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1

Human breath analysis: methods for sample collection and reduction of localized background effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied, in conjunction with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, to the analysis\\u000a of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human breath samples without requiring exhaled breath condensate collection. A new\\u000a procedure, exhaled breath vapor (EBV) collection, involving the active sampling and preconcentration of a breath sample with\\u000a a SPME fiber fitted inside a modified commercial breath-collection device, the RTube™,

Audrey N. Martin; George R. Farquar; A. Daniel Jones; Matthias Frank

2010-01-01

2

Human breath analysis: methods for sample collection and reduction of localized background effects.  

PubMed

Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied, in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, to the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human breath samples without requiring exhaled breath condensate collection. A new procedure, exhaled breath vapor (EBV) collection, involving the active sampling and preconcentration of a breath sample with a SPME fiber fitted inside a modified commercial breath-collection device, the RTube, is described. Immediately after sample collection, compounds are desorbed from the SPME fiber at 250 degrees C in the GC-MS injector. Experiments were performed using EBV collected at -80 degrees C and at room temperature, and the results compared to the traditional method of collecting exhaled breath condensate at -80 degrees C followed by passive SPME sampling of the collected condensate. Methods are compared in terms of portability, ease-of-use, speed of analysis, and detection limits. The need for a clean air supply for the study subjects is demonstrated using several localized sources of VOC contaminants including nail polish, lemonade, and gasoline. Various simple methods to supply clean inhaled air to a subject are presented. Chemical exposures are used to demonstrate the importance of providing cleaned air (organic vapor respirator) or an external air source (tubing stretched to a separate room). These techniques allow for facile data interpretation by minimizing background contaminants. It is demonstrated herein that this active SPME breath-sampling device provides advantages in the forms of faster sample collection and data analysis, apparatus portability and avoidance of power or cooling requirements, and performance for sample collection in a contaminated environment. PMID:19844696

Martin, Audrey N; Farquar, George R; Jones, A Daniel; Frank, Matthias

2010-01-01

3

Online sample conditioning for portable breath analyzers.  

PubMed

Various innovative chemical sensors have been developed in recent years to sense dangerous substances in air and trace biomarkers in breath. However, in order to solve real world problems, the sensors must be equipped with efficient sample conditioning that can, e.g., control the humidity, which is discussed much less in the literature. To meet the demand, a miniaturized mouthpiece was developed for personal breath analyzers. A key function of the mouthpiece is to condition the humidity in real breath samples without changing the analyte concentrations and introducing substantial backpressure, which is achieved with optimized packing of desiccant particles. Numerical simulations were carried out to determine the performance of the mouthpiece in terms of various controllable parameters, such as the size, density, and geometry of the packing. Mouthpieces with different configurations were built and tested, and the experimental data validated the simulation findings. A mouthpiece with optimized performance reducing relative humidity from 95% (27,000 ppmV) to 29% (8000 ppmV) whereas retaining 92% nitric oxide (50 ppbV to 46 ppbV) was built and integrated into a hand-held exhaled nitric oxide sensor, and the performance of exhaled nitric oxide measurement was in good agreement with the gold standard chemiluminescence technique. Acetone, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and ammonia samples were also measured after passing through the desiccant mouthpiece using commercial sensors to examine wide applicability of this breath conditioning approach. PMID:22812638

Prabhakar, Amlendu; Iglesias, Rodrigo A; Shan, Xiaonan; Xian, Xiaojun; Zhang, Lihua; Tsow, Francis; Forzani, Erica S; Tao, Nongjian

2012-08-21

4

Exhaled Breath Condensate Collection in the Mechanically Ventilated Patient  

PubMed Central

Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a non-invasive means of sampling the airway-lining fluid of the lungs. EBC contains numerous measurable mediators, whose analysis could change the management of patients with certain pulmonary diseases. While initially popularized in investigations involving spontaneously breathing patients, an increasing number of studies have been performed using EBC in association with mechanical ventilation. Collection of EBC in mechanically ventilated patients follows basic principles of condensation, but is influenced by multiple factors. Effective collection requires selection of a collection device, adequate minute ventilation, low cooling temperatures, and sampling times of greater than ten minutes. Condensate can be contaminated by saliva, which needs to be filtered. Dilution of samples occurs secondary to distilled water in vapors and humidification in the ventilator circuit. Dilution factors may need to be employed when investigating non-volatile biomarkers. Storage and analysis should occur promptly at ?70° C to ?80° C to prevent rapid degradation of samples. The purpose of this review is to examine and describe methodologies and problems of EBC collection in mechanically ventilated patients. A straightforward and safe framework has been established to investigate disease processes in this population, yet technical aspects of EBC collection still exist that prevent clinical practicality of this technology. These include a lack of standardization of procedure and analysis of biomarkers, and of normal reference ranges for mediators in healthy individuals. Once these procedural aspects have been addressed, EBC could serve as a non-invasive alternative to invasive evaluation of lungs in mechanically ventilated patients. PMID:22398157

Carter, Stewart R; Davis, Christopher S; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

2012-01-01

5

METHODS FOR SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF BREATH  

EPA Science Inventory

The research program surveyed and evaluated the methods and procedures used to identify and quantitate chemical constituents in human breath. Methods have been evaluated to determine their ease and rapidity, as well as cost, accuracy, and precision. During the evaluation, a secon...

6

Analysis of human breath samples using a modified thermal desorption: gas chromatography electrospray ionization interface.  

PubMed

A two-stage thermal desorption/secondary electrospray ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry for faster targeted breath profiling has been studied. A new secondary electrospray ionization (SESI) source was devised to constrain the thermal desorption plume and promote efficient mixing in the ionization region. Further, a chromatographic pre-separation stage was introduced to suppress interferences from siloxanes associated with thermal desorption profiles of exhaled breath samples.In vitro tests with 5-nonanone indicated an increased sensitivity and a lowered limit-of-detection, both by a factor of ~4, the latter to an on-trap mass of 14.3?ng, equivalent to a sampled breath concentration of 967?pptv. Analysis of the mass spectrometric responses from 20 breath samples acquired sequentially from a single participant indicated enhanced reproducibility (reduced relative standard deviations (RSD) for 5-nonanone, benzaldehyde and 2-butanone were 28 %, 16% and 14% respectively. The corresponding values for an open SESI source were that 5-nonanone was not detected, with %RSD of 39% for benzaldehyde and 31% for 2-butanone).The constrained source with chromatographic pre-separation resulted in an increase in the number of detectable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 260 mass spectral peaks with an open SESI source to 541 peaks with the constrained source with pre-separation. Most of the observed VOCs were present at trace levels, at less than 2.5% of the intensity of the base peak.Seventeen 2.5?dm(3) distal breath samples were collected from asthma patients and healthy controls respectively, and subjected to comparative high-throughput screening using thermal desorption/SESI/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TD-SESI-ToFMS). Breath metabolites were detected by using a background siloxane ion (hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane m/z 223.0642) as an internal lockmass. Eleven breath metabolites were selected from the breath research literature and successfully targeted. These data reinforce the proposition that TD-SESI-MS has potential for development as a rapid screening method for disease stratification and targeted metabolism profiling. PMID:25190194

Reynolds, James C; Jimoh, Modupe A; Guallar-Hoyas, Cristina; Creaser, Colin S; Siddiqui, Salman; Paul Thomas, C L

2014-09-01

7

Modular Sampling and Analysis Techniques for the Real-Time Analysis of Human Breath  

SciTech Connect

At LLNL and UC Davis, we are developing several techniques for the real-time sampling and analysis of trace gases, aerosols and exhaled breath that could be useful for a modular, integrated system for breath analysis. Those techniques include single-particle bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) for the analysis of exhaled aerosol particles or droplets as well as breath samplers integrated with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or MEMS-based differential mobility spectrometry (DMS). We describe these techniques and present recent data obtained from human breath or breath condensate, in particular, addressing the question of how environmental exposure influences the composition of breath.

Frank, M; Farquar, G; Adams, K; Bogan, M; Martin, A; Benner, H; Spadaccini, C; Steele, P; Davis, C; Loyola, B; Morgan, J; Sankaran, S

2007-07-09

8

COLLECTION OF A SINGLE ALVEOLAR EXHALED BREATH FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Measurement of specific organic compounds in exhaled breath has been used as an indicator of recent exposure to pollutants or as an indicator of the health of an individual. Typical application involves the collection of multiple breaths onto a sorbent cartridge or into an evacua...

9

MEASUREMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN EXHALED BREATH AS COLLECTED IN EVACUATED ELECTROPOLISHED CANISTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A set of three complementary analytical methods were developed specifically for exhaled breath as collected in evacuated stainless steel canisters using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry detection. The first is a screening method to quantify the carbon dioxide component (gen...

10

Subsurface Samples: Collection and Processing  

SciTech Connect

Microbiological data, interpretation, and conclusions from subsurface samples ultimately depend on the quality and representative character of the samples. Subsurface samples for environmental microbiology ideally contain only the microbial community and geochemical properties that are representative of the subsurface environment from which the sample was taken. To that end, sample contamination by exogenous microorganisms or chemical constituents must be eliminated or minimized, and sample analyses need to begin before changes in the microbial community or geochemical characteristics occur. This article presents sampling methods and sample processing techniques for collecting representative samples from a range of subsurface environments. Factors that should be considered when developing a subsurface sampling program are discussed, including potential benefits, costs, and limitations enabling researchers to evaluate the techniques that are presented and match them to their project requirements. Methods and protocols to address coring, sampling, processing and quality assessment issues are presented.

Long, Philip E.; Griffin, W. Timothy; Phelps, Tommy J.

2002-12-01

11

Evaluating Sampling Methods for Uncooperative Collections  

E-print Network

Evaluating Sampling Methods for Uncooperative Collections Paul Thomas Department of Computer of unbiased samples of documents from the constituent collections. We describe a number of sampling methods

Hawking, David

12

Molecular and Microscopic Analysis of Bacteria and Viruses in Exhaled Breath Collected Using a Simple Impaction and Condensing Method  

PubMed Central

Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is increasingly being used as a non-invasive method for disease diagnosis and environmental exposure assessment. By using hydrophobic surface, ice, and droplet scavenging, a simple impaction and condensing based collection method is reported here. Human subjects were recruited to exhale toward the device for 1, 2, 3, and 4 min. The exhaled breath quickly formed into tiny droplets on the hydrophobic surface, which were subsequently scavenged into a 10 µL rolling deionized water droplet. The collected EBC was further analyzed using culturing, DNA stain, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and colorimetry (VITEK 2) for bacteria and viruses. Experimental data revealed that bacteria and viruses in EBC can be rapidly collected using the method developed here, with an observed efficiency of 100 µL EBC within 1 min. Culturing, DNA stain, SEM, and qPCR methods all detected high bacterial concentrations up to 7000 CFU/m3 in exhaled breath, including both viable and dead cells of various types. Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Kocuria variants were found dominant in EBC samples using VITEK 2 system. SEM images revealed that most bacteria in exhaled breath are detected in the size range of 0.5–1.0 µm, which is able to enable them to remain airborne for a longer time, thus presenting a risk for airborne transmission of potential diseases. Using qPCR, influenza A H3N2 viruses were also detected in one EBC sample. Different from other devices restricted solely to condensation, the developed method can be easily achieved both by impaction and condensation in a laboratory and could impact current practice of EBC collection. Nonetheless, the reported work is a proof-of-concept demonstration, and its performance in non-invasive disease diagnosis such as bacterimia and virus infections needs to be further validated including effects of its influencing matrix. PMID:22848436

Xu, Zhenqiang; Shen, Fangxia; Li, Xiaoguang; Wu, Yan; Chen, Qi; Jie, Xu; