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1

An investigation of suitable bag materials for the collection and storage of breath samples containing hydrogen cyanide.  

PubMed

The SPACE study will assess exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide (HCN) concentrations as a marker of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection in 240 children with cystic fibrosis (CF). It will use off-line selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) analysis and so we needed to investigate which breath sampling bag material to use, the maximum storage time before analysis and the benefit of warming the bag samples. We studied 15 children with CF, 8 had chronic PA infection and 7 did not. Each exhaled directly into the instrument (on-line) and also into two 25 µm thick Nalophan (25N), two 70 µm Nalophan (70N) and two Tedlar® bags. Bags were stored at 20 or 37 °C. HCN concentrations were analysed at 1, 6, 24 and 48 h (off-line). Acetone and water vapour concentrations were also measured in parallel. Correlation between on-line and off-line concentrations measured by SIFT-MS was better for all compounds and bag types at 37 °C. The median (IQR) on-line HCN concentration was 8.9(4.4-13.7) parts per billion by volume, ppbv. Both on-line and off-line HCN concentrations were significantly higher in patients with PA infection than those without. At 37 °C the correlation between on-line and off-line HCN concentrations was good up to 6 h in the 25N bag (R(2) = 0.79) and up to 24 h for the 70N and Tedlar bags (R(2) = 0.82 and 0.86). The correlation between on- and off-line acetone concentrations at 37 °C was good up to 24 h in 25N, 70N and Tedlar bags (R(2) = 0.89, 0.93 and 0.97). In all three types of bag the water vapour concentration fell quickly and by 24 h was equivalent to that of lab air. Samples stored in Tedlar or 70N bags, warmed to 37 °C and analysed within 24 h, give HCN and acetone concentrations which correlate well with on-line measurements. PMID:22759377

Gilchrist, Francis J; Razavi, Cyrus; Webb, A Kevin; Jones, Andrew M; Span?l, Patrik; Smith, David; Lenney, Warren

2012-09-01

2

Validating a breath collection and analysis system for the new tuberculosis breath test.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis releases four volatile compounds, methyl phenyl-acetate, methyl nicotinate, methyl p-anisate and o-phenylanisole, some of which we have previously been reported to be detected in the breath of tuberculosis patients (Syhre et al 2009 Tuberculosis 89 263-6). These volatiles have the potential to offer a non-invasive and sensitive breath test for the detection of tuberculosis infection. To determine the best sample collection and pre-concentration system a number of variables were examined. The four markers were most stable when breath was collected in a salinized glass sampling bulb compared to either Tedlar® TA, Supel(TM) Inert Foil or Supel(TM) Inert Gas bags. Concentration of breath onto thermal desorption cartridges indicated that Tenax® TA was the most universal sorbent for the collection of all four volatiles. Increasing the number of breath exhalations captured and analysed actively increased the detectable level of volatiles. The most important discovery was samples of methyl nicotinate, methyl p-anisate and o-phenylanisole remained stable on Tenax® TA cartridges for over two months at various altitudes. PMID:23867751

Scott-Thomas, Amy; Epton, Michael; Chambers, Stephen

2013-09-01

3

Online sample conditioning for portable breath analyzers.  

PubMed

Various innovative chemical sensors have been developed in recent years to sense dangerous substances in air and trace biomarkers in breath. However, in order to solve real world problems, the sensors must be equipped with efficient sample conditioning that can, e.g., control the humidity, which is discussed much less in the literature. To meet the demand, a miniaturized mouthpiece was developed for personal breath analyzers. A key function of the mouthpiece is to condition the humidity in real breath samples without changing the analyte concentrations and introducing substantial backpressure, which is achieved with optimized packing of desiccant particles. Numerical simulations were carried out to determine the performance of the mouthpiece in terms of various controllable parameters, such as the size, density, and geometry of the packing. Mouthpieces with different configurations were built and tested, and the experimental data validated the simulation findings. A mouthpiece with optimized performance reducing relative humidity from 95% (27,000 ppmV) to 29% (8000 ppmV) whereas retaining 92% nitric oxide (50 ppbV to 46 ppbV) was built and integrated into a hand-held exhaled nitric oxide sensor, and the performance of exhaled nitric oxide measurement was in good agreement with the gold standard chemiluminescence technique. Acetone, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and ammonia samples were also measured after passing through the desiccant mouthpiece using commercial sensors to examine wide applicability of this breath conditioning approach. PMID:22812638

Prabhakar, Amlendu; Iglesias, Rodrigo A; Shan, Xiaonan; Xian, Xiaojun; Zhang, Lihua; Tsow, Francis; Forzani, Erica S; Tao, Nongjian

2012-08-21

4

Appropriate sample bags and syringes for preserving breath samples in breath odor research: a technical note.  

PubMed

It is now generally accepted that the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide are the main contributors to halitosis when of oropharyngeal origin. The VSCs hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan are the major causes of bad breath in oral malodour whereas dimethyl sulfide is generally the major cause of bad breath in extra-oral halitosis. To facilitate research in the field of halitosis, it is highly advantageous to be able to preserve breath samples for longer periods of time before measurement of the VSCs, e.g. for sampling patients at home or when studying a large cohort of patients where an immediate measurement of the VSCs is not possible. After testing numerous sample bags, ultimately the foil balloons, coated inside with the synthetic polymer polyethylene, were the preferred ones. All the VSCs in breath remained quite stable for at least 3 days in these balloons. Besides the sampling bags, the use of an appropriate syringe for sampling mouth air and for injecting samples in e.g. a gas chromatograph is also of great importance. Usually, syringes with a rubber barrel seal are used. However, some rubbers quickly adsorb the VSCs in breath. When preserving breath samples for longer periods, the rubber also releases VSCs, especially methyl mercaptan. It was also found that these syringes release a compound which interferes with dimethyl sulfide, when using gas chromatographic measurements with the OralChroma. We now use all-plastic syringes (B/Braun Injekt), made of polypropylene and polyethylene, in which the VSCs in breath remain quite stable for at least 9 h. PMID:21386155

Winkel, E G; Tangerman, A

2008-03-01

5

Simplified single sample 13Carbon urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori: comparison with histology, culture, and ELISA serology  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no ideal method for detecting Helicobacter pylori. The 'standard' 13Carbon urea breath test (13C-UBT), which involves collecting eight to 15 breath samples and subsequent costly analysis, was modified by pooling 21 samples of expired breath taken at five minute intervals for 40 minutes into a collecting bag, from which a single 20 ml aliquot was taken and analysed

R P Logan; R J Polson; J J Misiewicz; G Rao; N Q Karim; D Newell; P Johnson; J Wadsworth; M M Walker; J H Baron

1991-01-01

6

An improved method for collecting breath from 3- to 7-year-old children.  

PubMed

Breath sampling and analysis provide healthcare professionals with a practical, noninvasive diagnostic measurement for children with a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. New biomarkers found in human breath have been investigated and provide the opportunity to diagnose bacterial overgrowth and other underlying causes of GI dysfunction. Although several protocols have been described previously regarding breath sampling, few have demonstrated the feasibility of collection in young children. This communication introduces a simple game that allows for 3- to 7-year-old children to practice breath exhalation to give a proper breath sample in a relaxed and comfortable environment. The technique described offers clinicians a creative approach for obtaining breath samples from a child by reducing the apprehension and anxiety associated with the research and clinical environment. PMID:23538295

Wang, Anthony A; Paige, Katie N; Gaskins, H Rex; Teran-Garcia, Margarita

2014-05-01

7

Collecting Samples for Testing  

MedlinePLUS

... will be limited. Search Help? Collecting Samples for Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? Introduction | ... From Within | Conclusion | Sources Overview Today's technologies allow testing on an impressively wide variety of samples collected ...

8

A device for sampling of human alveolar breath for the measurement of expired volatile organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the development of a portable spirometer capable of collecting primarily alveolar breath into 1.8-L canisters for subsequent gas chromatographic\\/mass spectrometric (GC\\/MS) analysis. Based on CO2 measurements, greater than 97% of the breath collected is alveolar in origin. Sample collection takes place in approximately two minutes. Clean air for inhalation is provided by two organic vapor respirator cartridges.

J. H. Raymer; K. W. Thomas; S. D. Cooper; D. A. Whitaker; E. D. Pellizzari

1990-01-01

9

An improved method for collecting breath for the assay of acetaldehyde.  

PubMed

An improved method is described for the collection of breath for the subsequent assay of acetaldehyde and other volatile components. Breath is collected in a Pyrex gas-collecting tube sealed at both ends with Teflon taps. Prior to collection or assay of the samples, this tube is heated to 72 degrees C; breath is sampled for assay by piercing a rubber septum on a sideport with the needle of a similarly heated gas-tight syringe, and injected into a gas chromatograph (GC). The advantages of this system are: (1) Avoidance of the artefacts encountered in the assay of acetaldehyde in the blood; (2) suitability for sample collection at a site remote from the GC laboratory; (3) avoidance of sample loss by leakage, contamination, or partitioning into water condensed from breath; and (4) compatibility with a "nondedicated" GC lacking any special gas-collecting circuitry. A typical study of a normal human volunteer is described, demonstrating the rise and fall of the concentration of acetaldehyde and ethanol in the breath following the ingestion of an oral dose of ethanol. PMID:6377947

Phillips, M; Hensley, P; Balter, R A; Cohan, S L

1984-01-01

10

Biomarker reproducibility in exhaled breath condensate collected with different condensers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal collection and analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) are prerequisites for standardisation and reproducibility of assessments. The present study aimed to assess reproducibility of EBC volume, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 8-isoprostane and cytokine measurements using different condensers, including a newly developed glass condenser. At four points in time, 30 healthy subjects performed sequential EBC collections randomly using the following four

P. P. Rosias; C. M. Robroeks; A. Kester; G. J. den Hartog; W. K. Wodzig; G. T. Rijkerse; L. J. Zimmermann; C. P. van Schayck; Q. Jobsis; E. Dompeling

2008-01-01

11

Comparison of Two Devices and Two Breathing Patterns for Exhaled Breath Condensate Sampling  

PubMed Central

Introduction Analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a noninvasive method to access the epithelial lining fluid of the lungs. Due to standardization problems the method has not entered clinical practice. The aim of the study was to assess the comparability for two commercially available devices in healthy controls. In addition, we assessed different breathing patterns in healthy controls with protein markers to analyze the source of the EBC. Methods EBC was collected from ten subjects using the RTube and ECoScreen Turbo in a randomized crossover design, twice with every device - once in tidal breathing and once in hyperventilation. EBC conductivity, pH, surfactant protein A, Clara cell secretory protein and total protein were assessed. Bland-Altman plots were constructed to display the influence of different devices or breathing patterns and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. The volatile organic compound profile was measured using the electronic nose Cyranose 320. For the analysis of these data, the linear discriminant analysis, the Mahalanobis distances and the cross-validation values (CVV) were calculated. Results Neither the device nor the breathing pattern significantly altered EBC pH or conductivity. ICCs ranged from 0.61 to 0.92 demonstrating moderate to very good agreement. Protein measurements were greatly influenced by breathing pattern, the device used, and the way in which the results were reported. The electronic nose could distinguish between different breathing patterns and devices, resulting in Mahalanobis distances greater than 2 and CVVs ranging from 64% to 87%. Conclusion EBC pH and (to a lesser extent) EBC conductivity are stable parameters that are not influenced by either the device or the breathing patterns. Protein measurements remain uncertain due to problems of standardization. We conclude that the influence of the breathing maneuver translates into the necessity to keep the volume of ventilated air constant in further studies.

Hattesohl, Akira; Schmid, Severin; Noeske, Sarah; Herr, Christian; John, Gerrit; Jorres, Rudolf A.; Muller, Bernd; Vogelmeier, Claus; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert

2011-01-01

12

A Device for Non-invasive On-site Sampling of Cattle Breath with SolidPhase Microextraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-invasive sampling and chemical analysis of breath gases could provide valuable information related to health and well-being. Breath gases are indicators of metabolic end products. The objective of this research was to design, assemble and test a new facemask-like device for on-site bovine breath sample collection with solid-phase microextraction (SPME). The new device consists of a cylindrical container, a sealing

Jarett P. Spinhirne; Jacek A. Koziel; Norbert K. Chirase

2003-01-01

13

Appropriate sample bags and syringes for preserving breath samples in breath odor research: a technical note  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now generally accepted that the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide are the main contributors to halitosis when of oropharyngeal origin. The VSCs hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan are the major causes of bad breath in oral malodour whereas dimethyl sulfide is generally the major cause of bad breath in extra-oral halitosis. To

E G Winkel; A Tangerman

2008-01-01

14

Simultaneous Sampling of Multiple Breathing Zone Air Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified flight vest was developed and used to sample multiple air contaminants simultaneously in the breathing zones of soldiers during various field training scenarios. People often are exposed to several chemicals during a single work period; therefore, it is desirable to measure and monitor multiple contaminants simultaneously. Existing standardized air sampling technology is suitable for simultaneous monitoring of multiple

Welford Clayton Roberts; Joseph A. Terra

1993-01-01

15

MEASUREMENTS OF EXHALED BREATH USING A NEW PORTABLE SAMPLING METHOD  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents the development and demonstration of a new breath sampling method for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The project, part of EPA's Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (TEAM) Program, was aimed at improving the existing field method for sampling exhaled br...

16

Collective Nuclear 'Breathing Mode' Model with Application to 4HE Monopole State.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new collective model of the nuclear breathing mode is presented which avoids the usual assumption of a constant nuclear ground-state density. The 20.4-MeV 0+ state in Hellium-4 is treated as an example of such a breathing-mode state. (Author)

C. Werntz H. Uberall

1966-01-01

17

Automated microorganism Sample Collection Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modified Gelman Sampler obtains representative sample of microorganism population. Proposed Sample Collection Module is based on direct inoculation of selected solid growth media encased in a cartridge at all times except during inoculation. Cartridge can be handled with no danger of contamination to sample or operator.

Gall, L. S.; Graham, M. D.; Umbreit, W.

1969-01-01

18

Subsurface Samples: Collection and Processing  

SciTech Connect

Microbiological data, interpretation, and conclusions from subsurface samples ultimately depend on the quality and representative character of the samples. Subsurface samples for environmental microbiology ideally contain only the microbial community and geochemical properties that are representative of the subsurface environment from which the sample was taken. To that end, sample contamination by exogenous microorganisms or chemical constituents must be eliminated or minimized, and sample analyses need to begin before changes in the microbial community or geochemical characteristics occur. This article presents sampling methods and sample processing techniques for collecting representative samples from a range of subsurface environments. Factors that should be considered when developing a subsurface sampling program are discussed, including potential benefits, costs, and limitations enabling researchers to evaluate the techniques that are presented and match them to their project requirements. Methods and protocols to address coring, sampling, processing and quality assessment issues are presented.

Long, Philip E.; Griffin, W. Timothy; Phelps, Tommy J.

2002-12-01

19

Safety and feasibility of exhaled breath condensate collection in ventilated infants and children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to develop a technique for the collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from ventilated children and assess its safety and feasibility. Collection of EBC is used to investigate markers of oxidative stress in the lower airway. No studies have assessed its safety in ventilated children. An in vitro model was developed by connecting a

W. G. Muller; F. Morini; S. Eaton; M. Peters; A. Jaffe

2006-01-01

20

Molecular and Microscopic Analysis of Bacteria and Viruses in Exhaled Breath Collected Using a Simple Impaction and Condensing Method  

PubMed Central

Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is increasingly being used as a non-invasive method for disease diagnosis and environmental exposure assessment. By using hydrophobic surface, ice, and droplet scavenging, a simple impaction and condensing based collection method is reported here. Human subjects were recruited to exhale toward the device for 1, 2, 3, and 4 min. The exhaled breath quickly formed into tiny droplets on the hydrophobic surface, which were subsequently scavenged into a 10 µL rolling deionized water droplet. The collected EBC was further analyzed using culturing, DNA stain, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and colorimetry (VITEK 2) for bacteria and viruses. Experimental data revealed that bacteria and viruses in EBC can be rapidly collected using the method developed here, with an observed efficiency of 100 µL EBC within 1 min. Culturing, DNA stain, SEM, and qPCR methods all detected high bacterial concentrations up to 7000 CFU/m3 in exhaled breath, including both viable and dead cells of various types. Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Kocuria variants were found dominant in EBC samples using VITEK 2 system. SEM images revealed that most bacteria in exhaled breath are detected in the size range of 0.5–1.0 µm, which is able to enable them to remain airborne for a longer time, thus presenting a risk for airborne transmission of potential diseases. Using qPCR, influenza A H3N2 viruses were also detected in one EBC sample. Different from other devices restricted solely to condensation, the developed method can be easily achieved both by impaction and condensation in a laboratory and could impact current practice of EBC collection. Nonetheless, the reported work is a proof-of-concept demonstration, and its performance in non-invasive disease diagnosis such as bacterimia and virus infections needs to be further validated including effects of its influencing matrix.

Xu, Zhenqiang; Shen, Fangxia; Li, Xiaoguang; Wu, Yan; Chen, Qi; Jie, Xu; Yao, Maosheng

2012-01-01

21

Molecular and microscopic analysis of bacteria and viruses in exhaled breath collected using a simple impaction and condensing method.  

PubMed

Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is increasingly being used as a non-invasive method for disease diagnosis and environmental exposure assessment. By using hydrophobic surface, ice, and droplet scavenging, a simple impaction and condensing based collection method is reported here. Human subjects were recruited to exhale toward the device for 1, 2, 3, and 4 min. The exhaled breath quickly formed into tiny droplets on the hydrophobic surface, which were subsequently scavenged into a 10 µL rolling deionized water droplet. The collected EBC was further analyzed using culturing, DNA stain, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and colorimetry (VITEK 2) for bacteria and viruses.Experimental data revealed that bacteria and viruses in EBC can be rapidly collected using the method developed here, with an observed efficiency of 100 µL EBC within 1 min. Culturing, DNA stain, SEM, and qPCR methods all detected high bacterial concentrations up to 7000 CFU/m(3) in exhaled breath, including both viable and dead cells of various types. Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Kocuria variants were found dominant in EBC samples using VITEK 2 system. SEM images revealed that most bacteria in exhaled breath are detected in the size range of 0.5-1.0 µm, which is able to enable them to remain airborne for a longer time, thus presenting a risk for airborne transmission of potential diseases. Using qPCR, influenza A H3N2 viruses were also detected in one EBC sample. Different from other devices restricted solely to condensation, the developed method can be easily achieved both by impaction and condensation in a laboratory and could impact current practice of EBC collection. Nonetheless, the reported work is a proof-of-concept demonstration, and its performance in non-invasive disease diagnosis such as bacterimia and virus infections needs to be further validated including effects of its influencing matrix. PMID:22848436

Xu, Zhenqiang; Shen, Fangxia; Li, Xiaoguang; Wu, Yan; Chen, Qi; Jie, Xu; Yao, Maosheng

2012-01-01

22

Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solubility of inhaled radionuclides in the human lung is an important characteristic of the compounds needed to perform internal dosimetry assessments for exposed workers. A solubility testing method for uranium and several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALSsp°ler ) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of Usb3Osb8. This makes it possible to characterize solubility profiles in every section of operating facilities where airborne nuclides are found using common breathing zone air samples. The new method was evaluated by analyzing uranium compounds from two uranium mills whose product had been previously analyzed by in vitro solubility testing in the laboratory and in vivo solubility testing in rodents. The new technique compared well with the in vivo rodent solubility profiles. The method was then used to evaluate the solubility profiles in all process sections of an operating in situ uranium plant using breathing zone and area air samples collected during routine plant operations. The solubility profiles developed from this work showed excellent agreement with the results of the worker urine bioassay program at the plant and identified a significant error in existing internal dose assessments at this facility.

Metzger, Robert Lawrence

23

Detection of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath using a device for rapid collection: comparison with plasma, urine and self-reporting in 47 drug users.  

PubMed

Exhaled breath has recently been identified as a matrix for the detection of drugs of abuse. This work aims to further document this application using a new and simple collection device in patients following recovery from acute intoxication. Breath, plasma and urine samples were collected from 47 patients (38 males, age range 25-74) together with interview data. Analysis of breath and plasma samples was done by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. Urine was screened using immunochemical reagents and positive findings confirmed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The 12 analytes investigated were: methadone, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 6-acetylmorphine, morphine, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, diazepam, oxazepam, alprazolam, buprenorphine and tetrahydrocannabinol. In all 47 cases, recent intake of an abused substance prior to admission was reported, but in one case the substance (ketobemidone) was not investigated. In 40 of the remaining cases (87%) breath analysis gave a positive finding of any of the substances that were part of the analytical investigation. Identifications were based on correct chromatographic retention time and product ion ratios obtained in selected reaction monitoring mode. In general, data from breath, plasma, urine and self-reporting were in good agreement, but in 23% of the cases substances were detected that had not been self-reported. All substances covered were detected in a number of breath samples. Considering that breath sampling was often done about 24 h after intake, the detection rate was considered to be high for most substances. Analytes with low detection rates were benzodiazepines, and a further increase in analytical sensitivity is needed to overcome this. This study further supports use of exhaled breath as a new matrix in clinical toxicology. PMID:23619392

Beck, Olof; Stephanson, Niclas; Sandqvist, Sören; Franck, Johan

2013-06-01

24

Aerosol collection of the (Bladewerx Corporation) breathing zone monitor and portable workplace monitor.  

PubMed

The Radiation Protection Group at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has a wind tunnel capable of measuring the aerosol collection efficiencies of air sampling devices. In the fall of 2005, the group received an internal Los Alamos request to perform aerosol collection efficiency tests on two air samplers manufactured by the Bladewerx Corporation (Rio Rancho, NM). This paper presents the results from tests performed in the wind tunnel facility at a test velocity of 0.5 m s. The SabreAlert (Portable Workplace Monitor) and the SabreBZM (Breathing Zone Monitor) are both designed to detect and measure the presence of alpha emitting isotopes in atmospheres. The SabreAlert was operated at two test air flow rates of 6 and 45 liters per minute (LPM), and the SabreBZM was operated at two test air flow rates of 3 and 19 LPM. The aerosol collection efficiencies of both samplers were evaluated with oleic acid (monodisperse) liquid droplet aerosols tagged with sodium fluorescein tracer. These test aerosols varied in size from about 2.3 to 17.2 microns (aerodynamic equivalent diameter). The SabreAlert was roughly 100% efficient in aerosol collection at a flow rate of 6 LPM, and had an aerodynamic cutpoint diameter of 11.3 microns at the 45 LPM flow rate. The SabreBZM had an aerodynamic cutpoint diameter of 6.7 microns at the 3 LPM flow rate, but the SabreBZM aerosol collection efficiency never exceeded 13.6% at the 19 LPM test flow rate condition. PMID:18049245

Moore, Murray E; Kennedy, Trevor J; Dimmerling, Paul J

2007-11-01

25

Simplified single sample 13Carbon urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori: comparison with histology, culture, and ELISA serology.  

PubMed Central

There is no ideal method for detecting Helicobacter pylori. The 'standard' 13Carbon urea breath test (13C-UBT), which involves collecting eight to 15 breath samples and subsequent costly analysis, was modified by pooling 21 samples of expired breath taken at five minute intervals for 40 minutes into a collecting bag, from which a single 20 ml aliquot was taken and analysed by mass spectrometry. This test was evaluated on 50 patients after routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and results were compared with those from the standard 13C-UBT, bacteriology, ELISA serology, and histology--the latter being taken as the gold standard. H pylori were seen in 34 of 50 (68%) patients (in three it was detected in biopsy specimens from the corpus alone). The modified 13C-UBT was positive (pooled excretion delta 13CO2 greater than 5 per mil) in 31 patients and negative in 19 (three false negative results), specificity was 100% (standard 13C-UBT 94%) and sensitivity 92% (standard 13C-UBT 93%). The modified 13C-UBT had a coefficient of variation within subjects of 3.7%. For the ELISA serology and culture the specificities were both 100%, but the sensitivities were 82% and 68% respectively. The 13C-UBT results correlated with the grade of histological gastritis. The modified 13C-UBT is simpler, cheaper, more reproducible, and provides an easy non-invasive method for the detection of H pylori.

Logan, R P; Polson, R J; Misiewicz, J J; Rao, G; Karim, N Q; Newell, D; Johnson, P; Wadsworth, J; Walker, M M; Baron, J H

1991-01-01

26

Measurement of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath as collected in evacuated electropolished canisters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of three complementary analytical methods were developed specifically for exhaled breath as collected in evacuated stainless steel canisters using gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric detection. The first is a screening method to quantify the carbon dioxide component (generally at 4–5% concentration), the second method measures the very volatile high-level endogenous compounds [e.g. acetone and isoprene at 500–1000 parts per billion

Joachim D. Pleil; Andrew B. Lindstrom

1995-01-01

27

Composites of carbon nanotubes and non-polymeric materials for diagnosing lung cancer via breath samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show here that an array of random network of carbon nanotubes coated with non-polymeric organic materials and conjugated with pattern recognition algorithms has a high potential for diagnosis of lung cancer via breath samples. The results indicate that the sensors array allow excellent discrimination between the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in the breath of patients with lung cancer, relative to healthy controls, especially if the sensors array is preceded with either water extractor and/or pre-concentrator of VOCs.

Peng, Gang; Trock, Elena; Haick, Hossam

2008-08-01

28

Effect of release rate of the SF(6) tracer on methane emission estimates based on ruminal and breath gas samples.  

PubMed

The release rate (RR) of sulphur hexafluoride (SF(6)) gas from permeation tube in the rumen appears to be positively related with methane (CH(4)) emissions calculated using the SF(6) tracer technique. Gas samples of breath and ruminal headspace were collected simultaneously in order to evaluate the hypothesis that transactions of SF(6) in the rumen are the source for this relationship. Six non-lactating dairy cows fitted with rumen cannulae were subdivided into two groups and randomly assigned to a two-period crossover design to permeation tubes with low RR (LRR = 1.577 mg/day) or two-times higher RR (HRR = 3.147 mg/day) RR. The cows were fed limited amounts of maize silage (80% ad libitum) split into two meals (40% at 0800 h and 60% at 1600 h). Each period consisted of 3-day gas sampling. Immediately before the morning feed and then each hour over 8 h, ruminal gas samples (50 ml) were withdrawn through the cannula fitted with stoppers to prevent opening. Simultaneously, 8-h integrated breath gas samples were collected over the same period. Ratios of concentration of CH(4)/SF(6), CO(2)/SF(6) and CO(2)/CH(4) and emission estimates of CH(4) and CO(2) were calculated for each sample source using the SF(6) tracer technique principles. The LRR treatment yielded higher (P < 0.001) ruminal CH(4)/SF(6) (by 1.79 times) and CO(2)/SF(6) (by 1.90 times) ratios than the HRR treatment; however, these differences were lower than the 2.0 times difference expected from the RR between the LRR and HRR. Consequently, the LRR treatment was associated with lower (P < 0.01) ruminal emissions of CH(4) over the 8-h collection period than with the HRR treatment (+11%), a difference also confirmed by the breath samples (+11%). RR treatments did not differ (P = 0.53) in ruminal or breath CO(2) emissions; however, our results confirm that the SF(6) tracer seems inappropriate for CO(2) emissions estimation in ruminants. Irrespective of the RR treatment, breath samples yielded 8% to 9% higher CH(4) emission estimates than the ruminal samples (P = 0.01). The relationship between rumen and breath sources for CH(4) emissions was better for LRR than for HRR treatment, suggesting that tracer performance decreases with the highest RR of SF(6) tested in our study (3.1 mg/day). A hypothesis is discussed with regard to the mechanism responsible for the relationship between RR and CH(4) emission estimates. The use of permeation tubes with small range in RR is recommended in animal experiments to decrease variability in CH(4) emission estimates using the SF(6) tracer technique. PMID:22436232

Martin, C; Koolaard, J; Rochette, Y; Clark, H; Jouany, J P; Pinares-Patiño, C S

2012-03-01

29

SAMPLING AND MASS SPECTROMETRY APPROACHES FOR THE DETECTION OF DRUGS AND FOREIGN CONTAMINANTS IN BREATH FOR HOMELAND SECURITY APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Homeland security relies heavily on analytical chemistry to identify suspicious materials and persons. Traditionally this role has focused on attribution, determining the type and origin of an explosive, for example. But as technology advances, analytical chemistry can and will play an important role in the prevention and preemption of terrorist attacks. More sensitive and selective detection techniques can allow suspicious materials and persons to be identified even before a final destructive product is made. The work presented herein focuses on the use of commercial and novel detection techniques for application to the prevention of terrorist activities. Although drugs are not commonly thought of when discussing terrorism, narcoterrorism has become a significant threat in the 21st century. The role of the drug trade in the funding of terrorist groups is prevalent; thus, reducing the trafficking of illegal drugs can play a role in the prevention of terrorism by cutting off much needed funding. To do so, sensitive, specific, and robust analytical equipment is needed to quickly identify a suspected drug sample no matter what matrix it is in. Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) is a novel technique that has previously been applied to biological and chemical detection. The current work applies SPAMS to drug analysis, identifying the active ingredients in single component, multi-component, and multi-tablet drug samples in a relatively non-destructive manner. In order to do so, a sampling apparatus was created to allow particle generation from drug tablets with on-line introduction to the SPAMS instrument. Rules trees were developed to automate the identification of drug samples on a single particle basis. A novel analytical scheme was also developed to identify suspect individuals based on chemical signatures in human breath. Human breath was sampled using an RTube{trademark} and the trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were preconcentrated using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and identified using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Modifications to the sampling apparatus allowed for increased VOC collection efficiency, and reduced the time of sampling and analysis by over 25%. The VOCs are present in breath due to either endogenous production, or exposure to an external source through absorption, inhalation, or ingestion. Detection of these exogenous chemicals can provide information on the prior location and activities of the subject. Breath samples collected before and after exposure in a hardware store and nail salon were analyzed to investigate the prior location of a subject; breath samples collected before and after oral exposure to terpenes and terpenoid compounds, pseudoephedrine, and inhalation exposure to hexamine and other explosive related compounds were analyzed to investigate the prior activity of a subject. The elimination of such compounds from the body was also monitored. In application, this technique may provide an early warning system to identify persons of interest in the prevention and preemption stages of homeland security.

Martin, A N

2009-01-27

30

Comparison of breath and in-mouth collection for the measurement of oral malodorous compounds by gas chromatography using sulfur chemiluminescence detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), specifically hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide, are generally considered to be the primary volatiles responsible for 'morning' malodors in breath. To date, the 'gold standard' for detecting VSC concentrations in breath is the use of gas chromatography coupled with sulfur chemiluminescence detection. Breath gas is often collected in a polypropylene syringe and then aliquots

Debbie J. Paetznick; G. A. Reineccius; T. L. Peppard; J. M. Herkert; P. Lenton

2010-01-01

31

Comparison of breath and in-mouth collection for the measurement of oral malodorous compounds by gas chromatography using sulfur chemiluminescence detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), specifically hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide, are generally considered to be the primary volatiles responsible for ‘morning’ malodors in breath. To date, the ‘gold standard’ for detecting VSC concentrations in breath is the use of gas chromatography coupled with sulfur chemiluminescence detection. Breath gas is often collected in a polypropylene syringe and then aliquots

Debbie J Paetznick; G A Reineccius; T L Peppard; J M Herkert; P Lenton

2010-01-01

32

Optimising sample collection for placental research.  

PubMed

Biobanks provide an important repository of samples for research purposes. However, for those samples to reflect the in vivo state, and for experimental reliability and reproducibility, careful attention to collection, processing and storage is essential. This is particularly true for the placenta, which is potentially subjected to stressful conditions during delivery, and sample collection may be delayed owing to routine postpartum inspection by clinical staff. In addition, standardisation of the collection procedure enables samples to be shared among research groups, allowing larger datasets to be established. Here, we provide an evidence-based and experts' review of the factors surrounding collection that may influence data obtained from the human placenta. We outline particular requirements for specific techniques, and propose a protocol for optimal sample collection. We recognise that the relevance of these factors, and of the sample types collected to a particular study will depend on the research questions being addressed. We therefore anticipate that researchers will select from the protocol to meet their needs and resources available. Wherever possible, we encourage researchers to extend their collection to include additional samples that can be shared on an international collaborative basis, with appropriate informed consent, to raise the quality, as well as quantity, of placental research. PMID:24290528

Burton, G J; Sebire, N J; Myatt, L; Tannetta, D; Wang, Y-L; Sadovsky, Y; Staff, A C; Redman, C W

2014-01-01

33

Rossman/Chance Applet Collection: Sampling Words  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet samples words. The user can control the sample size and the number of samples. It displays the number, the word, the number of letters, whether it is long and whether or not it is a noun. Then, each one is plotted. This is part of a larger collection of applets on statistics from the California Poly San Luis Obispo.

Rossman, Allan; Chance, Beth

2008-09-08

34

Rossman/Chance Applet Collection: Sampling Pennies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet demonstrates drawing numbered pennies from a large sample. The user can change the sample size and the number of samples. Once the pennies have been drawn, the number of the penny and its year is shown. The mean and standard deviation are also displayed. The top plot is of the average year drawn and the lower plot is of the average year of all of the samples. This is part of a larger collection of applets on statistics from the California Poly San Luis Obispo.

Rossman, Allan; Chance, Beth

2008-09-08

35

Deconvolving an Estimate of Breath Measured Blood Alcohol Concentration from Biosensor Collected Transdermal Ethanol Data£  

PubMed Central

Biosensor measurement of transdermal alcohol oncentration in perspiration exhibits significant variance from subject to subject and device to device. Short duration data collected in a controlled clinical setting is used to calibrate a forward model for ethanol transport from the blood to the sensor. The calibrated model is then used to invert transdermal signals collected in the field (short or long duration) to obtain an estimate for breath measured blood alcohol concentration. A distributed parameter model for the forward transport of ethanol from the blood through the skin and its processing by the sensor is developed. Model calibration is formulated as a nonlinear least squares fit to data. The fit model is then used as part of a spline based scheme in the form of a regularized, non-negatively constrained linear deconvolution. Fully discrete, steepest descent based schemes for solving the resulting optimization problems are developed. The adjoint method is used to accurately and efficiently compute requisite gradients. Efficacy is demonstrated on subject field data.

Dumett, M; Rosen, G; Sabat, J; Shaman, A; Tempelman, L; Wang, C; Swift, RM

2008-01-01

36

Collective Motion, Sensor Networks, and Ocean Sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the design of mobile sensor networks for optimal data collection. The development is strongly motivated by the application to adaptive ocean sampling for an autonomous ocean observing and prediction system. A performance metric, used to derive optimal paths for the network of mobile sensors, defines the optimal data set as one which minimizes error in a model

Naomi Ehrich Leonard; Derek A. Paley; Francois Lekien; Rodolphe Sepulchre; David M. Fratantoni; Russ E. Davis

2007-01-01

37

Automated collection and processing of environmental samples  

DOEpatents

For monitoring an environmental parameter such as the level of nuclear radiation, at distributed sites, bar coded sample collectors are deployed and their codes are read using a portable data entry unit that also records the time of deployment. The time and collector identity are cross referenced in memory in the portable unit. Similarly, when later recovering the collector for testing, the code is again read and the time of collection is stored as indexed to the sample collector, or to a further bar code, for example as provided on a container for the sample. The identity of the operator can also be encoded and stored. After deploying and/or recovering the sample collectors, the data is transmitted to a base processor. The samples are tested, preferably using a test unit coupled to the base processor, and again the time is recorded. The base processor computes the level of radiation at the site during exposure of the sample collector, using the detected radiation level of the sample, the delay between recovery and testing, the duration of exposure and the half life of the isotopes collected. In one embodiment, an identity code and a site code are optically read by an image grabber coupled to the portable data entry unit.

Troyer, Gary L. (Richland, WA); McNeece, Susan G. (Richland, WA); Brayton, Darryl D. (Richland, WA); Panesar, Amardip K. (Kennewick, WA)

1997-01-01

38

Problems Associated with Collecting Breath Condensate for the Measurement of Exhaled Hydrogen Peroxide from Neonates on Respiratory Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a bedside method for collecting exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from neonates who were ventilated or receiving nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and analyzed their EBC for hydrogen peroxide levels. A sufficient volume for analysis could be collected over 25–40 min from neonates on the ventilator and nasal CPAP (medians 5.3 and 2.7 ml, respectively). There was no

Fook-Choe Cheah; Brian A. Darlow; Christine C. Winterbourn

2003-01-01

39

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in sixteen cities in the United States as determined by personal breathing zone air sampling.  

PubMed

Approximately one hundred nonsmoking individuals in each of 16 metropolitan areas of the United States collected a sample of air from their breathing zone while in their workplace and a sample while away from work during their 24-hour days. Individuals were selected for the study in an attempt to equally represent those working and living in smoking and nonsmoking environments. Collected samples were analyzed for respirable particulate matter (RSP) (3.5 microns diameter), ultraviolet absorbing particulate matter, fluorescing particulate matter, solanesol, scopoletin, nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine, and myosmine. Individuals living and/or working in environments where smoking occurs were confirmed to be the most highly exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Residential RSP levels ranged from 50 to 113% of those which have been reported by other investigators. For the majority of subjects who either lived or worked in smoking environments, the home was found to be the greater source of ETS exposure. Exposures of subjects whose spouses smoked unrestrictedly within the home were a factor of two to four higher than those of subjects who worked in locations where smoking occurred and was not restricted. Exposures of typical subjects to nicotine in the workplace were 30-60% of those estimated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and 15-20% of those estimated by the OSHA for the most highly exposed workers. PMID:9087866

Jenkins, R A; Palausky, A; Counts, R W; Bayne, C K; Dindal, A B; Guerin, M R

1996-01-01

40

Tissue sample collection for proteomics analysis.  

PubMed

Successful collection of tissue samples for molecular analysis requires critical considerations. We describe here our procedure for tissue specimen collection for proteomic purposes with emphasis on the most important steps, including timing issues and the procedures for immediate freezing, storage, and microdissection of the cells of interest or "tissue targets" and the lysates for protein isolation for SELDI, MALDI, and 2DGE applications. The pathologist is at the cornerstone of this process and is an invaluable collaborator. In most institutions, pathologists are responsible for "tissue custody," and they closely supervise the tissue bank. In addition, they are optimally trained in histopathology in order to they assist investigators to correlate tissue morphology with molecular findings. In recent years, the advent of the laser capture microscope, a tool ideally designed for pathologists, has tremendously facilitated the efficiency of collecting tissue targets for molecular analysis. PMID:18287767

Diaz, Jose I; Cazares, Lisa H; Semmes, O John

2008-01-01

41

Astronaut John Young photographed collecting lunar samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, is photographed collecting lunar samples near North Ray crater during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. This picture was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. Young is using the lunar surface rake and a set of tongs. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked in the field of large boulders in the background.

1972-01-01

42

Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples  

SciTech Connect

A solubility testing method for several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS{reg_sign}) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Profiles developed for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} samples show good agreement with in vitro and in vivo tests performed by other investigators on samples from the same uranium mills.

Metzger, R.L.; Jessop, B.H.; McDowell, B.L. [Radiation Safety Engineering, Inc., Chandler, AZ (United States)

1996-02-01

43

Breathing Room  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this health activity, learners explore breathing, lungs and asthma. Learners test their lung capacity by blowing air into balloons. Learners are also encouraged to determine how the amount of air in a balloon changes as you vary the size of the hole you blow through. Safety note: Check for latex allergies before purchasing balloons. Learners with respiratory problems should not breathe through the straws or blow up the balloons, but they can help record measurements and collect data.

Television, Twin C.

2010-01-01

44

Evaluation of needle trap micro-extraction and automatic alveolar sampling for point-of-care breath analysis.  

PubMed

Needle trap devices (NTDs) have shown many advantages such as improved detection limits, reduced sampling time and volume, improved stability, and reproducibility if compared with other techniques used in breath analysis such as solid-phase extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction. Effects of sampling flow (2-30 ml/min) and volume (10-100 ml) were investigated in dry gas standards containing hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and aromatic compounds and in humid breath samples. NTDs contained (single-bed) polymer packing and (triple-bed) combinations of divinylbenzene/Carbopack X/Carboxen 1000. Substances were desorbed from the NTDs by means of thermal expansion and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. An automated CO2-controlled sampling device for direct alveolar sampling at the point-of-care was developed and tested in pilot experiments. Adsorption efficiency for small volatile organic compounds decreased and breakthrough increased when sampling was done with polymer needles from a water-saturated matrix (breath) instead from dry gas. Humidity did not affect analysis with triple-bed NTDs. These NTDs showed only small dependencies on sampling flow and low breakthrough from 1-5 %. The new sampling device was able to control crucial parameters such as sampling flow and volume. With triple-bed NTDs, substance amounts increased linearly with increasing sample volume when alveolar breath was pre-concentrated automatically. When compared with manual sampling, automatic sampling showed comparable or better results. Thorough control of sampling and adequate choice of adsorption material is mandatory for application of needle trap micro-extraction in vivo. The new CO2-controlled sampling device allows direct alveolar sampling at the point-of-care without the need of any additional sampling, storage, or pre-concentration steps. PMID:23388692

Trefz, Phillip; Rösner, Lisa; Hein, Dietmar; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

2013-04-01

45

Optimization of sampling parameters for collection and preconcentration of alveolar air by needle traps.  

PubMed

The approach for breath-VOCs' collection and preconcentration by applying needle traps was developed and optimized. The alveolar air was collected from only a few exhalations under visual control of expired CO(2) into a large gas-tight glass syringe and then warmed up to 45 °C for a short time to avoid condensation. Subsequently, a specially constructed sampling device equipped with Bronkhorst® electronic flow controllers was used for automated adsorption. This sampling device allows time-saving collection of expired/inspired air in parallel onto three different needle traps as well as improvement of sensitivity and reproducibility of NT-GC-MS analysis by collection of relatively large (up to 150 ml) volume of exhaled breath. It was shown that the collection of alveolar air derived from only a few exhalations into a large syringe followed by automated adsorption on needle traps yields better results than manual sorption by up/down cycles with a 1 ml syringe, mostly due to avoided condensation and electronically controlled stable sample flow rate. The optimal profile and composition of needle traps consists of 2 cm Carbopack X and 1 cm Carboxen 1000, allowing highly efficient VOCs' enrichment, while injection by a fast expansive flow technique requires no modifications in instrumentation and fully automated GC-MS analysis can be performed with a commercially available autosampler. This optimized analytical procedure considerably facilitates the collection and enrichment of alveolar air, and is therefore suitable for application at the bedside of critically ill patients in an intensive care unit. Due to its simplicity it can replace the time-consuming sampling of sufficient breath volume by numerous up/down cycles with a 1 ml syringe. PMID:22621839

Filipiak, Wojciech; Filipiak, Anna; Ager, Clemens; Wiesenhofer, Helmut; Amann, Anton

2012-06-01

46

Determination of isoprene in human expired breath using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical method for determination of isoprene in expired breath as a marker of body cholesterol synthesis was developed with a special emphasis on breath sampling. Patients were breathing controlled air using respiratory masks for 2 min (washout period) and then their expired breath was collected in 8-l Tedlar bags. The bags were heated to 40°C and the solid-phase microextraction

Radom??r Hyšpler; Šárka Crhová; Ji??? Gaspari?; Zden?k Zadák; Marie ???žková; V?ra Balasová

2000-01-01

47

Simple and convenient method for sampling carbon-14 in the expired breath  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify gastrointestinal absorption of ¹⁴C-labelled fats, bile ; salts and lactose, and the radiation levels for personnel exposed to the isotope, ; a method using disposable plastic bags was devised for collecting and sampling ; expired ¹⁴COâ. The system is convenient for the patient and ; technologist, and multiple simultaneous examinations are easily performed. ; (auth);

K. A. Kumaran; S. N. Wiener; J. Thomas; J. B. Katz

1974-01-01

48

News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.  

PubMed

This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 11 to 14 September 2011. The meeting, which was jointly organized by the International Association for Breath Research and the University of Parma, was attended by more than 250 delegates from 33 countries, and offered 34 invited lectures and 64 unsolicited scientific contributions. The summit was organized to provide a forum to scientists, engineers and clinicians to present their latest findings and to meet industry executives and entrepreneurs to discuss key trends, future directions and technologies available for breath analysis. A major focus was on nitric oxide, exhaled breath condensate, electronic nose, mass spectrometry and newer sensor technologies. Medical applications ranged from asthma and other respiratory diseases to gastrointestinal disease, occupational diseases, critical care and cancer. Most people identify breath tests with breathalysers used by police to estimate ethanol concentration in blood. However, breath testing has far more sophisticated applications. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as a new frontier in medical testing for disease states in the lung and beyond. Every individual has a breath fingerprint-or 'breathprint'-that can provide useful information about his or her state of health. This breathprint comprises the many thousands of molecules that are expelled with each breath we exhale. Breath research in the past few years has uncovered the scientific and molecular basis for such clinical observations. Relying on mass spectrometry, we have been able to identify many such unique substances in exhaled breath, including gases, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), and a wide array of volatile organic compounds. Exhaled breath also carries aerosolized droplets that can be collected as an exhaled breath condensate that contains endogenously produced non-volatile compounds. Breath analysis is now used to diagnose and monitor asthma, check for transplant organ rejection, detect lung cancer and test for Helicobacter pyloriinfection-and the list is growing. A major milestone in the scientific study of breath was marked in the 1970s when Linus Pauling demonstrated that there is more to exhaled breath than the classic gases of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapour-a lot more. Based on the gas-liquid partition chromatography analysis, Pauling reported the presence of 250 substances in exhaled breath. We now have the technology to test for any and all of these components. The field of breath analysis has made considerable advances in the 21st century and the utility of breath analysis in health care is advancing quickly. The science is rapidly expanding, the technology is improving and several new applications have been developed or are under commercial development. Breath analysis may rely on both direct (on line) and indirect (off line) reading methods: in the on-line method, breath analysis is immediately available, whereas the use of indirect methods generally involves collecting and trapping the breath sample and subsequently transferring it to an analytical instrument for analysis. Various kinds of breath samples have been used in biological monitoring, including mixed expired air and end expired air: end exhaled air represents the alveolar air concentration and mixed exhaled air represents the gas mixture coming from the dead space of the bronchial tree and the alveolar gas-exchange space. Exhaled breath analysis is an area where the modern day advances in technology and engineering meet the ever expanding need in medicine for more sensitive, specific and non-invasive tests which makes this area a major front in the interface between medicine and engineering. A major breakthrough over the past decade has been the increase in breath-based tests approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Devices measuring common breath gases (oxygen, nitrogen, water vapour and CO(2)) in patient respiratory monitoring have served as

Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

2012-05-23

49

28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing §...

2010-07-01

50

28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION] [Chapter I - DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE] [Part 28 - DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM] [Subpart B - DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing] [Sec. 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.] 28 JUDICIAL ADMINISTRATION 1...

2009-07-01

51

28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing §...

2013-07-01

52

Laser-based method and sample handling protocol for measuring breath acetone.  

PubMed

A robust method is demonstrated to measure acetone in human breath at sub parts-per-million by volume (ppmv) concentrations using diode laser cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy. The laser operates in the near-infrared at about 1690 nm probing overtone transitions in acetone in a spectral region relatively free from interference from common breath species such as CO2, water, and methane. Using an optical cavity with a length of 45 cm, bound by mirrors of 99.997% reflectivity, a limit of detection of ?180 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv) (1?) of breath acetone is achieved. The method is validated with measurements made with an ion-molecule reaction mass spectrometer. A technique to calibrate the optical cavity mirror reflectivity using a temperature dependent water vapor source is also described. PMID:24831456

Hancock, Gus; Langley, Cathryn E; Peverall, Robert; Ritchie, Grant A D; Taylor, David

2014-06-17

53

Breathing Retraining  

MedlinePLUS

... Dept. of Medicine View full profile COPD: Lifestyle Management Breathing Retraining Learning new breathing techniques will help ... these breathing techniques. NEXT: Avoiding Infections BACK: Lifestyle Management, Index More Breathing Retraining Information Back to Lifestyle ...

54

Automatic Collection of Rock and Soil Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed machine would sample rock or soil automatically. Mounted on a wheeled or tracked vehicle, machine positions drill for cut at any angle from horizontal to vertical, moves power head to drive drill into cut, and stores drilled core in a container. New concept may also be useful in terrestrial agricultural and geologic surveys.

Kyrias, G. M.

1982-01-01

55

CHARACTERIZATION OF CORE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the month of September 2008, grout core samples were collected from the Saltstone Disposal Facility, Vault 4, cell E. This grout was placed during processing campaigns in December 2007 from Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment Batch 2 salt solution. The 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria sample collected on 11\\/16\\/07 represents the salt solution in the core samples. Core samples were retrieved

A. Cozzi; A. Duncan

2010-01-01

56

USE OF EXHALED BREATH CONDENSATE IN A HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a noninvasive, repeatable collection technique to sample biomarkers of lung inflammation, oxidative stress, and environmental exposure. It is unclear whether EBC is an effective tool in human environmental exposure studies with multi-day samplin...

57

Scientific guidelines for preservation of samples collected from Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The maximum scientific value of Martian geologic and atmospheric samples is retained when the samples are preserved in the conditions that applied prior to their collection. Any sample degradation equates to loss of information. Based on detailed review of pertinent scientific literature, and advice from experts in planetary sample analysis, number values are recommended for key parameters in the environmental control of collected samples with respect to material contamination, temperature, head-space gas pressure, ionizing radiation, magnetic fields, and acceleration/shock. Parametric values recommended for the most sensitive geologic samples should also be adequate to preserve any biogenic compounds or exobiological relics.

Gooding, James L. (editor)

1990-01-01

58

Breathing difficulty  

MedlinePLUS

Shortness of breath; Breathlessness; Difficulty breathing; Dyspnea ... No standard definition exists for difficulty breathing. Some people may feel breathless with only mild exercise (for example, climbing stairs), even though they do not have a medical condition. ...

59

The 2011 International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meeting in Parma, Italy: a collection of comments from attendees  

Microsoft Academic Search

ForewordThe 2011 Conference 'Breath Analysis Summit' was hosted by Antonio Mutti and Massimo Corradi, professors from the University of Parma, Italy. It was held at the Centro Congressi di Parma (Conference Center) in Parma. This was our highest attended breath conference to date, and by all measures, extremely successful. For this editorial the authors solicited comments from the attendees and

Joachim D Pleil; Anton Amann

2011-01-01

60

40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. 761.286...Accordance With ç 761.61(a)(6) § 761.286 Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. At each...

2010-07-01

61

40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment 30 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. 761.286...Accordance With ç 761.61(a)(6) § 761.286 Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. At each...

2009-07-01

62

40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. 761.286...Accordance With ç 761.61(a)(6) § 761.286 Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. At each...

2013-07-01

63

40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. 761.286...Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.286 Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. At each...

2011-07-01

64

40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. 761.286...Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.286 Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. At each...

2012-07-01

65

Breath-based biomarkers for tuberculosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the potential of breath analysis by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to discriminate between samples collected prospectively from patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB). Samples were obtained in a TB endemic setting in South Africa where 28% of the culture proven TB patients had a Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) negative sputum smear. A training set of breath samples from 50 sputum culture proven TB patients and 50 culture negative non-TB patients was analyzed by GC-MS. A classification model with 7 compounds resulted in a training set with a sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 86% and accuracy of 79% compared with culture. The classification model was validated with an independent set of breath samples from 21 TB and 50 non-TB patients. A sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 84% and accuracy of 77% was found. We conclude that the 7 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that discriminate breath samples from TB and non-TB patients in our study population are probably host-response related VOCs and are not derived from the VOCs secreted by M. tuberculosis. It is concluded that at present GC-MS breath analysis is able to differentiate between TB and non-TB breath samples even among patients with a negative ZN sputum smear but a positive culture for M. tuberculosis. Further research is required to improve the sensitivity and specificity before this method can be used in routine laboratories.

Kolk, Arend H. J.; van Berkel, Joep J. B. N.; Claassens, Mareli M.; Walters, Elisabeth; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Dallinga, Jan W.; van Schooten, Fredrik-Jan

2012-05-01

66

CHARACTERIZATION OF CORE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

During the month of September 2008, grout core samples were collected from the Saltstone Disposal Facility, Vault 4, cell E. This grout was placed during processing campaigns in December 2007 from Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment Batch 2 salt solution. The 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria sample collected on 11/16/07 represents the salt solution in the core samples. Core samples were retrieved to initiate the historical database of properties of emplaced Saltstone and to demonstrate the correlation between field collected and laboratory prepared samples. Three samples were collected from three different locations. Samples were collected using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit. In April 2009, the core samples were removed from the evacuated sample container, inspected, transferred to PVC containers, and backfilled with nitrogen. Samples furthest from the wall were the most intact cylindrically shaped cored samples. The shade of the core samples darkened as the depth of coring increased. Based on the visual inspection, sample 3-3 was selected for all subsequent analysis. The density and porosity of the Vault 4 core sample, 1.90 g/cm{sup 3} and 59.90% respectively, were comparable to values achieved for laboratory prepared samples. X-ray diffraction analysis identified phases consistent with the expectations for hydrated Saltstone. Microscopic analysis revealed morphology features characteristic of cementitious materials with fly ash and calcium silicate hydrate gel. When taken together, the results of the density, porosity, x-ray diffraction analysis and microscopic analysis support the conclusion that the Vault 4, Cell E core sample is representative of the expected waste form.

Cozzi, A.; Duncan, A.

2010-01-28

67

Matrix isolation apparatus with extended sample collection capability  

DOEpatents

A gas-sample collection device provides for the matrix isolation of increased amounts of a sample material for spectrographic analysis from a gas chromatographic separation. The device includes an evacuated sample collection chamber containing a disc-like specular carousel having a generally circular lateral surface upon which the sample is deposited in an inert gas matrix for infrared (IR) spectral analysis. The evacuated sample chamber is mounted in a fixed manner and is coupled to and supports a rotating cryostatic coupler which, in turn, supports the specular carousel within the collection chamber. A rotational drive system connected to the cryostatic coupler provides for its rotational displacement as well as that of the sample collecting carousel. In addition, rotation of the cryostatic coupler effects vertical displacement of the carousel to permit the collection of an extended sample band in a helical configuration on the entire lateral surface of the carousel. The various components of the carousel's angular/linear displacement drive system are located exterior to the cryostatic coupler for easy access and improved operation. The cryostatic coupler includes a 360.degree. rotary union assembly for permitting the delivery of a high pressure working fluid to the cryostatic coupler in a continuous flow manner for maintaining the specular carousel at a low temperature, e.g., 10.degree.-20.degree. K., for improved uninterrupted gas sample collection and analysis.

Reedy, Gerald T. (Bourbonnais, IL)

1987-01-01

68

A perception and manipulation system for collecting rock samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An important part of a planetary exploration mission is to collect and analyze surface samples. As part of the Carnegie Mellon University Ambler Project, researchers are investigating techniques for collecting samples using a robot arm and a range sensor. The aim of this work is to make the sample collection operation fully autonomous. Described here are the components of the experimental system, including a perception module that extracts objects of interest from range images and produces models of their shapes, and a manipulation module that enables the system to pick up the objects identified by the perception module. The system was tested on a small testbed using natural terrain.

Choi, T.; Delingette, H.; Deluise, M.; Hsin, Y.; Hebert, M.; Ikeuchi, Katsushi

1991-01-01

69

Collecting Ground Samples for Balloon-Borne Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed system in a gondola containing scientific instruments suspended by a balloon over the surface of the Saturn moon Titan would quickly acquire samples of rock or ice from the ground below. Prototypes of a sample-collecting device that would be a major part of the system have been tested under cryogenic and non-cryogenic conditions on Earth. Systems like this one could also be used in non-cryogenic environments on Earth to collect samples of rock, soil, ice, mud, or other ground material from such inaccessible or hazardous locations as sites of suspected chemical spills or biological contamination. The sample-collecting device would be a harpoonlike device that would be connected to the balloon-borne gondola by a tether long enough to reach the ground. The device would be dropped from the gondola to acquire a sample, then would be reeled back up to the gondola, where the sample would be analyzed by the onboard instruments. Each prototype of the sample-collecting device has a sharp front (lower) end, a hollow core for retaining a sample, a spring for holding the sample in the hollow core, and a rear (upper) annular cavity for retaining liquid sample material. Aerodynamic fins at the rear help to keep the front end pointed downward. In tests, these prototype devices were dropped from various heights and used to gather samples of dry sand, moist sand, cryogenic water ice, and warmer water ice.

Jones, Jack; Zimmerman, Wayne; Wu, Jiunn Jenq

2009-01-01

70

COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...

71

Sample Collection Procedures for Radiochemical Analytes in Environmental Matrices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The procedures described in this document are intended to provide instructions regarding the collection of environmental samples to be analyzed for radiological contaminants following a contamination event or emergency. This document focuses on the site C...

2006-01-01

72

Collection and control of tritium bioassay samples at Pantex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pantex is the final assembly\\/disassembly point for US nuclear weapons. The Pantex internal dosimetry section monitors radiation workers once a month for tritium exposure. In order to manage collection and control of the bioassay specimens efficiently, a bar code system for collection of samples was developed and implemented to speed up the process and decrease the number of errors probable

N. L. Fairrow; W. E. Ivie

1992-01-01

73

Rossman/Chance Applet Collection: Reese's Pieces Samples  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet demonstrates a machine dispensing Reese's Pieces. The Reese's Pieces are seperated into different colors. The user can change the sample size and the number of samples. The mean and standard deviation are displayed and a plot of the normal curve can also be shown. This is part of a larger collection of applets on statistics from the California Poly San Luis Obispo.

Rossman, Allan; Chance, Beth

2008-09-19

74

Biological sample collection and processing for molecular epidemiological studies.  

PubMed

Molecular epidemiology uses biomarkers and advanced technology to refine the investigation of the relationship between environmental exposures and diseases in humans. It requires careful handling and storage of precious biological samples with the goals of obtaining a large amount of information from limited samples, and minimizing future research costs by use of banked samples. Many factors, such as tissue type, time of collection, containers used, preservatives and other additives, transport means and length of transit time, affect the quality of the samples and the stability of biomarkers and must be considered at the initial collection stage. An efficient study design includes provisions for further processing of the original samples, such as cryopreservation of isolated cells, purification of DNA and RNA, and preparation of specimens for cytogenetic, immunological and biochemical analyses. Given the multiple uses of the samples in molecular epidemiology studies, appropriate informed consent must be obtained from the study subjects prior to sample collection. Use of barcoding and electronic databases allow more efficient management of large sample banks. Development of standard operating procedures and quality control plans is a safeguard of the samples' quality and of the validity of the analyses results. Finally, specific state, federal and international regulations are in place regarding research with human samples, governing areas including custody, safety of handling, and transport of human samples, as well as communication of study results.Here, we focus on the factors affecting the quality and the potential future use of biological samples and some of the provisions that must be made during collection, processing, and storage of samples, based on our experience in the Superfund Basic Research Program and Children's Environmental Health Center, at the University of California, Berkeley. PMID:12787814

Holland, Nina T; Smith, Martyn T; Eskenazi, Brenda; Bastaki, Maria

2003-06-01

75

On the improvement of blood sample collection at clinical laboratories  

PubMed Central

Background Blood samples are usually collected daily from different collection points, such hospitals and health centers, and transported to a core laboratory for testing. This paper presents a project to improve the collection routes of two of the largest clinical laboratories in Spain. These routes must be designed in a cost-efficient manner while satisfying two important constraints: (i) two-hour time windows between collection and delivery, and (ii) vehicle capacity. Methods A heuristic method based on a genetic algorithm has been designed to solve the problem of blood sample collection. The user enters the following information for each collection point: postal address, average collecting time, and average demand (in thermal containers). After implementing the algorithm using C programming, this is run and, in few seconds, it obtains optimal (or near-optimal) collection routes that specify the collection sequence for each vehicle. Different scenarios using various types of vehicles have been considered. Unless new collection points are added or problem parameters are changed substantially, routes need to be designed only once. Results The two laboratories in this study previously planned routes manually for 43 and 74 collection points, respectively. These routes were covered by an external carrier company. With the implementation of this algorithm, the number of routes could be reduced from ten to seven in one laboratory and from twelve to nine in the other, which represents significant annual savings in transportation costs. Conclusions The algorithm presented can be easily implemented in other laboratories that face this type of problem, and it is particularly interesting and useful as the number of collection points increases. The method designs blood collection routes with reduced costs that meet the time and capacity constraints of the problem.

2014-01-01

76

Rossman/Chance Applet Collection: Simulating Senators Samples  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet draws a sample of senators (from Senators in 2005). The user can control the sample size and the number of samples. The applet displays the senator's name, number of years in the senate, their party and gender. Each set is then plotted. The mean and standard deviation is displayed. This is part of a larger collection of applets on statistics from the California Poly San Luis Obispo.

Rossman, Allan; Chance, Beth

2009-03-31

77

Aerosol Sampling System for Collection of Capstone Depleted Uranium Particles in a High-Energy Environment  

SciTech Connect

The Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Study was undertaken to obtain aerosol samples resulting from a kinetic-energy cartridge with a large-caliber depleted uranium (DU) penetrator striking an Abrams or Bradley test vehicle. The sampling strategy was designed to (1) optimize the performance of the samplers and maintain their integrity in the extreme environment created during perforation of an armored vehicle by a DU penetrator, (2) collect aerosols as a function of time post-impact, and (3) obtain size-classified samples for analysis of chemical composition, particle morphology, and solubility in lung fluid. This paper describes the experimental setup and sampling methodologies used to achieve these objectives. Custom-designed arrays of sampling heads were secured to the inside of the target in locations approximating the breathing zones of the vehicle commander, loader, gunner, and driver. Each array was designed to support nine filter cassettes and nine cascade impactors mounted with quick-disconnect fittings. Shielding and sampler placement strategies were used to minimize sampler loss caused by the penetrator impact and the resulting fragments of eroded penetrator and perforated armor. A cyclone train was used to collect larger quantities of DU aerosol for chemical composition and solubility. A moving filter sample was used to obtain semicontinuous samples for depleted uranium concentration determination. Control for the air samplers was provided by five remotely located valve control and pressure monitoring units located inside and around the test vehicle. These units were connected to a computer interface chassis and controlled using a customized LabVIEW engineering computer control program. The aerosol sampling arrays and control systems for the Capstone study provided the needed aerosol samples for physicochemical analysis, and the resultant data were used for risk assessment of exposure to DU aerosol.

Holmes, Thomas D.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Hoover, Mark D.

2009-03-01

78

Ion-trap detection of volatile organic compounds in alveolar breath  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a method for the collection and microanalysis of the volatile organic compounds in human breath. A transportable apparatus supplies subjects with purified air and samples their alveolar breath; the volatile organic compounds are captured in an adsorptive trap containing activated carbon and molecular sieve. The sample is thermally desorbed from the trap in an automated microprocessor-controlled device, concentrated

M. Phillips; J. Greenberg

1992-01-01

79

Breath Analysis in Disease Diagnosis: Methodological Considerations and Applications  

PubMed Central

Breath analysis is a promising field with great potential for non-invasive diagnosis of a number of disease states. Analysis of the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath with an acceptable accuracy are assessed by means of using analytical techniques with high sensitivity, accuracy, precision, low response time, and low detection limit, which are desirable characteristics for the detection of VOCs in human breath. “Breath fingerprinting”, indicative of a specific clinical status, relies on the use of multivariate statistics methods with powerful in-built algorithms. The need for standardisation of sample collection and analysis is the main issue concerning breath analysis, blocking the introduction of breath tests into clinical practice. This review describes recent scientific developments in basic research and clinical applications, namely issues concerning sampling and biochemistry, highlighting the diagnostic potential of breath analysis for disease diagnosis. Several considerations that need to be taken into account in breath analysis are documented here, including the growing need for metabolomics to deal with breath profiles.

Lourenco, Celia; Turner, Claire

2014-01-01

80

Application of the dried spot sampling technique for rat cerebrospinal fluid sample collection and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dried blood spotting (DBS) sample collection is gaining favor in the pharmaceutical industry due to benefits that include reduced animal usage and easier sample shipment and storage when compared to traditional plasma collection\\/analysis. The applicability of the DBS card to alternate, limited-volume, matrices has not been as fully characterized as their use with whole blood. In this paper we explored

Brian Rago; JianHua Liu; Beijing Tan; Christopher Holliman

2011-01-01

81

Sampling strategy for a core collection of Peruvian quinoa germplasm.  

PubMed

Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is an Andean crop with a high potential for cultivation under temperate agricultural conditions. A new quinoa cultivar for such an environment requires plant characteristics that may be available primarily largely in genetic resources held in gene banks. A core collection may simplify management and enhance the utilisation of quinoa genetic resources. This paper describes the development of a core subset of the whole quinoa gene bank (1029 accessions) of the Universidad Nacional del Altiplano (UNAP). All accessions available in this gene bank have location and altitude descriptors and a partial description for qualitative and quantitative descriptors. The core collection (103 accessions) contains chosen ecotypes or landraces that capture most of the genetic variability available in this Peruvian germplasm. The accessions were selected for the core collection based on a geographically stratified non-overlapping sampling procedure. The number of accessions that were allocated to the core subset was determined using a proportional method adjusted by the relative importance of the quinoa crop in each geographical cluster as determined by its acreage. The sampling method also considered the morphological diversity within four geographical clusters of at least 100 accessions. The multivariate pattern of morphological variation was defined within each of these clusters by independent principal component analyses. A comparison of phenotypic diversity between the entire collection and its core subset confirmed that the proper sampling strategy for this core collection of Peruvian quinoa germplasm had been applied. The most important phenotypic correlations between quantitative descriptors observed in the entire collection, which may be under the control of co-adapted gene complexes, were also preserved by the core collection. The most comprenhensive quinoa core collection should consider accessions from other gene banks in Bolivia and Ecuador, a few accessions from coastal Chile and wild sympatric cross-compatible Chenopodium species. This core collection will be a point of entry to the proper exploitation of the genetic resources available in respective quinoa gene banks. PMID:24710887

Ortiz, R; Ruiz-Tapia, E N; Mujica-Sanchez, A

1998-03-01

82

Application of cabin atmosphere monitors to rapid screening of breath samples for the early detection of disease states  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of human breath is a nonintrusive method to monitor both endogenous and exogenous chemicals found in the body. Several technologies were investigated and developed which are applicable to monitoring some organic molecules important in both physiological and pathological states. Two methods were developed for enriching the organic molecules exhaled in the breath of humans. One device is based on a respiratory face mask fitted with a polyethylene foam wafer; while the other device is a cryogenic trap utilizing an organic solvent. Using laboratory workers as controls, two organic molecules which occurred in the enriched breath of all subjects were tentatively identified as lactic acid and contisol. Both of these substances occurred in breath in sufficient amounts that the conventional method of gas-liquid chromatography was adequate for detection and quantification. To detect and quantitate trace amounts of chemicals in breath, another type of technology was developed in which analysis was conducted using high pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

Valentine, J. L.; Bryant, P. J.

1975-01-01

83

Urine sampling and collection system optimization and testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Urine Sampling and Collection System (USCS) engineering model was developed to provide for the automatic collection, volume sensing and sampling of urine from each micturition. The purpose of the engineering model was to demonstrate verification of the system concept. The objective of the optimization and testing program was to update the engineering model, to provide additional performance features and to conduct system testing to determine operational problems. Optimization tasks were defined as modifications to minimize system fluid residual and addition of thermoelectric cooling.

Fogal, G. L.; Geating, J. A.; Koesterer, M. G.

1975-01-01

84

Apparatus and process for collection of gas and vapor samples  

DOEpatents

A gas sampling apparatus and process is provided in which a standard crimping tool is modified by an attached collar. The collar permits operation of the crimping tool while also facilitating the introduction of a supply of gas to be introduced into a storage vial. The introduced gas supply is used to purge ambient air from a collection chamber and an interior of the sample vial. Upon completion of the purging operation, the vial is sealed using the crimping tool.

Jackson, Dennis G. (Augusta, GA); Peterson, Kurt D. (Aiken, SC); Riha, Brian D. (Augusta, GA)

2008-04-01

85

PIXE analysis of cascade impactor samples collected over the Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerosol samples were collected on a cruise of the R\\/V Conrad in the Pacific Ocean. The cruise track was divided into two legs, the first one on the Peru\\/Ecuador shelf, the second through the equatorial and tropical Pacific to Hawaii. Sampling took place by means of two 1 l\\/min, ten-stage Battelle-type cascade impactors positioned on the foremast of the ship

H. Raemdonck; W. Maenhaut; R. J. Ferek; M. O. Andreae

1984-01-01

86

Breathing Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... you're not getting enough air. Sometimes mild breathing problems are from a stuffy nose or hard ... conditions such as asthma, emphysema or pneumonia cause breathing difficulties. So can problems with your trachea or ...

87

Breathing Difficulties  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources > Our Publications and Videos > Factsheets Share Print Breathing Difficulties ALS varies greatly from person to person and symptoms related to your breathing can start early or much later. Weakness in ...

88

Collecting Language Samples from Children with Syntax Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article suggests that comparability, representativeness, and typicality must be considered along with length when collecting language samples. A framework is offered for selecting or devising tasks, and one successful battery is described which has been field tested on language-disordered children with syntax problems. (CL)

Wren, Carol T.

1985-01-01

89

Isotopic analysis of eggs: evaluating sample collection and preparation.  

PubMed

Egg traceability/authenticity is a worldwide concern. Stable isotope techniques have been suggested as a tool to address this issue. To further validate the use of these techniques, a research project was undertaken to evaluate what effect sample collection and preparation have on the measured isotopic composition of egg components. The timing of egg collection, the timing of egg preparation after collection, and the use of pasteurisation were investigated. The C, N, O, and S isotopic compositions of egg components from 7 different production systems were measured. Two sets of eggs were collected (4 months apart). It was found that the 'isotopic fingerprint' of a particular production system was maintained over time, and that it may be possible to trace liquid egg products based on isotopic data from fresh eggs. The findings from this study support the integration of stable isotope techniques in egg traceability/authenticity systems. PMID:23194561

Rock, Luc; Rowe, Sylwia; Czerwiec, Agnieszka; Richmond, Harold

2013-02-15

90

Variability of collagen crosslinks: impact of sample collection period  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of the variability of collagen crosslinks, their use as markers for bone resorption is often criticized. We hypothesized that the variability could be reduced by collecting urine for 24 hours (or longer) instead of using single voids, and by not normalizing to creatinine. Urine samples were collected from 22 healthy subjects during two or more 24-hour periods. Each 24-hour pool and each 2nd void of the day were analyzed for N-telopeptide (NTX), pyridinium (PYD), and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks. Data were analyzed by using linear regression. For NTX, R2 for the two, 2nd-void samples (n = 38) was 0.55, whereas R2 for the two 24-hour pools was 0.51 or 0.52, expressed per day or per creatinine. For PYD and DPD, R2 for the 2nd-void samples was 0.26 and 0.18, R2 for the 24-hour pools expressed per day was 0.58 and 0.74, and R2 for the 24-hour pools expressed per creatinine was 0.65 and 0.76, respectively. Regression of the 2nd void and the corresponding 24-hour pool, expressed per day, yielded R2 = 0.19, 0.19, and 0.08, for NTX, PYD, and DPD, respectively (n = 76 each). For the 2nd-void sample and its corresponding 24-hour pool, expressed per creatinine, R2 = 0.24, 0.33, and 0.08, respectively. In a separate study, the coefficient of variation for NTX was reduced (P < 0.05) when data from more than one 24-hour collection were combined. Thus, the variability inherent in crosslink determinations can be reduced by collecting urine for longer periods. In research studies, the high variability of single-void collections, compounded by creatinine normalization, may alter or obscure findings.

Smith, S. M.; Dillon, E. L.; DeKerlegand, D. E.; Davis-Street, J. E.

2004-01-01

91

Borehole Logging from Sample Collection to Borehole Geophysics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In January of 2003, CSUF drilled and completed a deep multiport-monitoring well on the north side of campus. This was done in order to gain a better understanding of the local subsurface geology and groundwater conditions in and around CSUF. Samples were collected from the drill hole (boring) every 5-feet. The total depth of the well is 870 feet below ground surface (grade). Borehole geophysical data (E-log) information was collected from the boring prior to the installation of the well pipe. As you describe the soil samples, compare and contrast your findings to those of the geophysical signature (gamma-ray log) found in the accompanying "E-log" for the boring.

Laton, Richard

92

Factors influencing breath ammonia determination.  

PubMed

Amongst volatile compounds (VCs) present in exhaled breath, ammonia has held great promise and yet it has confounded researchers due to its inherent reactivity. Herein we have evaluated various factors in both breath instrumentation and the breath collection process in an effort to reduce variability. We found that the temperature of breath sampler and breath sensor, mouth rinse pH, and mode of breathing to be important factors. The influence of the rinses is heavily dependent upon the pH of the rinse. The basic rinse (pH 8.0) caused a mean increase of the ammonia concentration by 410 ± 221 ppb. The neutral rinse (pH 7.0), slightly acidic rinse (pH 5.8), and acidic rinse (pH 2.5) caused a mean decrease of the ammonia concentration by 498 ± 355 ppb, 527 ± 198 ppb, and 596 ± 385 ppb, respectively. Mode of breathing (mouth-open versus mouth-closed) demonstrated itself to have a large impact on the rate of recovery of breath ammonia after a water rinse. Within 30 min, breath ammonia returned to 98 ± 16% that of the baseline with mouth open breathing, while mouth closed breathing allowed breath ammonia to return to 53 ± 14% of baseline. These results contribute to a growing body of literature that will improve reproducibly in ammonia and other VCs. PMID:23774041

Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew; Spacek, Lisa A; Lewicki, Rafal; Tittel, Frank; Loccioni, Claudio; Russo, Adolfo; Risby, Terence H

2013-09-01

93

PIXE analysis of cascade impactor samples collected over the Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol samples were collected on a cruise of the R/V Conrad in the Pacific Ocean. The cruise track was divided into two legs, the first one on the Peru/Ecuador shelf, the second through the equatorial and tropical Pacific to Hawaii. Sampling took place by means of two 1 l/min, ten-stage Battelle-type cascade impactors positioned on the foremast of the ship at about 20 m above the sea surface. Strict precautions were taken to avoid contamination of the samples by the ship itself. The impactor slides and back-up filters were analyzed for 25 elements by PIXE using a 2.4 MeV proton beam, produced by a compact cyclotron. In the samples, collected on leg 1, a significant anthropogenic component could be detected. Excess fine sulfur, excess fine potassium, and V, Ni, Cu and Zn in < 2 ? m particles were as high as 600, 10, 0.8, 0.2, 3 and 4 ng/m 3, respectively. On the other hand, most of the samples, collected on leg 2, were representative of clean marine air which was little influenced by continentally derived aerosols. The sulfur size distribution showed a very pronounced submicrometer mode of about 100 ng/m 3, suggesting a nearby sulfur source of marine origin. After crossing the intertropical convergence zone from south to north, concentrations of Fe and other crustal elements increased significantly. The size distributions and interelement ratios indicated that the elevated concentrations of these elements were due to long-range transport of mineral dust.

Raemdonck, H.; Maenhaut, W.; Ferek, R. J.; Andreae, M. O.

1984-04-01

94

14C-urea breath test in C pylori gastritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

14C-urea breath test was used to detect Campylobacter pylori colonisation in 129 consecutive non-ulcer dyspepsia patients. Fasting patients were given 3 microCi (110 kBq) of 14C-labelled urea after a test meal. Breath samples were collected at 10 minute intervals for 90 minutes and the C-14 activity was counted on a liquid scintillation analyser. Urea derived 14CO2 appears in the exhaled

E A Rauws; E A Royen; W Langenberg; J V Woensel; A A Vrij; G N Tytgat

1989-01-01

95

Right Coronary Artery Flow Velocity and Volume Assessment with Spiral K-Space Sampled Breath-Hold Velocity-Encoded Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3Tesla: Accuracy and Reproducibility  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate accuracy and reproducibility of flow velocity and volume measurements in a phantom and in human coronary arteries using breath-hold velocity-encoded (VE) MRI with spiral k-space sampling at 3Tesla. Materials and Methods Flow velocity assessment was performed using VE MRI with spiral k-space sampling. Accuracy of VE MRI was tested in vitro at five constant flow rates. Reproducibility was investigated in 19 healthy subjects (mean age 25.4± 1.2 years, 11 men,) by repeated acquisition in the right coronary artery (RCA). Results MRI-measured flow rates correlated strongly with volumetric collection (Pearson correlation r=0.99; p<0.01). Due to limited sample resolution, VE MRI overestimated the flow rate by 47% on average when non-constricted region-of-interest segmentation was used. Using constricted region-of-interest segmentation with lumen size equal to ground-truth luminal size, less than 13% error in flow rate was found. In vivo RCA flow velocity assessment was successful in 82% of the applied studies. High interscan, intra- and inter-observer agreement was found for almost all indices describing coronary flow velocity. Reproducibility for repeated acquisitions varied by less than 16% for peak velocity values and by less than 24% for flow volumes. Conclusion 3T breath-hold VE MRI with spiral k-space sampling enables accurate and reproducible assessment of RCA flow velocity.

Brandts, Anne; Roes, Stijntje D.; Doornbos, Joost; Weiss, Robert G.; de Roos, Albert; Stuber, Matthias; Westenberg, Jos J.M.

2010-01-01

96

Collection Efficiency Measurements and Development of a Sample Analysis Station for the OMEGA Gas Sampling System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OMEGA Gas Sampling System (OGSS) is a radiochemical diagnostic that can be used to study implosion parameters including shell areal density, mix, and neutron yield in inertial confinement fusion capsules. The OGSS is a prototype for a gas sampling diagnostic which may be installed at the National Ignition Facility. By doping the target capsule with appropriate detector nuclei, nuclear reactions between fusion products and the detector nuclei can produce noble gas isotopes. Following a capsule implosion, these gases are pumped out of the OMEGA chamber and are collected on a cryopump head. Upon regeneration of the cryopump, the OGSS turbopump pumps the gases into up to four 0.5 liter sample collection bottles. The composition of the sample collection bottles is analyzed using either mass spectroscopy or gamma ray spectroscopy. The results of preliminary measurements of the target chamber background and gas sample collection efficiency will be presented. The development of an auxiliary sample bottle analysis station using a residual gas analyzer will also be described. This work was funded in part by the US Department of Energy, the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Freeman, Charles; Stoyer, Mark; Sangster, T. Craig

2005-10-01

97

Organic analysis of ambient samples collected near Tank 241-C-103: Results from samples collected on May 12, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report describes organic analyses results from ambient samples collected both upwind and through the vapor sampling system (VSS) near Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-103 (referred to as Tank C-103). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed. Quantitative results were obtained for organic compounds. Five organic tentatively identified compounds (TICS) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, we looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes. We observed 39. Of these, only one was observed above the 2-ppbv calibrated instrument detection limit. Dichloromethane was above the detection limits using both methods, but the result from the TO-14 method is traceable to a standard gas mixture and is considered more accurate. Organic analytes were found only in the sample collected through the VSS, suggesting that these compounds were residual contamination from a previous sampling job. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text.

Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Lucke, R.B.; Young, J.S.; McCulloch, M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

1995-06-01

98

Isopropanol interference with breath alcohol analysis: a case report.  

PubMed

The presence of interfering substances, particularly acetone, has historically been a concern in the forensic measurement of ethanol in human breath. Although modern infrared instruments employ methods for distinguishing between ethanol and acetone, false-positive interferant results can arise from instrumental or procedural problems. The case described gives the analytical results of an individual arrested for driving while intoxicated and subsequently providing breath samples in two different BAC Verifier Datamaster infrared breath alcohol instruments. The instruments recorded ethanol results ranging from 0.09 to 0.17 g/210 L with corresponding interferant results of 0.02 to 0.06 g/210 L over approximately three hours. Breath and venous blood specimens collected later were analyzed by gas chromatography and revealed in the blood: isopropanol 0.023 g/100 mL, acetone 0.057 g/100 mL and ethanol 0.076g/100 mL. Qualitative analysis of the breath sample by GCMS also showed the presence of all three compounds. This individual had apparently consumed both ethanol and isopropanol with acetone resulting from the metabolism of isopropanol. An important observation is that the breath test instruments detected the interfering substances on each breath sample and yet they did not show tendencies to report false interferences when compared with statewide interferant data. PMID:8064270

Logan, B K; Gullberg, R G; Elenbaas, J K

1994-07-01

99

Lunar Samples: Apollo Collection Tools, Curation Handling, Surveyor III and Soviet Luna Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 6 Apollo missions that landed on the lunar surface returned 2196 samples comprised of 382 kg. The 58 samples weighing 21.5 kg collected on Apollo 11 expanded to 741 samples weighing 110.5 kg by the time of Apollo 17. The main goal on Apollo 11 was to obtain some material and return it safely to Earth. As we gained experience, the sampling tools and a more specific sampling strategy evolved. A summary of the sample types returned is shown in Table 1. By year 1989, some statistics on allocation by sample type were compiled [2]. The "scientific interest index" is based on the assumption that the more allocations per gram of sample, the higher the scientific interest. It is basically a reflection of the amount of diversity within a given sample type. Samples were also set aside for biohazard testing. The samples set aside and used for biohazard testing were represen-tative, as opposed to diverse. They tended to be larger and be comprised of less scientifically valuable mate-rial, such as dust and debris in the bottom of sample containers.

Allton, J.H.

2009-01-01

100

Chemical analysis of rain samples collected over the Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During seven research cruises in the Pacific Ocean from 1984 to 1989 we collected rain samples for chemical analyses. The geographical and temporal variations of rain chemistry were studied in relation to natural and anthropogenic sources and transport of the constituents. The pH values of rain samples ranged from 3.9 to 7.2, with a mean of 5.6 (n = 104, ? = 0.5). The most acidic rain was found near the big ports, where SO4= and NO3- concentrations in rain were also the highest. The data indicated that wet deposition transports anthropogenic pollution from continents to oceans. Enrichments of Ca++ and K+, which are compared to Na+ in seawater, were observed in all rain samples throughout the ocean. However, their enrichment factors (EF) decrease with distance from land, signifying the extent of transport of crustal elements through cloud process and wet deposition. The EFs of Mg++ were close to unity, indicating its common origin with Na+. The EFs of Cl- in most rain samples were less than l, indicating loss of Cl- in aerosols, cloud droplets, or rain drops. High EFs of SO4= were also observed at the equatorial regions, where biogenic production of dimethyl sulfide is well known. During the 1987 El Niño anomaly the sulfate aerosol distribution and rainfall patterns altered with air trajectories. The effects of sulfate aerosol on cloud condensation and rainfall amount in various regions during normal years and the El Niño anomaly are discussed.

Nagamoto, C.; Parungo, F.; Kopcewicz, B.; Zhou, M. Y.

1990-12-01

101

Solid-state gas sensors for breath analysis: a review.  

PubMed

The analysis of volatile compounds is an efficient method to appraise information about the chemical composition of liquids and solids. This principle is applied to several practical applications, such as food analysis where many important features (e.g. freshness) can be directly inferred from the analysis of volatile compounds. The same approach can also be applied to a human body where the volatile compounds, collected from the skin, the breath or in the headspace of fluids, might contain information that could be used to diagnose several kinds of diseases. In particular, breath is widely studied and many diseases can be potentially detected from breath analysis. The most fascinating property of breath analysis is the non-invasiveness of the sample collection. Solid-state sensors are considered the natural complement to breath analysis, matching the non-invasiveness with typical sensor features such as low-cost, easiness of use, portability, and the integration with the information networks. Sensors based breath analysis is then expected to dramatically extend the diagnostic capabilities enabling the screening of large populations for the early diagnosis of pathologies. In the last years there has been an increased attention to the development of sensors specifically aimed to this purpose. These investigations involve both specific sensors designed to detect individual compounds and non-specific sensors, operated in array configurations, aimed at clustering subjects according to their health conditions. In this paper, the recent significant applications of these sensors to breath analysis are reviewed and discussed. PMID:24759744

Di Natale, Corrado; Paolesse, Roberto; Martinelli, Eugenio; Capuano, Rosamaria

2014-05-01

102

A model to predict the breathing zone concentrations of particles emitted from surfaces.  

PubMed

Activity based sampling (ABS) is typically performed to assess inhalation exposure to particulate contaminants known to have low, heterogeneous concentrations on a surface. Activity based sampling determines the contaminant concentration in a person's breathing zone as they perform a scripted activity, such as raking a specified area of soil, while wearing appropriate sample collection instrumentation. As an alternative approach, a probabilistic model based on aerosol physics and fluid dynamics was developed to predict the breathing zone concentration of a particulate contaminant emitted from a surface during activities of variable intensity. The model predicted the particle emission rate, tracked particle transport to the breathing zone, and calculated the breathing zone concentration for two scenarios. One scenario used an Eulerian model based on a Gaussian concentration distribution to quantify aerosol exposure in the trailing wake of a moving object. The second scenario modeled exposure in a quiescent environment. A Lagrangian model tracked the cumulative number of individual particles entering the breathing zone volume at a particular time. A Monte Carlo simulation calculated the breathing zone concentration probability distribution for each scenario. Both models predicted probability distributions of asbestos breathing zone concentrations that bracketed experimentally measured personal exposure concentrations. Modeled breathing zone concentrations were statistically correlated (p-value < 0.001) with independently collected ABS concentrations. The linear regression slope of 0.70 and intercept of 0.03 were influenced by the quantity of ABS data collected and model parameter input distributions at a site broader than those at other sites. PMID:20383380

Thornburg, Jonathan; Kominsky, John; Brown, G Gordon; Frechtel, Peter; Barrett, William; Shaul, Glenn

2010-04-01

103

Extravehicular Activity Asteroid Exploration and Sample Collection Capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) is challenged with primary mission objectives of demonstrating deep space Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and tools, and obtaining asteroid samples to return to Earth for further study. Although the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) is used for the EVAs, it has limited mobility which increases fatigue and decreases the crews' capability to perform EVA tasks. Furthermore, previous Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) spacewalks have benefited from EVA interfaces which have been designed and manufactured on Earth. Rigid structurally mounted handrails, and tools with customized interfaces and restraints optimize EVA performance. For ARCM, some vehicle interfaces and tools can leverage heritage designs and experience. However, when the crew ventures onto an asteroid capture bag to explore the asteroid and collect rock samples, EVA complexity increases due to the uncertainty of the asteroid properties. The variability of rock size, shape and composition, as well as bunching of the fabric bag will complicate EVA translation, tool restraint and body stabilization. The unknown asteroid hardness and brittleness will complicate tool use. The rock surface will introduce added safety concerns for cut gloves and debris control. Feasible solutions to meet ARCM EVA objectives were identified using experience gained during Apollo, Shuttle, and ISS EVAs, terrestrial mountaineering practices, NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 16 mission, and during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory testing in the MACES suit. The proposed concept utilizes expandable booms and integrated features of the asteroid capture bag to position and restrain the crew at the asteroid worksite. These methods enable the capability to perform both finesse, and high load tasks necessary to collect samples for scientific characterization of the asteroid. This paper will explore the design trade space and options that were examined for EVA, the overall concept for the EVAs including translation paths and body restraint methods, potential tools used to extract the samples, design implications for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) for EVA, the results of early development testing of potential EVA tasks, and extensibility of the EVA architecture to NASA's exploration missions.

Scoville, Zebulon; Sipila, Stephanie; Bowie, Jonathan

2014-01-01

104

Rarefied aerothermodynamics for Mars aero-flyby sample collection mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, a Mars Aero-flyby Sample Collection mission has been proposed. In order to improve the feasibility of the Mars mission, aerodynamic characteristics have been investigated for flow regime from free-molecular to continuum. By carrying out a series of computations, such as free-molecular flow simulations, continuum flow simulations, and direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) rarefied flow simulations, a bridging function method with DSMC parameters was found to represent the aerodynamic characteristics well. In transitional flow regime where Knudsen number is between 0.001 and 10, aerodynamic coefficients are dramatically changed. To keep the stability of the aeroshell in rarefied hypersonic flows, the range of its center of gravity location is restricted within 70% of the body length from the forefront, and real gas effects as well as Martian dust effect on aerodynamics are found to be negligibly small for the mission.

Ozawa, T.; Suzuki, T.; Takayanagi, H.; Fujita, K.

2012-11-01

105

Sulfate and nitrate collected by filter sampling near the tropopause  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Filter samples collected near the tropopause with an F-106 aircraft and two Boeing 747 aircraft were analyzed for sulfate and nitrate ion content. Within the range of routine commercial flight altitudes (at or below 12.5 km), stratospheric mass mixing ratios for the winter-spring group averaged 0.26 ppbm for sulfate and 0.35 ppbm for nitrate. For the summer-fall group, stratosphere mixing ratios averaged 0.13 ppbm and 0.25 ppbm for sulfate and nitrate, respectively. Winter-spring group tropospheric mass mixing ratios averaged 0.08 ppbm for sulfate and 0.10 ppbm for nitrate, while summer-fall group tropospheric mixing ratios averaged 0.05 ppbm for sulfate and 0.08 ppbm for nitrate. Correlations of the filter data with available ozone data suggest that the sulfate and nitrate are transported from the stratosphere to the troposphere.

