These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Methodological Issues of Sample Collection and Analysis of Exhaled Breath  

EPA Science Inventory

Recommended standardized procedures have been developed for measurement of exhaled lower respiratory nitric oxide (NO) and nasal NO. It would be desirable to develop similar guidelines for the sampling of exhaled breath related to other compounds. For such systemic volatile o...

2

Self-collected breath sampling for monitoring low-level benzene exposures among automobile mechanics.  

PubMed

Automobile mechanics are exposed to benzene through their contact with gasoline vapor and engine exhaust. This study investigated the benzene uptake associated with these exposures. We first evaluated the reliability of self-collected breath samples among a subset of subjects and found good agreement between these samples and those collected under expert supervision (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.79, n = 69). We then used self-monitoring together with a longitudinal sampling design (with up to three measurements per worker) to measure benzene in air and benzene in end-exhaled breath among 81 workers from 12 automobile repair garages in North Carolina. A statistically significant difference (P < 0.0001, Mann-Whitney rank sum test) was observed between non-smokers and smokers for post-exposure benzene concentration in breath (median values of 18.9 and 39.1 micro g/m(3), respectively). Comparing pre- and post-exposure breath concentrations within these two groups, the difference was significant among non-smokers (P < 0.0001) but not significant among smokers (P > 0.05). Mixed effects regression analysis using backwards elimination yielded five significant predictors of benzene concentration in breath, namely benzene exposure (P < 0.0001), pre-exposure benzene concentration in breath (P = 0.021), smoking status (P < 0.0001), fuel system work (P = 0.0043) and carburetor cleaner use (P < 0.0001). The between-person variance component comprised only 28% of the total variance in benzene levels in breath, indicating that differences among individuals related to physiological and metabolic characteristics had little influence on benzene uptake among these workers. PMID:12176763

Egeghy, Peter P; Nylander-French, Leena; Gwin, Kristin K; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Rappaport, Stephen M

2002-07-01

3

ALVEOLAR BREATH SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS IN HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Alveolar breath sampling and analysis can be extremely useful in exposure assessment studies involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over recent years scientists from the EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory have developed and refined an alveolar breath collection ...

4

Breath sample collection through the nostril reduces false-positive results of 13C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. One of the disadvantages of 13C-urea breath test is possible interference by urease activity not related to Helicobacter pylori.Aims. We design the simple and non-invasive modification to avoid the contamination of 13CO2 produced in the mouth.Patients and methods. One hundred and twenty-nine patients who underwent diagnostic upper endoscopy were enrolled. Within 1 week of the endoscopic procedure, each patient

Y. Urita; K. Hike; N. Torii; Y. Kikuchi; E. Kanda; H. Kurakata; M. Sasajima; K. Miki

2004-01-01

5

Collecting Samples  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Collecting Samples at Embden 3. Embden 3 is a 60-degree V trapezoidal flume in a bured concreate culvert located on the other side of the north-south road east of the large data shelter. The flow is measured and sampled from the V flume underground and periodic QW grab samples are taken form the blu...

6

An improved method for collecting breath from 3- to 7-year-old children.  

PubMed

Breath sampling and analysis provide healthcare professionals with a practical, noninvasive diagnostic measurement for children with a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. New biomarkers found in human breath have been investigated and provide the opportunity to diagnose bacterial overgrowth and other underlying causes of GI dysfunction. Although several protocols have been described previously regarding breath sampling, few have demonstrated the feasibility of collection in young children. This communication introduces a simple game that allows for 3- to 7-year-old children to practice breath exhalation to give a proper breath sample in a relaxed and comfortable environment. The technique described offers clinicians a creative approach for obtaining breath samples from a child by reducing the apprehension and anxiety associated with the research and clinical environment. PMID:23538295

Wang, Anthony A; Paige, Katie N; Gaskins, H Rex; Teran-Garcia, Margarita

2014-05-01

7

Simplified single sample 13Carbon urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori: comparison with histology, culture, and ELISA serology  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no ideal method for detecting Helicobacter pylori. The 'standard' 13Carbon urea breath test (13C-UBT), which involves collecting eight to 15 breath samples and subsequent costly analysis, was modified by pooling 21 samples of expired breath taken at five minute intervals for 40 minutes into a collecting bag, from which a single 20 ml aliquot was taken and analysed

R P Logan; R J Polson; J J Misiewicz; G Rao; N Q Karim; D Newell; P Johnson; J Wadsworth; M M Walker; J H Baron

1991-01-01

8

Collecting Samples for Testing  

MedlinePLUS

... will be limited. Search Help? Collecting Samples for Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? Introduction | ... From Within | Conclusion | Sources Overview Today's technologies allow testing on an impressively wide variety of samples collected ...

9

Methodological aspects of exhaled breath condensate collection and analysis.  

PubMed

The collection and analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) may be useful for the management of patients with chronic respiratory disease at all ages. It is a promising technique due to its apparent simplicity and non-invasiveness. EBC does not disturb an ongoing respiratory inflammation. However, the methodology remains controversial, as it is not yet standardized. The current diversity of the methods used to collect and preserve EBC, the analytical pitfalls and the high degree of within-subject variability are the main issues that hamper further development into a clinical useful technique. In order to facilitate the process of standardization, a simplified schematic approach is proposed. An update of available data identified open issues on EBC methodology. These issues were then classified into three separate conditions related to their influence before, during or after the condensation process: (1) pre-condenser conditions related to subject and/or environment; (2) condenser conditions related to condenser equipment; and (3) post-condenser conditions related to preservation and/or analysis. This simplified methodological approach highlights the potential influence of the many techniques used before, during and after condensation of exhaled breath. It may also serve as a methodological checklist for a more systematical approach of EBC research and development. PMID:22522968

Rosias, Philippe

2012-06-01

10

Collecting Volcanic Gas Samples  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Steven Ingebritsen (lower right, in blue hat) kneels in the warm mud as he collects samples of the gases emitted from the fumaroles on the north side of Crater Rock on Mount Hood. The samples are taken back to the laboratory for an analysis of the gases' chemical composition. By routinely collecting...

11

An off-line breath sampling and analysis method suitable for large screening studies.  

PubMed

We present a new, off-line breath collection and analysis method, suitable for large screening studies. The breath collection system is based on the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society for the sampling of exhaled NO. Breath containing volatile gases is collected in custom-made black-layered Tedlar bags and analyzed by proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The collection method and data analysis is validated for its accuracy, precision, selectivity, limits of detection, sensitivity and reproducibility. Consecutive fillings of five bags by the same person gave reproducible results to within 12% relative standard deviation (RSD) for methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone and water content from breath, whereas isoprene was constant to within 30% RSD. In an exploratory small-scale case-control study, we monitor the exhaled breath of 11 lung cancer patients on the day before surgery. The control group consisted of 57 age-matched subjects, the so-called 'healthy smokers'. This study is used as an example of the use of the system presented here. PMID:17470984

Steeghs, M M L; Cristescu, S M; Munnik, P; Zanen, P; Harren, F J M

2007-05-01

12

A simple breath sampling method in intubated and mechanically ventilated critically ill patients.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath may serve as biomarkers of pulmonary infection or inflammation. We developed and validated a new breath sampling method for VOC analysis in ventilated patients. Breath was collected from the ventilatory circuit using cheap disposables. VOCs were identified by gas-chromatography and mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) at various minute volumes during ventilation of an artificial lung (in vitro) and ventilated patients (in vivo). Sixty-four VOCs emendated from the ventilator and tubing. Their concentrations had an inverse correlation with minute volume in in vitro experiments (median correlation coefficient: -0.61 [25-75th percentile: -0.66 to -0.43]). Forty-four of these "ventilator-associated VOCs" were also observed in vivo, without correlations with minute volume. In vivo experiments showed that only positive end-expiratory pressure influenced the concentration of breath VOCs. The sampling method was highly reproducible (median intra-class correlation 0.95 [25-75th percentile: 0.87-0.97]). In conclusion, a novel, simple and repeatable sampling method was developed and validated for capturing exhaled VOCs in ventilated patients, which could allow for large-scale breath analysis in clinical studies. PMID:24239875

Bos, Lieuwe D J; Wang, Yuanyue; Weda, Hans; Nijsen, Tamara M E; Janssen, Anton P G E; Knobel, Hugo H; Vink, Teunis J; Schultz, Marcus J; Sterk, Peter J

2014-01-15

13

Application of end-expired breath sampling to estimate carboxyhemoglobin levels in community air pollution exposure assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) in end-expired air after breath-holding permits the estimation of blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels. Some literature suggests that the precision of the method decreases at low COHb levels. As part of a community exposure and health study, the end-expired breath method was applied to estimate COHb levels in 28 men with ischemic heart disease. Paired samples of blood and breath were collected at the beginning and end of the 24-h CO monitoring periods. The aggregate regression of all subjects' COHb on breath CO displayed high variability. However, the variability was substantially reduced for any particular subject, promoting the use of individualized blood-breath standard curves to improve the precision of COHb estimates made from breath CO. The ultimate accuracy of the blood-breath relationship could not be resolved by our data. Two major sources of error are identified. The observed person-to-person variability may be caused by physiologic factors or differences in ability to deliver an end-expired breath sample representative of alveolar air. This variation may also be due to instrumentation factors, specifically the accuracy of the IL282 CO-Oximeter at 0-3% levels. Further research into the sources of variability in the end-expired breath method is recommended. Epidemiologists using similar end-expired breath measurements to predict COHb levels should be cognizant of the magnitude and probable direction of the error in COHb estimates. This non-invasive method should continue to allow evaluation of the success of personal monitoring efforts and pharmacokinetic modeling of CO uptake in community exposure research.

Lambert, William E.; Colome, Steven D.; Wojciechowski, Sandra L.

14

Molecular and Microscopic Analysis of Bacteria and Viruses in Exhaled Breath Collected Using a Simple Impaction and Condensing Method  

PubMed Central

Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is increasingly being used as a non-invasive method for disease diagnosis and environmental exposure assessment. By using hydrophobic surface, ice, and droplet scavenging, a simple impaction and condensing based collection method is reported here. Human subjects were recruited to exhale toward the device for 1, 2, 3, and 4 min. The exhaled breath quickly formed into tiny droplets on the hydrophobic surface, which were subsequently scavenged into a 10 µL rolling deionized water droplet. The collected EBC was further analyzed using culturing, DNA stain, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and colorimetry (VITEK 2) for bacteria and viruses. Experimental data revealed that bacteria and viruses in EBC can be rapidly collected using the method developed here, with an observed efficiency of 100 µL EBC within 1 min. Culturing, DNA stain, SEM, and qPCR methods all detected high bacterial concentrations up to 7000 CFU/m3 in exhaled breath, including both viable and dead cells of various types. Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Kocuria variants were found dominant in EBC samples using VITEK 2 system. SEM images revealed that most bacteria in exhaled breath are detected in the size range of 0.5–1.0 µm, which is able to enable them to remain airborne for a longer time, thus presenting a risk for airborne transmission of potential diseases. Using qPCR, influenza A H3N2 viruses were also detected in one EBC sample. Different from other devices restricted solely to condensation, the developed method can be easily achieved both by impaction and condensation in a laboratory and could impact current practice of EBC collection. Nonetheless, the reported work is a proof-of-concept demonstration, and its performance in non-invasive disease diagnosis such as bacterimia and virus infections needs to be further validated including effects of its influencing matrix. PMID:22848436

Xu, Zhenqiang; Shen, Fangxia; Li, Xiaoguang; Wu, Yan; Chen, Qi; Jie, Xu; Yao, Maosheng

2012-01-01

15

Detection of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath using a device for rapid collection: comparison with plasma, urine and self-reporting in 47 drug users.  

PubMed

Exhaled breath has recently been identified as a matrix for the detection of drugs of abuse. This work aims to further document this application using a new and simple collection device in patients following recovery from acute intoxication. Breath, plasma and urine samples were collected from 47 patients (38 males, age range 25-74) together with interview data. Analysis of breath and plasma samples was done by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. Urine was screened using immunochemical reagents and positive findings confirmed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The 12 analytes investigated were: methadone, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 6-acetylmorphine, morphine, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, diazepam, oxazepam, alprazolam, buprenorphine and tetrahydrocannabinol. In all 47 cases, recent intake of an abused substance prior to admission was reported, but in one case the substance (ketobemidone) was not investigated. In 40 of the remaining cases (87%) breath analysis gave a positive finding of any of the substances that were part of the analytical investigation. Identifications were based on correct chromatographic retention time and product ion ratios obtained in selected reaction monitoring mode. In general, data from breath, plasma, urine and self-reporting were in good agreement, but in 23% of the cases substances were detected that had not been self-reported. All substances covered were detected in a number of breath samples. Considering that breath sampling was often done about 24 h after intake, the detection rate was considered to be high for most substances. Analytes with low detection rates were benzodiazepines, and a further increase in analytical sensitivity is needed to overcome this. This study further supports use of exhaled breath as a new matrix in clinical toxicology. PMID:23619392

Beck, Olof; Stephanson, Niclas; Sandqvist, Sören; Franck, Johan

2013-06-01

16

Methods and Materials Sample Collection  

E-print Network

Methods and Materials Sample Collection FIGURE I.-Sampling station pattern and location of sample of the stations where one or more of the target species was abundant, samples of yellowfin sole, rock sole from 1933 to 1941 .were the sa~e locations as post-World War II flounder fisherIes, so there IS reason

17

Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples  

SciTech Connect

In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject's body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

1992-11-01

18

Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples  

SciTech Connect

In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject`s body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

1992-11-01

19

BIOLOGIC SAMPLE COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS PLANS: Collection  

E-print Network

Center for Infectious Diseases 1 #12;Cross-sectional Exposure Assessment of Environmental Contaminants should be washed with soap and water. - Do not remove the cap from cup until ready to void. - Collect bottle with the green screw cap. - Place the participant's ID label on each container. SHIPPING LIST

20

Snoring and breathing pauses during sleep: telephone interview survey of a United Kingdom population sample.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of snoring, breathing pauses during sleep, and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and determine the relation between these events and sociodemographic variables, other health problems, driving accidents, and consumption of healthcare resources. DESIGN: Telephone interview survey directed by a previously validated computerised system (Sleep-Eval). SETTING: United Kingdom. SUBJECTS: 2894 women and 2078 men aged 15-100 years who formed a representative sample of the non-institutionalised population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Interview responses. RESULTS: Forty per cent of the population reported snoring regularly and 3.8% reported breathing pauses during sleep. Regular snoring was significantly associated with male sex, age 25 or more, obesity, daytime sleepiness or naps, night time awakenings, consuming large amounts of caffeine, and smoking. Breathing pauses during sleep were significantly associated with obstructive airways or thyroid disease, male sex, age 35-44 years, consumption of anxiety reducing drugs, complaints of non-restorative sleep, and consultation with a doctor in the past year. The two breathing symptoms were also significantly associated with drowsiness while driving. Based on minimal criteria of the International classification of Sleep Disorders (1990), 1.9% of the sample had obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. In the 35-64 year age group 1.5% of women (95% confidence interval 0.8% to 2.2%) and 3.5% of men (2.4% to 4.6%) had obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Disordered breathing during sleep is widely underdiagnosed in the United Kingdom. The condition is linked to increased use of medical resources and a greater risk of daytime sleepiness, which augments the risk of accidents. Doctors should ask patients and bed partners regularly about snoring and breathing pauses during sleep. PMID:9093095

Ohayon, M. M.; Guilleminault, C.; Priest, R. G.; Caulet, M.

1997-01-01

21

SAMPLING AND MASS SPECTROMETRY APPROACHES FOR THE DETECTION OF DRUGS AND FOREIGN CONTAMINANTS IN BREATH FOR HOMELAND SECURITY APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Homeland security relies heavily on analytical chemistry to identify suspicious materials and persons. Traditionally this role has focused on attribution, determining the type and origin of an explosive, for example. But as technology advances, analytical chemistry can and will play an important role in the prevention and preemption of terrorist attacks. More sensitive and selective detection techniques can allow suspicious materials and persons to be identified even before a final destructive product is made. The work presented herein focuses on the use of commercial and novel detection techniques for application to the prevention of terrorist activities. Although drugs are not commonly thought of when discussing terrorism, narcoterrorism has become a significant threat in the 21st century. The role of the drug trade in the funding of terrorist groups is prevalent; thus, reducing the trafficking of illegal drugs can play a role in the prevention of terrorism by cutting off much needed funding. To do so, sensitive, specific, and robust analytical equipment is needed to quickly identify a suspected drug sample no matter what matrix it is in. Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) is a novel technique that has previously been applied to biological and chemical detection. The current work applies SPAMS to drug analysis, identifying the active ingredients in single component, multi-component, and multi-tablet drug samples in a relatively non-destructive manner. In order to do so, a sampling apparatus was created to allow particle generation from drug tablets with on-line introduction to the SPAMS instrument. Rules trees were developed to automate the identification of drug samples on a single particle basis. A novel analytical scheme was also developed to identify suspect individuals based on chemical signatures in human breath. Human breath was sampled using an RTube{trademark} and the trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were preconcentrated using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and identified using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Modifications to the sampling apparatus allowed for increased VOC collection efficiency, and reduced the time of sampling and analysis by over 25%. The VOCs are present in breath due to either endogenous production, or exposure to an external source through absorption, inhalation, or ingestion. Detection of these exogenous chemicals can provide information on the prior location and activities of the subject. Breath samples collected before and after exposure in a hardware store and nail salon were analyzed to investigate the prior location of a subject; breath samples collected before and after oral exposure to terpenes and terpenoid compounds, pseudoephedrine, and inhalation exposure to hexamine and other explosive related compounds were analyzed to investigate the prior activity of a subject. The elimination of such compounds from the body was also monitored. In application, this technique may provide an early warning system to identify persons of interest in the prevention and preemption stages of homeland security.

Martin, A N

2009-01-27

22

75 FR 43989 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Sample Collection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comment Request; Sample Collection Plan for Dogs Treated With SLENTROL AGENCY: Food and...comments on the sample collection plan for dogs treated with the drug SLENTROL. DATES...technology. Sample Collection Plan for Dogs Treated With SLENTROL--21 CFR...

2010-07-27

23

Fluid sample collection and storage device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid sampling device collects a sample from a low-pressure fluid system and stores it for an indefinite period, with little risk of contamination of either the sample or the surrounding environment. The collector /a plastic bladder/ is separated from the sampler after a sample is collected.

Cohen, D.; Stone, S. E.

1969-01-01

24

Influence of age and sex in exhaled breath samples investigated by means of infrared laser absorption spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Breath gas analysis provides insight into human metabolism of healthy and ill individuals. As an innovative and non-invasive method, it opens up options to improve diagnostics, monitoring and treatment decisions. Mid-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy is utilized to detect CH(4), H(2)O, CO(2), NH(3) and CH(3)OH in exhaled human breath. An off-line approach using breath sampling by means of Tedlar bags is applied. The breath gas samples are measured within the population-based epidemiological Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) performed at the University of Greifswald. The study covers about 5000 adult subjects aged 20-79 years within 3 years. Besides breath gas analysis many other examinations are conducted. It is expected to find associations between distinct concentration levels of species in the exhaled breath and diseases assessed in this study. The study will establish reference values for exhaled breath components and serve as background population for case-control studies. In the long run, morbidity and mortality follow-ups will be conducted, which will answer the question whether end-expiratory breath gas components predict future diseases and death. As first results, we present data from 45 dialysis patients (23 males, 22 females) which were recruited in a preliminary study in preparation for SHIP-TREND. PMID:21460420

Hannemann, M; Antufjew, A; Borgmann, K; Hempel, F; Ittermann, T; Welzel, S; Weltmann, K D; Völzke, H; Röpcke, J

2011-06-01

25

Deconvolving an Estimate of Breath Measured Blood Alcohol Concentration from Biosensor Collected Transdermal Ethanol Data.  

PubMed

Biosensor measurement of transdermal alcohol oncentration in perspiration exhibits significant variance from subject to subject and device to device. Short duration data collected in a controlled clinical setting is used to calibrate a forward model for ethanol transport from the blood to the sensor. The calibrated model is then used to invert transdermal signals collected in the field (short or long duration) to obtain an estimate for breath measured blood alcohol concentration. A distributed parameter model for the forward transport of ethanol from the blood through the skin and its processing by the sensor is developed. Model calibration is formulated as a nonlinear least squares fit to data. The fit model is then used as part of a spline based scheme in the form of a regularized, non-negatively constrained linear deconvolution. Fully discrete, steepest descent based schemes for solving the resulting optimization problems are developed. The adjoint method is used to accurately and efficiently compute requisite gradients. Efficacy is demonstrated on subject field data. PMID:19255617

Dumett, M; Rosen, G; Sabat, J; Shaman, A; Tempelman, L; Wang, C; Swift, Rm

2008-03-01

26

Breathing Room  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this health activity, learners explore breathing, lungs and asthma. Learners test their lung capacity by blowing air into balloons. Learners are also encouraged to determine how the amount of air in a balloon changes as you vary the size of the hole you blow through. Safety note: Check for latex allergies before purchasing balloons. Learners with respiratory problems should not breathe through the straws or blow up the balloons, but they can help record measurements and collect data.

Television, Twin C.

2010-01-01

27

Dynamic Method for Identifying Collected Sample Mass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

G-Sample is designed for sample collection missions to identify the presence and quantity of sample material gathered by spacecraft equipped with end effectors. The software method uses a maximum-likelihood estimator to identify the collected sample's mass based on onboard force-sensor measurements, thruster firings, and a dynamics model of the spacecraft. This makes sample mass identification a computation rather than a process requiring additional hardware. Simulation examples of G-Sample are provided for spacecraft model configurations with a sample collection device mounted on the end of an extended boom. In the absence of thrust knowledge errors, the results indicate that G-Sample can identify the amount of collected sample mass to within 10 grams (with 95-percent confidence) by using a force sensor with a noise and quantization floor of 50 micrometers. These results hold even in the presence of realistic parametric uncertainty in actual spacecraft inertia, center-of-mass offset, and first flexibility modes. Thrust profile knowledge is shown to be a dominant sensitivity for G-Sample, entering in a nearly one-to-one relationship with the final mass estimation error. This means thrust profiles should be well characterized with onboard accelerometers prior to sample collection. An overall sample-mass estimation error budget has been developed to approximate the effect of model uncertainty, sensor noise, data rate, and thrust profile error on the expected estimate of collected sample mass.

Carson, John

2008-01-01

28

USGS Collects Sample at Gulf Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists collected environmental data and samples in coastal areas affected by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.  Samples of water, sediments, benthic invertebrates, and microorganisms were collected by the USGS at beach, barrier island,...

29

Detection of gaseous compounds by needle trap sampling and direct thermal-desorption photoionization mass spectrometry: concept and demonstrative application to breath gas analysis.  

PubMed

A fast detection method to analyze gaseous organic compounds in complex gas mixtures was developed, using a needle trap device (NTD) in conjunction with thermal-desorption photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TD-PI-TOFMS). The mass spectrometer was coupled via a deactivated fused silica capillary to an injector of a gas chromatograph. In the hot injector, the analytes collected on the NTD were thermally desorbed and directly transferred to the PI-TOFMS ion source. The molecules are softly ionized either by single photon ionization (SPI, 118 nm) or by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI, 266 nm), and the molecular ion signals are detected in the TOF mass analyzer. Analyte desorption and the subsequent PI-TOFMS detection step only lasts ten seconds. The specific selectivity of REMPI (i.e., aromatic compounds) and universal ionization characteristics render PI-MS as a promising detection system. As a first demonstrative application, the alveolar phase breath gas of healthy, nonsmoking subjects was sampled on NTDs. While smaller organic compounds such as acetone, acetaldehyde, isoprene, or cysteamine can be detected in the breath gas with SPI, REMPI depicts the aromatic substances phenol and indole at 266 nm. In the breath gas of a healthy, smoking male subject, several xenobiotic substances such as benzene, toluene, styrene, and ethylbenzene can be found as well. Furthermore, the NTD-REMPI-TOFMS setup was tested for breath gas taken from a mechanically ventilated pig under continuous intravenous propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol, narcotic drug) infusion. PMID:25517186

Kleeblatt, Juliane; Schubert, Jochen K; Zimmermann, Ralf

2015-02-01

30

Rossman/Chance Applet Collection: Sampling Words  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet samples words. The user can control the sample size and the number of samples. It displays the number, the word, the number of letters, whether it is long and whether or not it is a noun. Then, each one is plotted. This is part of a larger collection of applets on statistics from the California Poly San Luis Obispo.

Rossman, Allan; Chance, Beth

2008-09-08

31

ANIMAL BEHAVIOR Sampling Methods, Data Collection, & Ethograms  

E-print Network

1 ANIMAL BEHAVIOR LAB #2 Sampling Methods, Data Collection, & Ethograms Pond Exercise Summary Today with a deeper understanding of how to describe and classify animal behaviors. Background A) Sampling Methods It is usually neither feasible nor necessary to record all behaviors of all animals of interest all the time

32

News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.  

PubMed

This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 11 to 14 September 2011. The meeting, which was jointly organized by the International Association for Breath Research and the University of Parma, was attended by more than 250 delegates from 33 countries, and offered 34 invited lectures and 64 unsolicited scientific contributions. The summit was organized to provide a forum to scientists, engineers and clinicians to present their latest findings and to meet industry executives and entrepreneurs to discuss key trends, future directions and technologies available for breath analysis. A major focus was on nitric oxide, exhaled breath condensate, electronic nose, mass spectrometry and newer sensor technologies. Medical applications ranged from asthma and other respiratory diseases to gastrointestinal disease, occupational diseases, critical care and cancer. Most people identify breath tests with breathalysers used by police to estimate ethanol concentration in blood. However, breath testing has far more sophisticated applications. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as a new frontier in medical testing for disease states in the lung and beyond. Every individual has a breath fingerprint-or 'breathprint'-that can provide useful information about his or her state of health. This breathprint comprises the many thousands of molecules that are expelled with each breath we exhale. Breath research in the past few years has uncovered the scientific and molecular basis for such clinical observations. Relying on mass spectrometry, we have been able to identify many such unique substances in exhaled breath, including gases, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), and a wide array of volatile organic compounds. Exhaled breath also carries aerosolized droplets that can be collected as an exhaled breath condensate that contains endogenously produced non-volatile compounds. Breath analysis is now used to diagnose and monitor asthma, check for transplant organ rejection, detect lung cancer and test for Helicobacter pyloriinfection-and the list is growing. A major milestone in the scientific study of breath was marked in the 1970s when Linus Pauling demonstrated that there is more to exhaled breath than the classic gases of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapour-a lot more. Based on the gas-liquid partition chromatography analysis, Pauling reported the presence of 250 substances in exhaled breath. We now have the technology to test for any and all of these components. The field of breath analysis has made considerable advances in the 21st century and the utility of breath analysis in health care is advancing quickly. The science is rapidly expanding, the technology is improving and several new applications have been developed or are under commercial development. Breath analysis may rely on both direct (on line) and indirect (off line) reading methods: in the on-line method, breath analysis is immediately available, whereas the use of indirect methods generally involves collecting and trapping the breath sample and subsequently transferring it to an analytical instrument for analysis. Various kinds of breath samples have been used in biological monitoring, including mixed expired air and end expired air: end exhaled air represents the alveolar air concentration and mixed exhaled air represents the gas mixture coming from the dead space of the bronchial tree and the alveolar gas-exchange space. Exhaled breath analysis is an area where the modern day advances in technology and engineering meet the ever expanding need in medicine for more sensitive, specific and non-invasive tests which makes this area a major front in the interface between medicine and engineering. A major breakthrough over the past decade has been the increase in breath-based tests approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Devices measuring common breath gases (oxygen, nitrogen, water vapour and CO(2)) in patient respiratory monitoring have served as

Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

2012-05-23

33

Rossman/Chance Applet Collection: Sampling Pennies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet demonstrates drawing numbered pennies from a large sample. The user can change the sample size and the number of samples. Once the pennies have been drawn, the number of the penny and its year is shown. The mean and standard deviation are also displayed. The top plot is of the average year drawn and the lower plot is of the average year of all of the samples. This is part of a larger collection of applets on statistics from the California Poly San Luis Obispo.

Rossman, Allan; Chance, Beth

2008-09-08

34

IMPROVEMENT OF EXPOSURE-DOSE MODELS: APPLICATION OF CONTINUOUS BREATH SAMPLING TO DETERMINE VOC DOSE AND BODY BURDEN  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a continuation of an Internal Grant research project with the focus on completing the research due to initial funding delays and then analyzing and reporting the research results. This project will employ a new continuous breath sampling methodology to investigate dose a...

35

USGS Collects Sediments Samples at Pascagoula Beach  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists collected environmental data and samples at beach, barrier island, and wetland sites in response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.  The USGS Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas Science Centers collaborated to ...

36

Automated collection and processing of environmental samples  

DOEpatents

For monitoring an environmental parameter such as the level of nuclear radiation, at distributed sites, bar coded sample collectors are deployed and their codes are read using a portable data entry unit that also records the time of deployment. The time and collector identity are cross referenced in memory in the portable unit. Similarly, when later recovering the collector for testing, the code is again read and the time of collection is stored as indexed to the sample collector, or to a further bar code, for example as provided on a container for the sample. The identity of the operator can also be encoded and stored. After deploying and/or recovering the sample collectors, the data is transmitted to a base processor. The samples are tested, preferably using a test unit coupled to the base processor, and again the time is recorded. The base processor computes the level of radiation at the site during exposure of the sample collector, using the detected radiation level of the sample, the delay between recovery and testing, the duration of exposure and the half life of the isotopes collected. In one embodiment, an identity code and a site code are optically read by an image grabber coupled to the portable data entry unit.

Troyer, Gary L. (Richland, WA); McNeece, Susan G. (Richland, WA); Brayton, Darryl D. (Richland, WA); Panesar, Amardip K. (Kennewick, WA)

1997-01-01

37

Breath-based biomarkers for tuberculosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the potential of breath analysis by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to discriminate between samples collected prospectively from patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB). Samples were obtained in a TB endemic setting in South Africa where 28% of the culture proven TB patients had a Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) negative sputum smear. A training set of breath samples from 50 sputum culture proven TB patients and 50 culture negative non-TB patients was analyzed by GC-MS. A classification model with 7 compounds resulted in a training set with a sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 86% and accuracy of 79% compared with culture. The classification model was validated with an independent set of breath samples from 21 TB and 50 non-TB patients. A sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 84% and accuracy of 77% was found. We conclude that the 7 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that discriminate breath samples from TB and non-TB patients in our study population are probably host-response related VOCs and are not derived from the VOCs secreted by M. tuberculosis. It is concluded that at present GC-MS breath analysis is able to differentiate between TB and non-TB breath samples even among patients with a negative ZN sputum smear but a positive culture for M. tuberculosis. Further research is required to improve the sensitivity and specificity before this method can be used in routine laboratories.

Kolk, Arend H. J.; van Berkel, Joep J. B. N.; Claassens, Mareli M.; Walters, Elisabeth; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Dallinga, Jan W.; van Schooten, Fredrik-Jan

2012-06-01

38

Deconvolving an estimate of breath measured blood alcohol concentration from biosensor collected transdermal ethanol data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosensor measurement of transdermal alcohol concentration in perspiration exhibits significant variance from subject to subject and device to device. Short duration data collected in a controlled clinical setting is used to calibrate a forward model for ethanol transport from the blood to the sensor. The calibrated model is then used to invert transdermal signals collected in the field (short or

M. A. Dumett; I. G. Rosen; J. Sabat; A. Shaman; L. Tempelman; C. Wang; R. M. Swift

2008-01-01

39

Laser-based method and sample handling protocol for measuring breath acetone.  

PubMed

A robust method is demonstrated to measure acetone in human breath at sub parts-per-million by volume (ppmv) concentrations using diode laser cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy. The laser operates in the near-infrared at about 1690 nm probing overtone transitions in acetone in a spectral region relatively free from interference from common breath species such as CO2, water, and methane. Using an optical cavity with a length of 45 cm, bound by mirrors of 99.997% reflectivity, a limit of detection of ?180 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv) (1?) of breath acetone is achieved. The method is validated with measurements made with an ion-molecule reaction mass spectrometer. A technique to calibrate the optical cavity mirror reflectivity using a temperature dependent water vapor source is also described. PMID:24831456

Hancock, Gus; Langley, Cathryn E; Peverall, Robert; Ritchie, Grant A D; Taylor, David

2014-06-17

40

Motion artifact correction in free-breathing abdominal MRI using overlapping partial samples to recover image deformations.  

PubMed

This article presents a method to reconstruct liver MRI data acquired continuously during free breathing, without any external sensor or navigator measurements. When the deformations associated with k-space data are known, generalized matrix inversion reconstruction has been shown to be effective in reducing the ghosting and blurring artifacts of motion. This article describes a novel method to obtain these nonrigid deformations. A breathing model is built from a fast dynamic series: low spatial resolution images are registered and their deformations parameterized by overall superior-inferior displacement. The correct deformation for each subset of the subsequent imaging data is then found by comparing a few lines of k-space with the equivalent lines from a deformed reference image while varying the deformation over the model parameter. This procedure is known as image deformation recovery using overlapping partial samples (iDROPS). Simulations using 10 rapid dynamic studies from volunteers showed the average error in iDROPS-derived deformations within the liver to be 1.43 mm. A further four volunteers were imaged at higher spatial resolution. The complete reconstruction process using data from throughout several breathing cycles was shown to reduce blurring and ghosting in the liver. Retrospective respiratory gating was also demonstrated using the iDROPS parameterization. PMID:19449437

White, M J; Hawkes, D J; Melbourne, A; Collins, D J; Coolens, C; Hawkins, M; Leach, M O; Atkinson, D

2009-08-01

41

Total Airborne Mold Particle Sampling: Evaluation of Sample Collection, Preparation and Counting Procedures, and Collection Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate (i) procedures used to collect, prepare, and count total airborne mold spore\\/particle concentrations, and (ii) the relative field performance of three commercially available total airborne mold spore\\/particle sampling devices. Differences between factory and laboratory airflow calibration values of axial fan-driven sampling instruments (used in the study) indicated a need for laboratory calibration using a

Diana Godish; Thad Godish

2007-01-01

42

28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing §...

2013-07-01

43

28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing §...

2010-07-01

44

28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing §...

2014-07-01

45

28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing §...

2012-07-01

46

28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing §...

2011-07-01

47

Breath Analysis in Disease Diagnosis: Methodological Considerations and Applications  

PubMed Central

Breath analysis is a promising field with great potential for non-invasive diagnosis of a number of disease states. Analysis of the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath with an acceptable accuracy are assessed by means of using analytical techniques with high sensitivity, accuracy, precision, low response time, and low detection limit, which are desirable characteristics for the detection of VOCs in human breath. “Breath fingerprinting”, indicative of a specific clinical status, relies on the use of multivariate statistics methods with powerful in-built algorithms. The need for standardisation of sample collection and analysis is the main issue concerning breath analysis, blocking the introduction of breath tests into clinical practice. This review describes recent scientific developments in basic research and clinical applications, namely issues concerning sampling and biochemistry, highlighting the diagnostic potential of breath analysis for disease diagnosis. Several considerations that need to be taken into account in breath analysis are documented here, including the growing need for metabolomics to deal with breath profiles. PMID:24957037

Lourenço, Célia; Turner, Claire

2014-01-01

48

Analysis of the research sample collections of Uppsala biobank.  

PubMed

Uppsala Biobank is the joint and only biobank organization of the two principals, Uppsala University and Uppsala University Hospital. Biobanks are required to have updated registries on sample collection composition and management in order to fulfill legal regulations. We report here the results from the first comprehensive and overall analysis of the 131 research sample collections organized in the biobank. The results show that the median of the number of samples in the collections was 700 and that the number of samples varied from less than 500 to over one million. Blood samples, such as whole blood, serum, and plasma, were included in the vast majority, 84.0%, of the research sample collections. Also, as much as 95.5% of the newly collected samples within healthcare included blood samples, which further supports the concept that blood samples have fundamental importance for medical research. Tissue samples were also commonly used and occurred in 39.7% of the research sample collections, often combined with other types of samples. In total, 96.9% of the 131 sample collections included samples collected for healthcare, showing the importance of healthcare as a research infrastructure. Of the collections that had accessed existing samples from healthcare, as much as 96.3% included tissue samples from the Department of Pathology, which shows the importance of pathology samples as a resource for medical research. Analysis of different research areas shows that the most common of known public health diseases are covered. Collections that had generated the most publications, up to over 300, contained a large number of samples collected systematically and repeatedly over many years. More knowledge about existing biobank materials, together with public registries on sample collections, will support research collaborations, improve transparency, and bring us closer to the goals of biobanks, which is to save and prolong human lives and improve health and quality of life. PMID:25340941

Engelmark, Malin T; Beskow, Anna H

2014-10-01

49

Bad Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... breath? Maybe you shouldn't have put extra onions on your hamburger at lunch. What's a kid ... bad breath: foods and drinks, such as garlic, onions, cheese, orange juice, and soda poor dental hygiene ( ...

50

Total airborne mold particle sampling: evaluation of sample collection, preparation and counting procedures, and collection devices.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate (i) procedures used to collect, prepare, and count total airborne mold spore/particle concentrations, and (ii) the relative field performance of three commercially available total airborne mold spore/particle sampling devices. Differences between factory and laboratory airflow calibration values of axial fan-driven sampling instruments (used in the study) indicated a need for laboratory calibration using a mass flow meter to ensure that sample results were accurately calculated. An aniline blue-amended Calberla's solution adjusted to a pH of 4.2-4.4 provided good sample mounting/counting results using Dow Corning high vacuum grease, Dow Corning 280A adhesive, and Dow Corning 316 silicone release spray for samples collected using mini-Burkard and Allergenco samplers. Count variability among analysts was most pronounced in 5% counts of relatively low mold particle deposition density samples and trended downward with increased count percentage and particle deposition density. No significant differences were observed among means of 5, 10, and 20% counts and among analysts; a significant interaction effect was observed between analysts' counts and particle deposition densities. Significantly higher mini-Burkard and Air-O-Cell total mold spore/particle counts for 600x vs. 400x (1.9 and 2.3 x higher, respectively), 1000x vs. 600x (1.9 and 2.2 x higher, respectively) and 1000x vs. 400x (3.6 and 4.6 x higher, respectively) comparisons indicated that 1000x magnification counts best quantified total airborne mold spore/particles using light microscopy, and that lower magnification counts may result in unacceptable underreporting of airborne mold spore/particle concentrations. Modest but significantly higher (1.2x) total mold spore concentrations were observed with Allergenco vs. mini-Burkard samples collected in co-located, concurrently operated sampler studies; moderate but significantly higher mini-Burkard count values (1.4x) were observed in similar studies with Air-O-Cell samplers. These count differences were relatively small compared with the large differences observed among three count magnifications. PMID:18085480

Godish, Diana; Godish, Thad

2008-02-01

51

The analysis of linear and monomethylalkanes in exhaled breath samples by GC×GC-FID and GC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

A new arrangement of the INCAT (inside needle capillary adsorption trap) device with Carbopack X and Carboxen 1000 as sorbent materials was applied for sampling, preconcentration and injection of C6C19n-alkanes and their monomethyl analogs in exhaled breath samples. For the analysis both GC-MS/MS and GC×GC-FID techniques were used. Identification of the analytes was based on standards, measured retention indices and selective SRM transitions of the individual isomers. The GC-MS/MS detection limits were in the range from 2.1pg for n-tetradecane to 86pg for 5-methyloctadecane. The GC×GC-FID detection limits ranged from 19pg for n-dodecane to 110pg for 3-methyloctane. PMID:25531871

Hengerics Szabó, Alexandra; Podolec, Peter; Ferenczy, Viktória; Kubinec, Róbert; Blaško, Jaroslav; Soják, Ladislav; Górová, Renáta; Addová, Gabriela; Ostrovský, Ivan; Viš?ovský, Jozef; Bierhanzl, Václav; ?abala, Radomír; Amann, Anton

2015-01-26

52

Ethylene and ammonia traces measurements from the patients' breath with renal failure via LPAS method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) for fast and precise measurements of breath biomarkers has opened up new promises for monitoring and diagnostics in recent years, especially because breath test is a non-invasive method, safe, rapid and acceptable to patients. Our study involved assessment of breath ethylene and breath ammonia levels in patients with renal failure receiving haemodialysis (HD) treatment. Breath samples from healthy subjects and from patients with renal failure were collected using chemically inert aluminized bags and were subsequently analyzed using the LPAS technique. We have found out that the composition of exhaled breath in patients with renal failure contains not only ethylene, but also ammonia and gives valuable information for determining efficacy and endpoint of HD. Analysis of ethylene and ammonia traces from the human breath may provide insight into severity of oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances and may ensure optimal therapy and prevention of pathology at patients on continuous HD.

Popa, C.; Dutu, D. C. A.; Cernat, R.; Matei, C.; Bratu, A. M.; Banita, S.; Dumitras, D. C.

2011-11-01

53

7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section 29...Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco...the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide residues shall be sampled in...

2011-01-01

54

7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section 29...Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco...the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide residues shall be sampled in...

2010-01-01

55

Breath tests with (13)C substrates.  

PubMed

Labeled (stable and radio) isotope compounds ((2)H, (3)H, (14)C, (13)C, (15)N) have been widely used as diagnostic probes in research laboratories for over 30 years in the fields of gastroenterology, hepatology, oncology, and nutrition, as well as pharmacokinetic studies in the development of drugs. (13)C stable isotope diagnostic probes are now being expanded in their scope, to provide precise evaluations of the presence or absence of etiologically significant changes in metabolism due to a specific disease or the lack of a specific enzyme. The concept exploits the use of the (13)C- label that is incorporated at the appropriate site into a selected substrate specifically designed for the targeted enzyme in a discrete metabolic pathway. The enzyme-substrate interaction results in the release of (13)CO(2) in the expired breath. The subsequent quantification of (13)CO(2) allows for the indirect determination of pharmacokinetics and the evaluation of enzyme activity. Breath tests, although non-invasive, have not been integrated routinely in clinical practice due to most of them requiring multiple breath sample collection over an extended time period. The use of area-under-the-curve (AUC) and percent-dose-recovery (PDR) parameters of breath tests to differentiate between controls and patients has been a huge barrier to implementing them into routine clinical practice due to time constraints on clinical staff. In order to get breath tests accepted in clinical practice as in vivo diagnostic tools, the tests need to be accurate with high sensitivity and specificity with a single time point breath collection post ingestion of a (13)C substrate. It is now incumbent on diagnostic test companies to invest capital for the development of promising single time point breath tests and getting regulatory board approval (FDA, EMEA), CPT codes and reimbursement. Following regulatory approvals, the breath tests would also need to be marketed aggressively by making physicians, patients, and insurance companies aware of the medical benefits to patients and lowering of healthcare costs. The diagnostic breath tests will enable physicians and patients to benefit from rapid, novel and non-invasive ways to detect enzyme deficiencies, to monitor the progress of disease severity or medication efficacy, to trace acquired and/or congenital metabolic defects, to study in vivo the pharmacokinetics of xenobiotics, and to optimize individually tailored treatment regimens for drugs with narrow therapeutic windows. The primary reason for publishing this special section on (13)C breath tests is to highlight some of the recent advances in the field of breath tests as well as to review the literature. PMID:21386144

Modak, Anil

2009-12-01

56

14C-urea breath test in C pylori gastritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

14C-urea breath test was used to detect Campylobacter pylori colonisation in 129 consecutive non-ulcer dyspepsia patients. Fasting patients were given 3 microCi (110 kBq) of 14C-labelled urea after a test meal. Breath samples were collected at 10 minute intervals for 90 minutes and the C-14 activity was counted on a liquid scintillation analyser. Urea derived 14CO2 appears in the exhaled

E A Rauws; E A Royen; W Langenberg; J V Woensel; A A Vrij; G N Tytgat

1989-01-01

57

Collection and Preparation of Thin Sections of Oriented Samples.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlined is a method for collecting and cutting oriented samples for microstructural analysis including handling the samples in the laboratory, cutting and orienting chips parallel to the motion plane, and cutting and orienting chips normal to Le and foliation. (CW)

Hansen, Vicki Lynn

1990-01-01

58

Evaluation of Bio-VOC Sampler for Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in Exhaled Breath  

PubMed Central

Monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from exhaled breath has been used to determine exposures of humans to chemicals. Prior to analysis of VOCs, breath samples are often collected with canisters or bags and concentrated. The Bio-VOC breath sampler, a commercial sampling device, has been recently introduced to the market with growing use. The main advantage for this sampler is to collect the last portion of exhaled breath, which is more likely to represent the air deep in the lungs. However, information about the Bio-VOC sampler is somewhat limited. Therefore, we have thoroughly evaluated the sampler here. We determined the volume of the breath air collected in the sampler was approximately 88 mL. When sampling was repeated multiple times, with the succeeding exhalations applied to a single sorbent tube, we observed linear relationships between the normalized peak intensity and the number of repeated collections with the sampler in many of the breath VOCs detected. No moisture effect was observed on the Tenax sorbent tubes used. However, due to the limitation in the collection volume, the use of the Bio-VOC sampler is recommended only for detection of VOCs present at high concentrations unless repeated collections of breath samples on the sampler are conducted. PMID:25532709

Kwak, Jae; Fan, Maomian; Harshman, Sean W.; Garrison, Catherine E.; Dershem, Victoria L.; Phillips, Jeffrey B.; Grigsby, Claude C.; Ott, Darrin K.

