. PMID:25773457

  3. A 20-minute breath test for helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, B.J.; Plankey, M.W.; Hoffman, S.R.; Boyd, C.L.; Dye, K.R.; Frierson, H.F. Jr.; Guerrant, R.L.; McCallum, R.W. )

    1991-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated a simplified rapid {sup 14}C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. Fasting patients undergoing initial assessment for H. pylori drank 5 microCi of {sup 14}C-urea in 20 ml of water. Breath was collected at intervals for 30 min. Samples were counted in a beta-counter, and the results were expressed as counts per minute (cpm). In the same week, patients underwent endoscopy, and a blinded investigator examined biopsy samples of gastric mucosa by culture and histology for H. pylori. There were 49 H. pylori-negative (HP-) and 104 H. pylori-positive (HP+) patients in the study. HP+ patients expired a mean of 4398 cpm (SD 2468) per mmol CO{sub 2} in a sample taken 20 min after ingestion of the isotope. In contrast, HP--patients expired only 340 cpm (SD 196). If the mean +3 SD of HP- patients was used as a cutoff value, the 20-minute sample gave a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 100% for detecting H. pylori. The radiation exposure from this test is less than 1% of that received from an upper gastrointestinal series, and the short collection time makes it both convenient and cost effective.

  4. Collective Efficacy and Obesity-Related Health Behaviors in a Community Sample of African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Bellamy, Scarlett; Briggs, Vanessa; Bowman, Marjorie; Delmoor, Ernestine; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Rogers, Rodney; Purnell, Joseph; Weathers, Benita; Johnson, Jerry C.

    2013-01-01

    The social environment is important to body mass index and obesity. However, it is unknown if perceptions of the social environment are associated with obesity-related behaviors in populations at greatest risk for being overweight or obese. We evaluated the relationship between collective efficacy and diet and physical activity in a community-based sample of African American adults who were residents in an urban area. Data were collected as part of an academic-community partnership from November 2009–2011. We evaluated whether participants met the recommended guidelines for diet and physical activity based on collective efficacy and their sociodemographic background, health care variables, and self-efficacy in a community-based sample of African American adults (n=338) who were residents in the Philadelphia, PA metropolitan area. Overall, many participants did not meet the recommended guidelines for fruit and vegetable intake or physical activity. The likelihood of meeting the recommended guidelines for fruit intake increased with greater levels of collective efficacy (OR=1.57, 95% CI=1.18, 2.07, p=0.002) and self-efficacy for diet (OR=1.56, 95% CI=1.19, 2.04, p=0.001). Collective efficacy was not associated with physical activity and the positive association between collective efficacy and vegetable intake was not statistically significant (OR=1.25, 95% CI=0.94, 1.65, p=0.12). It is important to determine the most effective methods and settings for improving diet and physical activity behaviors in urban African Americans. Enhancing collective efficacy may be important to improving adherence to recommended guidelines for obesity-related health behaviors. PMID:24026302

  5. Breathing metabolic simulator.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a device for simulation of the human breathing and metabolic parameters required for the evaluation of respiratory diagnostic, monitoring, support and resuscitation equipment. The remotely controlled device allows wide variations in breathing rate and depth, breath velocity contour, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide release to simulate conditions from sleep to hard work, with respiration exchange ratios ranging from hypoventilation to hyperventilation. It also reduces the cost of prolonged testing when simulation chambers with human subjects require three shifts of crews and standby physicians. Several block diagrams of the device and subsystems are given.

  6. The U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS)A master catalog and collections management plan for U.S. Geological Survey geologic samples and sample collections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geologic Materials Repository Working Group

    2015-01-01

    The general consideration for implementation of the GCMS is that all active USGS geologic sample repositories will form the core of GCMS and that participating science centers will develop procedures based on proposed GCMS methodologies. The GCMS is a collective resource for the entire USGS community and the users who discover the geologic materials kept in these repositories and seek to access them.

  7. Multiple Approaches to Down Sizing of the Lunar Sample Return Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Horz, F.

    2010-01-01

    Future Lunar missions are planned for at least 7 days, significantly longer than the 3 days of the later Apollo missions. The last of those missions, A-17, returned 111 kg of samples plus another 20 kg of containers. The current Constellation program requirements for return weight for science is 100 kg with the hope of raising that limit to near 250 kg including containers and other non-geological materials. The estimated return weight for rock and soil samples will, at best, be about 175 kg. One method proposed to accomplish down-sizing of the collection is the use of a Geo-Lab in the lunar habitat to complete a preliminary examination of selected samples and facilitate prioritizing the return samples.

  8. Spectroscopic Characterization of Dust-Fall Samples Collected from Greater Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shaltout, Abdallah A; Allam, Mousa A; Mostafa, Nasser Y; Heiba, Zein K

    2016-04-01

    This work aimed to characterize dust-fall samples collected from street's trees in Greater Cairo (GC), Egypt, and its surroundings by different spectroscopic techniques, namely; X-ray diffraction (XRD), attenuated total-reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), particle-size analyzer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray measurements. Samples were collected from 19 different locations inside and outside of GC. Quantitative phase analysis of the dust-fall samples was performed using the Rietveld method. Results showed that the most frequently observed phases in the dust-fall samples were calcite (CaCO3), dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2), gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), and quartz (SiO2) with average concentrations of 39 ± 16, 8 ± 7, 22 ± 13, and 33 ± 14 wt%, respectively. The occurrence of these constituents referred to a combination of different anthropogenic and natural sources. The ATR-FTIR results are in good agreements with XRD data of the different observed phases. Based on the SEM and particle-size measurements, quantitative determination of the particle-size distribution was described. It was found that not only the large-sized particles are deposited but also the small-sized ones (PM10 and PM2.5). In addition, the particle size of the collected dust-fall samples varied from 0.1 to 200 µm with an average particle size of 17.36 µm; however, the particle size ranged from 2.5 to 40 µm predominated in all of the dust-fall samples. PMID:26710766

  9. Quantitation of DNA in buccal cell samples collected in epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Garca-Closas, M; Moore, L E; Rabkin, C S; Franklin, T; Struewing, J; Ginzinger, D; Alguacil, J; Rothman, N

    2006-01-01

    Buccal cell samples are increasingly used in epidemiological studies as a source of genomic DNA. The accurate and precise quantitation of human DNA is critical for the optimal use of these samples. However, it is complicated by the presence of bacterial DNA and wide inter-individual variation in DNA concentration from buccal cell collections. The paper evaluated the use of ultraviolet light (UV) spectroscopy, Hechst (H33258) and PicoGreen as measures of total DNA, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a measure of human amplifiable DNA in buccal samples. Using serially diluted white blood cell DNA samples (at a concentration range of 300 to 0.5 ng microl-1), UV spectroscopy showed the largest bias, followed by Hechst, especially for low concentrations. PicoGreen and real-time PCR provided the most accurate and precise estimates across the range of concentrations evaluated, although an increase in bias with decreasing concentrations was observed. The ratio of real-time PCR to PicoGreen provided a reasonable estimate of the percentage of human DNA in samples containing known mixtures of human and bacterial DNA. Quantification of buccal DNA from samples collected in a breast cancer case-control study by PicoGreen and real-time PCR indicated that cytobrush and mouthwash DNA samples contain similar percentages of human amplifiable DNA. Real-time PCR is recommended for the quantification of buccal cell DNA in epidemiological studies since it provides precise estimates of human amplifiable DNA across the wide range of DNA concentrations commonly observed in buccal cell DNA samples. PMID:16966163

  10. 75 FR 80072 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... alpha energy. Medical doctors and scientists have associated high radon daughter exposures with lung cancer. The health hazard arises from breathing air contaminated with radon daughters which are in turn deposited in the lungs. The lung tissues are sensitive to alpha radioactivity. Standard 30 CFR...

  11. 75 FR 79033 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... alpha energy. Medical doctors and scientists have associated high radon daughter exposures with lung cancer. The health hazard arises from breathing air contaminated with radon daughters which are in turn deposited in the lungs. The lung tissues are sensitive to alpha radioactivity. Standard 30 CFR...

  12. A Breath Fungal Secondary Metabolite Signature to Diagnose Invasive Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Sophia; Thomas, Horatio R.; Daniels, S. David; Lynch, Robert C.; Fortier, Sean M.; Shea, Margaret M.; Rearden, Preshious; Comolli, James C.; Baden, Lindsey R.; Marty, Francisco M.

    2014-01-01

    Background.?Invasive aspergillosis (IA) remains a leading cause of mortality in immunocompromised patients, in part due to the difficulty of diagnosing this infection. Methods.?Using thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we characterized the in vitro volatile metabolite profile of Aspergillus fumigatus, the most common cause of IA, and other pathogenic aspergilli. We prospectively collected breath samples from patients with suspected invasive fungal pneumonia from 2011 to 2013, and assessed whether we could discriminate patients with proven or probable IA from patients without aspergillosis, as determined by European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group consensus definitions, by direct detection of fungal volatile metabolites in these breath samples. Results.?The monoterpenes camphene, ?- and ?-pinene, and limonene, and the sesquiterpene compounds ?- and ?-trans-bergamotene were distinctive volatile metabolites of A. fumigatus in vitro, distinguishing it from other pathogenic aspergilli. Of 64 patients with suspected invasive fungal pneumonia based on host risk factors, clinical symptoms, and radiologic findings, 34 were diagnosed with IA, whereas 30 were ultimately diagnosed with other causes of pneumonia, including other invasive mycoses. Detection of ?-trans-bergamotene, ?-trans-bergamotene, a ?-vatirenenelike sesquiterpene, or trans-geranylacetone identified IA patients with 94% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 81%98%) and 93% specificity (95% CI, 79%98%). Conclusions.?In patients with suspected fungal pneumonia, an Aspergillus secondary metabolite signature in breath can identify individuals with IA. These results provide proof-of-concept that direct detection of exogenous fungal metabolites in breath can be used as a novel, noninvasive, pathogen-specific approach to identifying the precise microbial cause of pneumonia. PMID:25342502

  13. Evaluation of water samples collected during LANDSAT-1 overpasses of the lower Chesapeake Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, D. E.; Witte, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    Water samples were collected on 18 days when the LANDSAT-1 satellite was passing over the lower Chesapeake Bay area. A correlation between the various water parameters has been performed for the more than 300 surface samples. Six days were sufficiently cloudless that MSS digital tapes were useful for analysis. Correlation of radiance values with the water parameters revealed a low correlation for chlorophyll and good correlations with particles and sediment. The relation of total particles to sediment was linear, but varied from day to day.

  14. Characterization Data Package for Containerized Sludge Samples Collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Baldwin, David L.; Daniel, Richard C.; Bos, Stanley J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Carlson, Clark D.; Coffey, Deborah S.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Neiner, Doinita; Oliver, Brian M.; Pool, Karl N.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Urie, Michael W.

    2013-09-10

    This data package contains the K Basin sludge characterization results obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory during processing and analysis of four sludge core samples collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210 in 2010 as requested by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company. Sample processing requirements, analytes of interest, detection limits, and quality control sample requirements are defined in the KBC-33786, Rev. 2. The core processing scope included reconstitution of a sludge core sample distributed among four to six 4-L polypropylene bottles into a single container. The reconstituted core sample was then mixed and subsampled to support a variety of characterization activities. Additional core sludge subsamples were combined to prepare a container composite. The container composite was fractionated by wet sieving through a 2,000 micron mesh and a 500-micron mesh sieve. Each sieve fraction was sampled to support a suite of analyses. The core composite analysis scope included density determination, radioisotope analysis, and metals analysis, including the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit metals (with the exception of mercury). The container composite analysis included most of the core composite analysis scope plus particle size distribution, particle density, rheology, and crystalline phase identification. A summary of the received samples, core sample reconstitution and subsampling activities, container composite preparation and subsampling activities, physical properties, and analytical results are presented. Supporting data and documentation are provided in the appendices. There were no cases of sample or data loss and all of the available samples and data are reported as required by the Quality Assurance Project Plan/Sampling and Analysis Plan.

  15. Sample collection guidelines for trace elements in blood and urine. IUPAC Commission of Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, R; Heinzow, B; Herber, R F; Christensen, J M; Poulsen, O M; Sabbioni, E; Templeton, D M; Thomassen, Y; Vahter, M; Vesterberg, O

    1996-06-01

    This paper presents an organized system for element-specific sample collection and handling of human blood (whole blood, serum or plasma, packed cells or erythrocytes) and urine also indicating a proper definition of the subject and sample. Harmonized procedures for collection, preparation, analysis and quality control are suggested. The aim is to assist scientists worldwide to produce comparable data which will be useful on a regional, national and international scale. The guidelines are directed to the elements aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium and zinc. These include the most important elements measured for their occupational or clinical significance, and serve as examples of principles that will guide development of methods for other elements in the future. PMID:8829133

  16. Stabilization of clinical samples collected for quantitative bioanalysis--a reflection from the European Bioanalysis Forum.

    PubMed

    Hilhorst, Martijn; van Amsterdam, Peter; Heinig, Katja; Zwanziger, Elke; Abbott, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In bioanalysis of small molecules, the analyte concentration in the measured samples should reflect the concentration during sample collection. Precautions may be needed to prevent over- or under-estimation of the obtained result. This might require the addition of stabilizers to prevent degradation or nonspecific binding. For unstable drugs, it is essential to know how analytes can be stabilized before the start of the clinical study. Although the stabilization methods are well documented, the impact of the stabilization on the clinical workflow is not properly addressed. Already during method development, the clinical implications in terms of personnel safety, ease of use, training possibilities and staff capacity should be taken into account, and validation of the bioanalytical method should reflect collection procedures. PMID:25697191

  17. Potential contamination of forensic entomology samples collected in the mortuary: a case report.

    PubMed

    Archer, M S; Ranson, D L

    2005-01-01

    Carrion insects originating from infested bodies may establish small mortuary populations. Two Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine cases are presented to illustrate how these insects can potentially contaminate forensic entomology samples collected in the mortuary. The first case proves that bodies can be colonised in the mortuary: when a decomposed body in freezer storage was thawed for a procedure in the main mortuary, it was colonised within five minutes of exposure by the beetle Necrobia rufipes De Geer (Cleridae, Coleoptera). The second case illustrates that immobile juvenile insects can be transferred between bodies, and describes the transfer of an Eristalis sp. (Syrphidae, Diptera) pupa from a decomposed to a fresh body. While the contamination risk is slight, it can be further minimised by checking mortuary-collected samples against those taken from the body discovery site, by mortuary pest control, and by checking previous mortuary admittance records for possible contamination sources. PMID:15745280

  18. Enhanced Conformational Sampling Using Replica Exchange with Collective-Variable Tempering

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The computational study of conformational transitions in RNA and proteins with atomistic molecular dynamics often requires suitable enhanced sampling techniques. We here introduce a novel method where concurrent metadynamics are integrated in a Hamiltonian replica-exchange scheme. The ladder of replicas is built with different strengths of the bias potential exploiting the tunability of well-tempered metadynamics. Using this method, free-energy barriers of individual collective variables are significantly reduced compared with simple force-field scaling. The introduced methodology is flexible and allows adaptive bias potentials to be self-consistently constructed for a large number of simple collective variables, such as distances and dihedral angles. The method is tested on alanine dipeptide and applied to the difficult problem of conformational sampling in a tetranucleotide. PMID:25838811

  19. STS-55 Payload Specialist Schlegel collects fungi sample at SL-D2 Rack 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, wearing lightweight headset, collects fungi sample while working at Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module Rack 1 Work Bench. Schlegel is conducting these procedures in conjunction with the 'Fruiting Body Development of Fungi' experiment. Schlegel was one of two payload specialists representing the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) on the 10-day spacelab mission.

  20. STS-55 Payload Specialist Schlegel collects fungi sample at SL-D2 Rack 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, wearing lightweight headset, collects fungi sample while working at Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module Rack 1 Work Bench. Schlegel is conducting these procedures in conjunction with the 'Fruiting Body Development of Fungi' experiment. Pieces of the experiment casing freefloat in the workstation.Schlegel represents the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) on the 10-day spacelab mission.

  1. Breath holding spell

    MedlinePLUS

    ... such as Riley-Day syndrome or Rett syndrome Iron deficiency anemia A family history of breath holding spells ( ... tests may be done to check for an iron deficiency. Other tests that may be done include: EKG ...

  2. Chromatographic sample collection from two-phase (gas+liquid) flows.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Thomas J; Windom, Bret C

    2011-12-01

    A particularly challenging sample presentation in analytical chemistry is a flowing stream that consists of both a gas and liquid phase, combined with the common situation in which a reliable analysis is needed for both phases, separately. In these cases, the vapor and liquid must be physically separated (without change to either), before the individual phases can be collected and analyzed. It is not possible to analyze two-phase flows otherwise. Although the two phases are at equilibrium, it is imperative that no liquid contaminate the vapor, and no vapor be entrained in the liquid at a given temperature and pressure. In this paper, we describe a simple on-line device that can individually separate and collect the vapor and liquid phases of a two-phase flow. The apparatus, which we call P(2)SC, uses an adaptation of the branch point separator, with vapor collection done downstream in a metal bellows. The liquid collection is done in a length of Teflon tube. The separated vapor and liquid phases are then easily transferred into any desired analytical instrument with a syringe, although any sample introduction method, such as a valve, could be used as well. We discuss the application of this device with a stream of thermally stressed rocket kerosene. PMID:22036084

  3. Changes in Breath Trihalomethane Levels Resulting from Household Water-Use Activities

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Sydney M.; Brinkman, Marielle C.; Ashley, David L.; Blount, Benjamin C.; Lyu, Christopher; Masters, John; Singer, Philip C.

    2006-01-01

    Common household water-use activities such as showering, bathing, drinking, and washing clothes or dishes are potentially important contributors to individual exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the major class of disinfection by-products of water treated with chlorine. Previous studies have focused on showering or bathing activities. In this study, we selected 12 common water-use activities and determined which may lead to the greatest THM exposures and result in the greatest increase in the internal dose. Seven subjects performed the various water-use activities in two residences served by water utilities with relatively high and moderate total THM levels. To maintain a consistent exposure environment, the activities, exposure times, air exchange rates, water flows, water temperatures, and extraneous THM emissions to the indoor air were carefully controlled. Water, indoor air, blood, and exhaled-breath samples were collected during each exposure session for each activity, in accordance with a strict, well-defined protocol. Although showering (for 10 min) and bathing (for 14 min), as well as machine washing of clothes and opening mechanical dishwashers at the end of the cycle, resulted in substantial increases in indoor air chloroform concentrations, only showering and bathing caused significant increases in the breath chloroform levels. In the case of bromodichloromethane (BDCM), only bathing yielded a significantly higher air level in relation to the preexposure concentration. For chloroform from showering, strong correlations were observed for indoor air and exhaled breath, blood and exhaled breath, indoor air and blood, and tap water and blood. Only water and breath, and blood and breath were significantly associated for chloroform from bathing. For BDCM, significant correlations were obtained for blood and air, and blood and water from showering. Neither dibromochloromethane nor bromoform gave measurable breath concentrations for any of the activities investigated because of their much lower tap-water concentrations. Future studies will address the effects that changes in these common water-use activities may have on exposure. PMID:16581538

  4. Determination of trace elements in volcanic rock samples collected from cenozoic lava eruption sites using LIBS.

    PubMed

    Gondal, Mohammed A; Nasr, Mohamed M; Ahmed, Zulfiqar; Yamani, Zain H

    2009-04-01

    Trace elements of environmental significance present in the volcanic rock samples collected from sites of the Cenozoic era flood basalt flows and eruptions were detected using locally developed laser-induced breakdown spectrometer. For spectro-chemical analysis of these samples, the plasma was generated by focusing a pulsed Nd: YAG laser radiation at 1064 nm wavelength on the target rock samples. These samples were collected from four widely separated locations surrounding the volcanic eruption sites belonging to the Harrat Hutaymah volcanic field in the vicinity of Taba town, situated to the east of Hail city of northern Saudi Arabia. These samples represent the scoria basalt lava flows as well as a large tuff-ring crater and it contains xenoliths. These flows occur widespread over the Earth's surface in this region, and their contained xenoliths are brought up from depths of a few tens of kilometers. This volcanic field has received much less attention in the previous geological studies; and consequently, its effects on the environment are not well defined. The concentration of different elements of environmental significance like Cr, Pb, Mn, Cd, Sr and other trace metals like Cu, Al, Ca, Mg, Zn, Ti and Fe in these rock samples were determined by spectral analysis. Parametric dependence for improvement of LIBS sensitivity for detection of these elements was also carried out. The highest concentration detected of environmentally significant elements like Cr, Mn, Pb, Sr and Ni are 1910, 1399, 90.5, 12412 and 461.5 ppm, respectively in four different lava samples which are considered to be much higher than the safe permissible limits. The LIBS results were compared with the results obtained using other analytical techniques such as the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). PMID:19241268

  5. Urine concentrations of oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Auchenberg, Michael; Rzeppa, Sebastian; Hemmersbach, Peter; Bangsbo, Jens; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to investigate urine concentrations of 8 mg oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes. Nine male endurance athletes with a VO2max of 70.2 ± 5.9 mL/min/kg (mean ± SD) took part in the study. Two hours after administration of 8 mg oral salbutamol, subjects performed submaximal exercise for 15 min followed by two, 2-min exercise bouts at an intensity corresponding to 110% of VO2max and a bout to exhaustion at same intensity. Urine samples were collected 4, 8, and 12 h following administration of salbutamol. Samples were analyzed by the Norwegian World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) laboratory. Adjustment of urine concentrations of salbutamol to a urine specific gravity (USG) of 1.020 g/mL was compared with no adjustment according to WADA's technical documents. We observed greater (P = 0.01) urine concentrations of salbutamol 4 h after administration when samples were adjusted to a USG of 1.020 g/mL compared with no adjustment (3089 ± 911 vs. 1918 ± 1081 ng/mL). With the current urine decision limit of 1200 ng/mL for salbutamol on WADA's 2013 list of prohibited substances, fewer false negative urine samples were observed when adjusted to a USG of 1.020 g/mL compared with no adjustment. In conclusion, adjustment of urine samples to a USG of 1.020 g/mL decreases risk of false negative doping tests after administration of oral salbutamol. Adjusting urine samples for USG might be useful when evaluating urine concentrations of salbutamol in doping cases. PMID:24166762

  6. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS AND HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that u...

  7. Pesticide-sampling equipment, sample-collection and processing procedures, and water-quality data at Chicod Creek, North Carolina, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, T.K.; Smith, K.E.; Wood, C.D.; Williams, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected from Chicod Creek in the Coastal Plain Province of North Carolina during the summer of 1992 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Chicod Creek is in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage area, one of four study units designated to test equipment and procedures for collecting and processing samples for the solid-phase extraction of selected pesticides, The equipment and procedures were used to isolate 47 pesticides, including organonitrogen, carbamate, organochlorine, organophosphate, and other compounds, targeted to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sample-collection and processing equipment equipment cleaning and set-up procedures, methods pertaining to collecting, splitting, and solid-phase extraction of samples, and water-quality data resulting from the field test are presented in this report Most problems encountered during this intensive sampling exercise were operational difficulties relating to equipment used to process samples.

  8. Exhaled breath analysis for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sutedja, Tom G.; Zimmerman, Paul V.

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis of lung cancer results in improved survival compared to diagnosis with more advanced disease. Early disease is not reliably indicated by symptoms. Because investigations such as bronchoscopy and needle biopsy have associated risks and substantial costs, they are not suitable for population screening. Hence new easily applicable tests, which can be used to screen individuals at risk, are required. Biomarker testing in exhaled breath samples is a simple, relatively inexpensive, non-invasive approach. Exhaled breath contains volatile and non-volatile organic compounds produced as end-products of metabolic processes and the composition of such compounds varies between healthy subjects and subjects with lung cancer. Many studies have analysed the patterns of these compounds in exhaled breath. In addition studies have also reported that the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) can reveal gene mutations or DNA abnormalities in patients with lung cancer. This review has summarised the scientific evidence demonstrating that lung cancer has distinct chemical profiles in exhaled breath and characteristic genetic changes in EBC. It is not yet possible to accurately identify individuals with lung cancer in at risk populations by any of these techniques. However, analysis of both volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and of EBC have great potential to become clinically useful diagnostic and screening tools for early stage lung cancer detection. PMID:24163746

  9. Exhaled breath analysis for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Dent, Annette G; Sutedja, Tom G; Zimmerman, Paul V

    2013-10-01

    Early diagnosis of lung cancer results in improved survival compared to diagnosis with more advanced disease. Early disease is not reliably indicated by symptoms. Because investigations such as bronchoscopy and needle biopsy have associated risks and substantial costs, they are not suitable for population screening. Hence new easily applicable tests, which can be used to screen individuals at risk, are required. Biomarker testing in exhaled breath samples is a simple, relatively inexpensive, non-invasive approach. Exhaled breath contains volatile and non-volatile organic compounds produced as end-products of metabolic processes and the composition of such compounds varies between healthy subjects and subjects with lung cancer. Many studies have analysed the patterns of these compounds in exhaled breath. In addition studies have also reported that the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) can reveal gene mutations or DNA abnormalities in patients with lung cancer. This review has summarised the scientific evidence demonstrating that lung cancer has distinct chemical profiles in exhaled breath and characteristic genetic changes in EBC. It is not yet possible to accurately identify individuals with lung cancer in at risk populations by any of these techniques. However, analysis of both volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and of EBC have great potential to become clinically useful diagnostic and screening tools for early stage lung cancer detection. PMID:24163746

  10. Monitoring real-time aerosol distribution in the breathing zone.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, C A; Harley, N H; Lippmann, M; Cohen, B S

    1983-04-01

    A prototype air sampling, data recording, and data retrieval system was developed for monitoring aerosol concentrations in a worker's breathing zone. Three continuous-reading, light-scattering aerosol monitors and a tape recorder were incorporated into a specially designed and fabricated backpack for detailed field monitoring of both temporal and spatial variability in aerosol concentrations within the breathing zone. The backpack was worn by workers in a beryllium refinery. The aerosol which passed through each monitor was collected on a back-up filter for later chemical analysis for Be and Cu. The aerosol concentrations were recorded on magnetic tape as a function of time. The recorded signals were subsequently transcribed onto a strip chart recorder, then evaluated using a microcomputer with graphics capability. Field measurements made of the aerosol concentration at the forehead, nose, and lapel of operators during the melting and casting of beryllium-copper alloy demonstrated that there is considerable variability in concentration at different locations within the breathing zone. They also showed that operations resulting in worker exposure can be identified, and the precise time and duration of exposure can be determined. PMID:6858855

  11. Analysis of Breath Specimens for Biomarkers of Plasmodium falciparum Infection.

    PubMed

    Berna, Amalia Z; McCarthy, James S; Wang, Rosalind X; Saliba, Kevin J; Bravo, Florence G; Cassells, Julie; Padovan, Benjamin; Trowell, Stephen C

    2015-10-01

    Currently, the majority of diagnoses of malaria rely on a combination of the patient's clinical presentation and the visualization of parasites on a stained blood film. Breath offers an attractive alternative to blood as the basis for simple, noninvasive diagnosis of infectious diseases. In this study, breath samples were collected from individuals during controlled malaria to determine whether specific malaria-associated volatiles could be detected in breath. We identified 9 compounds whose concentrations varied significantly over the course of malaria: carbon dioxide, isoprene, acetone, benzene, cyclohexanone, and 4 thioethers. The latter group, consisting of allyl methyl sulfide, 1-methylthio-propane, (Z)-1-methylthio-1-propene, and (E)-1-methylthio-1-propene, had not previously been associated with any disease or condition. Before the availability of antimalarial drug treatment, there was evidence of concurrent 48-hour cyclical changes in the levels of both thioethers and parasitemia. When thioether concentrations were subjected to a phase shift of 24 hours, a direct correlation between the parasitemia and volatile levels was revealed. Volatile levels declined monotonically approximately 6.5 hours after initial drug treatment, correlating with clearance of parasitemia. No thioethers were detected in in vitro cultures of Plasmodium falciparum. The metabolic origin of the thioethers is not known, but results suggest that interplay between host and parasite metabolic pathways is involved in the production of these thioethers. PMID:25810441

  12. Analysis of Breath Specimens for Biomarkers of Plasmodium falciparum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Berna, Amalia Z.; McCarthy, James S.; Wang, Rosalind X.; Saliba, Kevin J.; Bravo, Florence G.; Cassells, Julie; Padovan, Benjamin; Trowell, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the majority of diagnoses of malaria rely on a combination of the patient's clinical presentation and the visualization of parasites on a stained blood film. Breath offers an attractive alternative to blood as the basis for simple, noninvasive diagnosis of infectious diseases. In this study, breath samples were collected from individuals during controlled malaria to determine whether specific malaria-associated volatiles could be detected in breath. We identified 9 compounds whose concentrations varied significantly over the course of malaria: carbon dioxide, isoprene, acetone, benzene, cyclohexanone, and 4 thioethers. The latter group, consisting of allyl methyl sulfide, 1-methylthio-propane, (Z)-1-methylthio-1-propene, and (E)-1-methylthio-1-propene, had not previously been associated with any disease or condition. Before the availability of antimalarial drug treatment, there was evidence of concurrent 48-hour cyclical changes in the levels of both thioethers and parasitemia. When thioether concentrations were subjected to a phase shift of 24 hours, a direct correlation between the parasitemia and volatile levels was revealed. Volatile levels declined monotonically approximately 6.5 hours after initial drug treatment, correlating with clearance of parasitemia. No thioethers were detected in in vitro cultures of Plasmodium falciparum. The metabolic origin of the thioethers is not known, but results suggest that interplay between host and parasite metabolic pathways is involved in the production of these thioethers. PMID:25810441

  13. Sampling and Selection Factors that Enhance the Diversity of Microbial Collections: Application to Biopesticide Development

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun-Kyung; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Jang-Hoon; Han, Songhee; Kang, Hunseung; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Kim, Young Cheol; Gardener, Brian McSpadden

    2013-01-01

    Diverse bacteria are known to colonize plants. However, only a small fraction of that diversity has been evaluated for their biopesticide potential. To date, the criteria for sampling and selection in such bioprospecting endeavors have not been systematically evaluated in terms of the relative amount of diversity they provide for analysis. The present study aimed to enhance the success of bio-prospecting efforts by increasing the diversity while removing the genotypic redundancy often present in large collections of bacteria. We developed a multivariate sampling and marker-based selection strategy that significantly increase the diversity of bacteria recovered from plants. In doing so, we quantified the effects of varying sampling intensity, media composition, incubation conditions, plant species, and soil source on the diversity of recovered isolates. Subsequent sequencing and high-throughput phenotypic analyses of a small fraction of the collected isolates revealed that this approach led to the recovery of over a dozen rare and, to date, poorly characterized genera of plant-associated bacteria with significant biopesticide activities. Overall, the sampling and selection approach described led to an approximately 5-fold improvement in efficiency and the recovery of several novel strains of bacteria with significant biopesticide potential. PMID:25288941

  14. Exhaled breath condensate: determination of non-volatile compounds and their potential for clinical diagnosis and monitoring. A review.

    PubMed

    Kubáň, Petr; Foret, František

    2013-12-17

    Exhaled breath condensate is a promising, non-invasive, diagnostic sample obtained by condensation of exhaled breath. Starting from a historical perspective of early attempts of breath testing towards the contemporary state-of-the-art breath analysis, this review article focuses mainly on the progress in determination of non-volatile compounds in exhaled breath condensate. The mechanisms by which the aerosols/droplets of non-volatile compounds are formed in the airways are discussed with methodological consequences for sampling. Dilution of respiratory droplets is a major problem for correct clinical interpretation of the measured data and there is an urgent need for standardization of EBC. This applies also for collection instrumentation and therefore various commercial and in-house built devices are described and compared with regard to their design, function and collection parameters. The analytical techniques and methods for determination of non-volatile compounds as potential markers of oxidative stress and lung inflammation are scrutinized with an emphasis on method suitability, sensitivity and appropriateness. The relevance of clinical findings for each group of possible non-volatile markers of selected pulmonary diseases and methodological recommendations with emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration that is essential for future development into a fully validated clinical diagnostic tool are given. PMID:24296139

  15. A remotely operated serial sampler for collecting gas-tight fluid samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shi-jun; Yang, Can-jun; Ding, Kang; Tan, Chun-yang

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and preliminary test results for a gas-tight serial sampler intended to be deployed at seafloor for long-term operation to take time-series fluid samples from deep-sea environments such as cold seeps, water column and hydrothermal vents. The serial sampler is a modular system that is based on independent and identical sampling modules, which are designed to collect six 160 ml gas-tight fluid samples maintained at high pressure to a depth of 4000 meters. With two working modes, the sampler can be deployed either with seafloor cabled observatory for remote control or as a stand-alone device for autonomous operation. A prototype of the instrument has been constructed and tested on the MARS cabled observatory for two months. The laboratory and field tests proved the success of the design and construction of the serial sampler, and indicated the potential for future ocean sciences.

  16. Regression modeling of particle size distributions in urban storm water: advancements through improved sample collection methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fienen, Michael N.; Selbig, William R.

    2012-01-01

    A new sample collection system was developed to improve the representation of sediment entrained in urban storm water by integrating water quality samples from the entire water column. The depth-integrated sampler arm (DISA) was able to mitigate sediment stratification bias in storm water, thereby improving the characterization of suspended-sediment concentration and particle size distribution at three independent study locations. Use of the DISA decreased variability, which improved statistical regression to predict particle size distribution using surrogate environmental parameters, such as precipitation depth and intensity. The performance of this statistical modeling technique was compared to results using traditional fixed-point sampling methods and was found to perform better. When environmental parameters can be used to predict particle size distributions, environmental managers have more options when characterizing concentrations, loads, and particle size distributions in urban runoff.

  17. Volumetric absorptive microsampling: a dried sample collection technique for quantitative bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Denniff, Philip; Spooner, Neil

    2014-08-19

    Volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) is a novel approach to obtaining a dried blood sample for quantitative bioanalysis that overcomes the area bias and homogeneity issues associated with conventional dried blood spot (DBS) sample when a subpunch is taken. The VAMS sampler absorbs a fixed volume of blood (∼10 μL) in 2-4 s with less than 5% volume variation across the hematocrit range of 20-70% with low tip-to-tip variability. There is no evidence of selective absorption by the tip of the plasma component over whole blood. Recommendations for best practice when collecting samples were developed based upon the results of tests examining a number of potential abuse scenarios. PMID:25058158

  18. Dosimetry and reproducibility of a capsule-based C-14 urea breath test

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, M.J.; Stubbs, J.B.; Buck, D.A. |

    1995-05-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to determine the excretion of the C-14 and associated radiation dose and (2) to examine the reproducibility of a commercial C-14 urea breath test for H.pylori diagnosis. Tests were performed on twenty consenting volunteers (13M, 7F, 24-48 yr). Breath samples containing 1 mmol CO{sub 2} were obtained at 0,5,10,15,20,25,30 min. and 1,2,3,4,5,6,12, 24 hrs following administration of the 37kBq C-14 urea test capsule. A 24 hr urine collection was performed with each voiding collected separately. A repeat breath test was performed 24 hr after the first. H. pylori positive (HP+) was defined as a 15 minute breath sample >=50 dpm. Total urine excretion was obtained directly. Breath excretion was modeled by estimating the area under the excretion curve and using a constant factor of 884 mmol CO{sub 2}/ hr. Urine and breath excretion data in HP+ and H. pylori-negative (HP-) volunteers were pooled and fit to a monoexponential function thus estimating the cumulative urinary excretion of unmetabolized urea. Previously reported biokinetic models of C-14 urea and bicarbonate were used to estimate radiation doses form each compound. Weighted sums were calculated for each dose estimate using each group`s excretion fraction distribution. Both HP+ and HP- volunteers excreted an average of 73% of the C-14 over the first 24 hr. HP+ excretion was evenly divided between breath (34%) and urine (38%). HP-excretion is almost solely by the urinary pathway. The maximum dose for HP= was to the red marrow (0.0033 mGy) and a maximum of 0.0054 mGy to the urinary bladder wall for HP-. There was no difference between 15 inch breath samples on the two days (t-test, p>0.6). The minimum HP+ result at 15 inch was 270 dpm and the maximum HP- result at 15 inch was 18 dpm, indicating great separation between HP+ and HP- results. This study verifies previous dose estimates using C-14 excretion data. The test is sensitive and reproducible with a low radiation dose.

  19. Chemical variability of groundwater samples collected from a coal seam gas exploration well, Maramarua, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Taulis, Mauricio; Milke, Mark

    2013-03-01

    A pilot study has produced 31 groundwater samples from a coal seam gas (CSG) exploration well located in Maramarua, New Zealand. This paper describes sources of CSG water chemistry variations, and makes sampling and analytical recommendations to minimize these variations. The hydrochemical character of these samples is studied using factor analysis, geochemical modelling, and a sparging experiment. Factor analysis unveils carbon dioxide (CO(2)) degassing as the principal cause of sample variation (about 33%). Geochemical modelling corroborates these results and identifies minor precipitation of carbonate minerals with degassing. The sparging experiment confirms the effect of CO(2) degassing by showing a steady rise in pH while maintaining constant alkalinity. Factor analysis correlates variations in the major ion composition (about 17%) to changes in the pumping regime and to aquifer chemistry variations due to cation exchange reactions with argillaceous minerals. An effective CSG water sampling program can be put into practice by measuring pH at the wellhead and alkalinity at the laboratory; these data can later be used to calculate the carbonate speciation at the time the sample was collected. In addition, TDS variations can be reduced considerably if a correct drying temperature of 180 C is consistently implemented. PMID:23199455

  20. The Apollo Lunar Sample Image Collection: Digital Archiving and Online Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Nancy S.; Lofgren, Gary E.; Stefanov, William L.; Garcia, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of the Apollo Program was to land human beings on the Moon and bring them safely back to Earth. This goal was achieved during six missions - Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 - that took place between 1969 and 1972. Among the many noteworthy engineering and scientific accomplishments of these missions, perhaps the most important in terms of scientific impact was the return of 382 kg (842 lb.) of lunar rocks, core samples, pebbles, sand, and dust from the lunar surface to Earth. Returned samples were curated at JSC (then known as the Manned Spacecraft Center) and, as part of the original processing, high-quality photographs were taken of each sample. The top, bottom, and sides of each rock sample were photographed, along with 16 stereo image pairs taken at 45-degree intervals. Photographs were also taken whenever a sample was subdivided and when thin sections were made. This collection of lunar sample images consists of roughly 36,000 photographs; all six Apollo missions are represented.

  1. Presence of aflatoxin M1 in raw, reconstituted, and powdered milk samples collected in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Redouane-Salah, S; Morgavi, D P; Arhab, R; Messa, A; Boudra, H

    2015-06-01

    Aflatoxins are potent toxic metabolites produced by Aspergillus spp. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a metabolite of aflatoxin B1 that can be present in milk, and it is a public health concern. There is scarce information on the incidence of aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk consumed in Algeria. The presence of AFM1 was investigated in raw milk samples collected between February and October 2011 from 11 dairy farms representative of Algerian production conditions and that were located around Constantine city. Reconstituted and powdered milk samples were purchased from local supermarkets. The analysis was performed by liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity purification. AFM1 was detected in 5 out of 47 samples (11 %) at levels ranging from 9 to 103 ng/L, with one sample exceeding the limit of 50 ng/L set by European regulations. Traces of AFM1 (less than 8 ng/L) were also found in 11 other samples. The incidence of AFM1 contamination was higher in imported powdered milk (29 %) than in raw milk (5 %). Although the concentration of AFM1 in contaminated samples was low, the relatively considerable prevalence found in this exploratory study justifies more detailed and continuous monitoring to reduce consumers' exposure to AFM1. PMID:26009161

  2. Aqueous Processing of Atmospheric Organic Particles in Cloud Water Collected via Aircraft Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, Eric J.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Wirth, Christopher; Shepson, Paul B.; Stirm, Brian H.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2015-07-21

    Cloud water and below-cloud atmospheric particle samples were collected onboard a research aircraft during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) over a forested region of Alabama in June 2013. The organic molecular composition of the samples was studied to gain insights into the aqueous-phase processing of organic compounds within cloud droplets. High resolution mass spectrometry with nanospray desorption electrospray ionization and direct infusion electrospray ionization were utilized to compare the organic composition of the particle and cloud water samples, respectively. Isoprene and monoterpene-derived organosulfates and oligomers were identified in both the particles and cloud water, showing the significant influence of biogenic volatile organic compound oxidation above the forested region. While the average O:C ratios of the organic compounds were similar between the atmospheric particle and cloud water samples, the chemical composition of these samples was quite different. Specifically, hydrolysis of organosulfates and formation of nitrogen-containing compounds were observed for the cloud water when compared to the atmospheric particle samples, demonstrating that cloud processing changes the composition of organic aerosol.

  3. Aqueous Processing of Atmospheric Organic Particles in Cloud Water Collected via Aircraft Sampling.

    PubMed

    Boone, Eric J; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Wirth, Christopher; Shepson, Paul B; Stirm, Brian H; Pratt, Kerri A

    2015-07-21

    Cloudwater and below-cloud atmospheric particle samples were collected onboard a research aircraft during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) over a forested region of Alabama in June 2013. The organic molecular composition of the samples was studied to gain insights into the aqueous-phase processing of organic compounds within cloud droplets. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) with nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) and direct infusion electrospray ionization (ESI) were utilized to compare the organic composition of the particle and cloudwater samples, respectively. Isoprene and monoterpene-derived organosulfates and oligomers were identified in both the particles and cloudwater, showing the significant influence of biogenic volatile organic compound oxidation above the forested region. While the average O:C ratios of the organic compounds were similar between the atmospheric particle and cloudwater samples, the chemical composition of these samples was quite different. Specifically, hydrolysis of organosulfates and formation of nitrogen-containing compounds were observed for the cloudwater when compared to the atmospheric particle samples, demonstrating that cloud processing changes the composition of organic aerosol. PMID:26068538

  4. ISOLATION OF Cryptococcus neoformans FROM ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES COLLECTED IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    NWEZE, Emeka I.; KECHIA, Fred A.; DIBUA, Uju E.; EZE, Charles; ONOJA, Uwakwe S.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans is the second most common fungal opportunistic pathogen and a lifethreatening infection with serious clinical manifestations especially in HIV/AIDS and other immunocompromised patients. In Nigeria, HIV/AIDS infection has reached an alarming level. Despite this, information on the presence of this fungus in clinical and environmental samples is very scanty in Nigeria and many other parts of Africa. We set out to evaluate the presence of Cryptococcus neoformans or C. gattii in pigeon droppings obtained from Southeastern Nigeria. One hundred and seventy-seven samples of pigeon droppings from six sample types were collected. The area covered comprised of ten cities and other locations spanning across five States in Nigeria. Using established techniques, Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from 39 of the 177 (22.0%) samples overall. No C. gattiiwas isolated. Most of the isolates (32.4%) were recovered from dovecotes (11 of 34) followed closely by samples taken from markets (31.8%; seven of 22) and least from the church (4.0%; one of 25). The highest isolation rate (38.9%) was found in samples from Enugu-Ezike(seven of 23) while the least came from Afikpoand the other locations each with 9.1% isolation rate. This is the first large-scale screening of Cryptococcus neoformans from pigeon droppings in Nigeria. The ecological and epidemiological significance of these findings are discussed. PMID:26422152

  5. Critical review and meta-analysis of spurious hemolysis in blood samples collected from intravenous catheters

    PubMed Central

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Background: A number of preanalytical activities strongly influence sample quality, especially those related to sample collection. Since blood drawing through intravenous catheters is reported as a potential source of erythrocyte injury, we performed a critical review and meta-analysis about the risk of catheter-related hemolysis. Materials and methods: We performed a systematic search on PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus to estimate the risk of spurious hemolysis in blood samples collected from intravenous catheters. A meta-analysis with calculation of Odds ratio (OR) and Relative risk (RR) along with 95% Confidence interval (95% CI) was carried out using random effect mode. Results: Fifteen articles including 17 studies were finally selected. The total number of patients was 14,796 in 13 studies assessing catheter and evacuated tubes versus straight needle and evacuated tubes, and 1251 in 4 studies assessing catheter and evacuated tubes versus catheter and manual aspiration. A significant risk of hemolysis was found in studies assessing catheter and evacuated tubes versus straight needle and evacuated tubes (random effect OR 3.4; 95% CI = 2.93.9 and random effect RR 1.07; 95% CI = 1.061.08), as well as in studies assessing catheter and evacuated tubes versus catheter and manual aspiration of blood (OR 3.7; 95% CI = 2.75.1 and RR 1.32; 95% CI = 1.241.40). Conclusions: Sample collection through intravenous catheters is associated with significant higher risk of spurious hemolysis as compared with standard blood drawn by straight needle, and this risk is further amplified when intravenous catheter are associated with primary evacuated blood tubes as compared with manual aspiration. PMID:23894864

  6. High volume electrostatic field-sampler for collection of fine particle bulk samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Sharma, Anoop; Wallin, Hkan; Alstrup Jensen, Keld

    A high volume electrostatic field-sampler was developed for collection of fine particles, which easily can be recovered for subsequent sample characterisation and bioassays. The sampler was based on a commercial office air cleaner and consisted of a prefilter followed by electrostatic collection plates operating at 2.7 kV. The sampler performance was characterised for 26 nm to 5.4 ?m-size particles in urban street air. The collection efficiency reached a maximum (60-70%) between 0.2 and 0.8 ?m and dropped to 25% at 30 nm and 2.5 ?m, respectively. After extraction in water, the particle loss was<2%. The extraction efficiency for dry lyophilised particulate matter was above 80%, allowing retrievement of 12 mg day -1 in urban street air at PM 10 levels of 24 ?g m -3. The ozone generating capacity of the corona discharge during operation was on the order of 10 ppb. A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) degradation test using benzo[a]pyrene as a model showed that 85% was degraded after 24 h. However, similar results were observed when the corona discharge was switched off. Hence, the ozone and other corona discharge reactants do not appear to contribute considerably to PAH-degradation. The overall results show that the sampler type is a promising alternative to traditional sampling of fine particles for bulk analysis and bioassays. The main advantages are simple operation, high stability, high quantifiable particle recovery rates and low cost.

  7. Ion chromatographic measurement of fluoride and sulfur dioxide in samples collected at aluminum smelters.

    PubMed

    Balya, D R

    1991-08-01

    Measurement of airborne fluoride and sulfur dioxide in aluminum smelting plants is important for both industrial hygiene and environmental reasons. The traditional analytical techniques employed have been ion-selective electrodes (ISE) for fluoride and barium/thorin titration for SO2. In this study, ion chromatography (IC) was evaluated as a substitute for these two techniques. Dust for particulate fluoride was collected on membrane filters with carbonate-treated backup pads to collect HF and SO2. Gaseous fluoride and SO2 were ultrasonically extracted from the treated pad, but particulate fluoride required a borate/carbonate fusion. Collection efficiency and recovery of the analytes, along with the acceptable working ranges and instrument conditions used with IC, are discussed. IC is a desirable substitute for the electrode and titration methods because it is easily automated and the two determinations may be performed simultaneously. Organic compounds may cause interference in low-level fluoride measurement. Comparison of the techniques for field samples indicates that IC is an adequate substitute for the traditional measurement methods for full-shift samples of fluoride. PMID:1927909

  8. Ion chromatographic measurement of fluoride and sulfur dioxide in samples collected at aluminum smelters

    SciTech Connect

    Balya, D.R. )

    1991-08-01

    Measurement of airborne fluoride and sulfur dioxide in aluminum smelting plants is important for both industrial hygiene and environmental reasons. The traditional analytical techniques employed have been ion-selective electrodes (ISE) for fluoride and barium/thorin titration for SO2. In this study, ion chromatography (IC) was evaluated as a substitute for these two techniques. Dust for particulate fluoride was collected on membrane filters with carbonate-treated backup pads to collect HF and SO2. Gaseous fluoride and SO2 were ultrasonically extracted from the treated pad, but particulate fluoride required a borate/carbonate fusion. Collection efficiency and recovery of the analytes, along with the acceptable working ranges and instrument conditions used with IC, are discussed. IC is a desirable substitute for the electrode and titration methods because it is easily automated and the two determinations may be performed simultaneously. Organic compounds may cause interference in low-level fluoride measurement. Comparison of the techniques for field samples indicates that IC is an adequate substitute for the traditional measurement methods for full-shift samples of fluoride.

  9. Impact of food intake on in vivo VOC concentrations in exhaled breath assessed in a caprine animal model.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sina; Bergmann, Andreas; Steffens, Markus; Trefz, Phillip; Ziller, Mario; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen S; Khler, Heike; Reinhold, Petra

    2015-12-01

    Physiological processes within the body may change emitted volatile organic compound (VOC) composition, and may therefore cause confounding biological background variability in breath gas analyses. To evaluate the effect of food intake on VOC concentration patterns in exhaled breath, this study assessed the variability of VOC concentrations due to food intake in a standardized caprine animal model. VOCs in (i) alveolar breath gas samples of nine clinically healthy goats and (ii) room air samples were collected and pre-concentrated before morning feeding and repeatedly after (+60?min, +150?min, +240?min) using needle trap microextraction (NTME). Analysis of VOCs was performed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Only VOCs with significantly higher concentrations in breath gas samples compared to room air samples were taken into consideration. Six VOCs that belonged to the chemical classes of hydrocarbons and alcohols were identified presenting significantly different concentrations before and after feeding. Selected hydrocarbons showed a concentration pattern that was characterized by an initial increase 60?min after food intake, and a subsequent gradual decrease. Results emphasize consideration of physiological effects on exhaled VOC concentrations due to food intake with respect to standardized protocols of sample collection and critical evaluation of results. PMID:26670078

  10. Employing simulated data to illustrate an important cause of the 'steepling' effect in breath alcohol analysis.

    PubMed

    Gullberg, R G

    1994-10-01

    The 'steepling' effect (large excursions in analytical data over time) is a debated issue in forensic breath alcohol analysis with various explanations being postulated. Simulated breath alcohol data was generated according to a hypothetical kinetic model where single random samples as well as means of duplicate random samples were plotted with respect to time at 0.2 hour intervals. In addition, the simulated data was compared when both two or more digit treatment was employed. Results showed the occurrence of significant noise or 'steepling' when single, two-digit breath alcohol samples were employed as compared to a four-digit mean computed from three-digit duplicates. The magnitude of variability was quantified by means of nonlinear regression resulting in the residual sum of squares (RSS) = 0.00202 for the single analysis and RSS = 0.00053 for the mean of duplicates. The method of data collection and treatment appears to contribute significantly to the 'steepling' phenomenon. Intuitively, replicate analyses reduce variability and allow for more accurate kinetic modelling employing breath alcohol analysis. PMID:7830516

  11. A continuous flow from sample collection to data acceptability determination using an automated system

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, J.F.; Leasure, C.; Sauter, A.D.

    1993-08-01

    In its role as regulator, EPA is the recipient of enormous reams of analytical data, especially within the Superfund Program. In order to better manage the volume of paper that comes in daily, Superfund has required its laboratories to provide data that is contained on reporting forms to be delivered also on a diskette for uploading into data bases for various purposes, such as checking for contractual compliance, tracking quality assurance parameters, and, ultimately, for reviewing the data by computer. This last area, automated review of the data, has generated programs that are not necessarily appropriate for use by clients other than Superfund. Such is the case with Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Environmental Chemistry Group and its emerging subcontractor community, designed to meet the needs of the remedial action program at LANL. LANL is in the process of implementing an automated system that will be used from the planning stage of sample collection to the production of a project-specific report on analytical data quality. Included are electronic scheduling and tracking of samples, data entry, checking and transmission, data assessment and qualification for use, and report generation that will tie the analytical data quality back to the performance criteria defined prior to sample collection. Industry standard products will be used (e.g., ORACLE, Microsoft Excel) to ensure support for users, prevent dependence on proprietary software, and to protect LANL`s investment for the future.

  12. Conceptual study and key technology development for Mars Aeroflyby sample collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, K.; Ozawa, T.; Okudaira, K.; Mikouchi, T.; Suzuki, T.; Takayanagi, H.; Tsuda, Y.; Ogawa, N.; Tachibana, S.; Satoh, T.

    2014-01-01

    Conceptual study of Mars Aeroflyby Sample Collection (MASC) is conducted as a part of the next Mars exploration mission currently entertained in Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. In the mission scenario, an atmospheric entry vehicle is flown into the Martian atmosphere, collects the Martian dust particles as well as atmospheric gases during the guided hypersonic flight, exits the Martian atmosphere, and is inserted into a parking orbit from which a return system departs for the earth to deliver the dust and gas samples. In order to accomplish a controlled flight and a successful orbit insertion, aeroassist orbit transfer technologies are introduced into the guidance and control system. System analysis is conducted to assess the feasibility and to make a conceptual design, finding that the MASC system is feasible at the minimum system mass of 600 kg approximately. The aerogel, which is one of the candidates for the dust sample collector, is assessed by arcjet heating tests to examine its behavior when exposed to high-temperature gases, as well as by particle impingement tests to evaluate its dust capturing capability.

  13. Comparative evaluation of vacuum-based surface sampling methods for collection of Bacillus spores.

    PubMed

    Calfee, M Worth; Rose, Laura J; Morse, Stephen; Mattorano, Dino; Clayton, Matt; Touati, Abderrahmane; Griffin-Gatchalian, Nicole; Slone, Christina; McSweeney, Neal

    2013-12-01

    In this study, four commonly-used sampling devices (vacuum socks, 37 mm 0.8 ?m mixed cellulose ester (MCE) filter cassettes, 37 mm 0.3 ?m polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filter cassettes, and 3M forensic filters) were comparatively evaluated for their ability to recover surface-associated spores. Aerosolized spores (~10(5)CFUcm(-2)) of a Bacillus anthracis surrogate were allowed to settle onto three material types (concrete, carpet, and upholstery). Ten replicate samples were collected using each vacuum method, from each material type. Stainless steel surfaces, inoculated simultaneously with test materials, were sampled with pre-moistened wipes. Wipe recoveries were utilized to normalize vacuum-based recoveries across trials. Recovery (CFUcm(-2)) and relative recovery (vacuum recovery/wipe recovery) were determined for each method and material type. Recoveries and relative recoveries ranged from 3.8 10(3) to 7.4 10(4)CFUcm(-2) and 0.035 to 1.242, respectively. ANOVA results indicated that the 37 mm MCE method exhibited higher relative recoveries than the other methods when used for sampling concrete or upholstery. While the vacuum sock resulted in the highest relative recoveries on carpet, no statistically significant difference was detected. The results of this study may be used to guide selection of sampling approaches following biological contamination incidents. PMID:24184017

  14. Miniature CVD-diamond corning drills for robotic sample collection and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D. T.; Trava-Airoldi, V.J.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.

    2003-01-01

    Coring tools have been used etlectivelv on the Moon, but to date no such tools have been used on any other extraterrestrial surface. The lunar experience includes both manual (Apollo) and robotic (Luna) systems . These coring systems were concerned primarily with acquiring samples from depth for return to Earth or for the creation of instrument emplacement holes (e .g ., heat probes). Current designs for planetary drills differ from the lunar tools primarily in that they are integrated with robotic instrumentation for remote analysis, but the role of the drilling or coring system remains one of acquiring samples that must be extracted from the core barrel for analysis . Missing from current sample collection systems is a tool that can double as both a conng device and a sample holder. This dual utility can minimize the number of motions, the mass, and the power required for several classes of instruments in planetary surface exploration. To be effective, such a system must be durable and simple in operation. Hollow CVD diamond drills possess the hardness, excellent cutting properties, and heat resistance required for drilling into a wide variety of rocks and minerals. Because CVD diamond is also unreactive and transparent to infrared radiation and to X-rays of moderate to high energry, it can be used as a sample holder in various instruments for X-ray diffraction (XRD), Xray fluorescence (XRF), infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermal analysis.

  15. Determination of boron contents in water samples collected from the Neelum valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Akram, Muhammad; Matiullah; Iqbal, Arshid; Husaini, S N; Malik, Fariha

    2011-03-01

    Intake of boron from food and drinking water may pose a risk to the public health above a certain concentration level. Therefore, knowledge of boron concentration in drinking water and food items is essential. In this context, samples of drinking water were collected from natural springs of the Neelum valley, Azad Kashmir, hit by devastating earthquake in 2005. In these samples, boron concentration was determined using neutron-induced radiography technique. To do so, unknown water samples, along with standard of known boron dried on CR-39 detectors, were irradiated with thermal neutrons. After exposure, CR-39 detectors were etched in 6 M NaOH at 70C. The tracks produced due to the alpha particles and (7)Li ions as a result of (10)B(n,?)(7)Li reaction were counted under an optical microscope. The tracks produced in theses samples were then related to the boron contents. The measured boron concentration in water samples was found to vary from 0.105??0.005 to 0.247??0.013 mg/l with an average value of 0.17??0.04 mg/l, which are within the acceptable limits. PMID:20306233

  16. Comparative evaluation of vacuum-based surface sampling methods for collection of Bacillus spores

    PubMed Central

    Calfee, M. Worth; Rose, Laura J.; Morse, Stephen; Mattorano, Dino; Clayton, Matt; Touati, Abderrahmane; Griffin-Gatchalian, Nicole; Slone, Christina; McSweeney, Neal

    2016-01-01

    In this study, four commonly-used sampling devices (vacuum socks, 37 mm 0.8 μm mixed cellulose ester (MCE) filter cassettes, 37 mm 0.3 μm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filter cassettes, and 3M™ forensic filters) were comparatively evaluated for their ability to recover surface-associated spores. Aerosolized spores (~105 CFU cm−2) of a Bacillus anthracis surrogate were allowed to settle onto three material types (concrete, carpet, and upholstery). Ten replicate samples were collected using each vacuum method, from each material type. Stainless steel surfaces, inoculated simultaneously with test materials, were sampled with pre-moistened wipes. Wipe recoveries were utilized to normalize vacuum-based recoveries across trials. Recovery (CFU cm−2) and relative recovery (vacuum recovery/wipe recovery) were determined for each method and material type. Recoveries and relative recoveries ranged from 3.8 × 103 to 7.4 × 104 CFU cm−2 and 0.035 to 1.242, respectively. ANOVA results indicated that the 37 mm MCE method exhibited higher relative recoveries than the other methods when used for sampling concrete or upholstery. While the vacuum sock resulted in the highest relative recoveries on carpet, no statistically significant difference was detected. The results of this study may be used to guide selection of sampling approaches following biological contamination incidents. PMID:24184017

  17. Control of the positional relationship between a sample collection instrument and a surface to be analyzed during a sampling procedure with image analysis

    DOEpatents

    Van Berkel, Gary J.; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2011-08-09

    A system and method utilizes an image analysis approach for controlling the collection instrument-to-surface distance in a sampling system for use, for example, with mass spectrometric detection. Such an approach involves the capturing of an image of the collection instrument or the shadow thereof cast across the surface and the utilization of line average brightness (LAB) techniques to determine the actual distance between the collection instrument and the surface. The actual distance is subsequently compared to a target distance for re-optimization, as necessary, of the collection instrument-to-surface during an automated surface sampling operation.

  18. Assessment of an improved stack sample collection system for 3H and 14C.

    PubMed

    Jelinski, John; Wahl, Linnea; Donovan, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a simple, efficient, and cost-effective replacement for the traditional glass column system used to monitor H and C emissions from rooftop stacks. The primary goals in developing a replacement (the modified jar system) were to 1) maintain or improve collection efficiency while keeping leakage to less than 5%, 2) simplify the set-up process, and 3) reduce costs. Both the traditional glass column assembly and the modified jar system were operated in tandem for a 13-mo period. Results showed that the modified sample jar system provided equivalent or improved collection efficiency for both H and C. Additional advantages included reduced leak-test errors, quicker and simpler set-up, and material costs that were reduced by nearly an order of magnitude. PMID:23803665

  19. The heavy metal content of wild edible mushroom samples collected in canakkale province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cayir, Akin; Co?kun, Mnevver; Co?kun, Mahmut

    2010-05-01

    In this study, concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) were determined in three edible mushroom species (Lactarius deliciosus, Russula delica, and Rhizopogon roseolus) collected in five sampling sites in Canakkale province, Turkey. Mean values of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were 0.72, 0.26, 28.34, 1.53, and 64.62 mg/kg, respectively. The highest concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were determined in species R. delica, while Cr was observed in L. deliciosus. In terms of the nutritional aspect, taking into account the concentration of Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake recommended by FAO/WHO, the maximum concentration of Cd is a restrictive factor for consumption of the collected mushroom species. The concentrations of the other elements have no health risks when consumed at optimal levels. PMID:19618133

  20. Measurement of ammonia in human breath with a liquid-film conductivity sensor.

    PubMed

    Toda, Kei; Li, Jianzhong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2006-10-15

    Measurement of breath NH3 is of interest in clinical applications as it can be used as a measure of kidney/liver functions as well as halitosis. We have developed a liquid-film conductivity sensor to measure NH3 in human breath. A film of dilute H2SO4 is formed on the top of two metal capillary tubes placed in a concentric annular arrangement. The tube exterior has been specially treated to render it hydrophilic. As breath passes over the sensor tip, the film collects NH3 and the solution conductivity (measured by the concentric capillaries functioning as electrodes) decreases accordingly. This initial rate of conductivity decrease was determined to be the best metric (most rapid and least dependent on breath pCO2) for ammonia, relative to time to attain complete neutralization (conductivity minimum) or the final rate of conductivity increase as more ammonia dissolves after neutralization. The absorbing solution composition was optimized so that CO2 does not interfere. Both dynamic measurement using mask sampling and offline balloon sampling were performed. Ammonia readily absorbs on surfaces when significant concentrations of water vapor are present. As such, memory effects are common when analyzing human breath for ammonia. This problem was successfully eliminated. The results from this sensor agreed well with data obtained by a solution-phase fluorometric technique using a porous membrane diffusion scrubber and o-phthalaldehyde derivatization chemistry. For breath CO2 measurement, the applicability of a similar sensor that relies on a NaOH film was also demonstrated. PMID:17037934

  1. Breath tests: principles, problems, and promise

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, C.W.; Carter, E.A.; Walker, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Breath tests rely on the measurement of gases produced in the intestine, absorbed, and expired in the breath. Carbohydrates, such as lactose and sucrose, can be administered in ysiologic doses; if malabsorbed, they will be metabolized to hydrogen by colonic bacteria. Since hydrogen is not produced by human metabolic reactions, a rise in breath hydrogen, as measured by gas chromatography, is evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption. Likewise, a rise in breath hydrogen marks the transit time of nonabsorbable carbohydrates such as lactulose through the small intestine into the colon. Simple end-expiratory interval collection into nonsiliconized vacutainer tubes has made these noninvasive tests quite convenient to perform, but various problems, including changes in stool pH intestinal motility, or metabolic rate, may influence results. Another group of breath tests uses substrates labeled with radioactive or stable isotopes of carbon. Labeled fat substrates such as trioctanoin, tripalmitin, and triolein do not produce the expected rise in labeled breath CO/sub 2/ if there is fat malabsorption. Bile acid malabsorption and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth can be measured with labeled cholylglycine or cholyltaurine. Labeled drugs such as aminopyrine, methacetin, and phenacetin can be used as an indication of drug metabolism and liver function. Radioactive substrates have been used to trace metabolic pathways and can be measured by scintillation counters. The availability of nonradioactive stable isotopes has made these ideal for use in children and pregnant women, but the cost of substrates and the mass spectrometers to measure them has so far limited their use to research centers. It is hoped that new techniques of processing and measurement will allow further realization of the exciting potential breath analysis has in a growing list of clinical applications.

  2. Breath tests: principles, problems, and promise.

    PubMed

    Lo, C W; Carter, E A; Walker, W A

    1982-01-01

    Breath tests rely on the measurement of gases produced in the intestine, absorbed, and expired in the breath. Carbohydrates, such as lactose and sucrose, can be administered in physiologic doses; if malabsorbed, they will be metabolized to hydrogen by colonic bacteria. Since hydrogen is not produced by human metabolic reactions, a rise in breath hydrogen, as measured by gas chromatography, is evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption. Likewise, a rise in breath hydrogen marks the transit time of nonabsorbable carbohydrates such as lactulose through the small intestine into the colon. Simple end-expiratory interval collection into nonsiliconized vacutainer tubes has made these noninvasive tests quite convenient to perform, but various problems, including changes in stool pH, intestinal motility, or metabolic rate, may influence results. Another group of breath tests uses substrates labeled with radioactive or stable isotopes of carbon. Labeled fat substrates such as trioctanoin, tripalmitin, and triolein do not produce the expected rise in labeled breath CO2 if there is fat malabsorption. Bile acid malabsorption and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth can be measured with labeled cholylglycine or cholyltaurine. Labeled drugs such as aminopyrine, methacetin, and phenacetin can be used as an indication of drug metabolism and liver function. Radioactive substrates have been used to trace metabolic pathways and can be measured by scintillation counters. The availability of nonradioactive stable isotopes has made these ideal for use in children and pregnant women, but the cost of substrates and the mass spectrometers to measure them has so far limited their use to research centers. It is hoped that new techniques of processing and measurement will allow further realization of the exciting potential breath analysis has in a growing list of clinical applications. PMID:7180696

  3. Ram-air sample collection device for a chemical warfare agent sensor

    DOEpatents

    Megerle, Clifford A. (Manassas, VA); Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    2002-01-01

    In a surface acoustic wave sensor mounted within a body, the sensor having a surface acoustic wave array detector and a micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator exposed on a surface of the body, an apparatus for collecting air for the sensor, comprising a housing operatively arranged to mount atop the body, the housing including a multi-stage channel having an inlet and an outlet, the channel having a first stage having a first height and width proximate the inlet, a second stage having a second lower height and width proximate the micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator, a third stage having a still lower third height and width proximate the surface acoustic wave array detector, and a fourth stage having a fourth height and width proximate the outlet, where the fourth height and width are substantially the same as the first height and width.

  4. RoboHound:developing sample collection and preconcentration hardware for a remote trace explosives detection system.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, David J.; Denning, David J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Lenz, Michael C.; Anderson, Robert J.; Carlson, Dennis L.; Hunter, John Anthony; Gladwell, T. Scott; Mitchell, Mary-Anne; Hannum, David W.; Baumann, Mark J.

    2005-09-01

    The RoboHound{trademark} Project was a three-year, multiphase project at Sandia National Laboratories to build and refine a working prototype trace explosive detection system as a tool for a commercial robot. The RoboHound system was envisioned to be a tool for emergency responders to test suspicious items (i.e., packages or vehicles) for explosives while maintaining a safe distance. The project investigated combining Sandia's expertise in trace explosives detection with a wheeled robotic platform that could be programmed to interrogate suspicious items remotely for the presence of explosives. All of the RoboHound field tests were successful, especially with regards to the ability to collect and detect trace samples of RDX. The project has gone from remote sampling with human intervention to a fully automatic system that requires no human intervention until the robot returns from a sortie. A proposal is being made for additional work leading towards commercialization.

  5. Geochemistry of Rock Samples Collected from the Iron Hill Carbonatite Complex, Gunnison County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    A study conducted in 2006 by the U.S. Geological Survey collected 57 surface rock samples from nine types of intrusive rock in the Iron Hill carbonatite complex. This intrusive complex, located in Gunnison County of southwestern Colorado, is known for its classic carbonatite-alkaline igneous geology and petrology. The Iron Hill complex is also noteworthy for its diverse mineral resources, including enrichments in titanium, rare earth elements, thorium, niobium (columbium), and vanadium. This study was performed to reexamine the chemistry and metallic content of the major rock units of the Iron Hill complex by using modern analytical techniques, while providing a broader suite of elements than the earlier published studies. The report contains the geochemical analyses of the samples in tabular and digital spreadsheet format, providing the analytical results for 55 major and trace elements.

  6. Strategy to obtain axenic cultures from field-collected samples of the cyanobacterium Phormidium animalis.

    PubMed

    Vzquez-Martnez, Guadalupe; Rodriguez, Mario H; Hernndez-Hernndez, Fidel; Ibarra, Jorge E

    2004-04-01

    An efficient strategy, based on a combination of procedures, was developed to obtain axenic cultures from field-collected samples of the cyanobacterium Phormidium animalis. Samples were initially cultured in solid ASN-10 medium, and a crude separation of major contaminants from P. animalis filaments was achieved by washing in a series of centrifugations and resuspensions in liquid medium. Then, manageable filament fragments were obtained by probe sonication. Fragmentation was followed by forceful washing, using vacuum-driven filtration through an 8-microm pore size membrane and an excess of water. Washed fragments were cultured and treated with a sequential exposure to four different antibiotics. Finally, axenic cultures were obtained from serial dilutions of treated fragments. Monitoring under microscope examination and by inoculation in Luria-Bertani (LB) agar plates indicated either axenicity or the degree of contamination throughout the strategy. PMID:15003694

  7. Micropreconcentrator in LTCC Technology with Mass Spectrometry for the Detection of Acetone in Healthy and Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus Patient Breath.

    PubMed

    Rydosz, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Breath analysis has long been recognized as a potentially attractive method for the diagnosis of several diseases. The main advantage over other diagnostic methods such as blood or urine analysis is that breath analysis is fully non-invasive, comfortable for patients and breath samples can be easily obtained. One possible future application of breath analysis may be the diagnosing and monitoring of diabetes. It is, therefore, essential, to firstly determine a relationship between exhaled biomarker concentration and glucose in blood as well as to compare the results with the results obtained from non-diabetic subjects. Concentrations of molecules which are biomarkers of diseases' states, or early indicators of disease should be well documented, i.e., the variations of abnormal concentrations of breath biomarkers with age, gender and ethnic issues need to be verified. Furthermore, based on performed measurements it is rather obvious that analysis of exhaled acetone as a single biomarker of diabetes is unrealistic. In this paper, the author presents results of his research conducted on samples of breath gas from eleven healthy volunteers (HV) and fourteen type- 1 diabetic patients (T1DM) which were collected in 1-l SKC breath bags. The exhaled acetone concentration was measured using mass spectrometry (HPR-20 QIC, Hiden Analytical, Warrington, UK) coupled with a micropreconcentrator in LTCC (Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic). However, as according to recent studies the level of acetone varies to a significant extent for each blood glucose concentration of single individuals, a direct and absolute relationship between blood glucose and acetone has not been proved. Nevertheless, basing on the research results acetone in diabetic breath was found to be higher than 1.11 ppmv, while its average concentration in normal breath was lower than 0.83 ppmv. PMID:25310087

  8. Micropreconcentrator in LTCC Technology with Mass Spectrometry for the Detection of Acetone in Healthy and Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus Patient Breath

    PubMed Central

    Rydosz, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Breath analysis has long been recognized as a potentially attractive method for the diagnosis of several diseases. The main advantage over other diagnostic methods such as blood or urine analysis is that breath analysis is fully non-invasive, comfortable for patients and breath samples can be easily obtained. One possible future application of breath analysis may be the diagnosing and monitoring of diabetes. It is, therefore, essential, to firstly determine a relationship between exhaled biomarker concentration and glucose in blood as well as to compare the results with the results obtained from non-diabetic subjects. Concentrations of molecules which are biomarkers of diseases states, or early indicators of disease should be well documented, i.e., the variations of abnormal concentrations of breath biomarkers with age, gender and ethnic issues need to be verified. Furthermore, based on performed measurements it is rather obvious that analysis of exhaled acetone as a single biomarker of diabetes is unrealistic. In this paper, the author presents results of his research conducted on samples of breath gas from eleven healthy volunteers (HV) and fourteen type-1 diabetic patients (T1DM) which were collected in 1-l SKC breath bags. The exhaled acetone concentration was measured using mass spectrometry (HPR-20 QIC, Hiden Analytical, Warrington, UK) coupled with a micropreconcentrator in LTCC (Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic). However, as according to recent studies the level of acetone varies to a significant extent for each blood glucose concentration of single individuals, a direct and absolute relationship between blood glucose and acetone has not been proved. Nevertheless, basing on the research results acetone in diabetic breath was found to be higher than 1.11 ppmv, while its average concentration in normal breath was lower than 0.83 ppmv. PMID:25310087

  9. Combined-sewer overflow data and methods of sample collection for selected sites, Detroit, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweat, M.J.; Wolf, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    From October 1, 1994 through December 31, 1995, four combined-sewer discharging to the Detroit River in Detroit, Michigan were monitored to characterize storm-related water quantity and quality. Water velocity, stage, discharge, and precipitation were measured continuously and recorded at 5-minute intervals. Water-quality samples were collected at discrete times during each storm and analyzed for inorganic and organic pollutants. This report includes the sampling approach, field collection and processing techniques, and methods of chemical analysis, as well as a compilation of combined sewer discharge volumes, chemical data, and quality control data. These data may be used by resource managers and scientists (1) to describe temporal variation for pollutant concentrations in combined-sewage for various overflow events; (2) to describe spatial distribution of selected pollutants in the four combined-sewer overflows discharging to the Detroit River; (3) to calculate pollutant loads to the Detroit River from the four overflow sites for the monitored storm events; (4) to estimate pollutant loadings form other overflow sites; and, (5) to provide data and information which can be used to define appropriate management methods to reduce or eliminate untreated combined-sewer overflows. Selected combined-sewers were sampled between 30 and 82 times for inorganic pollutants, and between 14 and 22 times for organic pollutants, depending on the site. These samples represented between 8 and 17 storms during which one or more combined-sewers overflowed. The monitored pollutants included fecal coliform, fecal streptococci, and Escherichia coli; antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, total chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, silver, thallium and zinc; and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, volatile organic compounds, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. In general, metal and non-metal inorganic pollutants were detected at all sites. Many organic pollutants were not detected at all.

  10. Frequency of Adenoviruses, Rotaviruses and Noroviruses Among Diarrhea Samples Collected From Infants of Zabol, Southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Hoseini Alfatemi, Seyedeh Mahsan; Sharifi-Rad, Mehdi; Miri, Abdolhossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Viruses are one of the major reasons of gastrointestinal disease worldwide, and commonly infect children less than five years of age in developing countries. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the frequency of adenoviruses, rotaviruses and noroviruses among diarrhea samples collected from infants of Zabol, south-east of Iran. This study is the first investigation of adenoviruses, rotaviruses and noroviruses among diarrhea samples in Zabol. Patients and Methods: In this study, eighty-two diarrhea stool samples were collected from infants aged < 1 to 12 months admitted to the hospital, internal laboratory and central laboratory of Zabol, Iran. All samples were subjected to the rapid immunochromatography assay. Results: The results showed that the frequency of rotaviruses, adenoviruses and noroviruses among infants with diarrhea were 70.20%, 20.30% and 9.50%, respectively. There were 50 subjects aged one to five months and 2 subjects aged nine to twelve months. The results of geographical distribution showed that the number of infants living in rural and urban areas with these viruses were 50 and 32, respectively. Rotaviruses were most common in rural and urban infants with 42 and 10 cases, respectively. Regarding the feeding patterns of infants with diarrhea, mixed feeding and breast feeding were found in 51 and 31 cases, respectively. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results of our study showed that the major viral pathogens that caused infantile diarrhea in Zabol city were rotaviruses followed by adenoviruses and noroviruses. The results of our study can useful for prosperous control of infantile diarrhea. PMID:25834718

  11. Elimination kinetics of volatile organics in humans using breath measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Pellizzari, E.D.; Wallace, L.A.; Gordon, S.M. )

    1992-07-01

    During the past decade significant strides have been made toward understanding the sources and factors which lead to volatile organic chemical (VOC) exposure in the general population. Less is known, however, about the impact of low-level environmental exposure on human health. Investigations are underway in a number of laboratories in an effort to determine the uptake, distribution, metabolism, and elimination kinetics for VOCs in humans. We examined the elimination kinetics for the third phase for ten VOCs--1,1,-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, benzene, toluene, m,p-xylenes, o-xylene, ethylbenzene, p-dichlorobenzene, and limonene--in human subjects. Subjects were exposed to a variety of common consumer products and breath samples were collected post-exposure while the subjects spent up to 10 hr in a clean air environment. VOCs from breath samples were collected into canisters or onto Tenax GC cartridges and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Exponential modeling of the decay data was performed to obtain kinetic parameters. The half-lives for trichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were approximately 5 to 8 hr for the four subjects. In general, the magnitude and range of variability was larger for toluene, limonene, and p-dichlorobenzene than for the other VOCs; the elimination rate spanning a few hours to a day or two. Thus, VOCs exhibit relatively short residence times in the body relative to other halo-carbons, such as polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins.

  12. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF SOIL SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.20)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collecting soil samples from the child's outdoor play area to measure for persistent organic pollutants. Soil samples are collected by scraping up the top 0.5 cm of soil in a 0.095 m2 (1 ft2) area in the middle of the child's play area.

  13. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF DISLODGEABLE RESIDUES -- PUF ROLLER SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.18)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method to collect transferable residues from indoor floor surfaces. The sampling procedures described are applicable to bare floors or covered floor surfaces, e.g., carpeting and vinyl flooring. The samples will be collected only in the day care centers o...

  14. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FLOOR DUST SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.19)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collecting a floor dust sample from carpet. Dust samples will be collected in the room that the child uses most at home and/or at day care using a High Volume Small Surface Sampler (HVS3). In addition, participants will also be asked to donate a ...

  15. Activity concentrations of environmental samples collected in Fukushima Prefecture immediately after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Monzen, Satoru; Osanai, Minoru; Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sahoo, Sarata K.; Kovcs, Tibor; Yamada, Masatoshi; Nakata, Akifumi; Yoshida, Mitsuaki; Yoshino, Hironori; Mariya, Yasushi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclide concentrations in environmental samples such as surface soils, plants and water were evaluated by high purity germanium detector measurements. The contribution rate of short half-life radionuclides such as 132I to the exposure dose to residents was discussed from the measured values. The highest values of the 131I/137Cs activity ratio ranged from 49 to 70 in the environmental samples collected at Iwaki City which is located to the south of the F1-NPS. On the other hand, the 132I/131I activity ratio in the same environmental samples had the lowest values, ranging from 0.01 to 0.02. By assuming that the 132I/131I activity ratio in the atmosphere was equal to the ratio in the environmental samples, the percent contribution to the thyroid equivalent dose by 132I was estimated to be less than 2%. Moreover, the contribution to the thyroid exposure by 132I might be negligible if 132I contamination was restricted to Iwaki City. PMID:23887080

  16. The applicability of sample collection and analysis in support of nuclear arms control agreements

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    Agreements are being negotiated to halt the spread of nuclear arms both within the declared nuclear weapons states and to states not heretofore declaring their possession. With the verification regime of the recently negotiated Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) as a model, negotiators are considering variations of on-site inspection as formulas to enhance the assurance of compliance with future agreements. These on-site inspections may be part of a treaty dictated verification regime or one of a set of voluntary {open_quotes}confidence building{close_quotes} measures. In either case, the collection of material samples for analysis could be an integral component of the inspection as it is in the CWC. The following is an assessment of the applicability of sampling and analysis for compliance monitoring nuclear arms control agreements currently envisioned. There are two essentially orthogonal ways of approaching this question of applicability: the consideration of the analytical questions and the consideration of the specifics of the individual agreements. This study is meant to utilize both approaches in examining the possible impact of sampling and analysis on compliance assessment. First attention must be given to technical questions relating to the efficacy of sampling and analysis.

  17. Activity concentrations of environmental samples collected in Fukushima Prefecture immediately after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Monzen, Satoru; Osanai, Minoru; Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sahoo, Sarata K.; Kovács, Tibor; Yamada, Masatoshi; Nakata, Akifumi; Yoshida, Mitsuaki; Yoshino, Hironori; Mariya, Yasushi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2013-07-01

    Radionuclide concentrations in environmental samples such as surface soils, plants and water were evaluated by high purity germanium detector measurements. The contribution rate of short half-life radionuclides such as 132I to the exposure dose to residents was discussed from the measured values. The highest values of the 131I/137Cs activity ratio ranged from 49 to 70 in the environmental samples collected at Iwaki City which is located to the south of the F1-NPS. On the other hand, the 132I/131I activity ratio in the same environmental samples had the lowest values, ranging from 0.01 to 0.02. By assuming that the 132I/131I activity ratio in the atmosphere was equal to the ratio in the environmental samples, the percent contribution to the thyroid equivalent dose by 132I was estimated to be less than 2%. Moreover, the contribution to the thyroid exposure by 132I might be negligible if 132I contamination was restricted to Iwaki City.

  18. FWT and OBT concentrations in pine needle samples collected at Toki, Japan (1998-2012).

    PubMed

    Akata, N; Kakiuchi, H; Tamari, T; Tanaka, M; Kawano, T; Miyake, H; Uda, T; Nishimura, K

    2015-11-01

    Free water tritium (FWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT) concentrations in pine needles have been investigated to understand the regional background tritium concentration in Toki City. Samples were regularly collected from pine trees on the National Institute for Fusion Science campus (1998-2012) and the nearby Shiomi Park (SP; 2002-12). FWT and OBT concentrations of the former samples ranged from 0.33 to 0.92 and 0.41 to 1.10 Bq l(-1), respectively, while those of the latter samples ranged from 0.32 to 0.86 and 0.33 to 0.79 Bq l(-1), respectively. Results of both sampling sites were almost the same, and they have been gradually decreased year by year. Concentration level of tritium for Toki City was close to the average background level in Japan. The OBT/FWT ratios were almost 1.0. The apparent half-life of FWT in this period was estimated as almost 10 y, and that of OBT was estimated as almost 12 y; these values were almost the same as the physical half-life. PMID:25948831

  19. Ground-Water Data-Collection Protocols and Procedures for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program: Collection and Documentation of Water-Quality Samples and Related Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koterba, Michael T.; Wilde, Franceska D.; Lapham, Wayne W.

    1995-01-01

    Protocols for ground-water sampling are described in a report written in 1989 as part of the pilot program for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). These protocols have been reviewed and revised to address the needs of the full-scale implementation of the NAWQA Program that began in 1991. This report, which is a collaborative effort between the NAWQA Program and the USGS Office of Water Quality, is the result of that review and revision. This report describes protocols and recommended procedures for the collection of water-quality samples and related data from wells for the NAWQA Program. Protocols and recommended procedures discussed include (1) equipment setup and other preparations for data collection; (2) well purging and field measurements; (3) collecting and processing ground-water-quality samples; (4) equipment decontamination; (5) quality-control sampling; and (6) sample handling and shipping.

  20. PIXE Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosol Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoskowitz, Josh; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Safiq, Alexandrea; Smith, Jeremy; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2013-10-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of atmospheric aerosol samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced x-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the samples and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The PIXE experiments were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. X-Ray energy spectra were measured with a silicon drift detector and analyzed with GUPIX software to determine the elemental concentrations of the aerosols. A broad range of elements from silicon to zinc were detected with significant sulfur concentrations measured for particulate matter between 0.25 and 0.5 ?m in size. The PIXE analysis will be described and preliminary results will be presented.

  1. Complex aromatic hydrocarbons in Stardust samples collected from comet 81P/Wild 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemett, Simon J.; Sandford, Scott A.; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Hrz, Friedrich; McKay, David S.