Humenik, F. M.; Lezberg, E. A.; Otterson, D. A.

1980-01-01

106

Miniature Blimps for Surveillance and Collection of Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Miniature blimps are under development as robots for use in exploring the thick, cold, nitrogen atmosphere of Saturn's moon, Titan. Similar blimps can also be used for surveillance and collection of biochemical samples in buildings, caves, subways, and other, similar structures on Earth. The widely perceived need for means to thwart attacks on buildings and to mitigate the effects of such attacks has prompted consideration of the use of robots. Relative to rover-type (wheeled) robots that have been considered for such uses, miniature blimps offer the advantage of ability to move through the air in any direction and, hence, to perform tasks that are difficult or impossible for wheeled robots, including climbing stairs and looking through windows. In addition, miniature blimps are expected to have greater range and to cost less, relative to wheeled robots.

Jones, Jack

2004-01-01

107

Collection, chemical analysis, and evaluation of coal samples in 1975  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1975, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with other Federal and State agencies, university groups, and private companies, continued its program to augment and refine information on the composition of coal in the United States. This report includes all analytical data on 799 channel samples of coal beds from major operating mines and core holes in 28 States, collected mainly by State Geological Surveys under a cooperative program funded largely by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. For each sample, the U.S. Geological Survey has quantitatively determined the amounts of 24 major, minor, and trace elements (including AI, As, Cd, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Na, Pb, Se, U, and Zn), and has semiquantitatively determined the concentrations of 15 to 20 additional trace elements (including B, Be, Cr, Ge, Mo, Ni, and V). In addition, the U.S. Bureau of Mines has provided proximate and ultimate analyses, and Btu and forms-of-sulfur determinations on 488 of the samples. Statistical summaries of the data are given for all coal samples in the United States, for coal divided by rank (53 anthracite, 509 bituminous coal, 183 subbituminous coal, and 54 lignite samples), and the arithmetic means, ranges, and geometric means and deviations are given for the coal in each of seven different major coal areas in the United States. For example, the average coal in the United States contains 11.3 percent ash, 10.0 percent moisture, 2.0 percent sulfur, and has 11,180 Btu per pound; of the 10 major oxides determined on the 525?C ash, the average SiO2 content is 38 percent, Al2O3 20 percent, and Na2O 0.67 percent; the average Cd content is 7.3 ppm, Pb 114 ppm, and Zn 151 ppm (range 1 ppm to 6.0 percent). As determined on the raw coal, the average Hg content is 0.18 ppm (range <0.01 to 63.0 ppm), the Se content 4.1 ppm (range <0.1 to 150 ppm), and the U content 1.8 ppm (range <0.2 to 42.9 ppm).

Swanson, Vernon Emanuel; Medlin, J. H.; Hatch, J. R.; Coleman, S. L.; Wood, G. H.. Jr.; Woodruff, S. D.; Hildebrand, R. T.

1976-01-01

108

Breathing Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this demonstration of chemical change, the presenter blows breath into a methylene blue solution releasing carbon dioxide which acidifies the water and changes it from a bright blue color to green.

Wosu

2009-08-20

109

Breathing (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Breathing consists of two phases. The first phase is the inspiration phase. Inspiration allows air to flow into the lungs. The second phase is expiration. Expiration involves gases leaving the lungs. During inspiration, the diaphragm and ...

110

Breath odor  

MedlinePLUS

... through the breathing. This is a sign of ketoacidosis , which may occur in diabetes. It is a ... ammonia ) Diabetes (fruity or sweet chemical smell with ketoacidosis) Esophageal cancer Gastric carcinoma Gastrojejunocolic fistula (fruity-smelling ...

111

Breath Sampler (II).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to methods and devices for measuring and analyzing contents of gas samples, and more particularly to a method and apparatus for sampling volumetric quantities of human exhaled breath, and then either performing on-site analyses for m...

R. Glaser

1990-01-01

112

DS — Software for analyzing data collected using double sampling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

DS analyzes count data to estimate density or relative density and population size when appropriate. The software is available at http://iwcbm.dev4.fsr.com/IWCBM/default.asp?PageID=126. The software was designed to analyze data collected using double sampling, but it also can be used to analyze index data. DS is not currently configured to apply distance methods or methods based on capture-recapture theory. Double sampling for the purpose of this report means surveying a sample of locations with a rapid method of unknown accuracy and surveying a subset of these locations using a more intensive method assumed to yield unbiased estimates. "Detection ratios" are calculated as the ratio of results from rapid surveys on intensive plots to the number actually present as determined from the intensive surveys. The detection ratios are used to adjust results from the rapid surveys. The formula for density is (results from rapid survey)/(estimated detection ratio from intensive surveys). Population sizes are estimated as (density)(area). Double sampling is well-established in the survey sampling literature—see Cochran (1977) for the basic theory, Smith (1995) for applications of double sampling in waterfowl surveys, Bart and Earnst (2002, 2005) for discussions of its use in wildlife studies, and Bart and others (in press) for a detailed account of how the method was used to survey shorebirds across the arctic region of North America. Indices are surveys that do not involve complete counts of well-defined plots or recording information to estimate detection rates (Thompson and others, 1998). In most cases, such data should not be used to estimate density or population size but, under some circumstances, may be used to compare two densities or estimate how density changes through time or across space (Williams and others, 2005). The Breeding Bird Survey (Sauer and others, 2008) provides a good example of an index survey. Surveyors record all birds detected but do not record any information, such as distance or whether each bird is recorded in subperiods, that could be used to estimate detection rates. Nonetheless, the data are widely used to estimate temporal trends and spatial patterns in abundance (Sauer and others, 2008). DS produces estimates of density (or relative density for indices) by species and stratum. Strata are usually defined using region and habitat but other variables may be used, and the entire study area may be classified as a single stratum. Population size in each stratum and for the entire study area also is estimated for each species. For indices, the estimated totals generally are only useful if (a) plots are surveyed so that densities can be calculated and extrapolated to the entire study area and (b) if the detection rates are close to 1.0. All estimates are accompanied by standard errors (SE) and coefficients of variation (CV, that is, SE/estimate).

Bart, Jonathan; Hartley, Dana

2011-01-01

113

Breathing and Holding Your Breath  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students begin with interactive activities to develop a basic understanding of why cells need oxygen and need to get rid of carbon dioxide, how the circulatory and respiratory systems cooperate to bring oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from cells all over the body, and how the nervous system regulates breathing. Then, students carry out an experiment to test whether changing levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide influence how long they can hold their breath.

Waldron, Ingrid; Doherty, Jennifer

114

Evaluation of a Standardized Micro-Vacuum Sampling Method for Collection of Surface Dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

A standardized procedure for collecting dust samples from surfaces using a micro-vacuum sampling technique was evaluated. Experiments were carried out to investigate the collection efficiency of the vacuum sampling method described in ASTM Standard D7144, “Standard Practice for Collection of Surface Dust by Micro-Vacuum Sampling for Subsequent Metals Determination.” Weighed masses (? 5, ? 10 and ? 25 mg) of

Kevin Ashley; Gregory T. Applegate; Tamara J. Wise; Joseph E. Fernback; Michael J. Goldcamp

2007-01-01

115

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF URINE SAMPLES (SOP-2.14)  

EPA Science Inventory

This SOP describes the method for collecting urine samples from the study participants (children and their primary caregivers). Urine samples will be approximate 48-hr collections, collected as spot urine samples accumulated over the 48-hr sampling period. If the household or da...

116

Traveling with breathing problems  

MedlinePLUS

If you have breathing problems and you: Are short of breath most of the time Get short of breath when you walk 150 ... or less Have been in the hospital for breathing problems recently Use oxygen at home, even if ...

117

9 CFR 147.12 - Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples, cloacal...collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples, cloacal...including delayed secondary enrichment. All salmonellae recovered shall be serogrouped or...

2009-01-01

118

9 CFR 147.12 - Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples, cloacal...collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples, cloacal...including delayed secondary enrichment. All salmonellae recovered shall be serogrouped or...

2010-01-01

119

Background levels and diurnal variations of hydrogen cyanide in breath and emitted from skin.  

PubMed

The hydrogen cyanide (HCN) concentration in exhaled human breath and skin gas samples collected with different sampling techniques was measured using near-infrared cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The median baseline HCN concentrations in samples provided by 19 healthy volunteers 2-4 h after the last meal depended on the employed sampling technique: 6.5 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) in mixed (dead space and end-tidal) mouth-exhaled breath collected to a gas sampling bag, 3.9 ppbv in end-tidal mouth-exhaled breath, 1.3 ppbv in end-tidal nose-exhaled breath, 1.0 ppbv in unwashed skin and 0.6 ppbv in washed skin samples. Diurnal measurements showed that elevated HCN levels are to be expected in mouth-exhaled breath samples after food and drink intake, which suggests HCN generation in the oral cavity. The HCN concentrations in end-tidal nose-exhaled breath and skin gas samples were correlated, and it is concluded that these concentrations best reflect systemic HCN levels. PMID:21808098

Schmidt, F M; Metsälä, M; Vaittinen, O; Halonen, L

2011-12-01

120

Collection and control of tritium bioassay samples at Pantex.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pantex is the final assembly/disassembly point for US nuclear weapons. The Pantex internal dosimetry section monitors radiation workers once a month for tritium exposure. In order to manage collection and control of the bioassay specimens efficiently, a b...

N. L. Fairrow W. E. Ivie

1992-01-01

121

Atmospheric CO sub 2 concentrations derived from flask samples collected at USSR-operated sampling sites  

SciTech Connect

This document presents daily atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations from four USSR-operated sampling sites (Teriberka Station, Ocean Station Charlie, Bering Island, and Kotelny Island). The period of record varies by station with the earliest measurements dating back to 1983 and recent estimates from early 1991. These CO{sub 2} concentrations are derived from air samples collected in 1.5-L stainless steel electropolished flasks and later analyzed at the Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg, USSR) using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer. Measurements not meeting wind direction, wind speed, inter-flask agreement, and climate condition criteria were either discarded or flagged. All measurements have been corrected for drift biases introduced during flask storage. These atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are considered indicative of regional background air conditions and are directly traceable to the World Meteorological Organization's primary CO{sub 2} standards. These measurements support the rising trend in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations measured at other monitoring sites around the world and may be compared with similar measurements made by various monitoring programs at other northern latitude sites. The document presents the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations in graphical and tabular form, describes the sampling methods, defines limitations and restrictions of the data, and describes the information on the magnetic media.

Boden, T.A. (comp.) (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center); Brounshtein, A.M.; Faber, E.V.; Shashkov, A.A. (Glavnaya Geofizicheskaya Observatoriya, St. Petersburg (USSR))

1991-12-01

122

Breathing Yeasties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Does yeast breathe? Find out by watching how plastic bags filled with yeast, warm water and different amounts of sugar change over time. Demonstrate the interaction of microorganisms and the carbon cycle with yeast, sugar and water, and discover how organisms are dependent on water and energy flow.

Columbia River Exhibition of History, Science and Technology (CREHST)

1999-01-01

123

3D Radial Sampling and 3D Affine Transform-based Respiratory Motion Correction Technique for Free-breathing Whole-Heart Coronary MRA with 100% Imaging Efficiency  

PubMed Central

The navigator gating and slice tracking approach currently used for respiratory motion compensation during free-breathing coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) has low imaging efficiency (typically 30–50%), resulting in long imaging times. In this work, a novel respiratory motion correction technique with 100% scan efficiency was developed for free-breathing whole-heart coronary MRA. The navigator signal was used as a reference respiratory signal to segment the data into six bins. 3D projection reconstruction k-space sampling was used for data acquisition and enabled reconstruction of low resolution images within each respiratory bin. The motion between bins was estimated by image registration with a 3D affine transform. The data from the different respiratory bins was retrospectively combined after motion correction to produce the final image. The proposed method was compared with a traditional navigator gating approach in nine healthy subjects. The proposed technique acquired whole-heart coronary MRA with 1.0 mm3 isotropic spatial resolution in a scan time of 6.8 ± 0.9 min, compared with 16.2 ± 2.8 min for the navigator gating approach. The image quality scores, and length, diameter and sharpness of the right coronary artery (RCA), left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), and left circumflex coronary artery (LCX) were similar for both approaches (P > 0.05 for all), but the proposed technique reduced scan time by a factor of 2.5.

Bhat, Himanshu; Ge, Lan; Nielles-Vallespin, Sonia; Zuehlsdorff, Sven; Li, Debiao

2011-01-01

124

Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC has undertaken a 4-year data restoration project effort for the lunar science community funded by the LASER program (Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research) to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images. These sample photographs are not easily accessible outside of JSC, and currently exist only on degradable film in the Curation Data Storage Facility

Lofgren, Gary E.; Todd, Nancy S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.

2011-01-01

125

Breathing Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners test exhaled breath for carbon dioxide and learn how to use an indicator as a simple way to measure pH. Learners also explore what happens when an acid (lemon) is mixed with the indicator. This activity can be related to the topic of global climate change. This activity can also be used to discuss atmospheric warming, which is occurring due to increased amounts of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane in the atmosphere.

Workshop, Mission S.

2013-01-01

126

40 CFR 761.310 - Collecting the sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Porous Surfaces for Measurement-Based Use, Reuse, and On-Site...meter or fraction of a square meter of a nearly flat, non-porous surface. For small surfaces, use the same procedure as...

2013-07-01

127

Extravehicular Activity Asteroid Exploration and Sample Collection Capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the challenging primary objectives associated with NASA's Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) is to demonstrate deep space Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and tools and to obtain asteroid samples to return to Earth for further study. Prior Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) spacewalks have benefited from engineered EVA interfaces which have been designed and manufactured on Earth. Rigid structurally mounted handrails, and tools with customized interfaces and restraints optimize EVA performance. For ARCM, EVA complexity increases due to the uncertainty of the asteroid properties. The variability of rock size, shape and composition, as well as behavior of the asteroid capture mechanism will complicate EVA translation, tool restraint, and body stabilization. The unknown asteroid hardness and brittleness will complicate tool use. The rock surface will introduce added safety concerns for cut gloves and debris control. Feasible solutions to meet ARCM EVA objectives were identified using experience gained during Apollo, Shuttle, and ISS EVAs, terrestrial mountaineering practices, NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 16 mission, and during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory testing in the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) suit. This paper will summarize the overall operational concepts for conducting EVAs for the ARCM mission including translation paths and body restraint methods, potential tools used to extract the samples, design implications for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) for EVA, and the results of early development testing of potential EVA tasks.

Sipila, Stephanie A.; Scoville, Zebulon C.; Bowie, Jonathan T.; Buffington, Jesse A.

2014-01-01

128

40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...general. (1)(i) Use a square-based grid system to overlay the entire area to be sampled. Orient the grid axes on a magnetic north-south line centered...after the recleaning, but reorient the grid axes established in paragraph...

2013-07-01

129

Mesochannel Gas Sampler for Rapid Sample Collection and Concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under DOE Grant No. DE-FG03-00ER83048, MesoSystems Technology, Inc., (Mesosystems) completed a Phase I SBIR effort for the Department of Energy. The goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of a compact, lightweight, gas-sampling device with rapid-cycle-time characteristics. The highlights of our Phase I work include: Demonstration of a compact gas sampler with integrated heater. This device has an order of magnitude greater adsorption capacity and much faster heating/cooling times than commercial sorbent tubes. Completion of computational fluid dynamics modeling of the gas sampler to determine airflow characteristics for various design options. These modeling efforts guided the development and testing of the Mesochannel Gas Sampler prototype. Testing of the Mesochannel Gas Sampler in parallel with tests of two packed-bed samplers. These tests showed the Mesochannel Gas Sampler represents a substantial improvement compared with the packed-bed approach.

Hong, S.; Birmingham, J.; Fountain, M.

2001-03-01

130

Quality of DNA extracted from saliva samples collected with the Oragene(TM) DNA self-collection kit  

PubMed Central

Background Large epidemiological studies in DNA biobanks have increasingly used less invasive methods for obtaining DNA samples, such as saliva collection. Although lower amounts of DNA are obtained as compared with blood collection, this method has been widely used because of its more simple logistics and increased response rate. The present study aimed to verify whether a storage time of 8?months decreases the quality of DNA from collected samples. Methods Saliva samples were collected with an OrageneTM DNA Self-Collection Kit from 4,110 subjects aged 14–15?years. The samples were processed in two aliquots with an 8-month interval between them. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations were carried out in 20% of the samples by spectrophotometry and genotyping. Descriptive analyses and paired t-tests were performed. Results The mean volume of saliva collected was 2.2?mL per subject, yielding on average 184.8??g DNA per kit. Most samples showed a Ratio of OD differences (RAT) between 1.6 and 1.8 in the qualitative evaluation. The evaluation of DNA quality by TaqMan®, High Resolution Melting (HRM), and restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR (RFLP-PCR) showed a rate of success of up to 98% of the samples. The sample store time did not reduce either the quantity or quality of DNA extracted with the Oragene kit. Conclusion The study results showed that a storage period of 8?months at room temperature did not reduce the quality of the DNA obtained. In addition, the use of the Oragene kit during fieldwork in large population-based studies allows for DNA of high quantity and high quality.

2012-01-01

131

Results of Air Samples at Raybestos-Manhattan Friction Plant, Charleston, South Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Air sampling for asbestos (1332214) dust was conducted at the Raybestos-Manhattan Friction Company (SIC-3292) in Charleston, South Carolina, during May, 1965. All samples were collected with an impinger and a membrane filter sampler. Breathing zone sample...

1965-01-01

132

Capillary thermal desorption unit for near real-time analysis of VOCs at sub-trace levels. Application to the analysis of environmental air contamination and breath samples.  

PubMed

A capillary microtrap thermal desorption module is developed for near real-time analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at sub-ppbv levels in air samples. The device allows the direct injection of the thermally desorbed VOCs into a chromatographic column. It does not use a second cryotrap to focalize the adsorbed compounds before entering the separation column so reducing the formation of artifacts. The connection of the microtrap to a GC-MS allows the quantitative determination of VOCs in less than 40 min with detection limits of between 5 and 10 pptv (25 degrees C and 760 mm Hg), which correspond to 19-43 ng m(-3), using sampling volumes of 775 cm(3). The microtrap is applied to the analysis of environmental air contamination in different laboratories of our faculty. The results obtained indicate that most volatile compounds are easily diffused through the air and that they also may contaminate the surrounding areas when the habitual safety precautions (e.g., working under fume hoods) are used during the manipulation of solvents. The application of the microtrap to the analysis of VOCs in breath samples suggest that 2,5-dimethylfuran may be a strong indicator of a person's smoking status. PMID:19345160

Alonso, Mónica; Castellanos, Mar; Martín, José; Sanchez, Juan M

2009-05-15

133

Collection and analysis of NASA clean room air samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The environment of the HALOE assembly clean room at NASA Langley Research Center is analyzed to determine the background levels of airborne organic compounds. Sampling is accomplished by pumping the clean room air through absorbing cartridges. For volatile organics, cartridges are thermally desorbed and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, compounds are identified by searching the EPA/NIH data base using an interactive operator INCOS computer search algorithm. For semivolatile organics, cartridges are solvent entracted and concentrated extracts are analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection, compound identification is made by matching gas chromatogram retention times with known standards. The detection limits for the semivolatile organics are; 0.89 ng cu m for dioctylphlhalate (DOP) and 1.6 ng cu m for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The detection limit for volatile organics ranges from 1 to 50 parts per trillion. Only trace quantities of organics are detected, the DOP levels do not exceed 2.5 ng cu m and the PCB levels do not exceed 454 ng cu m.

Sheldon, L. S.; Keever, J.

1985-01-01

134

ANALYSIS OF ACID PRECIPITATION SAMPLES COLLECTED BY STATE AGENCIES SAMPLING PERIOD JANUARY 1990 - DECEMBER 1990  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents analytical data from the 30 acid precipitation collection sites in the State-Operated Network. amples are collected weekly in plastic bag liners and shipped in 500 mL polyethylene bottles to Global Geochemistry Corporation (the central laboratory for the netw...

135

ANALYSIS OF ACID PRECIPITATION SAMPLES COLLECTED BY STATE AGENCIES SAMPLING PERIOD: JANUARY 1992 - DECEMBER 1992  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents analytical data from 30 acid precipitation collection sites in the State-Operated Network. amples are collected weekly in plastic bag bucket liners and shipped in 500 mL polyethylene bottled to Global Geochemistry Corporation, the central laboratory for the n...

136

ANALYSIS OF ACID PRECIPITATION SAMPLES COLLECTED BY STATE AGENCIES--SAMPLING PERIOD JAN 1988 - DEC 1988  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents analytical data from the 30 acid precipitation collection sites in the State-operated Network. amples are collected weekly in plastic bag liners and shipped in 500 mL polyethylene bottles to Global Geochemistry Corporation (the central laboratory for the netw...

137

Breathing difficulties - first aid  

MedlinePLUS

Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency (other than feeling slightly winded from normal activity such ...

138

Breathing difficulty - lying down  

MedlinePLUS

... short of breath; Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; PND; Difficulty breathing while lying down; Orthopnea ... Heart failure Obesity (does not directly cause difficulty breathing while lying down but often aggravates other conditions ...

139

Deep breathing after surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... way to do so is by doing deep breathing exercises. Deep breathing keeps your lungs well-inflated and healthy while ... uncomfortable. But if you do not practice deep breathing after surgery, you may develop lung problems, like ...

140

Neuromuscular Diseases and Breathing  

MedlinePLUS

... Help MDA Search form Search Neuromuscular Diseases and Breathing Breathing is accomplished with the effort of respiratory muscles. ... as air leaves the lungs. The process of breathing in and out, taking in oxygen and exhaling ...

141

Rapid shallow breathing  

MedlinePLUS

Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

142

Breathing and Relaxation  

MedlinePLUS

... here: Health Information > Healthy Lifestyle > Breathing and Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Relaxation is the absence of tension ... level is often dependent on his or her breathing pattern. Therefore, people with chronic lung conditions may ...

143

Breath alcohol test  

MedlinePLUS

Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

144

Chemotherapy control by breath profile with application of SPME-GC/MS method.  

PubMed

Chemotherapy used as a treatment against lung cancer has influence on metabolic processes occurring in healthy cells. The changes of biochemical pathways proceeded inside cells might be observed in expired air. In the experiment, breath analysis was carried out before and after anticancer therapy. Expired air samples were collected from 22 patients with a biopsy confirmed lung cancer. Volatile organic compounds present in breath were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For enrichment of analytes solid-phase microextraction technique was applied. Eight fibers covered by different sorbents were tested. Carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane fiber revealed the highest extraction efficiency in relation to analytes in breath. The data showed that cytostatic drugs increase the concentration of acetone and isoprene in the breath collected after chemotherapy. Volatile metabolites of administrated drugs were not identified in expired air. PMID:23001965

Ulanowska, Agnieszka; Trawi?ska, Ewa; Sawrycki, Piotr; Buszewski, Bogus?aw

2012-11-01

145

SPME–GC analysis of THC in saliva samples collected with “EPITOPE” device  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we examined the presence of cannabinoids in saliva samples obtained from 24 drug-abusers. The saliva specimens were collected by “EPITOPE” system and the subsequent elution of samples was achieved by centrifugation. The resulting ultrafiltrates have been directly sampled with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and then analyzed by GC\\/MS. Saliva sampling is less invasive than collection of blood.

N Fucci; N De Giovanni; M Chiarotti; S Scarlata

2001-01-01

146

Data for periphyton and water samples collected from the south Florida ecosystem, 1995 and 1996  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents data for samples of periphyton and water collected in 1995 and 1996 from Water Conservation Areas, the Big Cypress National Preserve, and the Everglades National Park in south Florida. Periphyton samples were analyzed for concentrations of total mercury, methyl mercury, nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, and inorganic carbon . Water-column samples collected on the same dates as the periphyton samples were analyzed for concentrations of major ions.

Simon, N. S.; Cox, T.; Spencer, R.

1998-01-01

147

Work of Breathing Limits for Heliox Breathing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the present report was to determine physiologically acceptable limits for work of breathing with heliox mixtures. The basis for the development was the limits for air breathing that Navy Experimental Diving Unit (NEDU) implemented in 2008. ...

D. Warkander

2010-01-01

148

Feasibility of Using Subject-Collected Dust Samples in Epidemiologic and Clinical Studies of Indoor Allergens  

PubMed Central

Studies of indoor allergen exposures are often limited by the cost and logistics of sending technicians to homes to collect dust. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of having subjects collect their own dust samples. The objectives were to compare allergen concentrations between subject- and technician-collected samples and to examine the sample return rate. Using a dust collection device and written instructions provided to them by mail, 102 subjects collected a combined dust sample from a bed and bedroom floor. Later the same day, a technician collected a side-by-side sample. Dust samples were weighed and analyzed for the cat allergen Fel d 1 and the dust mite allergen Der p 1. Fifty additional subjects who were enrolled by telephone were mailed dust collection packages and asked to return a dust sample and questionnaire by mail. A technician did not visit their homes. Correlations between subject- and technician-collected samples were strong for concentrations of Fel d 1 (r = 0.88) and Der p 1 (r = 0.87). With allergen concentrations dichotomized at lower limits of detection and clinically relevant thresholds, agreements between methodologies ranged from 91 to 98%. Although dust weights were correlated (r = 0.48, p < 0.001), subjects collected lighter samples. Among the group of 50 subjects, 46 returned a dust sample and completed questionnaire. The median number of days to receive a sample was 15. With some limitations, subject-collected dust sampling appears to be a valid and practical option for epidemiologic and clinical studies that report allergen concentration as a measure of exposure.

Arbes, Samuel J.; Sever, Michelle; Vaughn, Ben; Mehta, Jigna; Lynch, Jeffrey T.; Mitchell, Herman; Hoppin, Jane A.; Spencer, Harvey L.; Sandler, Dale P.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

2005-01-01

149

Determination of trace elements in volcanic rock samples collected from cenozoic lava eruption sites using LIBS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace elements of environmental significance present in the volcanic rock samples collected from sites of the Cenozoic era flood basalt flows and eruptions were detected using locally developed laser-induced breakdown spectrometer. For spectro-chemical analysis of these samples, the plasma was generated by focusing a pulsed Nd: YAG laser radiation at 1064 nm wavelength on the target rock samples. These samples

Mohammed A. Gondal; Mohamed M. Nasr; Zulfiqar Ahmed; Zain H. Yamani

2009-01-01

150

Sampling error associated with collection and analysis of soil samples at TNT-contaminated sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed short-range spatial het- erogeneity of TNT concentrations in surface soils at ex- plosives-contaminated sites. Discrete and composite samples were analyzed by both on-site calorimetric techniques and standard laboratory protocols. Three lo- cations were sampled at each of three installations, and the results were used to estimate the relative contribu- tions of analytical error and sampling error. The

T. F. Jenkins; C. L. Grant; G. S. Brar; P. G. Thorne; P. W. Schumacher; T. A. Ranney

1997-01-01

151

Extraterrestrial samples from low Earth orbits: techniques for their collection and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of dust samples collections in space, the COMET experiment (Collecte en Orbite de Matière ExtraTerrestre) was proposed for the first time in 1982. The idea of such an experiment was to collect grains with identified cometary parent body, instead of mixing all extraterrestrial contributions present in low Earth orbit. It was thus proposed to install collectors inside

J. Borg

2002-01-01

152

21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification...sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a device...in the home, insurance, sports, or workplace setting...laboratory for the presence of drugs of abuse or their...

2009-04-01

153

21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification...sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a device...in the home, insurance, sports, or workplace setting...laboratory for the presence of drugs of abuse or their...

2010-04-01

154

A method of collecting water samples from immediately below an ice cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plexiglas box with cellular neoprene gaskets in two opposite faces which can be frozen in situ in a developing ice cover on a lake is described along with a water sampling system using evacuated glass tubes (Vacutainers) and blood collecting needles. This system allows collecting of water samples from directly beneath the ice without disturbing the ice cover. The

R. Jones

1985-01-01

155

Breathing Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visual simulation and representation programs and applications have been popping up online in greater numbers, and this recent find is one that will pique the interest of scientists, policy makers, and others who are concerned about carbon dioxide emission rates across the Earth. The Breathing Earth site was created by David Bleja, and he draws on a number of resources (such as the World Factbook and the United Nations) for the data that is utilized to create this site. Visitors can scroll over different countries to learn about their population, their emissions, and their birth and death rate. This interactive map and educational resource also contains a legend in the right-hand corner which explains the various symbols in use here.

Bleja, David

156

What Happens When You Breathe?  

MedlinePLUS

... NHLBI on Twitter. What Happens When You Breathe? Breathing In (Inhalation) When you breathe in, or inhale, ... the Health Topics How the Heart Works article.) Breathing Out (Exhalation) When you breathe out, or exhale, ...

157

Breathing zone air sampler  

DOEpatents

A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

Tobin, John (Bethel Park, PA)

1989-01-01

158

Quality management for the collection of biological samples in multicentre studies.  

PubMed

Large scale international multicentre studies require sophisticated quality management for the collection, processing and logistics of biological samples to ensure a maximum degree of standardisation across different environmental conditions and settings. This paper describes a quality management system for the collection of biological samples (QMS-BS) which was applied during IDEFICS, a large European multicentre study. The application was evaluated by several criteria like response rates for the different types of biological samples, measures of sample quality, compliance with the QMS-BS and efficiency of the document and sample control and of the quality assurance system. Response rates varied from 56.6% for venous blood collection to 90.1% for saliva collection. All sample types were associated with problems of sample quality (e.g. haemolysis of blood samples, lack of cooling for urine samples or desiccation of saliva samples). Overall compliance with the QMS-BS was good, with some exceptions mainly related to sample control. In conclusion the QMS-BS is a valuable tool for the management of biological sample collection in epidemiological multicentre studies. PMID:20567998

Peplies, J; Fraterman, A; Scott, R; Russo, P; Bammann, K

2010-09-01

159

Collecting cometary soil samples? Development of the ROSETTA sample acquisition system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the reference scenario of the ROSETTA CNRS mission, the Sample Acquisition System is mounted on the Comet Lander. Its tasks are to acquire three kinds of cometary samples and to transfer them to the Earth Return Capsule. Operations are to be performed in vacuum and microgravity, on a probably rough and dusty surface, in a largely unknown material, at temperatures in the order of 100 K. The concept and operation of the Sample Acquisition System are presented. The design of the prototype corer and surface sampling tool, and of the equipment for testing them at cryogenic temperatures in ambient conditions and in vacuum in various materials representing cometary soil, are described. Results of recent preliminary tests performed in low temperature thermal vacuum in a cometary analog ice-dust mixture are provided.

Coste, P. A.; Fenzi, M.; Eiden, Michael

1993-01-01

160

Plasma glucose measurement in diabetes: impact and implications of variations in sample collection procedures with a focus on the first hour after sample collection.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Previous studies of participants with plasma glucose concentrations at or near the glucose reference range demonstrate glucose loss following delayed separation and extraction of plasma from the cellular components of blood, of ?7% per hour. We aimed to assess pre-analytical glucose loss in diabetic subjects, focusing on the first hour after sample collection. Methods: Venous blood was collected from diabetes clinic attendees, into a series of lithium heparin PST™ (plasma separator tube) and fluoride oxalate Vacutainers™. Baseline (reference) plasma glucose measurements were undertaken on samples prepared under refrigerated conditions. The remaining samples underwent a series of controlled pre-analytical delays in sample preparation, at room temperature. Plasma glucose was measured using the hexokinase method. Results: Median baseline glucose (mmol/L) for the 62 participants was 10.6 (range 3.4-31.1). Using lithium heparin PST™ tubes, mean glucose loss (95% CI) was 0.16 (0.09-0.23) after 30 min delay in plasma preparation and 0.28 (0.21-0.34) after 60 min delay. Glucose loss was independent of both baseline glucose and also individual cellular count. Fluoride failed to inhibit glucose loss within the first hour after sample collection. Immediate plasma centrifugation of PST™ tubes, followed by delayed plasma extraction (median delay 92 min), produced a mean glucose loss of 0.02 mmol/L (-0.05-0.09). Conclusions: Samples collected into lithium heparin PST™ tubes show pre-analytical glucose loss at 1 h that is independent of baseline glucose and cellular count. Furthermore, immediate plasma separation using these tubes attenuates glucose loss across a wide range of glucose concentrations. PMID:24706432

Chan, Huan; Lunt, Helen; Thompson, Harmony; Heenan, Helen F; Frampton, Christopher M A; Florkowski, Christopher M

2014-07-01

161

Assembly for collecting samples for purposes of identification or analysis and method of use  

DOEpatents

An assembly and an associated method for collecting a sample of material desired to be characterized with diagnostic equipment includes or utilizes an elongated member having a proximal end with which the assembly is manipulated by a user and a distal end. In addition, a collection tip which is capable of being placed into contact with the material to be characterized is supported upon the distal end. The collection tip includes a body of chemically-inert porous material for binding a sample of material when the tip is placed into contact with the material and thereby holds the sample of material for subsequent introduction to the diagnostic equipment.

Thompson, Cyril V. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Smith, Rob R. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

2010-02-02

162

Collection of solid and gaseous samples to diagnose inertial confinement fusion implosions  

SciTech Connect

Collection of representative samples of debris following inertial confinement fusion implosions in order to diagnose implosion conditions and efficacy is a challenging endeavor because of the unique conditions within the target chamber such as unconverted laser light, intense pulse of x-rays, physical chunks of debris, and other ablative effects. We present collection of gas samples following an implosion for the first time. High collection fractions for noble gases were achieved. We also present collection of solid debris samples on flat plate collectors. Geometrical collection efficiencies for Au hohlraum material were achieved and collection of capsule debris (Be and Cu) was also observed. Asymmetric debris distributions were observed for Au and Be samples. Collection of Be capsule debris was higher for solid collectors viewing the capsule through the laser entrance hole in the hohlraum than for solid collectors viewing the capsule around the waist of the hohlraum. Collection of Au hohlraum material showed the opposite pattern: more Au debris was collected around the waist than through the laser entrance hole. The solid debris collectors were not optimized for minimal Cu backgrounds, which limited the conclusions about the symmetry of the Cu debris. The quality of the data limited conclusions on chemical fractionation effects within the burning, expanding, and then cooling plasma.

Stoyer, M. A.; Velsko, C. A.; Spears, B. K.; Hicks, D. G.; Hudson, G. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Freeman, C. G. [State University of New York at Geneseo, Geneseo, New York 14454 (United States)

2012-02-15

163

Medical applications of breath hydrogen measurements.  

PubMed

In this article, technical developments in breath analysis and its applications in the field of clinical diagnosis and the monitoring of various symptoms, particularly molecular hydrogen in breath, are introduced. First, a brief overview of the current uses of the hydrogen breath test is provided. The principles of the test and how hydrogen can be used as a biomarker for various symptoms, and monitoring microbial metabolism, are introduced. Ten case-study applications of breath hydrogen measurements for which hydrogen exhibits beneficial effects for diagnosis, including the contexts of oxidative stress, gastrointestinal disease, and metabolic disorders, are discussed. The technologies and problems involved in breath hydrogen testing, sampling, pretreatment, and detection in exhaled breath are discussed, and research including current analytical systems and new sensors is focused on in the context of hydrogen detection. PMID:24481621

Shin, Woosuck

2014-06-01

164

How Long Can You Hold Your Breath?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on page 142 of the PDF), learners will compare breathing rates before and after hyperventilation to explore how reduced carbon dioxide levels in the blood lower the need to breathe. This activity also includes information about how microgravity conditions in space affect sleep and breathing rates of astronauts. This activity can be enhanced by sharing the "Astronaut's Sleep" Podcast with learners (see related resource link). This resource guide includes background information and sample evaluation questions. Note: learners with respiratory ailments, such as asthma or allergies, should not participate in the breath-holding part of this activity.

Macleish, Marlene Y.; Mclean, Bernice R.

2013-05-15

165

Diagnosis of head-and-neck cancer from exhaled breath  

PubMed Central

Background: Head-and-neck cancer (HNC) is the eighth most common malignancy worldwide. It is often diagnosed late due to a lack of screening methods and overall cure is achieved in <50% of patients. Head-and-neck cancer sufferers often develop a second primary tumour that can affect the entire aero-digestive tract, mostly HNC or lung cancer (LC), making lifelong follow-up necessary. Methods: Alveolar breath was collected from 87 volunteers (HNC and LC patients and healthy controls) in a cross-sectional clinical trial. The discriminative power of a tailor-made Nanoscale Artificial Nose (NA-NOSE) based on an array of five gold nanoparticle sensors was tested, using 62 breath samples. The NA-NOSE signals were analysed to detect statistically significant differences between the sub-populations using (i) principal component analysis with ANOVA and Student's t-test and (ii) support vector machines and cross-validation. The identification of NA-NOSE patterns was supported by comparative analysis of the chemical composition of the breath through gas chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry (GC–MS), using 40 breath samples. Results: The NA-NOSE could clearly distinguish between (i) HNC patients and healthy controls, (ii) LC patients and healthy controls, and (iii) HNC and LC patients. The GC–MS analysis showed statistically significant differences in the chemical composition of the breath of the three groups. Conclusion: The presented results could lead to the development of a cost-effective, fast, and reliable method for the differential diagnosis of HNC that is based on breath testing with an NA-NOSE, with a future potential as screening tool.

Hakim, M; Billan, S; Tisch, U; Peng, G; Dvrokind, I; Marom, O; Abdah-Bortnyak, R; Kuten, A; Haick, H

2011-01-01

166

The representativeness of pore water samples collected from the unsaturated zone using pressure-vacuum lysimeters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies have indicated that the chemistry of water samples may be altered by the collection technique, creating concern about the representativeness of the pore water samples obtained. A study using soil water pressure-vacuum lysimeters in outwash sand and glacial till deposits demonstrates that for non-dilute-solution samples the effect of pH of sampling with lysimeters is minimal, and that measured major cation and anion concentrations are representative of the natural pore water; trace-metal concentrations can be significantly altered by collection procedures at low concentrations. -from Authors

Peters, C. A.; Healy, R. W.

1988-01-01

167

Detection of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath from users following recovery from intoxication.  

PubMed

It has recently been demonstrated that amphetamine, methadone and tetrahydrocannabinol are detectable in exhaled breath following intake. Exhaled breath, therefore, constitutes a new possible matrix for drugs-of-abuse testing. The present work aims to further explore this possibility by a study on patients treated for acute intoxication with abused drugs. Fifty-nine patients (44 males, age range 24-74) were included in the study, and breath, plasma and urine samples were collected following recovery, together with interview data. Analyses of breath and plasma samples were conducted with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. Urine was screened using immunochemical reagents and positive findings confirmed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The following analytes were investigated: methadone, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, codeine, 6-acetylmorphine, diazepam, oxazepam, morphine, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, buprenorphine and tetrahydrocannabinol. In 53 of the studied cases, recent intake of an abused substance prior to admission was reported. In 35 of these (66%), the breath analysis gave a positive finding. Identifications were based on correct chromatographic retention time and product ion ratios obtained in selected reaction monitoring mode. Generally, data from breath, plasma, urine and self-report were in agreement. Detected substances in breath included amphetamine, methamphetamine, buprenorphine, 6-acetylmorphine, morphine, codeine, methadone, tetrahydrocannabinol, diazepam, oxazepam and cocaine. Problem analytes with low detection rates were benzodiazepines and tetrahydrocannabinol. This study gives further support to the possibility of developing exhaled breath into a new matrix for drugs-of-abuse testing by extending the number of analytes that are documented to be detectable in breath. PMID:23045289

Beck, Olof; Stephanson, Niclas; Sandqvist, Sören; Franck, Johan

2012-01-01

168

ANALYSIS OF ACID PRECIPITATION SAMPLES COLLECTED BY STATE AGENCIES: JANUARY 1987 - DECEMBER 1987  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents the analytical data from the 31 acid precipitation collection sites in the State Operated Network. Samples are collected weekly in plastic bag liners and shipped in 500 mL polyethylene bottles to Global Geochemistry Corp. (the central laboratory for the networ...

169

Collecting Samples in Gale Crater, Mars; an Overview of the Mars Science Laboratory Sample Acquisition, Sample Processing and Handling System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Science Laboratory Mission (MSL), scheduled to land on Mars in the summer of 2012, consists of a rover and a scientific payload designed to identify and assess the habitability, geological, and environmental histories of Gale crater. Unraveling the geologic history of the region and providing an assessment of present and past habitability requires an evaluation of the physical and chemical characteristics of the landing site; this includes providing an in-depth examination of the chemical and physical properties of Martian regolith and rocks. The MSL Sample Acquisition, Processing, and Handling (SA/SPaH) subsystem will be the first in-situ system designed to acquire interior rock and soil samples from Martian surface materials. These samples are processed and separated into fine particles and distributed to two onboard analytical science instruments SAM (Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite) and CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) or to a sample analysis tray for visual inspection. The SA/SPaH subsystem is also responsible for the placement of the two contact instruments, Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS), and the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), on rock and soil targets. Finally, there is a Dust Removal Tool (DRT) to remove dust particles from rock surfaces for subsequent analysis by the contact and or mast mounted instruments (e.g. Mast Cameras (MastCam) and the Chemistry and Micro-Imaging instruments (ChemCam)).

Anderson, R. C.; Jandura, L.; Okon, A. B.; Sunshine, D.; Roumeliotis, C.; Beegle, L. W.; Hurowitz, J.; Kennedy, B.; Limonadi, D.; McCloskey, S.; Robinson, M.; Seybold, C.; Brown, K.

2012-09-01

170

Measuring Your Breathing Frequency at Rest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about the brain and sleep (on page 138 of the PDF), learners measure their resting breathing rates. Learners will discover that breathing frequencies vary amongst individuals. This activity can be enhanced by sharing the "Astronaut's Sleep" Podcast with learners (see related resource link). This resource guide includes background information and sample evaluation questions.

Macleish, Marlene Y.; Mclean, Bernice R.

2013-05-15

171

Background levels and diurnal variations of hydrogen cyanide in breath and emitted from skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrogen cyanide (HCN) concentration in exhaled human breath and skin gas samples collected with different sampling techniques was measured using near-infrared cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The median baseline HCN concentrations in samples provided by 19 healthy volunteers 2–4 h after the last meal depended on the employed sampling technique: 6.5 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) in mixed (dead space

F M Schmidt; M Metsälä; O Vaittinen; L Halonen

2011-01-01

172

Efficacy of occupant-collected dust samples in the evaluation of residential allergen and fungal levels.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the ability of a resident to evaluate their home for allergens and mold using a settled dust test kit compared with evaluation and collection of settled dust by an industrial hygienist. Forty-three home residents were provided with a kit containing written instructions and a vacuum cleaner attachment for collecting a settled dust sample. Within 2 weeks of receiving the occupant-collected sample, an industrial hygienist evaluated these homes, including a visual inspection, collection of settled dust, and collection of spore trap samples. Settled dust samples were analyzed for major dog, cat, dust mite, and cockroach allergens using immunoassay methods, and for mold spore equivalents using quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods for the 13 mold species or species groups comprising the American Relative Moldiness Index (ARMI). Allergen concentrations and ARMIs were compared between the resident- and industrial hygienist-collected samples. Linear regression between the two sets of samples showed strong correlations for dog allergen (r(2) = 0.92) and cat allergen (r(2) = 0.90). Correlations for dust mite (r(2) = 0.57) and cockroach allergens (r(2) = 0.22) were lower, likely due to most samples being near the limit of detection. ARMIs were highly correlated (r(2) = 0.68) and were in categorical (high, medium, or low) agreement for 76% of residences. These results show that residents can reliably follow directions and collect settled dust samples, providing an efficient method to remotely screen homes for elevated allergen levels and to identify homes with a potential mold or moisture problem that may need further evaluation. PMID:22150472

Van Dyke, M V; Martyny, J W; Marola, J; Ramamoorthy, P; Ridder, A; Harbeck, R J; Rose, C S

2012-01-01

173

AN ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR FOR THE COLLECTION OF AEROSOL SAMPLES FOR PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS. Technical Progress Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrostatic precipitator with which a sample suitable for particle ; size analysis can be collected from a few cubic centimeters of air is described. ; It operates at a volumetric flow rate of 5 cm³\\/min, equivalent to a linear ; velocity of 4-5 cm\\/sec. The entire sample is deposited in a small area on a ; single electron microscope

T. T. Mercer; M. I. Tillery; M. A. Flores

1963-01-01

174

Teachers' Domain: Breathing Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 3-minute video demonstrates chemical reaction as a presenter exhales into "bromothymol blue", a chemical indicator for acids and bases. His breath releases carbon dioxide, which acidifies the solution and changes it from a bright blue color to yellow-green. Resource also includes teacher's guide and assessment. Editor's Note: In a chemical reaction, properties of the original substances change as new substances with different properties are formed. The molecular structure of the substances is altered irreversibly. This video is part of "Lessons in Matter and Energy" by WOSU Public Media. See related materials for a link to the full collection, also available for iTunes viewing. Teachers' Domain is a growing collection of more than 1,000 free educational resources compiled by researchers and experienced teachers to promote the use of digital resources in the classroom.