2014-01-01

59

Evaluating Sampling Methods for Uncooperative Collections  

E-print Network

to provide a 1 DIR is also referred to as "metasearch" or "federated search". Permission to make digital which depend only on the normal query- response mechanism of the applicable search facilities. We Distributed information retrieval, random sampling 1. INTRODUCTION Simultaneous search of documents from

Hawking, David

60

The development of a Martian atmospheric Sample collection canister  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The collection of an atmospheric sample from Mars would provide significant insight to the understanding of the elemental composition and sub-surface out-gassing rates of noble gases. A team of engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology have developed an atmospheric sample collection canister for Martian application. The engineering strategy has two basic elements: first, to collect two separately sealed 50 cubic centimeter unpressurized atmospheric samples with minimal sensing and actuation in a self contained pressure vessel; and second, to package this atmospheric sample canister in such a way that it can be easily integrated into the orbiting sample capsule for collection and return to Earth. Sample collection and integrity are demonstrated by emulating the atmospheric collection portion of the Mars Sample Return mission on a compressed timeline. The test results achieved by varying the pressure inside of a thermal vacuum chamber while opening and closing the valve on the sample canister at Mars ambient pressure. A commercial off-the-shelf medical grade micro-valve is utilized in the first iteration of this design to enable rapid testing of the system. The valve has been independently leak tested at JPL to quantify and separate the leak rates associated with the canister. The results are factored in to an overall system design that quantifies mass, power, and sensing requirements for a Martian atmospheric Sample Collection (MASC) canister as outlined in the Mars Sample Return mission profile. Qualitative results include the selection of materials to minimize sample contamination, preliminary science requirements, priorities in sample composition, flight valve selection criteria, a storyboard from sample collection to loading in the orbiting sample capsule, and contributions to maintaining “ Earth” clean exterior surfaces on the orbiting sample capsule.

Kulczycki, E.; Galey, C.; Kennedy, B.; Budney, C.; Bame, D.; Van Schilfgaarde, R.; Aisen, N.; Townsend, J.; Younse, P.; Piacentine, J.

61

Decomposition and solubility of H2O2: implications in exhaled breath condensate.  

PubMed

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is one of the metabolic end products present in exhaled breath. High levels of H2O2 found in breath condensate are an indicator of airway inflammation and could be used for monitoring the condition of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, sampling conditions such as breath temperature, condensing temperature, flow rate and collection time can affect the intrinsic properties of H2O2-its solubility, volatility, and decomposition rate. Sudden decreases to H2O2 concentration may be due to the sampling conditions instead of the patient's health status. The decomposition rate and Henry's law constant for saturated H2O2 vapor (RH > 95%) within 22-42 °C, which correlates to room temperature and range of human breath temperatures, are needed for better understanding and standardization of breath collection. In this study, we determined the effects of initial H2O2 concentration, temperature, and sampling time on the decomposition rate by comparing electrochemical measurements of H2O2 in simulated breath samples. The experimental results showed the decomposition rate of H2O2 increased as the breath temperature and sampling time increased and the solubility of H2O2 increased with increasing flow rate and condensing temperature during sampling. Prediction models for H2O2 sensing in exhaled breath sample were developed that could be used in the standardization of exhaled breath condensate collection. These experimental findings need to be further verified with human/animal breath samples. PMID:24002883

Chen, Shih-Fang; Danao, Mary-Grace C

2013-12-01

62

Determination of breath acetone in 149 Type 2 diabetic patients using a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer.  

PubMed

Over 90 % of diabetic patients have Type 2 diabetes. Although an elevated mean breath acetone concentration has been found to exist in Type 1 diabetes (T1D), information on breath acetone in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has yet to be obtained. In this study, we first used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to validate a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer based on the cavity-ringdown-spectroscopy technique, through comparing breath acetone concentrations in the range 0.5-2.5 ppm measured using both methods. The linear fitting of R?=?0.99 suggests that the acetone concentrations obtained using both methods are consistent with a largest standard deviation of ±0.4 ppm in the lowest concentration of the range. Next, 620 breath samples from 149 T2D patients and 42 healthy subjects were collected and tested using the breath analyzer. Four breath samples were taken from each subject under each of four different conditions: fasting, 2 h post-breakfast, 2 h post-lunch, and 2 h post-dinner. Simultaneous blood glucose levels were also measured using a standard diabetic-management blood-glucose meter. For the 149 T2D subjects, their exhaled breath acetone concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 19.8 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.1-19.8, 0.1-7.1, 0.1-6.3, and 0.1-9.5 ppm, were obtained for the subjects under the four different conditions, respectively. For the 42 healthy subjects, their breath acetone concentration ranged from 0.1 to 2.6 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.3-2.6, 0.1-2.6, 0.1-1.7, and 0.3-1.6 ppm, were obtained for the four different conditions. The mean breath acetone concentration of the 149 T2D subjects was determined to be 1.5?±?1.5 ppm, which was 1.5 times that of 1.0?±?0.6 ppm for the 42 healthy subjects. No correlation was found between the breath acetone concentration and the blood glucose level of the T2D subjects and the healthy volunteers. This study using a relatively large number of subjects provides new data regarding breath acetone in diabetes (T1D and T2D) and suggests that an elevated mean breath acetone concentration also exists in T2D. PMID:25572689

Sun, Meixiu; Chen, Zhuying; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Jiang, Chenyu; Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Zhennang; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

2015-02-01

63

Proper Oil Sampling Intervals and Sample Collection Techniques Gasoline/Diesel/Natural Gas Engines  

E-print Network

Proper Oil Sampling Intervals and Sample Collection Techniques Gasoline/Diesel/Natural Gas Engines: · Oil samples can be collected during oil changes. Follow manufacturers recommendations on frequency (hours, mileage, etc) of oil changes. · Capture a sample from the draining oil while the oil is still hot

64

40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. 761.286...Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.286 Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. At each...

2011-07-01

65

40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.  

...Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. 761.286...Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.286 Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. At each...

2014-07-01

66

40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. 761.286...Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.286 Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. At each...

2010-07-01

67

40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. 761.286...Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.286 Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. At each...

2013-07-01

68

40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. 761.286...Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.286 Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. At each...

2012-07-01

69

Application of cabin atmosphere monitors to rapid screening of breath samples for the early detection of disease states  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of human breath is a nonintrusive method to monitor both endogenous and exogenous chemicals found in the body. Several technologies were investigated and developed which are applicable to monitoring some organic molecules important in both physiological and pathological states. Two methods were developed for enriching the organic molecules exhaled in the breath of humans. One device is based on a respiratory face mask fitted with a polyethylene foam wafer; while the other device is a cryogenic trap utilizing an organic solvent. Using laboratory workers as controls, two organic molecules which occurred in the enriched breath of all subjects were tentatively identified as lactic acid and contisol. Both of these substances occurred in breath in sufficient amounts that the conventional method of gas-liquid chromatography was adequate for detection and quantification. To detect and quantitate trace amounts of chemicals in breath, another type of technology was developed in which analysis was conducted using high pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

Valentine, J. L.; Bryant, P. J.

1975-01-01

70

MEASUREMENTS OF AIR POLLUTANT BIOMARKERS WITH EXHALED BREATH TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Use of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has appeal as a noninvasive surrogate sample for lung-derived fluid. Additionally, EBC can be collected multiple times over the course of a study, unlike many other lung sampling techniques which can be performed fewer times. However validat...

71

Matrix isolation apparatus with extended sample collection capability  

DOEpatents

A gas-sample collection device provides for the matrix isolation of increased amounts of a sample material for spectrographic analysis from a gas chromatographic separation. The device includes an evacuated sample collection chamber containing a disc-like specular carousel having a generally circular lateral surface upon which the sample is deposited in an inert gas matrix for infrared (IR) spectral analysis. The evacuated sample chamber is mounted in a fixed manner and is coupled to and supports a rotating cryostatic coupler which, in turn, supports the specular carousel within the collection chamber. A rotational drive system connected to the cryostatic coupler provides for its rotational displacement as well as that of the sample collecting carousel. In addition, rotation of the cryostatic coupler effects vertical displacement of the carousel to permit the collection of an extended sample band in a helical configuration on the entire lateral surface of the carousel. The various components of the carousel's angular/linear displacement drive system are located exterior to the cryostatic coupler for easy access and improved operation. The cryostatic coupler includes a 360.degree. rotary union assembly for permitting the delivery of a high pressure working fluid to the cryostatic coupler in a continuous flow manner for maintaining the specular carousel at a low temperature, e.g., 10.degree.-20.degree. K., for improved uninterrupted gas sample collection and analysis.

Reedy, Gerald T. (Bourbonnais, IL)

1987-01-01

72

A model to predict the breathing zone concentrations of particles emitted from surfaces.  

PubMed

Activity based sampling (ABS) is typically performed to assess inhalation exposure to particulate contaminants known to have low, heterogeneous concentrations on a surface. Activity based sampling determines the contaminant concentration in a person's breathing zone as they perform a scripted activity, such as raking a specified area of soil, while wearing appropriate sample collection instrumentation. As an alternative approach, a probabilistic model based on aerosol physics and fluid dynamics was developed to predict the breathing zone concentration of a particulate contaminant emitted from a surface during activities of variable intensity. The model predicted the particle emission rate, tracked particle transport to the breathing zone, and calculated the breathing zone concentration for two scenarios. One scenario used an Eulerian model based on a Gaussian concentration distribution to quantify aerosol exposure in the trailing wake of a moving object. The second scenario modeled exposure in a quiescent environment. A Lagrangian model tracked the cumulative number of individual particles entering the breathing zone volume at a particular time. A Monte Carlo simulation calculated the breathing zone concentration probability distribution for each scenario. Both models predicted probability distributions of asbestos breathing zone concentrations that bracketed experimentally measured personal exposure concentrations. Modeled breathing zone concentrations were statistically correlated (p-value < 0.001) with independently collected ABS concentrations. The linear regression slope of 0.70 and intercept of 0.03 were influenced by the quantity of ABS data collected and model parameter input distributions at a site broader than those at other sites. PMID:20383380

Thornburg, Jonathan; Kominsky, John; Brown, G Gordon; Frechtel, Peter; Barrett, William; Shaul, Glenn

2010-04-01

73

A perception and manipulation system for collecting rock samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An important part of a planetary exploration mission is to collect and analyze surface samples. As part of the Carnegie Mellon University Ambler Project, researchers are investigating techniques for collecting samples using a robot arm and a range sensor. The aim of this work is to make the sample collection operation fully autonomous. Described here are the components of the experimental system, including a perception module that extracts objects of interest from range images and produces models of their shapes, and a manipulation module that enables the system to pick up the objects identified by the perception module. The system was tested on a small testbed using natural terrain.

Choi, T.; Delingette, H.; Deluise, M.; Hsin, Y.; Hebert, M.; Ikeuchi, Katsushi

1991-01-01

74

Aerosol Sampling System for Collection of Capstone Depleted Uranium Particles in a High-Energy Environment  

SciTech Connect

The Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Study was undertaken to obtain aerosol samples resulting from a kinetic-energy cartridge with a large-caliber depleted uranium (DU) penetrator striking an Abrams or Bradley test vehicle. The sampling strategy was designed to (1) optimize the performance of the samplers and maintain their integrity in the extreme environment created during perforation of an armored vehicle by a DU penetrator, (2) collect aerosols as a function of time post-impact, and (3) obtain size-classified samples for analysis of chemical composition, particle morphology, and solubility in lung fluid. This paper describes the experimental setup and sampling methodologies used to achieve these objectives. Custom-designed arrays of sampling heads were secured to the inside of the target in locations approximating the breathing zones of the vehicle commander, loader, gunner, and driver. Each array was designed to support nine filter cassettes and nine cascade impactors mounted with quick-disconnect fittings. Shielding and sampler placement strategies were used to minimize sampler loss caused by the penetrator impact and the resulting fragments of eroded penetrator and perforated armor. A cyclone train was used to collect larger quantities of DU aerosol for chemical composition and solubility. A moving filter sample was used to obtain semicontinuous samples for depleted uranium concentration determination. Control for the air samplers was provided by five remotely located valve control and pressure monitoring units located inside and around the test vehicle. These units were connected to a computer interface chassis and controlled using a customized LabVIEW engineering computer control program. The aerosol sampling arrays and control systems for the Capstone study provided the needed aerosol samples for physicochemical analysis, and the resultant data were used for risk assessment of exposure to DU aerosol.

Holmes, Thomas D.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Hoover, Mark D.

2009-03-01

75

Air sampling at the chest and ear as representative of the breathing zone.  

PubMed

Tracer gas concentrations were measured on a 60%-sized mannequin holding a pure sulfur hexafluoride source in its hands at waist height while it stood in a wind tunnel. Samplers were placed at the mannequin's mouth, in front of the ear, and at three chest locations at lapel level. Simultaneous 15-min time-weighted average samples were taken by drawing air into different sampling bags with sampling pumps. For the factorial study design, test conditions included cross-draft velocities of 10, 22, 47, and 80 ft/min; three mannequin orientations (facing to, side to, and back to cross-draft), and rotating speed through an 80 degrees arc (fast, slow, and no movement). Each study condition was tested twice. Concentrations at all sampling locations when the mannequin faced to the front and side were less than a tenth of the levels measured at the nose (Cnose) when the mannequin faced downstream. Higher velocities significantly increased concentration at the Back orientation and generally reduced it at the Side and Facing orientations. Concentrations at the nose were different from concentrations at other sites. For 34 of 36 samples the mean chest concentration (Cchest,) was higher than the Cnose (geometric mean three times higher). The ratio of ear (Cear) and Cnose varied with orientation. At the Back orientation, Cear, was lower than Cnose, whereas Cear was higher than Cnose at the Side and Facing to flow orientations. Velocity affected the ratios of concentrations. At the Back orientation, the chest sampler provided lower overestimates of Cnose, at higher velocities than at lower values. Mannequin movement, done only at the Back orientation, proved important only for the ear location. Results showed significant and substantial differences between concentrations at the nose and lapel. However, these findings should be interpreted with caution because a very dense tracer gas and an unheated, nonbreathing mannequin were used. In more realistic conditions, the findings probably would show far smaller differences in concentrations at different sampling sites. PMID:11549135

Guffey, S E; Flanagan, M E; van Belle, G

2001-01-01

76

Testing Your Soil: How to Collect and Send Samples  

E-print Network

Soil tests can be used to estimate the kinds and amounts of soil nutrients available to plants and as aids in determining fertilizer needs. This publication covers the three-step procedure for obtaining sample bags and instructions, collecting...

Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

2002-06-26

77

Data size reduction strategy for the classification of breath and air samples using multicapillary column-ion mobility spectrometry.  

PubMed

Ion mobility spectrometry combined with multicapillary column separation (MCC-IMS) is a well-known technology for detecting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in gaseous samples. Due to their large data size, processing of MCC-IMS spectra is still the main bottleneck of data analysis, and there is an increasing need for data analysis strategies in which the size of MCC-IMS data is reduced to enable further analysis. In our study, the first untargeted chemometric strategy is developed and employed in the analysis of MCC-IMS spectra from 264 breath and ambient air samples. This strategy does not comprise identification of compounds as a primary step but includes several preprocessing steps and a discriminant analysis. Data size is significantly reduced in three steps. Wavelet transform, mask construction, and sparse-partial least squares-discriminant analysis (s-PLS-DA) allow data size reduction with down to 50 variables relevant to the goal of analysis. The influence and compatibility of the data reduction tools are studied by applying different settings of the developed strategy. Loss of information after preprocessing is evaluated, e.g., by comparing the performance of classification models for different classes of samples. Finally, the interpretability of the classification models is evaluated, and regions of spectra that are related to the identification of potential analytical biomarkers are successfully determined. This work will greatly enable the standardization of analytical procedures across different instrumentation types promoting the adoption of MCC-IMS technology in a wide range of diverse application fields. PMID:25519893

Szyma?ska, Ewa; Brodrick, Emma; Williams, Mark; Davies, Antony N; van Manen, Henk-Jan; Buydens, Lutgarde M C

2015-01-20

78

COLLECTING REPRESENTATIVE SOIL SAMPLES FOR N AND P FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil fertilizer recommendations in modern crop production rely on laboratory analysis of representative soil samples. Regardless on where the samples were collected (grid points, management zones, or whole fields) the accuracy and precision of the fertilizer recommendation can be improved by consid...

79

Rossman/Chance Applet Collection: Reese's Pieces Samples  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet demonstrates a machine dispensing Reese's Pieces. The Reese's Pieces are seperated into different colors. The user can change the sample size and the number of samples. The mean and standard deviation are displayed and a plot of the normal curve can also be shown. This is part of a larger collection of applets on statistics from the California Poly San Luis Obispo.

Rossman, Allan; Chance, Beth

2008-09-19

80

USGS Technician Collects Water Sample at a Weir  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A USGS technician collects a water sample at the Faka Union Canal Weir #1, Collier County, Florida. The sample was used to help determine the source of the warm water responsible for the site's popularity among manatees as a warm water refuge....

2010-06-01

81

Bad Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... for lunch. But certain strong-smelling foods like onions and garlic can cause bad breath. So can ... leave behind strong smells, like cabbage, garlic, raw onions, and coffee. If you’re trying to lose ...

82

Bad Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... mouth and between your teeth produce the bad odor. Other problems in your mouth, such as gum ... and medicines are associated with a specific breath odor. Having good dental habits, like brushing and flossing ...

83

Breathing Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this demonstration of chemical change, the presenter blows breath into a methylene blue solution releasing carbon dioxide which acidifies the water and changes it from a bright blue color to green.

2009-08-16

84

Rossman/Chance Applet Collection: Simulating Senators Samples  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet draws a sample of senators (from Senators in 2005). The user can control the sample size and the number of samples. The applet displays the senator's name, number of years in the senate, their party and gender. Each set is then plotted. The mean and standard deviation is displayed. This is part of a larger collection of applets on statistics from the California Poly San Luis Obispo.

Rossman, Allan; Chance, Beth

2009-03-31

85

On the improvement of blood sample collection at clinical laboratories  

PubMed Central

Background Blood samples are usually collected daily from different collection points, such hospitals and health centers, and transported to a core laboratory for testing. This paper presents a project to improve the collection routes of two of the largest clinical laboratories in Spain. These routes must be designed in a cost-efficient manner while satisfying two important constraints: (i) two-hour time windows between collection and delivery, and (ii) vehicle capacity. Methods A heuristic method based on a genetic algorithm has been designed to solve the problem of blood sample collection. The user enters the following information for each collection point: postal address, average collecting time, and average demand (in thermal containers). After implementing the algorithm using C programming, this is run and, in few seconds, it obtains optimal (or near-optimal) collection routes that specify the collection sequence for each vehicle. Different scenarios using various types of vehicles have been considered. Unless new collection points are added or problem parameters are changed substantially, routes need to be designed only once. Results The two laboratories in this study previously planned routes manually for 43 and 74 collection points, respectively. These routes were covered by an external carrier company. With the implementation of this algorithm, the number of routes could be reduced from ten to seven in one laboratory and from twelve to nine in the other, which represents significant annual savings in transportation costs. Conclusions The algorithm presented can be easily implemented in other laboratories that face this type of problem, and it is particularly interesting and useful as the number of collection points increases. The method designs blood collection routes with reduced costs that meet the time and capacity constraints of the problem. PMID:24406140

2014-01-01

86

Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry of exhaled breath condensate headspace.  

PubMed

Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a relatively simple noninvasive method of breath analysis; however, no data have been reported that would relate concentration of volatile compounds in EBC to their gaseous concentrations in exhaled air. The aim of the study was to investigate which volatile compounds are present in EBC and how their concentrations relate to results of direct breath analysis. Thus, samples of EBC were collected in a standard way from several subjects and absolute levels of several common volatile breath metabolites (ammonia, acetone, ethanol, methanol, propanol, isoprene, hydrogen cyanide, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) were then determined in their headspace using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Results are compared with those from on-line breath analyses carried out immediately before collecting the EBC samples. It has been demonstrated that SIFT-MS can be used to quantify the concentrations of volatiles in EBC samples and that, for methanol, ammonia, ethanol and acetone, the EBC concentrations correlate with the direct breath levels. However, the EBC concentrations of isoprene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide and propanol do not correlate with direct breath measurements. PMID:18712707

Cáp, Petr; Dryahina, Kseniya; Pehal, Frantisek; Spanel, Patrik

2008-09-01

87

Exhaled breath condensate: methodological recommendations and unresolved questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a noninvasive method for obtaining samples from the lungs. EBC contains large number of mediators including adenosine, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, isoprostanes, leukotrienes, nitrogen oxides, peptides and cytokines. Concentrations of these mediators are influenced by lung diseases and modulated by therapeutic interventions. Similarly EBC pH also changes in respiratory diseases. The aim of the

I. Horvath; J. Hunt; P. J. Barnes; K. Alving; A. Antczak; E. Baraldi; G. Becher; W. J. C van Beurden; M. Corradi; P. N. R. Dekhuijzen; R. A. Dweik; T. Dwyer; R. Effros; S. Erzurum; B. Gaston; C. Gessner; A. Greening; L. P. Ho; J. Hohlfeld; Q. Jobsis; D. Laskowski; S. Loukides; D. Marlin; P. Montuschi; A. C. Olin; A. E. Redington; P. Reinhold; E. L. van Rensen; I. Rubinstein; P. Silkoff; K. Toren; G. Vass; C. Vogelberg; H. Wirtz

2005-01-01

88

Apparatus and process for collection of gas and vapor samples  

DOEpatents

A gas sampling apparatus and process is provided in which a standard crimping tool is modified by an attached collar. The collar permits operation of the crimping tool while also facilitating the introduction of a supply of gas to be introduced into a storage vial. The introduced gas supply is used to purge ambient air from a collection chamber and an interior of the sample vial. Upon completion of the purging operation, the vial is sealed using the crimping tool.

Jackson, Dennis G. (Augusta, GA); Peterson, Kurt D. (Aiken, SC); Riha, Brian D. (Augusta, GA)

2008-04-01

89

USGS Collects Sediment Samples at East Ship Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists collected environmental data and samples at beach, barrier island, and wetland sites in response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.  The USGS Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas Science Centers collaborated to ...

90

USGS Collects Sediment Samples at Grand Isle Beach  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists collected environmental data and samples at beach, barrier island, and wetland sites in response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.  The USGS Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas Science Centers collaborated to ...

91

Molecular epidemiology biomarkers-Sample collection and processing considerations  

SciTech Connect

Biomarker studies require processing and storage of numerous biological samples with the goals of obtaining a large amount of information and minimizing future research costs. An efficient study design includes provisions for processing of the original samples, such as cryopreservation, DNA isolation, and preparation of specimens for exposure assessment. Use of standard, two-dimensional and nanobarcodes and customized electronic databases assure efficient management of large sample collections and tracking results of data analyses. Standard operating procedures and quality control plans help to protect sample quality and to assure validity of the biomarker data. Specific state, federal and international regulations are in place regarding research with human samples, governing areas including custody, safety of handling, and transport of human samples. Appropriate informed consent must be obtained from the study subjects prior to sample collection and confidentiality of results maintained. Finally, examples of three biorepositories of different scale (European Cancer Study, National Cancer Institute and School of Public Health Biorepository, University of California, Berkeley) are used to illustrate challenges faced by investigators and the ways to overcome them. New software and biorepository technologies are being developed by many companies that will help to bring biological banking to a new level required by molecular epidemiology of the 21st century.

Holland, Nina T. [Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, 317 Warren Hall, Berkeley 94720-7360 (United States)]. E-mail: ninah@berkeley.edu; Pfleger, Laura [Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, 317 Warren Hall, Berkeley 94720-7360 (United States); Berger, Eileen [Input Automation Inc., Sonoma Mountain Road, Glen Ellen, CA 95442 (United States); Ho, Alan [Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, 317 Warren Hall, Berkeley 94720-7360 (United States); Bastaki, Maria [Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, 317 Warren Hall, Berkeley 94720-7360 (United States)

2005-08-07

92

Molecular epidemiology biomarkers--sample collection and processing considerations.  

PubMed

Biomarker studies require processing and storage of numerous biological samples with the goals of obtaining a large amount of information and minimizing future research costs. An efficient study design includes provisions for processing of the original samples, such as cryopreservation, DNA isolation, and preparation of specimens for exposure assessment. Use of standard, two-dimensional and nanobarcodes and customized electronic databases assure efficient management of large sample collections and tracking results of data analyses. Standard operating procedures and quality control plans help to protect sample quality and to assure validity of the biomarker data. Specific state, federal and international regulations are in place regarding research with human samples, governing areas including custody, safety of handling, and transport of human samples. Appropriate informed consent must be obtained from the study subjects prior to sample collection and confidentiality of results maintained. Finally, examples of three biorepositories of different scale (European Cancer Study, National Cancer Institute and School of Public Health Biorepository, University of California, Berkeley) are used to illustrate challenges faced by investigators and the ways to overcome them. New software and biorepository technologies are being developed by many companies that will help to bring biological banking to a new level required by molecular epidemiology of the 21st century. PMID:15967217

Holland, Nina T; Pfleger, Laura; Berger, Eileen; Ho, Alan; Bastaki, Maria

2005-08-01

93

24 CFR 35.1315 - Collection and laboratory analysis of samples.  

...2014-04-01 false Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. 35.1315 Section 35.1315... § 35.1315 Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. All paint chip, dust, or soil samples shall be collected and analyzed...

2014-04-01

94

24 CFR 35.1315 - Collection and laboratory analysis of samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. 35.1315 Section 35.1315... § 35.1315 Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. All paint chip, dust, or soil samples shall be collected and analyzed...

2012-04-01

95

24 CFR 35.1315 - Collection and laboratory analysis of samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. 35.1315 Section 35.1315... § 35.1315 Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. All paint chip, dust, or soil samples shall be collected and analyzed...

2013-04-01

96

24 CFR 35.1315 - Collection and laboratory analysis of samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. 35.1315 Section 35.1315... § 35.1315 Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. All paint chip, dust, or soil samples shall be collected and analyzed...

2011-04-01

97

Variability of collagen crosslinks: impact of sample collection period  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of the variability of collagen crosslinks, their use as markers for bone resorption is often criticized. We hypothesized that the variability could be reduced by collecting urine for 24 hours (or longer) instead of using single voids, and by not normalizing to creatinine. Urine samples were collected from 22 healthy subjects during two or more 24-hour periods. Each 24-hour pool and each 2nd void of the day were analyzed for N-telopeptide (NTX), pyridinium (PYD), and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks. Data were analyzed by using linear regression. For NTX, R2 for the two, 2nd-void samples (n = 38) was 0.55, whereas R2 for the two 24-hour pools was 0.51 or 0.52, expressed per day or per creatinine. For PYD and DPD, R2 for the 2nd-void samples was 0.26 and 0.18, R2 for the 24-hour pools expressed per day was 0.58 and 0.74, and R2 for the 24-hour pools expressed per creatinine was 0.65 and 0.76, respectively. Regression of the 2nd void and the corresponding 24-hour pool, expressed per day, yielded R2 = 0.19, 0.19, and 0.08, for NTX, PYD, and DPD, respectively (n = 76 each). For the 2nd-void sample and its corresponding 24-hour pool, expressed per creatinine, R2 = 0.24, 0.33, and 0.08, respectively. In a separate study, the coefficient of variation for NTX was reduced (P < 0.05) when data from more than one 24-hour collection were combined. Thus, the variability inherent in crosslink determinations can be reduced by collecting urine for longer periods. In research studies, the high variability of single-void collections, compounded by creatinine normalization, may alter or obscure findings.

Smith, S. M.; Dillon, E. L.; DeKerlegand, D. E.; Davis-Street, J. E.

2004-01-01

98

Design of a breath analysis system for diabetes screening and blood glucose level prediction.  

PubMed

It has been reported that concentrations of several biomarkers in diabetics' breath show significant difference from those in healthy people's breath. Concentrations of some biomarkers are also correlated with the blood glucose levels (BGLs) of diabetics. Therefore, it is possible to screen for diabetes and predict BGLs by analyzing one's breath. In this paper, we describe the design of a novel breath analysis system for this purpose. The system uses carefully selected chemical sensors to detect biomarkers in breath. Common interferential factors, including humidity and the ratio of alveolar air in breath, are compensated or handled in the algorithm. Considering the intersubject variance of the components in breath, we build subject-specific prediction models to improve the accuracy of BGL prediction. A total of 295 breath samples from healthy subjects and 279 samples from diabetic subjects were collected to evaluate the performance of the system. The sensitivity and specificity of diabetes screening are 91.51% and 90.77%, respectively. The mean relative absolute error for BGL prediction is 21.7%. Experiments show that the system is effective and that the strategies adopted in the system can improve its accuracy. The system potentially provides a noninvasive and convenient method for diabetes screening and BGL monitoring as an adjunct to the standard criteria. PMID:24951676

Yan, Ke; Zhang, David; Wu, Darong; Wei, Hua; Lu, Guangming

2014-11-01

99

Differential Cytokine Pattern in the Exhaled Breath of Patients with Lung Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumour cells may alter the protein pattern of biological samples resulting in specific differences that may aid diagnosis\\u000a and treatment. In this pilot study we tested the cytokine pattern of exhaled breath condensate of patients with lung cancer.\\u000a Breath condensates collected from 50 smoking patients with lung cancer and 25 smokers without clinical or radiological sign\\u000a of a pulmonary tumour

Tamás Kullmann; Imre Barta; Eszter Csiszér; Balázs Antus; Ildikó Horváth

2008-01-01

100

Breathing Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners test exhaled breath for carbon dioxide and learn how to use an indicator as a simple way to measure pH. Learners also explore what happens when an acid (lemon) is mixed with the indicator. This activity can be related to the topic of global climate change. This activity can also be used to discuss atmospheric warming, which is occurring due to increased amounts of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane in the atmosphere.

Mission Science Workshop

2013-01-01

101

Collecting exhaled breath condensate (EBC) with two condensers in series: a promising technique for studying the mechanisms of EBC formation, and the volatility of selected biomarkers.  

PubMed

Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) consists mainly of water, but also contains semivolatile and nonvolatile compounds. The aim of this study was to develop a system in which two condensers are simultaneously used in series to clarify the mechanisms of EBC condensation. Two aliquots of EBC (EBC1 and EBC2) were collected from 20 asymptomatic smokers and 20 healthy young nonsmokers using a specifically designed device having two condensers in series in which total volume, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), ammonium (NH(4)(+)), and conductivity before and after lyophilization were measured. Water, NH(4)(+) levels and conductivity before lyophilization were significantly lower in the EBC2 than in the EBC1 of smokers and nonsmokers; the contrary was true for H(2)O(2) levels. Almost all nonvolatile salts were collected in the first condenser, because more than 50% of postlyophilization conductivity was below the detection limit in EBC2. The recovery of volatile molecules and their derivatives (water and NH(4)(+)) was partial in the first condenser, but appreciable amounts of both were measured in the second; however, the condenser immediately in contact with exhaled air was more efficient in terms of water, NH(4)(+) and conductivity before lyophilization. On the contrary, nonvolatile ions (conductivity after lyophilization) were mainly collected in the first condenser. Finally, the behavior of H(2)O(2) cannot be explained on the basis of its chemical and physical properties, and the most probable explanation is that some was byproduced by a radical reaction in the gas phase or during the condensation process in water. PMID:18518830

Corradi, Massimo; Goldoni, Matteo; Caglieri, Andrea; Folesani, Giuseppina; Poli, Diana; Corti, Marina; Mutti, Antonio

2008-03-01

102

Sampling error associated with collection and analysis of soil samples at explosives-contaminated sites  

SciTech Connect

This study assessed short-range spatial heterogeneity of explosives concentrations in surface soils. Samples collected 61 cm apart were analyzed individually and as composites by both colorimetric on-site methods and standard laboratory protocols. Ten locations were sampled at four installations and the results were used to estimate the relative contributions of analytical and sampling error. The major contaminant at seven of the ten sampling locations was TNT while 2,4-DNT, HMX, and ammonium picrate (AP) were each the major contaminant at one of the other three. Results from calorimetric on-site analysis were in excellent agreement with laboratory results, particularly for TNT and HMX. For five sampling locations, enormous short-range spatial heterogeneity was encountered and sampling error overwhelmed analytical error. For the other five sampling locations, short-range concentration variations were less extreme and normal distribution statistics were used to fractionate total error variances. Standard deviations due to sampling were greater than those due to analysis by factors ranging from 2.6 to 22.9, whether on-site or laboratory analyses were used. Site characterization was substantially improved using a composite sampling strategy. Overall, characterization of explosives-contaminated sites using a combination of composite sampling, in-field sample homogenization, and on-site calorimetric analysis is an efficient method of obtaining accurate and precise results that are representative of the area sampled.

Jenkins, T.F.; Brar, G.S.; Thorne, P.G. [Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab., Hanover, NH (United States)] [and others

1997-12-31

103

Lunar Samples: Apollo Collection Tools, Curation Handling, Surveyor III and Soviet Luna Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 6 Apollo missions that landed on the lunar surface returned 2196 samples comprised of 382 kg. The 58 samples weighing 21.5 kg collected on Apollo 11 expanded to 741 samples weighing 110.5 kg by the time of Apollo 17. The main goal on Apollo 11 was to obtain some material and return it safely to Earth. As we gained experience, the sampling tools and a more specific sampling strategy evolved. A summary of the sample types returned is shown in Table 1. By year 1989, some statistics on allocation by sample type were compiled [2]. The "scientific interest index" is based on the assumption that the more allocations per gram of sample, the higher the scientific interest. It is basically a reflection of the amount of diversity within a given sample type. Samples were also set aside for biohazard testing. The samples set aside and used for biohazard testing were represen-tative, as opposed to diverse. They tended to be larger and be comprised of less scientifically valuable mate-rial, such as dust and debris in the bottom of sample containers.

Allton, J.H.

2009-01-01

104

78 FR 25308 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health...collection related to Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices. MSHA is particularly interested...Administration. Title: Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices. OMB Number:...

2013-04-30

105

What Causes Bad Breath?  

MedlinePLUS

... bad breath that are not true: Myth #1: Mouthwash will make bad breath go away. Mouthwash only gets rid of bad breath temporarily. If you do use mouthwash, look for an antiseptic (kills the germs that ...

106

Deep breathing after surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... way to do so is by doing deep breathing exercises. Deep breathing keeps your lungs well-inflated and ... your or nurse told you. Do these deep-breathing exercises as directed by your doctor or nurse.

107

Extraction and selection of parameters for evaluation of breath alcohol measurement with an electronic nose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanol concentration in realistic breath samples was analyzed using an electronic nose. Conditions were selected so that the samples would reflect those collected in a real drunk driver situation. Hence, parameters such as intake of food and beverage, tobacco habits, as well as the order of participating volunteers were allowed to be variable. The setup was unexpectedly robust towards

Nils Paulsson; Elisabeth Larsson; Fredrik Winquist

2000-01-01

108

40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...samples), clay soil (three samples) and gravel (three samples). The PCB remediation wastes present at the disposal pit are sandy soil (three samples), clay soil (three samples), oily soil (three samples), industrial sludge (three samples),...

2010-07-01

109

Breath hydrogen test in children with giardiasis.  

PubMed

Respiratory hydrogen excretion was measured in 50 children with giardiasis in order to study lactose absorption. Samples of expired air were collected before and after the children drank 250 ml of whole cow's milk. The test was repeated after successful elimination of Giardia lamblia following treatment with tinidazol. The number of children showing a rise in breath hydrogen excretion greater than 20 ppm decreased from 33 (72%) before treatment to 20 (44%) after treatment. This study permits the conclusion that the presence of G. lamblia in the intestine might interfere with optimum lactose absorption. PMID:3430245

Vega-Franco, L; Meza, C; Romero, J L; Alanis, S E; Meijerink, J

1987-01-01

110

Study of Cloud Water Samples Collected over Northern Poland.  

PubMed

The paper gives the results of the first studies on the chemistry of cloud water collected during 3 mo (Aug.-Oct. 2010) in the free atmosphere over the area to the south of the Tri-City (Gdansk-Sopot-Gdynia) conurbation on the Gulf of Gdansk, Poland. Taken from cumulus, stratus, and stratocumulus clouds by means of an aircraft-mounted collector, the water samples were analyzed for the following contaminants: anions (chlorides, fluorides, nitrates, sulfates, and phosphates), cations (lithium, sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium, and magnesium), and trace metals. In addition, pH values were measured, and the type and composition of suspended particulate matter was determined. We discuss the relationship between the concentration of inorganic ions and the type of cloud from which water was sampled. The chemistry is also likely related to the circulation pattern and inflow of clean air masses from the Baltic Sea. Moreover, a relationship was found between the composition of the samples examined and the location of pollutant emission sources. PMID:25602567

Polkowska, ?; B?a?, M; Lech, D; Namie?nik, J

2014-01-01

111

Breathing zone air sampler  

DOEpatents

A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

Tobin, John (Bethel Park, PA)

1989-01-01

112

Breathing Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visual simulation and representation programs and applications have been popping up online in greater numbers, and this recent find is one that will pique the interest of scientists, policy makers, and others who are concerned about carbon dioxide emission rates across the Earth. The Breathing Earth site was created by David Bleja, and he draws on a number of resources (such as the World Factbook and the United Nations) for the data that is utilized to create this site. Visitors can scroll over different countries to learn about their population, their emissions, and their birth and death rate. This interactive map and educational resource also contains a legend in the right-hand corner which explains the various symbols in use here.

Bleja, David

113

Extravehicular Activity Asteroid Exploration and Sample Collection Capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) is challenged with primary mission objectives of demonstrating deep space Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and tools, and obtaining asteroid samples to return to Earth for further study. Although the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) is used for the EVAs, it has limited mobility which increases fatigue and decreases the crews' capability to perform EVA tasks. Furthermore, previous Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) spacewalks have benefited from EVA interfaces which have been designed and manufactured on Earth. Rigid structurally mounted handrails, and tools with customized interfaces and restraints optimize EVA performance. For ARCM, some vehicle interfaces and tools can leverage heritage designs and experience. However, when the crew ventures onto an asteroid capture bag to explore the asteroid and collect rock samples, EVA complexity increases due to the uncertainty of the asteroid properties. The variability of rock size, shape and composition, as well as bunching of the fabric bag will complicate EVA translation, tool restraint and body stabilization. The unknown asteroid hardness and brittleness will complicate tool use. The rock surface will introduce added safety concerns for cut gloves and debris control. Feasible solutions to meet ARCM EVA objectives were identified using experience gained during Apollo, Shuttle, and ISS EVAs, terrestrial mountaineering practices, NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 16 mission, and during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory testing in the MACES suit. The proposed concept utilizes expandable booms and integrated features of the asteroid capture bag to position and restrain the crew at the asteroid worksite. These methods enable the capability to perform both finesse, and high load tasks necessary to collect samples for scientific characterization of the asteroid. This paper will explore the design trade space and options that were examined for EVA, the overall concept for the EVAs including translation paths and body restraint methods, potential tools used to extract the samples, design implications for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) for EVA, the results of early development testing of potential EVA tasks, and extensibility of the EVA architecture to NASA's exploration missions.

Scoville, Zebulon; Sipila, Stephanie; Bowie, Jonathan

2014-01-01

114

Miniature Blimps for Surveillance and Collection of Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Miniature blimps are under development as robots for use in exploring the thick, cold, nitrogen atmosphere of Saturn's moon, Titan. Similar blimps can also be used for surveillance and collection of biochemical samples in buildings, caves, subways, and other, similar structures on Earth. The widely perceived need for means to thwart attacks on buildings and to mitigate the effects of such attacks has prompted consideration of the use of robots. Relative to rover-type (wheeled) robots that have been considered for such uses, miniature blimps offer the advantage of ability to move through the air in any direction and, hence, to perform tasks that are difficult or impossible for wheeled robots, including climbing stairs and looking through windows. In addition, miniature blimps are expected to have greater range and to cost less, relative to wheeled robots.

Jones, Jack

2004-01-01

115

Sulfate and nitrate collected by filter sampling near the tropopause  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Filter samples collected near the tropopause with an F-106 aircraft and two Boeing 747 aircraft were analyzed for sulfate and nitrate ion content. Within the range of routine commercial flight altitudes (at or below 12.5 km), stratospheric mass mixing ratios for the winter-spring group averaged 0.26 ppbm for sulfate and 0.35 ppbm for nitrate. For the summer-fall group, stratosphere mixing ratios averaged 0.13 ppbm and 0.25 ppbm for sulfate and nitrate, respectively. Winter-spring group tropospheric mass mixing ratios averaged 0.08 ppbm for sulfate and 0.10 ppbm for nitrate, while summer-fall group tropospheric mixing ratios averaged 0.05 ppbm for sulfate and 0.08 ppbm for nitrate. Correlations of the filter data with available ozone data suggest that the sulfate and nitrate are transported from the stratosphere to the troposphere.

Humenik, F. M.; Lezberg, E. A.; Otterson, D. A.

1980-01-01

116

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF URINE SAMPLES (SOP-2.14)  

EPA Science Inventory

This SOP describes the method for collecting urine samples from the study participants (children and their primary caregivers). Urine samples will be approximate 48-hr collections, collected as spot urine samples accumulated over the 48-hr sampling period. If the household or da...

117

Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers.  

PubMed

With the availability of broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs), particularly bright mid-infrared (MIR; 3-20 ?m) light sources are available offering high spectral brightness along with an analytically relevant spectral tuning range of >2 ?m. Accurate isotope ratio determination of (12)CO2 and (13)CO2 in exhaled breath is of critical importance in the field of breath analysis, which may be addressed via measurements in the MIR spectral regime. Here, we combine for the first time an EC-QCL tunable across the (12)CO2/(13)CO2 spectral band with a miniaturized hollow waveguide gas cell for quantitatively determining the (12)CO2/(13)CO2 ratio within the exhaled breath of mice. Due to partially overlapping spectral features, these studies are augmented by appropriate multivariate data evaluation and calibration techniques based on partial least-squares regression along with optimized data preprocessing. Highly accurate determinations of the isotope ratio within breath samples collected from a mouse intensive care unit validated via hyphenated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry confirm the viability of IR-HWG-EC-QCL sensing techniques for isotope-selective exhaled breath analysis. PMID:23320383

Wörle, Katharina; Seichter, Felicia; Wilk, Andreas; Armacost, Chris; Day, Tim; Godejohann, Matthias; Wachter, Ulrich; Vogt, Josef; Radermacher, Peter; Mizaikoff, Boris

2013-03-01

118

Measurement of isotopic abundances in collected stratospheric ozone samples  

SciTech Connect

Enrichment of heavy O{sub 3} isotopes has been measured in collected stratospheric samples. A balloon-borne cryogenic sampler was used to gather six O{sub 3} samples between 26 and 35 km in three flights. Subsequent laboratory mass spectrometer analysis of rare O{sub 3} isotopes at both mass 49 and 50 has resulted in more precise measurements than have previously been reported with in situ and ground-based techniques. In one flight, {sup 50}O{sub 3} was enriched by 12-16% and {sup 49}O{sub 3} by 9-11%, both increasing with altitude. In the remaining two flights, the isotope enrichment was nearly mass-independent at 8-9%. The enrichments in O{sub 3} at mass 50 are less than the large 40% value observed in some stratospheric measurements but similar to {sup 49}O{sub 3} and {sup 50}O{sub 3} fractionations produced in laboratory-generated ozone.

Schueler, B.; Morton, J.; Mauersberger, K. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (USA))

1990-08-01

119

Collection, chemical analysis, and evaluation of coal samples in 1975  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1975, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with other Federal and State agencies, university groups, and private companies, continued its program to augment and refine information on the composition of coal in the United States. This report includes all analytical data on 799 channel samples of coal beds from major operating mines and core holes in 28 States, collected mainly by State Geological Surveys under a cooperative program funded largely by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. For each sample, the U.S. Geological Survey has quantitatively determined the amounts of 24 major, minor, and trace elements (including AI, As, Cd, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Na, Pb, Se, U, and Zn), and has semiquantitatively determined the concentrations of 15 to 20 additional trace elements (including B, Be, Cr, Ge, Mo, Ni, and V). In addition, the U.S. Bureau of Mines has provided proximate and ultimate analyses, and Btu and forms-of-sulfur determinations on 488 of the samples. Statistical summaries of the data are given for all coal samples in the United States, for coal divided by rank (53 anthracite, 509 bituminous coal, 183 subbituminous coal, and 54 lignite samples), and the arithmetic means, ranges, and geometric means and deviations are given for the coal in each of seven different major coal areas in the United States. For example, the average coal in the United States contains 11.3 percent ash, 10.0 percent moisture, 2.0 percent sulfur, and has 11,180 Btu per pound; of the 10 major oxides determined on the 525?C ash, the average SiO2 content is 38 percent, Al2O3 20 percent, and Na2O 0.67 percent; the average Cd content is 7.3 ppm, Pb 114 ppm, and Zn 151 ppm (range 1 ppm to 6.0 percent). As determined on the raw coal, the average Hg content is 0.18 ppm (range <0.01 to 63.0 ppm), the Se content 4.1 ppm (range <0.1 to 150 ppm), and the U content 1.8 ppm (range <0.2 to 42.9 ppm).

Swanson, Vernon Emanuel; Medlin, J.H.; Hatch, J.R.; Coleman, S.L.; Wood, G.H., Jr.; Woodruff, S.D.; Hildebrand, R.T.

1976-01-01

120

COLLECTION EFFICIENCY OF FIELD SAMPLING CASSETTES: INTERAGENCY ENERGY/ENVIRONMENT R AND D PROGRAM REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Industrial hygiene particulate samples are often collected under anisokinetic sampling conditions and in crosswinds. Experiments were conducted to quantitate errors associated with sampling under these non-ideal conditions. Three types of field sampling cassetts were tested to de...

121

How Long Can You Hold Your Breath?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on page 142 of the PDF), learners will compare breathing rates before and after hyperventilation to explore how reduced carbon dioxide levels in the blood lower the need to breathe. This activity also includes information about how microgravity conditions in space affect sleep and breathing rates of astronauts. This activity can be enhanced by sharing the "Astronaut's Sleep" Podcast with learners (see related resource link). This resource guide includes background information and sample evaluation questions. Note: learners with respiratory ailments, such as asthma or allergies, should not participate in the breath-holding part of this activity.

Macleish, Marlene Y.; Mclean, Bernice R.

2013-05-15

122

Association of cardiac autonomic function measures with severity of sleep-disordered breathing in a community-based sample  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that spectral indices of heart rate variability, such as high-frequency power (HFP), low-to-high frequency power (LHR), and their respiration-adjusted counterparts (HFPra, LHRra) are correlated with severity of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), as quantified by the respiratory disturbance index (RDI). A total of 436 subjects, non-smoking, normotensive, and free of cardiovascular disease and diabetes were selected from the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS). Of these, 288 records with sufficiently high quality electrocardiogram signals were selected for further analysis [males / females: 221 / 67; age: 46.1 to 74.9 years; body mass index (BMI): 21.5 to 46.4 kg m?2; 0.3 < RDI < 85.0?1]. From each polysomnogram, the respiration channels (thoracic and abdominal) and R-R interval (RRI) derived from the electrocardiogram were subjected to spectral analysis and autoregressive moving average modeling in consecutive 5-min segments. After adjusting for age and BMI, mean RRI was found to be negatively correlated with RDI in men in all sleep-wake states (all P < 0.001). HFP and HFPra were negatively correlated with RDI in men only during wakefulness (all P < 0.01). In women, LHR and LHRra were not correlated with RDI during wakefulness, but were positively correlated during non-rapid eye movement Stage 1 and 2 sleep (all P < 0.01). These findings suggest that the indices of cardiac autonomic control are correlated with SDB severity, but gender and state affect the nature of these correlations. In both genders, however, vagal modulation of heart rate increases while sympathetic modulation decreases from wakefulness to sleep. PMID:18547374

Wang, Wenli; Tretriluxana, Suradej; Redline, Susan; Surovec, Susan; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Khoo, Michael C. K.

2009-01-01

123

DS — Software for analyzing data collected using double sampling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

DS analyzes count data to estimate density or relative density and population size when appropriate. The software is available at http://iwcbm.dev4.fsr.com/IWCBM/default.asp?PageID=126. The software was designed to analyze data collected using double sampling, but it also can be used to analyze index data. DS is not currently configured to apply distance methods or methods based on capture-recapture theory. Double sampling for the purpose of this report means surveying a sample of locations with a rapid method of unknown accuracy and surveying a subset of these locations using a more intensive method assumed to yield unbiased estimates. "Detection ratios" are calculated as the ratio of results from rapid surveys on intensive plots to the number actually present as determined from the intensive surveys. The detection ratios are used to adjust results from the rapid surveys. The formula for density is (results from rapid survey)/(estimated detection ratio from intensive surveys). Population sizes are estimated as (density)(area). Double sampling is well-established in the survey sampling literature—see Cochran (1977) for the basic theory, Smith (1995) for applications of double sampling in waterfowl surveys, Bart and Earnst (2002, 2005) for discussions of its use in wildlife studies, and Bart and others (in press) for a detailed account of how the method was used to survey shorebirds across the arctic region of North America. Indices are surveys that do not involve complete counts of well-defined plots or recording information to estimate detection rates (Thompson and others, 1998). In most cases, such data should not be used to estimate density or population size but, under some circumstances, may be used to compare two densities or estimate how density changes through time or across space (Williams and others, 2005). The Breeding Bird Survey (Sauer and others, 2008) provides a good example of an index survey. Surveyors record all birds detected but do not record any information, such as distance or whether each bird is recorded in subperiods, that could be used to estimate detection rates. Nonetheless, the data are widely used to estimate temporal trends and spatial patterns in abundance (Sauer and others, 2008). DS produces estimates of density (or relative density for indices) by species and stratum. Strata are usually defined using region and habitat but other variables may be used, and the entire study area may be classified as a single stratum. Population size in each stratum and for the entire study area also is estimated for each species. For indices, the estimated totals generally are only useful if (a) plots are surveyed so that densities can be calculated and extrapolated to the entire study area and (b) if the detection rates are close to 1.0. All estimates are accompanied by standard errors (SE) and coefficients of variation (CV, that is, SE/estimate).

Bart, Jonathan; Hartley, Dana

2011-01-01

124

Personal exposure to volatile organic compounds. I. Direct measurements in breathing-zone air, drinking water, food, and exhaled breath  

SciTech Connect

A pilot study to test methods of estimating personal exposures to toxic substances and corresponding body burdens was carried out between July and December 1980. Individual exposures to about a dozen volatile organic compounds in air and drinking water were measured for volunteers in New Jersey and North Carolina. Breath samples were also collected from all subjects. About 230 personal air samples, 170 drinking water samples, 66 breath samples, and 4 food samples (16 composites) were analyzed for the target chemicals. Ten compounds were present in air and eight were transmitted mainly through that medium. Chloroform and bromodichloromethane were predominantly transmitted through water and beverages. Food appeared to be a miner route of exposure, except possibly for trichloroethylene in margarine. Seven compounds were present in more than half of the breath samples. Diurnal and seasonal variations were noted in air and water concentrations of some compounds. Some, but not all, of the potentially occupationally exposed individuals had significantly higher workplace exposures to several chemicals. Distributions of air exposures were closer to log normal than normal for most chemicals. Several chemicals were highly correlated with each other in personal air samples, indicating possible common sources of exposures. Compounds detected included benzene, chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, halogens and vinyl chloride.

Wallace, L.A.; Pellizzari, E.; Hartwell, T.; Rosenzweig, M.; Erickson, M.; Sparacino, C.; Zelon, H.

1984-10-01

125

Measuring Your Breathing Frequency at Rest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about the brain and sleep (on page 138 of the PDF), learners measure their resting breathing rates. Learners will discover that breathing frequencies vary amongst individuals. This activity can be enhanced by sharing the "Astronaut's Sleep" Podcast with learners (see related resource link). This resource guide includes background information and sample evaluation questions.

Macleish, Marlene Y.; Mclean, Bernice R.

2013-05-15

126

77 FR 38323 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Respirable Coal Mine Dust Sampling  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Respirable Coal Mine Dust Sampling AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration...to ``Respirable Coal Mine Dust Sampling'' to more accurately reflect the...70.201(c); 90.201(c); and Sampling; general requirements...

2012-06-27

127

Elevated Carbon Monoxide in the Exhaled Breath of Mice during a Systemic Bacterial Infection  

PubMed Central

Blood is the specimen of choice for most laboratory tests for diagnosis and disease monitoring. Sampling exhaled breath is a noninvasive alternative to phlebotomy and has the potential for real-time monitoring at the bedside. Improved instrumentation has advanced breath analysis for several gaseous compounds from humans. However, application to small animal models of diseases and physiology has been limited. To extend breath analysis to mice, we crafted a means for collecting nose-only breath samples from groups and individual animals who were awake. Samples were subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry procedures developed for highly sensitive analysis of trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere. We evaluated the system with experimental systemic infections of severe combined immunodeficiency Mus musculus with the bacterium Borrelia hermsii. Infected mice developed bacterial densities of ?107 per ml of blood by day 4 or 5 and in comparison to uninfected controls had hepatosplenomegaly and elevations of both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. While 12 samples from individual infected mice on days 4 and 5 and 6 samples from uninfected mice did not significantly differ for 72 different VOCs, carbon monoxide (CO) was elevated in samples from infected mice, with a mean (95% confidence limits) effect size of 4.2 (2.8–5.6), when differences in CO2 in the breath were taken into account. Normalized CO values declined to the uninfected range after one day of treatment with the antibiotic ceftriaxone. Strongly correlated with CO in the breath were levels of heme oxygenase-1 protein in serum and HMOX1 transcripts in whole blood. These results (i) provide further evidence of the informativeness of CO concentration in the exhaled breath during systemic infection and inflammation, and (ii) encourage evaluation of this noninvasive analytic approach in other various other rodent models of infection and for utility in clinical management. PMID:23936104

Barbour, Alan G.; Hirsch, Charlotte M.; Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, Arash; Meinardi, Simone; Lewis, Eric R. G.; Estabragh, Azadeh Shojaee; Blake, Donald R.

2013-01-01

128

Immediate effects of breath holding maneuvers onto composition of exhaled breath.  

PubMed

Rapid concentration changes due to physiological or pathophysiological effects rather than appearance of unique disease biomarkers are important for clinical application of breath research. Simple maneuvers such as breath holding may significantly affect breath biomarker concentrations. In this study, exhaled volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations were assessed in real time before and after different breath holding maneuvers. Continuous breath-resolved measurements (PTR-ToF-MS-8000) were performed in 31 healthy human subjects in a side-stream sampling mode. After 1 min of tidal breathing participants held their breath for 10, 20, 40, 60 s and as long as possible. Afterwards they continued to breathe normally for another minute. VOC profiles could be monitored in real time by assigning online PTR-ToF-MS data to alveolar or inspired phases of breath. Sudden and profound changes of exhaled VOC concentrations were recorded after different breath holding maneuvers. VOC concentrations returned to base line levels 10-20 s after breath holding. Breath holding induced concentration changes depended on physico-chemical properties of the substances. When substance concentrations were normalized onto end-tidal CO2 content, variation of acetone concentrations decreased, whereas variations of isoprene concentrations were not affected. As the effects of breathing patterns on exhaled substance concentrations depend on individual substance properties, sampling procedures have to be validated for each compound by means of appropriate real-time analysis. Normalization of exhaled concentrations onto exhaled CO2 is only valid for substances having similar physico-chemical properties as CO2. PMID:25189647

Sukul, Pritam; Trefz, Phillip; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

2014-09-01

129

Managing Shortness of Breath  

MedlinePLUS

PATIENT / FAMILY TEACHING SHEET Managing Shortness of Breath What is shortness of breath (dyspnea)? ? A personal experience for each individual ? An ... rev. 08 09, rev 07 13 Other HPNA Teaching Sheets on are available at www.HPNA.org. ...

130

Rapid shallow breathing  

MedlinePLUS

Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... your oxygen level is too low and nebulized respiratory treatments if you are having an asthma attack.

131

What Controls Your Breathing?  

MedlinePLUS

... Contact Us FAQs You are here Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » How the Lungs Work » What Controls Your Breathing? Explore How the Lungs Work What Are... The Respiratory System What Happens When You Breathe What Controls Your ...

132

Breath-Holding Spells  

MedlinePLUS

... toddlers who hold their breath until they turn blue in the face. These might sound like amusing " ... happen when a child stops breathing and turns blue in the face. These spells are often triggered ...

133

Sample Collection for Investigation of Mars (SCIM): An Early Mars Sample Return Mission Through the Mars Scout Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sample Collection for Investigation of Mars (SCIM) mission is designed to: (1) make a 40 km pass through the Martian atmosphere; (2) collect dust and atmospheric gas; and (3) return the samples to Earth for analysis. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Leshin, L. A.; Yen, A.; Bomba, J.; Clark, B.; Epp, C.; Forney, L.; Gamber, T.; Graves, C.; Hupp, J.; Jones, S.

2002-01-01

134

Self-collected versus clinician-collected sampling for sexually transmitted infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Three meta-analyses and one systematic review have been conducted on the question of whether self-collected specimens are as accurate as clinician-collected specimens for STI screening. However, these reviews predate 2007 and did not analyze rectal or pharyngeal collection sites. Currently, there is no consensus on which sampling method is the most effective for the diagnosis of genital chlamydia (CT), gonorrhea (GC) or human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Our meta-analysis aims to be comprehensive in that it will examine the evidence of whether self-collected vaginal, urine, pharyngeal and rectal specimens provide as accurate a clinical diagnosis as clinician-collected samples (reference standard). Methods/Design Inclusion and exclusion criteria: Eligible studies include both randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, pre- and post-test designs, and controlled observational studies. Search strategy: The databases that will be searched include the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), EMBASE and PubMed/Medline. Data collection and analysis: Data will be abstracted independently by two reviewers using a standardized pre-tested data abstraction form. Heterogeneity will be assessed using the Q2 test. Sensitivity and specificity estimates with 95% confidence intervals as well as negative and positive likelihood ratios will be pooled and weighted using random effects meta-analysis, if appropriate. A hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristics curve for self-collected specimens will be generated. Discussion This synthesis involves a meta-analysis of self-collected samples (urine, vaginal, pharyngeal and rectal swabs) versus clinician-collected samples for the diagnosis of CT, GC and HPV, the most prevalent STIs. Our systematic review will allow patients, clinicians and researchers to determine the diagnostic accuracy of specimens collected by patients compared to those collected by clinicians in the detection of chlamydia, gonorrhea and HPV. PMID:24112441

2013-01-01

135

Collecting baseline corticosterone samples in the field: is under 3 min good enough?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating corticosterone (CORT) responses to stress in free-living vertebrates requires knowing the unstressed titers prior to capture. Based upon laboratory data, the assumption has been that samples collected in less than 3 min of capture will reflect these unstressed concentrations. This assumption was tested for six species using samples collected from 945 individuals at 0–6 min after capture. Samples were

L. Michael Romero; J. Michael Reed

2005-01-01

136

78 FR 79009 - Proposed Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records (Pertains to Underground...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proposed Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records (Pertains to Underground...information collection for updating Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records. DATES: All comments...procedures to be used by the mine operator in sampling mine air for the presence and...

2013-12-27

137

75 FR 79033 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Existing Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records (Pertains to Underground...information collection for Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records, 30 CFR 57.5037...procedures to be used by the mine operator in sampling mine air for the presence and...

2010-12-17

138

75 FR 80072 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Existing Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records AGENCY: Mine Safety...information collection for Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records, 30 CFR 57.5037...procedures to be used by the mine operator in sampling mine air for the presence and...

2010-12-21

139

Agreement Between Exhaled Breath Carbon Monoxide Threshold Levels and Self-Reported Cigarette Smoking in a Sample of Male Adolescents in Jordan  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to measure the percent agreement between Exhaled Breath Carbon Monoxide (eBCO) measure using a piCO+ smokerlyzer® and self-reported cigarette smoking status and to determine the optimal thresholds for definite identification of cigarette smokers of male school students in Jordan. A descriptive, cross sectional, study of a random sample of male adolescents in grades 7 and 8 from four public high schools in Irbid, completed an adaptation of a standardized Arabic-language tobacco smoking questionnaire and an eBCO measure. Sensitivity and specificity of the eBCO were calculated against self-reported cigarette smoking. Participants (n = 439) had a mean age of 12.5 years (SD = 0.50) and 174 (39.9%) reported being an ever smoker of whom 59 (33.9%) reported being a recent (30-day) smoker. The optimal eBCO cut-off point for recent smoking was 4.5 ppm with a sensitivity of 84.7% and specificity of 65.5%. Overall, eBCO can accurately identify recent smokers and distinguish them from non-smokers. The eBCO use enables healthcare professionals and researchers to assess efficacy of smoking cessation and prevention programs without necessarily relying on self-report. Further research is indicated to validate our findings and should be expanded to include females, detailed characteristics of cigarette and waterpipe smoking. PMID:25599375

Al-Sheyab, Nihaya; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Mangnall, Linda J Thomson; Gallagher, Robyn

2015-01-01

140

Agreement between exhaled breath carbon monoxide threshold levels and self-reported cigarette smoking in a sample of male adolescents in jordan.  

PubMed

This study aimed to measure the percent agreement between Exhaled Breath Carbon Monoxide (eBCO) measure using a piCO+ smokerlyzer® and self-reported cigarette smoking status and to determine the optimal thresholds for definite identification of cigarette smokers of male school students in Jordan. A descriptive, cross sectional, study of a random sample of male adolescents in grades 7 and 8 from four public high schools in Irbid, completed an adaptation of a standardized Arabic-language tobacco smoking questionnaire and an eBCO measure. Sensitivity and specificity of the eBCO were calculated against self-reported cigarette smoking. Participants (n = 439) had a mean age of 12.5 years (SD = 0.50) and 174 (39.9%) reported being an ever smoker of whom 59 (33.9%) reported being a recent (30-day) smoker. The optimal eBCO cut-off point for recent smoking was 4.5 ppm with a sensitivity of 84.7% and specificity of 65.5%. Overall, eBCO can accurately identify recent smokers and distinguish them from non-smokers. The eBCO use enables healthcare professionals and researchers to assess efficacy of smoking cessation and prevention programs without necessarily relying on self-report. Further research is indicated to validate our findings and should be expanded to include females, detailed characteristics of cigarette and waterpipe smoking. PMID:25599375

Al-Sheyab, Nihaya; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Mangnall, Linda J Thomson; Gallagher, Robyn

2015-01-01

141

Markers of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Diabetes Mellitus in a Multiethnic Sample of US Adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005–2008)  

PubMed Central

We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and diabetes among 6,522 participants aged ?20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–08. SDB severity was defined based on an additive summary score including sleep duration, snoring, snorting, and daytime sleepiness. We found that the summary SDB score was significantly associated with diabetes after adjusting for potential confounders in the whole population. Compared to those without any sleep disturbance, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) of diabetes among those with ?3 sleep disturbances was 2.04 (1.46–2.87). In sex-specific analyses, this association was significant only in women (OR (95% CI) = 3.68 (2.01–6.72)) but not in men (1.10 (0.59–2.04)), P-interaction = 0.01. However, there were no ethnic differences in this association, P-interaction = 0.7. In a nationally representative sample of US adults, SDB was independently associated with diabetes only in women, but not in men. PMID:22518133

Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Teppala, Srinivas; Shankar, Anoop

2012-01-01

142

Markers of Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Metabolic Syndrome in a Multiethnic Sample of US Adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have documented an association between markers of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and metabolic syndrome. However, it is not clear if there are gender or ethnic differences in this association. We examined 6,122 participants aged ?20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–08. Metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of ?3 of the following components: (1) abdominal obesity, (2) elevated blood triglycerides, (3) low HDL cholesterol, (4) high BP, and (5) hyperglycemia. SDB severity was defined based on an additive summary score including sleep duration, snoring, snorting, and daytime sleepiness. We found that short sleep duration, snoring, snorting, daytime sleepiness and the summary SDB score were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome independent of potential confounders. Compared to those without any sleep disturbance, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of metabolic syndrome among those with three or more sleep disturbances was 3.92 (2.98–5.16). In subgroup analyses, this association was consistently present among men and women and all race-ethnic groups. In summary, SDB was independently associated with metabolic syndrome in a nationally representative sample of US adults. PMID:22577590

Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Zhang, Ruoxin; Shankar, Anoop

2012-01-01

143

A critical evaluation of wet only precitation collection using separate mercury and trace element sampling trains  

SciTech Connect

Precipitation samples are being collected as part of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance study for mercury and other trace elements at five sites surrounding the lake. Event precipitation collection is scheduled for April through October and weekly composite collection during the winter months. This necessitated the development of a versatile system that combined ultra-clean techniques including removable sampling trains with wet-only automatic precipitation collection. Mercury samples are collected using a glass funnel equipped with a newly-designed glass vapor lock connected directly to a Teflon bottle containing an HCl preservative. Other trace elements are collected in an all polypropylene sampling train. Performance characteristics such as collocated precision, collector opening efficiency, spike recovery, system blanks and bottle blanks were rigorously evaluated. In addition, acidified versus non-acidified event collection, wet-only event versus event bulk, and wet only event versus weekly bulk samples were compared.

Landis, M.S.; Keeler, G.J. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1995-12-31

144

Episodic breathing in alligators: role of sensory feedback.  

PubMed

The episodic breathing pattern in many reptiles consists of two or more clustered breaths separated by variable non-ventilatory periods. This pattern is commonly postulated to result from oscillations in lung and/or blood PO2 or PCO2 via chemoreceptor feedback. We tested this hypothesis by monitoring breathing pattern in: (1) awake, undisturbed alligators and (2) sedated alligators (approx. 25 mg/kg pentobarbital, i.p.; 3 days prior to data collection). In sedated alligators, measurements were made: (1) before and after bilateral cervical vagotomy, a procedure that removes peripheral arterial chemoreceptors, CO2-sensitive intrapulmonary chemoreceptors and pulmonary stretch receptors (n = 6); and (2) during unidirectional ventilation (UDV) at high flow rates (greater than 2 L/min), thereby minimizing oscillations in lung and blood PO2 and PCO2 (n = 6). Measurements on sedated alligators were made at 30 and 20 degrees C in each of these conditions. In awake, undisturbed alligators, breathing was typically episodic with 2-7 breaths/cluster, although the pattern was easily altered (increased breaths/cluster) by even seemingly minor disturbances. In sedated alligators, episodic breathing was still evident after vagotomy, but only at increased inspired CO2; at 5% CO2 four of six alligators exhibited episodic breathing consisting of 2-3 breaths/cluster interspersed with occasional single breaths. An episodic breathing pattern was also evident during UDV; at low levels of CO2, 2-4 breaths/cluster interspersed with occasional single breaths were evident in four alligators, while two had 6-8 breaths/cluster. Increasing CO2 in the UDV gas stream generally increased the number of breaths/cluster. After vagotomy, all six alligators could manifest an episodic breathing pattern during UDV in at least one CO2 condition (greater than 2 breaths/cluster interspersed with occasional single breaths). The episodic breathing pattern was very labile, sometimes changing to single breaths without apparent cause. The results suggest: (1) episodic breathing requires neither feedback from vagal sensory receptors nor oscillations in respiratory gases; and (2) changes in arterial PCO2 modulate, but do not initiate episodic breathing. Episodic breathing in alligators may be due to complex interactions of higher brain structures with the central rhythm generator. PMID:1553450

Douse, M A; Mitchell, G S

1992-01-01

145

Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC has undertaken a 4-year data restoration project effort for the lunar science community funded by the LASER program (Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research) to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images. These sample photographs are not easily accessible outside of JSC, and currently exist only on degradable film in the Curation Data Storage Facility

Lofgren, Gary E.; Todd, Nancy S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.

2011-01-01

146

sup 14 C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori  

SciTech Connect

The high urease activity of Helicobacter pylori can be used to detect this bacterium by noninvasive breath tests. We have developed a {sup 14}C-urea breath test which uses 5 microCi {sup 14}C with 50 mg nonradioactive urea. Breath samples are collected at baseline and every 30 min for 2 h. Our study compared the outcome of the breath test to the results of histology and culture of endoscopically obtained gastric biopsies in 84 patients. The breath test discriminated well between the 50 positive patients and the 34 patients negative for Helicobacter pylori: the calculated sensitivity was 100%, specificity 88%, positive predictive value 93%, and negative predictive value 100%. Treatment with bismuth subsalicylate and/or ampicillin resulted in lower counts of exhaled {sup 14}CO{sub 2} which correlated with histological improvement in gastritis. The {sup 14}C-urea breath test is a better gold standard for the detection of Helicobacter pylori than histology and/or culture.

Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S.J.; Tytgat, K.M.; Hollingsworth, J.; Jalali, S.; Rshid, F.A.; Bowen, B.M.; Goldie, J.; Goodacre, R.L.; Riddell, R.H.; Hunt, R.H. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada))

1990-04-01

147

New method for determination of trihalomethanes in exhaled breath: applications to swimming pool and bath environments.  

PubMed

A method for the estimation of the human intake of trihalomethanes (THMs), namely chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform, during showering and bathing is reported. The method is based on the determination of these compounds in exhaled breath that is collected by solid adsorption on Tenax using a device specifically designed for this purpose. Instrumental measurements were performed by automatic thermal desorption coupled to gas chromatography with electron capture detection. THMs in exhaled breath samples were determined during showering and swimming pool attendance. The levels of these compounds in indoor air and water were also determined as reference for interpretation of the exhaled breath results. The THM concentrations in exhaled breath of the volunteers measured before the exposure experiments showed a close correspondence with the THMs levels in indoor air where the sampler was located. Limits of detection in exhaled breath were dependent on THM analytes and experimental sites. They ranged between 170 and 710 ng m(-3) in the swimming pool studies and between 97 and 460 ng m(-3) in the showering studies. Application of this method to THMs determination during showering and swimming pool activities revealed statistically significant increases in THMs concentrations when comparing exhaled breath before and after exposure. PMID:20152261

Lourencetti, Carolina; Ballester, Clara; Fernández, Pilar; Marco, Esther; Prado, Celia; Periago, Juan F; Grimalt, Joan O

2010-03-01

148

Ultrasensitive silicon nanowire for real-world gas sensing: noninvasive diagnosis of cancer from breath volatolome.  

PubMed

We report on an ultrasensitive, molecularly modified silicon nanowire field effect transistor that brings together the lock-and-key and cross-reactive sensing worlds for the diagnosis of (gastric) cancer from exhaled volatolome. The sensor is able to selectively detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are linked with gastric cancer conditions in exhaled breath and to discriminate them from environmental VOCs that exist in exhaled breath samples but do not relate to the gastric cancer per se. Using breath samples collected from actual patients with gastric cancer and from volunteers who do not have cancer, blind analysis validated the ability of the reported sensor to discriminate between gastric cancer and control conditions with >85% accuracy, irrespective of important confounding factors such as tobacco consumption and gender. The reported sensing approach paves the way to use the power of silicon nanowires for simple, inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive diagnosis of cancer and other disease conditions. PMID:25494909

Shehada, Nisreen; Brönstrup, Gerald; Funka, Konrads; Christiansen, Silke; Leja, Marcis; Haick, Hossam

2015-02-11

149

Noninvasive detection of lung cancer by analysis of exhaled breath  

PubMed Central

Background Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death in Europe and the western world. At present, diagnosis of lung cancer very often happens late in the course of the disease since inexpensive, non-invasive and sufficiently sensitive and specific screening methods are not available. Even though the CT diagnostic methods are good, it must be assured that "screening benefit outweighs risk, across all individuals screened, not only those with lung cancer". An early non-invasive diagnosis of lung cancer would improve prognosis and enlarge treatment options. Analysis of exhaled breath would be an ideal diagnostic method, since it is non-invasive and totally painless. Methods Exhaled breath and inhaled room air samples were analyzed using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and solid phase microextraction with subsequent gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GCMS). For the PTR-MS measurements, 220 lung cancer patients and 441 healthy volunteers were recruited. For the GCMS measurements, we collected samples from 65 lung cancer patients and 31 healthy volunteers. Lung cancer patients were in different disease stages and under treatment with different regimes. Mixed expiratory and indoor air samples were collected in Tedlar bags, and either analyzed directly by PTR-MS or transferred to glass vials and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). Only those measurements of compounds were considered, which showed at least a 15% higher concentration in exhaled breath than in indoor air. Compounds related to smoking behavior such as acetonitrile and benzene were not used to differentiate between lung cancer patients and healthy volunteers. Results Isoprene, acetone and methanol are compounds appearing in everybody's exhaled breath. These three main compounds of exhaled breath show slightly lower concentrations in lung cancer patients as compared to healthy volunteers (p < 0.01 for isoprene and acetone, p = 0.011 for methanol; PTR-MS measurements). A comparison of the GCMS-results of 65 lung cancer patients with those of 31 healthy volunteers revealed differences in concentration for more than 50 compounds. Sensitivity for detection of lung cancer patients based on presence of (one of) 4 different compounds not arising in exhaled breath of healthy volunteers was 52% with a specificity of 100%. Using 15 (or 21) different compounds for distinction, sensitivity was 71% (80%) with a specificity of 100%. Potential marker compounds are alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and hydrocarbons. Conclusion GCMS-SPME is a relatively insensitive method. Hence compounds not appearing in exhaled breath of healthy volunteers may be below the limit of detection (LOD). PTR-MS, on the other hand, does not need preconcentration and gives much more reliable quantitative results then GCMS-SPME. The shortcoming of PTR-MS is that it cannot identify compounds with certainty. Hence SPME-GCMS and PTR-MS complement each other, each method having its particular advantages and disadvantages. Exhaled breath analysis is promising to become a future non-invasive lung cancer screening method. In order to proceed towards this goal, precise identification of compounds observed in exhaled breath of lung cancer patients is necessary. Comparison with compounds released from lung cancer cell cultures, and additional information on exhaled breath composition in other cancer forms will be important. PMID:19788722

2009-01-01

150

Employing components-of-variance to evaluate forensic breath test instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of breath alcohol instruments for forensic suitability generally includes the assessment of accuracy, precision, linearity, blood\\/breath comparisons, etc. Although relevant and important, these methods fail to evaluate other important analytical and biological components related to measurement variability. An experimental design comparing different instruments measuring replicate breath samples from several subjects is presented here. Three volunteers provided n=10 breath

Rod G. Gullberg

2008-01-01

151

Impact of Blood Sample Collection and Processing Methods on Glucose Levels in Community Outreach Studies  

PubMed Central

Glucose obtained from unprocessed blood samples can decrease by 5%–7% per hour due to glycolysis. This study compared the impact of glucose degradation on measured glucose values by examining two different collection methods. For the first method, blood samples were collected in tubes containing sodium fluoride (NaF), a glycolysis inhibitor. For the second method, blood samples were collected in tubes containing a clot activator and serum gel separator and were centrifuged to separate the serum and plasma 20 minutes after sample collection. The samples used in the two methods were collected during the same blood draw and were assayed by the clinical laboratory 2–4 hours after the samples were obtained. A total of 256 pairs of samples were analyzed. The average glucose reading for the centrifuged tubes was significantly higher than the NaF tubes by 0.196 ± 0.159?mmol/L (P < 0.01) or 4.2%. This study demonstrates the important role collection methods play in accurately assessing glucose levels of blood samples collected in the field, where working environment may be suboptimal. Therefore, blood samples collected in the field should be promptly centrifuged before being transported to clinical labs to ensure accurate glucose level measurements. PMID:23365588

Turchiano, Michael; Nguyen, Cuong; Fierman, Arthur; Lifshitz, Mark; Convit, Antonio

2013-01-01

152

Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces isolated from house dust samples collected around the world  

E-print Network

of a worldwide survey of the indoor mycobiota, dust was collected from nine countries. Analyses of dust samplesAspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces isolated from house dust samples collected around serve as alternative identification markers. Key words: Environmental metagenomics, Indoor moulds

Amend, Anthony S.

153

PIXE analysis of cascade impactor samples collected at the Kruger National Park, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerosol samples were collected in parallel with eight-stage cascade impactors (CIs) and stacked filter units (SFUs) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, in September-October 1992. The collections took place at a regional ``background'' site and near prescribed savanna fires. The results obtained by PIXE analysis from the 41 parallel daily samples at the regional site were compared in terms

I. Salma; W. Maenhaut; J. Cafmeyer; H. J. Annegarn; M. O. Andreae

1994-01-01

154

The use of Vacutainer tubes for collection of soil samples for helium analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measurements of the helium concentration of soil samples collected and stored in Vacutainer-brand evacuated glass tubes show that Vacutainers are reliable containers for soil collection. Within the limits of reproducibility, helium content of soils appears to be independent of variations in soil temperature, barometric pressure, and quantity of soil moisture present in the sample.

Hinkle, Margaret E.; Kilburn, James E.

1979-01-01

155

Guidelines for collection and field analysis of ground-water samples for selected unstable constituents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The unstable nature of many chemical and physical constituents in ground water requires special collection procedures and field analysis immediately after collection. This report describes the techniques and equipment commonly used m the collection and field analysis of samples for pH, temperature, carbonate, bicarbonate, specific conductance, Eh, and dissolved oxygen.

Wood, Warren W.

1976-01-01

156

Extraterrestrial samples from low Earth orbits: techniques for their collection and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of dust samples collections in space, the COMET experiment (Collecte en Orbite de Matière ExtraTerrestre) was proposed for the first time in 1982. The idea of such an experiment was to collect grains with identified cometary parent body, instead of mixing all extraterrestrial contributions present in low Earth orbit. It was thus proposed to install collectors inside

J. Borg

2002-01-01

157

40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...be sampled. Orient the grid axes on a magnetic north-south line centered in the area...east-west axis perpendicular to the magnetic north-south axis also centered in the...origin one meter in the direction of magnetic north and one meter in the...

2011-07-01

158

40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.  

...be sampled. Orient the grid axes on a magnetic north-south line centered in the area...east-west axis perpendicular to the magnetic north-south axis also centered in the...origin one meter in the direction of magnetic north and one meter in the...

2014-07-01

159

40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...be sampled. Orient the grid axes on a magnetic north-south line centered in the area...east-west axis perpendicular to the magnetic north-south axis also centered in the...origin one meter in the direction of magnetic north and one meter in the...

2013-07-01

160

40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...be sampled. Orient the grid axes on a magnetic north-south line centered in the area...east-west axis perpendicular to the magnetic north-south axis also centered in the...origin one meter in the direction of magnetic north and one meter in the...

2012-07-01

161

Automatic mechanical alveolar gas sampler for multiple-sample collection in field.  

PubMed

A mechanical alveolar gas sampler using the revolver principle capable of collecting six individual expired gas samples is described. The 0.91-kg sampler collects 19-ml samples in pre-evacuated aluminum ampoules equipped with spring-loaded valves from a sampling chamber equipped with two removable one-way valves. On depression of external handles, one of six ampoules located in a removable cartridge is aligned and advanced into the sampling chamber where its valve is opened and then closed. Releasing the handles removes the ampoule from the sampling chamber and automatically rotates the cartridge through 60 degrees to position a new ampoule in preparation for the next sampling sequence. A lock-out mechanism prevents reexposure of any of the ampoules after six samples have been taken. The performance of the sampler is described including its successful use in the field to collect alveolar gas samples on the summit of Mount Everest. PMID:6427158

Maret, K H; Billups, J O; Peters, R M; West, J B

1984-05-01

162

Extravehicular Activity Asteroid Exploration and Sample Collection Capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the challenging primary objectives associated with NASA's Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) is to demonstrate deep space Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and tools and to obtain asteroid samples to return to Earth for further study. Prior Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) spacewalks have benefited from engineered EVA interfaces which have been designed and manufactured on Earth. Rigid structurally mounted handrails, and tools with customized interfaces and restraints optimize EVA performance. For ARCM, EVA complexity increases due to the uncertainty of the asteroid properties. The variability of rock size, shape and composition, as well as behavior of the asteroid capture mechanism will complicate EVA translation, tool restraint, and body stabilization. The unknown asteroid hardness and brittleness will complicate tool use. The rock surface will introduce added safety concerns for cut gloves and debris control. Feasible solutions to meet ARCM EVA objectives were identified using experience gained during Apollo, Shuttle, and ISS EVAs, terrestrial mountaineering practices, NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 16 mission, and during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory testing in the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) suit. This paper will summarize the overall operational concepts for conducting EVAs for the ARCM mission including translation paths and body restraint methods, potential tools used to extract the samples, design implications for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) for EVA, and the results of early development testing of potential EVA tasks.

Sipila, Stephanie A.; Scoville, Zebulon C.; Bowie, Jonathan T.; Buffington, Jesse A.

2014-01-01

163

Estimating the measurement uncertainty in forensic breath-alcohol analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidentiary weight attributed to forensic breath alcohol results in drunk-driving prosecutions requires that measurement uncertainty be established and shown to be fit-for-purpose. The principal components contributing to breath alcohol measurement uncertainty include: (1) biological\\/sampling, (2) instrumental, (3) traceability and (4) the water\\/air partition coefficient for control standards. Employing duplicate breath results from over 92,000 subjects to estimate the biological\\/sampling

Rod G. Gullberg

2006-01-01

164

Application of Pixe Analysis to Urban Aerosol Samples Collected on Whatman 41 Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of the Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) technique to multi-elemental analysis of PM10 aerosol samples collected on Whatman 41 cellulose fibrous filters is investigated using concurrent samples collected on teflon membrane filters as references. The elemental levels measured on the two types of filter samples are highly correlated and the ratio of the elemental levels is related to

Y. C. Chan; G. H. McTainsh; P. D. Vowles; R. W. Simpson; D. D. Cohen; G. M. Bailey

1997-01-01

165

Volatile organic compounds as breath biomarkers for active and passive smoking.  

PubMed Central

We used real-time breath measurement technology to investigate the suitability of some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as breath biomarkers for active and passive smoking and to measure actual exposures and resulting breath concentrations for persons exposed to tobacco smoke. Experiments were conducted with five smoker/nonsmoker pairs. The target VOCs included benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and the cigarette smoke biomarker 2,5-dimethylfuran. This study includes what we believe to be the first measurements of 1,3-butadiene in smokers' and nonsmokers' breath. The 1,3-butadiene and 2,5-dimethylfuran peak levels in the smokers' breath were similar (360 and 376 microg/m(3), respectively); the average benzene peak level was 522 microg/m(3). We found higher peak values of the target chemicals and shorter residence times in the body than previously reported, probably because of the improved time resolution made possible by the continuous breath measurement method. The real-time breath analyzer also showed the presence of the chemicals after exposure in the breath of the nonsmokers, but at greatly reduced levels. Single breath samples collected in evacuated canisters and analyzed independently with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of the target compounds in the postexposure breath of the nonsmokers but indicated that there was some contamination of the breath analyzer measurements. This was likely caused by desorption of organics from condensed tar in the analyzer tubing and on the quartz fiber filter used to remove particles. We used the decay data from the smokers to estimate residence times for the target chemicals. A two-compartment exponential model generally gave a better fit to the experimental decay data from the smokers than a single-compartment model. Residence times for benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and 2,5-dimethylfuran ranged from 0.5 (1,3-butadiene) to 0.9 min (benzene) for tau1 and were essentially constant (14 min) for tau2. These findings will be useful in models of environmental tobacco smoke exposure and risk. PMID:12117646

Gordon, Sydney M; Wallace, Lance A; Brinkman, Marielle C; Callahan, Patrick J; Kenny, Donald V

2002-01-01

166

Drug testing in oral fluid-evaluation of sample collection devices.  

PubMed

Nine different oral fluid (OF) collection devices were studied to evaluate their suitability for collecting samples for drug analysis. The devices were Greiner Bio-One, Orasure Intercept, Immunalysis Quantisal, StatSure Saliva.Sampler, Cozart, Sarstedt Salivette, Malvern Medical OraCol, Acro Biotech Salicule, and Varian OraTube. For comparison, OF was also collected into plastic tubes. The volume of collected OF was quantified for samples collected both in vitro and from volunteers. Drug recovery was studied by collecting OF fortified at 1000 ng/mL with amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, cocaine, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, morphine, codeine, diazepam, and alprazolam with the devices in vitro and analyzing the samples with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Recovery of ethanol was measured from 0.2% in OF by headspace gas chromatography-flame-ionization detection. The stability of drugs in the samples was studied by analyzing the samples after 0, 14, and 28 days storage. The study shows that there are substantial differences between the OF collection devices on the market. Some are well suited for collecting samples for toxicological analysis, but some give quite poor results. PMID:18652744

Langel, Kaarina; Engblom, Charlotta; Pehrsson, Anna; Gunnar, Teemu; Ariniemi, Kari; Lillsunde, Pirjo

2008-01-01

167

Just Breathe Green: Measuring Transpiration Rates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through multi-trial experiments, students are able to see and measure something that is otherwise invisible to them—seeing plants breathe. Student groups are given two small plants of native species and materials to enclose them after watering with colored water. After being enclosed for 5, 10 and 15 minutes, teams collect and measure the condensed water from the plants' "breathing," and then calculate the rates at which the plants breathe. A plant's breath is known as transpiration, which is the flow of water from the ground where it is taken up by roots (plant uptake) and then lost through the leaves. Students plot volume/time data for three different native plant species, determine and compare their transpiration rates to see which had the highest reaction rate and consider how a plant's unique characteristics (leaf surface area, transpiration rate) might figure into engineers' designs for neighborhood stormwater management plans.

2014-09-18

168

Metabolite Content Profiling of Bottlenose Dolphin Exhaled Breath  

PubMed Central

Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We describe the analysis workflow to profile exhaled breath metabolites and provide here a first library of volatile and nonvolatile compounds in cetacean exhaled breath. The described analytical methodology enabled us to document baseline compounds in exhaled breath of healthy animals and to study changes in metabolic content of dolphin breath with regard to a variety of factors. The method of breath analysis may provide a very valuable tool in future wildlife conservation efforts as well as deepen our understanding of marine mammals biology and physiology. PMID:25254551

2014-01-01

169

Metabolite content profiling of bottlenose dolphin exhaled breath.  

PubMed

Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We describe the analysis workflow to profile exhaled breath metabolites and provide here a first library of volatile and nonvolatile compounds in cetacean exhaled breath. The described analytical methodology enabled us to document baseline compounds in exhaled breath of healthy animals and to study changes in metabolic content of dolphin breath with regard to a variety of factors. The method of breath analysis may provide a very valuable tool in future wildlife conservation efforts as well as deepen our understanding of marine mammals biology and physiology. PMID:25254551

Aksenov, Alexander A; Yeates, Laura; Pasamontes, Alberto; Siebe, Craig; Zrodnikov, Yuriy; Simmons, Jason; McCartney, Mitchell M; Deplanque, Jean-Pierre; Wells, Randall S; Davis, Cristina E

2014-11-01

170

Prototype Device for Computerized Blood Sampling and Data Collection in Freely Moving Swine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Collecting biofluid samples or physiological and behavioral data from animals presents challenges from excessive human intervention, and the stress of manual sampling. Our objective was to construct a device capable of protecting external leads and tubing used to facilitate automated sampling, dosin...

171

Sketch Guided Sampling --Using On-Line Estimates of Flow Size for Adaptive Data Collection  

E-print Network

1 Sketch Guided Sampling -- Using On-Line Estimates of Flow Size for Adaptive Data Collection a decreasing sampling function ¢ of the size of the flow the packet belongs to. This way our scheme is able on real-world Internet traffic traces shows that our sampling theory based the approximate flow size

Vigoda, Eric

172

ANALYSIS OF ACID PRECIPITATION SAMPLES COLLECTED BY STATE AGENCIES--SAMPLING PERIOD JAN 1988 - DEC 1988  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents analytical data from the 30 acid precipitation collection sites in the State-operated Network. amples are collected weekly in plastic bag liners and shipped in 500 mL polyethylene bottles to Global Geochemistry Corporation (the central laboratory for the netw...

173

ANALYSIS OF ACID PRECIPITATION SAMPLES COLLECTED BY STATE AGENCIES SAMPLING PERIOD: JANUARY 1992 - DECEMBER 1992  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents analytical data from 30 acid precipitation collection sites in the State-Operated Network. amples are collected weekly in plastic bag bucket liners and shipped in 500 mL polyethylene bottled to Global Geochemistry Corporation, the central laboratory for the n...

174

Investigation of C3-C10 aldehydes in the exhaled breath of healthy subjects using selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS).  

PubMed

Aldehydes have attracted great scientific and clinical interest as potential disease biomarkers. We have investigated selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) in detecting and quantifying C3 to C10 saturated aldehydes (propanal, butanal, pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal and decanal) from the exhaled breath of 26 healthy human volunteers. To assess the reliability of the Nalophan® bag sampling method employed, the water level in the breath sample was measured up to 4 h after collection and showed no significant degradation. Propanal was found to be the most abundant aldehyde in the exhaled breath of healthy volunteers. For the C4-C10 aldehydes, their median concentrations were all less than 3 ppbv, demonstrating only trace quantities are present in the exhaled breath of the 26 healthy volunteers. PMID:25190002

Huang, Juzheng; Kumar, Sacheen; Hanna, George B

2014-09-01

175

Shortness of Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... em-fa-see-ma"), which is a lung disease that is most often caused by smoking Heart failure Panic attacks If you are short of breath with a cough and/or fever, you may have a chest infection or pneumonia (say: "new-moan-yuh"). Less common causes of breathing problems are lung cancer, a blood ...