    2010-05-01

    The successful return of the Stardust spacecraft provides a unique opportunity to investigate the nature and distribution of organic matter in cometary dust particles collected from comet 81P/Wild 2. Analysis of individual cometary impact tracks in silica aerogel using the technique of two-step laser mass spectrometry demonstrates the presence of complex aromatic organic matter. While concerns remain as to the organic purity of the aerogel collection medium and the thermal effects associated with hypervelocity capture, the majority of the observed organic species appear indigenous to the impacting particles and are hence of cometary origin. While the aromatic fraction of the total organic matter present is believed to be small, it is notable in that it appears to be N rich. Spectral analysis in combination with instrumental detection sensitivies suggest that N is incorporated predominantly in the form of aromatic nitriles (R-C?N). While organic species in the Stardust samples do share some similarities with those present in the matrices of carbonaceous chondrites, the closest match is found with stratospherically collected interplanetary dust particles. These findings are consistent with the notion that a fraction of interplanetary dust is of cometary origin. The presence of complex organic N containing species in comets has astrobiological implications as comets are likely to have contributed to the prebiotic chemical inventory of both the Earth and Mars.

  2. Mapping of Sample Collection Data: GIS Tools for the Natural Product Researcher

    PubMed Central

    Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Rineer, James I.; Alali, Feras Q.; Tawaha, Khaled; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Wheaton, William D.

    2009-01-01

    Scientists engaged in the research of natural products often either conduct field collections themselves or collaborate with partners who do, such as botanists, mycologists, or SCUBA divers. The information gleaned from such collecting trips (e.g. longitude/latitude coordinates, geography, elevation, and a multitude of other field observations) have provided valuable data to the scientific community (e.g., biodiversity), even if it is tangential to the direct aims of the natural products research, which are often focused on drug discovery and/or chemical ecology. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used to display, manage, and analyze geographic data, including collection sites for natural products. However, to the uninitiated, these tools are often beyond the financial and/or computational means of the natural product scientist. With new, free, and easy-to-use geospatial visualization tools, such as Google Earth, mapping and geographic imaging of sampling data are now within the reach of natural products scientists. The goals of the present study were to develop simple tools that are tailored for the natural products setting, thereby presenting a means to map such information, particularly via open source software like Google Earth. PMID:20161345

  3. Single-breath analysis using a novel simple sampler and capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductometric detection.

    PubMed

    Gregu, Michal; Foret, Frantiek; Kub?, Petr

    2015-02-01

    The analysis of ionic content of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from one single breath by CE with C(4) D is demonstrated for the first time. A miniature sampler made from a 2-mL syringe and an aluminum cooling cylinder for collection of EBC was developed. Various parameters of the sampler that influence its collection efficiency, repeatability, and effect of respiratory patterns were studied in detail. Efficient procedures for the cleanup of the miniature sampler were also developed and resulted in significant improvement of sampling repeatability. Analysis of EBC was performed by CE-C(4) D in a 60 mM MES/l-histidine BGE with 30 ?M CTAB and 2 mM 18-crown-6 at pH 6 and excellent repeatability of migration times (RSD < 1.3% (n = 7)) and peak areas (RSD < 7% (n = 7)) of 12 inorganic anions, cations, and organic acids was obtained. It has been shown that the breathing pattern has a significant impact on the concentration of the analytes in the collected EBC. As the ventilatory pattern can be easily controlled during single exhalation, the developed collection system and method provides a highly reproducible and fast way of collecting EBC with applicability in point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:25377628

  4. Evidential breath ethanol analyzers, accuracy and sensitivity to breath acetone.

    PubMed

    Sutton, L R

    1989-01-01

    The purposes of this study included the examination of the relative accuracy of a number of evidential breath analyzers available in the United States, the sensitivity of ethanol breath analyzers to simulated breath acetone and the generation and subsequent interference created by endogenous acetone. This study used both laboratory simulation and human ethanol testing as well as a systematic examination of the sensitivity of various ethanol breath test instruments to both endogenous and simulated breath acetone. The results suggest that when evidential breath ethanol testers are administered in a uniform fashion, consistent and reliable results occur. Further, endogenous and simulated breath acetone can effect infrared ethanol breath testers but at levels in the case of endogenous acetone, in a non-significant fashion. Simulated breath acetone, consistent with other research produced selective interference on evaluation of breath instruments. The instruments utilizing wavelength 3.4 microns infrared bands were affected the greatest. Endogenous breath and blood acetone was demonstrated in a non-diabetic. The resulting breath acetone levels did produce mimicked ethanol levels on all single wavelength (3.4 microns range) instruments. Nine micron IR range instruments and the Breathalyzer 900 which utilizes a wet chemical procedure were unaffected by endogenous acetone. Those instruments equipped with acetone detectors, found in certain instruments, did not identify endogenously produced acetone. PMID:2917060

  5. DISTRIBUTION COEFICIENTS (KD) GENERATED FROM A CORE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Almond, P.; Kaplan, D.

    2011-04-25

    Core samples originating from Vault 4, Cell E of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) were collected in September of 2008 (Hansen and Crawford 2009, Smith 2008) and sent to SRNL to measure chemical and physical properties of the material including visual uniformity, mineralogy, microstructure, density, porosity, distribution coefficients (K{sub d}), and chemical composition. Some data from these experiments have been reported (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). In this study, leaching experiments were conducted with a single core sample under conditions that are representative of saltstone performance. In separate experiments, reducing and oxidizing environments were targeted to obtain solubility and Kd values from the measurable species identified in the solid and aqueous leachate. This study was designed to provide insight into how readily species immobilized in saltstone will leach from the saltstone under oxidizing conditions simulating the edge of a saltstone monolith and under reducing conditions, targeting conditions within the saltstone monolith. Core samples were taken from saltstone poured in December of 2007 giving a cure time of nine months in the cell and a total of thirty months before leaching experiments began in June 2010. The saltstone from Vault 4, Cell E is comprised of blast furnace slag, class F fly ash, portland cement, and Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) Batch 2 salt solution. The salt solution was previously analyzed from a sample of Tank 50 salt solution and characterized in the 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) report (Zeigler and Bibler 2009). Subsequent to Tank 50 analysis, additional solution was added to the tank solution from the Effluent Treatment Project as well as from inleakage from Tank 50 pump bearings (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). Core samples were taken from three locations and at three depths at each location using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit (1-1, 1-2, 1-3; 2-1, 2-2, 2-3; 3-1, 3-2, 3-3) (Hansen and Crawford 2009). Leaching experiments were conducted with a section of core sample 3-2. All cores from location 3 were drilled without using water. Core sample 3-2 was drilled from approximately six inches to a depth of approximately 13 inches. Approximately six inches of the core was removed but it broke into two pieces during removal from the bit. At the time of drilling, core material appeared olive green in color (Smith 2008). The fact that the samples were cored as olive green and were received after storage with a gray outer layer is indicative that some oxidation had occurred prior to leaching studies.

  6. Detection of Helicobacter pylori infection by examination of human breath odor using electronic nose Bloodhound-214ST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shnayder, E. P.; Moshkin, M. P.; Petrovskii, D. V.; Shevela, A. I.; Babko, A. N.; Kulikov, V. G.

    2009-05-01

    Our aim was to examine the possibility of use e-nose Bloodhound-214ST to determine presence or absence of H. pylori infection using exhalation samples of patients. Breath samples were collected twice: at baseline and after oral administration of 500 mg of urea. H. pylori status of patients was confirmed by antral biopsy. Using two approaches for the data analysis we showed the possibility to distinguish H. pylori free and infected patients.

  7. Variability of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) volume and pH using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a valuable biological medium for non-invasively measuring biomarkers with the potential to reflect organ systems responses to environmental and dietary exposures and disease processes. Collection of EBC has typically been with spontaneous breat...

  8. Preparation of polyethylene sacks for collection of precipitation samples for chemical analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroder, L.J.; Bricker, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    Polyethylene sacks are used to collect precipitation samples. Washing polyethylene with acetone, hexane, methanol, or nitric acid can change the adsorptive characteristics of the polyethylene. In this study, simulated precipitation at pH 4.5 was in contact with the polyethylene sacks for 21 days; subsamples were removed for chemical analysis at 7, 14, and 21 days after intitial contact. Sacks washed with acetone adsorbed iron and lithium; sacks washed with hexane adsorbed barium, iron , and lithium; sacks washed with methanol adsorbed calcium and iron; and sacks washed with 0.30 N nitric acid adsorbed iron. Leaching the plastic sacks with 0.15 N nitric acid did not result in 100-percent recovery of any of the adsorbed metals. Washing polyethylene sacks with dilute nitric acid caused the pH of the simulated precipitation to be decreased by 0.2 pH unit after 1 week of contact with the polyethylene. The specific conductance increased by 10 microsiemens per centimeter. Contamination of precipitation samples by lead was determined to be about 0.1 microgram per liter from contact with precleaned polyethylene sacks. No measurable contamination of precipitation samples by zinc occurred. (USGS)

  9. Volatile organic components of air samples collected from Vertical Launch Missile capsules. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Tappan, D.V.; Knight, D.R.; Heyder, E.; Weathersby, P.K.

    1988-09-27

    Gas chromatographic/mass spectroscopic analyses are presented for the volatile organic components found in air samples collected from the inboard vents from Vertical Launch System (VLS) missile capsules aboard a 688 class submarine. Similar analyses were also conducted for a sample of the ship's high pressure air used to fill the missile tubes. A wide variety of organics was detected in the air from the missile capsules; and while no unique components have yet been identified, a significant contribution has been shown to be made by pressure-ventilation of the VLS capsules into the submarine atmosphere which is already heavily laden with volatile organic compounds. The most apparent conclusion from these preliminary analyses is that the mixtures of organic components in the air within VLS missile capsules vary greatly from capsule to capsule (and probably from time to time). Many such samples need to be investigated to provide sufficient information to judge the seriousness of the possibility of venting toxic components into the submarine atmosphere during the maintenance or firing of VLS missiles.

  10. Analytical results from samples collected during coal-bed methane exploration drilling in Caldwell Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, Peter D.; Breland, F. Clayton, Jr.; Hackley, Paul C.; Dulong, Frank T.; Nichols, Douglas J.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Bustin, R. Marc; Barker, Charles E.; Willett, Jason C.; Trippi, Michael H.

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, and 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Louisiana Geological Survey (LGS), through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Devon SFS Operating, Inc. (Devon), participated in an exploratory drilling and coring program for coal-bed methane in north-central Louisiana. The USGS and LGS collected 25 coal core and cuttings samples from two coal-bed methane test wells that were drilled in west-central Caldwell Parish, Louisiana. The purpose of this report is to provide the results of the analytical program conducted on the USGS/LGS samples. The data generated from this project are summarized in various topical sections that include: 1. molecular and isotopic data from coal gas samples; 2. results of low-temperature ashing and X-ray analysis; 3. palynological data; 4. down-hole temperature data; 5. detailed core descriptions and selected core photographs; 6. coal physical and chemical analytical data; 7. coal gas desorption results; 8. methane and carbon dioxide coal sorption data; 9. coal petrographic results; and 10. geophysical logs.

  11. Molecular detection and genetic characterization of kobuviruses in fecal samples collected from diarrheic cattle in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Jun; Kim, Hye-Kwon; Song, Dae-Sub; Moon, Hyoung-Joon; Park, Bong-Kyun

    2011-07-01

    Kobuviruses are small, non-enveloped viruses with single-stranded, positive-sense genomic RNA, belonging to the family Picornaviridae, a highly diverse family of important pathogens of humans and animals. In spite of discovery of bovine kobuvirus was first reported in 2003, which is several years ago, information about the virus is lacking. In this study, we first identified bovine kobuviruses from Korean diarrheic cattle by RT-PCR using the generic kobuvirus primers with subsequent cloning and sequencing, and reported genetic characterization of Korean bovine kobuviruses by phylogenetic analysis. Among 62 diarrheic fecal samples collected from 36 cattle farms in 2008-2010 in Korea, 16 (25.8%) samples and 13 (36.1%) farms were positive for kobuvirus, and this indicated that kobuvirus infections are endemic in diarrheic cattle in Korea. The rates of evolutionary substitution of kobuvirus and age of MRCA of Korean kobuvirus were estimated on the basis of temporal information of the sequences by divergence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that six strains except CPF4293 belonged to bovine kobuviruses and formed the exclusive branch with other bovine kobuvirus reference strains; The CPF4293 strain, however, was especially close to porcine kobuviruses rather than to any other kobuviruses, and showed the close genetic relationship with porcine kobuvirus strains isolated in 2009 in Japan, even though it was originated from bovine fecal sample. These data raise questions as to whether interspecies transmission of porcine kobuvirus to cattle may occur in nature. PMID:21382521

  12. Breathing air trailer acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1994-09-14

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) will document compliance with the requirements of WHC-S-0251 Rev. 0 and ECNs 613530 and 606113. The equipment being tested is a Breathing Air Supply Trailer purchased as a Design and Fabrication procurement activity for use in the core sampling program. The ATP was written by the Seller and will be performed by the Seller with representatives of the Westinghouse Hanford Company witnessing the test at the Seller`s location. This test procedure is to verify that the American Bristol Industries, Inc., Model 5014-0001 low pressure Mobile Breathing Air Trailer, meets or exceeds the requirements of the Westinghouse Hanford specification.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A TAMPER RESISTANT/INDICATING AEROSOL COLLECTION SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AT BULK HANDLING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, L.

    2012-06-06

    Environmental sampling has become a key component of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards approaches since its approval for use in 1996. Environmental sampling supports the IAEA's mission of drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear material or nuclear activities in a Nation State. Swipe sampling is the most commonly used method for the collection of environmental samples from bulk handling facilities. However, augmenting swipe samples with an air monitoring system, which could continuously draw samples from the environment of bulk handling facilities, could improve the possibility of the detection of undeclared activities. Continuous sampling offers the opportunity to collect airborne materials before they settle onto surfaces which can be decontaminated, taken into existing duct work, filtered by plant ventilation, or escape via alternate pathways (i.e. drains, doors). Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been working to further develop an aerosol collection technology that could be installed at IAEA safeguarded bulk handling facilities. The addition of this technology may reduce the number of IAEA inspector visits required to effectively collect samples. The principal sample collection device is a patented Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) which utilizes electrostatic precipitation principles to deposit particulates onto selected substrates. Recent work has focused on comparing traditional swipe sampling to samples collected via an ACE system, and incorporating tamper resistant and tamper indicating (TRI) technologies into the ACE system. Development of a TRI-ACE system would allow collection of samples at uranium/plutonium bulk handling facilities in a manner that ensures sample integrity and could be an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. This work was supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA).

  14. Life and Breath

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Helen D.

    1974-01-01

    This article describes a public education program combining the screening process and a follow-up program for teaching victims of emphysema and other respiratory diseases how to better their living condition through proper breathing, avoidance of air pollutants and cigarette smoking, and taking better care of themselves physically. (PD)

  15. Breathing Like a Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,

  16. Metabolic breath analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    Instrument measures metabolic breathing rate and dynamics of human beings in atmospheres ranging from normal air to 100 percent oxygen at ambient pressures from 14.7 to 3.0 psia. Measurements are made at rest or performing tasks up to maximum physical capacity under either zero or normal gravity.

  17. INTERMITTENT POSITIVE PRESSURE BREATHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efficacy of long-term intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) treatment when used as an adjunct to the overall care of ambulatory outpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The evaluation compared the use of IPPB with use of a powered nebulizer.

  18. The Air We Breathe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Dina

    2010-01-01

    Topics discussed include NASA mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research; the role of Earth's atmosphere, atmospheric gases, layers of the Earth's atmosphere, ozone layer, air pollution, effects of air pollution on people, the Greenhouse Effect, and breathing on the International Space Station.

  19. Breathing Like a Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

  20. Firefighter's Breathing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlan, P. B.; Giorgini, E. A.; Sullivan, J. L.; Simmonds, M. R.; Beck, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    System, based on open-loop demand-type compressed air concept, is lighter and less bulky than former systems, yet still provides thirty minutes of air supply. Comfort, visibility, donning time, and breathing resistance have been improved. Apparatus is simple to recharge and maintain and is comparable in cost to previously available systems.

  1. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR FIELD COLLECTION OF INDOOR FLOOR SAMPLES AND POST FIELD SAMPLE HANDLING (UA-F-7.1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to establish a uniform procedure for the collection of indoor floor dust samples in the field. This procedure was followed to ensure consistent data retrieval of dust samples during the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border" study. Keywords: field; va...

  2. COPD: Learn More, Breathe Better

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Email Address Quick Links: E-Newsletter Newsroom Subcontractor Portal Attend an Event Register an Event Contact Information Site Map Consumer Information: Learn More about COPD Breathe Better with COPD Find COPD Events Breathe Better Network Country Conquers COPD PSA Campaign Learn More Breathe ...

  3. Touchless monitoring of breathing function.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Ramya; Pavlidis, Ioannis; Tsiamyrtzis, Panagiotis

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a novel method for noncontact measurement of breathing function. The method is based on statistical modeling of dynamic thermal data captured through an infrared imaging system. The expired air has higher temperature than the typical background of indoor environments (e.g., walls). Therefore, the particles of the expired air emit at a higher power than the background, a phenomenon which is captured as a distinct thermal signature in the infrared imagery. There is significant technical difficulty in computing this signature, however, because the phenomenon is of very low intensity and transient nature. We use an advanced statistical algorithm based on the method of moments and the Jeffrey's divergence measure to address the problem. So far, we were able to compute correctly the breathing waveforms for ten (10) subjects at distances ranging from 6-8 feet. The results were checked against concomitant ground-truth data collected with a traditional contact sensor. The technology is expected to find applications in the next generation of touchless polygraphy and in preventive health care. PMID:17271901

  4. Control of the positional relationship between a sample collection instrument and a surface to be analyzed during a sampling procedure using a laser sensor

    DOEpatents

    Van Berkel, Gary J.; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2012-02-21

    A system and method utilizes distance-measuring equipment including a laser sensor for controlling the collection instrument-to-surface distance during a sample collection process for use, for example, with mass spectrometric detection. The laser sensor is arranged in a fixed positional relationship with the collection instrument, and a signal is generated by way of the laser sensor which corresponds to the actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface. The actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface is compared to a target distance between the laser sensor and the surface when the collection instrument is arranged at a desired distance from the surface for sample collecting purposes, and adjustments are made, if necessary, so that the actual distance approaches the target distance.

  5. Floating sample-collection platform with stage-activated automatic water sampler for streams with large variation in stage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarte, Stephen R.; Schmidt, A.R.; Sullivan, Daniel J.

    1992-01-01

    A floating sample-collection platform is described for stream sites where the vertical or horizontal distance between the stream-sampling point and a safe location for the sampler exceed the suction head of the sampler. The platform allows continuous water sampling over the entire storm-runoff hydrogrpah. The platform was developed for a site in southern Illinois.

  6. Expiration: breathing's other face.

    PubMed

    Jenkin, Sarah E M; Milsom, William K

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the aspiration pump seen in tetrapod vertebrates from the buccal-pharyngeal force pump seen in air breathing fish and amphibians appears to have first involved the production of active expiration. Active inspiration arose later. This appears to have involved reconfiguration of a parafacial oscillator (now the parafacial respiratory group/retrotrapezoid nucleus (pFRG/RTN)) to produce active expiration, followed by reconfiguration of a paravagal oscillator (now the preBtC) to produce active inspiration. In the ancestral breathing cycle, inspiration follows expiration, which is in turn followed by glottal closure and breath holding. When both rhythms are expressed, as they are in reptiles and birds, and mammals under conditions of elevated respiratory drive, the pFRG/RTN appears to initiate the respiratory cycle. We propose that the coordinated output of this system is a ventilation cycle characterized by four phases. In reptiles, these consist of active inspiration (I), glottal closure (E1), a pause (an apnea or breath hold) (E2), and an active expiration (E3) that initiates the next cycle. In mammals under resting conditions, active expiration (E3) is suppressed and inspiration (I) is followed by airway constriction and diaphragmatic braking (E1) (rather than glottal closure) and a short pause at end-expiration (E2). As respiratory drive increases in mammals, expiratory muscle activity appears. Frequently, it first appears immediately preceding inspiration (E3) just as it does in reptiles. It can also appear in E1, however, and it is not yet clear what mechanisms underlie when and where in the cycle it appears. This may reflect whether the active expiration is recruited to enhance tidal volume, increase breathing frequency, or both. PMID:25194197

  7. Examination of Microbial Proteome Preservation Techniques Applicable to Autonomous Environmental Sample Collection

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Mak A.; Bulygin, Vladimir V.; Moran, Dawn M.; Taylor, Craig; Scholin, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Improvements in temporal and spatial sampling frequency have the potential to open new windows into the understanding of marine microbial dynamics. In recent years, efforts have been made to allow automated samplers to collect microbial biomass for DNA/RNA analyses from moored observatories and autonomous underwater vehicles. Measurements of microbial proteins are also of significant interest given their biogeochemical importance as enzymes that catalyze reactions and transporters that interface with the environment. We examined the influence of five preservatives solutions (SDS-extraction buffer, ethanol, trichloroacetic acid, B-PER, and RNAlater) on the proteome integrity of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus WH8102 after 4?weeks of storage at room temperature. Four approaches were used to assess degradation: total protein recovery, band integrity on an SDS detergent polyacrylamide electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gel, and number of protein identifications and relative abundances by 1-dimensional LCMS/MS proteomic analyses. Total protein recoveries from the preserved samples were lower than the frozen control due to processing losses, which could be corrected for with internal standardization. The trichloroacetic acid preserved sample showed significant loss of protein band integrity on the SDS-PAGE gel. The RNAlater preserved sample showed the highest number of protein identifications (103% relative to the control; 520??31 identifications in RNAlater versus 504??4 in the control), equivalent to the frozen control. Relative abundances of individual proteins in the RNAlater treatment were quite similar to that of the frozen control (average ratio of 1.01??0.27 for the 50 most abundant proteins), while the SDS-extraction buffer, ethanol, and B-PER all showed significant decreases in both number of identifications and relative abundances of individual proteins. Based on these findings, RNAlater was an effective proteome preservative, although further study is warranted on additional marine microbes. PMID:22069397

  8. Distribution of trace elements in egg samples collected near coal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Moraes Flores, E.M. de; Martins, A.F.