2011-06-23

175

Evaluation of a standardized micro-vacuum sampling method for collection of surface dust.  

PubMed

A standardized procedure for collecting dust samples from surfaces using a micro-vacuum sampling technique was evaluated. Experiments were carried out to investigate the collection efficiency of the vacuum sampling method described in ASTM Standard D7144, "Standard Practice for Collection of Surface Dust by Micro-Vacuum Sampling for Subsequent Metals Determination." Weighed masses ( approximately 5, approximately 10 and approximately 25 mg) of three NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were spiked onto surfaces of various substrates. The SRMs used were: (1) Powdered Lead-Based Paint; (2) Urban Particulate Matter; and (3) Trace Elements in Indoor Dust. Twelve different substrate materials were chosen to be representative of surfaces commonly encountered in occupational and/or indoor settings: (1) wood, (2) tile, (3) linoleum, (4) vinyl, (5) industrial carpet, (6) plush carpet, (7,8) concrete block (painted and unpainted), (9) car seat material, (10) denim, (11) steel, and (12) glass. Samples of SRMs originally spiked onto these surfaces were collected using the standardized micro-vacuum sampling procedure. Gravimetric analysis of material collected within preweighed Accucapinserts (housed within the samplers) was used to measure SRM recoveries. Recoveries ranged from 21.6% (+/- 10.4%, 95% confidence limit [CL]) for SRM 1579 from industrial carpet to 59.2% (+/- 11.0%, 95% CL) for SRM 1579 from glass. For most SRM/substrate combinations, recoveries ranged from approximately 25% to approximately 50%; variabilities differed appreciably. In general, SRM recoveries were higher from smooth and hard surfaces and lower from rough and porous surfaces. Material captured within collection nozzles attached to the sampler inlets was also weighed. A significant fraction of SRM originally spiked onto substrate surfaces was captured within collection nozzles. Percentages of SRMs captured within collection nozzles ranged from approximately 13% (+/- 4 - +/- 5%, 95% CLs) for SRMs 1579 and 2583 from industrial carpet to approximately 45% (+/- 7 - +/- 26%, 95% CLs) for SRM 1648 from glass, tile and steel. For some substrates, loose material from the substrate itself (i.e., substrate particles and fibers) was sometimes collected along with the SRM, both within Accucaps as well as collection nozzles. Co-collection of substrate material can bias results and contribute to sampling variability. The results of this work have provided performance data on the standardized micro-vacuum sampling procedure. PMID:17237027

Ashley, Kevin; Applegate, Gregory T; Wise, Tamara J; Fernback, Joseph E; Goldcamp, Michael J

2007-03-01

176

A new device for collecting time-integrated water samples from springs and surface water bodies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new device termed the 'seepage sampler' was developed to collect representative water samples from springs, streams, and other surface-water bodies. The sampler collects composite, time-integrated water samples over short (hours) or extended (weeks) periods without causing significant changes to the chemical composition of the samples. The water sample within the sampler remains at the ambient temperature of the water body and does not need to be cooled. Seepage samplers are inexpensive to construct and easy to use. A sampling program of numerous springs and/or streams can be designed at a relatively low cost through the use of these samplers. Transient solutes migrating through such flow systems, potentially unnoticed by periodic sampling, may be detected. In addition, the mass loading of solutes (e.g., agrichemicals) may be determined when seepage samplers are used in conjunction with discharge measurements.

Panno, S. V.; Krapac, I. G.; Keefer, D. A.

1998-01-01

177

Analyses of tipple and delivered samples of coal collected during fiscal year 1985  

SciTech Connect

This Department of Energy (DOE) publication updates a series of Topical Reports (formerly ''Reports of Investigation'') on the quality of coal purchases under specifications for government use. Listed in alphabetical order by state, county, town, and mine are analytical data on the composition and quality of tipple and delivered samples of coal collected during the fiscal year 1985. Tipple samples were collected by certified commercial laboratories in accordance with instructions given by the Analytical Research Branch (ARB), Coal Science Division (CSD). The delivered samples were collected at destination by installation personnel, and all samples were analyzed under the supervision of the DOE-CSD located at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, or the US Army General Material and Petroleum Activity Laboratory, located at New Cumberland, Pennsylvania.

Schultz, H.; Retcofsky, H.L.; Davis, L.R.

1988-01-01

178

Effect of collection material and sample processing on pig oral fluid testing results.  

PubMed

The effect of sampling material, sample processing, and collection order on the detection of analytes in pig oral fluid specimens was evaluated. Oral fluid samples were collected from 104 pens of commercial wean-to-finish pigs using ropes made of three different materials. Processed (centrifuged and filtered) and unprocessed oral fluid samples were tested using commercial ELISAs for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) antibodies and total IgM, IgA, and IgG. Unprocessed samples were tested for PRRSV nucleic acid and processed samples were assayed for PRRSV neutralizing antibodies. Analysis of the data using repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer adjusted t tests found statistically significant, non-uniform, and assay-dependent effects of all three factors. Therefore, when testing oral fluid specimens, swine health specialists, veterinarians, and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential impact of these factors on specific analytes. For monitoring health and welfare parameters, oral fluid samples should be collected using cotton-based materials and undergo minimal post-collection processing. PMID:24011474

Olsen, Chris; Karriker, Locke; Wang, Chong; Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Renukaradhya, Gourapura; Kittawornrat, Apisit; Lizano, Sergio; Coetzee, Johann; Main, Rodger; Meiszberg, Allison; Panyasing, Yaowalak; Zimmerman, Jeffrey

2013-10-01

179

Mass spectrometry for real-time quantitative breath analysis.  

PubMed

Breath analysis research is being successfully pursued using a variety of analytical methods, prominent amongst which are gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, GC-MS, ion mobility spectrometry, IMS, and the fast flow and flow-drift tube techniques called selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, and proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, PTR-MS. In this paper the case is made for real-time breath analysis by obviating sample collection into bags or onto traps that can suffer from partial degradation of breath metabolites or the introduction of impurities. Real-time analysis of a broad range of volatile chemical compounds can be best achieved using SIFT-MS and PTR-MS, which are sufficiently sensitive and rapid to allow the simultaneous analyses of several trace gas metabolites in single breath exhalations. The basic principles and the ion chemistry that underpin these two analytical techniques are briefly described and the differences between them, including their respective strengths and weaknesses, are revealed, especially with reference to the analysis of the complex matrix that is exhaled breath. A recent innovation is described that combines time-of-flight mass spectrometry with the proton transfer flow-drift tube reactor, PTR-TOFMS, which provides greater resolution in the analytical mass spectrometer and allows separation of protonated isobaric molecules. Examples are presented of some recent data that well illustrate the quality and real-time feature of SIFT-MS and PTR-MS for the analysis of exhaled breath for physiological/biochemical/pharmacokinetics studies and for the identification and quantification of biomarkers relating to specific disease states. PMID:24682047

Smith, David; Span?l, Patrik; Herbig, Jens; Beauchamp, Jonathan

2014-06-01

180

Minimizing Shortness of Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... postures and exposure to environmental irritants. Pursed-Lip Breathing One focus of occupational therapy is to teach ... the accessory muscles and manage respiratory symptoms. Monitor Breathing During an activity, it is important to pause ...

181

Breath-Holding Spells  

MedlinePLUS

... toddlers who hold their breath until they turn blue in the face. These might sound like amusing " ... happen when a child stops breathing and turns blue in the face. These spells are often triggered ...

182

Simulated Oxygen Breathing Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A filter replaces the oxygen canister of an oxygen breathing apparatus and the air flow path is modified to provide a realistic simulation for training Personnel. in the use of closed circuit breathing units. (Author)

E. Swiatosz W. V. Dykes

1979-01-01

183

Elevated carbon monoxide in the exhaled breath of mice during a systemic bacterial infection.  

PubMed

Blood is the specimen of choice for most laboratory tests for diagnosis and disease monitoring. Sampling exhaled breath is a noninvasive alternative to phlebotomy and has the potential for real-time monitoring at the bedside. Improved instrumentation has advanced breath analysis for several gaseous compounds from humans. However, application to small animal models of diseases and physiology has been limited. To extend breath analysis to mice, we crafted a means for collecting nose-only breath samples from groups and individual animals who were awake. Samples were subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry procedures developed for highly sensitive analysis of trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere. We evaluated the system with experimental systemic infections of severe combined immunodeficiency Mus musculus with the bacterium Borrelia hermsii. Infected mice developed bacterial densities of ?10(7) per ml of blood by day 4 or 5 and in comparison to uninfected controls had hepatosplenomegaly and elevations of both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. While 12 samples from individual infected mice on days 4 and 5 and 6 samples from uninfected mice did not significantly differ for 72 different VOCs, carbon monoxide (CO) was elevated in samples from infected mice, with a mean (95% confidence limits) effect size of 4.2 (2.8-5.6), when differences in CO2 in the breath were taken into account. Normalized CO values declined to the uninfected range after one day of treatment with the antibiotic ceftriaxone. Strongly correlated with CO in the breath were levels of heme oxygenase-1 protein in serum and HMOX1 transcripts in whole blood. These results (i) provide further evidence of the informativeness of CO concentration in the exhaled breath during systemic infection and inflammation, and (ii) encourage evaluation of this noninvasive analytic approach in other various other rodent models of infection and for utility in clinical management. PMID:23936104

Barbour, Alan G; Hirsch, Charlotte M; Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, Arash; Meinardi, Simone; Lewis, Eric R G; Estabragh, Azadeh Shojaee; Blake, Donald R

2013-01-01

184

Correlations between blood glucose and breath components from portable gas sensors and PTR-TOF-MS.  

PubMed

Acetone is one of the most abundant volatile compounds in the human breath and might be important for monitoring diabetic patients. Here, a portable acetone sensor consisting of flame-made, nanostructured, Si-doped WO3 sensing films was used to analyse the end tidal fraction of the breath (collected in Tedlar bags) from eight healthy volunteers after overnight fasting (morning) and after lunch (afternoon). After breath sampling, the gaseous components were also analysed by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS), and each person's blood glucose level was measured. The portable sensor accurately detected the presence of acetone with fast response/recovery times (<12 s) and a high signal-to-noise ratio. Statistical analysis of the relationship between the PTR-TOF-MS measurements of breath gases (e.g., acetone, isoprene, ethanol and methanol), sensor response and the blood glucose level was performed for both sampling periods. The best correlations were found after overnight fasting (morning): in particular, between blood glucose level and breath acetone (Pearson's 0.98 and Spearman's 0.93). Whereas the portable sensor response correlated best with the blood glucose (Pearson's 0.96 and Spearman's 0.81) and breath acetone (Pearson's 0.92 and Spearman's 0.69). PMID:23959908

Righettoni, M; Schmid, A; Amann, A; Pratsinis, S E

2013-09-01

185

Sample collection of virulent and non-virulent B. anthracis and Y. pestis for bioforensics analysis  

SciTech Connect

Validated sample collection methods are needed for recovery of microbial evidence in the event of accidental or intentional release of biological agents into the environment. To address this need, we evaluated the sample recovery efficiencies of two collection methods -- swabs and wipes -- for both non-virulent and virulent strains of B. anthracis and Y. pestis from four types of non-porous surfaces: two hydrophilic surfaces, stainless steel and glass, and two hydrophobic surfaces, vinyl and plastic. Sample recovery was quantified using Real-time qPCR to assay for intact DNA signatures. We found no consistent difference in collection efficiency between swabs or wipes. Furthermore, collection efficiency was more surface-dependent for virulent strains than non-virulent strains. For the two non-virulent strains, B. anthracis Sterne and Y. pestis A1122, collection efficiency was approximately 100% and 1 %, respectively, from all four surfaces. In contrast, recovery of B. anthracis Ames spores and Y. pestis C092 from vinyl and plastic was generally lower compared to collection from glass or stainless steel, suggesting that surface hydrophobicity may playa role in the strength of pathogen adhesion. The surface-dependent collection efficiencies observed with the virulent strains may arise from strain-specific expression of capsular material or other cell surface receptors that alter cell adhesion to specific surfaces. These findings contribute to validation of standard bioforensics procedures and emphasize the importance of specific strain and surface interactions in pathogen detection.

Hong-geller, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdez, Yolanda E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shou, Yulin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yoshida, Thomas M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marrone, Babetta L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dunbar, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

186

The Importance of Meteorite Collections to Sample Return Missions: Past, Present, and Future Considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While much of the scientific community s current attention is drawn to sample return missions, it is the existing meteorite and cosmic dust collections that both provide the paradigms to be tested by these missions and the context for interpreting the results. Recent sample returns from the Stardust and Hayabusa missions provided us with new materials and insights about our Solar System history and processes. As an example, Stardust sampled CAIs among the population of cometary grains, requiring extensive and unexpected radial mixing in the early solar nebula. This finding would not have been possible, however, without extensive studies of meteoritic CAIs that established their high-temperature, inner Solar System formation. Samples returned by Stardust also revealed the first evidence of a cometary amino acid, a discovery that would not have been possible with current in situ flight instrument technology. The Hayabusa mission provided the final evidence linking ordinary chondrites and S asteroids, a hypothesis that developed from centuries of collection and laboratory and ground-based telescopic studies. In addition to these scientific findings, studies of existing meteorite collections have defined and refined the analytical techniques essential to studying returned samples. As an example, the fortuitous fall of the Allende CV3 and Murchison CM2 chondrites within months before the return of Apollo samples allowed testing of new state-of-the-art analytical facilities. The results of those studies not only prepared us to better study lunar materials, but unanticipated discoveries changed many of our concepts about the earliest history and processes of the solar nebula. This synergy between existing collections and future space exploration is certainly not limited to sample return missions. Laboratory studies confirmed the existence of meteorites from Mars and raised the provocative possibility of preservation of ancient microbial life. The laboratory studies in turn led to a new wave of Mars exploration that ultimately could lead to sample return focused on evidence for past or present life. This partnership between collections and missions will be increasingly important in the coming decades as we discover new questions to be addressed and identify targets for for both robotic and human exploration . Nowhere is this more true than in the ultimate search for the abiotic and biotic processes that produced life. Existing collections also provide the essential materials for developing and testing new analytical schemes to detect the rare markers of life and distinguish them from abiotic processes. Large collections of meteorites and the new types being identified within these collections, which come to us at a fraction of the cost of a sample return mission, will continue to shape the objectives of future missions and provide new ways of interpreting returned samples.

Welzenbach, L. C.; McCoy, T. J.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Abell, P. A.

2012-01-01

187

Swabs as DNA collection devices for sampling different biological materials from different substrates.  

PubMed

Currently, there is a variety of swabs for collection of biological evidence from crime scenes, but their comparative efficiency is unknown. Here, we report the results of an investigation into the efficiency of different swab types to collect blood, saliva and touch DNA from a range of substrates. The efficiency of extracting blood and saliva from each swab type was also tested. Some swabs were significantly more effective than others for sampling biological materials from different substrates. Swabs with the highest sampling efficiency, however, often did not have the highest extraction efficiency. Observations were recorded regarding practicality of each swab in a variety of situations. Our study demonstrates that selection of sampling device impacts greatly upon successful collection and extraction of DNA. We present guidelines to assist in evaluation of swab choice. PMID:24502761

Verdon, Timothy J; Mitchell, Robert J; van Oorschot, Roland A H

2014-07-01

188

Standard operating procedure for the collection of fresh frozen tissue samples.  

PubMed

Studies using fresh-frozen tissue samples originating from different centres, as is often the case in EORTC related translational research, can show conflicting research results due to heterogeneity in the quality of samples and associated data from each centre. The development of infrastructure for the European Human Frozen Tumour Tissue Bank (TuBaFrost) anticipated this problem and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) have been developed to ensure samples collected are of consistent high quality and variation in research results is minimised. The SOPs drew on the best practice standard workflows and operating procedures employed by members of the TuBaFrost Consortium and key tissue bank initiatives worldwide. It was essential to provide workable solutions that reflect the variety in infrastructure and resources at the potential collecting centres and also the fact that it is not necessary to standardise every step of the collection and storage process in order to collect high quality tissue. Hence, the TuBaFrost SOPs detail the compulsory measures that must be implemented in order to become a TuBaFrost collecting centre and also make advisory recommendations regarding the less critical factors. Accordingly, the TuBaFrost SOPs are very flexible and to illustrate this the complete SOP for collecting, freezing and storing tissue at the Erasmus MC Tissue Bank is included. These TuBaFrost SOPs could equally be applicable to centres collecting samples for EORTC related translational research studies in order to standardise sample quality and produce reliable and reproducible research results. PMID:17329097

Mager, S R; Oomen, M H A; Morente, M M; Ratcliffe, C; Knox, K; Kerr, D J; Pezzella, F; Riegman, P H J

2007-03-01

189

Multi-element composition of historical lichen collections and bark samples, indicators of changing atmospheric conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty six element signatures were compared in historical Parmelia sulcata samples from the Natural History Museum herbarium collected over the period 1797-1967 with those recorded in the same species and tree bark sampled in 2000 from Burnham Beeches, lying 40 km west of London. Nineteen elements reached highest concentrations in herbarium samples, consistent with a pollution legacy and dust contamination in the herbarium. Healthy Parmelia sampled east and down-wind of London at a farm during peak SO 2 emissions in 1967 contained highest V, Ni, Zn, Cd, Se, Ge contents, supporting derivation from fuel combustion; the same sample was previously determined as having a low ?34S and high S and N contents. Lowest V, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, Ba, Pb, Mo, Sb, Li, B, Cs, U, Th, Ga contents were recorded in a sample with a high ?34S and low S content collected in 1887 from a remote region from Ross-shire, Scotland. Se and Cd enrichment, never-the-less suggest a transboundary pollution influence. Lichen Pb concentrations from Burnham Beeches were amongst the lowest recorded in spite of lichens being collected close to roads. Herbarium samples help interpret changes in element deposition where few data exist, in spite of dust contamination.

Purvis, O. W.; Chimonides, P. D. J.; Jeffries, T. E.; Jones, G. C.; Rusu, A.-M.; Read, H.

190

Archival Policies and Collections Database for the Woods Hole Science Center's Marine Sediment Samples  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Woods Hole Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been an active member of the Woods Hole research community, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, for over 40 years. In that time there have been many projects that involved the collection of sediment samples conducted by USGS scientists and technicians for the research and study of seabed environments and processes. These samples were collected at sea or near shore and then brought back to the Woods Hole Science Center (WHSC) for analysis. While at the center, samples are stored in ambient temperature, refrigerated and freezing conditions ranging from +2? Celsius to -18? Celsius, depending on the best mode of preparation for the study being conducted or the duration of storage planned for the samples. Recently, storage methods and available storage space have become a major concern at the WHSC. The core and sediment archive program described herein has been initiated to set standards for the management, methods, and duration of sample storage. A need has arisen to maintain organizational consistency and define storage protocol. This handbook serves as a reference and guide to all parties interested in using and accessing the WHSC's sample archive and also defines all the steps necessary to construct and maintain an organized collection of geological samples. It answers many questions as to the way in which the archive functions.

Buczkowski, Brian J.; Kelsey, Sarah A.

2007-01-01

191

Comparative Performance of Human Papillomavirus DNA Testing Using Novel Sample Collection Methods ?  

PubMed Central

To explore alternative cervical cancer screening approaches in an underserved population, we compared the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA assays in combination with different sample collection methods for primary cervical screening in the Mississippi Delta region. Three specimens were collected from women aged 26 to 65 years who were either routinely undergoing screening (n = 252) or not (n = 191): clinician-collected cervical specimens, clinician-collected cervicovaginal specimens, and self-collected cervicovaginal specimens taken at home. A novel collection device and medium were used for cervicovaginal sampling. Specimens were tested by three HPV DNA assays: hybrid capture 2 (HC2; Qiagen Corp., Gaithersburg, MD), Linear Array (LA; Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA), and Amplicor (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA). Liquid-based cytology was performed on cervical specimens. We compared the overall positivity (a proxy for clinical specificity) for any carcinogenic HPV genotype and calculated the agreement across assay and specimen type using McNemar's test for differences in test positivity. Across all three assays there were no significant differences between clinician-collected and self-collected cervicovaginal specimens (P > 0.01 for all comparisons). For both cervicovaginal specimens (clinician collected and self-collected), fewer women tested positive by HC2 than by LA or Amplicor (P < 0.01 for all comparisons). HC2 had the best agreement between specimens for all assays. HC2 is likely more clinically specific, although possibly less sensitive, than either PCR test. Thus, use of HC2 on cervicovaginal specimens for screening could result in fewer referrals compared to LA and Amplicor.

Gage, Julia C.; Partridge, Edward E.; Rausa, Alfio; Gravitt, Patti E.; Wacholder, Sholom; Schiffman, Mark; Scarinci, Isabel; Castle, Philip E.

2011-01-01

192

Classification of breast cancer precursors through exhaled breath.  

PubMed

Certain benign breast diseases are considered to be precursors of invasive breast cancer. Currently available techniques for diagnosing benign breast conditions lack accuracy. The purpose of this study was to deliver a proof-of-concept for a novel method that is based on breath testing to identify breast cancer precursors. Within this context, the authors explored the possibility of using exhaled alveolar breath to identify and distinguish between benign breast conditions, malignant lesions, and healthy states, using a small-scale, case-controlled, cross-sectional clinical trial. Breath samples were collected from 36 volunteers and were analyzed using a tailor-made nanoscale artificial NOSE (NA-NOSE). The NA-NOSE signals were analyzed using two independent methods: (i) principal component analysis, ANOVA and Student's t-test and (ii) support vector machine analysis to detect statistically significant differences between the sub-populations. The NA-NOSE could distinguish between all studied test populations. Breath testing with a NA-NOSE holds future potential as a cost-effective, fast, and reliable diagnostic test for breast cancer risk factors and precursors, with possible future potential as screening method. PMID:21190078

Shuster, Gregory; Gallimidi, Zahava; Reiss, Asnat Heyman; Dovgolevsky, Ekaterina; Billan, Salem; Abdah-Bortnyak, Roxolyana; Kuten, Abraham; Engel, Ahuva; Shiban, Ala; Tisch, Ulrike; Haick, Hossam

2011-04-01

193

An unmanned mission to Mars with sample collection and in-situ resource utilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design for the Mars Analysis and Return Vehicle with In-Situ Resource Utilization (MARVIN) project is outlined. The MARVIN mission is designed to collect samples of the Martian environment; to produce fuel from local Martian resources; and to use the fuel produced to return the samples to earth. It uses only existing technologies. Exploratory Technologies' mission-design efforts have focused on methods of orbit determination, sample collection, fuel production, power, communications, control, and structural design. Lambert Targeting provided Delta-V's, launch dates, and travel times. The landing site is the Tharsis Plateau, to the southeast of Olympus Mons, chosen for its substantial scientific value. Samples of soil, dust, and atmosphere are collected with lander-based collection devices: the soil sample, with a robotic arm similar to those used in the Viking missions; the atmospheric sample, from a bleed line to the compressor in the fuel-production facility; a dust sample, from the dust-collection container in the fuel-production facility; and a redundant dust sample, with a with a passive filter system, which relies upon neither a power source nor other collection methods. The sample-return capsule (SRC) houses these samples, which are triply contained to prevent contamination. Proven technology can be used to produce methane and oxygen for fuel with relative ease at the landing site: the Sabatier reactor produces methane and water by combining carbon dioxide and hydrogen (brought from earth); the Reverse Water-Gas Shift unit combines carbon dioxide and hydrogen to form carbon monoxide and water; a water-electrolysis unit splits the water into hydrogen and oxygen. The Mars-lander vehicle (MLV) transports the equipment from earth to Mars. The Mars-ascent vehicle (MAV) contains the SRC and the engine, which is the same for both the MLV and the MAV. All equipment that is unnecessary for the Mars-Earth trajectory remains on Mars. This report presents detailed sizing information, for which a spreadsheet has been developed. The trends suggest possibilities for expansion, and suggestions for future work in these areas are offered.

1994-05-01

194

An unmanned mission to Mars with sample collection and in-situ resource utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design for the Mars Analysis and Return Vehicle with In-Situ Resource Utilization (MARVIN) project is outlined. The MARVIN mission is designed to collect samples of the Martian environment; to produce fuel from local Martian resources; and to use the fuel produced to return the samples to earth. It uses only existing technologies. Exploratory Technologies' mission-design efforts have focused on methods of orbit determination, sample collection, fuel production, power, communications, control, and structural design. Lambert Targeting provided Delta-V's, launch dates, and travel times. The landing site is the Tharsis Plateau, to the southeast of Olympus Mons, chosen for its substantial scientific value. Samples of soil, dust, and atmosphere are collected with lander-based collection devices: the soil sample, with a robotic arm similar to those used in the Viking missions; the atmospheric sample, from a bleed line to the compressor in the fuel-production facility; a dust sample, from the dust-collection container in the fuel-production facility; and a redundant dust sample, with a with a passive filter system, which relies upon neither a power source nor other collection methods. The sample-return capsule (SRC) houses these samples, which are triply contained to prevent contamination. Proven technology can be used to produce methane and oxygen for fuel with relative ease at the landing site: the Sabatier reactor produces methane and water by combining carbon dioxide and hydrogen (brought from earth); the Reverse Water-Gas Shift unit combines carbon dioxide and hydrogen to form carbon monoxide and water; a water-electrolysis unit splits the water into hydrogen and oxygen. The Mars-lander vehicle (MLV) transports the equipment from earth to Mars. The Mars-ascent vehicle (MAV) contains the SRC and the engine, which is the same for both the MLV and the MAV. All equipment that is unnecessary for the Mars-Earth trajectory remains on Mars. This report presents detailed sizing information, for which a spreadsheet has been developed. The trends suggest possibilities for expansion, and suggestions for future work in these areas are offered.

1994-01-01

195

Is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes? A historical review on breath acetone measurements.  

PubMed

Since the ancient discovery of the 'sweet odor' in human breath gas, pursuits of the breath analysis-based disease diagnostics have never stopped. Actually, the 'smell' of the breath, as one of three key disease diagnostic techniques, has been used in Eastern-Medicine for more than three thousand years. With advancement of measuring technologies in sensitivity and selectivity, more specific breath gas species have been identified and established as a biomarker of a particular disease. Acetone is one of the breath gases and its concentration in exhaled breath can now be determined with high accuracy using various techniques and methods. With the worldwide prevalence of diabetes that is typically diagnosed through blood testing, human desire to achieve non-blood based diabetic diagnostics and monitoring has never been quenched. Questions, such as is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes and how is the breath acetone related to the blood glucose (BG) level (the golden criterion currently used in clinic for diabetes diagnostic, monitoring, and management), remain to be answered. A majority of current research efforts in breath acetone measurements and its technology developments focus on addressing the first question. The effort to tackle the second question has begun recently. The earliest breath acetone measurement in clearly defined diabetic patients was reported more than 60 years ago. For more than a half-century, as reviewed in this paper, there have been more than 41 independent studies of breath acetone using various techniques and methods, and more than 3211 human subjects, including 1581 healthy people, 242 Type 1 diabetic patients, 384 Type 2 diabetic patients, 174 unspecified diabetic patients, and 830 non-diabetic patients or healthy subjects who are under various physiological conditions, have been used in the studies. The results of the breath acetone measurements collected in this review support that many conditions might cause changes to breath acetone concentrations; however, the results from the six independent studies using clearly-defined Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients unanimously support that an elevated mean breath acetone concentration exists in Type 1 diabetes. Note that there is some overlap between the ranges of breath acetone concentration in individual T1D patients and healthy subjects; this reminds one to be careful when using an acetone breath test on T1D diagnostics. Comparatively, it is too early to draw a general conclusion on the relationship between a breath acetone level and a BG level from the very limited data in the literature. PMID:23959840

Wang, Zhennan; Wang, Chuji

2013-09-01

196

Optimization of an adaptive neural network to predict breathing  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To determine the optimal configuration and performance of an adaptive feed forward neural network filter to predict breathing in respiratory motion compensation systems for external beam radiation therapy. Method and Materials: A two-layer feed forward neural network was trained to predict future breathing amplitudes for 27 recorded breathing histories. The prediction intervals ranged from 100 to 500 ms. The optimal sampling frequency, number of input samples, training rate, and number of training epochs were determined for each breathing history and prediction interval. The overall optimal filter configuration was determined from this parameter survey, and its accuracy for each breathing example was compared to the individually optimal filter setups. Prediction accuracy was also compared to breathing stability as measured by the autocorrelation of the breathing signal. Results: The survey of filter configurations converged on a standard setup for all examples of breathing. For 24 of the 27 breathing histories the accuracy of the standard filter for a 300 ms prediction interval was within a few percent of the individually optimized filter setups; for the remaining three histories the standard filter was 5%–15% less accurate. Conclusions: A standard adaptive neural network filter setup can provide approximately optimal breathing prediction for a wide range of breathing patterns. The filter accuracy has a clear correlation with the stability of breathing.

Murphy, Martin J.; Pokhrel, Damodar

2009-01-01

197

COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN USING GAUZE FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

To estimate pesticide exposure, urine samples are often needed to analyze pesticide metabolites. However, this is difficult for children wearing diapers because simple and feasible techniques suitable for field collection are not available. The objectives of this study were to te...

198

COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN USING COTTON GAUZE FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

To estimate pesticide exposure, urine samples are often needed to analyze pesticide metabolites. However, this is difficult for children wearing diapers because simple and feasible techniques suitable for field collection are not available. The objectives of this study were to t...

199

Effect of sampling time and air humidity on the bioefficiency of filter samplers for bioaerosol collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sampling time on the biological collection efficiency of viable airborne microorganisms was studied with two personal filter samplers (the Button Inhalable Aerosol Sampler and the 37-mm cassette) under relative humidities (RH) of 30 and 85%. Polycarbonate filters mounted in the samplers were challenged with five aerosolized microorganisms (fungal spores, endospores, and bacterial vegetative cells) and air was

Zheng Wang; Tiina Reponen; Sergey A. Grinshpun; Rafa? L. Górny; Klaus Willeke

2001-01-01

200

College Students' Perceptions of Collective Efficacy: Results from a Nonurban Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and collective efficacy is well established in urban populations with community samples, it is unclear if this relationship holds in rural areas. The current study fills this gap by assessing the perceptions of adolescents from nonurban areas to examine the relationships between…

Domoff, Sarah E.; Hayman, Jennifer; Tompsett, Carolyn J.

2012-01-01

201

Collective Socialization and Child Conduct Problems: A Multilevel Analysis with an African American Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses hierarchical linear modeling with a sample of African American children and their primary caregivers to examine the association between various community factors and child conduct problems. The analysis revealed a rather strong inverse association between level of collective socialization and conduct problems. This relationship…

Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Conger, Rand D.; Brody, Gene H.

2004-01-01

202

Urine collection pads: are samples reliable for urine biochemistry and microscopy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to validate the reliability of samples obtained with urine collection pads (UCP) for selected laboratory biochemical analyses, urine cell microscopy, and bedside semi-quantitative stick urinalysis. A series of laboratory experiments was performed to test agreement between urine concentrations, or results, before and after passage through a UCP (incubated for 37°C for 15 min). The following

Peter I. Macfarlane; Robert Ellis; Christopher Hughes; Christine Houghton; Robert Lord

2005-01-01

203

GENOTYPING OF THE SIMULATED FORENSIC SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM THE CRIME SCENES  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY DNA is present in every nucleated cell and is therefore present in biological materials left at crime scene. DNA has been successfully isolated and analyzed from a variety of biological materials. In this study we performed in laboratory simulated forensic samples, collected from anonymous female and male to simulate item of evidence usually encountered in criminal cases. Forensic evidence

Florentina Bianca Basangiu; R. Potorac; O. Popescu

204

A low-cost three-dimensional sample collection array to evaluate and monitor constructed wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificially constructed wetlands are gaining acceptance as a low-cost treatment alternative to remove a number of undesirable constituents from water. Wetlands can be used to physically remove compounds such as suspended solids through sedimentation. Dissolved nutrients, biochemical oxygen demand, heavy metals, and potentially harmful anthropogenic compounds can all be removed in constructed wetlands through geochemical and biological processes. Sample collection

C. F. Williams; F. J. Adamsen

2008-01-01

205

sup 14 C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori  

SciTech Connect

The high urease activity of Helicobacter pylori can be used to detect this bacterium by noninvasive breath tests. We have developed a {sup 14}C-urea breath test which uses 5 microCi {sup 14}C with 50 mg nonradioactive urea. Breath samples are collected at baseline and every 30 min for 2 h. Our study compared the outcome of the breath test to the results of histology and culture of endoscopically obtained gastric biopsies in 84 patients. The breath test discriminated well between the 50 positive patients and the 34 patients negative for Helicobacter pylori: the calculated sensitivity was 100%, specificity 88%, positive predictive value 93%, and negative predictive value 100%. Treatment with bismuth subsalicylate and/or ampicillin resulted in lower counts of exhaled {sup 14}CO{sub 2} which correlated with histological improvement in gastritis. The {sup 14}C-urea breath test is a better gold standard for the detection of Helicobacter pylori than histology and/or culture.

Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S.J.; Tytgat, K.M.; Hollingsworth, J.; Jalali, S.; Rshid, F.A.; Bowen, B.M.; Goldie, J.; Goodacre, R.L.; Riddell, R.H.; Hunt, R.H. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada))

1990-04-01

206

Living with Dyspnea -- How to Breathe Easier  

MedlinePLUS

... breathing, positioning, paced breathing, and desensitization. Pursed-lip breathing This may seem awkward at first, but it ... them until you find the best one. Paced breathing Paced breathing prevents or decreases shortness of breath ...

207

Small volume particulate and non-particulate sample collection for fluidic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In fluidic systems, it is often desirable to collect samples in the hydrated state at one location. Most methods devised to do this are often complex. In this work, we present a method that uses a simple squeeze flow. We demonstrate its use in the collection of cells (algal cells), particulates (microbeads and fluorescent nanobeads) and non-particulates (EGFP). This fluidic system is amenable for high content microscopy. An assumption often made is that objects being observed are fixed spatially and are sufficiently populated. Without the ability to collect, this can lead to the need for searching through multiple field of views (FOVs). We report that the generation of a squeeze flow by the circular coverslip onto a liquid sample allows for objects to be acquired at the rim regions of the circular coverslip. By using a coverslip of 13 mm diameter and sample volumes between 2 ?L and 4 ?L, the coverslip was completely filled without any excess flow beyond its outer rim. Furthermore, sample compression speeds between 100 ?m/s and 1000 ?m/s did not change the effect of the object collection outcome. A comparison was made between manually placing the coverslip on the liquid sample by hand and using a motorised translator to generate the squeeze flow and in both cases, similar outcomes were obtained. Quantitative measurements and image analysis confirmed that all the objects investigated had been displaced and relocated at the rim regions of the coverslip at a very high degree and ready to be collected. Also by using a metal cylinder and probe tip, pre-concentration of material was achieved.

Cheong, Brandon H.

2013-12-01

208

Toward Lower Organic Environments in Astromaterial Sample Curation for Diverse Collections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Great interest was taken during the frenzied pace of the Apollo lunar sample return to achieve and monitor organic cleanliness. Yet, the first mission resulted in higher organic contamination to samples than desired. But improvements were accomplished by Apollo 12 [1]. Quarantine complicated the goal of achieving organic cleanliness by requiring negative pressure glovebox containment environments, proximity of animal, plant and microbial organic sources, and use of organic sterilants in protocols. A special low organic laboratory was set up at University of California Berkeley (UCB) to cleanly subdivide a subset of samples [2, 3, 4]. Nevertheless, the basic approach of handling rocks and regolith inside of a positive pressure stainless steel glovebox and restrict-ing the tool and container materials allowed in the gloveboxes was established by the last Apollo sample re-turn. In the last 40 years, the collections have grown to encompass Antarctic meteorites, Cosmic Dust, Genesis solar wind, Stardust comet grains and Hayabusa asteroid grains. Each of these collections have unique curation requirements for organic contamination monitor-ing and control. Here is described some changes allowed by improved technology or driven by changes in environmental regulations and economy, concluding with comments on organic witness wafers. Future sample return missions (OSIRIS-Rex; Mars; comets) will require extremely low levels of organic contamination in spacecraft collection and thus similarly low levels in curation. JSC Curation is undertaking a program to document organic baseline levels in current operations and devise ways to reduce those levels.

Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.; Burkett, P. J.; Calaway, M. J.; Oehler, D. Z.

2012-01-01

209

Modeling and enhanced sampling of molecular systems with smooth and nonlinear data-driven collective variables.  

PubMed

Collective variables (CVs) are low-dimensional representations of the state of a complex system, which help us rationalize molecular conformations and sample free energy landscapes with molecular dynamics simulations. Given their importance, there is need for systematic methods that effectively identify CVs for complex systems. In recent years, nonlinear manifold learning has shown its ability to automatically characterize molecular collective behavior. Unfortunately, these methods fail to provide a differentiable function mapping high-dimensional configurations to their low-dimensional representation, as required in enhanced sampling methods. We introduce a methodology that, starting from an ensemble representative of molecular flexibility, builds smooth and nonlinear data-driven collective variables (SandCV) from the output of nonlinear manifold learning algorithms. We demonstrate the method with a standard benchmark molecule, alanine dipeptide, and show how it can be non-intrusively combined with off-the-shelf enhanced sampling methods, here the adaptive biasing force method. We illustrate how enhanced sampling simulations with SandCV can explore regions that were poorly sampled in the original molecular ensemble. We further explore the transferability of SandCV from a simpler system, alanine dipeptide in vacuum, to a more complex system, alanine dipeptide in explicit water. PMID:24320358

Hashemian, Behrooz; Millán, Daniel; Arroyo, Marino

2013-12-01

210

Detection of manipulation in doping control urine sample collection: a multidisciplinary approach to determine identical urine samples.  

PubMed

Manipulation of urine sampling in sports drug testing is considered a violation of anti-doping rules and is consequently sanctioned by regulatory authorities. In 2003, three identical urine specimens were provided by three different athletes, and the identity of all urine samples was detected and substantiated using numerous analytical strategies including gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with steroid and metabolite profiling, gas chromatography-nitrogen/phosphorus detector analysis, high-performance liquid chromatography-UV fingerprinting, and DNA-STR (short tandem repeat) analysis. None of the respective athletes was the donor of the urine provided for doping analysis, which proved to be a urine sample collected from other unidentified individual(s). Samples were considered suspicious based on identical steroid profiles, one of the most important parameters for specimen individualization in sports drug testing. A database containing 14,224 urinary steroid profiles of athletes was screened for specific values of 4 characteristic parameters (ratios of testosterone/epitestosterone, androsterone/etiocholanolone, androsterone/testosterone, and 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol/5beta-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol) and only the three suspicious samples matched all criteria. Further metabolite profiling regarding indicated medications and high-performance liquid chromatography-UV fingerprinting substantiated the assumption of manipulation. DNA-STR analyses unequivocally confirmed that the 3 urine samples were from the same individual and not from the athletes who provided DNA from either buccal cell material or blood specimens. This supportive evidence led to punishment of all three athletes according to the rules of the World Anti-Doping Agency. Application of a new multidisciplinary strategy employing common and new doping control assays enables the detection of urine substitution in sports drug testing. PMID:17260133

Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Hans; Mareck, Ute; Sigmund, Gerd; Henke, Jürgen; Henke, Lotte; Schänzer, Wilhelm

2007-08-01

211

Application of membrane extraction with sorbent interface for breath analysis.  

PubMed

The detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human breath may be useful for routine clinical diagnosis of several diseases in a non-invasive manner. Traditional methods of breath analysis have some technical limitations. Membrane extraction with a sorbent interface (MESI), however, has many advantages over current methods, including good selectivity and sensitivity, and is well suited for breath analysis.The aim of this project was to develop a simple and reproducible sampling device and method based on the MESI system for breath analysis. The feasibility and validity of the MESI system was tested with real human breath samples. The use of breath CO(2) as an internal standard for the analysis of breath VOCs is an effective method to solve the difficulties associated with variations in the target analyte concentrations in a sample, which are attributed to mass losses and different breathing patterns of different subjects. In this study, the concentration of breath acetone was successfully expressed normalized to CO(2) as in the alveolar air. Breath acetone of healthy males and females profiled at different times of the day was plotted using the MESI system, and results are consistent with literature. This technique can be used for monitoring breath acetone concentrations of diabetic patients and for applications with other biomarker monitoring. PMID:20013195

Ma, Victor; Lord, Heather; Morley, Melissa; Pawliszyn, Janusz

2010-01-01

212

Mutagenicity and clastogenicity of native airborne particulate matter samples collected under industrial, urban or rural influence.  

PubMed

Airborne particulate matter has recently been classified by the IARC as carcinogenic to humans (group 1). However, the link between PM chemical composition and its carcinogenicity is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and to compare genotoxic potencies of 6 native PM samples collected in spring-summer or autumn-winter, either in industrial, urban or rural area. We evaluated their mutagenicity through Ames test on YG1041, TA98, and TA102 tester strains, and their clastogenicity on human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells using comet assay, ?-H2AX quantification, and micronucleus assay. Ames test results showed a strong positive response, presumably associated with nitro-aromatics content. In addition, at least 2 positive responses were observed out of the 3 genotoxicity assays for each of the 6 samples, demonstrating their clastogenicity. Our data suggest that PM samples collected in autumn-winter season are more genotoxic than those collected in spring-summer, potentially because of higher concentrations of adsorbed organic compounds. Taken together, our results showed the mutagenicity and clastogenicity of native PM2.5 samples from different origins, and bring additional elements to explain the newly recognized carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution. PMID:24685773

Lepers, C; Dergham, M; Armand, L; Billet, S; Verdin, A; Andre, V; Pottier, D; Courcot, D; Shirali, P; Sichel, F

2014-08-01

213

Collective efficacy and obesity-related health behaviors in a community sample of African Americans.  

PubMed

The social environment is important to body mass index and obesity. However, it is unknown if perceptions of the social environment are associated with obesity-related behaviors in populations at greatest risk for being overweight or obese. We evaluated the relationship between collective efficacy and diet and physical activity in a community-based sample of African American adults who were residents in an urban area. Data were collected as part of an academic-community partnership from November 2009 to 2011. We evaluated whether participants met the recommended guidelines for diet and physical activity based on collective efficacy and their sociodemographic background, health care variables, and self-efficacy in a community-based sample of African American adults (n = 338) who were residents in the Philadelphia, PA metropolitan area. Overall, many participants did not meet the recommended guidelines for fruit and vegetable intake or physical activity. The likelihood of meeting the recommended guidelines for fruit intake increased with greater levels of collective efficacy (OR 1.56, 95 % CI 1.18, 2.07, p = 0.002) and self-efficacy for diet (OR 1.56, 95 % CI 1.19, 2.04, p = 0.001). Collective efficacy was not associated with physical activity and the positive association between collective efficacy and vegetable intake was not statistically significant (OR 1.25, 95 % CI 0.94, 1.65, p = 0.12). It is important to determine the most effective methods and settings for improving diet and physical activity behaviors in urban African Americans. Enhancing collective efficacy may be important to improving adherence to recommended guidelines for obesity-related health behaviors. PMID:24026302

Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Bellamy, Scarlett; Briggs, Vanessa; Bowman, Marjorie; Delmoor, Ernestine; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Rogers, Rodney; Purnell, Joseph; Weathers, Benita; Johnson, Jerry C

2014-02-01

214

Microbial monitoring and methods of sample collection: a GITMO survey (Gruppo Trapianto di Midollo Osseo)  

PubMed Central

The collection of microbiological samples represents an important aspect of care both for doctors as well as nurses. It is important to recognise and identify some key points, to avoid performing ‘unnecessary’ or ‘incorrect’ sampling, which may give useless or even misleading results, these are: the moment at which the sample is collected, the collection method and timing (if indicated). The comparison between the various nursing members of the Italian National bone marrow transplant group (GITMO), showed diversity of practice across all fields. A formal survey was therefore conducted within GITMO centres looking at the methods of microbiological sample collection. These results were compared with the literature, and in addition to the lack of homogeneity of practice within the centres, a lack of compliance with the recommendations was also observed. To evaluate the effectiveness of this survey in highlighting awareness of this issue and the presence of relevant guidelines, the questionnaire was repeated (with the same centres responding), which demonstrated no major changes in care practices. Conclusion: The survey has allowed us to highlight many critical issues regarding common procedures which are not commonly discussed. Considerable differences were noted between different transplant centres, which may be attributable to the lack of Italian guidelines that can be used as a starting point for clinical practice. The plenary discussion allowed for an exchange of findings with the medical staff, who are usually responsible for requesting microbiological samples. The ideal solution would be a unique field-based training programme, associated with the dissemination of a common procedural document for ensuring evidence-based practice.