176

Every Breath You Take  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an activity designed to help students develop number sense, each student estimates the number of times s/he breathes in one hour, and the class graphs the estimates, finds the mean and median of the estimates, and discusses outliers. Students then brainstorm how they could find out how many breaths a person actually takes in a day—and implement their strategies.

2008-01-01

177

Breathing-metabolic simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Breathing-metabolic simulator was developed to be used for evaluation of life support equipment. Apparatus simulates human breathing rate and controls temperature and humidity of exhaled air as well as its chemical composition. All functions are designed to correspond to various degrees of human response.

Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

1972-01-01

178

Collection of solid and gaseous samples to diagnose inertial confinement fusion implosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collection of representative samples of debris following inertial confinement fusion implosions in order to diagnose implosion conditions and efficacy is a challenging endeavor because of the unique conditions within the target chamber such as unconverted laser light, intense pulse of x-rays, physical chunks of debris, and other ablative effects. We present collection of gas samples following an implosion for the first time. High collection fractions for noble gases were achieved. We also present collection of solid debris samples on flat plate collectors. Geometrical collection efficiencies for Au hohlraum material were achieved and collection of capsule debris (Be and Cu) was also observed. Asymmetric debris distributions were observed for Au and Be samples. Collection of Be capsule debris was higher for solid collectors viewing the capsule through the laser entrance hole in the hohlraum than for solid collectors viewing the capsule around the waist of the hohlraum. Collection of Au hohlraum material showed the opposite pattern: more Au debris was collected around the waist than through the laser entrance hole. The solid debris collectors were not optimized for minimal Cu backgrounds, which limited the conclusions about the symmetry of the Cu debris. The quality of the data limited conclusions on chemical fractionation effects within the burning, expanding, and then cooling plasma.

Stoyer, M. A.; Velsko, C. A.; Spears, B. K.; Hicks, D. G.; Hudson, G. B.; Sangster, T. C.; Freeman, C. G.

2012-02-01

179

Collection of solid and gaseous samples to diagnose inertial confinement fusion implosions  

SciTech Connect

Collection of representative samples of debris following inertial confinement fusion implosions in order to diagnose implosion conditions and efficacy is a challenging endeavor because of the unique conditions within the target chamber such as unconverted laser light, intense pulse of x-rays, physical chunks of debris, and other ablative effects. We present collection of gas samples following an implosion for the first time. High collection fractions for noble gases were achieved. We also present collection of solid debris samples on flat plate collectors. Geometrical collection efficiencies for Au hohlraum material were achieved and collection of capsule debris (Be and Cu) was also observed. Asymmetric debris distributions were observed for Au and Be samples. Collection of Be capsule debris was higher for solid collectors viewing the capsule through the laser entrance hole in the hohlraum than for solid collectors viewing the capsule around the waist of the hohlraum. Collection of Au hohlraum material showed the opposite pattern: more Au debris was collected around the waist than through the laser entrance hole. The solid debris collectors were not optimized for minimal Cu backgrounds, which limited the conclusions about the symmetry of the Cu debris. The quality of the data limited conclusions on chemical fractionation effects within the burning, expanding, and then cooling plasma.

Stoyer, M. A.; Velsko, C. A.; Spears, B. K.; Hicks, D. G.; Hudson, G. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Freeman, C. G. [State University of New York at Geneseo, Geneseo, New York 14454 (United States)

2012-02-15

180

Occurrence of [i]Leptospira[/i] DNA in water and soil samples collected in eastern Poland.  

PubMed

Leptospira is an important re-emerging zoonotic human pathogen, disseminated by sick and carrier animals, water and soil. Weather calamities, such as flooding or cyclones favour the spreading of these bacteria. To check a potential role of natural water and soil in the persistence and spread of Leptospira on the territory of eastern Poland, 40 samples of natural water and 40 samples of soil were collected from areas exposed to flooding, and 64 samples of natural water and 68 samples of soil were collected from areas not exposed to flooding. Samples of water were taken from various reservoirs (rivers, natural lakes, artificial lakes, canals, ponds, farm wells) and samples of soils were taken at the distance of 1-3 meters from the edge of the reservoirs. The samples were examined for the presence of Leptospira DNA by nested-PCR. Two out of 40 samples of water (5.0%) collected from the area exposed to flooding showed the presence of Leptospira DNA, while all 40 samples of soil from this area were negative. All samples of water and soil (64 and 68, respectively) collected from the areas not exposed to flooding were negative. No significant difference were found between the results obtained in the areas exposed and not exposed to flooding. In conclusion, these results suggest that water and soil have only limited significance in the persistence and dissemination of Leptospira in eastern Poland. PMID:25528911

Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zaj?c, Violetta; Wasi?ski, Bernard; Sroka, Jacek; Cisak, Ewa; Sawczyn, Anna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

2014-11-26

181

Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 ?m. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus

2010-02-01

182

Relative efficiency of pitfall trapping and hand-collecting from plots for sampling of millipedes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millipedes were sampled by hand-collecting from plots and by pitfall trapping at three forest sites in central Tasmania. Seven days of pitfall trapping each month over one year was less efficient than four weeks of hand-collecting in autumn, yielding fewer species and fewer specimens per working day in the field. Hand-collecting is likely to provide more accurate data on species

Robert Mesibov; Robert J. Taylor; Raymond N. Brereton

1995-01-01

183

Sex bias in biopsy samples collected from free-ranging dolphins SOPHIE QUROUIL  

E-print Network

1 Sex bias in biopsy samples collected from free-ranging dolphins SOPHIE QU�ROUIL 1,2,* , LUÍS sex ratio has to be inferred indirectly. We used molecular sexing to determine the gender of 340, and common dolphins, Delphinus delphis, collected around the Azores and Madeira. Sex ratio was globally

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

184

ANALYSIS OF ACID PRECIPITATION SAMPLES COLLECTED BY STATE AGENCIES: JANUARY 1987 - DECEMBER 1987  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents the analytical data from the 31 acid precipitation collection sites in the State Operated Network. Samples are collected weekly in plastic bag liners and shipped in 500 mL polyethylene bottles to Global Geochemistry Corp. (the central laboratory for the networ...

185

Results and Discussion Filter and denuder samples collected at the Lost Dutchman site  

E-print Network

for ammonium and nitrate after aqueous extraction. High concentrations of ammonia and ammonium-nitrate aerosols (ammonium-nitrate) without introducing sampling artifacts known in filter collection methods (Hering and nitric acid that can dissociate from ammonium-nitrate particles collected on the first filter and cause

Hall, Sharon J.

186

Changes in Breath Trihalomethane Levels Resulting from Household Water-Use Activities  

PubMed Central

Common household water-use activities such as showering, bathing, drinking, and washing clothes or dishes are potentially important contributors to individual exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the major class of disinfection by-products of water treated with chlorine. Previous studies have focused on showering or bathing activities. In this study, we selected 12 common water-use activities and determined which may lead to the greatest THM exposures and result in the greatest increase in the internal dose. Seven subjects performed the various water-use activities in two residences served by water utilities with relatively high and moderate total THM levels. To maintain a consistent exposure environment, the activities, exposure times, air exchange rates, water flows, water temperatures, and extraneous THM emissions to the indoor air were carefully controlled. Water, indoor air, blood, and exhaled-breath samples were collected during each exposure session for each activity, in accordance with a strict, well-defined protocol. Although showering (for 10 min) and bathing (for 14 min), as well as machine washing of clothes and opening mechanical dishwashers at the end of the cycle, resulted in substantial increases in indoor air chloroform concentrations, only showering and bathing caused significant increases in the breath chloroform levels. In the case of bromodichloromethane (BDCM), only bathing yielded a significantly higher air level in relation to the preexposure concentration. For chloroform from showering, strong correlations were observed for indoor air and exhaled breath, blood and exhaled breath, indoor air and blood, and tap water and blood. Only water and breath, and blood and breath were significantly associated for chloroform from bathing. For BDCM, significant correlations were obtained for blood and air, and blood and water from showering. Neither dibromochloromethane nor bromoform gave measurable breath concentrations for any of the activities investigated because of their much lower tap-water concentrations. Future studies will address the effects that changes in these common water-use activities may have on exposure. PMID:16581538

Gordon, Sydney M.; Brinkman, Marielle C.; Ashley, David L.; Blount, Benjamin C.; Lyu, Christopher; Masters, John; Singer, Philip C.

2006-01-01

187

Changes in breath trihalomethane levels resulting from household water-use activities.  

PubMed

Common household water-use activities such as showering, bathing, drinking, and washing clothes or dishes are potentially important contributors to individual exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the major class of disinfection by-products of water treated with chlorine. Previous studies have focused on showering or bathing activities. In this study, we selected 12 common water-use activities and determined which may lead to the greatest THM exposures and result in the greatest increase in the internal dose. Seven subjects performed the various water-use activities in two residences served by water utilities with relatively high and moderate total THM levels. To maintain a consistent exposure environment, the activities, exposure times, air exchange rates, water flows, water temperatures, and extraneous THM emissions to the indoor air were carefully controlled. Water, indoor air, blood, and exhaled-breath samples were collected during each exposure session for each activity, in accordance with a strict, well-defined protocol. Although showering (for 10 min) and bathing (for 14 min), as well as machine washing of clothes and opening mechanical dishwashers at the end of the cycle, resulted in substantial increases in indoor air chloroform concentrations, only showering and bathing caused significant increases in the breath chloroform levels. In the case of bromodichloromethane (BDCM), only bathing yielded a significantly higher air level in relation to the preexposure concentration. For chloroform from showering, strong correlations were observed for indoor air and exhaled breath, blood and exhaled breath, indoor air and blood, and tap water and blood. Only water and breath, and blood and breath were significantly associated for chloroform from bathing. For BDCM, significant correlations were obtained for blood and air, and blood and water from showering. Neither dibromochloromethane nor bromoform gave measurable breath concentrations for any of the activities investigated because of their much lower tap-water concentrations. Future studies will address the effects that changes in these common water-use activities may have on exposure. PMID:16581538

Gordon, Sydney M; Brinkman, Marielle C; Ashley, David L; Blount, Benjamin C; Lyu, Christopher; Masters, John; Singer, Philip C

2006-04-01

188

A simple and novel method for retrieval of Pasteurellaceae from swab samples collected in the field.  

PubMed

Traditionally it has been difficult or impossible to collect and preserve bacterial samples of especially fastidious bacteria in mixed primary cultures, unless the samples could be transported to a laboratory within approximately 24 h. Therefore, a simple novel method for preserving swab samples until bacterial isolation can be completed in the laboratory was developed and evaluated. Pasteurellaceae bacteria were used as a representative for fastidious bacteria. A 7.5% glucose serum medium was used as freeze medium. Swab samples were soaked in the medium a maximum of 2 h after collection and stored at -20°C. As a control study, 15 samples were collected from the oral cavity of a captive brown bear. One was immediately plated, while the remaining 12 swabs were stored at -20°C for 7 days and multiples of 30 days up to 330 days prior to plating. Two samples were stored without the medium for 7 and 30 days prior to plating. From a field setting in Greenland, eight polar bear samples were collected and subsequently stored for 240 to 259 days at -20°C before incubation. Pasteurellaceae bacteria were isolated and genotyped from all samples stored in the freeze medium, indicating that the medium enabled the bacteria to survive for at least 330 days at -20°C. The 100% recovery of target organisms in the polar bear samples even following lengthy storage and transport demonstrates that the method is very useful under remote field conditions. PMID:23897719

Hansen, Mie J; Bertelsen, Mads F; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Bojesen, Anders M

2013-10-01

189

OSIRIS-REx Touch-and-Go (TAG) Mission Design for Asteroid Sample Collection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in September 2016 to rendezvous with the near-Earth asteroid Bennu in October 2018. After several months of proximity operations to characterize the asteroid, OSIRIS-REx flies a Touch-And-Go (TAG) trajectory to the asteroid's surface to collect at least 60 g of pristine regolith sample for Earth return. This paper provides mission and flight system overviews, with more details on the TAG mission design and key events that occur to safely and successfully collect the sample. An overview of the navigation performed relative to a chosen sample site, along with the maneuvers to reach the desired site is described. Safety monitoring during descent is performed with onboard sensors providing an option to abort, troubleshoot, and try again if necessary. Sample collection occurs using a collection device at the end of an articulating robotic arm during a brief five second contact period, while a constant force spring mechanism in the arm assists to rebound the spacecraft away from the surface. Finally, the sample is measured quantitatively utilizing the law of conservation of angular momentum, along with qualitative data from imagery of the sampling device. Upon sample mass verification, the arm places the sample into the Stardust-heritage Sample Return Capsule (SRC) for return to Earth in September 2023.

May, Alexander; Sutter, Brian; Linn, Timothy; Bierhaus, Beau; Berry, Kevin; Mink, Ron

2014-01-01

190

A simple and novel method for retrieval of Pasteurellaceae from swab samples collected in the field  

PubMed Central

Traditionally it has been difficult or impossible to collect and preserve bacterial samples of especially fastidious bacteria in mixed primary cultures, unless the samples could be transported to a laboratory within approximately 24 h. Therefore, a simple novel method for preserving swab samples until bacterial isolation can be completed in the laboratory was developed and evaluated. Pasteurellaceae bacteria were used as a representative for fastidious bacteria. A 7.5% glucose serum medium was used as freeze medium. Swab samples were soaked in the medium a maximum of 2 h after collection and stored at ?20°C. As a control study, 15 samples were collected from the oral cavity of a captive brown bear. One was immediately plated, while the remaining 12 swabs were stored at ?20°C for 7 days and multiples of 30 days up to 330 days prior to plating. Two samples were stored without the medium for 7 and 30 days prior to plating. From a field setting in Greenland, eight polar bear samples were collected and subsequently stored for 240 to 259 days at ?20°C before incubation. Pasteurellaceae bacteria were isolated and genotyped from all samples stored in the freeze medium, indicating that the medium enabled the bacteria to survive for at least 330 days at ?20°C. The 100% recovery of target organisms in the polar bear samples even following lengthy storage and transport demonstrates that the method is very useful under remote field conditions. PMID:23897719

Hansen, Mie J; Bertelsen, Mads F; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Bojesen, Anders M

2013-01-01

191

Exhaled breath condensate: determination of non-volatile compounds and their potential for clinical diagnosis and monitoring. A review.  

PubMed

Exhaled breath condensate is a promising, non-invasive, diagnostic sample obtained by condensation of exhaled breath. Starting from a historical perspective of early attempts of breath testing towards the contemporary state-of-the-art breath analysis, this review article focuses mainly on the progress in determination of non-volatile compounds in exhaled breath condensate. The mechanisms by which the aerosols/droplets of non-volatile compounds are formed in the airways are discussed with methodological consequences for sampling. Dilution of respiratory droplets is a major problem for correct clinical interpretation of the measured data and there is an urgent need for standardization of EBC. This applies also for collection instrumentation and therefore various commercial and in-house built devices are described and compared with regard to their design, function and collection parameters. The analytical techniques and methods for determination of non-volatile compounds as potential markers of oxidative stress and lung inflammation are scrutinized with an emphasis on method suitability, sensitivity and appropriateness. The relevance of clinical findings for each group of possible non-volatile markers of selected pulmonary diseases and methodological recommendations with emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration that is essential for future development into a fully validated clinical diagnostic tool are given. PMID:24296139

Kubá?, Petr; Foret, František

2013-12-17

192

Collecting and preserving biological samples from challenging environments for DNA analysis.  

PubMed

Biological materials collected in harsh environments such as archaeological excavations, at crime scenes, after mass disasters, in museums, or non-invasively in the field constitute a highly valuable source of genetic information. However, poor quality and limited quantity of the DNA extracted from these samples can be extremely challenging during further analyses. Here we have reviewed how degradation, decomposition, and contamination can affect DNA analysis, and how correct sample collection and storage methods will ensure the best possible conditions for further genetic analysis. Furthermore, highly efficient protocols for collection, decontamination, and extraction of DNA from minute amounts of biological material are presented. PMID:24620766

Bu?, Magdalena M; Allen, Marie

2014-02-01

193

COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF WATER SAMPLES FROM THE GREAT LAKES FOR INORGANIC CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

This continues the long term chemical monitoring that is part of the mandate for the Great Lakes National Program Office. The Public Health Service Laboratory in Chicago will provide analytical capability as well as sample collection assistance of water samples from all of the G...

194

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF ZOOPLANKTON SAMPLES COLLECTED DURING PHASE II OF THE EASTERN LAKE SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples from 146 lakes in the northeastern United States, collected during Phase II of the Eastern Lake Survey (ELS-II) were analyzed for abundance of each species and each size class of zooplankton. n estimate of sampling and counting error was provided by replication of lake sa...

195

952 IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 10, NO. 5, MAY 2010 Collection of Gaseous and Aerosolized Samples  

E-print Network

and separate multiple analytes at a time. Both structures were tested with ammonia as a gaseous sample and Kool Using Microfluidic Devices With Gas­Liquid Interfaces Jason D. Greenwood, Ye Liu, Student Member, IEEE methods for collecting gaseous samples and aerosolized particles into microfluidic channels. Gas

Jiang, Hongrui

196

An instrument for collecting discrete large-volume water samples suitable for ecological studies of microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbiological investigations utilizing molecular genetic approaches to characterize microbial communities can require large volume water samples, tens to hundreds of liters. The requirement for large volume samples can be especially challenging in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments of the oceanic ridge system. By and large studies of these environments rely on deep submergence vehicles. However collection of large volume (>100L) water

K. Eric Wommack; Shannon J. Williamson; Arthur Sundbergh; Rebekah R. Helton; Brian T. Glazer; Kevin Portune; S. Craigcary

2004-01-01

197

Soil sample collection and analysis for the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique set of soil samples was collected as part of the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study. The study was carried out to establish whether or not source profiles could be constructed using novel analytical methods that could distinguish soil dust sources from each other. The soil sources sampled included fields planted in cotton, almond, tomato, grape, and safflower, dairy and feedlot facilities, paved and unpaved roads (both urban and rural), an agricultural staging area, disturbed land with salt buildup, and construction areas where the topsoil had been removed. The samples were collected using a systematic procedure designed to reduce sampling bias, and were stored frozen to preserve possible organic signatures. For this paper the samples were characterized by particle size (percent sand, silt, and clay), dry silt content (used in EPA-recommended fugitive dust emission factors), carbon and nitrogen content, and potential to emit both PM 10 and PM 2.5. These are not the "novel analytical methods" referred to above; rather, it was the basic characterization of the samples to use in comparing analytical methods by other scientists contracted to the California Air Resources Board. The purpose of this paper is to document the methods used to collect the samples, the collection locations, the analysis of soil type and potential to emit PM 10, and the sample variability, both within field and between fields of the same crop type.

Ashbaugh, Lowell L.; Carvacho, Omar F.; Brown, Michael S.; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Magliano, Karen C.

198

Collecting cometary soil samples? Development of the ROSETTA sample acquisition system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the reference scenario of the ROSETTA CNRS mission, the Sample Acquisition System is mounted on the Comet Lander. Its tasks are to acquire three kinds of cometary samples and to transfer them to the Earth Return Capsule. Operations are to be performed in vacuum and microgravity, on a probably rough and dusty surface, in a largely unknown material, at temperatures in the order of 100 K. The concept and operation of the Sample Acquisition System are presented. The design of the prototype corer and surface sampling tool, and of the equipment for testing them at cryogenic temperatures in ambient conditions and in vacuum in various materials representing cometary soil, are described. Results of recent preliminary tests performed in low temperature thermal vacuum in a cometary analog ice-dust mixture are provided.

Coste, P. A.; Fenzi, M.; Eiden, Michael

1993-01-01

199

A new device for collecting time-integrated water samples from springs and surface water bodies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new device termed the 'seepage sampler' was developed to collect representative water samples from springs, streams, and other surface-water bodies. The sampler collects composite, time-integrated water samples over short (hours) or extended (weeks) periods without causing significant changes to the chemical composition of the samples. The water sample within the sampler remains at the ambient temperature of the water body and does not need to be cooled. Seepage samplers are inexpensive to construct and easy to use. A sampling program of numerous springs and/or streams can be designed at a relatively low cost through the use of these samplers. Transient solutes migrating through such flow systems, potentially unnoticed by periodic sampling, may be detected. In addition, the mass loading of solutes (e.g., agrichemicals) may be determined when seepage samplers are used in conjunction with discharge measurements.

Panno, S.V.; Krapac, I.G.; Keefer, D.A.

1998-01-01

200

Exhaled breath analysis for lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Early diagnosis of lung cancer results in improved survival compared to diagnosis with more advanced disease. Early disease is not reliably indicated by symptoms. Because investigations such as bronchoscopy and needle biopsy have associated risks and substantial costs, they are not suitable for population screening. Hence new easily applicable tests, which can be used to screen individuals at risk, are required. Biomarker testing in exhaled breath samples is a simple, relatively inexpensive, non-invasive approach. Exhaled breath contains volatile and non-volatile organic compounds produced as end-products of metabolic processes and the composition of such compounds varies between healthy subjects and subjects with lung cancer. Many studies have analysed the patterns of these compounds in exhaled breath. In addition studies have also reported that the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) can reveal gene mutations or DNA abnormalities in patients with lung cancer. This review has summarised the scientific evidence demonstrating that lung cancer has distinct chemical profiles in exhaled breath and characteristic genetic changes in EBC. It is not yet possible to accurately identify individuals with lung cancer in at risk populations by any of these techniques. However, analysis of both volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and of EBC have great potential to become clinically useful diagnostic and screening tools for early stage lung cancer detection. PMID:24163746

Sutedja, Tom G.; Zimmerman, Paul V.

2013-01-01

201

Carbon14 urea breath test for the diagnosis of Campylobacter pylori associated gastritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urease in the human gastric mucosa is a marker for infection with Campylobacter pylori (CP), an organism suspected of causing chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. To detect gastric urease, we examined 32 patients who were being evaluated for possible peptic ulcer disease. Fasting patients were given 10 microCi (370 kBq) of ¹⁴C-labeled urea. Breath samples were collected in hyamine at

B. J. Marshall; I Surveyor

1988-01-01

202

Stop, Breathe & Think app.  

PubMed

The Stop, Breathe & Think app is free, thanks to underwriting from Tools for Peace, the non-profit organisation that teaches people of all ages how to develop and apply kindness and compassion in their daily lives. PMID:25005405

Shaw, Natalie

2014-07-15

203

Shortness of Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... of Breath: Patient Education. http://www.onebreath. org/document.doc?id=113. Accessed March 25, 2014. • Dyspnea, mechanisms, assess- ment, and management: a consensus statement by American Thoracic Society. Am ...

204

Bad Breath (Halitosis)  

MedlinePLUS

... mouth. Poor oral hygiene eventually will lead to periodontal (gum) disease, which also can cause bad breath. ... either a cavity in a tooth or by periodontal (gum) disease. Respiratory tract infections — Throat, sinus or ...

205

Detection of ethylene in smokers breath by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the experiments reported in this paper small traces of ethylene down to ppb level have been detected by means of photoacoustic spectroscopy in the breath exhaled from humans. The method has been applied in studying how the concentration of the ethylene coming out from human lungs is modified after smoking. We followed up the evolution of ethylene concentration in the case of several people by monitoring the ethylene before and after smoking. In each case the first exhaled air sample was collected prior smoking the cigarette and compared with the samples collected after 30 minutes following the inhalation of cigarette smoke. In all the experiments a high value of ethylene concentration was found immediately after smoking. The experimental laser based photoacoustic system has been realized in ENEA Laboratories in Frascati, Italy.

Giubileo, Gianfranco; Puiu, Adriana P.; Dumitras, Dan C.

2004-07-01

206

An instrument for collecting discrete large-volume water samples suitable for ecological studies of microorganisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbiological investigations utilizing molecular genetic approaches to characterize microbial communities can require large volume water samples, tens to hundreds of liters. The requirement for large volume samples can be especially challenging in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments of the oceanic ridge system. By and large studies of these environments rely on deep submergence vehicles. However collection of large volume (>100 L) water samples adjacent to the benthos is not feasible due to weight considerations. To address the technical difficulty of collecting large volume water samples from hydrothermal diffuse flow environments, a semi-autonomous large-volume water sampler (LVWS) was designed. The LVWS is capable of reliably collecting and bringing to the surface 120 L water samples from diffuse flow environments. Microscopy, molecular genetic and chemical analyses of water samples taken from 9°N East Pacific Rise are shown to demonstrate the utility of the LVWS for studies of near-benthos environments. To our knowledge this is the first report of virioplankton abundance within diffuse-flow waters of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent environment. Because of its simple design and relatively low cost, the LVWS should be applicable to a variety of studies which require large-volume water samples collected immediately adjacent to the benthos.

Wommack, K. Eric; Williamson, Shannon J.; Sundbergh, Arthur; Helton, Rebekah R.; Glazer, Brian T.; Portune, Kevin; Craig Cary, S.

2004-11-01

207

A sampling system for collecting gas-tight time-series hydrothermal fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that the hydrothermal venting has temporal variations associated with tectonic and geochemical processes. To date, the methods for long-term monitoring of the seafloor hydrothermal systems are rare. A new sampling system has been designed to be deployed at seafloor for long term to collect gas-tight time-series samples from hydrothermal vents. Based on the modular design principle, the sampling system is currently composed of a control module and six sampling modules, which is convenient to be upgraded by adding more sampling modules if needed. The control module consists of a rechargeable battery pack and a circuit board with functions of sampling control, temperature measurement, data storage and communication. Each sampling module has an independent sampling valve, a valve actuator and a sampling cylinder. The sampling cylinder consists of a sample chamber and an accumulator chamber. Compressed nitrogen gas is used to maintain the sample at in-situ pressure. A prototype of the sampling system has been constructed and tested. First, the instrument was tested in a high-pressure vessel at a pressure of 40 MPa. Six sampling modules were successfully triggered and water samples were collected and kept at in-situ pressure after experiment. Besides, the instrument was field tested at the shallow hydrothermal field near off Kueishantao islet (24°51'N, 121°55'E), which is located offshore of northeastern Taiwan, from May 25 to May 28, 2011. The sampling system worked at an automatic mode. Each sampling module was triggered according to the preset time. Time-series hydrothermal fluids have been collected from a shallow hydrothermal vent with a depth of 16 m. The preliminary tests indicated the success of the design and construction of the prototype of the sampling system. Currently, the sampling system is being upgraded by integration of a DC-DC power conversion and serial-to-Ethernet conversion module, so that it can utilize the continuous power supply and network communication of seafloor cabled observatories. In this case, the sampling system will be remotely controlled through Internet. Then the sampling modules can be triggered manually based on the judgment of temperature anomaly. The upgraded sampling system will be tested on the Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) in this fall.

Wu, S.; Yang, C.; Ding, K.

2012-12-01

208

Planning Considerations Related to Collecting and Analyzing Samples of the Martian Soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Sample Return (MSR) End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (E2E-iSAG [1]) established scientific objectives associ-ated with Mars returned-sample science that require the return and investigation of one or more soil samples. Soil is defined here as loose, unconsolidated materials with no implication for the presence or absence of or-ganic components. The proposed Mars 2020 (M-2020) rover is likely to collect and cache soil in addition to rock samples [2], which could be followed by future sample retrieval and return missions. Here we discuss key scientific consid-erations for sampling and caching soil samples on the proposed M-2020 rover, as well as the state in which samples would need to be preserved when received by analysts on Earth. We are seeking feedback on these draft plans as input to mission requirement formulation. A related planning exercise on rocks is reported in an accompanying abstract [3].

Liu, Yang; Mellon, Mike T.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Noble, Sarah K.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Beaty, David W.

2014-01-01

209

Micropreconcentrator in LTCC Technology with Mass Spectrometry for the Detection of Acetone in Healthy and Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus Patient Breath  

PubMed Central

Breath analysis has long been recognized as a potentially attractive method for the diagnosis of several diseases. The main advantage over other diagnostic methods such as blood or urine analysis is that breath analysis is fully non-invasive, comfortable for patients and breath samples can be easily obtained. One possible future application of breath analysis may be the diagnosing and monitoring of diabetes. It is, therefore, essential, to firstly determine a relationship between exhaled biomarker concentration and glucose in blood as well as to compare the results with the results obtained from non-diabetic subjects. Concentrations of molecules which are biomarkers of diseases’ states, or early indicators of disease should be well documented, i.e., the variations of abnormal concentrations of breath biomarkers with age, gender and ethnic issues need to be verified. Furthermore, based on performed measurements it is rather obvious that analysis of exhaled acetone as a single biomarker of diabetes is unrealistic. In this paper, the author presents results of his research conducted on samples of breath gas from eleven healthy volunteers (HV) and fourteen type-1 diabetic patients (T1DM) which were collected in 1-l SKC breath bags. The exhaled acetone concentration was measured using mass spectrometry (HPR-20 QIC, Hiden Analytical, Warrington, UK) coupled with a micropreconcentrator in LTCC (Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic). However, as according to recent studies the level of acetone varies to a significant extent for each blood glucose concentration of single individuals, a direct and absolute relationship between blood glucose and acetone has not been proved. Nevertheless, basing on the research results acetone in diabetic breath was found to be higher than 1.11 ppmv, while its average concentration in normal breath was lower than 0.83 ppmv. PMID:25310087

Rydosz, Artur

2014-01-01

210

SAMPLING EFFORT AND COLLECTION METHODS 273 The samples should be sent via overnight courier so they arrive while laboratory personnel are  

E-print Network

. Chain-of-Custody and Other Documentation When the sample is collected, the bottle labels and chain conditions (particularly wind strength and direction, air and water temperature) 5. Sample collection or sampling equipment, observations of possible contamination) 10. Sample physical description including

Pitt, Robert E.

211

50 CFR 23.50 - What are the requirements for a sample collection covered by an ATA carnet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What are the requirements for a sample collection covered by an ATA...THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION...What are the requirements for a sample collection covered by an ATA...For purposes of this section, sample collection means a...

2010-10-01

212

Elimination kinetics of volatile organics in humans using breath measurements  

SciTech Connect

During the past decade significant strides have been made toward understanding the sources and factors which lead to volatile organic chemical (VOC) exposure in the general population. Less is known, however, about the impact of low-level environmental exposure on human health. Investigations are underway in a number of laboratories in an effort to determine the uptake, distribution, metabolism, and elimination kinetics for VOCs in humans. We examined the elimination kinetics for the third phase for ten VOCs--1,1,-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, benzene, toluene, m,p-xylenes, o-xylene, ethylbenzene, p-dichlorobenzene, and limonene--in human subjects. Subjects were exposed to a variety of common consumer products and breath samples were collected post-exposure while the subjects spent up to 10 hr in a clean air environment. VOCs from breath samples were collected into canisters or onto Tenax GC cartridges and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Exponential modeling of the decay data was performed to obtain kinetic parameters. The half-lives for trichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were approximately 5 to 8 hr for the four subjects. In general, the magnitude and range of variability was larger for toluene, limonene, and p-dichlorobenzene than for the other VOCs; the elimination rate spanning a few hours to a day or two. Thus, VOCs exhibit relatively short residence times in the body relative to other halo-carbons, such as polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins.

Pellizzari, E.D.; Wallace, L.A.; Gordon, S.M. (Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

1992-07-01

213

Sample Collection of Ash and Burned Soils from the October 2007 Southern California Wildfires  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between November 2 through 9, 2007 scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected samples of ash and burned soils from 28 sites in six areas burned as a result of the Southern California wildfires of October 2007, including the Harris, Witch, Santiago, Ammo, Canyon, and Grass Valley Fires. The primary goal of this sampling and analysis effort was to understand how differences in ash and burned soil composition relate to vegetation type, underlying bedrock geology, burn intensity, and residential versus wildland. Sampling sites were chosen with the input of local experts from the USGS Water Resources and Biological Resources Disciplines to help understand possible effects of the fires on water supplies, ecosystems, and endangered species. The sampling was also carried out in conjunction with detailed field analysis of the spectral reflectance characteristics of the ash, so that chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the field samples could be used to help interpret data collected as part of an airborne, hyperspectral remote-sensing survey of several of the burned areas in mid-late November, 2007. This report presents an overview of the field sampling methodologies used to collect the samples, includes representative photos of the sites sampled, and summarizes important characteristics of each of the collection sites. In this report we use the term 'ash' to refer collectively to white mineral ash, which results from full combustion of vegetation and black charred organic matter from partial combustion of vegetation or other materials. These materials were found to be intermingled as a deposited residue on the soil surface following the Southern California fires of 2007.

Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Martin, Deborah A.; Rochester, Carlton; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Mendez, Greg; Reichard, Eric G.; Fisher, Robert N.

2009-01-01

214

Single-breath analysis using a novel simple sampler and capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductometric detection.  

PubMed

The analysis of ionic content of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from one single breath by CE with C(4) D is demonstrated for the first time. A miniature sampler made from a 2-mL syringe and an aluminum cooling cylinder for collection of EBC was developed. Various parameters of the sampler that influence its collection efficiency, repeatability, and effect of respiratory patterns were studied in detail. Efficient procedures for the cleanup of the miniature sampler were also developed and resulted in significant improvement of sampling repeatability. Analysis of EBC was performed by CE-C(4) D in a 60 mM MES/l-histidine BGE with 30 ?M CTAB and 2 mM 18-crown-6 at pH 6 and excellent repeatability of migration times (RSD < 1.3% (n = 7)) and peak areas (RSD < 7% (n = 7)) of 12 inorganic anions, cations, and organic acids was obtained. It has been shown that the breathing pattern has a significant impact on the concentration of the analytes in the collected EBC. As the ventilatory pattern can be easily controlled during single exhalation, the developed collection system and method provides a highly reproducible and fast way of collecting EBC with applicability in point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:25377628

Greguš, Michal; Foret, František; Kubá?, Petr

2015-02-01

215

Detection of Helicobacter pylori infection by examination of human breath odor using electronic nose Bloodhound-214ST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our aim was to examine the possibility of use e-nose Bloodhound-214ST to determine presence or absence of H. pylori infection using exhalation samples of patients. Breath samples were collected twice: at baseline and after oral administration of 500 mg of urea. H. pylori status of patients was confirmed by antral biopsy. Using two approaches for the data analysis we showed the possibility to distinguish H. pylori free and infected patients.

Shnayder, E. P.; Moshkin, M. P.; Petrovskii, D. V.; Shevela, A. I.; Babko, A. N.; Kulikov, V. G.

2009-05-01

216

Evaluation of a novel dried blood spot collection device (HemaSpot™) to test blood samples collected from dogs for antibodies to Leishmania infantum.  

PubMed

Collection of blood samples from veterinary and wildlife patients is often challenging because the samples have to be collected on farm or in the wild under various environmental conditions. This poses many technical problems associated with venipuncture materials, their safe use and disposal, transportation and processing of collected samples. Dried blood spot (DBS) sample collection techniques offer a simple and practical alternative to traditional blood collection methods to obtain blood samples from animals for parasite antibody evaluation. The DBS collection devices are compact, simple to use, and are particularly useful for large number of samples. Additionally, DBS samples take up less space and they are easier to transport than traditional venipuncture-collected blood samples. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a potentially fatal parasitic disease of dogs and humans and it is frequently diagnosed by antibody tests. Immunochromatographic tests (ICT) for antibodies to Leishmania infantum are commercially available for dogs and they produce qualitative results in minutes. Measurement of canine antibodies to L. infantum with the ICT using traditional venipuncture has been validated previously, but the use of DBS samples has not been evaluated using this method. The purpose of the present study was to determine the ability of DBS samples to detect antibodies to L. infantum in dogs using a commercial ICT assay. One hundred plasma samples from dogs experimentally infected with the LIVT-1 strain of L. infantum were collected by venipuncture and frozen. Individual samples were thawed, and then 80 ?l plasma (2 drops) was aliquotted onto the 8-spoked disk pad on individual DBS sample collection devices (HemaSpot™, Spot-On Sciences, Austin, TX), dried, and stored in the dark at room temperature. After one month and six months, respectively, 2 spokes of the 8 spokes of the disk pad of each DBS sample were removed and eluted in 200 ?l PBS. The eluate was used to test for antibodies in the ICT and compared to ICT results using thawed plasma (same initial source). Sensitivity and specificity of the ICT using DBS were determined by using ICT results from traditional blood collection samples for comparison. After 1 month, DBS samples showed 100% sensitivity and specificity when compared to ICT results on thawed plasma samples collected by traditional venipuncture. After six months storage at room temperature, DBS samples demonstrated 79% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared to traditional blood collection. Results from this study indicate that dried blood spot collection may be a useful tool for screening dogs for antibodies to L. infantum with the ICT assay. PMID:25129335

Rosypal, Alexa C; Pick, Leanne D; Hernandez, Jaime O Esquivel; Lindsay, David S

2014-09-15

217

Archival policies and collections database for the Woods Hole Science Center's marine sediment samples  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Woods Hole Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been an active member of the Woods Hole research community, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, for over 40 years. In that time there have been many projects that involved the collection of sediment samples conducted by USGS scientists and technicians for the research and study of seabed environments and processes. These samples were collected at sea or near shore and then brought back to the Woods Hole Science Center (WHSC) for analysis. While at the center, samples are stored in ambient temperature, refrigerated and freezing conditions ranging from +2º Celsius to -18º Celsius, depending on the best mode of preparation for the study being conducted or the duration of storage planned for the samples. Recently, storage methods and available storage space have become a major concern at the WHSC. The core and sediment archive program described herein has been initiated to set standards for the management, methods, and duration of sample storage. A need has arisen to maintain organizational consistency and define storage protocol. This handbook serves as a reference and guide to all parties interested in using and accessing the WHSC's sample archive and also defines all the steps necessary to construct and maintain an organized collection of geological samples. It answers many questions as to the way in which the archive functions.

Buczkowski, Brian J.; Kelsey, Sarah A.

2007-01-01

218

Breath tests: principles, problems, and promise.  

PubMed

Breath tests rely on the measurement of gases produced in the intestine, absorbed, and expired in the breath. Carbohydrates, such as lactose and sucrose, can be administered in physiologic doses; if malabsorbed, they will be metabolized to hydrogen by colonic bacteria. Since hydrogen is not produced by human metabolic reactions, a rise in breath hydrogen, as measured by gas chromatography, is evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption. Likewise, a rise in breath hydrogen marks the transit time of nonabsorbable carbohydrates such as lactulose through the small intestine into the colon. Simple end-expiratory interval collection into nonsiliconized vacutainer tubes has made these noninvasive tests quite convenient to perform, but various problems, including changes in stool pH, intestinal motility, or metabolic rate, may influence results. Another group of breath tests uses substrates labeled with radioactive or stable isotopes of carbon. Labeled fat substrates such as trioctanoin, tripalmitin, and triolein do not produce the expected rise in labeled breath CO2 if there is fat malabsorption. Bile acid malabsorption and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth can be measured with labeled cholylglycine or cholyltaurine. Labeled drugs such as aminopyrine, methacetin, and phenacetin can be used as an indication of drug metabolism and liver function. Radioactive substrates have been used to trace metabolic pathways and can be measured by scintillation counters. The availability of nonradioactive stable isotopes has made these ideal for use in children and pregnant women, but the cost of substrates and the mass spectrometers to measure them has so far limited their use to research centers. It is hoped that new techniques of processing and measurement will allow further realization of the exciting potential breath analysis has in a growing list of clinical applications. PMID:7180696

Lo, C W; Carter, E A; Walker, W A

1982-01-01

219

An unmanned mission to Mars with sample collection and in-situ resource utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design for the Mars Analysis and Return Vehicle with In-Situ Resource Utilization (MARVIN) project is outlined. The MARVIN mission is designed to collect samples of the Martian environment; to produce fuel from local Martian resources; and to use the fuel produced to return the samples to earth. It uses only existing technologies. Exploratory Technologies' mission-design efforts have focused on methods of orbit determination, sample collection, fuel production, power, communications, control, and structural design. Lambert Targeting provided Delta-V's, launch dates, and travel times. The landing site is the Tharsis Plateau, to the southeast of Olympus Mons, chosen for its substantial scientific value. Samples of soil, dust, and atmosphere are collected with lander-based collection devices: the soil sample, with a robotic arm similar to those used in the Viking missions; the atmospheric sample, from a bleed line to the compressor in the fuel-production facility; a dust sample, from the dust-collection container in the fuel-production facility; and a redundant dust sample, with a with a passive filter system, which relies upon neither a power source nor other collection methods. The sample-return capsule (SRC) houses these samples, which are triply contained to prevent contamination. Proven technology can be used to produce methane and oxygen for fuel with relative ease at the landing site: the Sabatier reactor produces methane and water by combining carbon dioxide and hydrogen (brought from earth); the Reverse Water-Gas Shift unit combines carbon dioxide and hydrogen to form carbon monoxide and water; a water-electrolysis unit splits the water into hydrogen and oxygen. The Mars-lander vehicle (MLV) transports the equipment from earth to Mars. The Mars-ascent vehicle (MAV) contains the SRC and the engine, which is the same for both the MLV and the MAV. All equipment that is unnecessary for the Mars-Earth trajectory remains on Mars. This report presents detailed sizing information, for which a spreadsheet has been developed. The trends suggest possibilities for expansion, and suggestions for future work in these areas are offered.

1994-01-01

220

An unmanned mission to Mars with sample collection and in-situ resource utilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design for the Mars Analysis and Return Vehicle with In-Situ Resource Utilization (MARVIN) project is outlined. The MARVIN mission is designed to collect samples of the Martian environment; to produce fuel from local Martian resources; and to use the fuel produced to return the samples to earth. It uses only existing technologies. Exploratory Technologies' mission-design efforts have focused on methods of orbit determination, sample collection, fuel production, power, communications, control, and structural design. Lambert Targeting provided Delta-V's, launch dates, and travel times. The landing site is the Tharsis Plateau, to the southeast of Olympus Mons, chosen for its substantial scientific value. Samples of soil, dust, and atmosphere are collected with lander-based collection devices: the soil sample, with a robotic arm similar to those used in the Viking missions; the atmospheric sample, from a bleed line to the compressor in the fuel-production facility; a dust sample, from the dust-collection container in the fuel-production facility; and a redundant dust sample, with a with a passive filter system, which relies upon neither a power source nor other collection methods. The sample-return capsule (SRC) houses these samples, which are triply contained to prevent contamination. Proven technology can be used to produce methane and oxygen for fuel with relative ease at the landing site: the Sabatier reactor produces methane and water by combining carbon dioxide and hydrogen (brought from earth); the Reverse Water-Gas Shift unit combines carbon dioxide and hydrogen to form carbon monoxide and water; a water-electrolysis unit splits the water into hydrogen and oxygen. The Mars-lander vehicle (MLV) transports the equipment from earth to Mars. The Mars-ascent vehicle (MAV) contains the SRC and the engine, which is the same for both the MLV and the MAV. All equipment that is unnecessary for the Mars-Earth trajectory remains on Mars. This report presents detailed sizing information, for which a spreadsheet has been developed. The trends suggest possibilities for expansion, and suggestions for future work in these areas are offered.

1994-05-01

221

A miniature optical breathing sensor  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate a novel miniature optical breathing sensor based on an Agarose infiltrated photonic crystal fiber interferometer. The sensor detects the variation in relative humidity that occurs between inhaled and exhaled breath. The sensor interrogation system can determine the breathing pattern in real time and can also predict the breathing rate and the breathing status during respiration. The sensor is suitable for monitoring patients during a magnetic resonance imaging scan where use of sedatives and anesthetics necessitates breathing monitoring; electronic sensors are not suitable in such an environment and a visual observation of the patient's respiratory efforts is often difficult. PMID:23243581

Mathew, Jinesh; Semenova, Yuliya; Farrell, Gerald

2012-01-01

222

Field guidelines for collection, treatment, and analysis of water samples, Montana district  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual provides a set of standardized guidelines and quality-control procedures for the collection and preservation of water samples and defines procedures for field analyses of unstable constituents or properties. Seldom is the water being samples of such uniformity that a single grab sample is representative of the whole. For this reason a variety of sampler types and sampling methods have been devised. Descriptions and procedures for field use are given for a number of sampler types. Several methods of sampling are described for which these samplers can be used. Sample-processing devices such as sample splitters and filtration apparatus are discussed along with methods of cleaning. Depending on the type of analysis to be performed in the laboratory, samples may need to be preserved shortly after collection. Various types of preservation are described in detail. Analyses for unstable constituents or properties are of necessity accomplished in the field. This manual addresses analytical techniques and quality assurance for: (1) Water temperature, (2) specific conductance, (3) pH, (4) alkalinity, (5) dissolved oxygen, and (6) bacteria. Examples of field report forms are given as attachments. Information pertinent to certain field calculations is also presented. (USGS)

Knapton, J.R.

1985-01-01

223

Mars Rover Sample Return: A sample collection and analysis strategy for exobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For reasons defined elsewhere it is reasonable to search for biological signatures, both chemical and morphological, of extinct life on Mars. Life on Earth requries the presence of liquid water, therefore, it is important to explore sites on Mars where standing bodies of water may have once existed. Outcrops of layered deposits within the Valles Marineris appear to be ancient lake beds. Because the outcrops are well exposed, relatively shallow core samples would be very informative. The most important biological signature to detect would be organics, microfossils, or larger stromato-like structures, although the presence of cherts, carbonates, clays, and shales would be significant. In spite of the limitations of current robotics and pattern recognition, and the limitations of rover power, computation, Earth communication bandwidth, and time delays, a partial scenario was developed to implement such a scientific investigation. The rover instrumentation and the procedures and decisions and IR spectrometer are described in detail. Preliminary results from a collaborative effort are described, which indicate the rover will be able to autonomously detect stratification, and hence will ease the interpretation burden and lead to greater scientific productivity during the rover's lifetime.

Sims, M. H.; Fischler, M.; Schwartz, D. E.; Rosenthal, Donald A.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.; Nedell, Susan S.; Gamble, E.; Mckay, Christopher P.

1989-01-01

224

The Autism Simplex Collection: an international, expertly phenotyped autism sample for genetic and phenotypic analyses  

PubMed Central

Background There is an urgent need for expanding and enhancing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) samples, in order to better understand causes of ASD. Methods In a unique public-private partnership, 13 sites with extensive experience in both the assessment and diagnosis of ASD embarked on an ambitious, 2-year program to collect samples for genetic and phenotypic research and begin analyses on these samples. The program was called The Autism Simplex Collection (TASC). TASC sample collection began in 2008 and was completed in 2010, and included nine sites from North America and four sites from Western Europe, as well as a centralized Data Coordinating Center. Results Over 1,700 trios are part of this collection, with DNA from transformed cells now available through the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) measures are available for all probands, as are standardized IQ measures, Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales (VABS), the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), and physical measures (height, weight, and head circumference). At almost every site, additional phenotypic measures were collected, including the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ) and Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R), as well as the non-word repetition scale, Communication Checklist (Children’s or Adult), and Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC). Moreover, for nearly 1,000 trios, the Autism Genome Project Consortium (AGP) has carried out Illumina 1 M SNP genotyping and called copy number variation (CNV) in the samples, with data being made available through the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Whole exome sequencing (WES) has been carried out in over 500 probands, together with ancestry matched controls, and this data is also available through the NIH. Additional WES is being carried out by the Autism Sequencing Consortium (ASC), where the focus is on sequencing complete trios. ASC sequencing for the first 1,000 samples (all from whole-blood DNA) is complete and data will be released in 2014. Data is being made available through NIH databases (database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP) and National Database for Autism Research (NDAR)) with DNA released in Dist 11.0. Primary funding for the collection, genotyping, sequencing and distribution of TASC samples was provided by Autism Speaks and the NIH, including the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the National Human Genetics Research Institute (NHGRI). Conclusions TASC represents an important sample set that leverages expert sites. Similar approaches, leveraging expert sites and ongoing studies, represent an important path towards further enhancing available ASD samples. PMID:25392729

2014-01-01

225

The effect of a paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT) intervention on the profile of volatile organic compounds in human breath: a pilot study.  

PubMed

This study sought to identify if detectable changes in human breath profiles may be observed following a psychological intervention designed to induce stress, a paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT). Breath samples were collected from 22 participants (10 male and 12 female) following a double cross-over randomized design with two experimental interventions. One intervention required participants to listen to classical music chosen to be neutral. The other intervention required participants to undertake a PASAT that induced cardiovascular responses consistent with acute stress. Both interventions also involved two sequences of cognitive function tests. Blood-pressure and heart-rate were recorded throughout each intervention and distal breath samples were collected onto Tenax® TA/Carbograph 1 thermal desorption tubes, using an adaptive breath sampler. Samples were collected before and after the PASAT. Breath samples were analysed by thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data registration using retention indexing and peak deconvolution followed by partial least-squares discriminant analysis identified six stress sensitive compounds. A principal components analysis model based on these components generated a model that predicted post-PASAT versus post-neutral intervention samples with a sensitivity of 83.3% and a selectivity of 91.6% for females, compared to 100% sensitivity and 90% selectivity for males. Of the six compounds indole, 2-hydroxy-1-phenylethanone, benzaldehyde, and 2-ethylhexan-1-ol were identified on the basis of mass spectral, retention indexing and confirmation against pure standards. 2-methylpentadecane was tentatively identified from mass spectral and retention indexing, whilst one component has yet to be assigned, although the mass spectrum is indicative of a terpene. Indole and 2-methylpentadecane concentrations increased in response to the PASAT intervention, while the other compounds reduced in their abundance in human breath, possibly as a result of ventilation effects. PMID:23445666

Turner, M A; Bandelow, S; Edwards, L; Patel, P; Martin, H J; Wilson, I D; Thomas, C L P

2013-03-01

226

Human Breath Gas Analysis in the Screening of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background We present a pilot study on the feasibility of the application and advantages of online, noninvasive breath gas analysis (BGA) by proton transfer reaction quadrupole mass spectrometry for the screening of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in 52 pregnant women by means of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Subjects and Methods We collected and identified samples of end-tidal breath gas from patients during OGTT. Time evolution parameters of challenge-responsive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human breath gas were estimated. Multivariate analysis of variance and permutation analysis were used to assess feasibility of BGA as a diagnostic tool for GDM. Results Standard OGTT diagnosis identified pregnant women as having GDM (n=8), impaired glucose tolerance (n=12), and normal glucose tolerance (n=32); a part of this latter group was further subdivided into a “marginal” group (n=9) because of a marginal high 1-h or 2-h OGTT value. We observed that OGTT diagnosis (four metabolic groups) could be mapped into breath gas data. The time evolution of oxidation products of glucose and lipids, acetone metabolites, and thiols in breath gas after a glucose challenge was correlated with GDM diagnosis (P=0.035). Furthermore, basal (fasting) values of dimethyl sulfide and values of methanol in breath gas were inversely correlated with phenotype characteristics such as homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (R=?0.538; P=0.0002, Pcorrected=0.0034) and pregestational body mass index (R=?0.433; P=0.0013, Pcorrected=0.022). Conclusions Noninvasive BGA in challenge response studies was successfully applied to GDM diagnosis and offered an insight into metabolic pathways involved. We propose a new approach to the identification of diagnosis thresholds for GDM screening. PMID:22775148

Halbritter, Susanne; Fedrigo, Mattia; Höllriegl, Vera; Szymczak, Wilfried; Maier, Joerg M.; Hummel, Michael

2012-01-01

227

A sampling device that quantitatively collects benthos in flowing or standing waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hand-operated suction sampler designed to sample benthos from fine to coarse rocky substrata in standing and flowing waters is described. The suction sampler collected a similar number of taxa but more individuals from a flowing riffle than a modified Surber sampler. A critique of the suction sampler is presented, illustrating the suitability of the sampler for quantitative studies of

A. J. Boulton

1985-01-01

228

Collecting, archiving and processing DNA from wildlife samples using FTA® databasing paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Methods involving the analysis of nucleic acids have become widespread in the fields of traditional biology and ecology, however the storage and transport of samples collected in the field to the laboratory in such a manner to allow purification of intact nucleic acids can prove problematical. RESULTS: FTA® databasing paper is widely used in human forensic analysis for the

LM Smith; LA Burgoyne

2004-01-01

229

Chemical fingerprinting of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon oil spill samples collected from Alabama shoreline  

E-print Network

Chemical fingerprinting of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon oil spill samples collected Deepwater Horizon oil spill Hopane analysis Fingerprinting Tar balls a b s t r a c t We compare the chromatographic signatures of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon (DH) source oil, three other reference

Clement, Prabhakar

230

An evaluation of optimal methods for avian influenza virus sample collection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sample collection and transport are critical components of any diagnostic testing program and due to the amount of avian influenza virus (AIV) testing in the U.S. and worldwide, small improvements in sensitivity and specificity can translate into substantial cost savings from better test accuracy. ...

231

College Students' Perceptions of Collective Efficacy: Results from a Nonurban Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and collective efficacy is well established in urban populations with community samples, it is unclear if this relationship holds in rural areas. The current study fills this gap by assessing the perceptions of adolescents from nonurban areas to examine the relationships between…

Domoff, Sarah E.; Hayman, Jennifer; Tompsett, Carolyn J.

2012-01-01

232

Collection of Aerosolized Human Cytokines Using Teflon® Filters  

PubMed Central

Background Collection of exhaled breath samples for the analysis of inflammatory biomarkers is an important area of research aimed at improving our ability to diagnose, treat and understand the mechanisms of chronic pulmonary disease. Current collection methods based on condensation of water vapor from exhaled breath yield biomarker levels at or near the detection limits of immunoassays contributing to problems with reproducibility and validity of biomarker measurements. In this study, we compare the collection efficiency of two aerosol-to-liquid sampling devices to a filter-based collection method for recovery of dilute laboratory generated aerosols of human cytokines so as to identify potential alternatives to exhaled breath condensate collection. Methodology/Principal Findings Two aerosol-to-liquid sampling devices, the SKC® Biosampler and Omni 3000™, as well as Teflon® filters were used to collect aerosols of human cytokines generated using a HEART nebulizer and single-pass aerosol chamber setup in order to compare the collection efficiencies of these sampling methods. Additionally, methods for the use of Teflon® filters to collect and measure cytokines recovered from aerosols were developed and evaluated through use of a high-sensitivity multiplex immunoassay. Our results show successful collection of cytokines from pg/m3 aerosol concentrations using Teflon® filters and measurement of cytokine levels in the sub-picogram/mL concentration range using a multiplex immunoassay with sampling times less than 30 minutes. Significant degradation of cytokines was observed due to storage of cytokines in concentrated filter extract solutions as compared to storage of dry filters. Conclusions Use of filter collection methods resulted in significantly higher efficiency of collection than the two aerosol-to-liquid samplers evaluated in our study. The results of this study provide the foundation for a potential new technique to evaluate biomarkers of inflammation in exhaled breath samples. PMID:22574123

McKenzie, Jennifer H.; McDevitt, James J.; Fabian, M. Patricia; Hwang, Grace M.; Milton, Donald K.

2012-01-01

233

Toward Lower Organic Environments in Astromaterial Sample Curation for Diverse Collections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Great interest was taken during the frenzied pace of the Apollo lunar sample return to achieve and monitor organic cleanliness. Yet, the first mission resulted in higher organic contamination to samples than desired. But improvements were accomplished by Apollo 12 [1]. Quarantine complicated the goal of achieving organic cleanliness by requiring negative pressure glovebox containment environments, proximity of animal, plant and microbial organic sources, and use of organic sterilants in protocols. A special low organic laboratory was set up at University of California Berkeley (UCB) to cleanly subdivide a subset of samples [2, 3, 4]. Nevertheless, the basic approach of handling rocks and regolith inside of a positive pressure stainless steel glovebox and restrict-ing the tool and container materials allowed in the gloveboxes was established by the last Apollo sample re-turn. In the last 40 years, the collections have grown to encompass Antarctic meteorites, Cosmic Dust, Genesis solar wind, Stardust comet grains and Hayabusa asteroid grains. Each of these collections have unique curation requirements for organic contamination monitor-ing and control. Here is described some changes allowed by improved technology or driven by changes in environmental regulations and economy, concluding with comments on organic witness wafers. Future sample return missions (OSIRIS-Rex; Mars; comets) will require extremely low levels of organic contamination in spacecraft collection and thus similarly low levels in curation. JSC Curation is undertaking a program to document organic baseline levels in current operations and devise ways to reduce those levels.

Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.; Burkett, P. J.; Calaway, M. J.; Oehler, D. Z.

2012-01-01

234

Comparison of blood chemistry values for samples collected from juvenile chinook salmon by three methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thirteen blood chemistry indices were compared for samples collected by three commonly used methods: caudal transection, heart puncture, and caudal vessel puncture. Apparent biases in blood chemistry values for samples obtained by caudal transection were consistent with dilution with tissue fluids: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride, and K+ were increased and Na+ and Cl- were decreased relative to values for samples obtained by caudal vessel puncture. Some enzyme activities (ALT, AST, LDH) and K+ concentrations were also greater in samples taken by heart puncture than in samples taken by caudal vessel puncture. Of the methods tested, caudal vessel puncture had the least effect on blood chemistry values and should be preferred for blood chemistry studies on juvenile salmonids.

Congleton, J.L.; LaVoie, W.J.

2001-01-01

235

Touchless monitoring of breathing function.  

PubMed

We have developed a novel method for noncontact measurement of breathing function. The method is based on statistical modeling of dynamic thermal data captured through an infrared imaging system. The expired air has higher temperature than the typical background of indoor environments (e.g., walls). Therefore, the particles of the expired air emit at a higher power than the background, a phenomenon which is captured as a distinct thermal signature in the infrared imagery. There is significant technical difficulty in computing this signature, however, because the phenomenon is of very low intensity and transient nature. We use an advanced statistical algorithm based on the method of moments and the Jeffrey's divergence measure to address the problem. So far, we were able to compute correctly the breathing waveforms for ten (10) subjects at distances ranging from 6-8 feet. The results were checked against concomitant ground-truth data collected with a traditional contact sensor. The technology is expected to find applications in the next generation of touchless polygraphy and in preventive health care. PMID:17271901

Murthy, Ramya; Pavlidis, Ioannis; Tsiamyrtzis, Panagiotis

2004-01-01

236

Breathing Like a Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

Katsioloudis, Petros J.

2010-01-01

237

Life and Breath  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a public education program combining the screening process and a follow-up program for teaching victims of emphysema and other respiratory diseases how to better their living condition through proper breathing, avoidance of air pollutants and cigarette smoking, and taking better care of themselves physically. (PD)

Ellis, Helen D.

1974-01-01

238

INTERMITTENT POSITIVE PRESSURE BREATHING  

EPA Science Inventory

Efficacy of long-term intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) treatment when used as an adjunct to the overall care of ambulatory outpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The evaluation compared the use of IPPB with use of a powered nebulizer....

239

Mutagenicity and clastogenicity of native airborne particulate matter samples collected under industrial, urban or rural influence.  

PubMed

Airborne particulate matter has recently been classified by the IARC as carcinogenic to humans (group 1). However, the link between PM chemical composition and its carcinogenicity is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and to compare genotoxic potencies of 6 native PM samples collected in spring-summer or autumn-winter, either in industrial, urban or rural area. We evaluated their mutagenicity through Ames test on YG1041, TA98, and TA102 tester strains, and their clastogenicity on human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells using comet assay, ?-H2AX quantification, and micronucleus assay. Ames test results showed a strong positive response, presumably associated with nitro-aromatics content. In addition, at least 2 positive responses were observed out of the 3 genotoxicity assays for each of the 6 samples, demonstrating their clastogenicity. Our data suggest that PM samples collected in autumn-winter season are more genotoxic than those collected in spring-summer, potentially because of higher concentrations of adsorbed organic compounds. Taken together, our results showed the mutagenicity and clastogenicity of native PM?.? samples from different origins, and bring additional elements to explain the newly recognized carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution. PMID:24685773

Lepers, C; Dergham, M; Armand, L; Billet, S; Verdin, A; Andre, V; Pottier, D; Courcot, D; Shirali, P; Sichel, F

2014-08-01

240

Microbial monitoring and methods of sample collection: a GITMO survey (Gruppo Trapianto di Midollo Osseo)  

PubMed Central

The collection of microbiological samples represents an important aspect of care both for doctors as well as nurses. It is important to recognise and identify some key points, to avoid performing ‘unnecessary’ or ‘incorrect’ sampling, which may give useless or even misleading results, these are: the moment at which the sample is collected, the collection method and timing (if indicated). The comparison between the various nursing members of the Italian National bone marrow transplant group (GITMO), showed diversity of practice across all fields. A formal survey was therefore conducted within GITMO centres looking at the methods of microbiological sample collection. These results were compared with the literature, and in addition to the lack of homogeneity of practice within the centres, a lack of compliance with the recommendations was also observed. To evaluate the effectiveness of this survey in highlighting awareness of this issue and the presence of relevant guidelines, the questionnaire was repeated (with the same centres responding), which demonstrated no major changes in care practices. Conclusion: The survey has allowed us to highlight many critical issues regarding common procedures which are not commonly discussed. Considerable differences were noted between different transplant centres, which may be attributable to the lack of Italian guidelines that can be used as a starting point for clinical practice. The plenary discussion allowed for an exchange of findings with the medical staff, who are usually responsible for requesting microbiological samples. The ideal solution would be a unique field-based training programme, associated with the dissemination of a common procedural document for ensuring evidence-based practice. PMID:24834116

Gori, Erica; Callea, Emanuela; Alberani, Francesca; Orlando, Laura

2014-01-01

241

Expiration: breathing's other face.  

PubMed

The evolution of the aspiration pump seen in tetrapod vertebrates from the buccal-pharyngeal force pump seen in air breathing fish and amphibians appears to have first involved the production of active expiration. Active inspiration arose later. This appears to have involved reconfiguration of a parafacial oscillator (now the parafacial respiratory group/retrotrapezoid nucleus (pFRG/RTN)) to produce active expiration, followed by reconfiguration of a paravagal oscillator (now the preBötC) to produce active inspiration. In the ancestral breathing cycle, inspiration follows expiration, which is in turn followed by glottal closure and breath holding. When both rhythms are expressed, as they are in reptiles and birds, and mammals under conditions of elevated respiratory drive, the pFRG/RTN appears to initiate the respiratory cycle. We propose that the coordinated output of this system is a ventilation cycle characterized by four phases. In reptiles, these consist of active inspiration (I), glottal closure (E1), a pause (an apnea or breath hold) (E2), and an active expiration (E3) that initiates the next cycle. In mammals under resting conditions, active expiration (E3) is suppressed and inspiration (I) is followed by airway constriction and diaphragmatic braking (E1) (rather than glottal closure) and a short pause at end-expiration (E2). As respiratory drive increases in mammals, expiratory muscle activity appears. Frequently, it first appears immediately preceding inspiration (E3) just as it does in reptiles. It can also appear in E1, however, and it is not yet clear what mechanisms underlie when and where in the cycle it appears. This may reflect whether the active expiration is recruited to enhance tidal volume, increase breathing frequency, or both. PMID:25194197

Jenkin, Sarah E M; Milsom, William K

2014-01-01

242

Nonlinear granular breathing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical study of the problem of driven horizontal alignments of solid, elastic spheres that are placed between two rigid walls is presented. The studies are confined to cases where the initial loading between the spheres is zero. The driving force is applied on the left outer sphere and directed into the chain. The spheres are considered to interact via the repulsive and strongly nonlinear Hertz potential. Three systems are analyzed, the monodispersed chain, the tapered chain and the decorated chain. A Hertzian chain over-compressed will respond via a dilation phase leading the system to a pulsatory mode which we call nonlinear breathing. Exhaustive studies show that the dynamics of monodispersed and tapered granular chains acted upon by a constant/time dependent force presents surprising features such as the breathing period (frequency) and the anomalous nonlinear resonance frequency. The breathing period characterizes the response of the system which is dependent upon the external force and is strongly influenced by the geometry of chain. Approximate relations for the breathing period and the anomalous nonlinear resonance frequency as functions of the magnitude of the driving force and of the chain's parameters are developed. Then the ratios of the analyzed quantities are compared to ratios obtained from simulations. Inertial mismatches introduced in granular chains enrich the dynamics of monodispersed chains leading to the discussion of continuing our work beyond this dissertation. Converting the ocean wave's energy and of small scale wind energy via granular chains into mechanical and electrical energies is discussed as possible application of the breathing phenomenon.

Simion, Robert Paul

243

Collective efficacy and obesity-related health behaviors in a community sample of African Americans.  

PubMed

The social environment is important to body mass index and obesity. However, it is unknown if perceptions of the social environment are associated with obesity-related behaviors in populations at greatest risk for being overweight or obese. We evaluated the relationship between collective efficacy and diet and physical activity in a community-based sample of African American adults who were residents in an urban area. Data were collected as part of an academic-community partnership from November 2009 to 2011. We evaluated whether participants met the recommended guidelines for diet and physical activity based on collective efficacy and their sociodemographic background, health care variables, and self-efficacy in a community-based sample of African American adults (n = 338) who were residents in the Philadelphia, PA metropolitan area. Overall, many participants did not meet the recommended guidelines for fruit and vegetable intake or physical activity. The likelihood of meeting the recommended guidelines for fruit intake increased with greater levels of collective efficacy (OR 1.56, 95 % CI 1.18, 2.07, p = 0.002) and self-efficacy for diet (OR 1.56, 95 % CI 1.19, 2.04, p = 0.001). Collective efficacy was not associated with physical activity and the positive association between collective efficacy and vegetable intake was not statistically significant (OR 1.25, 95 % CI 0.94, 1.65, p = 0.12). It is important to determine the most effective methods and settings for improving diet and physical activity behaviors in urban African Americans. Enhancing collective efficacy may be important to improving adherence to recommended guidelines for obesity-related health behaviors. PMID:24026302

Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Bellamy, Scarlett; Briggs, Vanessa; Bowman, Marjorie; Delmoor, Ernestine; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Rogers, Rodney; Purnell, Joseph; Weathers, Benita; Johnson, Jerry C

2014-02-01

244

Role of mandibular displacement and airway size in improving breathing after rapid maxillary expansion  

PubMed Central

Background Oral breathing and maxillary deficiency are often associated with steep mandibular plane angle, and retrognathic mandible compared with the faces of healthy controls. Some studies suggested that after rapid maxillary expansion, improvement in nasal breathing and repositioning of mandible with transitory increasing of facial height and, in some cases, spontaneous forward repositioning might occur. The abovementioned mandibular effects could contribute to enlarge oropharynx volume with repositioning of tongue and soft palate with an improvement of upper airway volume after treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate by cone beam computed tomography the role of oropharyngeal volume and mandibular position changes after rapid maxillary expansion in patients showing improved breathing pattern confirmed by polysomnography exam. Methods The final sample of this retrospective study comprised 14 Caucasian patients (mean age 7.6 years) who undergone rapid maxillary expansion with Haas-type expander banded on second deciduous upper molars. Cone beam computed tomography scans and polysomnography exams were collected before placing the appliance (T0) and after 12 months (T1). Mandibular landmarks localization and airway semiautomatic segmentation on cone beam computed tomography scans allowed airway volume computing and measurements. Results No significant differences were found between oropharyngeal airway changes and mandibular displacement after rapid maxillary expansion in growing patients. Conclusions The suggested improvement in upper airway and breathing after rapid maxillary expansion should be further related to different compartments of airway such as rhinopharynx and nasal cavity. PMID:24934328

2014-01-01

245

Micro gas analyzer measurement of nitric oxide in breath by direct wet scrubbing and fluorescence detection.  

PubMed

A novel method is proposed to measure NO in breath. Breath NO is a useful diagnostic measure for asthma patients. Due to the low water solubility of NO, existing wet chemical NO measurements are conducted on NO(2) after removal of pre-existing NO(2) and conversion of NO to NO(2). In contrast, this study utilizes direct measurement of NO by wet chemistry. Gaseous NO was collected into an aqueous phase by a honeycomb-patterned microchannel scrubber and reacted with diaminofluorescein-2 (DAF-2). Fluorescence of the product was measured using a miniature detector, comprising a blue light-emitting diode (LED) and a photodiode. The response intensity was found to dramatically increase following addition of NO(2) into the absorbing solution or air sample. By optimizing the conditions, the sensitivity obtained was sufficient to measure parts per billion by volume levels of NO continuously. The system was applied to real analysis of NO in breath, and the effect of coexisting compounds was investigated. The proposed system could successfully measure breath NO. PMID:20337385

Toda, Kei; Koga, Takahiro; Kosuge, Junichi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Oguchi, Hiroshi; Arimoto, Takemi

2009-08-15

246

[Breath tests as a noninvasive diagnostic method in Helicobacter pylori infection].  

PubMed

There are several diagnostic methods for Helicobacter pylori infection, some of them need an endoscopic procedure and biopsy to be performed (invasive) like the rapid urease test, culture and histology. Recently non invasive, specific, sensible, easy to perform and patient's well accepted methods had been developed known as breath test, based on the hydrolysis of labelled urea by Helicobacter pylori urease enzyme, to release ammonia and bicarbonate. Labelled CO2 reaches the bloodstream and the lungs, from where can be collected into the breath for quantification. Labelled urea has to options: 13C stable, non-radioactive and 14C unstable, radioactive. Breath test with 13C is based on the atomic mass difference between 12C and 13C and it is necessary a mass spectrometer and 40 minutes to perform it. Breath test with 14C has 1 uCi (one micro-curie) of radioactivity (1/300 of total radiation received in one year from the environment); the test takes 10 minutes and the samples are read in a beta counter. Both non-invasive tests had demonstrated sensitivity and specificity comparable to established "gold standards" for Helicobacter pylori infection diagnosis. PMID:10068759

Di Silvio, M; Larisch, J; Dibildox, M; Almaguer, I; Gitler, R; Dehesa, M; Ramírez-Barba, E J

1998-01-01

247

A Pilot Study Exploring the Use of Breath Analysis to Differentiate Healthy Cattle from Cattle Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a zoonotic disease of international public health importance. Ante-mortem surveillance is essential for control; however, current surveillance tests are hampered by limitations affecting ease of use or quality of results. There is an emerging interest in human and veterinary medicine in diagnosing disease via identification of volatile organic compounds produced by pathogens and host-pathogen interactions. The objective of this pilot study was to explore application of existing human breath collection and analysis methodologies to cattle as a means to identify M. bovis infection through detection of unique volatile organic compounds or changes in the volatile organic compound profiles present in breath. Breath samples from 23 male Holstein calves (7 non-infected and 16 M. bovis-infected) were collected onto commercially available sorbent cartridges using a mask system at 90 days post-inoculation with M. bovis. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and chromatographic data were analyzed using standard analytical chemical and metabolomic analyses, principle components analysis, and a linear discriminant algorithm. The findings provide proof of concept that breath-derived volatile organic compound analysis can be used to differentiate between healthy and M. bovis-infected cattle. PMID:24586655

Ellis, Christine K.; Stahl, Randal S.; Nol, Pauline; Waters, W. Ray; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Rhyan, Jack C.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.; McCollum, Matthew; Salman, M. D.

2014-01-01

248

Treatment of freshly harvested 1980 Georgia dent corn samples collected for aflatoxin analysis.  

PubMed

In 1980, corn was harvested from six 15-ft rows in each of 67 fields in Georgia for aflatoxin analysis. Every sixth ear from each field was placed in a sample bag to be dried the day of collection. The rest of the corn was husked and shipped to Peoria in cardboard boxes. When undried ear samples arrived in Peoria, each sample was randomly separated into 5 equivalent subsamples. One set of 67 subsamples was shelled and dried as soon as possible to avoid further aflatoxin formation. Two other sets of 67 subsamples were stored 3 and 6 weeks before shelling and drying. The remaining 2 sets of ear samples were placed in plastic bags with 5% Monoprop (1 part propionic acid plus 1 part versite) and stored 3 and 6 weeks before shelling and drying. The samples dried in Georgia before shipping had an average total aflatoxin level of 217 ng/g. Samples shelled and dried immediately after arrival had an average level of 202 ng/g. Samples shelled and dried after 3 and 6 weeks of storage had average total aflatoxin levels of 417 and 387 ng/g, respectively. Samples stored 3 and 6 weeks in the presence of 5% Monoprop (2.5% propionic acid) had average total aflatoxin levels of 120 and 157 ng/g, respectively. PMID:6826508

Shotwell, O L; Bennett, G A; Kwolek, W F; Hesseltine, C W

1983-01-01

249

Detection of pulmonary amylase activity in exhaled breath condensate.  

PubMed

Amylase activity in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is usually interpreted as an indication of oropharyngeal contamination despite the fact that amylase can be found in pulmonary excretions. The aim of this study was to recruit and refine an amylase assay in order to detect amylase activity in any EBC sample and to develop a method to identify EBC samples containing amylase of pulmonary origin. EBC was collected from 40 volunteers with an EcoScreen condenser. Amylase assays and methods to discriminate between oropharyngeal and pulmonary proteins were tested and developed using matched EBC and saliva samples. Our refined 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-?-D-maltotriosid (CNP-G3) assay was 40-fold more sensitive than the most sensitive commercial assay and allowed detection of amylase activity in 30 µl of EBC. We developed a dot-blot assay which allowed detection of salivary protein in saliva diluted up to 150 000-fold. By plotting amylase activity against staining intensity we identified a few EBC samples with high amylase activity which were aligned with diluted saliva. We believe that EBC samples aligned with diluted saliva contain amylase activity introduced during EBC collection and that all other EBC samples contain amylase activity of pulmonary origin and are basically free of oropharyngeal protein contamination. PMID:24287549

Zweifel, M; Rechsteiner, T; Hofer, M; Boehler, A

2013-12-01

250

Developing Your Statistics The Statistics tab is used to display statistics for some or all of your collected samples. You will need at least one sample  

E-print Network

Developing Your Statistics The Statistics tab is used to display statistics for some or all of your collected samples. You will need at least one sample and a plot to view statistics. Select Samples Select. are displayed and the statistics are added to the Master Statistics Table. Uncheck samples to remove them from

251

Trace gas measurements from whole air samples collected over the Antarctic continent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Whole air samples collected aboard the NASA DC-8 and ER-2 aircraft as part of the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) were analyzed in a field laboratory set up at Punta Arenas, Chile, in August and September, 1987. Mixing ratios obtained from gas chromatographic analyses of these samples are presented for N2O, CFCl3, CFCl2, C2F3Cl3, CH3CCl3, CH4, and CO. Variations in the mixing ratios of these gases along the individual flight paths of the aircraft are used as tracers to indicate the history of air masses over and near the Antarctic continent.

Heidt, L. E.; Vedder, J. F.; Pollock, Walter H.; Henry, Bruce E.; Lueb, Richard A.

1988-01-01

252

STS-55 Payload Specialist Schlegel collects fungi sample at SL-D2 Rack 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-55 German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, wearing lightweight headset, collects fungi sample while working at Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module Rack 1 Work Bench. Schlegel is conducting these procedures in conjunction with the 'Fruiting Body Development of Fungi' experiment. Pieces of the experiment casing freefloat in the workstation.Schlegel represents the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) on the 10-day spacelab mission.

1993-01-01

253

STS-55 Payload Specialist Schlegel collects fungi sample at SL-D2 Rack 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-55 German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, wearing lightweight headset, collects fungi sample while working at Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module Rack 1 Work Bench. Schlegel is conducting these procedures in conjunction with the 'Fruiting Body Development of Fungi' experiment. Schlegel was one of two payload specialists representing the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) on the 10-day spacelab mission.

1993-01-01

254

Breathing Simulator of Workers for Respirator Performance Test.  

PubMed

Breathing machines are widely used to evaluate respirator performance but they are capable of generating only limited air flow patterns, such as, sine, triangular and square waves. In order to evaluate the respirator performance in practical use, it is desirable to test the respirator using the actual breathing patterns of wearers. However, it has been a difficult task for a breathing machine to generate such complicated flow patterns, since the human respiratory volume changes depending on the human activities and workload. In this study, we have developed an electromechanical breathing simulator and a respiration sampling device to record and reproduce worker's respiration. It is capable of generating various flow patterns by inputting breathing pattern signals recorded by a computer, as well as the fixed air flow patterns. The device is equipped with a self-control program to compensate the difference in inhalation and exhalation volume and the measurement errors on the breathing flow rate. The system was successfully applied to record the breathing patterns of workers engaging in welding and reproduced the breathing patterns. PMID:25382381

Yuasa, Hisashi; Kumita, Mikio; Honda, Takeshi; Kimura, Kazushi; Nozaki, Kosuke; Emi, Hitoshi; Otani, Yoshio

2014-11-01

255

Fractal Noise in Breathing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our understanding of respiration derives from applications of a variety of physical and life science disciplines, methods,\\u000a and models to a critical physiological process: exchange and balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide. We know that breathing\\u000a at rest arises from a diversity of interrelated and interactive physical and chemical mechanisms involving molecular and cellular\\u000a processes in the brainstem which include-among

Bernard Hoop; Melvin D. Burton; Homayoun Kazemi

256

The Air We Breathe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This picture book is designed to introduce children to the Earth's atmosphere and its importance to life on Earth. It also introduces how the addition of new gases (e.g., ozone) contributes to changing the quality of air we breathe. With an understanding of how our atmosphere works, we can begin to understand how our activities may be contributing to some of those changes in air quality.

257

Regression modeling of particle size distributions in urban storm water: advancements through improved sample collection methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new sample collection system was developed to improve the representation of sediment entrained in urban storm water by integrating water quality samples from the entire water column. The depth-integrated sampler arm (DISA) was able to mitigate sediment stratification bias in storm water, thereby improving the characterization of suspended-sediment concentration and particle size distribution at three independent study locations. Use of the DISA decreased variability, which improved statistical regression to predict particle size distribution using surrogate environmental parameters, such as precipitation depth and intensity. The performance of this statistical modeling technique was compared to results using traditional fixed-point sampling methods and was found to perform better. When environmental parameters can be used to predict particle size distributions, environmental managers have more options when characterizing concentrations, loads, and particle size distributions in urban runoff.

Fienen, Michael N.; Selbig, William R.

2012-01-01

258

Feasibility of automated speech sample collection with stuttering children using interactive voice response (IVR) technology.  

PubMed

Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of adopting automated interactive voice response (IVR) technology for remotely capturing standardized speech samples from stuttering children. Method: Participants were 10 6-year-old stuttering children. Their parents called a toll-free number from their homes and were prompted to elicit speech from their children using a standard protocol involving conversation, picture description and games. The automated IVR system was implemented using an off-the-shelf telephony software program and delivered by a standard desktop computer. The software infrastructure utilizes voice over internet protocol. Speech samples were automatically recorded during the calls. Video recordings were simultaneously acquired in the home at the time of the call to evaluate the fidelity of the telephone collected samples. Key outcome measures included syllables spoken, percentage of syllables stuttered and an overall rating of stuttering severity using a 10-point scale. Results: Data revealed a high level of relative reliability in terms of intra-class correlation between the video and telephone acquired samples on all outcome measures during the conversation task. Findings were less consistent for speech samples during picture description and games. Conclusions: Results suggest that IVR technology can be used successfully to automate remote capture of child speech samples. PMID:25020146

Vogel, Adam P; Block, Susan; Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Eadie, Patricia; Barth, Ben; Conway, Laura; Mundt, James C; Reilly, Sheena

2014-07-14

259

Pesticide residues in beeswax samples collected from honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera L.) in France.  

PubMed

In 2002 a field survey was initiated in French apiaries in order to monitor the health of honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera L.). Studied apiaries were evenly distributed across five sites located in continental France. Beeswax samples were collected once a year over 2 years from a total of 125 honey bee colonies. Multiresidue analyses were performed on these samples in order to identify residues of 16 insecticides and acaricides and two fungicides. Residues of 14 of the searched-for compounds were found in samples. Tau-fluvalinate, coumaphos and endosulfan residues were the most frequently occurring residues (61.9, 52.2 and 23.4% of samples respectively). Coumaphos was found in the highest average quantities (792.6 microg kg(-1)). Residues of cypermethrin, lindane and deltamethrin were found in 21.9, 4.3 and 2.4% of samples respectively. Statistical tests showed no difference between years of sampling, with the exception of the frequency of pyrethroid residues. Beeswax contamination was the result of both in-hive acaricide treatments and, to a much lesser extent, environmental pollution. PMID:17879980

Chauzat, Marie-Pierre; Faucon, Jean-Paul

2007-11-01

260

Hydrogen peroxide in exhaled breath condensate: A clinical study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To study the ongoing inflammatory process of lung in healthy individuals with risk factors and comparing with that of a known diseased condition. To study the inflammatory response to treatment. Background: Morbidity and mortality of respiratory diseases are raising in trend due to increased smokers, urbanization and air pollution, the diagnosis of these conditions during early stage and management can improve patient's lifestyle and morbidity. Materials and Methods: One hundred subjects were studied from July 2010 to September 2010; the level of hydrogen peroxide concentration in exhaled breath condensate was measured using Ecocheck. Results: Of the 100 subjects studied, 23 were healthy individuals with risk factors (smoking, exposure to air pollution, and urbanization); the values of hydrogen peroxide in smokers were 200-2220 nmol/l and in non-smokers 340-760 nmol/l. In people residing in rural areas values were 20-140 nmol/l in non-smokers and 180 nmol/l in smokers. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease cases, during acute exacerbations values were 540-3040 nmol/l and 240-480 nmol/l following treatment. In acute exacerbations of bronchial asthma, values were 400-1140 nmol/l and 100-320 nmol/l following treatment. In cases of bronchiectasis, values were 300-340 nmol/l and 200-280 nmol/l following treatment. In diagnosed pneumonia cases values were 1060-11800 nmol/l and 540-700 nmol/l following treatment. In interstitial lung diseases, values ranged from 220-720 nmol/l and 210-510 nmol/l following treatment. Conclusion: Exhaled breath condensate provides a non-invasive means of sampling the lower respiratory tract. Collection of exhaled breath condensate might be useful to detect the oxidative destruction of the lung as well as early inflammation of the airways in a healthy individual with risk factors and comparing the inflammatory response to treatment. PMID:22628925

Nagaraja, C.; Shashibhushan, B. L.; Sagar; Asif, Mohamed; Manjunath, P. H.

2012-01-01

261

A REVIEW OF SOME TRACER-TEST DESIGN EQUATIONS FOR TRACER-MASS ESTIMATION AND SAMPLE COLLECTION FREQUENCY  

EPA Science Inventory

Determination of necessary tracer mass, initial sample-collection time, and subsequent sample-collection frequency are the three most difficult aspects to estimate for a proposed tracer test prior to conducting the tracer test. To facilitate tracer-mass estimation, 33 mass-estima...

262

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF SOIL SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.20)  

EPA Science Inventory

This SOP describes the method for collecting soil samples from the child's outdoor play area to measure for persistent organic pollutants. Soil samples are collected by scraping up the top 0.5 cm of soil in a 0.095 m2 (1 ft2) area in the middle of the child's play area....

263

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF DISLODGEABLE RESIDUES -- PUF ROLLER SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.18)  

EPA Science Inventory

This SOP describes the method to collect transferable residues from indoor floor surfaces. The sampling procedures described are applicable to bare floors or covered floor surfaces, e.g., carpeting and vinyl flooring. The samples will be collected only in the day care centers o...

264

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FLOOR DUST SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.19)  

EPA Science Inventory

This SOP describes the method for collecting a floor dust sample from carpet. Dust samples will be collected in the room that the child uses most at home and/or at day care using a High Volume Small Surface Sampler (HVS3). In addition, participants will also be asked to donate a ...

265

High volume electrostatic field-sampler for collection of fine particle bulk samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high volume electrostatic field-sampler was developed for collection of fine particles, which easily can be recovered for subsequent sample characterisation and bioassays. The sampler was based on a commercial office air cleaner and consisted of a prefilter followed by electrostatic collection plates operating at 2.7 kV. The sampler performance was characterised for 26 nm to 5.4 ?m-size particles in urban street air. The collection efficiency reached a maximum (60-70%) between 0.2 and 0.8 ?m and dropped to ˜25% at 30 nm and 2.5 ?m, respectively. After extraction in water, the particle loss was<2%. The extraction efficiency for dry lyophilised particulate matter was above 80%, allowing retrievement of ˜12 mg day -1 in urban street air at PM 10 levels of ˜24 ?g m -3. The ozone generating capacity of the corona discharge during operation was on the order of 10 ppb. A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) degradation test using benzo[a]pyrene as a model showed that ˜85% was degraded after 24 h. However, similar results were observed when the corona discharge was switched off. Hence, the ozone and other corona discharge reactants do not appear to contribute considerably to PAH-degradation. The overall results show that the sampler type is a promising alternative to traditional sampling of fine particles for bulk analysis and bioassays. The main advantages are simple operation, high stability, high quantifiable particle recovery rates and low cost.

Kumar Sharma, Anoop; Wallin, Håkan; Alstrup Jensen, Keld

266

Toxin profile in samples collected in fresh and brackish water in Germany.  

PubMed

The simultaneous detection of cyanotoxins is an important issue in order to prevent intoxications. In the present paper an Ultra Performance liquid Chromatography tandem mass spectrometry UPLC-MS/MS method was developed in order to simultaneously identify and quantify cylindrospermopsin (CYN), several microcystins (MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-YR) and some anatoxin-a (ATX-a) analogues. By using this new method all these toxins can be quickly separate. In addition the amino acid phenylalanine (Phe) can also be separate and therefore misidentifications with ATX-a can be avoided. By using this new method the presence of these toxins was studied in samples collected in several German localizations within the sampling program of the European Project ?Aqua (Universal microarrays for the evaluation of fresh-water quality based on detection of pathogens and their toxins). In these conditions, several ATX-a analogues, Phe, MC-LR and MC-RR were reported in samples collected. PMID:25448386

Rodriguez, I; Rodriguez, C; Alfonso, A; Otero, P; Meyer, T; Breitenbach, U; Botana, L M

2014-12-01

267

Sample preparation, data collection and preliminary data analysis in biomolecular solution X-ray scattering  

PubMed Central

In addition to the classic methods of structural biology - X-ray crystallography and NMR, solution X-ray scattering (SAXS) is starting to play an important role in experiential structural investigation of biological macromolecules. Ease of SAXS data collection and sophistication of its data analysis tools increasingly used as black boxes can be seen as both a blessing and a curse. On one hand, a sample set aside for solution scattering will always yield experimental data, including cases when macromolecule cannot be crystallized or when it is too large for application of solution NMR. On the other hand, any sample, whether pure or contaminated, whether mono- or polydisperse, will yield scattering data and it is up to the user to ensure the absence of artifacts in them and to choose a proper structural modeling strategy. We will discuss experimental aspects of X-ray solution scattering including sample preparation, data collection, as well as the steps in data processing and preliminary analysis that need to be carried out to ensure the absence of artifacts. Our goal is to summarize everything than can possibly go wrong with SAXS data measurement so that the user can have confidence in the data before they enter structural modeling. PMID:23151743

Grishaev, Alexander

2012-01-01

268

Determination of boron contents in water samples collected from the Neelum valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Intake of boron from food and drinking water may pose a risk to the public health above a certain concentration level. Therefore, knowledge of boron concentration in drinking water and food items is essential. In this context, samples of drinking water were collected from natural springs of the Neelum valley, Azad Kashmir, hit by devastating earthquake in 2005. In these samples, boron concentration was determined using neutron-induced radiography technique. To do so, unknown water samples, along with standard of known boron dried on CR-39 detectors, were irradiated with thermal neutrons. After exposure, CR-39 detectors were etched in 6 M NaOH at 70°C. The tracks produced due to the alpha particles and (7)Li ions as a result of (10)B(n,?)(7)Li reaction were counted under an optical microscope. The tracks produced in theses samples were then related to the boron contents. The measured boron concentration in water samples was found to vary from 0.105?±?0.005 to 0.247?±?0.013 mg/l with an average value of 0.17?±?0.04 mg/l, which are within the acceptable limits. PMID:20306233

Akram, Muhammad; Matiullah; Iqbal, Arshid; Husaini, S N; Malik, Fariha

2011-03-01

269

Miniature CVD-diamond corning drills for robotic sample collection and analysis.  

SciTech Connect

Coring tools have been used etlectivelv on the Moon, but to date no such tools have been used on any other extraterrestrial surface. The lunar experience includes both manual (Apollo) and robotic (Luna) systems . These coring systems were concerned primarily with acquiring samples from depth for return to Earth or for the creation of instrument emplacement holes (e .g ., heat probes). Current designs for planetary drills differ from the lunar tools primarily in that they are integrated with robotic instrumentation for remote analysis, but the role of the drilling or coring system remains one of acquiring samples that must be extracted from the core barrel for analysis . Missing from current sample collection systems is a tool that can double as both a conng device and a sample holder. This dual utility can minimize the number of motions, the mass, and the power required for several classes of instruments in planetary surface exploration. To be effective, such a system must be durable and simple in operation. Hollow CVD diamond drills possess the hardness, excellent cutting properties, and heat resistance required for drilling into a wide variety of rocks and minerals. Because CVD diamond is also unreactive and transparent to infrared radiation and to X-rays of moderate to high energry, it can be used as a sample holder in various instruments for X-ray diffraction (XRD), Xray fluorescence (XRF), infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermal analysis.

Vaniman, D. T. (David T.); Trava-Airoldi, V.J.; Bish, D. L. (David L.); Chipera, S. J. (Steve J.)

2003-01-01

270

Speciation of elements in sediment samples collected at lakes Volvi and Koronia, N. Greece.  

PubMed

A five-step sequential extraction procedure was applied for the determination of the distribution of seven elements (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe) in sediment samples collected at two lakes, Volvi and Koronia, located in N. Greece. Samples were taken in two seasons, and the average concentration of the elements was calculated. The accuracy evaluated by comparing total trace metal concentrations with the sum of the five individual fractions proved to be satisfactory. Based on the results determined at one sampling point in Koronia and two sampling points along the lake Volvi, it seems that the two lakes have not yet been polluted. There were no significant changes in the individual seasonal concentrations of elements in this monitoring period. Cd, Pb, Cu and Cr are associated with the oxidizable, carbonates and residual fractions. Zn and Fe are associated with residual and reducible fractions. The metals that we most easily extracted in the samples analysed in both lakes are Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu and also Mn in the case of Koronia lake. PMID:14664860

Fytianos, K; Lourantou, A

2004-03-01

271

Diffraction cartography: applying microbeams to macromolecular crystallography sample evaluation and data collection.  