    1997-05-01

    The intensive use of mineral coal for thermal power generation is known to cause severe damage to the regional environment The emission of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and fluoride (F) compounds into the atmosphere may lead, under certain conditions, to serious contamination of primary matrices in the biosphere and even of food- stuffs. In the present study, egg samples were collected from nonconfined hens (Gallus domesticus) over a period of 2 yr in the vicinity of two of the major coal power plants (Candiota and Charqueadas) in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil. The constituent parts of the samples (yolk, albumen, and shell) were solubilized with acid in a teflon-tined pressurized bomb after an appropriate beating step. The Cd and Ph were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using Pd/Mg nitric solution as chemical modifier. Fluoride was determined by direct ion-selective electrode potentiometry. Cadmium concentration in the samples from both regions ranged from <0.01 (albumen) to 0.10 (yolk) mg kg{sup -1}, whereas Ph and F concentrations ranged from 0.16 (shell) to 3.16 (yolk) and from 0.06 (yolk) to 1.75 (shell) mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. A comparison with the higher obtained mean values for reference samples (Cd < 0.02 mg kg{sup -1}, shell; Ph = 0.11 mg kg{sup -1}, yolk; and F = 0.07 mg kg{sup -1}, shell) indicates a significant environmental contamination with Ph and F in the regions of Candiota and Charqueadas. A relative Cd and Ph enrichment in the yolk was also confirmed, whereas F preferentially concentrated in the shell. 23 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. Examination of microbial proteome preservation techniques applicable to autonomous environmental sample collection.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mak A; Bulygin, Vladimir V; Moran, Dawn M; Taylor, Craig; Scholin, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Improvements in temporal and spatial sampling frequency have the potential to open new windows into the understanding of marine microbial dynamics. In recent years, efforts have been made to allow automated samplers to collect microbial biomass for DNA/RNA analyses from moored observatories and autonomous underwater vehicles. Measurements of microbial proteins are also of significant interest given their biogeochemical importance as enzymes that catalyze reactions and transporters that interface with the environment. We examined the influence of five preservatives solutions (SDS-extraction buffer, ethanol, trichloroacetic acid, B-PER, and RNAlater) on the proteome integrity of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus WH8102 after 4 weeks of storage at room temperature. Four approaches were used to assess degradation: total protein recovery, band integrity on an SDS detergent polyacrylamide electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gel, and number of protein identifications and relative abundances by 1-dimensional LC-MS/MS proteomic analyses. Total protein recoveries from the preserved samples were lower than the frozen control due to processing losses, which could be corrected for with internal standardization. The trichloroacetic acid preserved sample showed significant loss of protein band integrity on the SDS-PAGE gel. The RNAlater preserved sample showed the highest number of protein identifications (103% relative to the control; 520 ± 31 identifications in RNAlater versus 504 ± 4 in the control), equivalent to the frozen control. Relative abundances of individual proteins in the RNAlater treatment were quite similar to that of the frozen control (average ratio of 1.01 ± 0.27 for the 50 most abundant proteins), while the SDS-extraction buffer, ethanol, and B-PER all showed significant decreases in both number of identifications and relative abundances of individual proteins. Based on these findings, RNAlater was an effective proteome preservative, although further study is warranted on additional marine microbes. PMID:22069397

  10. Human Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids and Sample Collection Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In 2009 the Augustine Commission identified near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. Subsequently, the U.S. presidential administration directed NASA on April 15, 2010 to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. Human Exploration Considerations: These missions would be the first human expeditions to interplanetary bodies beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars, Phobos and Deimos, and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEAs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of these primitive objects. However, prior to sending human explorers to NEAs, robotic investigations of these bodies would be required in order to maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk. These precursor missions to NEAs would fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps concerning their physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration of these relatively unknown destinations. Sample Science Benefits: Information obtained from a human investigation of a NEA, together with ground-based observations and prior spacecraft investigations of asteroids and comets, will also provide a real measure of ground truth to data obtained from terrestrial meteorite collections. Major advances in the areas of geochemistry, impact history, thermal history, isotope analyses, mineralogy, space weathering, formation ages, thermal inertias, volatile content, source regions, solar system formation, etc. can be expected from human NEA missions. Samples directly returned from a primitive body would lead to the same kind of breakthroughs for understanding NEAs that the Apollo samples provided for understanding the Earth-Moon system and its formation history. International Participation: In addition, robotic precursor and human exploration missions to NEAs would allow the NASA and its international partners to gain operational experience in performing complex tasks (e.g., sample collection, deployment of payloads, retrieval of payloads, etc.) with crew, robots, and spacecraft under microgravity conditions at or near the surface of a small body. This would provide an important synergy between the worldwide Science and Exploration communities, which will be crucial for development of future international deep space exploration architectures and has potential benefits for future exploration of other destinations beyond low-Earth orbit.

  11. Chemical fingerprinting of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon oil spill samples collected from Alabama shoreline.

    PubMed

    Mulabagal, V; Yin, F; John, G F; Hayworth, J S; Clement, T P

    2013-05-15

    We compare the chromatographic signatures of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon (DH) source oil, three other reference crude oils, DH emulsified mousse that arrived on Alabama's shoreline in June 2010, and seven tar balls collected from Alabama beaches from 2011 to 2012. Characteristic hopane and sterane fingerprints show that all the tar ball samples originated from DH oil. In addition, the diagnostic ratios of various hopanes indicate an excellent match. Quantitation data for C????-hopane concentration levels show that most of the weathering observed in DH-related tar balls found on Alabama's beaches is likely the result of natural evaporation and dissolution that occurred during transport across the Gulf of Mexico prior to beach deposition. Based on the physical and biomarker characterization data presented in this study we conclude that virtually all fragile, sticky, brownish tar balls currently found on Alabama shoreline originated from the DH oil spill. PMID:23523118

  12. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces isolated from house dust samples collected around the world

    PubMed Central

    Visagie, C.M.; Hirooka, Y.; Tanney, J.B.; Whitfield, E.; Mwange, K.; Meijer, M.; Amend, A.S.; Seifert, K.A.; Samson, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of a worldwide survey of the indoor mycobiota, dust was collected from nine countries. Analyses of dust samples included the culture-dependent dilution-to-extinction method and the culture-independent 454-pyrosequencing. Of the 7 904 isolates, 2 717 isolates were identified as belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces. The aim of this study was to identify isolates to species level and describe the new species found. Secondly, we wanted to create a reliable reference sequence database to be used for next-generation sequencing projects. Isolates represented 59 Aspergillus species, including eight undescribed species, 49 Penicillium species of which seven were undescribed and 18 Talaromyces species including three described here as new. In total, 568 ITS barcodes were generated, and 391 β-tubulin and 507 calmodulin sequences, which serve as alternative identification markers. PMID:25492981

  13. Lessons Learned for Geologic Data Collection and Sampling: Insights from the Desert RATS 2010 Geologist Crewmembers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurtado, J. M., Jr.; Bleacher, J. E.; Rice, J.; Young, K.; Garry, W. B.; Eppler, D.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1997, Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) has conducted hardware and operations tests in the Arizona desert that advance human and robotic planetary exploration capabilities. D-RATS 2010 (8/31-9/13) simulated geologic traverses through a terrain of cinder cones, lava flows, and underlying sedimentary units using a pair of crewed rovers and extravehicular activities (EVAs) for geologic fieldwork. There were two sets of crews, each consisting of an engineer/commander and an experienced field geologist drawn from the academic community. A major objective of D-RATS was to examine the functions of a science support team, the roles of geologist crewmembers, and protocols, tools, and technologies needed for effective data collection and sample documentation. Solutions to these problems must consider how terrestrial field geology must be adapted to geologic fieldwork during EVAs

  14. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces isolated from house dust samples collected around the world.

    PubMed

    Visagie, C M; Hirooka, Y; Tanney, J B; Whitfield, E; Mwange, K; Meijer, M; Amend, A S; Seifert, K A; Samson, R A

    2014-06-01

    As part of a worldwide survey of the indoor mycobiota, dust was collected from nine countries. Analyses of dust samples included the culture-dependent dilution-to-extinction method and the culture-independent 454-pyrosequencing. Of the 7?904 isolates, 2?717 isolates were identified as belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces. The aim of this study was to identify isolates to species level and describe the new species found. Secondly, we wanted to create a reliable reference sequence database to be used for next-generation sequencing projects. Isolates represented 59 Aspergillus species, including eight undescribed species, 49 Penicillium species of which seven were undescribed and 18 Talaromyces species including three described here as new. In total, 568 ITS barcodes were generated, and 391 ?-tubulin and 507 calmodulin sequences, which serve as alternative identification markers. PMID:25492981

  15. Efficient isolation of multiphoton processes and detection of collective resonances in dilute samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruder, Lukas; Binz, Marcel; Stienkemeier, Frank

    2015-11-01

    A phase modulation technique to sensitively and selectively isolate multiple-quantum coherences in a femtosecond pump-probe setup is presented. By detecting incoherent observables and incorporating lock-in amplification, even weak signals of highly dilute samples can be acquired. Applying this method, efficient isolation of one- and two-photon quantum beats in a rubidium-doped helium droplet beam experiment is demonstrated and collective resonances are observed in a potassium vapor for the first time up to fourth order. Our approach provides promising perspectives for coherent time-resolved experiments in the deep UV and multidimensional spectroscopy schemes, in particular when mass-selective detection of particles in dilute gas-phase targets is possible.

  16. Magnetic Properties of Lunar Samples: an Exhaustive Survey of the Apollo Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattacceca, J.; Andrade Lima, E.; Rochette, P.; Weiss, B. P.; Uehara, M.; Quesnel, Y.; Baratchart, L.; Leblond, J.; Chevillard, S.

    2014-12-01

    Detailed paleomagnetic studies of lunar samples shed light on the existence and timing of the ancient lunar dynamo, with insights to the inner structure and thermal evolution of the Moon, as well as constraints for the lunar dynamo models [e.g., 1-6]. However these studies are usually performed on small cm-scale samples, typically below 100 mg. Such a small size, combined with anisotropy and other spurious effects have been shown to be the source of additional complexity [7]. We measured the natural remanent magnetization and magnetic susceptibility of 105 large Apollo samples (mass range 40 g to 2.9 kg, median mass 350 g). For this, following the approach utilized for the initial paleomagnetic evaluation of Apollo 11 samples [8], we developed a dedicated magnetometer using a fluxgate sensor and a rotating stage, which allowed measuring the bulk samples in their original Teflon and aluminum packaging under nitrogen atmosphere. Despite a number of caveats (no demagnetization steps, existence of viscous magnetization and other soft secondary magnetization), the ratio of natural remanent magnetization to susceptibility gives a rough estimate of the paleointensity. The evolution of the paleointensity with the estimated age of the samples will provide a broad picture of the evolution of the lunar dynamo. Susceptibility, as a proxy to the bulk metal content in lunar rocks [9], is also a valuable source of information per se but is currently available only for a small fraction of the Apollo collection. Our survey will allow identification of rocks with unusual magnetic properties, and therefore potentially unusual petrogenesis. References: [1] Fuller & Cisowski 1987. In Jacobs (Ed.) Geomagnetism, 307-455 [2] Garrick-Bethell et al. 2009. Science 323:356-359 [3] Cournède et al. 2012. EPSL 33:31-42 [4] Shea et al. 2012. Science 335:453-456 [5] Suavet et al. 2013. PNAS 110:8453-8456 [6] Tikoo et al. 2014. EPSL in press [7] Tikoo et al. 2012. EPSL 337:93-103 [8] Doell & Grommé 1970. Proc. Apollo 11 Lunar Sci. Conf. 3:2093-96 [9] Rochette et al. 2010. EPSL 292:383-391.

  17. Handbook: Collecting Groundwater Samples from Monitoring Wells in Frenchman Flat, CAU 98

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Jenny; Lyles, Brad; Cooper, Clay; Hershey, Ron; Healey, John

    2015-06-01

    Frenchman Flat basin on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) contains Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 98, which is comprised of ten underground nuclear test locations. Environmental management of these test locations is part of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended) with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the State of Nevada. A Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been approved for CAU 98 (DOE, 2011). The CADD/CAP reports on the Corrective Action Investigation that was conducted for the CAU, which included characterization and modeling. It also presents the recommended corrective actions to address the objective of protecting human health and the environment. The recommended corrective action alternative is “Closure in Place with Modeling, Monitoring, and Institutional Controls.” The role of monitoring is to verify that Contaminants of Concern (COCs) have not exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) limits (Code of Federal Regulations, 2014) at the regulatory boundary, to ensure that institutional controls are adequate, and to monitor for changed conditions that could affect the closure conditions. The long-term closure monitoring program will be planned and implemented as part of the Closure Report stage after activities specified in the CADD/CAP are complete. Groundwater at the NNSS has been monitored for decades through a variety of programs. Current activities were recently consolidated in an NNSS Integrated Sampling Plan (DOE, 2014). Although monitoring directed by the plan is not intended to meet the FFACO long-term monitoring requirements for a CAU (which will be defined in the Closure Report), the objective to ensure public health protection is similar. It is expected that data collected in accordance with the plan will support the transition to long-term monitoring at each CAU. The sampling plan is designed to ensure that monitoring activities occur in compliance with the UGTA Quality Assurance Plan (DOE, 2012). The sampling plan should be referenced for Quality Assurance (QA) elements and procedures governing sampling activities. The NNSS Integrated Sampling Plan specifies the groundwater monitoring that will occur in CAU 98 until the long-term monitoring program is approved in the Closure Report. The plan specifies the wells that must be monitored and categorizes them by their sampling objective with the associated analytical requirements and frequency. Possible sample collection methods and required standard operating procedures are also presented. The intent of this handbook is to augment the NNSS Integrated Sampling Plan by providing well-specific details for the sampling professional implementing the Sampling Plan in CAU 98, Frenchman Flat. This handbook includes each CAU 98 well designated for sampling in the NNSS Integrated Sampling Plan. The following information is provided in the individual well sections: 1. The purpose of sampling. 2. A physical description of the well. 3. The chemical characteristics of the formation water. 4. Recommended protocols for purging and sampling. The well-specific information has been gathered from numerous historical and current sources cited in each section, but two particularly valuable resources merit special mention. These are the USGS NNSS website (http://nevada.usgs.gov/doe_nv/ntsarea5.cfm) and the UGTA Field Operations website (https://ugta.nv.doe.gov/sites/Field%20Operations/default.aspx). 2 Land surface elevation and measuring point for water level measurements in Frenchman Flat were a focus during CAU investigations (see Appendix B, Attachment 1 in Navarro-Intera, 2014). Both websites listed above provide information on the accepted datum for each well. A summary is found on the home page for the well on the USGS website. Additional information is available through a link in the “Available Data” section to an “MP diagram” with a photo annotated with the datum information. On the UGTA Field Operations well page, the same information is in the “Wellhead Diagram” link. Well RNM-2s does not have an annotated photo at this time. All of the CAU 98 monitoring wells are located within Area 5 of Frenchman Flat, with the exception of ER-11-2 in Area 11 (Figure 1). The wells are clustered in two areas: the northern area (Figure 2) and the central area (Figure 3). Each well is discussed below in geographic order from north to south as follows: ER-11-2, ER-5-3 shallow piezometer, ER-5-3-2, ER-5-5, RNM-1, RNM-2s, and UE-5n.

  18. Quality Sample Collection, Handling, and Preservation for an Effective Microbial Forensics Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The collection and preservation of microbial forensic evidence are paramount to effeceint and successful investigation and attribution. If evidence, when available, is not collected, degrades, or is contaminated during collection, handling, transport, or storage, the downstream characterization and...

  19. Conducting Internet Research With the Transgender Population: Reaching Broad Samples and Collecting Valid Data

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Michael H.; Bockting, Walter O.; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Raman, Sivakumaran

    2013-01-01

    Health research on transgender people has been hampered by the challenges inherent in studying a hard-to-reach, relatively small, and geographically dispersed population. The Internet has the potential to facilitate access to transgender samples large enough to permit examination of the diversity and syndemic health disparities found among this population. In this article, we describe the experiences of a team of investigators using the Internet to study HIV risk behaviors of transgender people in the United States. We developed an online instrument, recruited participants exclusively via websites frequented by members of the target population, and collected data using online quantitative survey and qualitative synchronous and asynchronous interview methods. Our experiences indicate that the Internet environment presents the investigator with some unique challenges and that commonly expressed criticisms about Internet research (e.g., lack of generalizable samples, invalid study participants, and multiple participation by the same subject) can be overcome with careful method design, usability testing, and pilot testing. The importance of both usability and pilot testing are described with respect to participant engagement and retention and the quality of data obtained online. PMID:24031157

  20. Five commercial DNA extraction systems tested and compared on a stool sample collection.

    PubMed

    Persson, Sren; de Boer, Richard F; Kooistra-Smid, Anna M D; Olsen, Katharina E P

    2011-03-01

    In this study, 5 different commercial DNA extraction systems were tested on a stool sample collection containing 81 clinical stool specimens that were culture-positive for diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica, or Clostridium difficile. The purified DNAs were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) directed toward the relevant organisms. The results showed that conventional PCR combined with the extraction systems BioRobot EZ1 (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany), Bugs'n Beads (Genpoint, Oslo, Norway), ChargeSwitch (Invitrogen, Paisley, UK), QIAamp Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen), and 2 protocols (generic and Specific A) for EasyMag (BioMrieux, Marcy I'Etoile, France) were able to identify 89%, 62%, 85%, 88%, 85%, and 91%, respectively, of the pathogens originally identified by conventional culture-based methods. When TaqMan PCR was combined with the EasyMag Specific A protocol, 99% of the samples were correctly identified. The results demonstrate that the extraction efficiencies can vary significantly among different extraction systems, careful optimization may have a significant positive effect, and the use of sensitive and specific detection methods like TaqMan PCR is an ideal choice for this type of analysis. PMID:21353945

  1. Insights into explosion dynamics at Stromboli in 2009 from ash samples collected in real-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddeucci, J.; Lautze, N.; Andronico, D.; D'Auria, L.; Niemeijer, A.; Houghton, B.; Scarlato, P.

    2012-04-01

    Rapid characterization of tephra during explosive eruptions can provide valuable insights into eruptive mechanisms, also integrating other monitoring systems. Here we reveal a perspective on Stromboli's conduit processes by linking ash textures to geophysical estimates of eruption parameters of observed explosions. A three day campaign at Stromboli was undertaken by Italy's Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) in October 2009. At this time activity was moderately intense, with an average 4 to 5, both ash-rich and ash-poor, explosions per hour at each the SW and NE vents. A total of fifteen ash samples were collected in real time. We used binocular and scanning electron microscopes to analyze the components, grain size and morphology distributions, and surface chemistry of ash particles within eight selected samples. In addition, the INGV monitoring network provided visual, thermal, and seismic information on the explosions that generated the sampled ash. In each sample, the proportion of fluidal, glassy sideromelane (as opposed to blocky, microcrystalline tachylite plus lithics), the degree of "chemical freshness" (as opposed to chemical alteration), and the average size of particles appear to correlate directly with the maximum height and the seismic amplitude of the corresponding explosion, and inversely correlate with the amount of ash erupted, as estimated by monitoring videos. These observations suggest that more violent explosions (i.e., those driven by the release of larger and more pressurized gas volumes) produce ash via the fragmentation of hotter, more fluid magma, while weaker ones mostly erupt ash-sized particles derived by the fragmentation of colder magma and incorporation of conduit wall debris. The formation of fluidal ash particles (up to Pele's hairs) requires aerodynamic deformation of a relatively low-viscosity magma, in agreement with the strong acceleration imposed upon fragmented magma clots by the rapid expansion of pressurized gas, as directly observed in high-speed videos of the sampled explosions. Our findings show that ash monitoring of mafic explosions permits characterization of the eruptive style, and can provide indirect information on the intensity of the eruption.

  2. Analysis of non-methane hydrocarbons in air samples collected aboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. K.; Slemr, F.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2009-10-01

    The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) is a long-term monitoring program making regular atmospheric measurements from an instrument container installed monthly aboard a passenger aircraft. Typical cruising altitudes of the aircraft allow for the study of the free troposphere and the extra-tropical upper troposphere as well as the lowermost stratosphere. CARIBIC measurements include a number of real time analyses as well as the collection of aerosol and whole air samples. These whole air samples are analyzed post-flight for a suite of trace gases, which includes non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). The NMHC measurement system and its analytical performance are described here. Precision was found to vary slightly by compound, and is less than 2% for the C2-C6 alkanes and ethyne, and between 1 and 6% for C7-C8 alkanes and aromatic compounds. Preliminary results from participation in a Global Atmospheric Watch (WMO) VOC audit indicate accuracies within the precision of the system. Limits of detection are 1 pptv for most compounds, and up to 3 pptv for some aromatics. These are sufficiently low to measure mixing ratios typically observed in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere for the longer-lived NMHC, however, in air samples from these regions many of the compounds with shorter lifetimes (<5 d) were frequently below the detection limit. Observed NMHC concentrations span many orders of magnitude, dependent on atmospheric region and air mass history, with concentrations typically decreasing with shorter chemical lifetimes.

  3. Analysis of non-methane hydrocarbons in air samples collected aboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. K.; Slemr, F.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2010-02-01

    The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) is a long-term monitoring program making regular atmospheric measurements from an instrument container installed monthly aboard a passenger aircraft. Typical cruising altitudes of the aircraft allow for the study of the free troposphere and the extra-tropical upper troposphere as well as the lowermost stratosphere. CARIBIC measurements include a number of real time analyses as well as the collection of aerosol and whole air samples. These whole air samples are analyzed post-flight for a suite of trace gases, which includes non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). The NMHC measurement system and its analytical performance are described here. Precision was found to vary slightly by compound, and is less than 2% for the C2-C6 alkanes and ethyne, and between 1% and 6% for C7-C8 alkanes and aromatic compounds. Preliminary results from participation in a Global Atmospheric Watch (WMO) VOC audit indicate accuracies within the precision of the system. Limits of detection are 1 pptv for most compounds, and up to 3 pptv for some aromatics. These are sufficiently low to measure mixing ratios typically observed in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere for the longer-lived NMHC, however, in air samples from these regions many of the compounds with shorter lifetimes (<5 days) were frequently below the detection limit. Observed NMHC concentrations span several orders of magnitude, dependent on atmospheric region and air mass history, with concentrations typically decreasing with shorter chemical lifetimes.

  4. Antibiotic resistance among bacteria isolated from seawater and penguin fecal samples collected near Palmer Station, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert V; Gammon, Katharine; Day, Martin J

    2009-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in aquatic bacteria has increased steadily as a consequence of the widespread use of antibiotics, but practice and international treaty should have limited antibiotic contamination in Antarctica. We estimated antibiotic resistance in microorganisms isolated from the Antarctic marine waters and a penguin rookery, for 2 reasons: (i) as a measure of human impact and (ii) as a potential "snapshot" of the preantibiotic world. Samples were taken at 4 established sampling sites near Palmer Station, which is situated at the southern end of the Palmer Archipelago (64 degrees 10'S, 61 degrees 50'W). Sites were chosen to provide different potentials for human contamination. Forty 50 mL samples of seawater were collected and colony-forming units (CFU)/mL were determined at 6 and 20 degrees C. For this study, presumed psychrophiles (growth at 6 degrees C) were assumed to be native to Antarctic waters, whereas presumed mesophiles (growth at 20 degrees C but not at 6 degrees C) were taken to represent introduced organisms. The 20-6 degrees C CFU/mL ratio was used as a measure of the relative impact to the ecosystem of presumably introduced organisms. This ratio was highest at the site nearest to Palmer Station and decreased with distance from it, suggesting that human presence has impacted the natural microbial flora of the site. The frequency of resistance to 5 common antibiotics was determined in each group of isolates. Overall drug resistance was higher among the presumed mesophiles than the presumed psychrophiles and increased with proximity to Palmer Station, with the presumed mesophiles showing higher frequencies of single and multiple drug resistance than the psychrophile population. The frequency of multidrug resistance followed the same pattern. It appears that multidrug resistance is low among native Antarctic bacteria but is increased by human habitation. PMID:19190699

  5. Location and Age Database for Selected Foraminifer Samples Collected by Exxon Petroleum Geologists in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabb, Earl E.; Parker, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Most of the geologic maps published for central California before 1960 were made without the benefit of age determinations from microfossils. The ages of Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks in the mostly poorly exposed and structurally complex sedimentary rocks represented in the Coast Ranges are critical in determining stratigraphic succession or lack of it, and in determining whether the juxtaposition of similar appearing but different age formations means a fault is present. Since the 1930’s, at least, oil company geologists have used microfossils to assist them in geologic mapping and in determining the environments of deposition of the sediment containing the microfossils. This information has been so confidential that some companies even coded the names of foraminifers to prevent disclosure. In the past 20 years, however, the attitude of petroleum companies about this information has changed, and many of the formerly confidential materials and reports are now available. We report here on 1,964 Exxon foraminifer samples mostly from surface localities in the San Francisco Bay region, and elsewhere in California. Most but not all the samples were plotted on U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) 7.5’ topographic maps or on obsolete USGS 15’ maps. The information from the slides can be used to update geologic maps prepared without the benefit of microfossil data, to analyze the depth and temperature of ocean water covering parts of California during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras, and for solving nomenclature and other scientific problems. A similar report on more than 30,000 slides for surface samples collected by Chevron geologists has been released (Brabb and Parker, 2003), and another report provides information on slides for more than 2000 oil test wells in Northern California (Brabb, Powell, and Brocher, 2001).

  6. {sup 222}Rn in water: A comparison of two sample collection methods and two sample transport methods, and the determination of temporal variation in North Carolina ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Hightower, J.H. III

    1994-12-31

    Objectives of this field experiment were: (1) determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between the radon concentrations of samples collected by EPA`s standard method, using a syringe, and an alternative, slow-flow method; (2) determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between the measured radon concentrations of samples mailed vs samples not mailed; and (3) determine whether there was a temporal variation of water radon concentration over a 7-month period. The field experiment was conducted at 9 sites, 5 private wells, and 4 public wells, at various locations in North Carolina. Results showed that a syringe is not necessary for sample collection, there was generally no significant radon loss due to mailing samples, and there was statistically significant evidence of temporal variations in water radon concentrations.

  7. Automated biowaste sampling system improved feces collection, mass measurement and sampling. [by use of a breadboard model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Mangialardi, J. K.; Young, R.

    1974-01-01

    The capability of the basic automated Biowaste Sampling System (ABSS) hardware was extended and improved through the design, fabrication and test of breadboard hardware. A preliminary system design effort established the feasibility of integrating the breadboard concepts into the ABSS.

  8. A Raman cell based on hollow core photonic crystal fiber for human breath analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Kam Kong; Zeng, Haishan; Short, Michael; Lam, Stephen; McWilliams, Annette

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Breath analysis has a potential prospect to benefit the medical field based on its perceived advantages to become a point-of-care, easy to use, and cost-effective technology. Early studies done by mass spectrometry show that volatile organic compounds from human breath can represent certain disease states of our bodies, such as lung cancer, and revealed the potential of breath analysis. But mass spectrometry is costly and has slow-turnaround time. The authors’ goal is to develop a more portable and cost effective device based on Raman spectroscopy and hollow core-photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) for breath analysis. Methods: Raman scattering is a photon-molecular interaction based on the kinetic modes of an analyte which offers unique fingerprint type signals that allow molecular identification. HC-PCF is a novel light guide which allows light to be confined in a hollow core and it can be filled with a gaseous sample. Raman signals generated by the gaseous sample (i.e., human breath) can be guided and collected effectively for spectral analysis. Results: A Raman-cell based on HC-PCF in the near infrared wavelength range was developed and tested in a single pass forward-scattering mode for different gaseous samples. Raman spectra were obtained successfully from reference gases (hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide gases), ambient air, and a human breath sample. The calculated minimum detectable concentration of this system was ∼15 parts per million by volume, determined by measuring the carbon dioxide concentration in ambient air via the characteristic Raman peaks at 1286 and 1388 cm{sup −1}. Conclusions: The results of this study were compared to a previous study using HC-PCF to trap industrial gases and backward-scatter 514.5 nm light from them. The authors found that the method presented in this paper has an advantage to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This SNR advantage, coupled with the better transmission of HC-PCF in the near-IR than in the visible wavelengths led to an estimated seven times improvement in the detection sensitivity. The authors’ prototype device also demonstrated a 100-fold improvement over a recently reported detection limit of a reflective capillary fiber-based Raman cell for breath analysis. Continued development is underway to increase the detection sensitivity further to reach practical clinical applications.

  9. Sample collection, filtration and preservation protocols for the determination of 'total dissolved' mercury in waters.

    PubMed

    Hall, Gwendy E M; Pelchat, J C; Pelchat, Pierre; Vaive, Judy E

    2002-05-01

    The objective of the work carried out was to recommend protocols for the collection, filtration (0.45 microm) and preservation of surface water samples for the subsequent determination of total 'dissolved' Hg. Cold vapour (CV) ICP-MS was employed to determine Hg; samples were acidified to a strength of 4 mol l(-1) HCl and 1% NaBH4 was used as the reducing agent in-line. Four types of 125 ml bottles were studied (Teflon, fluorinated ethene propene copolymer, FEP; high density polyethylene, HDPE; polyethylene terephthalate copolyester, PET; polypropylene, PP), together with three cleaning methods (EPA Methods 1631, 1638 and a rinse with reverse osmosis deionised water, 'MilliQ'). The transmission properties of the four materials were also studied to evaluate the potential for contamination from atmospheric Hg0. Results of this bottle study (n = 195), all below the detection limit of 0.5 ng l(-1), indicate that the bottles of choice, from an economic and time-saving perspective, are HDPE and PP, the latter being preferable if the sample is to be stored in a contaminated atmosphere. The bottles would be used on a once-only basis, negating the need for labourious and costly cleaning on repeat use. A simple rinse with MilliQ water would suffice prior to use. Twelve 0.45 microm filter systems (mostly Millipore and Gelman) were studied for (a) their potential Hg contamination properties and (b) their retention of Hg, possibly in colloidal form, during filtration. Ottawa River water, spiked at 50 ng l(-1) Hg, was used as a control sample. Again blank values were all negative, indicating contamination was not a concern but different recoveries of Hg were obtained across the different systems. The optimum systems to use, in that they provided maximum recovery (ca 80%) of Hg, are the Millipore Sterivex capsule and the Millipore Millex disc, both based on the hydrophilic Durapore membrane. The lowest recoveries (23-36%) were found with the Gelman AquaPrep systems and the Millipore HN nylon filter. Four control samples, Ottawa, Rideau and Gatineau Rivers, and a MilliQ blank, were used to study three preservation approaches, in the media: 0.5% BrCl, 2% HCl and 0.04% K2Cr2O7 in 1% HNO3. Mercury was stable for 28 days in a medium of 0.5% BrCl in all four samples but the other two media showed a loss of up to ca 20% Hg over this time frame, the loss being sample and time dependent. This may be a species transformation which is not detected by CV-ICP-MS from an HCl medium but this requires further investigation. Mercury was stable over the 28 days in the spiked blank MilliQ sample for all three preservation media. PMID:12081047

  10. Geochemical results from stream-water and stream-sediment samples collected in Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, Philip L.; Todd, Andrew S.; Smith, Kathleen S.; DeWitt, Ed; Zeigler, Mathew P.

    2013-01-01

    Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey are studying the relationship between watershed lithology and stream-water chemistry. As part of this effort, 60 stream-water samples and 43 corresponding stream-sediment samples were collected in 2010 and 2011 from locations in Colorado and New Mexico. Sample sites were selected from small to midsize watersheds composed of a high percentage of one rock type or geologic unit. Stream-water and stream-sediment samples were collected, processed, preserved, and analyzed in a consistent manner. This report releases geochemical data for this phase of the study.

  11. Analyses of water, core material, and elutriate samples collected near Sicily Island, Louisiana (Sicily Island area levee project)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demcheck, Dennis K.; Dupuy, Alton J.

    1980-01-01

    Samples consisting of composited core material were collected from five areas by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide data on the impact of proposed channel excavation and levee construction in the Sicily Island area, Louisiana. Samples of receiving water from the five areas, selected to represent the water that will contact the proposed dredged material of the levee fill material, also were collected. Chemical and physical analyses were performed on samples of core material and native water and on elutriate samples of specific core material-receiving water mixtures. The results of these analyses are presented without interpretation. (USGS)

  12. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints. PMID:26429471

  13. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  14. Breath testing as potential colorectal cancer screening tool.

    PubMed

    Amal, Haitham; Leja, Marcis; Funka, Konrads; Lasina, Ieva; Skapars, Roberts; Sivins, Armands; Ancans, Guntis; Kikuste, Ilze; Vanags, Aigars; Tolmanis, Ivars; Kirsners, Arnis; Kupcinskas, Limas; Haick, Hossam

    2016-01-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is included in organized programs of many countries worldwide, there is still a place for better screening tools. In this study, 418 breath samples were collected from 65 patients with CRC, 22 with advanced or nonadvanced adenomas, and 122 control cases. All patients, including the controls, had undergone colonoscopy. The samples were analysed with two different techniques. The first technique relied on gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for identification and quantification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The T-test was used to identify significant VOCs (p values < 0.017). The second technique relied on sensor analysis with a pattern recognition method for building a breath pattern to identify different groups. Blind analysis or leave-one-out cross validation was conducted for validation. The GC-MS analysis revealed four significant VOCs that identified the tested groups; these were acetone and ethyl acetate (higher in CRC), ethanol and 4-methyl octane (lower in CRC). The sensor-analysis distinguished CRC from the control group with 85% sensitivity, 94% specificity and 91% accuracy. The performance of the sensors in identifying the advanced adenoma group from the non-advanced adenomas was 88% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and 94% accuracy. The performance of the sensors in identifying the advanced adenoma group was distinguished from the control group was 100% sensitivity, 88% specificity, and 94% accuracy. For summary, volatile marker testing by using sensor analysis is a promising noninvasive approach for CRC screening. PMID:26212114

  15. Extracting samples of high diversity from thematic collections of large gene banks using a genetic-distance based approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Breeding programs are usually reluctant to evaluate and use germplasm accessions other than the elite materials belonging to their advanced populations. The concept of core collections has been proposed to facilitate the access of potential users to samples of small sizes, representative of the genetic variability contained within the gene pool of a specific crop. The eventual large size of a core collection perpetuates the problem it was originally proposed to solve. The present study suggests that, in addition to the classic core collection concept, thematic core collections should be also developed for a specific crop, composed of a limited number of accessions, with a manageable size. Results The thematic core collection obtained meets the minimum requirements for a core sample - maintenance of at least 80% of the allelic richness of the thematic collection, with, approximately, 15% of its size. The method was compared with other methodologies based on the M strategy, and also with a core collection generated by random sampling. Higher proportions of retained alleles (in a core collection of equal size) or similar proportions of retained alleles (in a core collection of smaller size) were detected in the two methods based on the M strategy compared to the proposed methodology. Core sub-collections constructed by different methods were compared regarding the increase or maintenance of phenotypic diversity. No change on phenotypic diversity was detected by measuring the trait "Weight of 100 Seeds", for the tested sampling methods. Effects on linkage disequilibrium between unlinked microsatellite loci, due to sampling, are discussed. Conclusions Building of a thematic core collection was here defined by prior selection of accessions which are diverse for the trait of interest, and then by pairwise genetic distances, estimated by DNA polymorphism analysis at molecular marker loci. The resulting thematic core collection potentially reflects the maximum allele richness with the smallest sample size from a larger thematic collection. As an example, we used the development of a thematic core collection for drought tolerance in rice. It is expected that such thematic collections increase the use of germplasm by breeding programs and facilitate the study of the traits under consideration. The definition of a core collection to study drought resistance is a valuable contribution towards the understanding of the genetic control and the physiological mechanisms involved in water use efficiency in plants. PMID:20576152

  16. Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposures of firefighters during suppression of structural burns.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Fent, Kenneth W

    2014-09-01

    Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposures over a working lifetime, in particular about low-level exposures that might serve as initiating events for adverse outcome pathways (AOP) leading to cancer. As part of a larger US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study of dermal exposure protection from safety gear used by the City of Chicago firefighters, we collected pre- and post-fire fighting breath samples and analyzed for single-ring and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as bioindicators of occupational exposure to gas-phase toxicants. Under the assumption that SCBA protects completely against inhalation exposures, any changes in the exhaled profile of combustion products were attributed to dermal exposures from gas and particle penetration through the protective clothing. Two separate rounds of firefighting activity were performed each with 15 firefighters per round. Exhaled breath samples were collected onto adsorbent tubes and analyzed with gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a targeted approach using selective ion monitoring. We found that single ring aromatics and some PAHs were statistically elevated in post-firefighting samples of some individuals, suggesting that fire protective gear may allow for dermal exposures to airborne contaminants. However, in comparison to a previous occupational study of Air Force maintenance personnel where similar compounds were measured, these exposures are much lower suggesting that firefighters' gear is very effective. This study suggests that exhaled breath sampling and analysis for specific targeted compounds is a suitable method for assessing systemic dermal exposure in a simple and non-invasive manner. PMID:25190461

  17. Emergency Response Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Aerospace Design & Development, Inc.'s (ADD's) SCAMP was developed under an SBIR contract through Kennedy Space Center. SCAMP stands for Supercritical Air Mobility Pack. The technology came from the life support fuel cell support systems used for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs. It uses supercritical cryogenic air and is able to function in microgravity environments. SCAMP's self-contained breathing apparatus(SCBA) systems are also ground-based and can provide twice as much air than traditional SCBA's due to its high-density capacity. The SCAMP system was designed for use in launch pad emergency rescues. ADD also developed a protective suit for use with SCAMP that is smaller and lighter system than the old ones. ADD's SCAMP allows for body cooling and breathing from the supercritical cryogenic air, requiring no extra systems. The improvement over the traditional SCBA allows for a reduction of injuries, such as heat stress, and makes it easier for rescuers to save lives.

  18. Mapleson's Breathing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Tej K; Mittal, Geeta

    2013-01-01

    Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification) are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages. PMID:24249884

  19. Variation in aluminum, iron, and particle concentrations in oxic ground-water samples collected by use of tangential-flow ultrafiltration with low-flow sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, Z.; Oden, J.H.; Gibs, J.; Rice, D.E.; Ding, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Particulates that move with ground water and those that are artificially mobilized during well purging could be incorporated into water samples during collection and could cause trace-element concentrations to vary in unfiltered samples, and possibly in filtered samples (typically 0.45-um (micron) pore size) as well, depending on the particle-size fractions present. Therefore, measured concentrations may not be representative of those in the aquifer. Ground water may contain particles of various sizes and shapes that are broadly classified as colloids, which do not settle from water, and particulates, which do. In order to investigate variations in trace-element concentrations in ground-water samples as a function of particle concentrations and particle-size fractions, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, collected samples from five wells completed in the unconfined, oxic Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system of the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Samples were collected by purging with a portable pump at low flow (0.2-0.5 liters per minute and minimal drawdown, ideally less than 0.5 foot). Unfiltered samples were collected in the following sequence: (1) within the first few minutes of pumping, (2) after initial turbidity declined and about one to two casing volumes of water had been purged, and (3) after turbidity values had stabilized at less than 1 to 5 Nephelometric Turbidity Units. Filtered samples were split concurrently through (1) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter, (2) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter and a 0.0029-um pore size tangential-flow filter in sequence, and (3), in selected cases, a 0.45-um and a 0.05-um pore size capsule filter in sequence. Filtered samples were collected concurrently with the unfiltered sample that was collected when turbidity values stabilized. Quality-assurance samples consisted of sequential duplicates (about 25 percent) and equipment blanks. Concentrations of particles were determined by light scattering. Variations in concentrations aluminum and iron (1 -74 and 1-199 ug/L (micrograms per liter), respectively), common indicators of the presence of particulate-borne trace elements, were greatest in sample sets from individual wells with the greatest variations in turbidity and particle concentration. Differences in trace-element concentrations in sequentially collected unfiltered samples with variable turbidity were 5 to 10 times as great as those in concurrently collected samples that were passed through various filters. These results indicate that turbidity must be both reduced and stabilized even when low-flow sample-collection techniques are used in order to obtain water samples that do not contain considerable particulate artifacts. Currently (2001) available techniques need to be refined to ensure that the measured trace-element concentrations are representative of those that are mobile in the aquifer water.

  20. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FOOD PREPARATION SURFACE WIPE SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.17)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collection of the food preparation surface wipe samples for the measurement of persistent organic pollutants (POP). This method uses a wipe to collect POP residues from a surface where a study participant prepares food the most often (i.e., kitch...

  1. Evaluation of human and microbial DNA content in subgingival plaque samples collected by paper points or curette.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Chaparro, P J; Duarte, P M; Pannuti, C M; Figueiredo, L C; Mestnik, M J; Gonçalves, C P S; Faveri, M; Feres, M

    2015-04-01

    Host DNA may adversely affect metagenomic studies focusing on the prokaryotic microbiota. This study compared the levels of host DNA in subgingival plaque collected by paper points and curette, using quantitative PCR. Lower proportions of host DNA and higher proportions of bacterial DNA were recovered from samples collected with curettes. PMID:25644890

  2. Evaluation of a [13C]-Dextromethorphan Breath Test to Assess CYP2D6 Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Leeder, J. Steven; Pearce, Robin E.; Gaedigk, Andrea; Modak, Anil; Rosen, David I.

    2016-01-01

    A [13C]-dextromethorphan ([13C]-DM) breath test was evaluated to assess its feasibility as a rapid, phenotyping assay for CYP2D6 activity. [13C]-DM (0.5 mg/kg) was administered orally with water or potassium bicarbonate-sodium bicarbonate to 30 adult Caucasian volunteers (n = 1 each): CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (2 null alleles; PM-0) and extensive metabolizers with 1 (EM-1) or 2 functional alleles (EM-2). CYP2D6 phenotype was determined by 13CO2 enrichment measured by infrared spectrometry (delta-over-baseline [DOB] value) in expired breath samples collected before and up to 240 minutes after [13C]-DM ingestion and by 4-hour urinary metabolite ratio. The PM-0 group was readily distinguishable from either EM group by both the breath test and urinary metabolite ratio. Using a single point determination of phenotype at 40 minutes and defining PMs as subjects with a DOB ≤ 0.5, the sensitivity of the method was 100%; specificity was 95% with 95% accuracy and resulted in the misclassification of 1 EM-1 individual as a PM. Modification of the initial protocol (timing of potassium bicarbonate-sodium bicarbonate administration relative to dose) yielded comparable results, but there was a tendency toward increased DOB values. Although further development is required, these studies suggest that the [13C]-DM breath test offers promise as a rapid, minimally invasive phenotyping assay for CYP2D6 activity. PMID:18728242

  3. Micro gas analyzer measurement of nitric oxide in breath by direct wet scrubbing and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Toda, Kei; Koga, Takahiro; Kosuge, Junichi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Oguchi, Hiroshi; Arimoto, Takemi

    2009-08-15

    A novel method is proposed to measure NO in breath. Breath NO is a useful diagnostic measure for asthma patients. Due to the low water solubility of NO, existing wet chemical NO measurements are conducted on NO(2) after removal of pre-existing NO(2) and conversion of NO to NO(2). In contrast, this study utilizes direct measurement of NO by wet chemistry. Gaseous NO was collected into an aqueous phase by a honeycomb-patterned microchannel scrubber and reacted with diaminofluorescein-2 (DAF-2). Fluorescence of the product was measured using a miniature detector, comprising a blue light-emitting diode (LED) and a photodiode. The response intensity was found to dramatically increase following addition of NO(2) into the absorbing solution or air sample. By optimizing the conditions, the sensitivity obtained was sufficient to measure parts per billion by volume levels of NO continuously. The system was applied to real analysis of NO in breath, and the effect of coexisting compounds was investigated. The proposed system could successfully measure breath NO. PMID:20337385

  4. Combining Laser Ablation/Liquid Phase Collection Surface Sampling and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the coupling of ambient pressure transmission geometry laser ablation with a liquid phase sample collection method for surface sampling and ionization with subsequent mass spectral analysis. A commercially available autosampler was adapted to produce a liquid droplet at the end of the syringe injection needle while in close proximity to the surface to collect the sample plume produced by laser ablation. The sample collection was followed by either flow injection or a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of the extracted components and detection with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). To illustrate the analytical utility of this coupling, thin films of a commercial ink sample containing rhodamine 6G and of mixed isobaric rhodamine B and 6G dyes on glass microscope slides were analyzed. The flow injection and HPLC/ESI-MS analysis revealed successful laser ablation, capture and, with HPLC, the separation of the two compounds. The ablated circular area was about 70 m in diameter for these experiments. The spatial sampling resolution afforded by the laser ablation, as well as the ability to use sample processing methods like HPLC between the sample collection and ionization steps, makes this combined surface sampling/ionization technique a highly versatile analytical tool.

  5. Variation in aluminum, iron, and particle concentrations in oxic groundwater samples collected by use of tangential-flow ultrafiltration with low-flow sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabo, Zoltan; Oden, Jeannette H.; Gibs, Jacob; Rice, Donald E.; Ding, Yuan

    2002-02-01

    Particulates that move with ground water and those that are artificially mobilized during well purging could be incorporated into water samples during collection and could cause trace-element concentrations to vary in unfiltered samples, and possibly in filtered samples (typically 0.45-um (micron) pore size) as well, depending on the particle-size fractions present. Therefore, measured concentrations may not be representative of those in the aquifer. Ground water may contain particles of various sizes and shapes that are broadly classified as colloids, which do not settle from water, and particulates, which do. In order to investigate variations in trace-element concentrations in ground-water samples as a function of particle concentrations and particle-size fractions, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, collected samples from five wells completed in the unconfined, oxic Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system of the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Samples were collected by purging with a portable pump at low flow (0.2-0.5 liters per minute and minimal drawdown, ideally less than 0.5 foot). Unfiltered samples were collected in the following sequence: (1) within the first few minutes of pumping, (2) after initial turbidity declined and about one to two casing volumes of water had been purged, and (3) after turbidity values had stabilized at less than 1 to 5 Nephelometric Turbidity Units. Filtered samples were split concurrently through (1) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter, (2) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter and a 0.0029-um pore size tangential-flow filter in sequence, and (3), in selected cases, a 0.45-um and a 0.05-um pore size capsule filter in sequence. Filtered samples were collected concurrently with the unfiltered sample that was collected when turbidity values stabilized. Quality-assurance samples consisted of sequential duplicates (about 25 percent) and equipment blanks. Concentrations of particles were determined by light scattering.

  6. Breathing simulator of workers for respirator performance test.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Hisashi; Kumita, Mikio; Honda, Takeshi; Kimura, Kazushi; Nozaki, Kosuke; Emi, Hitoshi; Otani, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Breathing machines are widely used to evaluate respirator performance but they are capable of generating only limited air flow patterns, such as, sine, triangular and square waves. In order to evaluate the respirator performance in practical use, it is desirable to test the respirator using the actual breathing patterns of wearers. However, it has been a difficult task for a breathing machine to generate such complicated flow patterns, since the human respiratory volume changes depending on the human activities and workload. In this study, we have developed an electromechanical breathing simulator and a respiration sampling device to record and reproduce worker's respiration. It is capable of generating various flow patterns by inputting breathing pattern signals recorded by a computer, as well as the fixed air flow patterns. The device is equipped with a self-control program to compensate the difference in inhalation and exhalation volume and the measurement errors on the breathing flow rate. The system was successfully applied to record the breathing patterns of workers engaging in welding and reproduced the breathing patterns. PMID:25382381

  7. Breathing simulator of workers for respirator performance test

    PubMed Central

    YUASA, Hisashi; KUMITA, Mikio; HONDA, Takeshi; KIMURA, Kazushi; NOZAKI, Kosuke; EMI, Hitoshi; OTANI, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Breathing machines are widely used to evaluate respirator performance but they are capable of generating only limited air flow patterns, such as, sine, triangular and square waves. In order to evaluate the respirator performance in practical use, it is desirable to test the respirator using the actual breathing patterns of wearers. However, it has been a difficult task for a breathing machine to generate such complicated flow patterns, since the human respiratory volume changes depending on the human activities and workload. In this study, we have developed an electromechanical breathing simulator and a respiration sampling device to record and reproduce worker’s respiration. It is capable of generating various flow patterns by inputting breathing pattern signals recorded by a computer, as well as the fixed air flow patterns. The device is equipped with a self-control program to compensate the difference in inhalation and exhalation volume and the measurement errors on the breathing flow rate. The system was successfully applied to record the breathing patterns of workers engaging in welding and reproduced the breathing patterns. PMID:25382381

  8. A Pilot Study Exploring the Use of Breath Analysis to Differentiate Healthy Cattle from Cattle Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Christine K.; Stahl, Randal S.; Nol, Pauline; Waters, W. Ray; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Rhyan, Jack C.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.; McCollum, Matthew; Salman, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a zoonotic disease of international public health importance. Ante-mortem surveillance is essential for control; however, current surveillance tests are hampered by limitations affecting ease of use or quality of results. There is an emerging interest in human and veterinary medicine in diagnosing disease via identification of volatile organic compounds produced by pathogens and host-pathogen interactions. The objective of this pilot study was to explore application of existing human breath collection and analysis methodologies to cattle as a means to identify M. bovis infection through detection of unique volatile organic compounds or changes in the volatile organic compound profiles present in breath. Breath samples from 23 male Holstein calves (7 non-infected and 16 M. bovis-infected) were collected onto commercially available sorbent cartridges using a mask system at 90 days post-inoculation with M. bovis. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and chromatographic data were analyzed using standard analytical chemical and metabolomic analyses, principle components analysis, and a linear discriminant algorithm. The findings provide proof of concept that breath-derived volatile organic compound analysis can be used to differentiate between healthy and M. bovis-infected cattle. PMID:24586655

  9. Cardiovascular Biomarkers In Exhaled Breath

    PubMed Central

    Cikach, Frank S.; Dweik, Raed A.

    2014-01-01

    With each breath we exhale, thousands of molecules are expelled in our breath giving individuals a breath-print that can tell a lot about them and their state of health. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as the new frontier in medical testing. The end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century have arguably witnessed a revolution in our understanding of the constituents of exhaled breath and the development of the field of breath analysis and testing. Thanks to major breakthroughs in new technologies (infrared, electrochemical, chemiluminescence, and others) and the availability of mass spectrometers, the field of breath analysis has made considerable advances in the 21st century. Several methods are now in clinical use or nearly ready to enter that arena. Breath analysis has the potential to offer relatively inexpensive, rapid, noninvasive methods for detecting and/or monitoring a variety of diseases. Breath analysis also has applications in fields beyond medicine, including environmental monitoring, security and others. This review will focus on exhaled breath as a potential source of biomarkers for medical applications with specific attention to applications (and potential applications) in cardiovascular disease. PMID:22824108

  10. Application of the BMWP-Costa Rica biotic index in aquatic biomonitoring: sensitivity to collection method and sampling intensity.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E; Lorion, Christopher M

    2014-04-01

    The use of aquatic macroinvertebrates as bio-indicators in water quality studies has increased considerably over the last decade in Costa Rica, and standard biomonitoring methods have now been formulated at the national level. Nevertheless, questions remain about the effectiveness of different methods of sampling freshwater benthic assemblages, and how sampling intensity may influence biomonitoring results. In this study, we compared the results of qualitative sampling using commonly applied methods with a more intensive quantitative approach at 12 sites in small, lowland streams on the southern Caribbean slope of Costa Rica. Qualitative samples were collected following the official protocol using a strainer during a set time period and macroinvertebrates were field-picked. Quantitative sampling involved collecting ten replicate Surber samples and picking out macroinvertebrates in the laboratory with a stereomicroscope. The strainer sampling method consistently yielded fewer individuals and families than quantitative samples. As a result, site scores calculated using the Biological Monitoring Working Party-Costa Rica (BMWP-CR) biotic index often differed greatly depending on the sampling method. Site water quality classifications using the BMWP-CR index differed between the two sampling methods for 11 of the 12 sites in 2005, and for 9 of the 12 sites in 2006. Sampling intensity clearly had a strong influence on BMWP-CR index scores, as well as perceived differences between reference and impacted sites. Achieving reliable and consistent biomonitoring results for lowland Costa Rican streams may demand intensive sampling and requires careful consideration of sampling methods. PMID:25189083

  11. Collection and processing of plant, animal and soil samples from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    The United States used the Marshall Islands for its nuclear weapons program testing site from 1946 to 1958. The BRAVO test was detonated at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. Due to shifting wind conditions at the time of the nuclear detonation, many of the surrounding Atolls became contaminated with fallout (radionuclides carried by the wind currents). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) Marshall Islands Project has been responsible for the collecting, processing, and analyzing of food crops, vegetation, soil, water, animals, and marine species to characterize the radionuclides in the environment, and to estimate dose at atolls that may have been contaminated. Tropical agriculture experiments reducing the uptake of {sup 137}Cs have been conducted on Bikini Atoll. The Marshall Islands field team and laboratory processing team play an important role in the overall scheme of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. This report gives a general description of the Marshall Islands field sampling and laboratory processing procedures currently used by our staff.

  12. 50 CFR 23.50 - What are the requirements for a sample collection covered by an ATA carnet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... plants in part 24 of this subchapter and 7 CFR parts 319, 352, and 355. (d) U.S. application form... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the requirements for a sample... Conditions 23.50 What are the requirements for a sample collection covered by an ATA carnet? (a)...

  13. 50 CFR 23.50 - What are the requirements for a sample collection covered by an ATA carnet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... plants in part 24 of this subchapter and 7 CFR parts 319, 352, and 355. (d) U.S. application form... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are the requirements for a sample... Conditions 23.50 What are the requirements for a sample collection covered by an ATA carnet? (a)...

  14. 50 CFR 23.50 - What are the requirements for a sample collection covered by an ATA carnet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... plants in part 24 of this subchapter and 7 CFR parts 319, 352, and 355. (d) U.S. application form... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What are the requirements for a sample... Conditions 23.50 What are the requirements for a sample collection covered by an ATA carnet? (a)...

  15. 50 CFR 23.50 - What are the requirements for a sample collection covered by an ATA carnet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... plants in part 24 of this subchapter and 7 CFR parts 319, 352, and 355. (d) U.S. application form... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the requirements for a sample... Conditions 23.50 What are the requirements for a sample collection covered by an ATA carnet? (a)...

  16. 50 CFR 23.50 - What are the requirements for a sample collection covered by an ATA carnet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... plants in part 24 of this subchapter and 7 CFR parts 319, 352, and 355. (d) U.S. application form... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the requirements for a sample... Conditions 23.50 What are the requirements for a sample collection covered by an ATA carnet? (a)...

  17. Impact of collection container material and holding times on sample integrity for mercury and methylmercury in water

    SciTech Connect

    Riscassi, Ami L; Miller, Carrie L; Brooks, Scott C

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in streamwater can vary on short timescales (hourly or less) during storm flow and on a diel cycle; the frequency and timing of sampling required to accurately characterize these dynamics may be difficult to accomplish manually. Automated sampling can assist in sample collection; however use has been limited for Hg and MeHg analysis due to stability concerns of trace concentrations during extended storage times. We examined the viability of using automated samplers with disposable low-density polyethylene (LDPE) sample bags to collect industrially contaminated streamwater for unfiltered and filtered Hg and MeHg analysis. Specifically we investigated the effect of holding times ranging from hours to days on streamwater collected during baseflow and storm flow. Unfiltered and filtered Hg and MeHg concentrations decreased with increases in time prior to sample processing; holding times of 24 hours or less resulted in concentration changes (mean 11 7% different) similar to variability in duplicates collected manually during analogous field conditions (mean 7 10% different). Comparisons of samples collected with manual and automated techniques throughout a year for a wide range of stream conditions were also found to be similar to differences observed between duplicate grab samples. These results demonstrate automated sampling into LDPE bags with holding times of 24 hours or less can be effectively used to collect streamwater for Hg and MeHg analysis, and encourage the testing of these materials and methods for implementation in other aqueous systems where high-frequency sampling is warranted.

  18. Airborne detection and quantification of swine influenza a virus in air samples collected inside, outside and downwind from swine barns.

    PubMed

    Corzo, Cesar A; Culhane, Marie; Dee, Scott; Morrison, Robert B; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    Airborne transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) in swine is speculated to be an important route of virus dissemination, but data are scarce. This study attempted to detect and quantify airborne IAV by virus isolation and RRT-PCR in air samples collected under field conditions. This was accomplished by collecting air samples from four acutely infected pig farms and locating air samplers inside the barns, at the external exhaust fans and downwind from the farms at distances up to 2.1 km. IAV was detected in air samples collected in 3 out of 4 farms included in the study. Isolation of IAV was possible from air samples collected inside the barn at two of the farms and in one farm from the exhausted air. Between 13% and 100% of samples collected inside the barns tested RRT-PCR positive with an average viral load of 3.20E+05 IAV RNA copies/m³ of air. Percentage of exhaust positive air samples also ranged between 13% and 100% with an average viral load of 1.79E+04 RNA copies/m³ of air. Influenza virus RNA was detected in air samples collected between 1.5 and 2.1 Km away from the farms with viral levels significantly lower at 4.65E+03 RNA copies/m³. H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes were detected in the air samples and the hemagglutinin gene sequences identified in the swine samples matched those in aerosols providing evidence that the viruses detected in the aerosols originated from the pigs in the farms under study. Overall our results indicate that pigs can be a source of IAV infectious aerosols and that these aerosols can be exhausted from pig barns and be transported downwind. The results from this study provide evidence of the risk of aerosol transmission in pigs under field conditions. PMID:23951164

  19. Acceptability of self-collection sampling for HPV-DNA testing in low-resource settings: a mixed methods approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vaginal self-sampling with HPV-DNA tests is a promising primary screening method for cervical cancer. However, women’s experiences, concerns and the acceptability of such tests in low-resource settings remain unknown. Methods In India, Nicaragua, and Uganda, a mixed-method design was used to collect data from surveys (N = 3,863), qualitative interviews (N = 72; 20 providers and 52 women) and focus groups (N = 30 women) on women’s and providers’ experiences with self-sampling, women’s opinions of sampling at home, and their future needs. Results Among surveyed women, 90% provided a self- collected sample. Of these, 75% reported it was easy, although 52% were initially concerned about hurting themselves and 24% were worried about not getting a good sample. Most surveyed women preferred self-sampling (78%). However it was not clear if they responded to the privacy of self-sampling or the convenience of avoiding a pelvic examination, or both. In follow-up interviews, most women reported that they didn’t mind self-sampling, but many preferred to have a provider collect the vaginal sample. Most women also preferred clinic-based screening (as opposed to home-based self-sampling), because the sample could be collected by a provider, women could receive treatment if needed, and the clinic was sanitary and provided privacy. Self-sampling acceptability was higher when providers prepared women through education, allowed women to examine the collection brush, and were present during the self-collection process. Among survey respondents, aids that would facilitate self-sampling in the future were: staff help (53%), additional images in the illustrated instructions (31%), and a chance to practice beforehand with a doll/model (26%). Conclusion Self-and vaginal-sampling are widely acceptable among women in low-resource settings. Providers have a unique opportunity to educate and prepare women for self-sampling and be flexible in accommodating women’s preference for self-sampling. PMID:24927941

  20. Collection of Aerosolized Human Cytokines Using Teflon® Filters

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Jennifer H.; McDevitt, James J.; Fabian, M. Patricia; Hwang, Grace M.; Milton, Donald K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Collection of exhaled breath samples for the analysis of inflammatory biomarkers is an important area of research aimed at improving our ability to diagnose, treat and understand the mechanisms of chronic pulmonary disease. Current collection methods based on condensation of water vapor from exhaled breath yield biomarker levels at or near the detection limits of immunoassays contributing to problems with reproducibility and validity of biomarker measurements. In this study, we compare the collection efficiency of two aerosol-to-liquid sampling devices to a filter-based collection method for recovery of dilute laboratory generated aerosols of human cytokines so as to identify potential alternatives to exhaled breath condensate collection. Methodology/Principal Findings Two aerosol-to-liquid sampling devices, the SKC® Biosampler and Omni 3000™, as well as Teflon® filters were used to collect aerosols of human cytokines generated using a HEART nebulizer and single-pass aerosol chamber setup in order to compare the collection efficiencies of these sampling methods. Additionally, methods for the use of Teflon® filters to collect and measure cytokines recovered from aerosols were developed and evaluated through use of a high-sensitivity multiplex immunoassay. Our results show successful collection of cytokines from pg/m3 aerosol concentrations using Teflon® filters and measurement of cytokine levels in the sub-picogram/mL concentration range using a multiplex immunoassay with sampling times less than 30 minutes. Significant degradation of cytokines was observed due to storage of cytokines in concentrated filter extract solutions as compared to storage of dry filters. Conclusions Use of filter collection methods resulted in significantly higher efficiency of collection than the two aerosol-to-liquid samplers evaluated in our study. The results of this study provide the foundation for a potential new technique to evaluate biomarkers of inflammation in exhaled breath samples. PMID:22574123