Gori, Erica; Callea, Emanuela; Alberani, Francesca; Orlando, Laura

2014-01-01

215

Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations derived from flask samples collected at USSR-operated sampling sites  

SciTech Connect

This document presents daily atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations from four USSR-operated sampling sites (Teriberka Station, Ocean Station Charlie, Bering Island, and Kotelny Island). The period of record varies by station with the earliest measurements dating back to 1983 and recent estimates from early 1991. These CO{sub 2} concentrations are derived from air samples collected in 1.5-L stainless steel electropolished flasks and later analyzed at the Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg, USSR) using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer. Measurements not meeting wind direction, wind speed, inter-flask agreement, and climate condition criteria were either discarded or flagged. All measurements have been corrected for drift biases introduced during flask storage. These atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are considered indicative of regional background air conditions and are directly traceable to the World Meteorological Organization`s primary CO{sub 2} standards. These measurements support the rising trend in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations measured at other monitoring sites around the world and may be compared with similar measurements made by various monitoring programs at other northern latitude sites. The document presents the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations in graphical and tabular form, describes the sampling methods, defines limitations and restrictions of the data, and describes the information on the magnetic media.

Boden, T.A. [comp.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Brounshtein, A.M.; Faber, E.V.; Shashkov, A.A. [Glavnaya Geofizicheskaya Observatoriya, St. Petersburg (USSR)

1991-12-01

216

Multiple Approaches to Down Sizing of the Lunar Sample Return Collection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future Lunar missions are planned for at least 7 days, significantly longer than the 3 days of the later Apollo missions. The last of those missions, A-17, returned 111 kg of samples plus another 20 kg of containers. The current Constellation program requirements for return weight for science is 100 kg with the hope of raising that limit to near 250 kg including containers and other non-geological materials. The estimated return weight for rock and soil samples will, at best, be about 175 kg. One method proposed to accomplish down-sizing of the collection is the use of a Geo-Lab in the lunar habitat to complete a preliminary examination of selected samples and facilitate prioritizing the return samples.

Lofgren, Gary E.; Horz, F.

2010-01-01

217

Application of carbon nanotubes to human breath dynamics characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbon nanotube composite material and its fabrication techniques are introduced to construct a chip-based electrode system for human breath dynamics characterization. The application of 10 V dc bias can generate electric field high enough to effectively collect the charged particles in the human breath. Without using breath collecting tubes, the field tests in the open air exhibit that the system is technologically promising for long-time and noncontact human breath dynamics monitoring, due to its high stability, sensitivity, and safety operation performance with power consumption in the order of 10-5 W.

Hou, Zhongyu; Cai, Bingchu; Xu, Dong

2006-07-01

218

Trace gas measurements from whole air samples collected over the Antarctic continent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Whole air samples collected aboard the NASA DC-8 and ER-2 aircraft as part of the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) were analyzed in a field laboratory set up at Punta Arenas, Chile, in August and September, 1987. Mixing ratios obtained from gas chromatographic analyses of these samples are presented for N2O, CFCl3, CFCl2, C2F3Cl3, CH3CCl3, CH4, and CO. Variations in the mixing ratios of these gases along the individual flight paths of the aircraft are used as tracers to indicate the history of air masses over and near the Antarctic continent.

Heidt, L. E.; Vedder, J. F.; Pollock, Walter H.; Henry, Bruce E.; Lueb, Richard A.

1988-01-01

219

Evaluation of water samples collected during LANDSAT-1 overpasses of the lower Chesapeake Bay area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water samples were collected on 18 days when the LANDSAT-1 satellite was passing over the lower Chesapeake Bay area. A correlation between the various water parameters has been performed for the more than 300 surface samples. Six days were sufficiently cloudless that MSS digital tapes were useful for analysis. Correlation of radiance values with the water parameters revealed a low correlation for chlorophyll and good correlations with particles and sediment. The relation of total particles to sediment was linear, but varied from day to day.

Bowker, D. E.; Witte, W. G.

1976-01-01

220

Comparison of blood ethanol concentrations in samples simultaneously collected into expired and unexpired venipuncture tubes.  

PubMed

Blood sample collection kits manufactured for the Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension contain venipuncture tubes with an expiration date that the tube manufacturer utilizes to ensure sufficient vacuum to fill the tubes. Legal challenges to blood ethanol analyses that involved the use of expired venipuncture tubes prompted a study comparing ethanol analysis results in expired venipuncture tubes (up to 74 months beyond the expiration date) and in unexpired venipuncture tubes. Blood samples were collected during controlled drinking sessions using 10-mL venipuncture tubes containing 100 mg of sodium fluoride and 20 mg of potassium oxalate and were analyzed by headspace gas chromatography. The data obtained indicate that the ethanol concentrations in the expired and unexpired venipuncture tubes were statistically identical. PMID:16839468

Zittel, Donna B; Hardin, Glenn G

2006-06-01

221

Methodology for collecting short?period integrated gas samples: Estimating acute exposure to woodburning pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of pollutants may fluctuate enormously over the day, making it inappropriate to extrapolate 24?hour averaged pollutant concentration to short?term human exposures of only 1 or 2 hours. We describe the design and methodology for collecting integrated gas samples over short periods of time from which the short?term concentrations of woodsmoke aerosol can be deduced. Our technique is particularly

S. A. Edgerton; M. A. K. Khalil; R. A. Rasmussen

1985-01-01

222

Chromatographic sample collection from two-phase (gas+liquid) flows.  

PubMed

A particularly challenging sample presentation in analytical chemistry is a flowing stream that consists of both a gas and liquid phase, combined with the common situation in which a reliable analysis is needed for both phases, separately. In these cases, the vapor and liquid must be physically separated (without change to either), before the individual phases can be collected and analyzed. It is not possible to analyze two-phase flows otherwise. Although the two phases are at equilibrium, it is imperative that no liquid contaminate the vapor, and no vapor be entrained in the liquid at a given temperature and pressure. In this paper, we describe a simple on-line device that can individually separate and collect the vapor and liquid phases of a two-phase flow. The apparatus, which we call P(2)SC, uses an adaptation of the branch point separator, with vapor collection done downstream in a metal bellows. The liquid collection is done in a length of Teflon tube. The separated vapor and liquid phases are then easily transferred into any desired analytical instrument with a syringe, although any sample introduction method, such as a valve, could be used as well. We discuss the application of this device with a stream of thermally stressed rocket kerosene. PMID:22036084

Bruno, Thomas J; Windom, Bret C

2011-12-01

223

Voluntary control of breathing does not alter vagal modulation of heart rate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Variations in respiratory pattern influence the heart rate spectrum. It has been suggested, hence, that metronomic respiration should be used to correctly assess vagal modulation of heart rate by using spectral analysis. On the other hand, breathing to a metronome has been reported to increase heart rate spectral power in the high- or respiratory frequency region; this finding has led to the suggestion that metronomic respiration enhances vagal tone or alters vagal modulation of heart rate. To investigate whether metronomic breathing complicates the interpretation of heart rate spectra by altering vagal modulation, we recorded the electrocardiogram and respiration from eight volunteers during three breathing trials of 10 min each: 1) spontaneous breathing (mean rate of 14.4 breaths/min); 2) breathing to a metronome at the rate of 15, 18, and 21 breaths/min for 2, 6, and 2 min, respectively; and 3) breathing to a metronome at the rate of 18 breaths/min for 10 min. Data were also collected from eight volunteers who breathed spontaneously for 20 min and breathed metronomically at each subject's mean spontaneous breathing frequency for 20 min. Results from the three 10-min breathing trials showed that heart rate power in the respiratory frequency region was smaller during metronomic breathing than during spontaneous breathing. This decrease could be explained fully by the higher breathing frequencies used during trials 2 and 3 of metronomic breathing. When the subjects breathed metronomically at each subject's mean breathing frequency, the heart rate powers during metronomic breathing were similar to those during spontaneous breathing. Our results suggest that vagal modulation of heart rate is not altered and vagal tone is not enhanced during metronomic breathing.

Patwardhan, A. R.; Evans, J. M.; Bruce, E. N.; Eckberg, D. L.; Knapp, C. F.

1995-01-01

224

Volatile organic compounds as breath biomarkers for active and passive smoking.  

PubMed

We used real-time breath measurement technology to investigate the suitability of some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as breath biomarkers for active and passive smoking and to measure actual exposures and resulting breath concentrations for persons exposed to tobacco smoke. Experiments were conducted with five smoker/nonsmoker pairs. The target VOCs included benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and the cigarette smoke biomarker 2,5-dimethylfuran. This study includes what we believe to be the first measurements of 1,3-butadiene in smokers' and nonsmokers' breath. The 1,3-butadiene and 2,5-dimethylfuran peak levels in the smokers' breath were similar (360 and 376 microg/m(3), respectively); the average benzene peak level was 522 microg/m(3). We found higher peak values of the target chemicals and shorter residence times in the body than previously reported, probably because of the improved time resolution made possible by the continuous breath measurement method. The real-time breath analyzer also showed the presence of the chemicals after exposure in the breath of the nonsmokers, but at greatly reduced levels. Single breath samples collected in evacuated canisters and analyzed independently with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of the target compounds in the postexposure breath of the nonsmokers but indicated that there was some contamination of the breath analyzer measurements. This was likely caused by desorption of organics from condensed tar in the analyzer tubing and on the quartz fiber filter used to remove particles. We used the decay data from the smokers to estimate residence times for the target chemicals. A two-compartment exponential model generally gave a better fit to the experimental decay data from the smokers than a single-compartment model. Residence times for benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and 2,5-dimethylfuran ranged from 0.5 (1,3-butadiene) to 0.9 min (benzene) for tau1 and were essentially constant (14 min) for tau2. These findings will be useful in models of environmental tobacco smoke exposure and risk. PMID:12117646

Gordon, Sydney M; Wallace, Lance A; Brinkman, Marielle C; Callahan, Patrick J; Kenny, Donald V

2002-07-01

225

Personal exposures, indoor-outdoor relationships, and breath levels of toxic air pollutants measured for 355 persons in New Jersey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EPA's TEAM Study has measured exposures to 20 volatile organic compounds in personal air, outdoor air, drinking water and the breath of 355 persons in NJ, in the fall of 1981. The NJ residents were selected by a probability sampling scheme to represent 128,000 inhabitants of Elizabeth and Bayonne. Participants carried a personal monitor to collect two 12-h air samples and gave a breath sample at the end of the day. Two consecutive 12-h outdoor air samples were also collected on identical Tenax cartridges in the back yards of 90 of the participants. About 3000 samples were collected, of which 1000 were quality control samples. Eleven compounds were often present in air. Personal exposures were consistently higher than outdoor concentrations for these chemicals, and were sometimes ten times the outdoor concentrations. Indoor sources appeared responsible for much of the difference. Breath concentrations also usually exceed outdoor concentrations, and correlated more strongly with personal exposures than with outdoor concentrations. Some activities (smoking, driving, visiting dry cleaners or service stations) and occupations (chemical, paint and plastics plants) were associated with significantly elevated exposures and breath levels for certain toxic chemicals.

Wallace, Lance A.; Pellizzari, Edo D.; Hartwell, Ty D.; Sparacino, Charles M.; Sheldon, Linda S.; Zelon, Harvey

226

Effects of sample collection and storage conditions on DNA damage in buccal cells from agricultural workers.  

PubMed

Buccal cells are becoming a widely used tissue source for monitoring human exposure to occupational and environmental genotoxicants. A variety of methods exist for collecting buccal cells from the oral cavity, including rinsing with saline, mouthwash, or scraping the oral cavity. Buccal cells are also routinely cryopreserved with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), then examined later for DNA damage by the comet assay. The effects of these different sampling procedures on the integrity of buccal cells for measuring DNA damage are unknown. This study examined the influence of the collection and cryopreservation of buccal cells on cell survival and DNA integrity. In individuals who rinsed with Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), the viability of leukocytes (90%) was significantly (p<0.01) greater than that of epithelial cells (12%). Similar survival rates were found for leukocytes (88%) and epithelial cells (10%) after rinsing with Listerine(®) mouthwash. However, the viability of leukocytes after cryopreservation varied significantly (p<0.01) with DMSO concentration. Cell survival was greatest at 5% DMSO. Cryopreservation also influenced the integrity of DNA in the comet assay. Although tail length and tail moment were comparable in fresh or cryopreserved samples, the average head intensity for cryopreserved samples was ?6 units lower (95% CI: 0.8-12 units lower) than for fresh samples (t(25)=-2.36, p=0.026). These studies suggest that the collection and storage of buccal samples are critical factors for the assessment of DNA damage. Moreover, leukocytes appear to be a more reliable source of human tissue for assessing DNA damage and possibly other biochemical changes. PMID:21138773

Muniz, Juan F; McCauley, Linda A; Pak, Victoria; Lasarev, Michael R; Kisby, Glen E

2011-02-28

227

Determination of trace elements in volcanic rock samples collected from cenozoic lava eruption sites using LIBS.  

PubMed

Trace elements of environmental significance present in the volcanic rock samples collected from sites of the Cenozoic era flood basalt flows and eruptions were detected using locally developed laser-induced breakdown spectrometer. For spectro-chemical analysis of these samples, the plasma was generated by focusing a pulsed Nd: YAG laser radiation at 1064 nm wavelength on the target rock samples. These samples were collected from four widely separated locations surrounding the volcanic eruption sites belonging to the Harrat Hutaymah volcanic field in the vicinity of Taba town, situated to the east of Hail city of northern Saudi Arabia. These samples represent the scoria basalt lava flows as well as a large tuff-ring crater and it contains xenoliths. These flows occur widespread over the Earth's surface in this region, and their contained xenoliths are brought up from depths of a few tens of kilometers. This volcanic field has received much less attention in the previous geological studies; and consequently, its effects on the environment are not well defined. The concentration of different elements of environmental significance like Cr, Pb, Mn, Cd, Sr and other trace metals like Cu, Al, Ca, Mg, Zn, Ti and Fe in these rock samples were determined by spectral analysis. Parametric dependence for improvement of LIBS sensitivity for detection of these elements was also carried out. The highest concentration detected of environmentally significant elements like Cr, Mn, Pb, Sr and Ni are 1910, 1399, 90.5, 12412 and 461.5 ppm, respectively in four different lava samples which are considered to be much higher than the safe permissible limits. The LIBS results were compared with the results obtained using other analytical techniques such as the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). PMID:19241268

Gondal, Mohammed A; Nasr, Mohamed M; Ahmed, Zulfiqar; Yamani, Zain H

2009-04-01

228

Urine concentrations of oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes.  

PubMed

Our objective was to investigate urine concentrations of 8?mg oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes. Nine male endurance athletes with a VO2max of 70.2?±?5.9?mL/min/kg (mean?±?SD) took part in the study. Two hours after administration of 8?mg oral salbutamol, subjects performed submaximal exercise for 15?min followed by two, 2-min exercise bouts at an intensity corresponding to 110% of VO2max and a bout to exhaustion at same intensity. Urine samples were collected 4, 8, and 12?h following administration of salbutamol. Samples were analyzed by the Norwegian World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) laboratory. Adjustment of urine concentrations of salbutamol to a urine specific gravity (USG) of 1.020?g/mL was compared with no adjustment according to WADA's technical documents. We observed greater (P?=?0.01) urine concentrations of salbutamol 4?h after administration when samples were adjusted to a USG of 1.020?g/mL compared with no adjustment (3089?±?911 vs. 1918?±?1081?ng/mL). With the current urine decision limit of 1200?ng/mL for salbutamol on WADA's 2013 list of prohibited substances, fewer false negative urine samples were observed when adjusted to a USG of 1.020?g/mL compared with no adjustment. In conclusion, adjustment of urine samples to a USG of 1.020?g/mL decreases risk of false negative doping tests after administration of oral salbutamol. Adjusting urine samples for USG might be useful when evaluating urine concentrations of salbutamol in doping cases. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24166762

Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Auchenberg, Michael; Rzeppa, Sebastian; Hemmersbach, Peter; Bangsbo, Jens; Backer, Vibeke

2014-06-01

229

Simple microscopic foundation of the breathing mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is put forward that the method of hyperspherical harmonics with its collective hyperradius represents a natural microscopic description of the breathing mode - typically collective state. A connection with the hydrodynamical model and its limitation are illustrated and some applications are suggested.

M. Sotona; J. Zofka

1975-01-01

230

Just Breathe Green: Measuring Transpiration Rates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through multi-trial experiments, students are able to see and measure something that is otherwise invisible to themâseeing plants breathe. Student groups are given two small plants of native species and materials to enclose them after watering with colored water. After being enclosed for 5, 10 and 15 minutes, teams collect and measure the condensed water from the plants' "breathing," and then calculate the rates at which the plants breathe. A plant's breath is known as transpiration, which is the flow of water from the ground where it is taken up by roots (plant uptake) and then lost through the leaves. Students plot volume/time data for three different native plant species, determine and compare their transpiration rates to see which had the highest reaction rate and consider how a plant's unique characteristics (leaf surface area, transpiration rate) might figure into engineers' designs for neighborhood stormwater management plans.

Water Awareness Research and Education (WARE) Research Experience for Teachers (RET),

231

Eldercare at Home: Breathing Problems  

MedlinePLUS

Eldercare at Home: Breathing Problems Caregiving How Tos Understanding the Problem As people age, certain activities, such as going up a flight of ... However, aging sometimes brings on other more serious breathing problems including incapacitating shortness of breath, chest discomfort, ...

232

Chemical composition of rainwater collected at two sampling sites in the city of Rijeka.  

PubMed

This study compares the chemical composition of rainwater samples collected at two sampling sites, the first situated in the Rijeka city centre and the second in a suburban site 120 m above the sea level. The rainwater samples were analysed for precipitation weighted average concentrations of hydrogen, sulphate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. The results suggest that the local washout of the atmosphere enhanced the rainwater acidity in the city centre which also received significant marine contributions of sulphate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium content. Rainwater in the suburban site was affected by soil dust and/or fertilizers used in the nearby gardens, resulting in partial neutralization with rising of pH value. While the content of S-SO4 was practically equal at both sites, the quantities of N-NO3 and N-NH4 nearly doubled at the suburban site. PMID:10376356

Alebi?-Jureti?, A; Sojat, V

1998-09-01

233

Chemical variability of groundwater samples collected from a coal seam gas exploration well, Maramarua, New Zealand.  

PubMed

A pilot study has produced 31 groundwater samples from a coal seam gas (CSG) exploration well located in Maramarua, New Zealand. This paper describes sources of CSG water chemistry variations, and makes sampling and analytical recommendations to minimize these variations. The hydrochemical character of these samples is studied using factor analysis, geochemical modelling, and a sparging experiment. Factor analysis unveils carbon dioxide (CO(2)) degassing as the principal cause of sample variation (about 33%). Geochemical modelling corroborates these results and identifies minor precipitation of carbonate minerals with degassing. The sparging experiment confirms the effect of CO(2) degassing by showing a steady rise in pH while maintaining constant alkalinity. Factor analysis correlates variations in the major ion composition (about 17%) to changes in the pumping regime and to aquifer chemistry variations due to cation exchange reactions with argillaceous minerals. An effective CSG water sampling program can be put into practice by measuring pH at the wellhead and alkalinity at the laboratory; these data can later be used to calculate the carbonate speciation at the time the sample was collected. In addition, TDS variations can be reduced considerably if a correct drying temperature of 180 °C is consistently implemented. PMID:23199455

Taulis, Mauricio; Milke, Mark

2013-03-01

234

Critical review and meta-analysis of spurious hemolysis in blood samples collected from intravenous catheters  

PubMed Central

Background: A number of preanalytical activities strongly influence sample quality, especially those related to sample collection. Since blood drawing through intravenous catheters is reported as a potential source of erythrocyte injury, we performed a critical review and meta-analysis about the risk of catheter-related hemolysis. Materials and methods: We performed a systematic search on PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus to estimate the risk of spurious hemolysis in blood samples collected from intravenous catheters. A meta-analysis with calculation of Odds ratio (OR) and Relative risk (RR) along with 95% Confidence interval (95% CI) was carried out using random effect mode. Results: Fifteen articles including 17 studies were finally selected. The total number of patients was 14,796 in 13 studies assessing catheter and evacuated tubes versus straight needle and evacuated tubes, and 1251 in 4 studies assessing catheter and evacuated tubes versus catheter and manual aspiration. A significant risk of hemolysis was found in studies assessing catheter and evacuated tubes versus straight needle and evacuated tubes (random effect OR 3.4; 95% CI = 2.9–3.9 and random effect RR 1.07; 95% CI = 1.06–1.08), as well as in studies assessing catheter and evacuated tubes versus catheter and manual aspiration of blood (OR 3.7; 95% CI = 2.7–5.1 and RR 1.32; 95% CI = 1.24–1.40). Conclusions: Sample collection through intravenous catheters is associated with significant higher risk of spurious hemolysis as compared with standard blood drawn by straight needle, and this risk is further amplified when intravenous catheter are associated with primary evacuated blood tubes as compared with manual aspiration.

Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

2013-01-01

235

Ion chromatographic measurement of fluoride and sulfur dioxide in samples collected at aluminum smelters  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of airborne fluoride and sulfur dioxide in aluminum smelting plants is important for both industrial hygiene and environmental reasons. The traditional analytical techniques employed have been ion-selective electrodes (ISE) for fluoride and barium/thorin titration for SO2. In this study, ion chromatography (IC) was evaluated as a substitute for these two techniques. Dust for particulate fluoride was collected on membrane filters with carbonate-treated backup pads to collect HF and SO2. Gaseous fluoride and SO2 were ultrasonically extracted from the treated pad, but particulate fluoride required a borate/carbonate fusion. Collection efficiency and recovery of the analytes, along with the acceptable working ranges and instrument conditions used with IC, are discussed. IC is a desirable substitute for the electrode and titration methods because it is easily automated and the two determinations may be performed simultaneously. Organic compounds may cause interference in low-level fluoride measurement. Comparison of the techniques for field samples indicates that IC is an adequate substitute for the traditional measurement methods for full-shift samples of fluoride.

Balya, D.R. (Aluminum Company of America, Alcoa Technical Center, PA (United States))

1991-08-01

236

High volume electrostatic field-sampler for collection of fine particle bulk samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high volume electrostatic field-sampler was developed for collection of fine particles, which easily can be recovered for subsequent sample characterisation and bioassays. The sampler was based on a commercial office air cleaner and consisted of a prefilter followed by electrostatic collection plates operating at 2.7 kV. The sampler performance was characterised for 26 nm to 5.4 ?m-size particles in urban street air. The collection efficiency reached a maximum (60-70%) between 0.2 and 0.8 ?m and dropped to ˜25% at 30 nm and 2.5 ?m, respectively. After extraction in water, the particle loss was<2%. The extraction efficiency for dry lyophilised particulate matter was above 80%, allowing retrievement of ˜12 mg day -1 in urban street air at PM 10 levels of ˜24 ?g m -3. The ozone generating capacity of the corona discharge during operation was on the order of 10 ppb. A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) degradation test using benzo[a]pyrene as a model showed that ˜85% was degraded after 24 h. However, similar results were observed when the corona discharge was switched off. Hence, the ozone and other corona discharge reactants do not appear to contribute considerably to PAH-degradation. The overall results show that the sampler type is a promising alternative to traditional sampling of fine particles for bulk analysis and bioassays. The main advantages are simple operation, high stability, high quantifiable particle recovery rates and low cost.

Kumar Sharma, Anoop; Wallin, Håkan; Alstrup Jensen, Keld

237

Sample preparation, data collection and preliminary data analysis in biomolecular solution X-ray scattering  

PubMed Central

In addition to the classic methods of structural biology - X-ray crystallography and NMR, solution X-ray scattering (SAXS) is starting to play an important role in experiential structural investigation of biological macromolecules. Ease of SAXS data collection and sophistication of its data analysis tools increasingly used as black boxes can be seen as both a blessing and a curse. On one hand, a sample set aside for solution scattering will always yield experimental data, including cases when macromolecule cannot be crystallized or when it is too large for application of solution NMR. On the other hand, any sample, whether pure or contaminated, whether mono- or polydisperse, will yield scattering data and it is up to the user to ensure the absence of artifacts in them and to choose a proper structural modeling strategy. We will discuss experimental aspects of X-ray solution scattering including sample preparation, data collection, as well as the steps in data processing and preliminary analysis that need to be carried out to ensure the absence of artifacts. Our goal is to summarize everything than can possibly go wrong with SAXS data measurement so that the user can have confidence in the data before they enter structural modeling.

Grishaev, Alexander

2012-01-01

238

Assessment of an improved stack sample collection system for 3H and 14C.  

PubMed

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a simple, efficient, and cost-effective replacement for the traditional glass column system used to monitor H and C emissions from rooftop stacks. The primary goals in developing a replacement (the modified jar system) were to 1) maintain or improve collection efficiency while keeping leakage to less than 5%, 2) simplify the set-up process, and 3) reduce costs. Both the traditional glass column assembly and the modified jar system were operated in tandem for a 13-mo period. Results showed that the modified sample jar system provided equivalent or improved collection efficiency for both H and C. Additional advantages included reduced leak-test errors, quicker and simpler set-up, and material costs that were reduced by nearly an order of magnitude. PMID:23803665

Jelinski, John; Wahl, Linnea; Donovan, Thomas

2013-08-01

239

Methodology for collecting short-period integrated gas samples: estimating acute exposure to woodburning pollution  

SciTech Connect

The concentration of pollutants may fluctuate enormously over the day, making it inappropriate to extrapolate 24-hour averaged pollutant concentration to short-term human exposures of only 1 or 2 hours. A description is given of the design and methodology for collecting integrated gas samples over short periods of time from which the short-term concentrations of woodsmoke aerosol can be deduced. The technique is particularly useful in isolating potential health effects from acute exposure to air pollutants. The method is demonstrated by applying it to acute levels of exposure to pollutants from woodburning stoves and fireplaces in a residential community.

Edgerton, S.A.; Khalil, M.A.K.; Rasmussen, R.A.

1985-01-01

240

Composition of urban and rural aerosol samples collected in the Great Hungarian Plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban and rural atmospheric aerosol samples have been collected simultaneously during 1997 in the Great Hungarian Plain. The elemental composition of the coarse and fine mode aerosol have been determined by the Proton-Induced X-ray Emission method. From the observed elemental concentrations, seasonal variations and variations with the wind sector distributions were found for separate elements. Principal component analyses gave four factors in urban aerosol, and three factors in the rural one. The order of the factors in the coarse mode aerosol is different from the order, found in the fine mode.

Borbély-Kiss, I.; Kertész, Zs.; Koltay, E.; Szabó, Gy.; Tar, K.

1999-04-01

241

Ground-Water Data-Collection Protocols and Procedures for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program: Collection and Documentation of Water-Quality Samples and Related Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Protocols for ground-water sampling are described in a report written in 1989 as part of the pilot program for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). These protocols have been reviewed and revised to address the needs of the full-scale implementation of the NAWQA Program that began in 1991. This report, which is a collaborative effort between the NAWQA Program and the USGS Office of Water Quality, is the result of that review and revision. This report describes protocols and recommended procedures for the collection of water-quality samples and related data from wells for the NAWQA Program. Protocols and recommended procedures discussed include (1) equipment setup and other preparations for data collection; (2) well purging and field measurements; (3) collecting and processing ground-water-quality samples; (4) equipment decontamination; (5) quality-control sampling; and (6) sample handling and shipping.

Koterba, Michael T.; Wilde, Franceska D.; Lapham, Wayne W.

1995-01-01

242

Geochemistry of Rock Samples Collected from the Iron Hill Carbonatite Complex, Gunnison County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study conducted in 2006 by the U.S. Geological Survey collected 57 surface rock samples from nine types of intrusive rock in the Iron Hill carbonatite complex. This intrusive complex, located in Gunnison County of southwestern Colorado, is known for its classic carbonatite-alkaline igneous geology and petrology. The Iron Hill complex is also noteworthy for its diverse mineral resources, including enrichments in titanium, rare earth elements, thorium, niobium (columbium), and vanadium. This study was performed to reexamine the chemistry and metallic content of the major rock units of the Iron Hill complex by using modern analytical techniques, while providing a broader suite of elements than the earlier published studies. The report contains the geochemical analyses of the samples in tabular and digital spreadsheet format, providing the analytical results for 55 major and trace elements.

Van Gosen, Bradley S.

2008-01-01

243

Methods for collecting benthic invertebrate samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Benthic invertebrate communities are evaluated as part of the ecological survey component of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These biological data are collected along with physical and chemical data to assess water-quality conditions and to develop an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. The objectives of benthic invertebrate community characterizations are to (1) develop for each site a list of tax a within the associated stream reach and (2) determine the structure of benthic invertebrate communities within selected habitats of that reach. A nationally consistent approach is used to achieve these objectives. This approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection and methods and equipment for qualitative multihabitat sampling and semi-quantitative single habitat sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data within and among study units.

Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

1993-01-01

244

RoboHound:developing sample collection and preconcentration hardware for a remote trace explosives detection system.  

SciTech Connect

The RoboHound{trademark} Project was a three-year, multiphase project at Sandia National Laboratories to build and refine a working prototype trace explosive detection system as a tool for a commercial robot. The RoboHound system was envisioned to be a tool for emergency responders to test suspicious items (i.e., packages or vehicles) for explosives while maintaining a safe distance. The project investigated combining Sandia's expertise in trace explosives detection with a wheeled robotic platform that could be programmed to interrogate suspicious items remotely for the presence of explosives. All of the RoboHound field tests were successful, especially with regards to the ability to collect and detect trace samples of RDX. The project has gone from remote sampling with human intervention to a fully automatic system that requires no human intervention until the robot returns from a sortie. A proposal is being made for additional work leading towards commercialization.

Peterson, David J. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Denning, David J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Lenz, Michael C.; Anderson, Robert J.; Carlson, Dennis L.; Hunter, John Anthony; Gladwell, T. Scott; Mitchell, Mary-Anne; Hannum, David W.; Baumann, Mark J.

2005-09-01

245

Can breath isoprene be measured by ozone chemiluminescence?  

PubMed

Isoprene, involved in the biosynthetic pathway to cholesterol, is the prevalent hydrocarbon in breath. Breath isoprene measurement is of great interest as a measure of basal cholesterol production rate. We investigated the merits and pitfalls of isoprene measurement via its chemiluminescence (CL) reaction with ozone. For many subjects, apparent concentrations measured are higher than those obtained by a gas chromatography (GC) reference method that can be traced to ozone-induced CL with simultaneously present lower olefins and sulfur compounds. A warm column preconcentration method eliminates the lower olefins and greatly improves sensitivity while a silver-form, ion-exchange resin can remove the sulfur gases. The breath sample is captured on a miniature synthetic carbon sorbent column maintained at 55 degrees C, under which conditions ethylene, propylene, and water vapor are not significantly captured while the preconcentration process greatly improves the limit of detection for isoprene to 0.6 ppbv (S/N=3). The captured isoprene is released by heating the column to 150 degrees C. Breath samples from different subjects were collected both before and after meals and analyzed in a double-blind fashion in two laboratories, with the second laboratory performing quantitation by cryofocusing GC-flame ionization detection with parallel measurement by mass spectrometry to provide identity confirmation. For all individuals studied, the CL and the GC results agreed when both warm column preconcentration and passage through Ag+-form cation-exchange resin, which removes divalent sulfur gases, were implemented prior to CL measurement. The intensity of CL from the reaction with ozone can be much higher for some sulfur gases than for isoprene. Even though present at lower concentrations than isoprene, unless removed prior to CL measurement, for some individuals sulfur gases can cause unacceptably large (up to 500%) errors, making the sulfur gas removal step critical. PMID:17326613

Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Li, Jianzhong; Lonneman, William A; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Toda, Kei

2007-04-01

246

Combined-sewer overflow data and methods of sample collection for selected sites, Detroit, Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From October 1, 1994 through December 31, 1995, four combined-sewer discharging to the Detroit River in Detroit, Michigan were monitored to characterize storm-related water quantity and quality. Water velocity, stage, discharge, and precipitation were measured continuously and recorded at 5-minute intervals. Water-quality samples were collected at discrete times during each storm and analyzed for inorganic and organic pollutants. This report includes the sampling approach, field collection and processing techniques, and methods of chemical analysis, as well as a compilation of combined sewer discharge volumes, chemical data, and quality control data. These data may be used by resource managers and scientists (1) to describe temporal variation for pollutant concentrations in combined-sewage for various overflow events; (2) to describe spatial distribution of selected pollutants in the four combined-sewer overflows discharging to the Detroit River; (3) to calculate pollutant loads to the Detroit River from the four overflow sites for the monitored storm events; (4) to estimate pollutant loadings form other overflow sites; and, (5) to provide data and information which can be used to define appropriate management methods to reduce or eliminate untreated combined-sewer overflows. Selected combined-sewers were sampled between 30 and 82 times for inorganic pollutants, and between 14 and 22 times for organic pollutants, depending on the site. These samples represented between 8 and 17 storms during which one or more combined-sewers overflowed. The monitored pollutants included fecal coliform, fecal streptococci, and Escherichia coli; antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, total chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, silver, thallium and zinc; and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, volatile organic compounds, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. In general, metal and non-metal inorganic pollutants were detected at all sites. Many organic pollutants were not detected at all.

Sweat, M. J.; Wolf, J. R.

1997-01-01

247

Sampling and Analysis Data Package for Vapor Samples Collected from the AN Tank Farm Ventilation System on July 27, 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This data package presents field data and analytical results for vapor sampling activities associated with the AN tank farm ventilation system sampling event performed on July 27, 2000. Vapor sampling was performed to validate existing air emission estima...

D. M. Bogen

2001-01-01

248

Changes in Breath Trihalomethane Levels Resulting from Household Water-Use Activities  

PubMed Central

Common household water-use activities such as showering, bathing, drinking, and washing clothes or dishes are potentially important contributors to individual exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the major class of disinfection by-products of water treated with chlorine. Previous studies have focused on showering or bathing activities. In this study, we selected 12 common water-use activities and determined which may lead to the greatest THM exposures and result in the greatest increase in the internal dose. Seven subjects performed the various water-use activities in two residences served by water utilities with relatively high and moderate total THM levels. To maintain a consistent exposure environment, the activities, exposure times, air exchange rates, water flows, water temperatures, and extraneous THM emissions to the indoor air were carefully controlled. Water, indoor air, blood, and exhaled-breath samples were collected during each exposure session for each activity, in accordance with a strict, well-defined protocol. Although showering (for 10 min) and bathing (for 14 min), as well as machine washing of clothes and opening mechanical dishwashers at the end of the cycle, resulted in substantial increases in indoor air chloroform concentrations, only showering and bathing caused significant increases in the breath chloroform levels. In the case of bromodichloromethane (BDCM), only bathing yielded a significantly higher air level in relation to the preexposure concentration. For chloroform from showering, strong correlations were observed for indoor air and exhaled breath, blood and exhaled breath, indoor air and blood, and tap water and blood. Only water and breath, and blood and breath were significantly associated for chloroform from bathing. For BDCM, significant correlations were obtained for blood and air, and blood and water from showering. Neither dibromochloromethane nor bromoform gave measurable breath concentrations for any of the activities investigated because of their much lower tap-water concentrations. Future studies will address the effects that changes in these common water-use activities may have on exposure.

Gordon, Sydney M.; Brinkman, Marielle C.; Ashley, David L.; Blount, Benjamin C.; Lyu, Christopher; Masters, John; Singer, Philip C.

2006-01-01

249

Activity concentrations of environmental samples collected in Fukushima Prefecture immediately after the Fukushima nuclear accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radionuclide concentrations in environmental samples such as surface soils, plants and water were evaluated by high purity germanium detector measurements. The contribution rate of short half-life radionuclides such as 132I to the exposure dose to residents was discussed from the measured values. The highest values of the 131I/137Cs activity ratio ranged from 49 to 70 in the environmental samples collected at Iwaki City which is located to the south of the F1-NPS. On the other hand, the 132I/131I activity ratio in the same environmental samples had the lowest values, ranging from 0.01 to 0.02. By assuming that the 132I/131I activity ratio in the atmosphere was equal to the ratio in the environmental samples, the percent contribution to the thyroid equivalent dose by 132I was estimated to be less than 2%. Moreover, the contribution to the thyroid exposure by 132I might be negligible if 132I contamination was restricted to Iwaki City.

Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Monzen, Satoru; Osanai, Minoru; Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sahoo, Sarata K.; Kovács, Tibor; Yamada, Masatoshi; Nakata, Akifumi; Yoshida, Mitsuaki; Yoshino, Hironori; Mariya, Yasushi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

2013-07-01

250

Activity concentrations of environmental samples collected in Fukushima Prefecture immediately after the Fukushima nuclear accident  

PubMed Central

Radionuclide concentrations in environmental samples such as surface soils, plants and water were evaluated by high purity germanium detector measurements. The contribution rate of short half-life radionuclides such as 132I to the exposure dose to residents was discussed from the measured values. The highest values of the 131I/137Cs activity ratio ranged from 49 to 70 in the environmental samples collected at Iwaki City which is located to the south of the F1-NPS. On the other hand, the 132I/131I activity ratio in the same environmental samples had the lowest values, ranging from 0.01 to 0.02. By assuming that the 132I/131I activity ratio in the atmosphere was equal to the ratio in the environmental samples, the percent contribution to the thyroid equivalent dose by 132I was estimated to be less than 2%. Moreover, the contribution to the thyroid exposure by 132I might be negligible if 132I contamination was restricted to Iwaki City.

Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Monzen, Satoru; Osanai, Minoru; Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sahoo, Sarata K.; Kovacs, Tibor; Yamada, Masatoshi; Nakata, Akifumi; Yoshida, Mitsuaki; Yoshino, Hironori; Mariya, Yasushi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

2013-01-01

251

A REVIEW OF SOME TRACER-TEST DESIGN EQUATIONS FOR TRACER-MASS ESTIMATION AND SAMPLE COLLECTION FREQUENCY  

EPA Science Inventory

Determination of necessary tracer mass, initial sample-collection time, and subsequent sample-collection frequency are the three most difficult aspects to estimate for a proposed tracer test prior to conducting the tracer test. To facilitate tracer-mass estimation, 33 mass-estima...

252

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF DISLODGEABLE RESIDUES -- PUF ROLLER SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.18)  

EPA Science Inventory

This SOP describes the method to collect transferable residues from indoor floor surfaces. The sampling procedures described are applicable to bare floors or covered floor surfaces, e.g., carpeting and vinyl flooring. The samples will be collected only in the day care centers o...

253

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FLOOR DUST SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.19)  

EPA Science Inventory

This SOP describes the method for collecting a floor dust sample from carpet. Dust samples will be collected in the room that the child uses most at home and/or at day care using a High Volume Small Surface Sampler (HVS3). In addition, participants will also be asked to donate a ...

254

Complex aromatic hydrocarbons in Stardust samples collected from comet 81P/Wild 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The successful return of the Stardust spacecraft provides a unique opportunity to investigate the nature and distribution of organic matter in cometary dust particles collected from comet 81P/Wild 2. Analysis of individual cometary impact tracks in silica aerogel using the technique of two-step laser mass spectrometry demonstrates the presence of complex aromatic organic matter. While concerns remain as to the organic purity of the aerogel collection medium and the thermal effects associated with hypervelocity capture, the majority of the observed organic species appear indigenous to the impacting particles and are hence of cometary origin. While the aromatic fraction of the total organic matter present is believed to be small, it is notable in that it appears to be N rich. Spectral analysis in combination with instrumental detection sensitivies suggest that N is incorporated predominantly in the form of aromatic nitriles (R-C?N). While organic species in the Stardust samples do share some similarities with those present in the matrices of carbonaceous chondrites, the closest match is found with stratospherically collected interplanetary dust particles. These findings are consistent with the notion that a fraction of interplanetary dust is of cometary origin. The presence of complex organic N containing species in comets has astrobiological implications as comets are likely to have contributed to the prebiotic chemical inventory of both the Earth and Mars.

Clemett, Simon J.; Sandford, Scott A.; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Hörz, Friedrich; McKay, David S.

2010-05-01

255

Exhaled breath condensate: determination of non-volatile compounds and their potential for clinical diagnosis and monitoring. A review.  

PubMed

Exhaled breath condensate is a promising, non-invasive, diagnostic sample obtained by condensation of exhaled breath. Starting from a historical perspective of early attempts of breath testing towards the contemporary state-of-the-art breath analysis, this review article focuses mainly on the progress in determination of non-volatile compounds in exhaled breath condensate. The mechanisms by which the aerosols/droplets of non-volatile compounds are formed in the airways are discussed with methodological consequences for sampling. Dilution of respiratory droplets is a major problem for correct clinical interpretation of the measured data and there is an urgent need for standardization of EBC. This applies also for collection instrumentation and therefore various commercial and in-house built devices are described and compared with regard to their design, function and collection parameters. The analytical techniques and methods for determination of non-volatile compounds as potential markers of oxidative stress and lung inflammation are scrutinized with an emphasis on method suitability, sensitivity and appropriateness. The relevance of clinical findings for each group of possible non-volatile markers of selected pulmonary diseases and methodological recommendations with emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration that is essential for future development into a fully validated clinical diagnostic tool are given. PMID:24296139

Kubá?, Petr; Foret, František

2013-12-17

256

Breath holding spell  

MedlinePLUS

... spells are not thought to be a willful act of defiance, even though they often occur with temper tantrums. Symptoms can include: Blue or pale skin Crying, then no breathing Fainting or loss of alertness ( ...

257

Bad Breath (Halitosis)  

MedlinePLUS

... Dry mouth ( xerostomia ) — This can be caused by salivary gland problems, medicines or "mouth breathing." A large number ... dentist will examine your teeth, gums, mouth and salivary glands. He or she also will feel your head ...

258

Mobile on-site sample collection, preparation, and analysis in Iraq. Final report, January-April 1995  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center has developed mobile on-site sample collection, preparation, and analysis equipment to collect environmental samples in highly contaminated areas. This equipment is being used by the United Nations Special Commission at the Baghdad Monitoring and Verification Center (BMVC), which provides long-term monitoring of dual-purpose chemical sites in Iraq, especially those with potential for chemical warfare (CW) production. A mobile laboratory was set-up in the BMVC to prepare and analyze samples collected throughout Iraq. Automatic air samplers were installed at various sites to collect vapor samples on absorption tubes that were analyzed using a gas chromatographic (GC) flame photometric detector (FPD). Mobile sample collection kits were used to collect solid, liquid, air, and wipe samples during challenge inspections. These samples were prepared using a sample preparation kit, which concentrates CW agent, breakdown products, and their precursors in complex matrices down to sub part per million levels for chemical analysis by a GC mass selective detector (MSD). This report describes the problems and solutions encountered with setting up a self-sufficient mobile analytical laboratory. Details of the various components associated with the laboratory and the collection kits are included.

Swahn, I.D.; Brzezinski, J.H.

1996-11-01

259

Analytical results from samples collected during coal-bed methane exploration drilling in Caldwell Parish, Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2001, and 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Louisiana Geological Survey (LGS), through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Devon SFS Operating, Inc. (Devon), participated in an exploratory drilling and coring program for coal-bed methane in north-central Louisiana. The USGS and LGS collected 25 coal core and cuttings samples from two coal-bed methane test wells that were drilled in west-central Caldwell Parish, Louisiana. The purpose of this report is to provide the results of the analytical program conducted on the USGS/LGS samples. The data generated from this project are summarized in various topical sections that include: 1. molecular and isotopic data from coal gas samples; 2. results of low-temperature ashing and X-ray analysis; 3. palynological data; 4. down-hole temperature data; 5. detailed core descriptions and selected core photographs; 6. coal physical and chemical analytical data; 7. coal gas desorption results; 8. methane and carbon dioxide coal sorption data; 9. coal petrographic results; and 10. geophysical logs.

Warwick, Peter D.; Breland, F. Clayton, Jr.; Hackley, Paul C.; Dulong, Frank T.; Nichols, Douglas J.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Bustin, R. Marc; Barker, Charles E.; Willett, Jason C.; Trippi, Michael H.

2006-01-01

260

DEVELOPMENT OF A TAMPER RESISTANT/INDICATING AEROSOL COLLECTION SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AT BULK HANDLING FACILITIES  

SciTech Connect

Environmental sampling has become a key component of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards approaches since its approval for use in 1996. Environmental sampling supports the IAEA's mission of drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear material or nuclear activities in a Nation State. Swipe sampling is the most commonly used method for the collection of environmental samples from bulk handling facilities. However, augmenting swipe samples with an air monitoring system, which could continuously draw samples from the environment of bulk handling facilities, could improve the possibility of the detection of undeclared activities. Continuous sampling offers the opportunity to collect airborne materials before they settle onto surfaces which can be decontaminated, taken into existing duct work, filtered by plant ventilation, or escape via alternate pathways (i.e. drains, doors). Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been working to further develop an aerosol collection technology that could be installed at IAEA safeguarded bulk handling facilities. The addition of this technology may reduce the number of IAEA inspector visits required to effectively collect samples. The principal sample collection device is a patented Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) which utilizes electrostatic precipitation principles to deposit particulates onto selected substrates. Recent work has focused on comparing traditional swipe sampling to samples collected via an ACE system, and incorporating tamper resistant and tamper indicating (TRI) technologies into the ACE system. Development of a TRI-ACE system would allow collection of samples at uranium/plutonium bulk handling facilities in a manner that ensures sample integrity and could be an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. This work was supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA).

Sexton, L.

2012-06-06

261

The effect of nocturnal sampling on semen quality and the efficiency of collection in bovine species  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated night and day semen collection regimes in Holstein and Brahman bulls (four bulls of each breed) that were collected weekly, each during a morning and a night collection. Ejaculates (n=64) were obtained via artificial vagina over 4 weeks. The first collection of each week alternated between night and day. Two collection teams were employed. Bull behavior parameters

Jennifer H. Yates; John E. Chandler; Anita L. Canal; J. Braden Paul

2003-01-01

262

Human Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids and Sample Collection Considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2009 the Augustine Commission identified near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. Subsequently, the U.S. presidential administration directed NASA on April 15, 2010 to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. Human Exploration Considerations: These missions would be the first human expeditions to interplanetary bodies beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars, Phobos and Deimos, and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEAs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of these primitive objects. However, prior to sending human explorers to NEAs, robotic investigations of these bodies would be required in order to maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk. These precursor missions to NEAs would fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps concerning their physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration of these relatively unknown destinations. Sample Science Benefits: Information obtained from a human investigation of a NEA, together with ground-based observations and prior spacecraft investigations of asteroids and comets, will also provide a real measure of ground truth to data obtained from terrestrial meteorite collections. Major advances in the areas of geochemistry, impact history, thermal history, isotope analyses, mineralogy, space weathering, formation ages, thermal inertias, volatile content, source regions, solar system formation, etc. can be expected from human NEA missions. Samples directly returned from a primitive body would lead to the same kind of breakthroughs for understanding NEAs that the Apollo samples provided for understanding the Earth-Moon system and its formation history. International Participation: In addition, robotic precursor and human exploration missions to NEAs would allow the NASA and its international partners to gain operational experience in performing complex tasks (e.g., sample collection, deployment of payloads, retrieval of payloads, etc.) with crew, robots, and spacecraft under microgravity conditions at or near the surface of a small body. This would provide an important synergy between the worldwide Science and Exploration communities, which will be crucial for development of future international deep space exploration architectures and has potential benefits for future exploration of other destinations beyond low-Earth orbit.

Abell, Paul

2013-01-01

263

Identification of airborne particulate sources, of samples collected in Ticomán, Mexico, using PIXE and multivariate analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of samples of airborne particulate matter collected during February and March 1997 in Ticomán, a place located in the northern part of Mexico City's Metropolitan Area, were analysed by PIXE and the concentrations of ten main elements were determined. The fundamental information provided by PIXE was used to build up the data base needed to apply statistical tools such as absolute principal factor analysis. The VARIMAX rotated component matrix of the data was obtained, and the first three principal factors were assigned to soil, industry, and sulfates pollution sources. The quantitative source apportionments of the atmospheric trace element concentrations for the day time and the night time were determined by means of absolute principal factor scores.

Díaz, R. V.; Aldape, F.; Flores M., J.

2002-04-01

264

Chemical fingerprinting of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon oil spill samples collected from Alabama shoreline.  

PubMed

We compare the chromatographic signatures of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon (DH) source oil, three other reference crude oils, DH emulsified mousse that arrived on Alabama's shoreline in June 2010, and seven tar balls collected from Alabama beaches from 2011 to 2012. Characteristic hopane and sterane fingerprints show that all the tar ball samples originated from DH oil. In addition, the diagnostic ratios of various hopanes indicate an excellent match. Quantitation data for C????-hopane concentration levels show that most of the weathering observed in DH-related tar balls found on Alabama's beaches is likely the result of natural evaporation and dissolution that occurred during transport across the Gulf of Mexico prior to beach deposition. Based on the physical and biomarker characterization data presented in this study we conclude that virtually all fragile, sticky, brownish tar balls currently found on Alabama shoreline originated from the DH oil spill. PMID:23523118

Mulabagal, V; Yin, F; John, G F; Hayworth, J S; Clement, T P

2013-05-15

265

Carbon14 urea breath test for the diagnosis of Campylobacter pylori associated gastritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urease in the human gastric mucosa is a marker for infection with Campylobacter pylori (CP), an organism suspected of causing chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. To detect gastric urease, we examined 32 patients who were being evaluated for possible peptic ulcer disease. Fasting patients were given 10 microCi (370 kBq) of ¹⁴C-labeled urea. Breath samples were collected in hyamine at

B. J. Marshall; I Surveyor

1988-01-01

266

Resistant starch in the diet increases breath hydrogen and serum acetate in human subjects13  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colonic fermentation of two diets differ- ing in amounts of resistant starch (RS) was studied. High- and low-RS diets were fed to eight healthy subjects in three meals for 1 d. Breath hydrogen and two blood samples were collected oven a 28-h period. The high-RS diet provided 59.1 ± 4.7 g (1 ± SE) RS and the low-RS diet

Jane G Muir; Zhong Xian Lu; Graeme P Young; David Cameron-Smith; Greg R Collier; Kerin O'Dea

267

Detection of ethylene in smokers breath by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the experiments reported in this paper small traces of ethylene down to ppb level have been detected by means of photoacoustic spectroscopy in the breath exhaled from humans. The method has been applied in studying how the concentration of the ethylene coming out from human lungs is modified after smoking. We followed up the evolution of ethylene concentration in the case of several people by monitoring the ethylene before and after smoking. In each case the first exhaled air sample was collected prior smoking the cigarette and compared with the samples collected after 30 minutes following the inhalation of cigarette smoke. In all the experiments a high value of ethylene concentration was found immediately after smoking. The experimental laser based photoacoustic system has been realized in ENEA Laboratories in Frascati, Italy.

Giubileo, Gianfranco; Puiu, Adriana P.; Dumitras, Dan C.

2004-07-01

268

Performance of Small Evacuated Canisters Equipped with a Novel Flow Controller for the Collection of Personal Air Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small evacuated canisters have become more common in industrial hygiene personal sampling in recent years. The smaller canisters necessitate a low flow rate to ensure a full-shift air sample can be collected. Evaluation of small evacuated canisters compared to sorbent sampling methods is essential to ensure that the canisters accurately monitor airborne contamination. This data, in a controlled environment, will

Alan Rossner; Stephanie D. Warner; Adolf Vyskocil; Robert Tardif; Jean-Pierre Farant

2004-01-01

269

Floating sample-collection platform with stage-activated automatic water sampler for streams with large variation in stage  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A floating sample-collection platform is described for stream sites where the vertical or horizontal distance between the stream-sampling point and a safe location for the sampler exceed the suction head of the sampler. The platform allows continuous water sampling over the entire storm-runoff hydrogrpah. The platform was developed for a site in southern Illinois.

Tarte, Stephen R.; Schmidt, A. R.; Sullivan, Daniel J.

1992-01-01

270

Analysis of exhaled breath from smokers, passive smokers and non-smokers by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this study, 38 samples of expired air were collected and analyzed from 20 non-smoking volunteers, four passive smokers and 14 smokers (21 women and 17 men). Measurements were carried out using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) as an isolation and preconcentration technique. The determination and identification were accomplished by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Our data showed that ca 32% of all identified compounds in the breath of healthy non-smokers were saturated hydrocarbons. In the breath of smoking and passive smoking volunteers hydrocarbons were predominant, but also present were more exogenous analytes such as furan, acetonitrile and benzene than in the breath of non-smokers. Acetonitrile, furan, 3-methylfuran, 2,5-dimethylfuran, 2-butanone, octane and decane were identified in breath of smoking and passive smoking persons. PMID:19039804

Buszewski, Bogus?aw; Ulanowska, Agnieszka; Ligor, Tomasz; Denderz, Natalia; Amann, Anton

2009-05-01

271

Control of the positional relationship between a sample collection instrument and a surface to be analyzed during a sampling procedure using a laser sensor  

DOEpatents

A system and method utilizes distance-measuring equipment including a laser sensor for controlling the collection instrument-to-surface distance during a sample collection process for use, for example, with mass spectrometric detection. The laser sensor is arranged in a fixed positional relationship with the collection instrument, and a signal is generated by way of the laser sensor which corresponds to the actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface. The actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface is compared to a target distance between the laser sensor and the surface when the collection instrument is arranged at a desired distance from the surface for sample collecting purposes, and adjustments are made, if necessary, so that the actual distance approaches the target distance.

Van Berkel, Gary J. (Clinton, TN); Kertesz, Vilmos (Knoxville, TN)

2012-02-21

272

Comparison of the performance of rapid HIV tests using samples collected for surveillance in Mozambique.  

PubMed

Mozambique had low HIV prevalence until the mid-1990s, but recent data indicate increasing rates. There is little information on HIV-2. Therefore, HIV seroprevalence was assessed among pregnant women and field-ready HIV diagnostic strategies were evaluated. A total of 6,930 samples collected by three health centers from 2002 to 2005 were tested on site by nurses with two simple/rapid tests, Determine HIV-1/2 (Abbott Laboratories; screening) and Uni-Gold HIV (Trinity Biotech; confirmation), which is the national HIV testing strategy. The prevalence of HIV was 14.0% (2002), 17.8% (2003), 16.5% (2004), and 20.2% (2005). A subset of 888 samples collected 2003 was sent to the Central Microbiology Laboratory, Maputo for evaluation of tests and testing strategies. The assays included for comparison were Capillus HIV-1/HIV-2 (Trinity Biotech), DoubleCheckGold HIV-1&2 (Orgenics) and Enzygnost Anti-HIV-1/2 Plus (Behringwerke, reference ELISA). Confirmation of reactive samples was done by Uni-Gold HIV and ImmunoComb II HIV-1&2 BiSpot (for HIV type differentiation). The Capillus HIV-1/ HIV-2 + ImmunoComb II HIV-1&2 BiSpot combination was the gold standard. The sensitivity of the rapid/simple screening assays (Determine HIV-1/2, DoubleCheckGold HIV-1&2) was 100% (N = 160) and their (initial) specificities were 99.6% and 99.7%, respectively. Repeated testing and combinations of assays increased the specificity. Four suspected cases of recent seroconversion were found. Together with the increasing prevalence rates, this may indicate that Mozambique is a high-incidence area, although further studies are needed to confirm this. Testing strategies for on-site screening and confirmation based on the combination of Determine HIV-1/2, Uni-Gold HIV and DoubleCheckGold HIV-1&2 are well suited for local field use. PMID:19856475

Melo, Josefa; Nilsson, Charlotta; Mondlane, José; Osman, Nafissa; Biberfeld, Gunnel; Folgosa, Elena; Andersson, Sören

2009-12-01

273

Breath tests: principles, problems, and promise.  

PubMed

Breath tests rely on the measurement of gases produced in the intestine, absorbed, and expired in the breath. Carbohydrates, such as lactose and sucrose, can be administered in physiologic doses; if malabsorbed, they will be metabolized to hydrogen by colonic bacteria. Since hydrogen is not produced by human metabolic reactions, a rise in breath hydrogen, as measured by gas chromatography, is evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption. Likewise, a rise in breath hydrogen marks the transit time of nonabsorbable carbohydrates such as lactulose through the small intestine into the colon. Simple end-expiratory interval collection into nonsiliconized vacutainer tubes has made these noninvasive tests quite convenient to perform, but various problems, including changes in stool pH, intestinal motility, or metabolic rate, may influence results. Another group of breath tests uses substrates labeled with radioactive or stable isotopes of carbon. Labeled fat substrates such as trioctanoin, tripalmitin, and triolein do not produce the expected rise in labeled breath CO2 if there is fat malabsorption. Bile acid malabsorption and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth can be measured with labeled cholylglycine or cholyltaurine. Labeled drugs such as aminopyrine, methacetin, and phenacetin can be used as an indication of drug metabolism and liver function. Radioactive substrates have been used to trace metabolic pathways and can be measured by scintillation counters. The availability of nonradioactive stable isotopes has made these ideal for use in children and pregnant women, but the cost of substrates and the mass spectrometers to measure them has so far limited their use to research centers. It is hoped that new techniques of processing and measurement will allow further realization of the exciting potential breath analysis has in a growing list of clinical applications. PMID:7180696

Lo, C W; Carter, E A; Walker, W A

1982-01-01

274

Location and Age Database for Selected Foraminifer Samples Collected by Exxon Petroleum Geologists in California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most of the geologic maps published for central California before 1960 were made without the benefit of age determinations from microfossils. The ages of Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks in the mostly poorly exposed and structurally complex sedimentary rocks represented in the Coast Ranges are critical in determining stratigraphic succession or lack of it, and in determining whether the juxtaposition of similar appearing but different age formations means a fault is present. Since the 1930’s, at least, oil company geologists have used microfossils to assist them in geologic mapping and in determining the environments of deposition of the sediment containing the microfossils. This information has been so confidential that some companies even coded the names of foraminifers to prevent disclosure. In the past 20 years, however, the attitude of petroleum companies about this information has changed, and many of the formerly confidential materials and reports are now available. We report here on 1,964 Exxon foraminifer samples mostly from surface localities in the San Francisco Bay region, and elsewhere in California. Most but not all the samples were plotted on U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) 7.5’ topographic maps or on obsolete USGS 15’ maps. The information from the slides can be used to update geologic maps prepared without the benefit of microfossil data, to analyze the depth and temperature of ocean water covering parts of California during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras, and for solving nomenclature and other scientific problems. A similar report on more than 30,000 slides for surface samples collected by Chevron geologists has been released (Brabb and Parker, 2003), and another report provides information on slides for more than 2000 oil test wells in Northern California (Brabb, Powell, and Brocher, 2001).

Brabb, Earl E.; Parker, John M.

2003-01-01

275

A model to estimate the population contributing to the wastewater using samples collected on census day.  

PubMed

An important uncertainty when estimating per capita consumption of, for example, illicit drugs by means of wastewater analysis (sometimes referred to as "sewage epidemiology") relates to the size and variability of the de facto population in the catchment of interest. In the absence of a day-specific direct population count any indirect surrogate model to estimate population size lacks a standard to assess associated uncertainties. Therefore, the objective of this study was to collect wastewater samples at a unique opportunity, that is, on a census day, as a basis for a model to estimate the number of people contributing to a given wastewater sample. Mass loads for a wide range of pharmaceuticals and personal care products were quantified in influents of ten sewage treatment plants (STP) serving populations ranging from approximately 3500 to 500?000 people. Separate linear models for population size were estimated with the mass loads of the different chemical as the explanatory variable: 14 chemicals showed good, linear relationships, with highest correlations for acesulfame and gabapentin. De facto population was then estimated through Bayesian inference, by updating the population size provided by STP staff (prior knowledge) with measured chemical mass loads. Cross validation showed that large populations can be estimated fairly accurately with a few chemical mass loads quantified from 24-h composite samples. In contrast, the prior knowledge for small population sizes cannot be improved substantially despite the information of multiple chemical mass loads. In the future, observations other than chemical mass loads may improve this deficit, since Bayesian inference allows including any kind of information relating to population size. PMID:24283359

O'Brien, Jake W; Thai, Phong K; Eaglesham, Geoff; Ort, Christoph; Scheidegger, Andreas; Carter, Steve; Lai, Foon Yin; Mueller, Jochen F

2014-01-01

276

Insights into explosion dynamics at Stromboli in 2009 from ash samples collected in real-time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid characterization of tephra during explosive eruptions can provide valuable insights into eruptive mechanisms, also integrating other monitoring systems. Here we reveal a perspective on Stromboli's conduit processes by linking ash textures to geophysical estimates of eruption parameters of observed explosions. A three day campaign at Stromboli was undertaken by Italy's Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) in October 2009. At this time activity was moderately intense, with an average 4 to 5, both ash-rich and ash-poor, explosions per hour at each the SW and NE vents. A total of fifteen ash samples were collected in real time. We used binocular and scanning electron microscopes to analyze the components, grain size and morphology distributions, and surface chemistry of ash particles within eight selected samples. In addition, the INGV monitoring network provided visual, thermal, and seismic information on the explosions that generated the sampled ash. In each sample, the proportion of fluidal, glassy sideromelane (as opposed to blocky, microcrystalline tachylite plus lithics), the degree of "chemical freshness" (as opposed to chemical alteration), and the average size of particles appear to correlate directly with the maximum height and the seismic amplitude of the corresponding explosion, and inversely correlate with the amount of ash erupted, as estimated by monitoring videos. These observations suggest that more violent explosions (i.e., those driven by the release of larger and more pressurized gas volumes) produce ash via the fragmentation of hotter, more fluid magma, while weaker ones mostly erupt ash-sized particles derived by the fragmentation of colder magma and incorporation of conduit wall debris. The formation of fluidal ash particles (up to Pele's hairs) requires aerodynamic deformation of a relatively low-viscosity magma, in agreement with the strong acceleration imposed upon fragmented magma clots by the rapid expansion of pressurized gas, as directly observed in high-speed videos of the sampled explosions. Our findings show that ash monitoring of mafic explosions permits characterization of the eruptive style, and can provide indirect information on the intensity of the eruption.

Taddeucci, J.; Lautze, N.; Andronico, D.; D'Auria, L.; Niemeijer, A.; Houghton, B.; Scarlato, P.

2012-04-01

277

Increased DNA amplification success of non-invasive genetic samples by successful removal of inhibitors from faecal samples collected in the field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of non-invasive genetic sampling (NGS) is becoming increasingly important in the study of wild animal populations.\\u000a Obtaining DNA from faecal samples is of particular interest because faeces can be collected without deploying sample capture\\u000a devices. However, PCR amplification of DNA extracted from faeces is problematic because of high concentrations of inhibitors.\\u000a Here we present a method for increasing

Louise Hebert; Safi K. Darden; Bo Vest Pedersen; Torben Dabelsteen

2011-01-01

278

Sample collection, filtration and preservation protocols for the determination of 'total dissolved' mercury in waters.  

PubMed

The objective of the work carried out was to recommend protocols for the collection, filtration (0.45 microm) and preservation of surface water samples for the subsequent determination of total 'dissolved' Hg. Cold vapour (CV) ICP-MS was employed to determine Hg; samples were acidified to a strength of 4 mol l(-1) HCl and 1% NaBH4 was used as the reducing agent in-line. Four types of 125 ml bottles were studied (Teflon, fluorinated ethene propene copolymer, FEP; high density polyethylene, HDPE; polyethylene terephthalate copolyester, PET; polypropylene, PP), together with three cleaning methods (EPA Methods 1631, 1638 and a rinse with reverse osmosis deionised water, 'MilliQ'). The transmission properties of the four materials were also studied to evaluate the potential for contamination from atmospheric Hg0. Results of this bottle study (n = 195), all below the detection limit of 0.5 ng l(-1), indicate that the bottles of choice, from an economic and time-saving perspective, are HDPE and PP, the latter being preferable if the sample is to be stored in a contaminated atmosphere. The bottles would be used on a once-only basis, negating the need for labourious and costly cleaning on repeat use. A simple rinse with MilliQ water would suffice prior to use. Twelve 0.45 microm filter systems (mostly Millipore and Gelman) were studied for (a) their potential Hg contamination properties and (b) their retention of Hg, possibly in colloidal form, during filtration. Ottawa River water, spiked at 50 ng l(-1) Hg, was used as a control sample. Again blank values were all negative, indicating contamination was not a concern but different recoveries of Hg were obtained across the different systems. The optimum systems to use, in that they provided maximum recovery (ca 80%) of Hg, are the Millipore Sterivex capsule and the Millipore Millex disc, both based on the hydrophilic Durapore membrane. The lowest recoveries (23-36%) were found with the Gelman AquaPrep systems and the Millipore HN nylon filter. Four control samples, Ottawa, Rideau and Gatineau Rivers, and a MilliQ blank, were used to study three preservation approaches, in the media: 0.5% BrCl, 2% HCl and 0.04% K2Cr2O7 in 1% HNO3. Mercury was stable for 28 days in a medium of 0.5% BrCl in all four samples but the other two media showed a loss of up to ca 20% Hg over this time frame, the loss being sample and time dependent. This may be a species transformation which is not detected by CV-ICP-MS from an HCl medium but this requires further investigation. Mercury was stable over the 28 days in the spiked blank MilliQ sample for all three preservation media. PMID:12081047

Hall, Gwendy E M; Pelchat, J C; Pelchat, Pierre; Vaive, Judy E

2002-05-01

279

[Sleep disordered breathing].  

PubMed

Sleep apnea is a breathing disorder characterized by cessation of breathing during sleep, oxygen desaturation and awakenings during night. There are several types of breathing disorders during sleep. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is also characterized by snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness. Central sleep apnea (CSA) is less common and characterized by reduced respiratory drive from the central nervous system. Upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, absence ofapneas, hypopneas and lack of significant oxygen desaturation. The consequences of the abnormal breathing during sleep include excessive daytime sleepiness, development of arterial hypertension, ischemic cardiac disease, neurocognitive dysfunction, glaucomic optico-neuropathy, metabolic dysfunction. The early diagnosis requires detailed anamnestic data, standardized questionnaires for detection of sleep disordered breathing and whole-night polysomnography in the sleep laboratory. Obstructive sleep apnea can be treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), oral appliances, and surgery (e.g., uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, UPPP). Early diagnosis of OSA enables early treatment, improvement of its symptoms and eventually reduces development of co-morbidities. PMID:18592964

Dogas, Zoran; Vali?, Maja; Pecoti?, Renata; Pupi?, Marija Cavar; Carev, Mladen; Boji?, Lovre; Raci?, Goran

2008-01-01

280

A miniature optical breathing sensor  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate a novel miniature optical breathing sensor based on an Agarose infiltrated photonic crystal fiber interferometer. The sensor detects the variation in relative humidity that occurs between inhaled and exhaled breath. The sensor interrogation system can determine the breathing pattern in real time and can also predict the breathing rate and the breathing status during respiration. The sensor is suitable for monitoring patients during a magnetic resonance imaging scan where use of sedatives and anesthetics necessitates breathing monitoring; electronic sensors are not suitable in such an environment and a visual observation of the patient's respiratory efforts is often difficult.

Mathew, Jinesh; Semenova, Yuliya; Farrell, Gerald

2012-01-01

281

Cesium and Isopar L Concentrations in Samples Collected During Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Simulant Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During simulant testing, the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) collected samples and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel for analysis of cesium, Isopar L, and Modifier (1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoro propoxy)-3-(...

C. Coleman L. Johnson M. Poirier P. Thomas S. Fink

2007-01-01

282

Characterization of Solid and Liquid GB Samples Collected from M55 Rockets Processed at Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (ANCDF).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Program Manager, Assembled Chemical Weapon Alternatives (PM- ACWA), requested that the U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC) conduct a fall analytical characterization of a OB sample collected at the Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal Fac...

T. E. Rosso J. J. Loss S. D. Norman P. L. Abercrombie A. B. Butrow

2005-01-01

283

50 CFR 23.50 - What are the requirements for a sample collection covered by an ATA carnet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...will: (1) Cross international borders only for temporary exhibition or display purposes and return to the originating country...You must transport the sample collection only for temporary exhibition or display purposes. (2) You must not transfer or...

2013-10-01

284

Recoleccion de Muestras para Diagnostico de Enfermedades de los Animales (Collection and Delivery of Samples for Diagnosis of Animal Diseases).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The manual provides instructions for collecting and handling samples for diagnosis of 65 animal diseases. Livestock reviewed included sheep, beef cattle, horses, swine, dogs, poultry, alpacas. Also reviews analysis for parasites.

C. L. Ortecho M. Vasquez C. Marchinares

1967-01-01

285

Suitability of self-collected vaginal samples for cervical cancer screening in peri-urban villages in Andhra Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Our aim was to determine if (1) Hybrid Capture 2 and a PCR-based method were comparable for detection of high-risk HPVs, (2) clinician-collected and self-collected samples were equally efficient to detect HPV and cervical cancer precursor lesions and (3) if participation rates improved with home-based vs. clinic-based self collection. Methods: Samples were selected from women participating in a cervical cancer screening study according to human papillomavirus (HPV), visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), or Pap smear screening results. From 432 of 892 selected women, split sample aliquots were tested for HPV DNA using both the Hybrid Capture 2 assay and the Roche prototype line blot assay. Women from a subset of villages were recruited at two separate time points for clinic-based self-collection and home-based self-collection, and participation rates were compared. Results: Pairwise agreement between self- and clinician-collected samples was high by both hc2 (90.8% agreement, kappa=0.7) and PCR (92.6% agreement, kappa=0.8), with significantly increased high-risk HPV detection in clinician-collected specimens (McNemar's p<0.01). Ability to detect precursor lesions was highest by PCR testing of clinician-collected samples and lowest by Hybrid Capture 2 testing of self-collected samples (11/11 and 9/11 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 and cancer detected, respectively). Participation in home-based screening was significantly higher than clinic-based screening (71.5% and 53.8%, respectively; p<0.001) among women 30-45 years old. Conclusion: The combination of improved screening coverage and a high single test sensitivity afforded by HPV DNA testing of home-based self-collected swabs may have a greater programmatic impact on cervical cancer mortality reduction compared to programs requiring a pelvic exam.

Sowjanya, A Pavani; Paul, Proma; Vedantham, Haripriya; Ramakrishna, Gayatri; Vidyadhari, D; Vijayaraghavan, K; Laksmi, Shantha; Sudula, Mrudula; Ronnett, Brigitte M.; Das, Manik; Shah, Keerti V.; Gravitt, Patti E; Gravitt, Patti E.; Shah, Keerti V.; Paul, Proma; Ramakrishna, Gayatri; Sowjanya, Pavani; Lakshmi, Shanta; Vijayaraghavan, K.; Reddy, P.S.; Desai, Nitin; Mamatha, D.; Deepa, K.; Vasantha, P.; SriLaxmi, K.; Venkatlaxmi, P.; Bujji, K.; Narendernath, B.; Reddy, R. Purushotham; Chandana, K.; Vedantham, Haripriya; Anuradha, M.; Srinivas, A.; Karuna, Bhawani P.; Kalpana, B.; Rekha, C.; Meenakshi, Jain; Lalitha, J.; Vidyadhari, K.; Malathi, M.R.; Anitha; Mrudula, S.; Rajani, Kameshwari; Ratnakar, C.; Goud, Srilatha J.; Kishore, L.; Yesu, Ratnam B.; Kauser, Tahseem; Das, Manik S.; Anand, Kumar R.; Goparani, Bala

2009-01-01

286

Ten repeat collections for urinary iodine from spot samples or 24-hour samples are needed to reliably estimate individual iodine status in women.  

PubMed

Although the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is a good indicator of iodine status in populations, there is no established biomarker for individual iodine status. If the UIC were to be used to assess individuals, it is unclear how many repeat urine collections would be needed and if the collections should be spot samples or 24-h samples. In a prospective, longitudinal, 15-mo study, healthy Swiss women (n = 22) aged 52-77 y collected repeated 24-h urine samples (total n = 341) and corresponding fasting, second-void, morning spot urine samples (n = 177). From the UIC in spot samples, 24-h urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was extrapolated based on the age- and sex-adjusted iodine:creatinine ratio. Measured UIE in 24-h samples, estimated 24-h UIE, and UIC in spot samples were (geometric mean ± SD) 103 ± 28 ?g/24 h, 86 ± 33 ?g/24 h, and 68 ± 28 ?g/L, respectively, with no seasonal differences. Intra-individual variation (mean CV) was comparable for measured UIE (32%) and estimated UIE (33%). The CV tended to be higher for the spot UIC (38%) than for the estimated 24-h UIE (33%) (P = 0.12). In this population, 10 spot urine samples or 24-h urine samples were needed to assess individual iodine status with 20% precision. Spot samples would likely be preferable because of their ease of collection. However, the large number of repeated urine samples needed to estimate individual iodine status is a major limitation and emphasizes the need for further investigation of more practical biomarkers of individual iodine status. PMID:21918061

König, Franziska; Andersson, Maria; Hotz, Karin; Aeberli, Isabelle; Zimmermann, Michael B

2011-11-01

287

Mobile on-site sample collection, preparation, and analysis in Iraq. Final report, January-April 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center has developed mobile on-site sample collection, preparation, and analysis equipment to collect environmental samples in highly contaminated areas. This equipment is being used by the United Nations Special Commission at the Baghdad Monitoring and Verification Center (BMVC), which provides long-term monitoring of dual-purpose chemical sites in Iraq, especially those with potential

I. D. Swahn; J. H. Brzezinski

1996-01-01

288

Detection of Helicobacter pylori infection by examination of human breath odor using electronic nose Bloodhound-214ST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our aim was to examine the possibility of use e-nose Bloodhound-214ST to determine presence or absence of H. pylori infection using exhalation samples of patients. Breath samples were collected twice: at baseline and after oral administration of 500 mg of urea. H. pylori status of patients was confirmed by antral biopsy. Using two approaches for the data analysis we showed the possibility to distinguish H. pylori free and infected patients.

Shnayder, E. P.; Moshkin, M. P.; Petrovskii, D. V.; Shevela, A. I.; Babko, A. N.; Kulikov, V. G.

2009-05-01

289

Aneris: Devlopment of an intelligent oceanographic probe with high resolution autonomous sampling and col·lecting capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

ANERIS is a multidisciplinary project focused on the design and development\\u000aof a innovative sampling and collecting sonde. The probe design pretend\\u000ato minimize actual sea water collecting devices limitations by providing autonomy\\u000aand intelligence to the system.

V. Cano; N. Pujol; Jaume Piera Fernández; E. Torrecilla; Ismael F. Aymerich

2009-01-01

290

Feasibility of a breath test for monitoring adherence to vaginal administration of antiretroviral microbicide gels.  

PubMed

Adherence to microbicide gel use is critical to optimizing effectiveness in preventing human immunodeficiency virus transmission. The authors hypothesized that ester taggants added to vaginal gels would generate exhaled alcohol and ketone metabolites and provide a "breath test" for vaginal gel use. This 2-arm (vaginal and dermal), randomized, participant-blinded, pilot study tested this hypothesis. On 8 visits, healthy women (n = 8) received intravaginal taggant (2-butyl acetate, 2-pentyl acetate, isopropyl butyrate, or 2-pentyl butyrate; 30 mg) formulated in hydroxyethylcellulose or tenofovir placebo gel. A second group (n = 4) of women received the same formulations administered dermally on the forearm to determine if skin administration might confound the system. Breath samples were collected using bags before and after taggant administration for 1 hour. Samples were measured using a miniature gas chromatograph and/or gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy for ester taggant, alcohol, and ketone concentrations. After vaginal administration, 2-butyl acetate, 2-pentyl acetate, and metabolites were observed in breath, whereas isopropyl butyrate, 2-pentyl butyrate, and metabolites were not. Some women reported self-resolving, mild burning (24/64 visits) with vaginal administration or a "bubblegum" taste (7/64 visits). No taggants or metabolites were detected following dermal application. A "breath test" for adherence to antiretroviral vaginal gel application appears physiologically and technically feasible. PMID:23400750

Morey, Timothy E; Wasdo, Scott; Wishin, Judith; Quinn, Brian; van der Straten, Ariane; Booth, Matthew; Gonzalez, Daniel; Derendorf, Hartmut; Melker, Richard J; Dennis, Donn M

2013-01-01

291

Automated biowaste sampling system improved feces collection, mass measurement and sampling. [by use of a breadboard model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability of the basic automated Biowaste Sampling System (ABSS) hardware was extended and improved through the design, fabrication and test of breadboard hardware. A preliminary system design effort established the feasibility of integrating the breadboard concepts into the ABSS.

Fogal, G. L.; Mangialardi, J. K.; Young, R.

1974-01-01

292

Determination of Human Blood Cholinesterase. Instructions for Collection of Samples, Storage Stability, Shipping of Samples and Interpretation of Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study provides information relative to the shipment of blood cholinesterase samples. The storage stability of human erythrocyte and plasma acetylcholinesterases was measured at various temperatures (room, refrigerator, freezer). Instructions are provi...

A. J. Reiter

1971-01-01

293

Detection of manipulation in doping control urine sample collection: a multidisciplinary approach to determine identical urine samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manipulation of urine sampling in sports drug testing is considered a violation of anti-doping rules and is consequently sanctioned\\u000a by regulatory authorities. In 2003, three identical urine specimens were provided by three different athletes, and the identity\\u000a of all urine samples was detected and substantiated using numerous analytical strategies including gas chromatography–mass\\u000a spectrometry with steroid and metabolite profiling, gas chromatography–nitrogen\\/phosphorus

Mario Thevis; Hans Geyer; Ute Mareck; Gerd Sigmund; Jürgen Henke; Lotte Henke; Wilhelm Schänzer

2007-01-01

294

Combining Laser Ablation/Liquid Phase Collection Surface Sampling and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the coupling of ambient pressure transmission geometry laser ablation with a liquid phase sample collection method for surface sampling and ionization with subsequent mass spectral analysis. A commercially available autosampler was adapted to produce a liquid droplet at the end of the syringe injection needle while in close proximity to the surface to collect the sample plume produced by laser ablation. The sample collection was followed by either flow injection or a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of the extracted components and detection with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). To illustrate the analytical utility of this coupling, thin films of a commercial ink sample containing rhodamine 6G and of mixed isobaric rhodamine B and 6G dyes on glass microscope slides were analyzed. The flow injection and HPLC/ESI-MS analysis revealed successful laser ablation, capture and, with HPLC, the separation of the two compounds. The ablated circular area was about 70 m in diameter for these experiments. The spatial sampling resolution afforded by the laser ablation, as well as the ability to use sample processing methods like HPLC between the sample collection and ionization steps, makes this combined surface sampling/ionization technique a highly versatile analytical tool.

Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2011-01-01

295

Radiometric assessment of natural radioactivity levels of agricultural soil samples collected in Dakahlia, Egypt.  

PubMed

Determination of the natural radioactivity has been carried out, by using a gamma-ray spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3? × 3?] system, in surface soil samples collected from various locations in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. These locations form the agriculturally important regions of Egypt. The study area has many industries such as chemical, paper, organic fertilisers and construction materials, and the soils of the study region are used as a construction material. Therefore, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil ranged from 5.7 ± 0.3 to 140 ± 7, from 9.0 ± 0.4 to 139 ± 7 and from 22 ± 1 to 319 ± 16 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, radium equivalent (Req), excess lifetime cancer risk, hazard indices (Hex and Hin) and annual gonadal dose equivalent, which resulted from the natural radionuclides in the soil were calculated. PMID:23509393

Issa, Shams A M

2013-01-01

296

Sampling Procedures and Survey Methodologies for the 1996 Survey with Comparisons to Earlier National Roadside Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the multistage sampling system employed in the 1996 national roadside survey and compares it to the sampling methods employed in the two prior surveys in 1973 and 1986. Also described are the data collection procedures at the selected sites, the breath-test devices used to collect blood alcohol concentration (BAC) data, and the methods used to impute BAC

Diane C. Lestina; Michael Greene; Robert B. Voas; Joann Wells

1999-01-01

297

Variation in aluminum, iron, and particle concentrations in oxic ground-water samples collected by use of tangential-flow ultrafiltration with low-flow sampling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Particulates that move with ground water and those that are artificially mobilized during well purging could be incorporated into water samples during collection and could cause trace-element concentrations to vary in unfiltered samples, and possibly in filtered samples (typically 0.45-um (micron) pore size) as well, depending on the particle-size fractions present. Therefore, measured concentrations may not be representative of those in the aquifer. Ground water may contain particles of various sizes and shapes that are broadly classified as colloids, which do not settle from water, and particulates, which do. In order to investigate variations in trace-element concentrations in ground-water samples as a function of particle concentrations and particle-size fractions, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, collected samples from five wells completed in the unconfined, oxic Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system of the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Samples were collected by purging with a portable pump at low flow (0.2-0.5 liters per minute and minimal drawdown, ideally less than 0.5 foot). Unfiltered samples were collected in the following sequence: (1) within the first few minutes of pumping, (2) after initial turbidity declined and about one to two casing volumes of water had been purged, and (3) after turbidity values had stabilized at less than 1 to 5 Nephelometric Turbidity Units. Filtered samples were split concurrently through (1) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter, (2) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter and a 0.0029-um pore size tangential-flow filter in sequence, and (3), in selected cases, a 0.45-um and a 0.05-um pore size capsule filter in sequence. Filtered samples were collected concurrently with the unfiltered sample that was collected when turbidity values stabilized. Quality-assurance samples consisted of sequential duplicates (about 25 percent) and equipment blanks. Concentrations of particles were determined by light scattering. Variations in concentrations aluminum and iron (1 -74 and 1-199 ug/L (micrograms per liter), respectively), common indicators of the presence of particulate-borne trace elements, were greatest in sample sets from individual wells with the greatest variations in turbidity and particle concentration. Differences in trace-element concentrations in sequentially collected unfiltered samples with variable turbidity were 5 to 10 times as great as those in concurrently collected samples that were passed through various filters. These results indicate that turbidity must be both reduced and stabilized even when low-flow sample-collection techniques are used in order to obtain water samples that do not contain considerable particulate artifacts. Currently (2001) available techniques need to be refined to ensure that the measured trace-element concentrations are representative of those that are mobile in the aquifer water.

Szabo, Z.; Oden, J. H.; Gibs, J.; Rice, D. E.; Ding, Y.

2001-01-01

298

A Comparison of Tape Sampling and Microvacuum Procedures for the Collection of Surface Glass Fiber Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, few published methods exist for assessing surface contamination of asbestos and other fibers. Several surface sampling procedures have been employed: the wipe sampling method, the tape sampling method, and a more recent procedure commonly known as the microvacuum or microvacing procedure. Wipe sampling is not appropriate for sampling fibers on a surface, and limited studies have been reported which

Chris A. Corrigan; Kenneth D. Blehm

1997-01-01

299

Breathing air trailer acceptance test procedure  

SciTech Connect

This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) will document compliance with the requirements of WHC-S-0251 Rev. 0 and ECNs 613530 and 606113. The equipment being tested is a Breathing Air Supply Trailer purchased as a Design and Fabrication procurement activity for use in the core sampling program. The ATP was written by the Seller and will be performed by the Seller with representatives of the Westinghouse Hanford Company witnessing the test at the Seller`s location. This test procedure is to verify that the American Bristol Industries, Inc., Model 5014-0001 low pressure Mobile Breathing Air Trailer, meets or exceeds the requirements of the Westinghouse Hanford specification.

Kostelnik, A.J.

1994-09-14

300

SUCCESSFUL DEPLOYMENT OF THE SCARAB III REMOTELY OPERATED VEHICLE FOR COLLECTION OF SLUDGE SAMPLE FROM UNDERGROUND RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANK  

Microsoft Academic Search

In May 1999, the Scarab III remotely operated vehicle was successfully utilized to retrieve sludge samples from numerous locations within Tank T-14, an inactive underground radioactive waste storage tank at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This activity completed the first deployment of the Scarab III system in a radiological environment, and resulted in the collection of representative samples of Tank

Angie Brill; Diedre Falter; Walt Glover; Mark Kelly

2000-01-01

301

Variation in aluminum, iron, and particle concentrations in oxic groundwater samples collected by use of tangential-flow ultrafiltration with low-flow sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulates that move with ground water and those that are artificially mobilized during well purging could be incorporated into water samples during collection and could cause trace-element concentrations to vary in unfiltered samples, and possibly in filtered samples (typically 0.45-um (micron) pore size) as well, depending on the particle-size fractions present. Therefore, measured concentrations may not be representative of those in the aquifer. Ground water may contain particles of various sizes and shapes that are broadly classified as colloids, which do not settle from water, and particulates, which do. In order to investigate variations in trace-element concentrations in ground-water samples as a function of particle concentrations and particle-size fractions, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, collected samples from five wells completed in the unconfined, oxic Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system of the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Samples were collected by purging with a portable pump at low flow (0.2-0.5 liters per minute and minimal drawdown, ideally less than 0.5 foot). Unfiltered samples were collected in the following sequence: (1) within the first few minutes of pumping, (2) after initial turbidity declined and about one to two casing volumes of water had been purged, and (3) after turbidity values had stabilized at less than 1 to 5 Nephelometric Turbidity Units. Filtered samples were split concurrently through (1) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter, (2) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter and a 0.0029-um pore size tangential-flow filter in sequence, and (3), in selected cases, a 0.45-um and a 0.05-um pore size capsule filter in sequence. Filtered samples were collected concurrently with the unfiltered sample that was collected when turbidity values stabilized. Quality-assurance samples consisted of sequential duplicates (about 25 percent) and equipment blanks. Concentrations of particles were determined by light scattering.

Szabo, Zoltan; Oden, Jeannette H.; Gibs, Jacob; Rice, Donald E.; Ding, Yuan

2002-02-01

302

Fiber ringdown breathing rate sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a new sensor for patient's breathing measurement by using fiber loop ringdown spectroscopy. The sensing system consists of a typical single mode fiber-loop ring-down spectroscopy and a sensor mat which is used to introduce breathing related optical loss. The sensor mat could be put in the chair or embedded in the bed. It is non invasive measurement. The breathing rate sensor is demonstrated with an accuracy of +/-2 breaths per minute and stable sensor output.

Chen, Zhihao; Yim, Huiqing; Teo, Ju Teng; Ng, Soon Huat

2011-05-01

303

Acceptability of self-collection sampling for HPV-DNA testing in low-resource settings: a mixed methods approach  

PubMed Central

Background Vaginal self-sampling with HPV-DNA tests is a promising primary screening method for cervical cancer. However, women’s experiences, concerns and the acceptability of such tests in low-resource settings remain unknown. Methods In India, Nicaragua, and Uganda, a mixed-method design was used to collect data from surveys (N?=?3,863), qualitative interviews (N?=?72; 20 providers and 52 women) and focus groups (N?=?30 women) on women’s and providers’ experiences with self-sampling, women’s opinions of sampling at home, and their future needs. Results Among surveyed women, 90% provided a self- collected sample. Of these, 75% reported it was easy, although 52% were initially concerned about hurting themselves and 24% were worried about not getting a good sample. Most surveyed women preferred self-sampling (78%). However it was not clear if they responded to the privacy of self-sampling or the convenience of avoiding a pelvic examination, or both. In follow-up interviews, most women reported that they didn’t mind self-sampling, but many preferred to have a provider collect the vaginal sample. Most women also preferred clinic-based screening (as opposed to home-based self-sampling), because the sample could be collected by a provider, women could receive treatment if needed, and the clinic was sanitary and provided privacy. Self-sampling acceptability was higher when providers prepared women through education, allowed women to examine the collection brush, and were present during the self-collection process. Among survey respondents, aids that would facilitate self-sampling in the future were: staff help (53%), additional images in the illustrated instructions (31%), and a chance to practice beforehand with a doll/model (26%). Conclusion Self-and vaginal-sampling are widely acceptable among women in low-resource settings. Providers have a unique opportunity to educate and prepare women for self-sampling and be flexible in accommodating women’s preference for self-sampling.

2014-01-01

304

The effect of a paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT) intervention on the profile of volatile organic compounds in human breath: a pilot study.  