PubMed

Crystals of biological macromolecules often exhibit considerable inter-crystal and intra-crystal variation in diffraction quality. This requires the evaluation of many samples prior to data collection, a practice that is already widespread in macromolecular crystallography. As structural biologists move towards tackling ever more ambitious projects, new automated methods of sample evaluation will become crucial to the success of many projects, as will the availability of synchrotron-based facilities optimized for high-throughput evaluation of the diffraction characteristics of samples. Here, two examples of the types of advanced sample evaluation that will be required are presented: searching within a sample-containing loop for microcrystals using an X-ray beam of 5 microm diameter and selecting the most ordered regions of relatively large crystals using X-ray beams of 5-50 microm in diameter. A graphical user interface developed to assist with these screening methods is also presented. For the case in which the diffraction quality of a relatively large crystal is probed using a microbeam, the usefulness and implications of mapping diffraction-quality heterogeneity (diffraction cartography) are discussed. The implementation of these techniques in the context of planned upgrades to the ESRF's structural biology beamlines is also presented. PMID:20693684

Bowler, Matthew W; Guijarro, Matias; Petitdemange, Sebastien; Baker, Isabel; Svensson, Olof; Burghammer, Manfred; Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph; Gordon, Elspeth J; Flot, David; McSweeney, Sean M; Leonard, Gordon A

2010-08-01

272

The heavy metal content of wild edible mushroom samples collected in canakkale province, Turkey.  

PubMed

In this study, concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) were determined in three edible mushroom species (Lactarius deliciosus, Russula delica, and Rhizopogon roseolus) collected in five sampling sites in Canakkale province, Turkey. Mean values of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were 0.72, 0.26, 28.34, 1.53, and 64.62 mg/kg, respectively. The highest concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were determined in species R. delica, while Cr was observed in L. deliciosus. In terms of the nutritional aspect, taking into account the concentration of Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake recommended by FAO/WHO, the maximum concentration of Cd is a restrictive factor for consumption of the collected mushroom species. The concentrations of the other elements have no health risks when consumed at optimal levels. PMID:19618133

Cayir, Akin; Co?kun, Münevver; Co?kun, Mahmut

2010-05-01

273

Assessment of an improved stack sample collection system for 3H and 14C.  

PubMed

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a simple, efficient, and cost-effective replacement for the traditional glass column system used to monitor H and C emissions from rooftop stacks. The primary goals in developing a replacement (the modified jar system) were to 1) maintain or improve collection efficiency while keeping leakage to less than 5%, 2) simplify the set-up process, and 3) reduce costs. Both the traditional glass column assembly and the modified jar system were operated in tandem for a 13-mo period. Results showed that the modified sample jar system provided equivalent or improved collection efficiency for both H and C. Additional advantages included reduced leak-test errors, quicker and simpler set-up, and material costs that were reduced by nearly an order of magnitude. PMID:23803665

Jelinski, John; Wahl, Linnea; Donovan, Thomas

2013-08-01

274

Exhaled Breath Condensate: A Promising Source for Biomarkers of Lung Disease  

PubMed Central

Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has been increasingly studied as a noninvasive research method for sampling the alveolar and airway space and is recognized as a promising source of biomarkers of lung diseases. Substances measured in EBC include oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators, such as arachidonic acid derivatives, reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, reduced and oxidized glutathione, and inflammatory cytokines. Although EBC has great potential as a source of biomarkers in many lung diseases, the low concentrations of compounds within the EBC present challenges in sample collection and analysis. Although EBC is viewed as a noninvasive method for sampling airway lining fluid (ALF), validation is necessary to confirm that EBC truly represents the ALF. Likewise, a dilution factor for the EBC is needed in order to compare across subjects and determine changes in the ALF. The aims of this paper are to address the characteristics of EBC; strategies to standardize EBC sample collection and review available analytical techniques for EBC analysis. PMID:23365513

Liang, Yan; Yeligar, Samantha M.; Brown, Lou Ann S.

2012-01-01

275

Measurement of Ethanol in Gaseous Breath Using a Miniature Gas Chromatograph  

PubMed Central

We designed and built a novel, miniature gas chromatograph (mGC) to use exhaled breath to estimate blood ethanol concentrations that may offer GC quality sensitivity and specificity, but with portability, reduced size, and decreased cost. We hypothesized that the mGC would accurately estimate the serum ethanol concentration using exhaled breath. Human subjects (n = 8) were dosed with ethanol employing the Widmark criteria, targeting a blood concentration of 0.08 g/dL. Serum and breath samples were collected concurrently over an hour. Ethanol concentrations in serum were measured using a CLIA-approved laboratory. Ethanol concentrations in conventional breath were assayed using a calibrated mGC or Intoxilyzer 400PA. Data were analyzed using Bland-Altman analysis using serum concentrations as a “gold standard”. For the mGC, the regression line (correlation coefficient), bias, and 95% limits of agreement were y = 1.013x ? 0.009 (r = 0.91), ?0.008 g/dL, and ?0.031 to 0.016 g/dL, respectively, for 30 specimens. For the Intoxilyzer 400PA, the regression line (correlation coefficient), bias, and 95% limits of agreement were y = 0.599x + 0.008 (r = 0.86), ?0.024 g/dL, and ?0.049 to 0.002 g/dL, respectively, for 71 specimens with a large magnitude effect. We concluded that the mGC, using exhaled breath, performed well to estimate the serum ethanol concentrations. PMID:21439148

Morey, Timothy E.; Booth, Matthew M.; Prather, Robert A.; Nixon, Sara J.; Boissoneault, Jeff; Melker, Richard J.; Goldberger, Bruce A.; Wohltjen, Hank; Dennis, Donn M.

2011-01-01

276

Isotopic composition and origin of uranium and plutonium in selected soil samples collected in Kosovo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil samples collected from locations in Kosovo where depleted uranium (DU) ammunition was expended during the 1999 Balkan conflict were analysed for uranium and plutonium isotopes content (234U,235U,236U,238U,238Pu,239+240Pu). The analyses were conducted using gamma spectrometry (235U,238U), alpha spectrometry (238Pu,239+240Pu), inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP—MS) (234U,235U,236U,238U) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) (236U). The results indicated that whenever the U concentration exceeded

P. R. Danesi; A. Bleise; W. Burkart; T. Cabianca; M. J. Campbell; M. Makarewicz; J. Moreno; C. Tuniz; M. Hotchkis

2003-01-01

277

Note on sampling without replacing from a finite collection of matrices  

E-print Network

This technical note supplies an affirmative answer to a question raised in a recent pre-print [arXiv:0910.1879] in the context of a "matrix recovery" problem. Assume one samples m Hermitian matrices X_1, ..., X_m with replacement from a finite collection. The deviation of the sum X_1+...+X_m from its expected value in terms of the operator norm can be estimated by an "operator Chernoff-bound" due to Ahlswede and Winter. The question arose whether the bounds obtained this way continue to hold if the matrices are sampled without replacement. We remark that a positive answer is implied by a classical argument by Hoeffding. Some consequences for the matrix recovery problem are sketched.

David Gross; Vincent Nesme

2010-05-06

278

RoboHound:developing sample collection and preconcentration hardware for a remote trace explosives detection system.  

SciTech Connect

The RoboHound{trademark} Project was a three-year, multiphase project at Sandia National Laboratories to build and refine a working prototype trace explosive detection system as a tool for a commercial robot. The RoboHound system was envisioned to be a tool for emergency responders to test suspicious items (i.e., packages or vehicles) for explosives while maintaining a safe distance. The project investigated combining Sandia's expertise in trace explosives detection with a wheeled robotic platform that could be programmed to interrogate suspicious items remotely for the presence of explosives. All of the RoboHound field tests were successful, especially with regards to the ability to collect and detect trace samples of RDX. The project has gone from remote sampling with human intervention to a fully automatic system that requires no human intervention until the robot returns from a sortie. A proposal is being made for additional work leading towards commercialization.

Peterson, David J. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Denning, David J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Lenz, Michael C.; Anderson, Robert J.; Carlson, Dennis L.; Hunter, John Anthony; Gladwell, T. Scott; Mitchell, Mary-Anne; Hannum, David W.; Baumann, Mark J.

2005-09-01

279

Ram-air sample collection device for a chemical warfare agent sensor  

DOEpatents

In a surface acoustic wave sensor mounted within a body, the sensor having a surface acoustic wave array detector and a micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator exposed on a surface of the body, an apparatus for collecting air for the sensor, comprising a housing operatively arranged to mount atop the body, the housing including a multi-stage channel having an inlet and an outlet, the channel having a first stage having a first height and width proximate the inlet, a second stage having a second lower height and width proximate the micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator, a third stage having a still lower third height and width proximate the surface acoustic wave array detector, and a fourth stage having a fourth height and width proximate the outlet, where the fourth height and width are substantially the same as the first height and width.

Megerle, Clifford A. (Manassas, VA); Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM)

2002-01-01

280

Combined-sewer overflow data and methods of sample collection for selected sites, Detroit, Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From October 1, 1994 through December 31, 1995, four combined-sewer discharging to the Detroit River in Detroit, Michigan were monitored to characterize storm-related water quantity and quality. Water velocity, stage, discharge, and precipitation were measured continuously and recorded at 5-minute intervals. Water-quality samples were collected at discrete times during each storm and analyzed for inorganic and organic pollutants. This report includes the sampling approach, field collection and processing techniques, and methods of chemical analysis, as well as a compilation of combined sewer discharge volumes, chemical data, and quality control data. These data may be used by resource managers and scientists (1) to describe temporal variation for pollutant concentrations in combined-sewage for various overflow events; (2) to describe spatial distribution of selected pollutants in the four combined-sewer overflows discharging to the Detroit River; (3) to calculate pollutant loads to the Detroit River from the four overflow sites for the monitored storm events; (4) to estimate pollutant loadings form other overflow sites; and, (5) to provide data and information which can be used to define appropriate management methods to reduce or eliminate untreated combined-sewer overflows. Selected combined-sewers were sampled between 30 and 82 times for inorganic pollutants, and between 14 and 22 times for organic pollutants, depending on the site. These samples represented between 8 and 17 storms during which one or more combined-sewers overflowed. The monitored pollutants included fecal coliform, fecal streptococci, and Escherichia coli; antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, total chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, silver, thallium and zinc; and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, volatile organic compounds, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. In general, metal and non-metal inorganic pollutants were detected at all sites. Many organic pollutants were not detected at all.

Sweat, M.J.; Wolf, J.R.

1997-01-01

281

Personal exposures, indoor and outdoor air concentrations, and exhaled breath concentrations of selected volatile organic compounds measured for 600 residents of New Jersey, North Dakota, North Carolina and California  

Microsoft Academic Search

EPA's TEAM Study has measured exposures to 20 volatile organic compounds in personal air, outdoor air, drinking water, and breath of 600 residents of New Jersey, North Carolina, North Dakota, and California. All participants were selected by a probability sampling scheme to represent a total of 700,000 inhabitants of seven cities. Participants carried a personal monitor to collect two 12?hour

Lance A. Wallace

1986-01-01

282

PERSONAL EXPOSURES, INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR CONCENTRATIONS, AND EXHALED BREATH CONCENTRATIONS OF SELECTED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS MEASURED FOR 600 RESIDENTS OF NEW JERSEY, NORTH DAKOTA, NORTH CAROLINA AND CALIFORNIA  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's TEAM Study has measured exposures to 20 volatile organic compounds in personal air, outdoor air, drinking water, and breath of 600 residents of New Jersey, North Carolina, North Dakota, and California. Participants carried a personal monitor to collect two 12-hour air sampl...

283

DEVELOPMENT OF A TAMPER RESISTANT/INDICATING AEROSOL COLLECTION SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AT BULK HANDLING FACILITIES  

SciTech Connect

Environmental sampling has become a key component of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards approaches since its approval for use in 1996. Environmental sampling supports the IAEA's mission of drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear material or nuclear activities in a Nation State. Swipe sampling is the most commonly used method for the collection of environmental samples from bulk handling facilities. However, augmenting swipe samples with an air monitoring system, which could continuously draw samples from the environment of bulk handling facilities, could improve the possibility of the detection of undeclared activities. Continuous sampling offers the opportunity to collect airborne materials before they settle onto surfaces which can be decontaminated, taken into existing duct work, filtered by plant ventilation, or escape via alternate pathways (i.e. drains, doors). Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been working to further develop an aerosol collection technology that could be installed at IAEA safeguarded bulk handling facilities. The addition of this technology may reduce the number of IAEA inspector visits required to effectively collect samples. The principal sample collection device is a patented Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) which utilizes electrostatic precipitation principles to deposit particulates onto selected substrates. Recent work has focused on comparing traditional swipe sampling to samples collected via an ACE system, and incorporating tamper resistant and tamper indicating (TRI) technologies into the ACE system. Development of a TRI-ACE system would allow collection of samples at uranium/plutonium bulk handling facilities in a manner that ensures sample integrity and could be an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. This work was supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA).

Sexton, L.

2012-06-06

284

The Air We Breathe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This picture book is designed to introduce children to the Earth's atmosphere and its importance to life on Earth. It also introduces how the addition of new gases (e.g., ozone) contributes to changing the quality of air we breathe. With an understanding of how our atmosphere works, we can begin to understand how our activities may be contributing to some of those changes in air quality. The back cover includes a short demo/activity called Making a Gas You Can’t See (Carbon Dioxide).

285

Methanol in human breath.  

PubMed

Using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry for trace gas analysis of the human breath, the concentrations of methanol and ethanol have been measured for various test persons consuming alcoholic beverages and various amounts of fruits, respectively. The methanol concentrations increased from a natural (physiological) level of approximately 0.4 ppm up to approximately 2 ppm a few hours after eating about 1/2 kg of fruits, and about the same concentration was reached after drinking of 100 ml brandy containing 24% volume of ethanol and 0.19% volume of methanol. PMID:8561283

Taucher, J; Lagg, A; Hansel, A; Vogel, W; Lindinger, W

1995-10-01

286

Activity concentrations of environmental samples collected in Fukushima Prefecture immediately after the Fukushima nuclear accident  

PubMed Central

Radionuclide concentrations in environmental samples such as surface soils, plants and water were evaluated by high purity germanium detector measurements. The contribution rate of short half-life radionuclides such as 132I to the exposure dose to residents was discussed from the measured values. The highest values of the 131I/137Cs activity ratio ranged from 49 to 70 in the environmental samples collected at Iwaki City which is located to the south of the F1-NPS. On the other hand, the 132I/131I activity ratio in the same environmental samples had the lowest values, ranging from 0.01 to 0.02. By assuming that the 132I/131I activity ratio in the atmosphere was equal to the ratio in the environmental samples, the percent contribution to the thyroid equivalent dose by 132I was estimated to be less than 2%. Moreover, the contribution to the thyroid exposure by 132I might be negligible if 132I contamination was restricted to Iwaki City. PMID:23887080

Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Monzen, Satoru; Osanai, Minoru; Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sahoo, Sarata K.; Kovács, Tibor; Yamada, Masatoshi; Nakata, Akifumi; Yoshida, Mitsuaki; Yoshino, Hironori; Mariya, Yasushi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

2013-01-01

287

Activity concentrations of environmental samples collected in Fukushima Prefecture immediately after the Fukushima nuclear accident.  

PubMed

Radionuclide concentrations in environmental samples such as surface soils, plants and water were evaluated by high purity germanium detector measurements. The contribution rate of short half-life radionuclides such as (132)I to the exposure dose to residents was discussed from the measured values. The highest values of the (131)I/(137)Cs activity ratio ranged from 49 to 70 in the environmental samples collected at Iwaki City which is located to the south of the F1-NPS. On the other hand, the (132)I/(131)I activity ratio in the same environmental samples had the lowest values, ranging from 0.01 to 0.02. By assuming that the (132)I/(131)I activity ratio in the atmosphere was equal to the ratio in the environmental samples, the percent contribution to the thyroid equivalent dose by (132)I was estimated to be less than 2%. Moreover, the contribution to the thyroid exposure by (132)I might be negligible if (132)I contamination was restricted to Iwaki City. PMID:23887080

Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Monzen, Satoru; Osanai, Minoru; Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sahoo, Sarata K; Kovács, Tibor; Yamada, Masatoshi; Nakata, Akifumi; Yoshida, Mitsuaki; Yoshino, Hironori; Mariya, Yasushi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

2013-01-01

288

Activity concentrations of environmental samples collected in Fukushima Prefecture immediately after the Fukushima nuclear accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radionuclide concentrations in environmental samples such as surface soils, plants and water were evaluated by high purity germanium detector measurements. The contribution rate of short half-life radionuclides such as 132I to the exposure dose to residents was discussed from the measured values. The highest values of the 131I/137Cs activity ratio ranged from 49 to 70 in the environmental samples collected at Iwaki City which is located to the south of the F1-NPS. On the other hand, the 132I/131I activity ratio in the same environmental samples had the lowest values, ranging from 0.01 to 0.02. By assuming that the 132I/131I activity ratio in the atmosphere was equal to the ratio in the environmental samples, the percent contribution to the thyroid equivalent dose by 132I was estimated to be less than 2%. Moreover, the contribution to the thyroid exposure by 132I might be negligible if 132I contamination was restricted to Iwaki City.

Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Monzen, Satoru; Osanai, Minoru; Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sahoo, Sarata K.; Kovács, Tibor; Yamada, Masatoshi; Nakata, Akifumi; Yoshida, Mitsuaki; Yoshino, Hironori; Mariya, Yasushi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

2013-07-01

289

Aptamer affinity chromatography for rapid assay of adenosine in microdialysis samples collected in vivo.  

PubMed

An anti-adenosine aptamer was evaluated as a stationary phase in packed capillary liquid chromatography. Using an aqueous mobile phase containing 20 mM Mg2+, adenosine was strongly retained on the column. A gradient of increasing Ni2+ (to 18 mM), which is presumed to complex with nitrogen atoms in adenosine involved in binding to the aptamer, eluted adenosine in a narrow zone. Up to 6 microl of 1.2 microM adenosine could be injected onto the 150-microm I.D. x 7 cm long column without loss of adenosine. With UV absorbance detection, the detection limit was 30 nM or 120 fmol (4 microl injected). Samples could be repetitively injected with 4.6% relative standard deviation in peak area. Columns were stable to at least 200 injections. The adenosine assay, which required no sample preparation, was used on microdialysis samples collected from the somatosensory cortex of chloral hydrate anesthetized rats. Total analysis times were short enough that dialysate samples could be injected every 5 min. Basal dialysate concentrations of adenosine stabilized at 87+/-10 nM (n=5) with the probe operated at 0.6 microl/min. PMID:12924787

Deng, Qing; Watson, Christopher J; Kennedy, Robert T

2003-07-11

290

PIXE analysis of size-fractionated aerosol samples collected at birkenes, Norway, during spring 1987  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single orifice cascade impactor was used to collect size-fractionated aerosol samples in Birkenes, Southern Norway, during the spring of 1987. The samples were analyzed for about 20 elements by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). On the basis of the average size distributions and mass median diameters (MMDs), the elements could be classified in three different groups. Mg, Al, Cl, Ca, Ti, and Fe exhibited a unimodal size distribution, with a MMD of about 4 ?m equivalent aerodynamic diameter (EAD); for Si, K, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Cu the distribution was rather flat or bimodal; and S, V, Br, Zn, and Pb were predominantly associated with < 1 ?m EAD particles. The elemental concentrations and aerosol composition (interelement ratios) were examined in relation to the origin of the sampled air masses, as determined from air mass back-trajectories, and substantial differences were observed. Certain samples exhibited enhanced concentrations of fine Si which probably originated from Si and SiC industries in Southern Norway. High crustal enrichment factors were observed for Mn in northern and northwestern air masses, suggesting contributions from Norwegian sources for this element.

Cornille, P.; Maenhaut, W.; Pacyna, J. M.

1990-04-01

291

Comparison of Different Blood Collection, Sample Matrix, and Immunoassay Methods in a Prenatal Screening Setting  

PubMed Central

We compared how measurements of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and the free beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (f?-hCG) in maternal blood are influenced by different methods for blood collection, sample matrix, and immunoassay platform. Serum and dried blood spots (DBS) were obtained by venipuncture and by finger prick of 19 pregnant women. PAPP-A and f?-hCG from serum and from DBS were measured by conventional indirect immunoassay on an AutoDELFIA platform and by antibody microarray. We compared methods based on the recoveries for both markers as well as marker levels correlations across samples. All method comparisons showed high correlations for both marker concentrations. Recovery levels of PAPP-A from DBS were 30% lower, while those of f?-hCG from DBS were 50% higher compared to conventional venipuncture serum. The recoveries were not affected by blood collection or immunoassay method. The high correlation coefficients for both markers indicate that DBS from finger prick can be used reliably in a prenatal screening setting, as a less costly and minimally invasive alternative for venipuncture serum, with great logistical advantages. Additionally, the use of antibody arrays will allow for extending the number of first trimester screening markers on maternal and fetal health. PMID:25132703

Imholz, Sandra; Kuc, Sylwia; de Vries, Annemieke; Rodenburg, Wendy

2014-01-01

292

A fast chemiluminescent method for H 2O 2 measurement in exhaled breath condensate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Breath condensate can give useful information on volatile compounds produced at alveolar level. Actual concentration of H2O2 in breath condensate is dependent on its production at alveolar level and on the efficacy of the detoxifying systems, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, etc. Methods: In the present paper, a simple chemiluminescent method for the determination of the H2O2 collected in exhaled breath

Bruno Zappacosta; Silvia Persichilli; Flaminio Mormile; Angelo Minucci; Andrea Russo; Bruno Giardina; Pasquale De Sole

2001-01-01

293

DISTRIBUTION COEFICIENTS (KD) GENERATED FROM A CORE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

Core samples originating from Vault 4, Cell E of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) were collected in September of 2008 (Hansen and Crawford 2009, Smith 2008) and sent to SRNL to measure chemical and physical properties of the material including visual uniformity, mineralogy, microstructure, density, porosity, distribution coefficients (K{sub d}), and chemical composition. Some data from these experiments have been reported (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). In this study, leaching experiments were conducted with a single core sample under conditions that are representative of saltstone performance. In separate experiments, reducing and oxidizing environments were targeted to obtain solubility and Kd values from the measurable species identified in the solid and aqueous leachate. This study was designed to provide insight into how readily species immobilized in saltstone will leach from the saltstone under oxidizing conditions simulating the edge of a saltstone monolith and under reducing conditions, targeting conditions within the saltstone monolith. Core samples were taken from saltstone poured in December of 2007 giving a cure time of nine months in the cell and a total of thirty months before leaching experiments began in June 2010. The saltstone from Vault 4, Cell E is comprised of blast furnace slag, class F fly ash, portland cement, and Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) Batch 2 salt solution. The salt solution was previously analyzed from a sample of Tank 50 salt solution and characterized in the 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) report (Zeigler and Bibler 2009). Subsequent to Tank 50 analysis, additional solution was added to the tank solution from the Effluent Treatment Project as well as from inleakage from Tank 50 pump bearings (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). Core samples were taken from three locations and at three depths at each location using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit (1-1, 1-2, 1-3; 2-1, 2-2, 2-3; 3-1, 3-2, 3-3) (Hansen and Crawford 2009). Leaching experiments were conducted with a section of core sample 3-2. All cores from location 3 were drilled without using water. Core sample 3-2 was drilled from approximately six inches to a depth of approximately 13 inches. Approximately six inches of the core was removed but it broke into two pieces during removal from the bit. At the time of drilling, core material appeared olive green in color (Smith 2008). The fact that the samples were cored as olive green and were received after storage with a gray outer layer is indicative that some oxidation had occurred prior to leaching studies.

Almond, P.; Kaplan, D.

2011-04-25

294

Clinical applications of breath testing  

PubMed Central

Breath testing has the potential to benefit the medical field as a cost-effective, non-invasive diagnostic tool for diseases of the lung and beyond. With growing evidence of clinical worth, standardization of methods, and new sensor and detection technologies the stage is set for breath testing to gain considerable attention and wider application in upcoming years. PMID:21173863

Paschke, Kelly M; Mashir, Alquam

2010-01-01

295

Volatile organic components of air samples collected from Vertical Launch Missile capsules. Summary report  

SciTech Connect

Gas chromatographic/mass spectroscopic analyses are presented for the volatile organic components found in air samples collected from the inboard vents from Vertical Launch System (VLS) missile capsules aboard a 688 class submarine. Similar analyses were also conducted for a sample of the ship's high pressure air used to fill the missile tubes. A wide variety of organics was detected in the air from the missile capsules; and while no unique components have yet been identified, a significant contribution has been shown to be made by pressure-ventilation of the VLS capsules into the submarine atmosphere which is already heavily laden with volatile organic compounds. The most apparent conclusion from these preliminary analyses is that the mixtures of organic components in the air within VLS missile capsules vary greatly from capsule to capsule (and probably from time to time). Many such samples need to be investigated to provide sufficient information to judge the seriousness of the possibility of venting toxic components into the submarine atmosphere during the maintenance or firing of VLS missiles.

Tappan, D.V.; Knight, D.R.; Heyder, E.; Weathersby, P.K.

1988-09-27

296

Analytical results from samples collected during coal-bed methane exploration drilling in Caldwell Parish, Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2001, and 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Louisiana Geological Survey (LGS), through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Devon SFS Operating, Inc. (Devon), participated in an exploratory drilling and coring program for coal-bed methane in north-central Louisiana. The USGS and LGS collected 25 coal core and cuttings samples from two coal-bed methane test wells that were drilled in west-central Caldwell Parish, Louisiana. The purpose of this report is to provide the results of the analytical program conducted on the USGS/LGS samples. The data generated from this project are summarized in various topical sections that include: 1. molecular and isotopic data from coal gas samples; 2. results of low-temperature ashing and X-ray analysis; 3. palynological data; 4. down-hole temperature data; 5. detailed core descriptions and selected core photographs; 6. coal physical and chemical analytical data; 7. coal gas desorption results; 8. methane and carbon dioxide coal sorption data; 9. coal petrographic results; and 10. geophysical logs.

Warwick, Peter D.; Breland, F. Clayton, Jr.; Hackley, Paul C.; Dulong, Frank T.; Nichols, Douglas J.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Bustin, R. Marc; Barker, Charles E.; Willett, Jason C.; Trippi, Michael H.

2006-01-01

297

Current Practices for DNA Sample Collection and Storage in the Pharmaceutical Industry, and Potential Areas for Harmonization: Perspective of the I-PWG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collection and storage of DNA samples in clinical drug development programs are an important investment for the pharmaceutical industry to allow efficient evaluation of observed variability in drug response. To enable collection and future use of samples, individual companies must define (i) processes to collect specimens worldwide, (ii) whether collection is optional or mandatory, (iii) conditions and duration of sample

M A Franc; A W Warner; N Cohen; P M Shaw; P Groenen; A Snapir

2011-01-01

298

Lung cancer detection by proton transfer reaction mass-spectrometric analysis of human breath gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background Determination of the diagnostic usefulness of proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) for detecting primary lung cancer through analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled human breath was demonstrated in this investigation. Unlike, for example, gas-chromatographic analyses, PTR-MS can be used without time-consuming preconcentration of the gas samples.Methods By means of PTR-MS, exhaled breath samples from primary lung cancer patients (n = 17) were analyzed and compared with both an overall control collective (controls total, n = 170) and three sub-collectives: hospital personnel (controls hospital, n = 35), age-matched persons (controls age, n = 25), and smokers (controls s, n = 60), respectively.Results Among the VOCs present at reasonably high concentrations, the ones leading to the product ion at m/z = 31 (VOC-31, tentatively protonated formaldehyde) and m/z = 43 (VOC-43, tentatively a fragment of protonated iso-propanol), were found at significantly higher concentrations in the breath gas of the primary lung cancer patients as compared to the healthy controls at the following median concentrations (with interquartile distance, iqr): For VOC-31 the median concentrations were 7.0 ppb (iqr, 15.5 ppb) versus 3.0 ppb (iqr, 1.9 ppb) with P < 10-4. For VOC-43 the median concentrations were 244.1 ppb (iqr, 236.2 ppb) versus 94.1 ppb (iqr, 55.2 ppb) with P < 10-6. The discriminative power between the two collectives was further assessed by ROC-curves obtained upon variation of the chosen threshold concentration and by Fisher's Quadratic Discriminant Method.Conclusions Within the limits of pilot study, VOC-31 and -43 were found to best discriminate between exhaled breath of primary lung cancer cases and healthy controls. Simple and time-saving breath gas analysis by PTR-MS makes this method attractive for a larger clinical evaluation. It may become a new valuable tool for diagnosing primary lung cancer.

Wehinger, Andreas; Schmid, Alex; Mechtcheriakov, Sergei; Ledochowski, Maximilian; Grabmer, Christoph; Gastl, Guenther A.; Amann, Anton

2007-08-01

299

Analyses of water, core material, and elutriate samples collected near Sicily Island, Louisiana (Sicily Island area levee project)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples consisting of composited core material were collected from five areas by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide data on the impact of proposed channel excavation and levee construction in the Sicily Island area, Louisiana. Samples of receiving water from the five areas, selected to represent the water that will contact the proposed dredged material of the levee fill material, also were collected. Chemical and physical analyses were performed on samples of core material and native water and on elutriate samples of specific core material-receiving water mixtures. The results of these analyses are presented without interpretation. (USGS)

Demcheck, Dennis K.; Dupuy, Alton J.

1980-01-01

300

Diagnosing lung cancer in exhaled breath using gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional diagnostic methods for lung cancer are unsuitable for widespread screening because they are expensive and occasionally miss tumours. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry studies have shown that several volatile organic compounds, which normally appear at levels of 1-20 ppb in healthy human breath, are elevated to levels between 10 and 100 ppb in lung cancer patients. Here we show that an array of sensors based on gold nanoparticles can rapidly distinguish the breath of lung cancer patients from the breath of healthy individuals in an atmosphere of high humidity. In combination with solid-phase microextraction, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to identify 42 volatile organic compounds that represent lung cancer biomarkers. Four of these were used to train and optimize the sensors, demonstrating good agreement between patient and simulated breath samples. Our results show that sensors based on gold nanoparticles could form the basis of an inexpensive and non-invasive diagnostic tool for lung cancer.

Peng, Gang; Tisch, Ulrike; Adams, Orna; Hakim, Meggie; Shehada, Nisrean; Broza, Yoav Y.; Billan, Salem; Abdah-Bortnyak, Roxolyana; Kuten, Abraham; Haick, Hossam

2009-11-01

301

Breath alcohol, multisensor arrays, and electronic noses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept behind a volatile compound mapper, or electronic nose, is to use the combination of multiple gas sensors and pattern recognition techniques to detect and quantify substances in gas mixtures. There are several different kinds of sensors which have been developed during recent years of which the base techniques are conducting polymers, piezo electrical crystals and solid state devices. In this work we have used a combination of gas sensitive field effect devices and semiconducting metal oxides. The most useful pattern recognition routine was found to be ANNs, which is a mathematical approximation of the human neural network. The aim of this work is to evaluate the possibility of using electronic noses in field instruments to detect drugs, arson residues, explosives etc. As a test application we have chosen breath alcohol measurements. There are several reasons for this. Breath samples are a quite complex mixture contains between 200 and 300 substances at trace levels. The alcohol level is low but still possible to handle. There are needs for replacing large and heavy mobile instruments with smaller devices. Current instrumentation is rather sensitive to interfering substances. The work so far has dealt with sampling, how to introduce ethanol and other substances in the breath, correlation measurements between the electronic nose and headspace GC, and how to evaluate the sensor signals.

Paulsson, Nils; Winquist, Fredrik

1997-01-01

302

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR FIELD COLLECTION OF INDOOR FLOOR SAMPLES AND POST FIELD SAMPLE HANDLING (UA-F-7.1)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to establish a uniform procedure for the collection of indoor floor dust samples in the field. This procedure was followed to ensure consistent data retrieval of dust samples during the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border" study. Keywords: field; va...

303

Directional photomanipulation of breath figure arrays.  

PubMed

Porous polymeric films are of paramount importance in many areas of modern science and technology. However, processing methods typically based on direct writing, imprint, and lithography techniques have low throughput and are often limited to specific fabricated shapes. Herein, we demonstrate the directional photomanipulation of breath figure arrays (BFAs) formed by an azobenzene-containing block copolymer to address the aforementioned problems. Under the irradiation of linearly polarized light, the round pores in the BFAs were converted to rectangular, rhombic, and parallelogram-shaped pores in 30?min, due to the anisotropic mass migration based on the photo-reconfiguration of the azobenzene units. Through a secondary irradiation after rotating the sample by 90°, the transformed pores were apparently recovered. Therefore, this non-contacted, directional photomanipulation technique in conjunction with breath figure processing opens a new route to nano/microporous films with finely tuned features. PMID:25243818

Wang, Wei; Du, Can; Wang, Xiaofan; He, Xiaohua; Lin, Jiaping; Li, Lei; Lin, Shaoliang

2014-11-01

304

Human Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids and Sample Collection Considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2009 the Augustine Commission identified near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. Subsequently, the U.S. presidential administration directed NASA on April 15, 2010 to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. Human Exploration Considerations: These missions would be the first human expeditions to interplanetary bodies beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars, Phobos and Deimos, and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEAs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of these primitive objects. However, prior to sending human explorers to NEAs, robotic investigations of these bodies would be required in order to maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk. These precursor missions to NEAs would fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps concerning their physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration of these relatively unknown destinations. Sample Science Benefits: Information obtained from a human investigation of a NEA, together with ground-based observations and prior spacecraft investigations of asteroids and comets, will also provide a real measure of ground truth to data obtained from terrestrial meteorite collections. Major advances in the areas of geochemistry, impact history, thermal history, isotope analyses, mineralogy, space weathering, formation ages, thermal inertias, volatile content, source regions, solar system formation, etc. can be expected from human NEA missions. Samples directly returned from a primitive body would lead to the same kind of breakthroughs for understanding NEAs that the Apollo samples provided for understanding the Earth-Moon system and its formation history. International Participation: In addition, robotic precursor and human exploration missions to NEAs would allow the NASA and its international partners to gain operational experience in performing complex tasks (e.g., sample collection, deployment of payloads, retrieval of payloads, etc.) with crew, robots, and spacecraft under microgravity conditions at or near the surface of a small body. This would provide an important synergy between the worldwide Science and Exploration communities, which will be crucial for development of future international deep space exploration architectures and has potential benefits for future exploration of other destinations beyond low-Earth orbit.

Abell, Paul

2013-01-01

305

Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces isolated from house dust samples collected around the world.  

PubMed

As part of a worldwide survey of the indoor mycobiota, dust was collected from nine countries. Analyses of dust samples included the culture-dependent dilution-to-extinction method and the culture-independent 454-pyrosequencing. Of the 7?904 isolates, 2?717 isolates were identified as belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces. The aim of this study was to identify isolates to species level and describe the new species found. Secondly, we wanted to create a reliable reference sequence database to be used for next-generation sequencing projects. Isolates represented 59 Aspergillus species, including eight undescribed species, 49 Penicillium species of which seven were undescribed and 18 Talaromyces species including three described here as new. In total, 568 ITS barcodes were generated, and 391 ?-tubulin and 507 calmodulin sequences, which serve as alternative identification markers. PMID:25492981

Visagie, C M; Hirooka, Y; Tanney, J B; Whitfield, E; Mwange, K; Meijer, M; Amend, A S; Seifert, K A; Samson, R A

2014-06-01

306

Lessons Learned for Geologic Data Collection and Sampling: Insights from the Desert RATS 2010 Geologist Crewmembers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 1997, Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) has conducted hardware and operations tests in the Arizona desert that advance human and robotic planetary exploration capabilities. D-RATS 2010 (8/31-9/13) simulated geologic traverses through a terrain of cinder cones, lava flows, and underlying sedimentary units using a pair of crewed rovers and extravehicular activities (EVAs) for geologic fieldwork. There were two sets of crews, each consisting of an engineer/commander and an experienced field geologist drawn from the academic community. A major objective of D-RATS was to examine the functions of a science support team, the roles of geologist crewmembers, and protocols, tools, and technologies needed for effective data collection and sample documentation. Solutions to these problems must consider how terrestrial field geology must be adapted to geologic fieldwork during EVAs

Hurtado, J. M., Jr.; Bleacher, J. E.; Rice, J.; Young, K.; Garry, W. B.; Eppler, D.

2011-01-01

307

Control of the positional relationship between a sample collection instrument and a surface to be analyzed during a sampling procedure using a laser sensor  

DOEpatents

A system and method utilizes distance-measuring equipment including a laser sensor for controlling the collection instrument-to-surface distance during a sample collection process for use, for example, with mass spectrometric detection. The laser sensor is arranged in a fixed positional relationship with the collection instrument, and a signal is generated by way of the laser sensor which corresponds to the actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface. The actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface is compared to a target distance between the laser sensor and the surface when the collection instrument is arranged at a desired distance from the surface for sample collecting purposes, and adjustments are made, if necessary, so that the actual distance approaches the target distance.

Van Berkel, Gary J. (Clinton, TN); Kertesz, Vilmos (Knoxville, TN)

2012-02-21

308

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FOOD PREPARATION SURFACE WIPE SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.17)  

EPA Science Inventory

This SOP describes the method for collection of the food preparation surface wipe samples for the measurement of persistent organic pollutants (POP). This method uses a wipe to collect POP residues from a surface where a study participant prepares food the most often (i.e., kitch...

309

Carbon-14 urea breath test for the diagnosis of Campylobacter pylori associated gastritis  

SciTech Connect

Urease in the human gastric mucosa is a marker for infection with Campylobacter pylori (CP), an organism suspected of causing chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. To detect gastric urease, we examined 32 patients who were being evaluated for possible peptic ulcer disease. Fasting patients were given 10 microCi (370 kBq) of /sup 14/C-labeled urea. Breath samples were collected in hyamine at intervals between 1 and 30 min. The amount of /sup 14/C collected at these times was expressed as: body weight X (% of administered dose of /sup 14/C in sample)/(mmol of CO/sub 2/ collected). The presence of C. pylori colonization was also determined by examination of multiple endoscopic gastric biopsy specimens. On average, patients who were proven to have C. pylori infection exhaled 20 times more labeled CO/sub 2/ than patients who were not infected. The difference between infected patients and C. pylori negative control patients was highly significant at all time points between 2 and 30 min after ingestion of the radionuclide (p less than 0.0001). The noninvasive urea breath is less expensive than endoscopic biopsy of the stomach and more accurate than serology as a means of detecting Campylobacter pylori infection. Because the test detects actual viable CP organisms, it can be used to confirm eradication of the bacterium after antibacterial therapy.

Marshall, B.J.; Surveyor, I.

1988-01-01

310

Conducting Internet Research With the Transgender Population: Reaching Broad Samples and Collecting Valid Data  

PubMed Central

Health research on transgender people has been hampered by the challenges inherent in studying a hard-to-reach, relatively small, and geographically dispersed population. The Internet has the potential to facilitate access to transgender samples large enough to permit examination of the diversity and syndemic health disparities found among this population. In this article, we describe the experiences of a team of investigators using the Internet to study HIV risk behaviors of transgender people in the United States. We developed an online instrument, recruited participants exclusively via websites frequented by members of the target population, and collected data using online quantitative survey and qualitative synchronous and asynchronous interview methods. Our experiences indicate that the Internet environment presents the investigator with some unique challenges and that commonly expressed criticisms about Internet research (e.g., lack of generalizable samples, invalid study participants, and multiple participation by the same subject) can be overcome with careful method design, usability testing, and pilot testing. The importance of both usability and pilot testing are described with respect to participant engagement and retention and the quality of data obtained online. PMID:24031157

Miner, Michael H.; Bockting, Walter O.; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Raman, Sivakumaran

2013-01-01

311

The analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate in children - clinical tools or scientific toys?  

PubMed

Current monitoring strategies for respiratory diseases are mainly based on clinical features, lung function and imaging. As airway inflammation is the hallmark of many respiratory diseases in childhood, non-invasive methods to assess the presence and severity of airway inflammation might be helpful in both diagnosing and monitoring paediatric respiratory diseases. At present, the measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide is the only non-invasive method available to assess eosinophilic airway inflammation in clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate whether the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath and biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate are helpful in diagnosing and monitoring respiratory diseases in children. An extensive literature search was conducted in Medline, Embase and PubMed on the analysis and applications of VOCs in exhaled breath and exhaled breath condensate in children. We retrieved 1165 papers, of which 9 contained original data on VOCs in exhaled breath and 84 on biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate. These were included in this review. We give an overview of the clinical applications in childhood and summarize the methodological issues. Several VOCs in exhaled breath and biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate have the potential to distinguish patients from healthy controls and to monitor treatment responses. Lack of standardization of collection methods and analysis techniques hampers the introduction in clinical practise. The measurement of metabolomic profiles may have important advantages over detecting single markers. There is a lack of longitudinal studies and external validation in order to reveal whether exhaled breath and exhaled breath condensate analysis have added value in the diagnostic process and follow-up of children with respiratory diseases. In conclusion, the use of VOCs in exhaled breath and biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate as markers of inflammatory airway diseases in children is still a research tool and not validated for clinical use. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25394891

van Mastrigt, E; de Jongste, J C; Pijnenburg, M W

2014-11-14

312

Social relations and breath odour.  

PubMed

In this retrospective qualitative study, the researcher reviewed 55 client records of The Breath Odour Clinic. The purpose was to determine if individuals attended a clinic specialised in treating oral malodour for medical or social reasons. The study focused on the psychosocial and breath odour history. Clients had agreed to the use of information for research purposes. Society uses odour as a means to define and interact with the world. The olfactory, smelling experience is intimate, emotionally charged and connects us with the world. It follows that the smell from mouth breath odour can connect or disconnect a person from their social environment and intimate relationships. How one experiences one's own body is very personal and private but also very public. Breath odour is public as it occurs within a social and cultural context and personal as it affects one's body image and self-confidence. Body image, self-image and social relations mesh, interact and impact upon each other. Breath odour is a dynamic and interactive aspect of the self-image. In addition, breath odour may be value-coded as 'bad'. In 75% of the cases reviewed, decreased self-confidence and insecurity in social and intimate relations led clients to seek treatment at the specialised breath odour clinic. Their doctor, dental hygienist or dentist had treated medical and oral conditions but not resolved their breath odour problem. When a person perceives a constant bad breath problem, she/he uses defence techniques, and may avoid social situations and social relations. This affects a person's well-being. PMID:16451502

McKeown, L

2003-11-01

313

Insights into explosion dynamics at Stromboli in 2009 from ash samples collected in real-time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid characterization of tephra during explosive eruptions can provide valuable insights into eruptive mechanisms, also integrating other monitoring systems. Here we reveal a perspective on Stromboli's conduit processes by linking ash textures to geophysical estimates of eruption parameters of observed explosions. A three day campaign at Stromboli was undertaken by Italy's Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) in October 2009. At this time activity was moderately intense, with an average 4 to 5, both ash-rich and ash-poor, explosions per hour at each the SW and NE vents. A total of fifteen ash samples were collected in real time. We used binocular and scanning electron microscopes to analyze the components, grain size and morphology distributions, and surface chemistry of ash particles within eight selected samples. In addition, the INGV monitoring network provided visual, thermal, and seismic information on the explosions that generated the sampled ash. In each sample, the proportion of fluidal, glassy sideromelane (as opposed to blocky, microcrystalline tachylite plus lithics), the degree of "chemical freshness" (as opposed to chemical alteration), and the average size of particles appear to correlate directly with the maximum height and the seismic amplitude of the corresponding explosion, and inversely correlate with the amount of ash erupted, as estimated by monitoring videos. These observations suggest that more violent explosions (i.e., those driven by the release of larger and more pressurized gas volumes) produce ash via the fragmentation of hotter, more fluid magma, while weaker ones mostly erupt ash-sized particles derived by the fragmentation of colder magma and incorporation of conduit wall debris. The formation of fluidal ash particles (up to Pele's hairs) requires aerodynamic deformation of a relatively low-viscosity magma, in agreement with the strong acceleration imposed upon fragmented magma clots by the rapid expansion of pressurized gas, as directly observed in high-speed videos of the sampled explosions. Our findings show that ash monitoring of mafic explosions permits characterization of the eruptive style, and can provide indirect information on the intensity of the eruption.

Taddeucci, J.; Lautze, N.; Andronico, D.; D'Auria, L.; Niemeijer, A.; Houghton, B.; Scarlato, P.

2012-04-01

314

Antibiotic resistance among bacteria isolated from seawater and penguin fecal samples collected near Palmer Station, Antarctica.  

PubMed

Antibiotic resistance in aquatic bacteria has increased steadily as a consequence of the widespread use of antibiotics, but practice and international treaty should have limited antibiotic contamination in Antarctica. We estimated antibiotic resistance in microorganisms isolated from the Antarctic marine waters and a penguin rookery, for 2 reasons: (i) as a measure of human impact and (ii) as a potential "snapshot" of the preantibiotic world. Samples were taken at 4 established sampling sites near Palmer Station, which is situated at the southern end of the Palmer Archipelago (64 degrees 10'S, 61 degrees 50'W). Sites were chosen to provide different potentials for human contamination. Forty 50 mL samples of seawater were collected and colony-forming units (CFU)/mL were determined at 6 and 20 degrees C. For this study, presumed psychrophiles (growth at 6 degrees C) were assumed to be native to Antarctic waters, whereas presumed mesophiles (growth at 20 degrees C but not at 6 degrees C) were taken to represent introduced organisms. The 20-6 degrees C CFU/mL ratio was used as a measure of the relative impact to the ecosystem of presumably introduced organisms. This ratio was highest at the site nearest to Palmer Station and decreased with distance from it, suggesting that human presence has impacted the natural microbial flora of the site. The frequency of resistance to 5 common antibiotics was determined in each group of isolates. Overall drug resistance was higher among the presumed mesophiles than the presumed psychrophiles and increased with proximity to Palmer Station, with the presumed mesophiles showing higher frequencies of single and multiple drug resistance than the psychrophile population. The frequency of multidrug resistance followed the same pattern. It appears that multidrug resistance is low among native Antarctic bacteria but is increased by human habitation. PMID:19190699

Miller, Robert V; Gammon, Katharine; Day, Martin J

2009-01-01

315

Design and evaluation of an exhaled breath sampler for biological monitoring of organic solvents.  

PubMed

We designed a breath sampler based on a tube which collects the final portion of exhaled air. The passage of successive fractions through a layer of activated charcoal is controlled by a three-way valve. This system was validated in a controlled atmosphere of n-hexane and toluene at four concentrations between 12 and 110 mg m-3 and 12 and 115 mg m-3, respectively. Uptake volumes of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.31 were tested at relative humidities of 46% and 98%. There were no significant differences in the recoveries obtained under any of the conditions tested. We confirmed the reproducibility between successive samples in volunteers and exposed workers, and found no significant differences between the different sampling conditions studied. Our system enriches the sample in an adsorbent cartridge by collecting successive fractions of end-exhaled breath from one or more exhalations until the amount required by the analytical method has been accumulated. It is portable, economical and highly operative in the field. PMID:1556386

Periago, J F; Luna, A; Morente, A; Zambudio, A

1992-04-01

316

Variability of Organophosphorous Pesticide Metabolite Levels in Spot and 24-hr Urine Samples Collected from Young Children during 1 Week  

PubMed Central

Background: Dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites in spot urine samples are frequently used to characterize children’s exposures to organophosphorous (OP) pesticides. However, variable exposure and short biological half-lives of OP pesticides could result in highly variable measurements, leading to exposure misclassification. Objective: We examined within- and between-child variability in DAP metabolites in urine samples collected during 1 week. Methods: We collected spot urine samples over 7 consecutive days from 25 children (3–6 years of age). On two of the days, we collected 24-hr voids. We assessed the reproducibility of urinary DAP metabolite concentrations and evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of spot urine samples as predictors of high (top 20%) or elevated (top 40%) weekly average DAP metabolite concentrations. Results: Within-child variance exceeded between-child variance by a factor of two to eight, depending on metabolite grouping. Although total DAP concentrations in single spot urine samples were moderately to strongly associated with concentrations in same-day 24-hr samples (r ? 0.6–0.8, p < 0.01), concentrations in spot samples collected > 1 day apart and in 24-hr samples collected 3 days apart were weakly correlated (r ? –0.21 to 0.38). Single spot samples predicted high (top 20%) and elevated (top 40%) full-week average total DAP excretion with only moderate sensitivity (? 0.52 and ? 0.67, respectively) but relatively high specificity (? 0.88 and ? 0.78, respectively). Conclusions: The high variability we observed in children’s DAP metabolite concentrations suggests that single-day urine samples provide only a brief snapshot of exposure. Sensitivity analyses suggest that classification of cumulative OP exposure based on spot samples is prone to type 2 classification errors. PMID:23052012

Kogut, Katherine; Eisen, Ellen A.; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Castorina, Rosemary; Chevrier, Jonathan; Holland, Nina T.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Kavanagh-Baird, Geri; Eskenazi, Brenda

2012-01-01

317

Profiling of Volatile Organic Compounds in Exhaled Breath As a Strategy to Find Early Predictive Signatures of Asthma in Children  

PubMed Central

Wheezing is one of the most common respiratory symptoms in preschool children under six years old. Currently, no tests are available that predict at early stage who will develop asthma and who will be a transient wheezer. Diagnostic tests of asthma are reliable in adults but the same tests are difficult to use in children, because they are invasive and require active cooperation of the patient. A non-invasive alternative is needed for children. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) excreted in breath could yield such non-invasive and patient-friendly diagnostic. The aim of this study was to identify VOCs in the breath of preschool children (inclusion at age 2–4 years) that indicate preclinical asthma. For that purpose we analyzed the total array of exhaled VOCs with Gas Chromatography time of flight Mass Spectrometry of 252 children between 2 and 6 years of age. Breath samples were collected at multiple time points of each child. Each breath-o-gram contained between 300 and 500 VOCs; in total 3256 different compounds were identified across all samples. Using two multivariate methods, Random Forests and dissimilarity Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis, we were able to select a set of 17 VOCs which discriminated preschool asthmatic children from transient wheezing children. The correct prediction rate was equal to 80% in an independent test set. These VOCs are related to oxidative stress caused by inflammation in the lungs and consequently lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, we showed that VOCs in the exhaled breath predict the subsequent development of asthma which might guide early treatment. PMID:24752575

Smolinska, Agnieszka; Klaassen, Ester M. M.; Dallinga, Jan W.; van de Kant, Kim D. G.; Jobsis, Quirijn; Moonen, Edwin J. C.; van Schayck, Onno C. P.; Dompeling, Edward; van Schooten, Frederik J.

2014-01-01

318

Breathing air from protein foam.  

PubMed

Protein foams can be used to extinguish fires. If foams are to be used to extinguish fires where people are present, such as in high-rise buildings or ships, then a method for allowing people to breathe in a foam-filled environment is needed. It is proposed that the air, used to create the foam be used for breathing. A canister that will break incoming air-filled foam has been designed for attachment to a standard gas mask, in order to provide breathable air to a trapped person. Preliminary results for the modified mask indicate feasibility of breathing air from air-filled protein foam. PMID:12721445

Ackermann, Douglas; Jewell, David N; Stedman, Matthew L; Burapatana, Vorakan; Atukorale, Prabhani V; Pinson, Michelle L; Wardle, Alison E; Zhu, Wenyan; Tanner, Robert D

2003-01-01

319

Use of breath monitoring in assessing exposures to volatile organic solvents  

SciTech Connect

Two techniques were developed to measure volatile organic solvents in exhaled air. The sorbent collector is a hand-held device that concentrates organic vapor(s) from mixed exhaled air on a bed of charcoal. The breath volume is measured with a Wright respirometer and the a adsorbed vapors are analyzed by gas chromatography. The alveolar air monitor is a portable gas chromatograph that collects and analyzes end-exhaled air. A comparison of the two techniques demonstrated a consistent relationship for air concentrations measured from a number of individuals exposed to styrene or tetrachloroethylene (PERC). In a study of dry cleaners, measurements of PERC in mixed exhaled air correlated with simultaneous measurements of PERC in blood and with measurements of exposure. In occupational settings, end-exhaled air measurements correlated well with exposure measurements averaged over a period of 20 minutes. This result was reproduced in chamber studies with highly autocorrelated exposure profiles. However, when the exposure profiles were purely random the relationship between exposure and end-exhaled air was unclear suggesting that breath measurements are of limited value in estimating very short term air exposures. Chamber experiments demonstrated the need for a breath of clean air, prior to end-exhaled air sampling, to eliminate residual styrene released from the lining of the respiratory airways. Inconclusive results were obtained when exhaled air measurements from the field and chamber studies were used to evaluate the physiological damping of the exposure variability at the receptor.

Petreas, Myrtoxeni Xenakis.

1990-01-01

320

Coordination of breathing and various movement markers during pianists' performance tasks.  

PubMed

Few investigations have analysed the relations of breathing and pianists' movements. In past studies, however, coordination of breathing with repetitive movements were examined. The current experiment explored the coordinative relations of breathing with three different finger-movement markers (pitch, meter, and thumb passage) during the performance of repetitive exercises at the piano. Eight pianists played the C major scale and arpeggio at different tempi. The Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) data were collected and the pianists' respiration was simultaneously monitored by inductive plethysmography. Analysis showed that the breathing varied between participants. Other than some exceptional cases for which movement markers coincided with the end of inspiration and the end of expiration of the breathing curve, no coordination or relation occurred between breathing and finger movement. PMID:23829130

Nassrallah, Flora; Comeau, Gilles; Russell, Donald; Cossette, Isabelle

2013-02-01

321

Acceptability of self-collection sampling for HPV-DNA testing in low-resource settings: a mixed methods approach  

PubMed Central

Background Vaginal self-sampling with HPV-DNA tests is a promising primary screening method for cervical cancer. However, women’s experiences, concerns and the acceptability of such tests in low-resource settings remain unknown. Methods In India, Nicaragua, and Uganda, a mixed-method design was used to collect data from surveys (N?=?3,863), qualitative interviews (N?=?72; 20 providers and 52 women) and focus groups (N?=?30 women) on women’s and providers’ experiences with self-sampling, women’s opinions of sampling at home, and their future needs. Results Among surveyed women, 90% provided a self- collected sample. Of these, 75% reported it was easy, although 52% were initially concerned about hurting themselves and 24% were worried about not getting a good sample. Most surveyed women preferred self-sampling (78%). However it was not clear if they responded to the privacy of self-sampling or the convenience of avoiding a pelvic examination, or both. In follow-up interviews, most women reported that they didn’t mind self-sampling, but many preferred to have a provider collect the vaginal sample. Most women also preferred clinic-based screening (as opposed to home-based self-sampling), because the sample could be collected by a provider, women could receive treatment if needed, and the clinic was sanitary and provided privacy. Self-sampling acceptability was higher when providers prepared women through education, allowed women to examine the collection brush, and were present during the self-collection process. Among survey respondents, aids that would facilitate self-sampling in the future were: staff help (53%), additional images in the illustrated instructions (31%), and a chance to practice beforehand with a doll/model (26%). Conclusion Self-and vaginal-sampling are widely acceptable among women in low-resource settings. Providers have a unique opportunity to educate and prepare women for self-sampling and be flexible in accommodating women’s preference for self-sampling. PMID:24927941

2014-01-01

322

Results of chemical and stable isotopic analyses of water samples collected in the Patagonia Mountains, southern Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water samples were collected in the Patagonia Mountains in February, 1997. Most of the samples were collected from portals of abandoned mines, or from stream drainages immediately downstream from abandoned mines. Most of the samples have low pH ( 1000 mg/L). Anion composition of the water samples is dominated by sulfate, while cation compositions range from calcium-dominated to mixed calcium-magnesium or calcium-sodium-dominated waters. Metals such as iron, manganese, copper, zinc, and aluminum contribute a significant portion (>10%) of the cation content to the water samples. Because of the low pH?s, protons contribute up to several percent of the cation character of the waters in some of the samples. The data are presented in tabular and graphical formats, with descriptions of data quality and brief descriptions of results.

Wanty, Richard B.; Shanks, Wayne C., III; Lamothe, Paul; Meier, A.L.; Lichte, Fred; Briggs, Paul H.; Berger, Byron R.

2001-01-01

323

Living with Dyspnea -- How to Breathe Easier  

MedlinePLUS

Living with Dyspnea–How to breathe easier Dyspnea (pronounced disp–NEE–uh) is a medical term for difficult or labored breathing. Having dyspnea can ... breathe in. Patient Education 1 Living with Dyspnea–How to breathe easier 2. Walk a few steps and ...

324

EDITORIAL: Bad breath and exhaled breath analysis---common fields with common denominators Bad breath and exhaled breath analysis---common fields with common denominators  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 20th century, bad breath and analysis of breath for medical diagnosis evolved as two separate fields. Papers on bad breath were published almost exclusively in dental journals, whereas papers on exhaled breath analysis were more commonly found in medical and chemical analysis journals. When Daniel van Steenberghe and Mel Rosenberg first discussed setting up an international society for

Mel Rosenberg; Anton Amann

2008-01-01

325

Variation in aluminum, iron, and particle concentrations in oxic ground-water samples collected by use of tangential-flow ultrafiltration with low-flow sampling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Particulates that move with ground water and those that are artificially mobilized during well purging could be incorporated into water samples during collection and could cause trace-element concentrations to vary in unfiltered samples, and possibly in filtered samples (typically 0.45-um (micron) pore size) as well, depending on the particle-size fractions present. Therefore, measured concentrations may not be representative of those in the aquifer. Ground water may contain particles of various sizes and shapes that are broadly classified as colloids, which do not settle from water, and particulates, which do. In order to investigate variations in trace-element concentrations in ground-water samples as a function of particle concentrations and particle-size fractions, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, collected samples from five wells completed in the unconfined, oxic Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system of the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Samples were collected by purging with a portable pump at low flow (0.2-0.5 liters per minute and minimal drawdown, ideally less than 0.5 foot). Unfiltered samples were collected in the following sequence: (1) within the first few minutes of pumping, (2) after initial turbidity declined and about one to two casing volumes of water had been purged, and (3) after turbidity values had stabilized at less than 1 to 5 Nephelometric Turbidity Units. Filtered samples were split concurrently through (1) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter, (2) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter and a 0.0029-um pore size tangential-flow filter in sequence, and (3), in selected cases, a 0.45-um and a 0.05-um pore size capsule filter in sequence. Filtered samples were collected concurrently with the unfiltered sample that was collected when turbidity values stabilized. Quality-assurance samples consisted of sequential duplicates (about 25 percent) and equipment blanks. Concentrations of particles were determined by light scattering. Variations in concentrations aluminum and iron (1 -74 and 1-199 ug/L (micrograms per liter), respectively), common indicators of the presence of particulate-borne trace elements, were greatest in sample sets from individual wells with the greatest variations in turbidity and particle concentration. Differences in trace-element concentrations in sequentially collected unfiltered samples with variable turbidity were 5 to 10 times as great as those in concurrently collected samples that were passed through various filters. These results indicate that turbidity must be both reduced and stabilized even when low-flow sample-collection techniques are used in order to obtain water samples that do not contain considerable particulate artifacts. Currently (2001) available techniques need to be refined to ensure that the measured trace-element concentrations are representative of those that are mobile in the aquifer water.

Szabo, Z.; Oden, J.H.; Gibs, J.; Rice, D.E.; Ding, Y.

2001-01-01

326

A Model to Predict the Breathing Zone Concentrations of Particles Emitted from Surfaces  

EPA Science Inventory

Activity based sampling (ABS) is typically performed to assess inhalation exposure to particulate contaminants known to have low, heterogeneous concentrations on a surface. Activity based sampling determines the contaminant concentration in a person's breathing zone as they perfo...

327

Simultaneous quantification of stevioside and rebaudioside A in different stevia samples collected from the Indian subcontinent  

PubMed Central

Background: A high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed for simultaneous estimation of stevioside and rebaudioside A in Stevia rebaudiana samples collected from different regions of Indian subcontinent. Materials and Methods: The separation was achieved by using acetone: ethyl acetate: water (5:4:1, v/v/v) as the solvent system on precoated silica gel 60 F254 TLC plates. The densitometric quantification of stevia glycosides was carried out at wavelength 360 nm in absorption mode after spraying with anisaldehyde sulphuric acid as detecting reagent. Results: The well resolved peaks for stevioside and rebaudioside A were observed at Rf values 0.31± 0.02 and 0.21± 0.02 respectively. The calibration curves were found linear with a wide range of concentration 100 - 2000 ng spot-1 with good correlation coefficient 0.996 and 0.991 for stevioside and rebaudioside A, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed method was validated as per the ICH (International Conferences on Harmonization) guidelines and found simple, sensitive, economic, reproducible, robust and accurate for quantitative analysis of stevia glycosides, which can be applied for quality control of stevia as well as to check. PMID:23248559

Chester, Karishma; Tamboli, Ennus T.; Singh, Mhaveer; Ahmad, Sayeed

2012-01-01

328

Radiometric assessment of natural radioactivity levels of agricultural soil samples collected in Dakahlia, Egypt.  

PubMed

Determination of the natural radioactivity has been carried out, by using a gamma-ray spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3? × 3?] system, in surface soil samples collected from various locations in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. These locations form the agriculturally important regions of Egypt. The study area has many industries such as chemical, paper, organic fertilisers and construction materials, and the soils of the study region are used as a construction material. Therefore, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil ranged from 5.7 ± 0.3 to 140 ± 7, from 9.0 ± 0.4 to 139 ± 7 and from 22 ± 1 to 319 ± 16 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, radium equivalent (Req), excess lifetime cancer risk, hazard indices (Hex and Hin) and annual gonadal dose equivalent, which resulted from the natural radionuclides in the soil were calculated. PMID:23509393

Issa, Shams A M

2013-01-01

329

A study of volatile compounds in the breath of children with type 1 diabetes  

E-print Network

A pilot study of exhaled volatile compounds and their correlation with blood glucose levels in eight children with type 1 diabetes is reported. Five paired blood and breath samples were obtained from each child over a 6 hour period. The blood glucose concentration ranged from 41.4 to 435.6 mg/dL. Breath samples were collected in Tedlar bags and immediately evacuated through thermal desorption tubes packed with Carbopack B and C. The VOCs were later recovered by thermal desorption and analysed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The study identified 74 volatile compounds present in at least 10% of the patient samples. Of these 74 volatiles 36 were found in all patient samples tested. Further analysis of the 36 compounds found that none showed significant overall correlation with blood glucose levels. Isoprene showed a weak negative correlation with blood glucose levels. Acetone was found to have no correlation with blood glucose levels for the patients studied. Some patients showed significant individu...

Stevens, S; Wei, C; Greenwood, R; Hamilton-Shield, J; Costello, B de Lacy; Ratcliffe, N; Probert, C

2013-01-01

330

The US Navy/Canadian DCIEM research initiative on pressure breathing physiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of improved positive pressure breathing garments for altitude and acceleration protection has occurred without collection of sufficient physiological data to understand the mechanisms of the improvement. Furthermore, modeling of the predicted response of future enhanced garments is greatly hampered by this lack of information. A joint, international effort is under way between Canada's Defense and Civil Institute for Environmental Medicine (DCIEM) and the US Navy's Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Warminster (NAWCACDIVWAR). Using a Canadian subject pool, experiments at both the DCIEM altitude facility and the NAWCADIVWAR Dynamic Flight Simulator have been conducted to determine the cardiovascular and respiratory consequences of high levels of positive pressure breathing for altitude and positive pressure breathing for acceleration protection. Various improved pressure breathing garments were used to collect comparative physiological and performance data. New pressure breathing level and durahon capabilities have been encountered. Further studies will address further improvements in pressure suit design and correlation of altitude and acceleration data.

Whitley, Phillip E.

1994-01-01

331

Analytical results for 544 water samples collected in the Attean Quartz Monzonite in the vicinity of Jackman, Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water samples were collected in the vicinity of Jackman, Maine as a part of the study of the relationship of dissolved constituents in water to the sediments subjacent to the water. Each sample was analyzed for specific conductance, alkalinity, acidity, pH, fluoride, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and silica. Trace elements determined were copper, zinc, molybdenum, lead, iron, manganese, arsenic, cobalt, nickel, and strontium. The longitude and latitude of each sample location and a sample site map are included in the report as well as a table of the analytical results.

Ficklin, W.H.; Nowlan, G.A.; Preston, D.J.

1983-01-01

332

Engineering task plan for determining breathing rates in singleshell tanks using tracer gas  

SciTech Connect

The testing of single shell tanks to determine breathing rates. Inert tracer gases helium, and sulfur hexafluoride will be injected into the tanks AX-103, BY-105, C-107 and U-103. Periodic samples will be taken over a three month interval to determine actual headspace breathing rates.

Andersen, J.A.

1997-04-02

333

Mathematical and statistical approaches for interpreting biomarker compounds in exhaled human breath  

EPA Science Inventory

The various instrumental techniques, human studies, and diagnostic tests that produce data from samples of exhaled breath have one thing in common: they all need to be put into a context wherein a posed question can actually be answered. Exhaled breath contains numerous compoun...

334

Apparatus for Collection of Fecal Samples from Undisturbed Spiny Mice (Acomys cahirinus) Living in a Complex Social Group  

PubMed Central

Assessment of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites has become a widely used method for monitoring stress responses. Because most small rodents are social animals whose physiologic parameters are affected by social stimuli, individual housing may compromise these data. Nevertheless, housing rodents in families or social groups may be an important limitation to the experimental design. The challenge is to collect samples from individual rodents while avoiding stress-associated effects from the sampling method itself. Here we present an apparatus and protocol allowing routine repeated collection of an individual rodent's fresh fecal samples without noticeable disturbance of any of the study animals; continuous maintenance of studied animals in a familiar environment; group housing; and uninterrupted visual and olfactory communication among group members during sampling. The apparatus consists of 1 central and 4 lateral compartments. The experimental animal was allowed to enter a lateral compartment voluntarily, where it remained for the short (4 h) period necessary for sample collection before rejoining the rest of the group. Evaluations involved Egyptian spiny mice, a social rodent increasingly studied in laboratories. The results confirmed the repeatability of the assessment of baseline levels of glucocorticoid metabolites. Moreover, keeping the animals in our experimental apparatus did not induce any increase in the levels of glucocorticoid metabolites, even when isolation in the compartment was relatively prolonged. We interpret these results as confirmation that our sampling procedure allows repeated individual sampling within a nearly undisturbed social unit. PMID:19383218

Frynta, Daniel; Nováková, Marcela; Kutalová, Hana; Palme, Rupert; Sedlá?ek, František

2009-01-01

335

Automated biowaste sampling system improved feces collection, mass measurement and sampling. [by use of a breadboard model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability of the basic automated Biowaste Sampling System (ABSS) hardware was extended and improved through the design, fabrication and test of breadboard hardware. A preliminary system design effort established the feasibility of integrating the breadboard concepts into the ABSS.

Fogal, G. L.; Mangialardi, J. K.; Young, R.

1974-01-01

336

9 CFR 147.12 - Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Five samples from pens or houses of up to 500 birds; Ten samples from pens...wires of the paper clip slightly and push them through the fabric of the folded... Five samples from pens or houses of up to 500 birds; Ten samples from...

2010-01-01

337

Detection of Vibrio cholerae and Acanthamoeba species from same natural water samples collected from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Vibrio cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 infect humans, causing the diarrheal and waterborne disease cholera, which is a worldwide health problem. V. cholerae and the free-living amoebae Acanthamoeba species are present in aquatic environments, including drinking water and it has shown that Acanthamoebae support bacterial growth and survival. Recently it has shown that Acanthamoeba species enhanced growth and survival of V. cholerae O1 and O139. Water samples from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan were collected with the aim to detect both V. cholerae and Acanthamoeba species from same natural water samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Findings For the first time both V. cholerae and Acanthamoeba species were detected in same natural water samples collected from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan. 89% of detected V. cholerae was found with Acanthamoeba in same water samples. Conclusions The current findings disclose Acanthamoedae as a biological factor enhancing survival of V. cholerae in nature. PMID:21470437

2011-01-01

338

Analyses of Gas, Steam and Water Samples Collected in and Around Lassen Volcanic National Park, California, 1975-2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains physical and chemical data from gas, steam, and water samples collected between July 1975 and September 2002 from locations in and around Lassen Volcanic National Park, California. Data are compiled as tables in Excel spreadsheets and are organized by locale. Most data are keyed to 1 of 107 site codes that are shown on local- and regional-scale maps. Brief descriptions of terminology, sampling, and analytical methods are provided.

Janik, Cathy J.; Bergfeld, Deborah

2010-01-01

339

A field method for near real-time analysis of perchloroethylene in end-exhaled breath.  

PubMed

The field method for near real-time analysis of perchloroethylene (Perc) in breath is simple, fast, and reproducible for Perc breath analysis in field settings and should prove useful in industrial hygiene practice. The method allows Perc monitoring with good specificity to the sub-part per million (ppm) level within minutes of exposure. A commercially available, portable gas chromatograph with a photoionization detector was used in these analyses. Gas chromatograph settings were optimized in the laboratory for measurement of Perc in Tedlar bags. Laboratory development of the method included evaluation of the sensitivity, specificity, precision, and speed of analysis for Perc. Replicate aliquots of Perc at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 100 ppm were used to construct a calibration curve. The mean retention time for Perc was 238 sec. The impact of potential interference by acetone, toluene, isoprene, methanol, ethanol, acetaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, benzene, or chloroform was evaluated by mixing Perc with each compound and performing analyses. Measurements of Perc in human breath samples collected in Tedlar bags in a workplace setting were made and compared to measurements of the same samples made by an established analytical method using charcoal tubes (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health [NIOSH] Method 1003). The accuracy, precision, and speed of the gas chromatograph method were determined. Measurements made with the new method were within a margin of +/- 8.8% (95% CI, n = 6) of measurements made according to NIOSH Method 1003 for field samples in the range of 0.9 to 6 ppm. Method precision was determined by calculating the pooled coefficient of variation for all measurements (replicates = 3) made in the field and was found to be 5.8%. PMID:15238304

Sweet, Nathaniel D; Burroughs, G E; Ewers, Lynda; Talaska, Glenn

2004-08-01

340

EVALUATING COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DERMAL WIPES, COTTON SUITES, AND ALTERNATIVE URINARY COLLECTION MATERIALS FOR PESTICIDE SAMPLING FROM INFANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

As the Human Exposure Program focuses on the exposure of children to pesticides, there are concerns about the effect, or perceived effect, of components of the sampling procedure on the health and well-being of the infant and the ability to collect pesticide residues. One...

341

MACRO- MICRO-PURGE SOIL GAS SAMPLING METHODS FOR THE COLLECTION OF CONTAMINANT VAPORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Purging influence on soil gas concentrations for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as affected by sampling tube inner diameter and sampling depth (i.e., dead-space purge volume), was evaluated at different field sites. A macro-purge sampling system consisted of a standard hollo...

342

Analyses of native water, core material, and elutriate samples collected from the Atchafalaya River and Atchafalaya Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During October and November 1976 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, collected native water and core material from 14 sites along the Atchafalya River in Louisiana (from the head of Whiskey Bay Pilot Channel to American Pass) and 5 sites in Atchafalya Bay for evaluation of possible environmental effects of a proposed channel-enlargement project. Core material from all river sites and one bay site was collected to a depth of 50 feet (15 meters). At the remaining bay sites, samples were collected to a depth of less than 6 inches (15 centimeters) using a pipe dredge. Core material and native water were analyzed (separately and as elutriate samples prepared from mixtures) for selected metals, nutrients, organic compounds, and physical characteristics. No interpretation of the data is given. (Woodard-USGS)

Demas, Charles R.

1977-01-01

343

The brominated flame retardants, PBDEs and HBCD, in Canadian human milk samples collected from 1992 to 2005; concentrations and trends.  

PubMed

Human milk samples were collected from individuals residing in various regions across Canada mostly in the years 1992 to 2005. These included five large cities in southern Canada as well as samples from Nunavik in northern Quebec. Comparative samples were also collected from residents of Austin, Texas, USA in 2002 and 2004. More than 300 milk samples were analysed for the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), PBDEs and HBCD, by extraction, purification and quantification using either isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-MS. The Canadian total PBDE values in the years 2002-2005 show median levels of about 20?g/kg on a lipid basis; a value significantly higher than in the 1980s and 1990s. Milk samples from Inuit donors in the northern region of Nunavik were slightly lower in PBDE concentrations than those from populated regions in the south of Quebec. Milk samples from Ontario contained slightly lower amounts of PBDEs in two time periods than those from Texas. HBCD levels in most milk samples were usually less than 1ppb milk lipid and dominated by the ?-isomer. This large data set of BFRs in Canadian human milk demonstrates an increase in the last few decades in human exposure to BFRs which now appears to have stabilized. PMID:24879366

Ryan, John Jake; Rawn, Dorothea F K

2014-09-01

344

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE AND SHIPMENT OF URINE SAMPLES FOR SELECTED METALS AND PESTICIDES (UA-F-20.1)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to guide the collection, storage, and shipment of urine samples collected for the NHEXAS Arizona project. This SOP provides a brief description of sample, collection, preservation, storage, shipping, and custody procedures. This procedure was followed ...

345

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE AND SHIPMENT OF BLOOD SAMPLES FOR SELECTED METALS AND VOCS (UA-F-19.1)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to guide the collection, storage, and shipment of blood samples collected for the NHEXAS Arizona project. This SOP provides a brief description of sample collection, preservation, storage, and custody procedures. This procedure was followed to ensure c...

346

42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have sufficient volume to prevent...

2014-10-01

347

42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have sufficient volume to prevent...

2011-10-01

348

42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have sufficient volume to prevent...

2013-10-01

349

42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have sufficient volume to prevent...

2012-10-01

350

42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have sufficient volume to prevent...

2010-10-01

351

Demonstration of Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii DNA in soil samples collected from Dinosaur National Monument, Utah.  

PubMed

Soil samples were collected in 2006 from Dinosaur National Monument (DNM), Utah, the site of an outbreak of coccidioidomycosis in 2001. DNA was isolated from two soil samples, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified Coccidioides DNA present in both samples. Ribosomal RNA genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region PCR products were sequenced. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms indicated that the DNA from sample SS06RH was that of Coccidioides immitis, while the DNA from sample SS06UM was C. posadasii. This is the first report to directly demonstrate Coccidioides in soils from DNM and the first to report the presence of both C. immitis and C. posadasii in the same geographic location. PMID:24847036

Johnson, Suzanne M; Carlson, Erin L; Fisher, Frederick S; Pappagianis, Demosthenes

2014-08-01

352

Mapping of sample collection data: GIS tools for the natural product researcher  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientists engaged in the research of natural products often either conduct field collections themselves or collaborate with partners who do, such as botanists, mycologists, or SCUBA divers. The information gleaned from such collecting trips (e.g. longitude\\/latitude coordinates, geography, elevation, and a multitude of other field observations) have provided valuable data to the scientific community (e.g., biodiversity), even if it is

Nicholas H. Oberlies; James I. Rineer; Feras Q. Alali; Khaled Tawaha; Joseph O. Falkinham III; William D. Wheaton

2009-01-01

353

U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR REIMBURSEMENT FOR FIELD COLLECTION OF DIET SAMPLES (UA-F-23.1)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to provide a uniform procedure for the financial reimbursement of primary respondents for the collection of diet samples. Respondents were reimbursed for replicate food and beverage samples by type and amount collected over a 24-hour sampling period. ...

354

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR REIMBURSEMENT FOR FIELD COLLECTION OF FOOD SAMPLES (UA-F-23.1)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to provide a uniform procedure for the financial reimbursement of primary respondents for the collection of diet samples. Respondents were reimbursed for replicate food and beverage samples by type and amount collected over a 24-hour sampling period. ...

355

Recovery of a fish pathogenic bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, from ebonyshell mussels Fusconaia ebena using nondestructive sample collection procedures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Refugia are increasingly being used to maintain and propagate imperiled freshwater mussels for future population augmentations. Success for this endeavor is dependent on good husbandry, including a holistic program of resource health management. A significant aspect to optimal health is the prevention or control of infectious diseases. Describing and monitoring pathogens and diseases in mussels involves examination of tissues or samples collected from an appropriate number of individuals that satisfies a certain confidence level for expected prevalences of infections. In the present study, ebonyshell mussels Fusconaia ebena were infected with a fish pathogenic bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, through their cohabitation with diseased brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis. At a 100% prevalence of infection, the F. ebena were removed from the cohabitation tank to clean tanks that were supplied with pathogen-free water, which initiated their depuration of A. salmonicida. Three samples (nondestructive fluid, mantle, hemolymph) collected using nondestructive procedures were compared with fluids and soft tissue homogenates collected after sacrificing the mussels for recovery of the bacterium during this period of depuration. Nondestructive sample collections, especially ND fluid, provide a comparable alternative to sacrificing mussels to determine pathogen status.

Starliper, C.E.

2008-01-01

356

A rapid method for breath analysis in cystic fibrosis patients.  

PubMed

For easy handling and speed of lung diseases diagnostics, approaches based on volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including those emitted by pathogenic microorganisms, are considered but currently require considerable sampling efforts. We tested whether easy-to-handle and fast detection of lung infections is possible using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of 100 ml of exhaled breath. An analytical procedure for the detection of VOCs from the headspace of epithelial lung cells infected with four human pathogens was developed. The feasibility of this method was tested in a cystic fibrosis (CF) outpatient clinic in vivo. Exhaled breath was extracted by SPME and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The compositions of VOCs released in the infection model were characteristic for all individual pathogens tested. Exhaled breath of CF patients allowed clear distinction of CF patients and controls by their VOC compositions using multivariate analyses. Interestingly, the major specific VOCs detected in the exhaled breath of infected CF patients in vivo differed from those monitored during bacterial in vitro growth. SPME extraction of VOCs from 100 ml of human breath allowed the distinction between CF patients and healthy probands. Our results highlight the importance of assessing the entire pattern of VOCs instead of selected biomarkers for diagnostic purposes, as well as the need to use clinical samples to identify reliable biomarkers. This study provides the proof-of-concept for the approach using the composition of exhaled VOCs in human breath for the rapid identification of infectious agents in patients with lower respiratory tract infections. PMID:25431363

Kramer, R; Sauer-Heilborn, A; Welte, T; Guzman, C A; Höfle, M G; Abraham, W-R

2014-11-28

357

Paced breathing controller using LabView  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paced breathing devices are designed and used for exactly that paced breathing. Often when a researcher is conducting an experiment that requires biological signals to be analyzed, the number of variables are reduced by keeping all of the subject's rate of breaths per minute (BPM) the same. Presently there exists both software and hardware that serves the purpose for this

L. Hendrickson; P. Engler

1997-01-01

358

Critical issues for breath analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current resurgence of interest in breath analysis follows directly from the ingenuity and foresight of the researchers in the area of nitric oxide, the gas that was named molecule of the year in 1992 [1]. Pioneering studies have defined the physiologic role of nitric oxide including its involvement in reactive airways. Understanding this role in relation to the mechanism

Terence H Risby

2008-01-01

359

Submarines, Spacecraft, and Exhaled Breath  

EPA Science Inventory

The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled b...

360

Drive mechanism for production of simulated human breath  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulated breath drive mechanism was developed as subsystem to breathing metabolic simulator. Mechanism reproduces complete range of human breath rate, breath depth, and breath waveform, as well as independently controlled functional residual capacity. Mechanism was found capable of simulating various individual human breathing characteristics without any changes of parts.

Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Lambert, J. W.; Morison, W. B.

1972-01-01

361

Investigation into Alternative Sample Preparation Techniques for the Determination of Heavy Metals in Stationary Source Emission Samples Collected on Quartz Filters  

PubMed Central

Monitoring stationary source emissions for heavy metals generally requires the use of quartz filters to collect samples because of the high temperature and high moisture sampling environment. The documentary standard method sample preparation technique in Europe, EN 14385, uses digestion in hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid (HF/HNO3) followed by complexing with boric acid (H3BO3) prior to analysis. However, the use of this method presents a number of problems, including significant instrumental drift during analysis caused by the matrix components, often leading to instrument breakdown and downtime for repairs, as well as posing significant health and safety risks. The aim of this work was to develop an alternative sample preparation technique for emissions samples on quartz filters. The alternative techniques considered were: (i) acid digestion in a fluoroboric acid (HBF4) and HNO3 mixture and (ii) acid extraction in an aqua regia (AR) mixture (HCl and HNO3). Assessment of the effectiveness of these options included determination of interferences and signal drift, as well as validating the different methods by measurement of matrix certified reference materials (CRMs), and comparing the results obtained from real test samples and sample blanks to determine limits of detection. The results showed that the HBF4/HNO3 mixture provides the most viable alternative to the documentary standard preparation technique. PMID:25407906

Goddard, Sharon L.; Brown, Richard J. C.

2014-01-01

362

EFFECTS OF SAMPLING NOZZLES ON THE PARTICLE COLLECTION CHARACTERISTICS OF INERTIAL SIZING DEVICES  

EPA Science Inventory

In several particle-sizing samplers, the sample extraction nozzle is necessarily closely coupled to the first inertial sizing stage. Devices of this type include small sampling cyclones, right angle impactor precollectors for in-stack impactors, and the first impaction stage of s...

363

Aerosol Sampling System for Collection of Capstone Depleted Uranium Particles in a High-Energy Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Study was undertaken to obtain aerosol samples resulting from a kinetic-energy cartridge with a large-caliber depleted uranium (DU) penetrator striking an Abrams or Bradley test vehicle. The sampling strategy was designed to (1) optimize the performance of the samplers and maintain their integrity in the extreme environment created during perforation of an armored vehicle by

Thomas D. Holmes; Raymond A. Guilmette; Yung-Sung Cheng; MaryAnn Parkhurst; Mark D. Hoover

2009-01-01

364

Sample Design and Data Collection: National Study of the Upward Bound Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Research Triangle conducted an evaluation study of the Upward Bound Program, a nationwide program funded by the U.S. Office of Education to help selected low-income high school students prepare for and enter post secondary education. This paper describes the sample design and selection procedures used in selecting a sample of Upward Bound…

Bergsten, Jane W.

365

Measurement of natural radioactivity in sand samples collected along the bank of rivers Indus and Kabul in northern Pakistan.  

PubMed

Radioactivity is a part of the natural environment. The presence of natural radioactivity in sand and other building materials results in internal and external exposure to the general public. Therefore, it is desirable to determine the concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides, namely (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K in sand, bricks and cement which are commonly used as building materials in Pakistan. In this context, sand samples were collected from 18 different locations covering an area of ?1000 km(2) along the banks of river Indus (Ghazi to Jabba) and river Kabul (Nowshera to Kund) in the northern part of Pakistan, whereas bricks and cement samples were collected from local suppliers of the studied area. In order to measure the specific activities in these samples, a P-type coaxial high-purity germanium-based gamma-ray spectrometer was used. In sand samples, the average specific activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K were found to be 30.5±11.4, 53.2±19.5 and 531±49 Bq kg(-1), whereas in brick samples, specific activities of 30±14, 41±21 and 525±183 Bq kg(-1) were observed, respectively. In cement samples, measured specific activity values were 21±5, 14±3 and 231±30 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Radium equivalent activities were calculated and found to be 143.8±38.6, 124±49.8 and 56.69±7 Bq kg(-1) for sand, brick and cement samples, respectively. The annual mean effective dose for the studied sand samples was found to be 0.40 mSv. External and internal hazard indices were less than unity for all the studied samples. The present results have been compared with those reported in the literature. PMID:21062802

Malik, F; Matiullah; Akram, M; Rajput, M U

2011-01-01

366

Field geologic observation and sample collection strategies for planetary surface exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS geologist crewmembers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic fieldwork, the Desert RATS (Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crewmembers who participated in the 2010 field test. We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies related to duplication of samples and observations; logistical constraints on the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to "flexibly execute" their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

Hurtado, José M.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W.

2013-10-01

367

A Future Moon Mission: Curatorial Statistics on Regolith Fragments Applicable to Sample Collection by Raking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The strategy of raking rock fragments from the lunar regolith as a means of acquiring representative samples has wide support due to science return, spacecraft simplicity (reliability) and economy [3, 4, 5]. While there exists widespread agreement that raking or sieving the bulk regolith is good strategy, there is lively discussion about the minimum sample size. Advocates of consor-tium studies desire fragments large enough to support petrologic and isotopic studies. Fragments from 5 to 10 mm are thought adequate [4, 5]. Yet, Jolliff et al. [6] demonstrated use of 2-4 mm fragments as repre-sentative of larger rocks. Here we make use of cura-torial records and sample catalogs to give a different perspective on minimum sample size for a robotic sample collector.

Allton, J. H.; Bevill, T. J.

2003-01-01

368

Hematological assessment in pet rabbits: blood sample collection and blood cell identification.  

PubMed

Pet rabbits are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history, additional diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal rabbits are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of rabbit leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count. Differential diagnoses are provided for abnormal values identified in the hemogram. PMID:25421022

Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

2015-01-01

369

Hematological assessment in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus): blood sample collection and blood cell identification.  

PubMed

Pet guinea pigs are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history and exam findings, diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, the volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal guinea pigs are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of guinea pig leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count. PMID:25421024

Zimmerman, Kurt; Moore, David M; Smith, Stephen A

2015-01-01

370

Comparative analysis of selected exhaled breath biomarkers obtained with two different temperature-controlled devices  

PubMed Central

Background The collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a suitable and non-invasive method for evaluation of airway inflammation. Several studies indicate that the composition of the condensate and the recovery of biomarkers are affected by physical characteristics of the condensing device and collecting circumstances. Additionally, there is an apparent influence of the condensing temperature, and often the level of detection of the assay is a limiting factor. The ECoScreen2 device is a new, partly single-use disposable system designed for studying different lung compartments. Methods EBC samples were collected from 16 healthy non-smokers by using the two commercially available devices ECoScreen2 and ECoScreen at a controlled temperature of -20°C. EBC volume, pH, NOx, LTB4, PGE2, 8-isoprostane and cys-LTs were determined. Results EBC collected with ECoScreen2 was less acidic compared to ECoScreen. ECoScreen2 was superior concerning condensate volume and detection of biomarkers, as more samples were above the detection limit (LTB4 and PGE2) or showed higher concentrations (8-isoprostane). However, NOx was detected only in EBC sampled by ECoScreen. Conclusion ECoScreen2 in combination with mediator specific enzyme immunoassays may be suitable for measurement of different biomarkers. Using this equipment, patterns of markers can be assessed that are likely to reflect the complex pathophysiological processes in inflammatory respiratory disease. PMID:19948050

2009-01-01

371

The cross-sectional GRAS sample: A comprehensive phenotypical data collection of schizophrenic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is the collective term for an exclusively clinically diagnosed, heterogeneous group of mental disorders with still obscure biological roots. Based on the assumption that valuable information about relevant genetic and environmental disease mechanisms can be obtained by association studies on patient cohorts of ? 1000 patients, if performed on detailed clinical datasets and quantifiable biological readouts, we generated

Katja Ribbe; Heidi Friedrichs; Martin Begemann; Sabrina Grube; Sergi Papiol; Anne Kästner; Martin F Gerchen; Verena Ackermann; Asieh Tarami; Annika Treitz; Marlene Flögel; Lothar Adler; Josef B Aldenhoff; Marianne Becker-Emner; Thomas Becker; Adelheid Czernik; Matthias Dose; Here Folkerts; Roland Freese; Rolf Günther; Sabine Herpertz; Dirk Hesse; Gunther Kruse; Heinrich Kunze; Michael Franz; Frank Löhrer; Wolfgang Maier; Andreas Mielke; Rüdiger Müller-Isberner; Cornelia Oestereich; Frank-Gerald Pajonk; Thomas Pollmächer; Udo Schneider; Hans-Joachim Schwarz; Birgit Kröner-Herwig; Ursula Havemann-Reinecke; Jens Frahm; Walter Stühmer; Peter Falkai; Nils Brose; Klaus-Armin Nave; Hannelore Ehrenreich

2010-01-01

372

Classification and collection of fine particles by means of backward sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to human activities, such as the combustion of fossil fuels, the influence on our environment of particulate matter (PM), including aerosols, is being investigated by many research organizations. In particular, fine particles have become very important because they are major components of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Therefore, it is very important to collect fine particles from the exhaust ducts

H. Tsuji; H. Makino; H. Yoshida

2001-01-01

373

24 CFR 35.1315 - Collection and laboratory analysis of samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01...Section 35.1315 Housing and Urban Development Office of the...Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED...All paint chip, dust, or soil samples shall be...

2010-04-01

374

Analysis of selected phthalates in Canadian indoor dust collected using household vacuum and standardized sampling techniques.  

PubMed

Phthalates have been used extensively as plasticizers to improve the flexibility of polymers, and they also have found many industrial applications. They are ubiquitous in the environment and have been detected in a variety of environmental and biological matrices. The goal of this study was to develop a method for the determination of 17 phthalate esters in house dust. This method involved sonication extraction, sample cleanup using solid phase extraction, and isotope dilution GC/MS/MS analysis. Method detection limits (MDLs) and recoveries ranged from 0.04 to 2.93 ?g/g and from 84 to 117%, respectively. The method was applied to the analysis of phthalates in 38 paired household vacuum samples (HD) and fresh dust (FD) samples. HD and FD samples compared well for the majority of phthalates detected in house dust. Data obtained from 126 household dust samples confirmed the historical widespread use of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), with a concentration range of 36 ?g/g to 3840 ?g/g. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) were also found in most samples at relatively high concentrations. Another important phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), was detected at a frequency of 98.4% with concentrations ranging from below its MDL of 0.51 ?g/g to 69 ?g/g. PMID:23621316

Kubwabo, C; Rasmussen, P E; Fan, X; Kosarac, I; Wu, F; Zidek, A; Kuchta, S L

2013-12-01

375

Meteorites and Microbes: Meteorite Collection and Ice Sampling at Patriot Hills, Thiel Mountains, and South Pole, Antarctica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Antarctica 2000 Expedition, sponsored by the Planetary Studies Foundation, meteorites and ice microbiota were collected from the Patriot Hills, and Thiel Mountains of Antarctica and snow samples were at the South Pole. Psychrophilic and psychrotrophic microbiota were obtained from blue ice, cryoconite and ice-bubble systems. Twenty frozen meteorites were collected using aseptic techniques from the blue ice fields near the Moulton Escarpment of the Thiel Mountains (85 S, 94 W) and from the Morris Moraine of the Patriot Hills (80 S, 81 W) Ellsworth Mountains. These ice and meteorite samples are of potential significance to Astrobiology. They may help refine chemical and morphological biomarkers and refine characteristics of microbial life in one of the harshest environments on Earth. We discuss the Antarctica 2000 Expedition and provide preliminary results of the investigation of the meteorites and ice microbiota recovered.

Sipiera, Paul P.; Hoover, Richard B.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

376

COMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR QUARTER 5 SURFACE WATER SPLIT SAMPLES COLLECTED AT THE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICES SITE ERWIN TENNESSEE  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on August 21, 2013. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses, and the comparison of results using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference, are tabulated. All DER values were less than 3 and results are consistent with low (e.g., background) concentrations.

none,

2013-09-23

377

Breath sensors for lung cancer diagnosis.  

PubMed

The scope of the applications of breath sensors is abundant in disease diagnosis. Lung cancer diagnosis is a well-fitting health-related application of this technology, which is of utmost importance in the health sector, because lung cancer has the highest death rate among all cancer types, and it brings a high yearly global burden. The aim of this review is first to provide a rational basis for the development of breath sensors for lung cancer diagnostics from a historical perspective, which will facilitate the transfer of the idea into the rapidly evolving sensors field. Following examples with diagnostic applications include colorimetric, composite, carbon nanotube, gold nanoparticle-based, and surface acoustic wave sensor arrays. These select sensor applications are widened by the state-of-the-art developments in the sensors field. Coping with sampling sourced artifacts and cancer staging are among the debated topics, along with the other concerns like proteomics approaches and biomimetic media utilization, feature selection for data classification, and commercialization. PMID:25461148

Adiguzel, Yekbun; Kulah, Haluk

2014-10-19

378

Correspondence between human diet, body composition and stable isotopic composition of hair and breath in Fijian villagers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this work was to describe the relationship between diet, and hair and breath isotopic composition. From one Fijian rural village, hair and breath samples were procured from 20 women. Physical anthropometrics were made, and hair C\\/C and N\\/N and breath C\\/C were measured. Individual diet diaries were kept for two of the four preceding weeks, and

Robert Hedges; Elaine Rush; William Aalbersberg

2009-01-01

379

THE UNIQUE VALUE OF BREATH BIOMARKERS FOR ESTIMATING PHARMACOKINETIC RATE CONSTANTS AND BODY BURDEN FROM ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Although detection of breath odor is the oldest of the medical diagnostic techniques, blood and urine biomarker measurements are the current "gold standard" for modern exposure and health assessments. Of late, it has been recognized that collecting exhaled breath is an attractiv...

380

Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogus?aw; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

2014-06-01

381

Field Geologic Observation and Sample Collection Strategies for Planetary Surface Exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS Geologist Crewmembers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic field- work, the Desert RATS(Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crew members who participated in the 2010 field test.We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies relatedtoduplicationofsamplesandobservations;logisticalconstraintson the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to flexibly execute their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

Hurtado, Jose M., Jr.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W., Jr.

2012-01-01

382

Onchocerca volvulus: comparison of field collection methods for the preservation of parasite and vector samples for PCR analysis.  

PubMed Central

In recent years, methods for the identification of the filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus and its vector, blackflies of the Simulium damnosum complex (S. damnosum sensu lato (s.l.)), based on the amplification of parasite and vector DNA sequences with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), have been developed. Routine application of these methods requires techniques for sample collection and preservation that are compatible with the limitations of field collection, yet preserve DNA in a form suitable for PCR. Two different methods for sample preservation were evaluated by the field collection teams and the DNA probe laboratory of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa. The most successful involved the preservation of material from O. volvulus and its associated vectors in a dried state on microscope slides. Of over 1200 parasite samples preserved in this manner, more than 93% retained DNA yielding positive results in PCR analysis (1208/1291). Vector material (malpighian tubules and ovaries) preserved in the same manner on the same microscope slides also yielded DNA that was suitable for PCR. Images Fig. 2 PMID:9447777

Toé, L.; Back, C.; Adjami, A. G.; Tang, J. M.; Unnasch, T. R.

1997-01-01

383

Exhaled breath condensate – from an analytical point of view  

PubMed Central

Over the past three decades, the goal of many researchers is analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) as noninvasively obtained sample. A total quality in laboratory diagnostic processes in EBC analysis was investigated: pre-analytical (formation, collection, storage of EBC), analytical (sensitivity of applied methods, standardization) and post-analytical (interpretation of results) phases. EBC analysis is still used as a research tool. Limitations referred to pre-analytical, analytical, and post-analytical phases of EBC analysis are numerous, e.g. low concentrations of EBC constituents, single-analyte methods lack in sensitivity, and multi-analyte has not been fully explored, and reference values are not established. When all, pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical requirements are met, EBC biomarkers as well as biomarker patterns can be selected and EBC analysis can hopefully be used in clinical practice, in both, the diagnosis and in the longitudinal follow-up of patients, resulting in better outcome of disease. PMID:24266297

Dodig, Slavica; ?epelak, Ivana

2013-01-01

384

Hematologic assessment in pet rats, mice, hamsters, and gerbils: blood sample collection and blood cell identification.  

PubMed

Hamsters, gerbils, rats, and mice are presented to veterinary clinics and hospitals for prophylactic care and treatment of clinical signs of disease. Physical examination, history, and husbandry practice information can be supplemented greatly by assessment of hematologic parameters. As a resource for veterinarians and their technicians, this article describes the methods for collection of blood, identification of blood cells, and interpretation of the hemogram in mice, rats, gerbils, and hamsters. PMID:25421023

Lindstrom, Nicole M; Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

2015-01-01

385

Susceptibility to tigecycline of isolates from samples collected in hospitalized patients with secondary peritonitis undergoing surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activity of tigecycline against nosocomial secondary peritonitis isolates collected along 18 months in 29 Spanish hospitals was tested by Etest in a central laboratory, considering Food and Drug Administration (FDA)\\/British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC)\\/European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints. A total of 600 facultative\\/aerobic isolates (392 Gram negative, 208 Gram positive) and 100 anaerobes were tested. None

Fe Tubau; Josefina Liñares; Maria-Dolores Rodríguez; Emilia Cercenado; Maria-Jose Aldea; Fernando González-Romo; Luis Torroba; Pilar Berdonces; Joaquin Plazas; Lorenzo Aguilar; Alberto Delgado; Nuria García-Escribano

2010-01-01

386

Tank 241-S-102 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-26

387

SOURCES OF VARIABILITY IN COLLECTION AND PREPARATION OF PAINT AND LEAD-COATING SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Chronic exposure of children to lead can result in permanent physiologic impairment. Since surfaces coated with lead-containing paints and varnishes are potential sources of exposure, it is extremely important that reliable methods for sampling and analysis be available. The so...

388

Survey of trace elements in household and bottled drinking water samples collected in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total dissolved beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) were measured in the drinking water of 101 households and 21 samples of retail bottled waters purchased in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to ascertain the water quality for human consumption. The Inductively

I Al-Saleh; I Al-Doush

1998-01-01

389

Tank 241-BY-112 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in November 1994  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-28

390

Tank 241-U-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-27

391

Tank 241-C-101 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in September 1994  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-01

392

Sampling and Data Collection Procedures for the National Science Concept Learning Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Science Concept Learning Study represented one of the largest and the most extensive surveys of its kind undertaken in Taiwan in recent years. A total of 36,093 students from the sixth, eighth, ninth, and eleventh grades participated in the main study. This paper provides the background information about the sampling and booklet…

Tam, Hak Ping; Li, Lung-An

2007-01-01

393

Tank 241-TY-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in April 1995  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-01

394

Tank 241-S-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-01

395

Tank 241-T-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in January 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

J. L. Huckaby; D. R. Bratzel

1995-01-01

396

Tank 241-T-107 Headspace Gas and Vapor Characterization Results for Samples Collected in January 1995  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-26

397

Tank 241-C-110 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1994  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-01

398

Tank 241-C-107 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in September 1994  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-28

399

Biological sample collections from minors for genetic research: a systematic review of guidelines and position papers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stored tissue samples are an important resource for epidemiological genetic research. Genetic research on biological material from minors can yield valuable information on the development and genesis of early-onset genetic disorders and the early interaction of environmental and genetic factors. The use of such tissue raises some specific ethical and governance questions, which are not completely covered by the discussion

Kristien Hens; Herman Nys; Jean-Jacques Cassiman; Kris Dierickx

2009-01-01

400

ANALYSIS OF ACID PRECIPITATION SAMPLES COLLECTED BY STATE AGENCIES. ANNUAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the analytical results from 30 state operated wet acid deposition sites. All sites submitted their samples to the same laboratory so that comparisons of data could be made from different geographic areas. The use of a central laboratory also provided cost ef...

401

Sample Collection from Small Airless Bodies: Examination of Temperature Constraints for the TGIP Sample Collector for the Hera Near-Earth Asteroid Sample Return Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There have been a number of missions that have explored the solar system with cameras and other instruments but profound questions remain that can only be addressed through the analysis of returned samples. However, due to lack of appropriate technology, high cost, and high risk, sample return has only recently become a feasible part of robotic solar system exploration. One specific objective of the President s new vision is that robotic exploration of the solar system should enhance human exploration as it discovers and understands the the solar system, and searches for life and resources [1]. Missions to small bodies, asteroids and comets, will partially fill the huge technological void between missions to the Moon and missions to Mars. However, such missions must be low cost and inherently simple, so they can be applied routinely to many missions. Sample return from asteroids, comets, Mars, and Jupiter s moons will be an important and natural part of the human exploration of space effort. Here we describe the collector designed for the Hera Near-Earth Asteroid Sample Return Mission. We have built a small prototype for preliminary evaluation, but expect the final collector to gather approx.100 g of sample of dust grains to centimeter sized clasts on each application to the surface of the asteroid.

Franzen, M. A.; Roe, L. A.; Buffington, J. A.; Sears, D. W. G.

2005-01-01

402

The cross-sectional GRAS sample: A comprehensive phenotypical data collection of schizophrenic patients  

PubMed Central

Background Schizophrenia is the collective term for an exclusively clinically diagnosed, heterogeneous group of mental disorders with still obscure biological roots. Based on the assumption that valuable information about relevant genetic and environmental disease mechanisms can be obtained by association studies on patient cohorts of ? 1000 patients, if performed on detailed clinical datasets and quantifiable biological readouts, we generated a new schizophrenia data base, the GRAS (Göttingen Research Association for Schizophrenia) data collection. GRAS is the necessary ground to study genetic causes of the schizophrenic phenotype in a 'phenotype-based genetic association study' (PGAS). This approach is different from and complementary to the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on schizophrenia. Methods For this purpose, 1085 patients were recruited between 2005 and 2010 by an invariable team of traveling investigators in a cross-sectional field study that comprised 23 German psychiatric hospitals. Additionally, chart records and discharge letters of all patients were collected. Results The corresponding dataset extracted and presented in form of an overview here, comprises biographic information, disease history, medication including side effects, and results of comprehensive cross-sectional psychopathological, neuropsychological, and neurological examinations. With >3000 data points per schizophrenic subject, this data base of living patients, who are also accessible for follow-up studies, provides a wide-ranging and standardized phenotype characterization of as yet unprecedented detail. Conclusions The GRAS data base will serve as prerequisite for PGAS, a novel approach to better understanding 'the schizophrenias' through exploring the contribution of genetic variation to the schizophrenic phenotypes. PMID:21067598

2010-01-01

403

Seed germination from lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) fecal samples collected during the dry season in the Northern Brazilian Amazon.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the potential of lowland tapirs as seed dispersers in the northern Brazilian Amazon. The study analyzed the viability of seeds after passage through the gut. Fecal samples were collected from 6 different vegetation physiognomies in Viruá National Park during the dry season. The samples were then kept in a greenhouse for 16 months to allow the seeds to germinate. The seedling species were identified and classified according to the type of fruit, plant habit, seed size and type of ingestion. Of the 111 fecal samples, 94 (84.7%) had viable seeds of 75 species. Melastomataceae was the most frequent family with viable seeds in the fecal samples (69.1% of samples, N= 18 species). The data suggest that the importance of the lowland tapirs as dispersers is not restricted to the species consumed actively by frugivory but also extends to species accidentally consumed during browsing. The occurrence of both large and small viable seeds in the fecal samples as well as a number of large drupes, which probably cannot be transported via endozoochory by any other animal species, provide evidence of the ecological importance of lowland tapirs to the dynamics of the forest-campinarana vegetation mosaic in the region. PMID:23586561

Barcelos, Adriana Renata; Bobrowiec, Paulo Estefano D; Sanaiotti, Tânia Margarete; Gribel, Rogério

2013-03-01

404

Tank 241-U-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on July 16, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-U-104 (Tank U-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan. None of the flammable constituents were present at concentrations above the analytical instrument detection limits. Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.108% of the lower flammability limit. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in a table. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Hayes, J.C.; Mitroshkov, A.V.; Edwards, J.A.; Julya, J.L.; Thornton, B.M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

1997-08-01

405

COMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR QUARTER 4 SURFACE WATER SPLIT SAMPLES COLLECTED AT THE NUCLEAR FUELS SERVICES SITE, ERWIN, TN  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on June 12, 2013. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses, and Table 1 presents the comparison of results using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference. A DER ≤ 3 indicates at a 99% confidence interval that split sample results do not differ significantly when compared to their respective one standard deviation (sigma) uncertainty (ANSI N42.22). The NFS split sample report specifies 95% confidence level of reported uncertainties (NFS 2013). Therefore, standard two sigma reporting values were divided by 1.96. In conclusion, most DER values were less than 3 and results are consistent with low (e.g., background) concentrations. The gross beta result for sample 5198W0014 was the exception. The ORAU gross beta result of 6.30 ? 0.65 pCi/L from location NRD is well above NFS?s non-detected result of 1.56 ? 0.59 pCi/L. NFS?s data package includes no detected result for any radionuclide at location NRD. At NRC?s request, ORAU performed gamma spectroscopic analysis of sample 5198W0014 to identify analytes contributing to the relatively elevated gross beta results. This analysis identified detected amounts of naturally-occurring constituents, most notably Ac-228 from the thorium decay series, and does not suggest the presence of site-related contamination.

none,

2013-08-15

406

Hot Stuff!: Testing for Carbon Dioxide from Our Own Breath  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners blow into balloons and collect their breath--carbon dioxide gas (CO2). They then blow the CO2 from the balloon into a solution of acid-base indicator. The indicator changes color to show that CO2 gas in water forms an acid. This activity is part of a set of demonstrations and activities that can be used together for a larger lesson. Resource contains vocabulary definitions and suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.

2014-06-30

407

Air-Breathing Rocket Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine prototype in the test bay at the General Applied Science Lab facility in Ronkonkoma, New York. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

1998-01-01

408

A horizontal sampler for collection of water samples near the bottom  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The need to obtain adequate water samples immediately above a lake bottom or at a precisely defined depth is not new. The problem is of particular concern in a large section of central Lake Erie, where dissolved oxygen concentration may be reduced to 1 ppm or less in the hypolimnion and where the metalimnion frequently extends to or within 30 or 60 cm of the bottom (Becton 1963; Cam 1962).It is impossible to sample the hypolimnrtic waters satisfactorily with the usual Nanscn, Kemmerer, and Frautschy bottles (Carr 1962). Although the 500-ml sampler described here was designed, constructed, and used extensively and successfully to meet the particular problem in Lake Erie, it should be equally useful in a varirty of situations.

Joeris, Leonard S.

1964-01-01

409

Prevalence and type spectrum of human papillomaviruses in healthy skin samples collected in three continents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate whether previous findings of ubiquitous skin papillomavirus infection in Caucasiansapplytopopulationsfromotherpartsoftheworld,skinswabsamplesfromBangladesh, Japan,EthiopiaandZambiawereanalysedinparallelwithSwedishsamples.TheprevalenceofHPV DNA in the material from Bangladesh was 68%, Japan 54%, Ethiopia 52%, Zambia 42% and Sweden 70%. A great multiplicity of genotypes was demonstrated by the finding of 88 HPV types or putative types in 142 HPV DNA-positive samples in total. Double or multiple genotypes

Annika Antonsson; Cornelia Erfurt; Kristina Hazard; Veroniqa Holmgren; Melinda Simon; Akio Kataoka; Shahadat Hossain; Camilla Hakangard; Bengt Goran Hansson

2003-01-01

410

NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--FIELD USE OF THE SAMPLE COLLECTION AND CUSTODY SOFTWARE (RTI/ACS-AP-209-086)  

EPA Science Inventory

This procedure describes field use of the sample collection and custody software developed for this pilot study. This is an easy-to-use, spreadsheet-based, two-part sample collection and custody software package. The software is for use on laptop computers and defines the kinds a...

411

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-T-110: Results from samples collected on August 31, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-T-110 (Tank T-110) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5056. Samples were collected by WHC on August 31, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

McVeety, B.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1996-05-01

412

Elemental composition of Comet 81P/Wild2 samples collected byStardust  

SciTech Connect

We measured the elemental compositions of material from 23 particles in aerogel and from residue in seven craters in aluminum foil that was collected during passage of the Stardust spacecraft through the coma of comet 81P/Wild 2. These particles are chemically heterogeneous at the largest size scale analyzed ({approx}180 ng). The mean elemental composition of this Wild 2 material is consistent with the CI meteorite composition, which is thought to represent the bulk composition of the solar system, for the elements Mg, Si, Mn, Fe, and Ni to 35%, and for Ca and Ti to 60%. The elements Cu, Zn, and Ga appear enriched in this Wild 2 material, which suggests that the CI meteorites may not represent the solar system composition for these moderately volatile minor elements.

Flynn, G.J.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Bradley, J.P.; Brenker, F.E.; Brennan, S.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D.E.; Bullock, E.S.; Burghammer,Manfred; Clark, B.C.; Dai, Zu Rong; Daghlian, C.P.; Djouadi, Z.; Fakra,S; Ferroir, T.; Floss, C.; Franchi, I.A.; Gainsforth, Z.; Gallien, J.P.; Gillet, P.; Grant, P.G.; Graham, G.A.; Green, S.F.; Grossemy, F.; Heck,P.R.; Herzog, G.F.; Hoppe, P.; Horz, F.; Huth, J.; Ignatyev, K.; Ishii,H.A.; Janssens, K.; Joswiak, D.; Kearsley, A.T.; Khodja, H.; Lanzirotti,A.; Leitner, J.; Lemelle, L.; Leroux, H.; Luening, K.; MacPherson, G.J.; Marhas, K.K.; Marcus, M.A.; Matrajt, G.; Nakamura, T.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Nakano, T.; Newville, M.; Papanastassiou, D.A.; Pianette, P.; Rao, William; Riekel, C.; Rietmeijer, F.J.M.; Rost, D.; Schwandt, C.S.; See, T.H.; Sheffield-Parker, J.; Simionovici, A.; Sitnitsky, Ilona; Snead, C.J.; Stadermann, F.J.; Stephan, T.; Stroud,R.M.; Susini, J.; Suzuki, Y.; Sutton, S.R.; Taylor, S.; Teslich, N.; Troadec, D.; Tsou, P.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Uesugi, K.; Vekemans, B.; Vicenzi,E.P.; Vincze, L.; Westphal, A.J.; Wozniakiewicz, P.; Zinner, E.; Zolensky, M.E.

2006-01-01

413

Elemental Compositions of Comet 81P/Wild 2 Samples Collected by Stardust  

SciTech Connect

We measured the elemental compositions of material from 23 particles in aerogel and from residue in seven craters in aluminum foil that was collected during passage of the Stardust spacecraft through the coma of comet 81P/Wild 2. These particles are chemically heterogeneous at the largest size scale analyzed ({approx}180 ng). The mean elemental composition of this Wild 2 material is consistent with the CI meteorite composition, which is thought to represent the bulk composition of the solar system, for the elements Mg, Si, Mn, Fe, and Ni to 35%, and for Ca and Ti to 60%. The elements Cu, Zn, and Ga appear enriched in this Wild 2 material, which suggests that the CI meteorites may not represent the solar system composition for these moderately volatile minor elements.

Flynn,G.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Bradley, J.; Brenker, F.; Brennan, S.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D.; Bullock, E.; et al.

2006-01-01

414

Evaluation of vacuum filter sock surface sample collection method for Bacillus spores from porous and non-porous surfaces.  

PubMed

Vacuum filter socks were evaluated for recovery efficiency of powdered Bacillus atrophaeus spores from two non-porous surfaces, stainless steel and painted wallboard and two porous surfaces, carpet and bare concrete. Two surface coupons were positioned side-by-side and seeded with aerosolized Bacillus atrophaeus spores. One of the surfaces, a stainless steel reference coupon, was sized to fit into a sample vial for direct spore removal, while the other surface, a sample surface coupon, was sized for a vacuum collection application. Deposited spore material was directly removed from the reference coupon surface and cultured for enumeration of colony forming units (CFU), while deposited spore material was collected from the sample coupon using the vacuum filter sock method, extracted by sonication and cultured for enumeration. Recovery efficiency, which is a measure of overall transfer effectiveness from the surface to culture, was calculated as the number of CFU enumerated from the filter sock sample per unit area relative to the number of CFU enumerated from the co-located reference coupon per unit area. The observed mean filter sock recovery efficiency from stainless steel was 0.29 (SD = 0.14, n = 36), from painted wallboard was 0.25 (SD = 0.15, n = 36), from carpet was 0.28 (SD = 0.13, n = 40) and from bare concrete was 0.19 (SD = 0.14, n = 44). Vacuum filter sock recovery quantitative limits of detection were estimated at 105 CFU m(-2) from stainless steel and carpet, 120 CFU m(-2) from painted wallboard and 160 CFU m(-2) from bare concrete. The method recovery efficiency and limits of detection established in this work provide useful guidance for the planning of incident response environmental sampling for biological agents such as Bacillus anthracis. PMID:17607386

Brown, Gary S; Betty, Rita G; Brockmann, John E; Lucero, Daniel A; Souza, Caroline A; Walsh, Kathryn S; Boucher, Raymond M; Tezak, Matthew S; Wilson, Mollye C

2007-07-01

415

Correlated Spatio-Temporal Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Low Rank Matrix Approximation and Optimized Node Sampling  

PubMed Central

The emerging low rank matrix approximation (LRMA) method provides an energy efficient scheme for data collection in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) by randomly sampling a subset of sensor nodes for data sensing. However, the existing LRMA based methods generally underutilize the spatial or temporal correlation of the sensing data, resulting in uneven energy consumption and thus shortening the network lifetime. In this paper, we propose a correlated spatio-temporal data collection method for WSNs based on LRMA. In the proposed method, both the temporal consistence and the spatial correlation of the sensing data are simultaneously integrated under a new LRMA model. Moreover, the network energy consumption issue is considered in the node sampling procedure. We use Gini index to measure both the spatial distribution of the selected nodes and the evenness of the network energy status, then formulate and resolve an optimization problem to achieve optimized node sampling. The proposed method is evaluated on both the simulated and real wireless networks and compared with state-of-the-art methods. The experimental results show the proposed method efficiently reduces the energy consumption of network and prolongs the network lifetime with high data recovery accuracy and good stability. PMID:25490583

Piao, Xinglin; Hu, Yongli; Sun, Yanfeng; Yin, Baocai; Gao, Junbin

2014-01-01

416

PCR detection of Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis in smegma samples collected from dairy cattle in Fars, Iran  

PubMed Central

Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv), is regarded as one of the major threats to the cattle industry around the world. Abortion and infertility are two important reproductive problems in cows infected with C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Reports on the presence of Cfv are scarce in the cattle, in Iran. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the presence of Cfv in the reproductive tract of dairy cattle either slaughtered in Shiraz abattoir or dairy herds with a history of infertility and abortion, and further to identify and differentiate this micro-organism in dairy cattle in Fars, south of Iran. A total of 95 smegma samples from the preputial cavity and the fornix of the cervical opening were collected using scraping method from bulls (n = 34) and cows (n = 61) in addition to eight samples of commercially bull frozen semen. Smegma samples were then cultured for isolation of Cfv and then the extracted DNA was examined for the presence of Cfv using an optimized multiplex PCR assay. None of the frozen semen samples examined were positive for Cfv. However, out of 95 smegma samples, thirteen animals (12.6%) were found positive for Cfv consisting of 3 males and 10 females. In conclusion, the results of the current study clearly confirmed the presence of Cfv using PCR in the slaughtered cattle and dairy farms with a history of poor fertility and abortion in Fars, Iran.

Hosseinzadeh, Saeid; Kafi, Mojtaba; Pour-Teimouri, Mostafa

2013-01-01

417

Improved Scanning Geometry to Collect 3D-Geometry Data in Flat Samples  

SciTech Connect

3D integration through silicon technology of integrated circuits challenges non-destructive testing methods. 3D x-ray methods are the techniques of choice to localize defects in interconnects. The development of high-power x-ray sources enabled the use of x-ray microscopy in laboratory tools. Those devices are able to resolve features down to 40 nm in an acceptable measurement time. However, the field of view is very limited to 16 {mu}m in high-resolution mode and to 65 {mu}m in large-field-of-view mode. To record tomography data, the size of the samples must not exceed the field of view to circumvent specific artifacts. Semiconductor samples usually do not fulfill the condition mentioned above since they have the shape of flat sheets. Therefore limited-angle tomography is typically used. The missing angles cause typical capping artifacts and poor signal-to-noise ratio. We present a modified scanning geometry that overcomes some of the artifacts and yields a better image quality. The geometry and potential applications are presented in comparison to the traditional limited-angle tomography.

Krueger, P.; Niese, S.; Zschech, E. [Fraunhofer IZFP-D, Maria-Reiche-Str. 2, 01109 Dresden (Germany); Gelb, J.; Feser, M. [Xradia Inc., 5052 Commercial Circle, Concord, CA 94520 (United States)

2011-09-09

418

Medical Diagnostic Breath Analysis by Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain medical conditions give rise to the presence of chemicals in the bloodstream. These chemicals - known as biomarkers - may also be present in low concentrations in human breath. Cavity ring down spectroscopy possesses the requisite selectivity and sensitivity to detect such biomarkers in the congested spectrum of a breath sample. The ulcer-causing bacterium, Helicobacter pylori, is a prolific producer of the enzyme urease, which catalyses the breakdown of urea ((NH_2)_2CO) in the stomach as follows: (NH_2)_2CO + H_2O ? CO_2 + 2NH_3 Currently, breath tests seeking altered carbon-isotope ratios in exhaled CO_2 after the ingestion of ^{13}C- or ^{14}C-labeled urea are used to diagnose H. pylori infection. We present recent results from an ongoing collaboration with Tampere Area University Hospital. The study involves 100 patients (both infected and uninfected) and concerns the possible correlation between the bacterial infection and breath ammonia. D. Y. Graham, P. D. Klein, D. J. Evans, Jr, D. G. Evans, L. C. Alpert, A. R. Opekun, T. W. Boutton, Lancet 1(8543), 1174-7 March 1987.

Guss, Joseph S.; Metsälä, Markus; Halonen, Lauri

2009-06-01

419

The measurand problem in breath alcohol testing.  

PubMed

Proper interpretation of forensic measurements can be critical to the administration of justice. Breath alcohol testing is commonly relied upon to measure the concentration of alcohol in breath or, indirectly, in blood. The concentration sought constitutes the "quantity intended to be measured," referred to as the measurand. Although breath tests always probe the same physical quantity, their measurand is dictated by statute and varies between jurisdictions. Thus, identical numerical values obtained from tests in disparate jurisdictions may refer to different quantities and may not indicate the relevant statutory measurand. This can lead to misinterpretation of results, referred to as the "measurand problem." We first illustrate the concept of the measurand. Thereafter, the measurand problem is illustrated through application of Hlastala's breath test paradigm and Gullberg's work on breath test uncertainty. It is shown that where the measurand is not properly accounted for, conclusions based upon breath test evidence are undermined. PMID:24502457

Vosk, Ted; Forrest, A Robert W; Emery, Ashley; McLane, Lauren D

2014-05-01

420

Seasonal associations and atmospheric transport distances of Fusarium collected with unmanned aerial vehicles and ground-based sampling devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spores of fungi in the genus Fusarium may be transported through the atmosphere over long distances. Members of this genus are important pathogens and mycotoxin producers. New information is needed to characterize seasonal trends in atmospheric loads of Fusarium and to pinpoint the source(s) of inoculum at both local (farm) and regional (state or country) scales. Spores of Fusarium were collected from the atmosphere in an agricultural ecosystem in Blacksburg, VA, USA using a Burkard volumetric sampler (BVS) 1 m above ground level and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 100 m above ground level. More than 2,200 colony forming units (CFUs) of Fusarium were collected during 104 BVS sampling periods and 180 UAV sampling periods over four calendar years (2009-2012). Spore concentrations ranged from 0 to 13 and 0 to 23 spores m-3 for the BVS and the UAVs, respectively. Spore concentrations were generally higher in the fall, spring, and summer, and lower in the winter. Spore concentrations from the BVS were generally higher than those from the UAVs for both seasonal and hourly collections. Some of the species of Fusarium identified from our collections have not been previously reported in the state of Virginia. A Gaussian plume transport model was used to estimate distances to the potential inoculum source(s) by season. This work extends previous studies showing an association between atmospheric transport barriers (Lagrangian coherent structures or LCSs) and the movement of Fusarium in the lower atmosphere. An increased understanding of the aerobiology of Fusarium may contribute to new and improved control strategies for diseases causes by fusaria in the future.

Schmale, David; Ross, Shane; Lin, Binbin

2014-05-01

421

Point of care monitoring of hemodialysis patients with a breath ammonia measurement device based on printed polyaniline nanoparticle sensors.  

PubMed

A device for measuring human breath ammonia was developed based on a single use, disposable, inkjet printed ammonia sensor fabricated using polyaniline nanoparticles. The device was optimized for sampling ammonia in human breath samples by addressing issues such as variations in breath sample volume, flow rate, sources of oral ammonia, temperature and humidity. The resulting system was capable of measuring ammonia in breath from 40 to 2993 ppbv (r(2 )= 0.99, n = 3) as correlated with photoacoustic laser spectroscopy and correlation in normal human breath samples yielded a slope of 0.93 and a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.9705 (p < 0.05, n = 11). Measurement of ammonia in the breath of patients with end-stage kidney disease demonstrated its significant reduction following dialysis, while also correlating well with blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (r = 0.61, p < 0.01, n = 96). Excellent intraindividual correlations were demonstrated between breath ammonia and BUN (0.86 to 0.96), which demonstrates the possibility of using low cost point of care breath ammonia systems as a noninvasive means of monitoring kidney dysfunction and treatment. PMID:24299143

Hibbard, Troy; Crowley, Karl; Kelly, Frank; Ward, Frank; Holian, John; Watson, Alan; Killard, Anthony J

2013-12-17

422

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-BY-108: Results from samples collected January 23, 1996. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) with and without particulate prefiltration. Samples were collected from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for water, ammonia, permanent gases, total nonmethane hydrocarbons (TNMHCs, also known as TO-12), and organic analytes in samples collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs) from the tank headspace. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sampling and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Sampling and Analysis Plan for Tank Vapor Sampling Comparison Test{close_quotes}, and the sample jobs were designated S6004, S6005, and S6006. Samples were collected by WHC on January 23, 1996, using the VSS, a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe; and the ISVS with and without particulate prefiltration.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B. [and others

1996-07-01

423

Quality Sample Collection, Handling, and Preservation for an Effective Microbial Forensics Program.  

SciTech Connect

Science can be part of an effective investigative response to a bioterrorism event or a biocrime by providing capabilities to analyze biological and associated signatures in collected evidence. Microbial forensics, a discipline comprised of several scientific fields, is dedicated to the analysis of evidence from such criminal acts to help determine the responsible party and to exonerate the innocent. A partnership has been formed amount a number of government agencies, academia, and the private sector to better respond and deter potential perpetrators of bioterrorism or biocrimes. This partnership leverages our national scientific and analytical capabilities to support activities of law enforcement agencies. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), whose mission is, in part, to respond to and to prevent acts of terrorism against the United States, has established the national Bioforensics Analysis Center (NBFAC). The NBFAC, in partnership with the FBI, (1) provides a state-of-the-art central laboratory for the analysis of microbial forensic evidence; and (2) serves as a nexus for integrating the national resources to increase the effectiveness of law enforcement in obtaining the highest level of attribution possible in criminal cases where the weapon is a biological agent.

Budowle, Bruce; Schutzer, Steven E.; Burans, James P.; Beecher, Douglas J.; Cebulla, Thomas; Chakraborty, Ranjit; Cobb, William T.; Fletcher, Jacqueline; Hale, Martha L.; Harris, Robert B.; Heitkamp, Michael; Keller, Frederick P.; Kuske, Cheryl; LeClerc, Joseph E.; Marrone, Babetta L.; McKenna, Thomas S.; Morse, Stephen A.; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Yadev, Jagjit

2006-10-01

424

A Modified Catheterization Procedure to Reduce Bladder Damage when Collecting Urine Samples from Holstein Cows  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT This study proposed a modified procedure, using a small balloon catheter (SB catheter, 45 ml), for reducing bladder damage in cows. Holstein cows and the following catheters were prepared: smaller balloon catheter (XSB catheter; 30 ml), SB catheter and standard balloon catheter (NB catheter; 70 ml, as the commonly used, standard size). In experiment 1, each cow was catheterized. The occurrence of catheter-associated hematuria (greater than 50 RBC/HPF) was lower in the SB catheter group (0.0%, n=7) than in the NB catheter group (71.4%, n=7; P<0.05). In experiment 2, general veterinary parameters, urine pH, body temperature and blood values in cows were not affected before or after insertion of SB catheters (n=6). The incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) was 3.0% per catheterized day (n=22). In experiment 3, feeding profiles, daily excretion of urinary nitrogen (P<0.05) and rate from nitrogen intake in urine (P<0.01), were higher with use of the SB catheter (n=13) than with the use of the vulva urine cup (n=18), indicating that using the SB catheter can provide accurate nutritional data. From this study, we concluded that when using an SB catheter, the following results occur; reduction in bladder damage without any veterinary risks and accuracy in regard to feeding parameters, suggesting this modified procedure using an SB catheter is a useful means of daily urine collection. PMID:24561376

TAMURA, Tetsuo; NAKAMURA, Hiroshi; SATO, Say; SEKI, Makoto; NISHIKI, Hideto

2014-01-01

425

Instrumentation and Sensors for Human Breath Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaled breath contains a vast milieu of compounds, both volatile and non-volatile, that appear to correlate with physiological\\u000a processes on-going in the body. These breath biomarkers hold enormous diagnostic potential when they are adequately measured\\u000a and monitored. Thus, instrumentation geared towards breath analysis applications has expanded rapidly in the last decade,\\u000a although challenges for future research still exist. This chapter

Melinda G. Simon; Cristina E. Davis

426

COPD Identification By The Analysis Of Breath With An Electronic Nose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a non fully reversible pathology characterized by airflow limitation. Spirometry (pulmonary function) is the gold standard to diagnose COPD, but often in the early stage of the pathology breathing symptoms might not be clinically evident. For this reason, there is an increasing demand for non-invasive diagnostic techniques. In this paper an electronic nose has been applied to the breath analysis of COPD patients. Breath samples of COPD patients and control subjects were analyzed with the electronic nose. Classification of sensors data illustrates the ability of this instrument to distinguish between the two groups. Electronic nose data were complemented by GC-MS analysis for a thorough characterization of the breath samples.

Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Martinelli, Eugenio; Paolesse, Roberto; Bergamini, Alberto; Cazzola, Mario; Ciaprini, Chiara; Segreti, Andrea; Di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

2011-09-01

427

Breathing Problems - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Breathing Problems - Multiple Languages French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) ... incitatif - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Hindi (??????) Incentive Spirometer ?????? (Hindi) Bilingual ...

428

Calculating rhythmicity of infant breathing using wavelets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breathing signals are one set of physiological data that may provide information regarding the mechanisms that cause SIDS. Isolated breathing pauses have been implicated in fatal events. Other features of interest include slow amplitude modulation of the breathing signal, a phenomenon whose origin is unclear, and periodic breathing. The latter describes a repetitive series of apnea, and may be considered an extreme manifestation of amplitude modulation with successive cessations of breathing. Rhythmicity is defined to assess the impact of amplitude modulation on breathing signals and describes the extent to which frequency components remain constant for the duration of the signal. The wavelet transform was used to identify sections of constant frequency components within signals. Rhythmicity can be evaluated for all the frequency components in a signal, for individual frequencies. The rhythmicity of eight breathing epochs from sleeping infants at high and low risk for SIDS was calculated. Initial results show breathing from infants at high risk for SIDS exhibits greater rhythmicity of modulating frequencies than breathing from low risk infants.

Macey, Katherine E.; Page, Wyatt H.; Harper, Ronald M.; Macey, Paul M.; Ford, Rodney P. K.

2000-12-01

429

COMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR QUARTER 3 SURFACE WATER SPLIT SAMPLES COLLECTED AT THE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICES SITE, ERWIN, TENNESSEE  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on March 20, 2013. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses, and Table 1 presents the comparison of results using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference. A DER {<=} 3 indicates that at a 99% confidence interval, split sample results do not differ significantly when compared to their respective one standard deviation (sigma) uncertainty (ANSI N42.22). The NFS split sample report does not specify the confidence level of reported uncertainties (NFS 2013). Therefore, standard two sigma reporting is assumed and uncertainty values were divided by 1.96. In conclusion, most DER values were less than 3 and results are consistent with low (e.g., background) concentrations. The gross beta result for sample 5198W0012 was the exception. The ORAU result of 9.23 {+-} 0.73 pCi/L from location MCD is well above NFS?s result of -0.567 {+-} 0.63 pCi/L (non-detected). NFS?s data package included a detected result for U-233/234, but no other uranium or plutonium detection, and nothing that would suggest the presence of beta-emitting radionuclides. The ORAU laboratory reanalyzed sample 5198W0012 using the remaining portion of the sample volume and a result of 11.3 {+-} 1.1 pCi/L was determined. As directed, the laboratory also counted the filtrate using gamma spectrometry analysis and identified only naturally occurring or ubiquitous man-made constituents, including beta emitters that are presumably responsible for the elevated gross beta values.

none,

2013-05-28

430

Isolation of mycobacteria from clinical samples collected in the United States from 2004 to 2011  

PubMed Central

Background Mycobacteria other than M. bovis may interfere with current bovine tuberculosis diagnostic tests resulting in false positive test results. As the prevalence of M. bovis decreases in the United States, interference from other mycobacteria play an increasingly important role in preventing the eradication of M. bovis. To identify mycobacteria other than M. bovis that may be interfering with current diagnostic tests, a retrospective study was performed to identify mycobacteria isolated from clinical tissues at the National Veterinary Services Laboratories between 1 January 2004 and 9 October 2011. Results During the study period, 2,366 mycobacteria other than M. bovis were isolated from samples submitted for clinical diagnosis of M. bovis. Fifty-five mycobacterial species were isolated during this time period. In cattle, M. avium complex, M. fortuitum/fortuitum complex, M. smegmatis, M. kansasii, and M. terrae complex were the predominate species other than M. bovis isolated from tissues submitted for culture. Mycobacteria other than M. bovis isolated from deer were predominantly M. avium complex, M. terrae/terrae complex, and M. fortuitum/fortuitum complex. Conclusions These data provide information characterizing the species and relative prevalence of mycobacteria other than M. bovis that may interfere with current diagnostic tests. PMID:23656828

2013-01-01

431

Radiation dose estimation of sand samples collected from different Egyptian beaches.  

PubMed

A high pure germanium detector-based gamma-ray spectroscopy low-background counting system was used to determine the levels of natural radioactivity from beach sand samples on the Egyptian coast along the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were found to lie in the range of 30±11 to 60±14 Bq kg(-1) with a mean of 39±15 Bq kg(-1), 12±3 to 30±14 Bq kg(-1) with a mean of 21±13 Bq kg(-1) and 392±22 to 413±22 Bq kg(-1) with a mean of 402±23 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Radiation hazard indices and annual effective doses were evaluated and compared with the international data. The results indicate that the values obtained fall below the internationally accepted maximum limits and do not pose any significant radiation hazard to individuals in the study area. From these results, a radiological baseline map of Egyptian beaches can be drawn and used as reference information to assess any future alterations in the radioactivity of beach sands due to any changes in the sea sediments. PMID:21169289

Eissa, H S; Medhat, M E; Said, S A; Elmaghraby, E K

2011-11-01

432

Episodic Breathing in Frogs: Converging Hypotheses on Neural Control of Respiration in Air Breathing Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. The episodic, or intermittent, breathing of frogs and many ecto- thermic vertebrates results in important fluctuations of arterial blood gases. This pattern of breathing differs from the rhythmic and continuous alterna- tion of inspiration observed in most homeotherms, which maintain O2 and CO2 levels within narrow ranges. These differences in pattern of breathing indicate that the respiratory control systems

RICHARD KINKEAD

1997-01-01

433

Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in environmental samples collected from cattle farms in Eastern and Central Poland (2011-2012).  

PubMed

Coxiella burnetii is the etiologic agent of Q fever. It may occur as two different morphological forms, a large cell variant (LCV) and a small cell variant (SCV). The SCV is characterized by unique resistance to physical and chemical factors and may survive in the environment for many months. The objective of this study was to examine environmental samples for the presence of C. burnetii using real-time PCR in areas where Q fever was previously reported and in randomly selected animal farms where Q fever was not reported. The samples were collected in the following provinces in Poland: Lublin, Subcarpathian and Masovian. Monitoring was performed with real-time PCR and serological methods. Of the 727 environmental samples, 33 (4.54%) contained the multi-copy insertion sequence IS1111, which is specific for C. burnetii. Subsequently, the presence of C. burnetii antibodies was determined using serological tests in selected herds in which positive genetic results were obtained. Serological analyses of 169 serum samples using CFT and ELISA were performed on Polish black-and-white Holstein-Friesian cows and one cow imported from Denmark. Using the CFT method, 11 samples were positive for phase I antibodies and six were positive for phase II antibodies. Moreover, in two cases, the presence of antibodies specific for both phase I and phase II antigens of C. burnetii was detected. However, of the 169 examined serum samples, 20 were positive by ELISA test, of which six were also positive by CFT. Additionally, multi spacer typing (MST) of isolated C. burnetii strains was performed. The MST results identified two new genotypes in Poland, ST3 and ST6. The results indicate that continued research regarding spread of this pathogen within a country is necessary. PMID:25457371

Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Cie?lik, Piotr; Mirski, Tomasz; Gawe?, Jerzy; Michalski, Aleksander; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Bartoszcze, Micha?; ?akowska, Dorota; Lasocki, Krzysztof; Knap, Józef; Kocik, Janusz

2014-12-01

434

Comparison of Toxocara eggs in hair and faecal samples from owned dogs and cats collected in Ankara, Turkey.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Toxocara eggs on hair and in faeces of healthy owned cats and dogs and to make comparisons between data (sex, age, host factor, etc.) collected from dogs and cats. Toxocara eggs were found on the hair of 14% of 100 dogs and 22% of 100 cats. In total, 58 and 136 eggs were recovered from the hair samples of examined cats and dogs, respectively. Of the total number of eggs, 2 were classified as embryonated in cats. One of the eggs recovered was embryonating in dogs. The maximum number of eggs was found in the tail bottom of cats (28 eggs) and dogs (58 eggs). As well as finding Toxocara eggs in dogs and cats hair, we also found eggs of some helminthic parasites; such as Dicrocoelium sp., Fasciola sp., Taenia sp., Dipylidium caninum and Toxascaris leonina. In addition, faecal samples of same dogs and cats were also examined by two techniques (centrifugal flotation and sedimentation): Toxocara eggs were found in 5% and 13% of dogs and cats faeces, respectively. But, 14% of the dogs and 22% of the cats were positive for Toxocara eggs on hair. The preva