PubMed

This study sought to identify if detectable changes in human breath profiles may be observed following a psychological intervention designed to induce stress, a paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT). Breath samples were collected from 22 participants (10 male and 12 female) following a double cross-over randomized design with two experimental interventions. One intervention required participants to listen to classical music chosen to be neutral. The other intervention required participants to undertake a PASAT that induced cardiovascular responses consistent with acute stress. Both interventions also involved two sequences of cognitive function tests. Blood-pressure and heart-rate were recorded throughout each intervention and distal breath samples were collected onto Tenax® TA/Carbograph 1 thermal desorption tubes, using an adaptive breath sampler. Samples were collected before and after the PASAT. Breath samples were analysed by thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data registration using retention indexing and peak deconvolution followed by partial least-squares discriminant analysis identified six stress sensitive compounds. A principal components analysis model based on these components generated a model that predicted post-PASAT versus post-neutral intervention samples with a sensitivity of 83.3% and a selectivity of 91.6% for females, compared to 100% sensitivity and 90% selectivity for males. Of the six compounds indole, 2-hydroxy-1-phenylethanone, benzaldehyde, and 2-ethylhexan-1-ol were identified on the basis of mass spectral, retention indexing and confirmation against pure standards. 2-methylpentadecane was tentatively identified from mass spectral and retention indexing, whilst one component has yet to be assigned, although the mass spectrum is indicative of a terpene. Indole and 2-methylpentadecane concentrations increased in response to the PASAT intervention, while the other compounds reduced in their abundance in human breath, possibly as a result of ventilation effects. PMID:23445666

Turner, M A; Bandelow, S; Edwards, L; Patel, P; Martin, H J; Wilson, I D; Thomas, C L P

2013-03-01

305

77 FR 36567 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application and Approval To Manipulate, Examine, Sample...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Approval To Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods AGENCY: U.S. Customs...and Approval to Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods. This request for...and Approval to Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods. OMB Number:...

2012-06-19

306

77 FR 51818 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Application and Approval To Manipulate, Examine, Sample...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Approval To Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods AGENCY: U.S. Customs...and Approval to Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods. This is a proposed...and Approval to Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods. OMB Number:...

2012-08-27

307

Results of chemical and stable isotopic analyses of water samples collected in the Patagonia Mountains, southern Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water samples were collected in the Patagonia Mountains in February, 1997. Most of the samples were collected from portals of abandoned mines, or from stream drainages immediately downstream from abandoned mines. Most of the samples have low pH ( 1000 mg/L). Anion composition of the water samples is dominated by sulfate, while cation compositions range from calcium-dominated to mixed calcium-magnesium or calcium-sodium-dominated waters. Metals such as iron, manganese, copper, zinc, and aluminum contribute a significant portion (>10%) of the cation content to the water samples. Because of the low pH?s, protons contribute up to several percent of the cation character of the waters in some of the samples. The data are presented in tabular and graphical formats, with descriptions of data quality and brief descriptions of results.

Wanty, Richard B.; Shanks, Wayne C., III; Lamothe, Paul; Meier, Al; Lichte, Fred; Briggs, Paul H.; Berger, Byron R.

2001-01-01

308

Firefighter's Breathing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System, based on open-loop demand-type compressed air concept, is lighter and less bulky than former systems, yet still provides thirty minutes of air supply. Comfort, visibility, donning time, and breathing resistance have been improved. Apparatus is simple to recharge and maintain and is comparable in cost to previously available systems.

Mclaughlan, P. B.; Giorgini, E. A.; Sullivan, J. L.; Simmonds, M. R.; Beck, E. J.

1976-01-01

309

Cellular Respiration and Breathing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The questions in this minds-on discussion/worksheet activity help students understand the relationship between cellular respiration, O2, CO2, and breathing. To maximize student participation and learning, I recommend that you have your students complete the questions individually or in pairs and then have a whole class discussion.

Waldron, Ingrid; Spindler, Lori

310

Breathing Like a Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

Katsioloudis, Petros J.

2010-01-01

311

Donât Breathe the Moondust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA site describes how an Apollo caught "lunar dust hay feverâ and how breathing lunar dust poses a serious health risk. The site contains several images of lunar dust. In addition, the even more serious hazard of dust on Mars is presented.

2008-04-25

312

INTERMITTENT POSITIVE PRESSURE BREATHING  

EPA Science Inventory

Efficacy of long-term intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) treatment when used as an adjunct to the overall care of ambulatory outpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The evaluation compared the use of IPPB with use of a powered nebulizer....

313

Temperature of the Breath  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE interesting observation made by Dr. Dudgeon (NATURE, vol. xxii. p. 241, and vol. xxiii. p, 10) to the effect that breathing on the bulb of a thermometer through several folds of flannel or silk raises the temperature of the instrument several degrees above that of the mouth and body, is easily verified. There is no doubt about the accuracy

Wm. Roberts

1880-01-01

314

New HPLC assay for urinary salbutamol concentrations in samples collected post-inhalation.  

PubMed

A new reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with fluorescence detection and two solid phase extraction (SPE) methods have been developed, optimised and validated for determining salbutamol in human urine after an inhalation. SPE methodology for unchanged salbutamol (USAL) and salbutamol plus its metabolites (USALMET) concentrations in urine has been developed using terbutaline as the internal standard. Confirm HCX cartridges were used for USAL and Oasis HLB for USALMET. Calibration lines of salbutamol urine standards were linear over the range 25-300 microg/L with mean (RSD) r(2) values of 0.9983 (0.06%) for USAL and 0.9976 (0.202%) for USALMET. The HPLC method was accurate (mean bias -0.40% for USAL and 0.46% for USALMET) and precise (mean RSD 5.0% for USAL and 2.90% for USALMET). The calculated LOD and LOQ for salbutamol using a 1 mL urine sample were 4.0 and 12.12 microg/L for USAL, and 4.80 and 14.56 microg/L for USALMET, respectively. The mean (RSD) SPE recoveries of salbutamol were 90.82% (2.32%) for USAL and 91.54% (2.96%) for USALMET. Both HPLC and SPE methods were applied to quantify unchanged and metabolised salbutamol excreted in urine after the inhalation of 200 microg salbutamol from metered dose inhalers (MDIs) by 14 healthy volunteers. Charcoal slurries were also ingested to prevent gastro-intestinal absorption. Urine samples were collected at 30 min post-inhalation and then pooled for the next 24h. All urine concentrations were within the sensitive portion of the assay. The volunteer study revealed that following inhalation from an MDI about 20% of the nominal dose is deposited into the lungs and 46% is delivered to the systemic circulation. The results confirm the application, sensitivity, reliability and robustness of the HPLC and SPE methods for urinary pharmacokinetic studies after salbutamol inhalations using therapeutic doses. PMID:19443162

Mazhar, S H R A; Chrystyn, H

2009-09-01

315

Metabonomic analysis of exhaled breath condensate in adults by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a noninvasive method for the study of airway lining fluid. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can provide biochemical profiles of metabolites in biological samples. The aim of the present study was to validate the NMR metabonomic analysis of EBC in adults, assessing the role of pre-analytical variables (saliva and disinfectant contamination) and the potential clinical feasibility. In total, 36 paired EBC and saliva samples, obtained from healthy subjects, laryngectomised patients and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, were analysed by means of (1)H-NMR spectroscopy followed by principal component analysis. The effect on EBC of disinfectant, used for reusable parts of the condenser, was assessed after different washing procedures. To evaluate intra-day repeatability, eight subjects were asked to collect EBC and saliva twice within the same day. All NMR saliva spectra were significantly different from corresponding EBC samples. EBC taken from condensers washed with recommended procedures invariably showed spectra perturbed by disinfectant. Each EBC sample clustered with corresponding samples of the same group, while presenting intergroup qualitative and quantitative signal differences (94% of the total variance within the data). In conclusion, the nuclear magnetic resonance metabonomic approach could identify the metabolic fingerprint of exhaled breath condensate in different clinical sets of data. Moreover, metabonomics of exhaled breath condensate in adults can discriminate potential perturbations induced by pre-analytical variables. PMID:18653649

de Laurentiis, G; Paris, D; Melck, D; Maniscalco, M; Marsico, S; Corso, G; Motta, A; Sofia, M

2008-11-01

316

75 FR 17511 - Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...respirable dust within the personal breathing zone of the miner whose exposure is being monitored. The breathing zone is generally considered to be the...industrial hygiene principles accept breathing zone samples as most...

2010-04-06

317

Detection of potential chronic kidney disease markers in breath using gas chromatography with mass-spectral detection coupled with thermal desorption method.  

PubMed

The analytical potential of chromatographic breath analysis towards detection of compounds suggested as markers of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was tested. Until now, trimethylamine (TMA) considered as a potential marker of renal disorder was detected mainly in plasma. Detection of TMA in breath was rarely undertaken due to analytical difficulties associated with amines' properties. The results of our investigations confirmed that an application of thermal desorption (TD) and gas chromatography with mass-spectral detection (GC/MS) allows direct detection of TMA in breath. The preliminary studies allowed to determine the breath composition in case of patients suffering from CKD and to compare the obtained results to a control group. Breath samples were collected from 14 patients and 9 healthy volunteers. TMA was detected in all patients suffering from CKD in the range 1.76-38.02ppb, but not in the control group. Acetone and isoprene were present in the exhaled air of all examined persons. The concentration of acetone was in the range of 26.52-329.46ppb in the patient group and 73.11-437.14ppb in the control group. Isoprene was detected in the range 57.17-329.8ppb among CKD patients and 27.99-143.77ppb in healthy volunteers. Additionally aliphatic hydrocarbons and sulfur compounds were determined in breath as compounds which could be essential in case of diseases coexisting with CKD. Apart from TMA and pentane no statistically significant differences were found using our analytical technique. TMA was detected in the breath of all patients with CKD and in none of breath samples in control group. TMA seems to be a promising marker of CKD. PMID:23764192

Grabowska-Polanowska, Beata; Faber, Jacek; Skowron, Monika; Miarka, Przemys?aw; Pietrzycka, Agata; Sliwka, Ireneusz; Amann, Anton

2013-08-01

318

Marker-assisted sampling of the cultivated Andean potato Solanum phureja collection using RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potato crop originated in the Andean highlands where numerous farmer's varieties and non-cultivated wild species exist. An Andean potato collection is held in trust at the International Potato Center (CIP) to preserve the biodiversity of this crop and ensure the supply of germplasm for potato improvement worldwide. A core collection representing the biodiversity of the Andean potato germplasm is

Marc Ghislain; Dapeng Zhang; Diego Fajardo; Zósimo Huamán; Robert J. Hijmans

1999-01-01

319

Role of mandibular displacement and airway size in improving breathing after rapid maxillary expansion  

PubMed Central

Background Oral breathing and maxillary deficiency are often associated with steep mandibular plane angle, and retrognathic mandible compared with the faces of healthy controls. Some studies suggested that after rapid maxillary expansion, improvement in nasal breathing and repositioning of mandible with transitory increasing of facial height and, in some cases, spontaneous forward repositioning might occur. The abovementioned mandibular effects could contribute to enlarge oropharynx volume with repositioning of tongue and soft palate with an improvement of upper airway volume after treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate by cone beam computed tomography the role of oropharyngeal volume and mandibular position changes after rapid maxillary expansion in patients showing improved breathing pattern confirmed by polysomnography exam. Methods The final sample of this retrospective study comprised 14 Caucasian patients (mean age 7.6 years) who undergone rapid maxillary expansion with Haas-type expander banded on second deciduous upper molars. Cone beam computed tomography scans and polysomnography exams were collected before placing the appliance (T0) and after 12 months (T1). Mandibular landmarks localization and airway semiautomatic segmentation on cone beam computed tomography scans allowed airway volume computing and measurements. Results No significant differences were found between oropharyngeal airway changes and mandibular displacement after rapid maxillary expansion in growing patients. Conclusions The suggested improvement in upper airway and breathing after rapid maxillary expansion should be further related to different compartments of airway such as rhinopharynx and nasal cavity.

2014-01-01

320

Association of Nocturnal Arrhythmias with Sleep-disordered Breathing  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Sleep-disordered breathing recurrent intermittent hypoxia and sympathetic nervous system activity surges provide the milieu for cardiac arrhythmia development. Objective: We postulate that the prevalence of nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias is higher among subjects with than without sleep-disordered breathing. Methods: The prevalence of arrhythmias was compared in two samples of participants from the Sleep Heart Health Study frequency-matched on age, sex, race/ethnicity, and body mass index: (1) 228 subjects with sleep-disordered breathing (respiratory disturbance index ? 30) and (2) 338 subjects without sleep-disordered breathing (respiratory disturbance index < 5). Results: Atrial fibrillation, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, and complex ventricular ectopy (nonsustained ventricular tachycardia or bigeminy or trigeminy or quadrigeminy) were more common in subjects with sleep-disordered breathing compared with those without sleep-disordered breathing: 4.8 versus 0.9% (p = 0.003) for atrial fibrillation; 5.3 versus 1.2% (p = 0.004) for nonsustained ventricular tachycardia; 25.0 versus 14.5% (p = 0.002) for complex ventricular ectopy. Compared with those without sleep-disordered breathing and adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and prevalent coronary heart disease, individuals with sleep-disordered breathing had four times the odds of atrial fibrillation (odds ratio [OR], 4.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–15.74), three times the odds of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (OR, 3.40; 95% CI, 1.03–11.20), and almost twice the odds of complex ventricular ectopy (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.11–2.74). A significant relation was also observed between sleep-disordered breathing and ventricular ectopic beats/h (p < 0.0003) considered as a continuous outcome. Conclusions: Individuals with severe sleep-disordered breathing have two- to fourfold higher odds of complex arrhythmias than those without sleep-disordered breathing even after adjustment for potential confounders.

Mehra, Reena; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Shahar, Eyal; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Nawabit, Rawan; Kirchner, H. Lester; Sahadevan, Jayakumar; Redline, Susan

2006-01-01

321

MACRO- MICRO-PURGE SOIL GAS SAMPLING METHODS FOR THE COLLECTION OF CONTAMINANT VAPORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Purging influence on soil gas concentrations for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as affected by sampling tube inner diameter and sampling depth (i.e., dead-space purge volume), was evaluated at different field sites. A macro-purge sampling system consisted of a standard hollo...

322

Analytical results for 544 water samples collected in the Attean Quartz Monzonite in the vicinity of Jackman, Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water samples were collected in the vicinity of Jackman, Maine as a part of the study of the relationship of dissolved constituents in water to the sediments subjacent to the water. Each sample was analyzed for specific conductance, alkalinity, acidity, pH, fluoride, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and silica. Trace elements determined were copper, zinc, molybdenum, lead, iron, manganese, arsenic, cobalt, nickel, and strontium. The longitude and latitude of each sample location and a sample site map are included in the report as well as a table of the analytical results.

Ficklin, W. H.; Nowlan, G. A.; Preston, D. J.

1983-01-01

323

A large, consistent plasma proteomics data set from prospectively collected breast cancer patient and healthy volunteer samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Variability of plasma sample collection and of proteomics technology platforms has been detrimental to generation of large\\u000a proteomic profile datasets from human biospecimens.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We carried out a clinical trial-like protocol to standardize collection of plasma from 204 healthy and 216 breast cancer patient\\u000a volunteers. The breast cancer patients provided follow up samples at 3 month intervals. We generated proteomics profiles

Catherine P Riley; Xiang Zhang; Harikrishna Nakshatri; Bryan Schneider; Fred E Regnier; Jiri Adamec; Charles Buck

2011-01-01

324

Screening of Pediatric Sleep-Disordered Breathing  

PubMed Central

Background: Identification of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) using questionnaires is critical from a clinical and research perspective. However, which questions to use and how well such questionnaires perform has thus far been fraught with substantial uncertainty. We aimed at delineating the usefulness of a set of questions for identifying pediatric SDB. Methods: Random prospective sampling of urban 5- to 9-year-old children from the community and enriched for habitual snoring underwent overnight sleep study. Subjective indicators or questions were evaluated to further characterize and discriminate SDB. Results: Of 1,133 subjects, 52.8% were habitual snorers. This sample was analyzed based on a clinical grouping (ie, established apnea-hypopnea index cutoffs). Several statistical steps were performed and indicated that complaints can be ranked according to a severity hierarchy: shake child to breathe, apnea during sleep, struggle breathing when asleep, and breathing concerns while asleep, followed by loudness of snoring and snoring while asleep. With a posteriori cutoff, a predictive score > 2.72 on the severity scale was found (ie, area under the curve, 0.79 ± 0.03; sensitivity, 59.03%; specificity, 82.85%; positive predictive value, 35.4; negative predictive value, 92.7), making this cutoff applicable for confirmatory purposes. Conclusions: As a result, the set of six hierarchically arranged questions will aid the screening of children at high risk for SDB but cannot be used as the sole diagnostic approach.

Spruyt, Karen

2012-01-01

325

Emergency Response Breathing Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerospace Design & Development, Inc.'s (ADD's) SCAMP was developed under an SBIR contract through Kennedy Space Center. SCAMP stands for Supercritical Air Mobility Pack. The technology came from the life support fuel cell support systems used for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs. It uses supercritical cryogenic air and is able to function in microgravity environments. SCAMP's self-contained breathing apparatus(SCBA) systems are also ground-based and can provide twice as much air than traditional SCBA's due to its high-density capacity. The SCAMP system was designed for use in launch pad emergency rescues. ADD also developed a protective suit for use with SCAMP that is smaller and lighter system than the old ones. ADD's SCAMP allows for body cooling and breathing from the supercritical cryogenic air, requiring no extra systems. The improvement over the traditional SCBA allows for a reduction of injuries, such as heat stress, and makes it easier for rescuers to save lives.

2000-01-01

326

Detection of Vibrio cholerae and Acanthamoeba species from same natural water samples collected from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Vibrio cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 infect humans, causing the diarrheal and waterborne disease cholera, which is a worldwide health problem. V. cholerae and the free-living amoebae Acanthamoeba species are present in aquatic environments, including drinking water and it has shown that Acanthamoebae support bacterial growth and survival. Recently it has shown that Acanthamoeba species enhanced growth and survival of V. cholerae O1 and O139. Water samples from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan were collected with the aim to detect both V. cholerae and Acanthamoeba species from same natural water samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Findings For the first time both V. cholerae and Acanthamoeba species were detected in same natural water samples collected from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan. 89% of detected V. cholerae was found with Acanthamoeba in same water samples. Conclusions The current findings disclose Acanthamoedae as a biological factor enhancing survival of V. cholerae in nature.

2011-01-01

327

A Preliminary Study of 13C-Phenylalanine and 13C-Dipeptide Breath Tests in Horses  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to establish a standard dose and sample collection time for 13C phenylalanine and 13C-Dipeptide breath test in horses. To evaluate dose-dependent effects, healthy horses received 2.5 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg 13C phenylalanine dissolved in 1 ml/kg distilled water and 1.25 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg, and 5 mg/kg 13C dipeptide dissolved in 2 ml/ kg distilled water. Tmax was observed during the sample collection time. For 13C phenylalanine, the standard deviation of Cmax at 5 mg/kg was lower than that of 10 mg/kg. For 13C dipeptide, the standard deviation of Tmax was the lowest at 5 mg/kg. This study revealed that an optimal dose for breath tests with 13C phenylalanine and 13C dipeptide may be 5 mg/kg in horses.

SASAKI, Naoki; TSUZUKI, Nao; YAMADA, Michiaki; MINAMI, Takuto; YAMADA, Haruo

2009-01-01

328

Analysis of Particle and Vapour Phase PAHs from the Personal Air Samples of Bus Garage Workers Exposed to Diesel Exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of particle and vapour phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from the diesel exhaust compounds in bus garage work were measured in winter and in summer. Five personal air samples were collected from the breathing zones of 22 garage workers every other day of consecutive weeks. Control samples (n = 22) were collected from office workers in Helsinki.

L. KUUSIMAKI; KIMMO PELTONEN; PERTTI MUTANEN; KIRSTI SAVELA

2003-01-01

329

Low acetaldehyde collection efficiencies for 24-hour sampling with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-coated solid sorbents.  

PubMed

Airborne aldehyde and ketone (carbonyl) sampling methodologies based on derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-coated solid sorbents could unequivocally be considered the "gold" standard. Originally developed in the late 1970s, these methods have been extensively evaluated and developed up to the present day. However, these methods have been inadequately evaluated for the long-term (i.e., 24 h or greater) sampling collection efficiency (CE) of carbonyls other than formaldehyde. The current body of literature fails to demonstrate that DNPH-coated solid sorbent sampling methods have acceptable CEs for the long-term sampling of carbonyls other than formaldehyde. Despite this, such methods are widely used to report the concentrations of multiple carbonyls from long-term sampling, assuming approximately 100% CEs. Laboratory experiments were conducted in this study to evaluate the long-term formaldehyde and acetaldehyde sampling CEs for several commonly used DNPH-coated solid sorbents. Results from sampling known concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde generated in a dynamic atmosphere generation system demonstrate that the 24-hour formaldehyde sampling CEs ranged from 83 to 133%, confirming the findings made in previous studies. However, the 24-hour acetaldehyde sampling CEs ranged from 1 to 62%. Attempts to increase the acetaldehyde CEs by adding acid to the samples post sampling were unsuccessful. These results indicate that assuming approximately 100% CEs for 24-hour acetaldehyde sampling, as commonly done with DNPH-coated solid sorbent methods, would substantially under estimate acetaldehyde concentrations. PMID:17310725

Herrington, Jason S; Fan, Zhi-Hua Tina; Lioy, Paul J; Zhang, Junfeng Jim

2007-01-15

330

Determination of exposure to benzene, toluene and xylenes in Turkish primary school children by analysis of breath and by environmental passive sampling.  

PubMed

Benzene, toluene, m/p-xylene and o-xylene (BTX) are toxic volatile organic compounds and ubiquitous air pollutants. Smoking and consumer products are indoor sources of BTX, whereas traffic and industrial activities are primary sources contributing to outdoor levels of BTX. The aim of this study was to characterize exposure of children to BTX by personal air sampling using diffusive samplers and by analysis of end-exhaled air. For this study, 101 children of 10-11 years of age were recruited from four primary schools in Southern Turkey during the warm season (May 2008). Two schools were situated in a residential area near primary and secondary iron and steel works (Payas) and two schools were located in a non-industrialized city (Iskenderun). The children and their parents were visited at home for an interview and to identify possible sources of BTX in the residence. Median concentrations of benzene determined by diffusive samplers were higher in Payas (4.1 microg/m(3)) than in Iskenderun (2.7 microg/m(3), p<0.001). For toluene, no differences were observed, whereas for xylene isomers air concentrations tended to be lower for children living in Payas. The median end-exhaled air concentrations were 8.2, 29, 3.8, and 5.7 pmol/L for benzene, toluene, m/p-xylene and o-xylene, respectively (Payas), and 6.9, 25, 4.9, and 6.0 pmol/L, respectively (Iskenderun). Concentrations of toluene in end-exhaled air were 50% higher in children living with household members who smoked indoors (p<0.05) and benzene in end-exhaled air was more than 3-fold higher for those children who were exposed to tobacco smoke inside a vehicle (p<0.001). End-exhaled concentrations of benzene were also higher in children living in a residence with an attached garage (p<0.05). These exposure modifying factors were not identified when using the results obtained with diffusive samplers. PMID:20619876

Scheepers, Paul T J; Konings, Joke; Demirel, Gülcin; Gaga, Eftade O; Anzion, Rob; Peer, Petronella G M; Dogeroglu, Tuncay; Ornektekin, Sermin; van Doorn, Wim

2010-09-15

331

Concentration levels of total and methylmercury in mussel samples collected along the coasts of Sardinia Island (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the assessment of the total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contamination of mussel samples collected by two sampling campaigns from along the coastline of Sardinia (Italy). T-Hg has been determined by a direct mercury analyser (DMA) whereas MeHg has been determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) after acid extraction, and employs a novel NaBPh4 derivatization method. The

I Ipolyi; P Massanisso; S Sposato; P Fodor; R Morabito

2004-01-01

332

Low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids and related polar compounds in the remote marine rain samples collected from Western Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the western Pacific Ocean cruise of R\\/V Hakuho-Maru (20°N-40°S), fourteen rainwater samples were collected. They were studied by a capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) for the molecular distributions of C2?C10 ?, ?-dicarboxylic acids and related polar compounds, i.e. ketoacids (C2?C9) and ?-dicarbonyls (C2?C3). Samples were also analysed for dissolved (DOC) and total organic carbon (TOC). Total

Richard Sempéré; Kimitaka Kawamura

1996-01-01

333

Evidence for microorganisms in stratosphere air samples collected at a height of 41km  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples of air removed from the stratosphere, at an altitude of 41km, were previously found to contain viable, but non-cultureable bacteria (cocci and rods). Here, we describe experiments aimed at growing these organisms, together with any others, present in the samples. Two bacteria (Bacillus simplex and Staphylococcus pasteuri) and a single fungus, Engyodontium albus (limber)de Hoog were isolated from the samples. Contamination can never be ruled out when space-derived samples are studied on earth, however, we are confident that the organisms isolated here originated from the stratosphere.

Wainwright, Milton; Wickramasinghe, Nalin C.; Narlikar, J. V.; Rajaratnam, P.

2003-02-01

334

A Review of Metal Concentrations Measured in Surface Soil Samples Collected on and Around the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The data used in this report was collected by two separate projects. The Surface Environmental Surveillance Project collected routine samples in 2008 at 41 locations on and around the Hanford Site, and had them analyzed for metals in addition to the normal radiological constituents. In 2004 and 2005, soil samples were collected at 117 locations on the Hanford Reach National Monument (HRNM) in support of the radiological release of that property. In 2008, archived HRNM soil samples were analyzed for metals to supplement the radiological analyses. Concentration results for 30 individual metals were generated by the analytical methods. Selenium and antimony were not measured at detectable concentrations in most of the samples. Mercury was detected in about half of the samples analyzed. All other constituents were measured at detectable concentrations in nearly all samples analyzed. The average concentrations measured in this study were well below the soil cleanup levels for unrestricted land use established by the Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA). In addition to the average concentration being less than the benchmark, the 90th percentile concentration was also lower than the benchmark for the metals included in the MTCA. The results indicate that the measured concentrations of metals in surface soil were within the expected natural range of concentrations.

Fritz, Brad G.

2009-07-27

335

Sample Collection From SmallAirless Bodies: Examination of Temperature Constraints for the TGIP Sample Collector For the Hera Near-Earth Asteroid Sample Return Mission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There have been a number of missions that have explored the solar system with cameras and other instruments but profound questions remain that can only be addressed through the analysis of returned samples. However, due to lack of appropriate technology, ...

M. A. Franzen L. A. Roe J. A. Buffington

2005-01-01

336

Analysis of Biodiesel Blends Samples Collected in the United States in 2008 (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

NREL sampled and tested the quality of U.S. B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% petroleum diesel) in 2008; 32 samples from retail locations and fleets were tested against a proposed ASTM D7467 B6-B20 specification, now in effect.

Alleman, T. L.; Fouts, L.; McCormick, R. L.

2010-12-01

337

EFFECTS OF SAMPLING NOZZLES ON THE PARTICLE COLLECTION CHARACTERISTICS OF INERTIAL SIZING DEVICES  

EPA Science Inventory

In several particle-sizing samplers, the sample extraction nozzle is necessarily closely coupled to the first inertial sizing stage. Devices of this type include small sampling cyclones, right angle impactor precollectors for in-stack impactors, and the first impaction stage of s...

338

Use of vacutainers for collection of mine atmosphere samples. Report of investigations, 1974-75  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a continuing effort to reduce the weight and bulk of equipment that mining personnel must carry underground, an accurate and convenient gas sampler has been investigated for sampling mine atmospheres by mine inspectors after complete evaluation of 10 ml vacutainers. The latter are septum-stoppered glass tubes used in large numbers for routine blood sampling. These light-weight compact

R. W. Freedman; W. C. Humphrey; R. L. Craft

1975-01-01

339

A Future Moon Mission: Curatorial Statistics on Regolith Fragments Applicable to Sample Collection by Raking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The strategy of raking rock fragments from the lunar regolith as a means of acquiring representative samples has wide support due to science return, spacecraft simplicity (reliability) and economy [3, 4, 5]. While there exists widespread agreement that raking or sieving the bulk regolith is good strategy, there is lively discussion about the minimum sample size. Advocates of consor-tium studies desire fragments large enough to support petrologic and isotopic studies. Fragments from 5 to 10 mm are thought adequate [4, 5]. Yet, Jolliff et al. [6] demonstrated use of 2-4 mm fragments as repre-sentative of larger rocks. Here we make use of cura-torial records and sample catalogs to give a different perspective on minimum sample size for a robotic sample collector.

Allton, J. H.; Bevill, T. J.

2003-01-01

340

Euromet-A Programme for the Collection of New Extraterrestrial Samples: Progress, Plans, or Pipe-Dreams?  

Microsoft Academic Search

EUROMET came into being in the wake of the Meteoritical Society Conference held in Vienna in 1989. It is now funded by the European Community Science Programme (Contract No. SC1* - CT91- 0618 (SSMA)) until November 1993, to collect and curate new meteorites and cosmic dust and distribute samples of the material on a worldwide basis. Although the progress towards

C. T. Pillinger

1992-01-01

341

Metal distribution in road dust samples collected in an urban area close to a petrochemical plant at Gela, Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight samples of road dust were collected from three different localities (industrial, urban, peripheral) of the town of Gela (Italy) to characterize their chemical composition and to assess (a) the influence of the petrochemical plant and the urban traffic on the trace element content in different grain-size fractions of street dust and (b) the solid-phase speciation of the analysed metal

Emanuela Manno; Daniela Varrica; Gaetano Dongarrà

2006-01-01

342

EVALUATING COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DERMAL WIPES, COTTON SUITES, AND ALTERNATIVE URINARY COLLECTION MATERIALS FOR PESTICIDE SAMPLING FROM INFANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

As the Human Exposure Program focuses on the exposure of children to pesticides, there are concerns about the effect, or perceived effect, of components of the sampling procedure on the health and well-being of the infant and the ability to collect pesticide residues. One...

343

Analyses of native water, core material, and elutriate samples collected from the Atchafalaya River and Atchafalaya Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During October and November 1976 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, collected native water and core material from 14 sites along the Atchafalya River in Louisiana (from the head of Whiskey Bay Pilot Channel to American Pass) and 5 sites in Atchafalya Bay for evaluation of possible environmental effects of a proposed channel-enlargement project. Core material from all river sites and one bay site was collected to a depth of 50 feet (15 meters). At the remaining bay sites, samples were collected to a depth of less than 6 inches (15 centimeters) using a pipe dredge. Core material and native water were analyzed (separately and as elutriate samples prepared from mixtures) for selected metals, nutrients, organic compounds, and physical characteristics. No interpretation of the data is given. (Woodard-USGS)

Demas, Charles R.

1977-01-01

344

Sample Collection from Small Airless Bodies: Examination of Temperature Constraints for the TGIP Sample Collector for the Hera Near-Earth Asteroid Sample Return Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There have been a number of missions that have explored the solar system with cameras and other instruments but profound questions remain that can only be addressed through the analysis of returned samples. However, due to lack of appropriate technology, high cost, and high risk, sample return has only recently become a feasible part of robotic solar system exploration. One specific objective of the President s new vision is that robotic exploration of the solar system should enhance human exploration as it discovers and understands the the solar system, and searches for life and resources [1]. Missions to small bodies, asteroids and comets, will partially fill the huge technological void between missions to the Moon and missions to Mars. However, such missions must be low cost and inherently simple, so they can be applied routinely to many missions. Sample return from asteroids, comets, Mars, and Jupiter s moons will be an important and natural part of the human exploration of space effort. Here we describe the collector designed for the Hera Near-Earth Asteroid Sample Return Mission. We have built a small prototype for preliminary evaluation, but expect the final collector to gather approx.100 g of sample of dust grains to centimeter sized clasts on each application to the surface of the asteroid.

Franzen, M. A.; Roe, L. A.; Buffington, J. A.; Sears, D. W. G.

2005-01-01

345

The cross-sectional GRAS sample: A comprehensive phenotypical data collection of schizophrenic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is the collective term for an exclusively clinically diagnosed, heterogeneous group of mental disorders with still obscure biological roots. Based on the assumption that valuable information about relevant genetic and environmental disease mechanisms can be obtained by association studies on patient cohorts of ? 1000 patients, if performed on detailed clinical datasets and quantifiable biological readouts, we generated

Katja Ribbe; Heidi Friedrichs; Martin Begemann; Sabrina Grube; Sergi Papiol; Anne Kästner; Martin F Gerchen; Verena Ackermann; Asieh Tarami; Annika Treitz; Marlene Flögel; Lothar Adler; Josef B Aldenhoff; Marianne Becker-Emner; Thomas Becker; Adelheid Czernik; Matthias Dose; Here Folkerts; Roland Freese; Rolf Günther; Sabine Herpertz; Dirk Hesse; Gunther Kruse; Heinrich Kunze; Michael Franz; Frank Löhrer; Wolfgang Maier; Andreas Mielke; Rüdiger Müller-Isberner; Cornelia Oestereich; Frank-Gerald Pajonk; Thomas Pollmächer; Udo Schneider; Hans-Joachim Schwarz; Birgit Kröner-Herwig; Ursula Havemann-Reinecke; Jens Frahm; Walter Stühmer; Peter Falkai; Nils Brose; Klaus-Armin Nave; Hannelore Ehrenreich

2010-01-01

346

Quality Sample Collection, Handling, and Preservation for an Effective Microbial Forensics Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science can be part of an effective investigative response to a bioterrorism event or a biocrime by providing capabilities to analyze biological and associated signatures in collected evidence. Microbial forensics, a discipline comprised of several scientific fields, is dedicated to the analysis of evidence from such criminal acts to help determine the responsible party and to exonerate the innocent. A

Bruce Budowle; Steven E. Schutzer; James P. Burans; Douglas J. Beecher; Thomas A. Cebula; Ranajit Chakraborty; William T. Cobb; Jacqueline Fletcher; Martha L. Hale; Robert B. Harris; Michael A. Heitkamp; Frederick Paul Keller; Cheryl Kuske; Joseph E. LeClerc; Babetta L. Marrone; Thomas S. McKenna; Stephen A. Morse; Luis L. Rodriguez; Nancy B. Valentine; Jagjit Yadev

2006-01-01

347

CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 01_RDD: RECRUITMENT SURVEY FOR HOME SAMPLE SUBJECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This data collection form is used to identify eligible preschool children who stay home during the day with their primary adult care giver and recruit them into the study. The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Pollutant (CTEPP) study was o...

348

CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 01: RECRUITMENT SURVEY FOR DAY CARE CENTER SAMPLE SUBJECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This data collection form is used to identify eligible preschool children who attend day care during the day and recruit them into the study. The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Pollutant (CTEPP) study was one of the largest aggregate ex...

349

Analyses of water, core material, and elutriate samples collected near Yazoo City, Mississippi (Yazoo Headwater Project)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five core-material-sampling sites near Yazoo City, Miss., were chosen by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to represent areas of proposed dredging activity. Four receiving-water sites also were selected to represent the water that will contact the proposed dredged material. Chemical and physical analyses were performed upon core material and native-water samples from these sites as well as upon elutriate samples of specific sediment-receiving water systems. The results of these analyses are presented without interpretation. (Woodard-USGS)

Leone, Harold L.; Dupuy, Alton J.

1978-01-01

350

Evaluation of some pollutant levels in environmental samples collected from the area of the new campus of Taif University.  

PubMed

The levels of radioactivity and heavy metals in soil, plant and groundwater samples collected from the area of the new campus of Taif University, Saudi Arabia, and its neighbouring areas have been determined. High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy was used for radioactivity measurements, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of heavy metals. The means of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K concentrations in water samples collected from four wells were found to be 0.13 ± 0.03, 0.05 ± 0.03 and 1.3 ± 0.5 Bq l(-1), respectively. The means of (238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Ra ((232)Th for soil samples) and (40)K concentrations in wild plant and soil samples were found to be 3.7 ± 4.1, 8.8 ± 11.6, 3.8 ± 2.9 and 1025 ± 685, and 8.6 ± 3.4, 12.8 ± 3.4, 16.6 ± 7.1 and 618 ± 82 Bq kg(-1) dry weight (DW), respectively. The (137)Cs of artificial origin was also detected in soil samples with a mean concentration of 3.8 ± 2.2 Bq kg(-1) DW. Evaluating the results, it can be concluded that the concentrations of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soil samples fall within the world average. Furthermore, 19 trace and major elements in groundwater samples and 22 elements in soil and plant samples were determined. The sampling locations of soil can be classified into three groups (relatively high, medium and low polluted) according to their calculated metal pollution index using the contents of trace and major elements. A cluster analysis of the contents of radioactivity and trace element contents in soil samples shows the presence of two main distinct clusters of sampling locations. PMID:22568514

Sharshar, Taher; Hassan, H Ebrahim; Arida, Hassan A; Aydarous, Abdulkadir; Bazaid, Salih A; Ahmed, Mamdouh A

2013-01-01

351

The brominated flame retardants, PBDEs and HBCD, in Canadian human milk samples collected from 1992 to 2005; concentrations and trends.  

PubMed

Human milk samples were collected from individuals residing in various regions across Canada mostly in the years 1992 to 2005. These included five large cities in southern Canada as well as samples from Nunavik in northern Quebec. Comparative samples were also collected from residents of Austin, Texas, USA in 2002 and 2004. More than 300 milk samples were analysed for the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), PBDEs and HBCD, by extraction, purification and quantification using either isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-MS. The Canadian total PBDE values in the years 2002-2005 show median levels of about 20?g/kg on a lipid basis; a value significantly higher than in the 1980s and 1990s. Milk samples from Inuit donors in the northern region of Nunavik were slightly lower in PBDE concentrations than those from populated regions in the south of Quebec. Milk samples from Ontario contained slightly lower amounts of PBDEs in two time periods than those from Texas. HBCD levels in most milk samples were usually less than 1ppb milk lipid and dominated by the ?-isomer. This large data set of BFRs in Canadian human milk demonstrates an increase in the last few decades in human exposure to BFRs which now appears to have stabilized. PMID:24879366

Ryan, John Jake; Rawn, Dorothea F K

2014-09-01

352

Breath-by-breath measurement of particle deposition in the lung of spontaneously breathing rats.  

PubMed

A number of deposition models for humans, as well as experimental animals, have been described. However, no breath-by-breath deposition measurement in rats has been reported to date. The objective of this study is to determine lung deposition of micrometer-sized particles as a function of breathing parameters in the adult rat lung. A new aerosol photometry system was designed to measure deposition of nonhygroscopic, 2-mum sebacate particles in anesthetized, intubated, and spontaneously breathing 90-day-old Wistar-Kyoto rats placed in a size-adjusted body plethysmograph box. Instrumental dead space of the system was minimized down to 310 microl (i.e., approximately 20% of respiratory dead space). The system allows continuous monitoring of particle concentration in the respired volume. Breathing parameters, such as respiratory rate (f), tidal volume (Vt), as well as inspiration/expiration times, were also monitored at different levels of anesthesia. The results showed that Vt typically varied between 1.5 and 4.0 ml for regular breathing and between 4.0 and 10.0 ml for single-sigh breaths; f ranged from 40 to 200 breaths/min. Corresponding deposition values varied between 5 and 50%, depending on breath-by-breath breathing patterns. The best fit of deposition (D) was achieved by a bilinear function of Vt and f and found to be D = 11.0 - 0.09.f + 3.75.Vt. We conclude that our approach provides more realistic conditions for the measurement of deposition than conventional models using ventilated animals and allows us to analyze the correlation between breath-specific deposition and spontaneous breathing patterns. PMID:19644034

Karrasch, S; Eder, G; Bolle, I; Tsuda, A; Schulz, H

2009-10-01

353

42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...shall be permanently and legibly marked to identify their contents, e.g., compressed breathing air, compressed breathing oxygen, liquefied breathing air, or liquefied breathing oxygen. (c) Containers normally removed from apparatus...

2013-10-01

354

Miniature CVD-Diamond Coring Drills for Robotic Sample Collection and Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) can be used to fabricate small diamond core drills that are relatively transparent to X-rays and to infrared radiation, allowing the drill to double as a sample holder.

Vaniman, D. T.; Trava-Airoldi, V. J.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.

2003-03-01

355

21 CFR 111.80 - What representative samples must you collect?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to Establish a Production and Process Control System § 111.80...Representative samples of in-process materials for each manufactured batch at points, steps, or stages, in the manufacturing process as specified in the...

2013-04-01

356

78 FR 25308 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration Proposed...Comment Request; Coal Mine Dust Sampling...AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor...Agency: Mine Safety and Health Administration. Title: Coal Mine Dust...

2013-04-30

357

Chemical defense collective protection technology. Volume 12. A procedure for recharging self-contained breathing apparatus air bottles in the presence of simulated chemical warfare agents. Final report, 6-11 September 1990  

SciTech Connect

A procedure was developed and tested for recharging Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) cylinders in an atmosphere contaminated with chemical agent simulant at concentrations which would produce casualties if actual agent were used. With the exception of a rack for storing the cylinders before and after recharging, all items used are currently available commercially or through off-the-shelf DOD supply sources. Cylinders were successfully recharged without contamination in the presence of chemical agent simulant in the compressor area as well as in the cylinder filling area. Inexperienced personnel easily learned and successfully followed the recharging procedures even though they were burdened by protective clothing and equipment. Chemical agents, SCBA, Firefighting, Self-contained breathing apparatus.

Conkle, J.P.; Tucker, D.M.; Moore, G.

1993-05-01

358

Analysis of selected phthalates in Canadian indoor dust collected using household vacuum and standardized sampling techniques.  

PubMed

Phthalates have been used extensively as plasticizers to improve the flexibility of polymers, and they also have found many industrial applications. They are ubiquitous in the environment and have been detected in a variety of environmental and biological matrices. The goal of this study was to develop a method for the determination of 17 phthalate esters in house dust. This method involved sonication extraction, sample cleanup using solid phase extraction, and isotope dilution GC/MS/MS analysis. Method detection limits (MDLs) and recoveries ranged from 0.04 to 2.93 ?g/g and from 84 to 117%, respectively. The method was applied to the analysis of phthalates in 38 paired household vacuum samples (HD) and fresh dust (FD) samples. HD and FD samples compared well for the majority of phthalates detected in house dust. Data obtained from 126 household dust samples confirmed the historical widespread use of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), with a concentration range of 36 ?g/g to 3840 ?g/g. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) were also found in most samples at relatively high concentrations. Another important phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), was detected at a frequency of 98.4% with concentrations ranging from below its MDL of 0.51 ?g/g to 69 ?g/g. PMID:23621316

Kubwabo, C; Rasmussen, P E; Fan, X; Kosarac, I; Wu, F; Zidek, A; Kuchta, S L

2013-12-01

359

Chemical defense collective protection technology. Volume 12. A procedure for recharging self-contained breathing apparatus air bottles in the presence of simulated chemical warfare agents. Final report, 6-11 September 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure was developed and tested for recharging Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) cylinders in an atmosphere contaminated with chemical agent simulant at concentrations which would produce casualties if actual agent were used. With the exception of a rack for storing the cylinders before and after recharging, all items used are currently available commercially or through off-the-shelf DOD supply sources. Cylinders

J. P. Conkle; D. M. Tucker; G. Moore

1993-01-01

360

Real-time multi-marker measurement of organic compounds in human breath: towards fingerprinting breath.  

PubMed

The prospects for exploiting proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) in medical diagnostics are illustrated through a series of case studies. Measurements of acetone levels in the breath of 68 healthy people are presented along with a longitudinal study of a single person over a period of 1 month. The median acetone concentration across the population was 484 ppbV with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 1.6, whilst the average GSD during the single subject longtitudinal study was 1.5. An additional case study is presented which highlights the potential of PTR-ToF-MS in pharmacokinetic studies, based upon the analysis of online breath samples of a person following the consumption of ethanol. PTR-ToF-MS comes into its own when information across a wide mass range is required, particularly when such information must be gathered in a short time during a breathing cycle. To illustrate this property, multicomponent breath analysis in a small study of cystic fibrosis patients is detailed, which provides tentative evidence that online PTR-ToF-MS analysis of tidal breath can distinguish between active infection and non-infected patients. PMID:23446116

White, Iain R; Willis, Kerry A; Whyte, Chris; Cordell, Rebecca; Blake, Robert S; Wardlaw, Andrew J; Rao, Satish; Grigg, Jonathan; Ellis, Andrew M; Monks, Paul S

2013-03-01

361

Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-C-109: Results from samples collected on 8/10/94  

SciTech Connect

This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from the Hanford waste Tank 241-C-109 (referred to as Tank C-109). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and to analyze inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The sample job was designated S4053, and samples were collected by WHC on August 10, 1994, using the vapor sampling system (VSS). Sampling devices, including six sorbent trains (for inorganic analyses) and five SUMMA{sup {trademark}} canisters (for organic analyses) were supplied to the WHC sampling staff on August 8. Samples were taken (by WHC) from the tank headspace on August 10 and were returned to PNL from the field on August 12. The samples were inspected upon delivery to the 326/23B laboratory and logged into PNL record book 55408 before implementation of PNL Technical Procedure PNL-TVP-07. Custody of the sorbent traps was transferred to PNL personnel performing the inorganic analysis and stored at refrigerated ({<=}10{degrees}C) temperature until the time of analysis. The canister was stored in the 326/23B laboratory at ambient (25{degrees}C) temperature until time of analysis. Access to the 326/23B laboratory is limited to PNL personnel working on the waste-tank safety program. Analyses described in this report were performed at PNL in the 300 area of the Hanford Reservation. Analytical methods that were used are described in the text. In summary, sorbent traps for inorganic analyses containing sample materials were either weighed (for water analysis) or desorbed with the appropriate aqueous solutions (for ammonia (NH{sub 3}) or nitrite (NO{sub 2}) analyses). The aqueous extracts were analyzed either by selective electrode or by ion chromatography (IC). Organic analyses were performed using cryogenic preconcentration followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).

Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W. [and others

1995-06-01

362

The cross-sectional GRAS sample: A comprehensive phenotypical data collection of schizophrenic patients  

PubMed Central

Background Schizophrenia is the collective term for an exclusively clinically diagnosed, heterogeneous group of mental disorders with still obscure biological roots. Based on the assumption that valuable information about relevant genetic and environmental disease mechanisms can be obtained by association studies on patient cohorts of ? 1000 patients, if performed on detailed clinical datasets and quantifiable biological readouts, we generated a new schizophrenia data base, the GRAS (Göttingen Research Association for Schizophrenia) data collection. GRAS is the necessary ground to study genetic causes of the schizophrenic phenotype in a 'phenotype-based genetic association study' (PGAS). This approach is different from and complementary to the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on schizophrenia. Methods For this purpose, 1085 patients were recruited between 2005 and 2010 by an invariable team of traveling investigators in a cross-sectional field study that comprised 23 German psychiatric hospitals. Additionally, chart records and discharge letters of all patients were collected. Results The corresponding dataset extracted and presented in form of an overview here, comprises biographic information, disease history, medication including side effects, and results of comprehensive cross-sectional psychopathological, neuropsychological, and neurological examinations. With >3000 data points per schizophrenic subject, this data base of living patients, who are also accessible for follow-up studies, provides a wide-ranging and standardized phenotype characterization of as yet unprecedented detail. Conclusions The GRAS data base will serve as prerequisite for PGAS, a novel approach to better understanding 'the schizophrenias' through exploring the contribution of genetic variation to the schizophrenic phenotypes.

2010-01-01

363

Measurement of Ethanol in Gaseous Breath Using a Miniature Gas Chromatograph  

PubMed Central

We designed and built a novel, miniature gas chromatograph (mGC) to use exhaled breath to estimate blood ethanol concentrations that may offer GC quality sensitivity and specificity, but with portability, reduced size, and decreased cost. We hypothesized that the mGC would accurately estimate the serum ethanol concentration using exhaled breath. Human subjects (n = 8) were dosed with ethanol employing the Widmark criteria, targeting a blood concentration of 0.08 g/dL. Serum and breath samples were collected concurrently over an hour. Ethanol concentrations in serum were measured using a CLIA-approved laboratory. Ethanol concentrations in conventional breath were assayed using a calibrated mGC or Intoxilyzer 400PA. Data were analyzed using Bland-Altman analysis using serum concentrations as a “gold standard”. For the mGC, the regression line (correlation coefficient), bias, and 95% limits of agreement were y = 1.013x ? 0.009 (r = 0.91), ?0.008 g/dL, and ?0.031 to 0.016 g/dL, respectively, for 30 specimens. For the Intoxilyzer 400PA, the regression line (correlation coefficient), bias, and 95% limits of agreement were y = 0.599x + 0.008 (r = 0.86), ?0.024 g/dL, and ?0.049 to 0.002 g/dL, respectively, for 71 specimens with a large magnitude effect. We concluded that the mGC, using exhaled breath, performed well to estimate the serum ethanol concentrations.

Morey, Timothy E.; Booth, Matthew M.; Prather, Robert A.; Nixon, Sara J.; Boissoneault, Jeff; Melker, Richard J.; Goldberger, Bruce A.; Wohltjen, Hank; Dennis, Donn M.

2011-01-01

364

Recovery of a fish pathogenic bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, from ebonyshell mussels Fusconaia ebena using nondestructive sample collection procedures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Refugia are increasingly being used to maintain and propagate imperiled freshwater mussels for future population augmentations. Success for this endeavor is dependent on good husbandry, including a holistic program of resource health management. A significant aspect to optimal health is the prevention or control of infectious diseases. Describing and monitoring pathogens and diseases in mussels involves examination of tissues or samples collected from an appropriate number of individuals that satisfies a certain confidence level for expected prevalences of infections. In the present study, ebonyshell mussels Fusconaia ebena were infected with a fish pathogenic bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, through their cohabitation with diseased brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis. At a 100% prevalence of infection, the F. ebena were removed from the cohabitation tank to clean tanks that were supplied with pathogen-free water, which initiated their depuration of A. salmonicida. Three samples (nondestructive fluid, mantle, hemolymph) collected using nondestructive procedures were compared with fluids and soft tissue homogenates collected after sacrificing the mussels for recovery of the bacterium during this period of depuration. Nondestructive sample collections, especially ND fluid, provide a comparable alternative to sacrificing mussels to determine pathogen status.

Starliper, C. E.

2008-01-01

365

Sleep disordered breathing.  

PubMed

Cause and effect relationships between sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and illness, poorer quality of life, and public health have been largely overlooked and undertreated by healthcare providers. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), central sleep apnea, upper airway resistance syndrome, and obesity hypoventilation are the primary syndromes that fall under the rubric of SDB. Each of these syndromes is defined; however, OSA is the most common form of SDB, and is the focus of this article. Epidemiology, pathophysiology, behavioral manifestations, cardiovascular comorbidity, clinical evaluation, and treatment for OSA are the main topics covered. The article concludes with the role of the nurse in SDB. PMID:12587365

Baldwin, Carol M; Quan, Stuart F

2002-12-01

366

The Air We Breathe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This picture book is designed to introduce children to the Earth's atmosphere and its importance to life on Earth. It also introduces how the addition of new gases (e.g., ozone) contributes to changing the quality of air we breathe. With an understanding of how our atmosphere works, we can begin to understand how our activities may be contributing to some of those changes in air quality. The back cover includes a short demo/activity called Making a Gas You Canât See (Carbon Dioxide).

2004-03-01

367

Tank 241-BY-112 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in November 1994  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-28

368

Tank 241-U-106 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-26

369

Tank 241-B-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-27

370

Tank 241-C-106 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1994  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

Hackaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-26

371

Tank 241-BX-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in December 1994  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-28

372

Tank 241-C-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1994  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-28

373

ANALYSIS OF ACID PRECIPITATION SAMPLES COLLECTED BY STATE AGENCIES. ANNUAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the analytical results from 30 state operated wet acid deposition sites. All sites submitted their samples to the same laboratory so that comparisons of data could be made from different geographic areas. The use of a central laboratory also provided cost ef...

374

Tank 241-TX-105 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in December 1995  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-25

375

COLLECTION OF AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER BY POROUS VEGETATION BARRIERS: SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

This manuscript describes work done by A. Reff as part of a collaboration begun 3 years ago at Rutgers University with A. Tiwary who was then at the University of Nottingham. The work describes sampling and characterization methods for investigating the effects of vegetative bar...

376

75 FR 80072 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...daughters exist in every uranium mine and can exist in several other...diffuses into the underground mine atmosphere through the rock...results in emissions of alpha energy. Medical doctors and scientists...procedures to be used by the mine operator in sampling mine...

2010-12-21

377

75 FR 79033 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...daughters exist in every uranium mine and can exist in several other...diffuses into the underground mine atmosphere through the rock...results in emissions of alpha energy. Medical doctors and scientists...procedures to be used by the mine operator in sampling mine...

2010-12-17

378

Tank 241-T-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in January 1995  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-01

379

Tank 241-T-107 Headspace Gas and Vapor Characterization Results for Samples Collected in January 1995  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-26

380

Tank 241-S-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-01

381

Tank 241-S-102 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-26

382

Aspergillus spp. colonization in exhaled breath condensate of lung cancer patients from Puglia Region of Italy  

PubMed Central

Background Airways of lung cancer patients are often colonized by fungi. Some of these colonizing fungi, under particular conditions, produce cancerogenic mycotoxins. Given the recent interest in the infective origin of lung cancer, with this preliminary study we aim to give our small contribution to this field of research by analysing the fungal microbiome of the exhaled breath condensate of lung cancer patients from Puglia, a region of Italy. Methods We enrolled 43 lung cancer patients and 21 healthy subjects that underwent exhaled breath condensate and bronchial brushing collection. The fungal incidence and nature of sample collected were analysed by using a selected media for Aspergillus species. Results For the first time we were able to analyse the fungal microbioma of the exhaled breath condensate. 27.9% of lung cancer patients showed a presence of Aspergillus niger, or A. ochraceus or Penicillium ssp. while none of the healthy subjects did so. Conclusion The results confirmed the high percentage of fungal colonization of the airways of lung cancer patients from Puglia, suggesting the need to conduct further analyses in this field in order to evaluate the exact pathogenetic role of these fungi in lung cancer as well as to propose efficient, empirical therapy.

2014-01-01

383

Elemental Compositions of Comet 81P/Wild 2 Samples Collected by Stardust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We measured the chemical compositions of material from 23 particles in aerogel and residue in 7 craters in aluminum foil, collected during passage of the Stardust spacecraft through the coma of Comet 81P/Wild 2. These particles are chemically heterogeneous at the largest size-scale analyzed, 180 nanograms. The mean chemical composition of this Wild 2 material agrees with the CI meteorite composition for the refractory elements Mg, Si, Cr, Fe, and Ni to 35%, and for Ca and Mn to 50%. The data suggest the moderately volatile elements Cu, Zn, and Ga may be enriched in this Wild 2 material.

Flynn, G. J.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Bradley, J.; Brenker, F.; Brennan, S.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Bullock, E.; Clark, B. C.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Schwandt, C. S.; See, T. H.; Taylor, S.; Tsou, P.

2006-01-01

384

Sampling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial covers some of the key terms in sampling like "population" and "sampling frame," some of the statistical terms used in sampling, and the major distinction between probability and Nonprobability sampling methods.

William Trochim (Cornell University)

2006-10-20

385

Sleep and breathing in professional football players  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate sleep in professional football players and describe clinical features of players at risk for sleep for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB).Methods: The Multivariable Apnea Prediction (MAP) index was used to stratify players into high (MAP?0.5) and low (MAP<0.5) risk for SDB. Players from both risk groups were randomly selected for overnight polysomnography, with over-sampling from the High-risk group. Of

Charles F. P George; Vyto Kab; Patricia Kab; John J Villa; Allan M Levy

2003-01-01

386

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE AND SHIPMENT OF BLOOD SAMPLES FOR SELECTED METALS AND VOCS (UA-F-19.1)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to guide the collection, storage, and shipment of blood samples collected for the NHEXAS Arizona project. This SOP provides a brief description of sample collection, preservation, storage, and custody procedures. This procedure was followed to ensure c...

387

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE AND SHIPMENT OF URINE SAMPLES FOR SELECTED METALS AND PESTICIDES (UA-F-20.1)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to guide the collection, storage, and shipment of urine samples collected for the NHEXAS Arizona project. This SOP provides a brief description of sample, collection, preservation, storage, shipping, and custody procedures. This procedure was followed ...

388

Sleep-Disordered Breathing  

PubMed Central

Sleep disorders are becoming more prevalent. There is an overlap of symptoms related to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and many psychiatric conditions. Complaints of excessive sleepiness, insomnia, cognitive dysfunction, and depressive symptoms can be related to both disease states. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by repetitive disruption of sleep by cessation of breathing and was first described in the 19th century by bedside observation during sleep. Physicians observed this cessation of breathing while the patient slept and postulated that these episodes were responsible for subsequent complaints of sleepiness. OSAS can coexist with major depressive disorder, exacerbate depressive symptoms, or be responsible for a large part of the symptom complex of depression. Additionally, in schizophrenia, sleep apnea may develop as a result of chronic neuroleptic treatment and its effect on gains in body weight, a major risk factor for the development of OSAS. It is important to recognize the signs and symptoms of sleep apnea, namely excessive daytime sleepiness, snoring, and witnessed apneas. Recognition of the existence of sleep apnea, prompt referral to a sleep specialist, and ultimately treatment of an underlying sleep disorder, such as OSAS, can ameliorate symptoms of psychiatric disease.

Markov, Dimitri; Doghramji, Karl

2006-01-01

389

A horizontal sampler for collection of water samples near the bottom  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The need to obtain adequate water samples immediately above a lake bottom or at a precisely defined depth is not new. The problem is of particular concern in a large section of central Lake Erie, where dissolved oxygen concentration may be reduced to 1 ppm or less in the hypolimnion and where the metalimnion frequently extends to or within 30 or 60 cm of the bottom (Becton 1963; Cam 1962).It is impossible to sample the hypolimnrtic waters satisfactorily with the usual Nanscn, Kemmerer, and Frautschy bottles (Carr 1962). Although the 500-ml sampler described here was designed, constructed, and used extensively and successfully to meet the particular problem in Lake Erie, it should be equally useful in a varirty of situations.

Joeris, Leonard S.

1964-01-01

390

Escherichia coli in settled-dust and air samples collected in residential environments in Mexico City.  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli, an important indicator of the presence of fecal material, was isolated from indoor and outdoor environments in Mexico City. The heterogeneity of E. coli was represented by 89 serotypes, most of them coming from settled-dust indoor samples; 21% of them presented antibiotic multiresistance. The numbers of plasmids were higher among the antibiotic-resistant strains. The results of this study suggest that intestinal infections produced by environmental strains could be of more epidemiological impact than previously thought.

Rosas, I; Salinas, E; Yela, A; Calva, E; Eslava, C; Cravioto, A

1997-01-01

391

Biological sample collections from minors for genetic research: a systematic review of guidelines and position papers  

PubMed Central

Stored tissue samples are an important resource for epidemiological genetic research. Genetic research on biological material from minors can yield valuable information on the development and genesis of early-onset genetic disorders and the early interaction of environmental and genetic factors. The use of such tissue raises some specific ethical and governance questions, which are not completely covered by the discussion on biological materials from adults. We have retrieved 29 guidelines and position papers pertaining to the storage and use of biological tissue samples for genetic research, originating from 27 different organizations. Five documents have an international scope, three have an European scope and 21 have a national scope. We discovered that 11 of these documents did not contain a section on biological materials from minors. The content of the remaining 18 documents was categorized according to four themes: consent, principles of non-therapeutic research on vulnerable populations, ethics committee approval and difference between anonymous and identifiable samples. We found out that these themes are not consistently mentioned by each document, but that documents discussing the same themes were mostly in agreement with their recommendations. However, a systematic reflection on the ethical and policy issues arising from the participation of minors in biobank research is missing.

Hens, Kristien; Nys, Herman; Cassiman, Jean-Jacques; Dierickx, Kris

2009-01-01

392

Evaluation of a Wipe Surface Sample Method for Collection of Bacillus Spores from Nonporous Surfaces?  

PubMed Central

Polyester-rayon blend wipes were evaluated for efficiency of extraction and recovery of powdered Bacillus atrophaeus spores from stainless steel and painted wallboard surfaces. Method limits of detection were also estimated for both surfaces. The observed mean efficiency of polyester-rayon blend wipe recovery from stainless steel was 0.35 with a standard deviation of ±0.12, and for painted wallboard it was 0.29 with a standard deviation of ±0.15. Evaluation of a sonication extraction method for the polyester-rayon blend wipes produced a mean extraction efficiency of 0.93 with a standard deviation of ±0.09. Wipe recovery quantitative limits of detection were estimated at 90 CFU per unit of stainless steel sample area and 105 CFU per unit of painted wallboard sample area. The method recovery efficiency and limits of detection established in this work provide useful guidance for the planning of incident response environmental sampling following the release of a biological agent such as Bacillus anthracis.

Brown, Gary S.; Betty, Rita G.; Brockmann, John E.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Souza, Caroline A.; Walsh, Kathryn S.; Boucher, Raymond M.; Tezak, Mathew; Wilson, Mollye C.; Rudolph, Todd

2007-01-01

393

Evaluation of surface sampling techniques for collection of Bacillus spores on common drinking water pipe materials.  

PubMed

Drinking water utilities may face biological contamination of the distribution system from a natural incident or deliberate contamination. Determining the extent of contamination or the efficacy of decontamination is a challenge, because it may require sampling of the wetted surfaces of distribution infrastructure. This study evaluated two sampling techniques that utilities might use to sample exhumed pipe sections. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), cement-lined ductile iron, and ductile iron pipe coupons (3 cm x 14 cm) cut from new water main piping were conditioned for three months in dechlorinated Cincinnati, Ohio tap water. Coupons were spiked with Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii, a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis. Brushing and scraping were used to recover the inoculated spores from the coupons. Mean recoveries for all materials ranged from 37 +/- 30% to 43 +/- 20% for brushing vs. 24 +/- 10% to 51 +/- 29% for scraping. On cement-lined pipe, brushing yielded a significantly different recovery than scraping. No differences were seen between brushing and scraping the PVC and iron pipe coupons. Mean brushing and scraping recoveries from PVC coupons were more variable than mean recoveries from cement-lined and iron coupons. Spore retention differed between pipe materials and the presence of established biofilms also had an impact. Conditioned PVC coupons (with established biofilms) had significantly lower spore retention (31 +/- 11%) than conditioned cement-lined coupons (61 +/- 14%) and conditioned iron coupons (71 +/- 8%). PMID:20082033

Packard, Benjamin H; Kupferle, Margaret J

2010-01-01

394

COMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR QUARTER 1 SURFACE WATER SPLIT SAMPLES COLLECTED AT THE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICES SITE ERWIN, TENNESSEE  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on August 22, 2012. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses. The comparison of results using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference. A DER ? 3 indicates that, at a 99% confidence interval, split sample results do not differ significantly when compared to their respective one standard deviation (sigma) uncertainty. The NFS split sample report does not specify the confidence level of reported uncertainties. Therefore, standard two sigma reporting is assumed and uncertainty values were divided by 1.96. A comparison of split sample results, using the DER equation, indicates one set with a DER greater than 3. A DER of 3.1 is calculated for gross alpha results from ORAU sample 5198W0003 and NFS sample MCU-310212003. The ORAU result is 0.98 ± 0.30 pCi/L (value ± 2 sigma) compared to the NFS result of -0.08 ± 0.60 pCi/L. Relatively high DER values are not unexpected for low (e.g., background) analyte concentrations analyzed by separate laboratories, as is the case here. It is noted, however, NFS uncertainties are at least twice the ORAU uncertainties, which contributes to the elevated DER value. Differences in ORAU and NFS minimum detectable activities are even more pronounced. comparison of ORAU and NFS split samples produces reasonably consistent results for low (e.g., background) concentrations.

David A. King, CHP, PMP

2012-10-10

395

Radioactivity measurements in moss (Hypnum cupressiforme) and lichen (Cladonia rangiformis) samples collected from Marmara region of Turkey.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to compare the (137)Cs, (40)K, (232)Th, and (238)U activity concentrations in epigeic moss (Hypnum cupressiforme) and lichen (Cladonia rangiformis). The activity levels in 37 moss and 38 lichen samples collected from the Marmara region of Turkey were measured using a gamma spectrometer equipped with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (40)K, (232)Th, and (238)U in the moss samples were found to be in the range of 0.36-8.13, 17.1-181.1, 1.51-6.17, and 0.87-6.70 Bq kg(-1) respectively, while these values were below detection limit (BDL)-4.32, 16.6-240.0, 1.32-6.47, and BDL-3.57 Bq kg(-1) respectively in lichen. The average moss/lichen activity ratios of (137)Cs, (40)K, (232)Th, and (238)U were found to be 1.32 +/- 0.57, 2.79 +/- 1.67, 2.11 +/- 0.82, and 2.19 +/- 1.02, respectively. Very low (137)Cs concentrations were observed in moss and lichen samples compared to soil samples collected from the same locations in a previous study. Seasonal variations of the measured radionuclide activities were also examined in the three sampling stations. PMID:20659779

Belivermi?, Murat; Cotuk, Yavuz

2010-11-01

396

COMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR QUARTER 5 SURFACE WATER SPLIT SAMPLES COLLECTED AT THE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICES SITE ERWIN TENNESSEE  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on August 21, 2013. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses, and the comparison of results using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference, are tabulated. All DER values were less than 3 and results are consistent with low (e.g., background) concentrations.

none,

2013-09-23

397

Elemental Compositions of Comet 81P/Wild 2 Samples Collected by Stardust  

SciTech Connect

We measured the elemental compositions of material from 23 particles in aerogel and from residue in seven craters in aluminum foil that was collected during passage of the Stardust spacecraft through the coma of comet 81P/Wild 2. These particles are chemically heterogeneous at the largest size scale analyzed ({approx}180 ng). The mean elemental composition of this Wild 2 material is consistent with the CI meteorite composition, which is thought to represent the bulk composition of the solar system, for the elements Mg, Si, Mn, Fe, and Ni to 35%, and for Ca and Ti to 60%. The elements Cu, Zn, and Ga appear enriched in this Wild 2 material, which suggests that the CI meteorites may not represent the solar system composition for these moderately volatile minor elements.

Flynn,G.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Bradley, J.; Brenker, F.; Brennan, S.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D.; Bullock, E.; et al.

2006-01-01

398

Elemental composition of Comet 81P/Wild2 samples collected byStardust  

SciTech Connect

We measured the elemental compositions of material from 23 particles in aerogel and from residue in seven craters in aluminum foil that was collected during passage of the Stardust spacecraft through the coma of comet 81P/Wild 2. These particles are chemically heterogeneous at the largest size scale analyzed ({approx}180 ng). The mean elemental composition of this Wild 2 material is consistent with the CI meteorite composition, which is thought to represent the bulk composition of the solar system, for the elements Mg, Si, Mn, Fe, and Ni to 35%, and for Ca and Ti to 60%. The elements Cu, Zn, and Ga appear enriched in this Wild 2 material, which suggests that the CI meteorites may not represent the solar system composition for these moderately volatile minor elements.

Flynn, G.J.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Bradley, J.P.; Brenker, F.E.; Brennan, S.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D.E.; Bullock, E.S.; Burghammer,Manfred; Clark, B.C.; Dai, Zu Rong; Daghlian, C.P.; Djouadi, Z.; Fakra,S; Ferroir, T.; Floss, C.; Franchi, I.A.; Gainsforth, Z.; Gallien, J.P.; Gillet, P.; Grant, P.G.; Graham, G.A.; Green, S.F.; Grossemy, F.; Heck,P.R.; Herzog, G.F.; Hoppe, P.; Horz, F.; Huth, J.; Ignatyev, K.; Ishii,H.A.; Janssens, K.; Joswiak, D.; Kearsley, A.T.; Khodja, H.; Lanzirotti,A.; Leitner, J.; Lemelle, L.; Leroux, H.; Luening, K.; MacPherson, G.J.; Marhas, K.K.; Marcus, M.A.; Matrajt, G.; Nakamura, T.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Nakano, T.; Newville, M.; Papanastassiou, D.A.; Pianette, P.; Rao, William; Riekel, C.; Rietmeijer, F.J.M.; Rost, D.; Schwandt, C.S.; See, T.H.; Sheffield-Parker, J.; Simionovici, A.; Sitnitsky, Ilona; Snead, C.J.; Stadermann, F.J.; Stephan, T.; Stroud,R.M.; Susini, J.; Suzuki, Y.; Sutton, S.R.; Taylor, S.; Teslich, N.; Troadec, D.; Tsou, P.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Uesugi, K.; Vekemans, B.; Vicenzi,E.P.; Vincze, L.; Westphal, A.J.; Wozniakiewicz, P.; Zinner, E.; Zolensky, M.E.

2006-01-01

399

Personal exposures, indoor and outdoor air concentrations, and exhaled breath concentrations of selected volatile organic compounds measured for 600 residents of New Jersey, North Dakota, North Carolina and California  

Microsoft Academic Search

EPA's TEAM Study has measured exposures to 20 volatile organic compounds in personal air, outdoor air, drinking water, and breath of 600 residents of New Jersey, North Carolina, North Dakota, and California. All participants were selected by a probability sampling scheme to represent a total of 700,000 inhabitants of seven cities. Participants carried a personal monitor to collect two 12?hour

Lance A. Wallace

1986-01-01

400

Effects of Long Hose Breathing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need for aircrew members to use long breathing hoses between regulator and mask arises in the design of new transport aircraft and in several cargo operations requiring an open rear door. In this study, induced work of breathing through long hoses, th...

R. M. Olson J. P. Cooke

1977-01-01

401

Patient's breath controls comfort devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Patient assist system for totally disabled persons was developed which permits a person, so paralyzed as to be unable to move, to activate by breathing, a call system to summon assistance, turn the page of a book, ajust his bed, or do any one of a number of other things. System consists of patient assist control and breath actuated switch.

Schrader, M.; Carpenter, B.; Nichols, C. D.

1972-01-01

402

Clinical applications of breath testing  

PubMed Central

Breath testing has the potential to benefit the medical field as a cost-effective, non-invasive diagnostic tool for diseases of the lung and beyond. With growing evidence of clinical worth, standardization of methods, and new sensor and detection technologies the stage is set for breath testing to gain considerable attention and wider application in upcoming years.

Paschke, Kelly M; Mashir, Alquam

2010-01-01

403

Singleparticle characterization of four aerosol samples collected in ChunCheon, Korea, during Asian dust storm events in 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-particle analytical technique, named low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (low-Z particle EPMA), employing an ultrathin window X-ray detector and enabling the quantitative determination of even low-Z elements such as C, N, and O, was applied to characterize ``Asian dust'' samples, collected in ChunCheon, Korea, during four Asian dust storm events on 21 March, 9 April, 17 April, and

HeeJin Hwang; Chul-Un Ro

2005-01-01

404

Singleparticle characterization of four aerosol samples collected in ChunCheon, Korea, during Asian dust storm events in 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-particle analytical technique, named low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (low-Z particle EPMA), employing an ultrathin window X-ray detector and enabling the quantitative determination of even low-Z elements such as C, N, and O, was applied to characterize “Asian dust” samples, collected in ChunCheon, Korea, during four Asian dust storm events on 21 March, 9 April, 17 April, and

HeeJin Hwang; Chul-Un Ro

2005-01-01

405

Onchocerca volvulus: comparison of field collection methods for the preservation of parasite and vector samples for PCR analysis.  

PubMed Central

In recent years, methods for the identification of the filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus and its vector, blackflies of the Simulium damnosum complex (S. damnosum sensu lato (s.l.)), based on the amplification of parasite and vector DNA sequences with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), have been developed. Routine application of these methods requires techniques for sample collection and preservation that are compatible with the limitations of field collection, yet preserve DNA in a form suitable for PCR. Two different methods for sample preservation were evaluated by the field collection teams and the DNA probe laboratory of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa. The most successful involved the preservation of material from O. volvulus and its associated vectors in a dried state on microscope slides. Of over 1200 parasite samples preserved in this manner, more than 93% retained DNA yielding positive results in PCR analysis (1208/1291). Vector material (malpighian tubules and ovaries) preserved in the same manner on the same microscope slides also yielded DNA that was suitable for PCR. Images Fig. 2

Toe, L.; Back, C.; Adjami, A. G.; Tang, J. M.; Unnasch, T. R.

1997-01-01

406

Strategies and techniques for sample collection and analysis: experience from the Swedish PCB accidents.  

PubMed Central

A series of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) fires and explosion in PCB-filled capacitors and transformers is discussed. A sampling program followed by isomer specific determination of trace levels of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) is described. Data from a series of Swedish PCB accidents are given. In addition to PCDFs and PCDDs, we have also found a series of polychlorinated biphenylenes (PCBPs). Cleaning of contaminated areas was done by vacuum cleaning followed by high pressure washing. Images FIGURE 14.

Rappe, C; Marklund, S; Kjeller, L O; Bergqvist, P A; Hansson, M

1985-01-01

407

Strategies and techniques for sample collection and analysis: experience from the Swedish PCB accidents.  

PubMed

A series of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) fires and explosion in PCB-filled capacitors and transformers is discussed. A sampling program followed by isomer specific determination of trace levels of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) is described. Data from a series of Swedish PCB accidents are given. In addition to PCDFs and PCDDs, we have also found a series of polychlorinated biphenylenes (PCBPs). Cleaning of contaminated areas was done by vacuum cleaning followed by high pressure washing. PMID:3928354

Rappe, C; Marklund, S; Kjeller, L O; Bergqvist, P A; Hansson, M

1985-05-01

408

Improved Scanning Geometry to Collect 3D-Geometry Data in Flat Samples  

SciTech Connect

3D integration through silicon technology of integrated circuits challenges non-destructive testing methods. 3D x-ray methods are the techniques of choice to localize defects in interconnects. The development of high-power x-ray sources enabled the use of x-ray microscopy in laboratory tools. Those devices are able to resolve features down to 40 nm in an acceptable measurement time. However, the field of view is very limited to 16 {mu}m in high-resolution mode and to 65 {mu}m in large-field-of-view mode. To record tomography data, the size of the samples must not exceed the field of view to circumvent specific artifacts. Semiconductor samples usually do not fulfill the condition mentioned above since they have the shape of flat sheets. Therefore limited-angle tomography is typically used. The missing angles cause typical capping artifacts and poor signal-to-noise ratio. We present a modified scanning geometry that overcomes some of the artifacts and yields a better image quality. The geometry and potential applications are presented in comparison to the traditional limited-angle tomography.

Krueger, P.; Niese, S.; Zschech, E. [Fraunhofer IZFP-D, Maria-Reiche-Str. 2, 01109 Dresden (Germany); Gelb, J.; Feser, M. [Xradia Inc., 5052 Commercial Circle, Concord, CA 94520 (United States)

2011-09-09

409

A novel blood collection device stabilizes cell-free RNA in blood during sample shipping and storage  

PubMed Central

Background Cell-free RNA (cfRNA) naturally occurs in blood and has clinical significance. Accurate quantification of these extracellular RNAs in whole blood is hindered by the simultaneous unintended release of cellular RNA and degradation of cfRNA after blood draw. An appropriate blood collection device is needed to stabilize cfRNA during blood processing, transportation and storage, which will ensure cfRNA test reliability. In this study we compared a novel blood collection device against traditional K3EDTA tubes for its ability to stabilize cfRNA in blood when subjected to conditions that can occur during sample storage and shipping. Findings Shipping blood samples drawn into K3EDTA tubes showed a significant increase in mRNA copy numbers for ?-actin, c-fos, and 18S rRNA in plasma. In contrast, shipping blood drawn into Cell-Free RNA BCT™s (BCTs) showed only a slight change in mRNA copy numbers for circulating ?-actin, c-fos, and 18S rRNA. Moreover, blood stored in K3EDTA tubes at 6°C, 22°C and 30°C for 3 days showed a significant increase in mRNA copy numbers for c-fos and ?-actin, whereas samples stored in BCTs only showed a slight increase. Conclusion Our results show that BCTs minimize increases in background RNA levels caused by temperature fluctuations or agitation that can occur during blood sample storage and shipping. This novel blood collection tube could provide a method for obtaining high quality stabilized cfRNA samples for rare RNA target detection and determining accurate cfRNA concentrations.

2013-01-01

410

Evidence of endogenous volatile organic compounds as biomarkers of diseases in alveolar breath.  

PubMed

The effect of oxygen on markers of oxidative stress has been partially elucidated. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are created during the oxidative burst and excreted in the human alveolar breath, which indeed contains biomarkers. A general concept including collection, separation, detection and clinical biomakers validation is presented in this article: (i) a method for the collection and GC-MS of halogenated VOCs in human alveolar breath is described: a transportable apparatus which sampled specifically alveolar breath; the VOCs were captured in a thermal desorption tube, Carbotrap 200® and each sample was thermally desorbed from the trap in an automated GC-MS apparatus; (ii) the inhibitory effects of halogenated alkanes on mitochondria are suspected likely to fight against oxidative stress deleterious reactions; (iii) two-dimensional gas chromatography occurs by the repeated and re-injection of effluent from one chromatographic column into a second column of orthogonal phase. A new commercial GCxGC system is presented; it is accomplished with a dual-stage, quad-jet thermal modulator positioned between the two columns; (iv) the affinity-based sensors usually used in connection with the GCxGC system face a difficulty to take into account different biases coming from different sources of drifting. Compared to other affinity-based sensing modes like electrical ones, gravimetric sensors enable a better decoupling. Nano Electro Mechanical Systems (NEMS)-based resonators are a particular type of gravimetric gas sensors. They are coated with a sensitive layer of polymer where gases of interest present in the atmosphere adsorb, generating an additional mass load which is measured through a frequency shift; (v) examination of exhaled breath has the potential to change the existing routine approaches in human medicine. Breath sampling to identify volatile biomarkers in diseases has been proposed in several respiratory diseases. Several VOCs have been identified in these patients by GC-MS. However, the use of traditional analytical instruments such as GC-MS to detect biomarkers of diseases has not become a routine for clinical applications. Consequently the electronic nose was the logical instrument of choice for disease diagnosis due to the capability of identifying complex mixtures of VOCs (as a whole) within sampled air using pattern-recognition algorithms. PMID:23835018

Sarbach, C; Stevens, P; Whiting, J; Puget, P; Humbert, M; Cohen-Kaminsky, S; Postaire, E

2013-07-01

411

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR REIMBURSEMENT FOR FIELD COLLECTION OF FOOD SAMPLES (UA-F-23.1)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to provide a uniform procedure for the financial reimbursement of primary respondents for the collection of diet samples. Respondents were reimbursed for replicate food and beverage samples by type and amount collected over a 24-hour sampling period. ...

412

NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE, AND SHIPMENT OF URINE SAMPLES FOR METAL, PESTICIDE, AND CREATININE ANALYSIS (F10)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures for collection, storage, and shipment of urine samples for metal, pesticides, and creatinine analysis. Samples were collected on Days 2 and 8 of each Cycle. The Day 2 sample was analyzed for metals and creatinine. The Day 8...

413

Characterization of PM 10 and PM 2.5 source profiles for resuspended road dust collected using mobile sampling methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new sampling method using a mobile sampling system was developed to sample resuspended road dust on a paved road. To calculate the net mass concentration of resuspended road dust in the dust sample collected behind the front tire of the mobile sampling system, a background subtraction method was employed. The ratio of the PM 2.5 concentration to the PM 10 concentration in resuspended road dust ranged from 0.25 to 0.40, depending upon the sampling sites, which appears to be a function of traffic characteristics, land use, and so forth. The results of chemical analysis of PM samples demonstrated that specific source profiles for resuspended road dust exist according to sampling sites as well as particle size range. It is likely that, particularly in the case of Al, Ca, Fe, and OC, there exists a relatively small or approximately equal magnitude of dependence of sampling sites on the mass percentage of elements in the sampled PM compared with that of the particle size range. In view of the dependence of the Zn mass percentage and Cu/Sb on the average hourly traffic, it is clear that as traffic volume increases, tire wear and brake wear increase, and, accordingly, the amount of tire wear dust and brake wear dust deposited on paved roads increases. It turned out that OC and EC values do not change appreciably with the average hourly traffic. Nonetheless, it was noted that the OC values of PM coarse are two or three times larger than those of PM fine, showing a clear dependence of OC on the particle size range. In the case of EC, however, no clear dependence of EC on the particle size range was found.

Han, Sehyun; Youn, Jong-Sang; Jung, Yong-Won

2011-07-01

414

Cometary dust: A thermal criterion to identify cometary samples among the collected interplanetary dust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relative proportions of the cometary and the asteroidal contributions to the interplanetary dust have not yet been definitively established. These proportions may vary with time as a result of major catastrophic disruptions in the main belt or the appearance of fresh, active comets. Dermott et al. and Reach suggest the debris from catastrophic collisions in the main belt can account for most of the zodiacal cloud particles. Earth collection of these asteroidal particles is strongly favored by near-Earth gravitational enhancement. However, comets are observed to produce interplanetary dust particles (IDP's), and the identification of cometary IDP's would allow inferences of the compositions, mineralogies, and physical properties of the comets. The peak temperatures reached by IDP's on atmospheric entry indicate the distribution of IDP velocities. Each IDP contains many internal thermometers: minerals that transform above certain temperatures, volatile elements that are lost sequentially with increasing temperatures, solar flare tracks that anneal at different temperatures in different minerals, and solar-implanted noble gases that outgas progressively with temperature. Thus, limits on the peak temperature reached by each IDP on Earth atmospheric entry can be set. Other aspects of this investigation are covered.

Flynn, George J.

1994-01-01

415

Quality Sample Collection, Handling, and Preservation for an Effective Microbial Forensics Program.  

SciTech Connect

Science can be part of an effective investigative response to a bioterrorism event or a biocrime by providing capabilities to analyze biological and associated signatures in collected evidence. Microbial forensics, a discipline comprised of several scientific fields, is dedicated to the analysis of evidence from such criminal acts to help determine the responsible party and to exonerate the innocent. A partnership has been formed amount a number of government agencies, academia, and the private sector to better respond and deter potential perpetrators of bioterrorism or biocrimes. This partnership leverages our national scientific and analytical capabilities to support activities of law enforcement agencies. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), whose mission is, in part, to respond to and to prevent acts of terrorism against the United States, has established the national Bioforensics Analysis Center (NBFAC). The NBFAC, in partnership with the FBI, (1) provides a state-of-the-art central laboratory for the analysis of microbial forensic evidence; and (2) serves as a nexus for integrating the national resources to increase the effectiveness of law enforcement in obtaining the highest level of attribution possible in criminal cases where the weapon is a biological agent.

Budowle, Bruce; Schutzer, Steven E.; Burans, James P.; Beecher, Douglas J.; Cebulla, Thomas; Chakraborty, Ranjit; Cobb, William T.; Fletcher, Jacqueline; Hale, Martha L.; Harris, Robert B.; Heitkamp, Michael; Keller, Frederick P.; Kuske, Cheryl; LeClerc, Joseph E.; Marrone, Babetta L.; McKenna, Thomas S.; Morse, Stephen A.; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Yadev, Jagjit

2006-10-01

416

A Modified Catheterization Procedure to Reduce Bladder Damage when Collecting Urine Samples from Holstein Cows  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT This study proposed a modified procedure, using a small balloon catheter (SB catheter, 45 ml), for reducing bladder damage in cows. Holstein cows and the following catheters were prepared: smaller balloon catheter (XSB catheter; 30 ml), SB catheter and standard balloon catheter (NB catheter; 70 ml, as the commonly used, standard size). In experiment 1, each cow was catheterized. The occurrence of catheter-associated hematuria (greater than 50 RBC/HPF) was lower in the SB catheter group (0.0%, n=7) than in the NB catheter group (71.4%, n=7; P<0.05). In experiment 2, general veterinary parameters, urine pH, body temperature and blood values in cows were not affected before or after insertion of SB catheters (n=6). The incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) was 3.0% per catheterized day (n=22). In experiment 3, feeding profiles, daily excretion of urinary nitrogen (P<0.05) and rate from nitrogen intake in urine (P<0.01), were higher with use of the SB catheter (n=13) than with the use of the vulva urine cup (n=18), indicating that using the SB catheter can provide accurate nutritional data. From this study, we concluded that when using an SB catheter, the following results occur; reduction in bladder damage without any veterinary risks and accuracy in regard to feeding parameters, suggesting this modified procedure using an SB catheter is a useful means of daily urine collection.

TAMURA, Tetsuo; NAKAMURA, Hiroshi; SATO, Say; SEKI, Makoto; NISHIKI, Hideto

2014-01-01

417

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-102: Results from samples collected on January 26, 1996. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of vapor samples obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) with and without particulate prefiltration. Samples were collected from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

J. C. Evans; B. L. Thomas; K. H. Pool

1996-01-01

418

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241BY108: Results from samples collected January 23, 1996. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of vapor samples obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) with and without particulate prefiltration. Samples were collected from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

K. H. Pool; J. C. Evans; B. L. Thomas; K. B. Olsen

1996-01-01

419

COMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR QUARTER 2 SURFACE WATER SPLIT SAMPLES COLLECTED AT THE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICES SITE, ERWIN, TENNESSEE  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on November 15, 2012. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses, and the results are compared using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference. A DER {<=} 3 indicates that, at a 99% confidence interval, split sample results do not differ significantly when compared to their respective one standard deviation (sigma) uncertainty (ANSI N42.22). The NFS split sample report does not specify the confidence level of reported uncertainties (NFS 2012). Therefore, standard two sigma reporting is assumed and uncertainty values were divided by 1.96. In conclusion, all DER values were less than 3 and results are consistent with low (e.g., background) concentrations.

none,

2013-01-21

420

Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-C-105: Results from samples collected on 2/16/94  

SciTech Connect

This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from the Hanford waste Tank 241-C-105 (referred to as Tank C-105). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and to analyze inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace. For organic analyses, six SUMMA{trademark} canisters were delivered to WHC on COC 0061 11 on 2/14/94. At the request of WHC, an additional six SUMMA{trademark} canisters were supplied on COC 005127 on 2/16/94. Samples were collected by WHC from the headspace of Tank C-105 through the VSS on 2/16/94, but only three SUMMA{sup {trademark}} canisters were returned to PNL using COC 0061 11 on 2/18/94. The canisters were stored in the 326/23B laboratory at ambient (25{degrees}C) temperature until the time of the analysis. Analyses described in this report were performed at PNL in the 300 area of the Hanford Reservation. Analytical methods that were used are described in the text. In summary, sorbent traps for inorganic analyses containing sample materials were either weighed (for water analysis) or desorbed with the appropriate aqueous solutions. The aqueous extracts were analyzed either by selective electrode or by ion chromatography (IC). Organic analyses were performed using cryogenic preconcentration followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).

Clauss, T.W.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.

1995-06-01

421

LC-ESI-MS determination of diethylene glycol pollution in sea water samples collected around gas extraction platform plants.  

PubMed

Produced formation waters (PFWs) represent the largest aqueous wastes that are normally discharged into the marine environment during the offshore gas production processes. The chemical additive diethylene glycol (DEG) is widely used in the gas production line and therefore can be found in the PFW, becoming of environmental concern. In this study, a new method has been developed for trace determination of DEG in sea water samples collected around offshore gas platforms. The method is based on liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). Prior to analysis, water samples were derivatized using the Schotten-Baumann method for the benzoylation of glycols. The derivatization procedure allowed us to maximize the ESI-MS response of DEG and minimize the influence of interfering compounds. The method was validated and allowed a quantification of DEG in sea water samples with a method LOD of 0.4 ng/mL. The applicability of the procedure was demonstrated by analyzing sea water samples collected around eight gas platforms located in the Adriatic Sea (Italy). PMID:19782224

Cappiello, A; Famiglini, G; Palma, P; Termopoli, V; Trufelli, H; Di Mento, R; Mannozzi, M

2009-11-15

422

Determination of azole fungicides in atmospheric samples collected in the Canadian prairies by LC/MS/MS.  

PubMed

An LC/MS/MS method has been developed for the determination of azole fungicides in the atmosphere at low pg/m3 concentrations. Detection limits in the range of 0.16 to 1.2 pg/m3 for a weekly air sample were obtained for the 31 fungicides analyzed. This work represents the first detection of propiconazole, prothioconazole-desthio, and trace levels of hexaconazole in gas phase atmospheric samples collected in a Canadian agricultural region. Samples were collected during April-October 2010 at Bratt's Lake, Saskatchewan, in the Canadian prairies where there was known historical use of selected azole fungicides. Atmospheric concentrations were above detection limits only during June-August 2010, with maximum concentrations occurring in July at 77.9 and 37.5 pg/m3 for propiconazole and prothioconazole-desthio, respectively. Gas phase atmospheric concentrations of propiconazole and prothioconazole-desthio increased following a spring and early summer with higher than normal daily precipitation. These azole fungicides showed the largest gas phase concentrations during periods of lower temperature and during sampling events with at least 1 day with no precipitation. The higher atmospheric gas phase concentrations of each azole fungicide were observed on different days, indicating different formulations may be in use in the prairie agricultural region. PMID:23175965

Raina, Renata; Smith, Erika

2012-01-01

423

Time to breathe.  

PubMed

As health care providers, we become all too familiar with suppressing our emotions, putting on a brave face, and going through the necessary motions at the bedside. We power through these emotionally charged scenarios day after day, patient after patient. We try to remain serene, to appear calm, and to exude confidence, competence, and professionalism. We deliver life-altering news to devastated families; we sit at dying patients' bedsides and hold their hands as their hearts stop; we deplete ourselves physically and emotionally when a healthy patient takes a turn for the worse. We skillfully manage the natural process of anoth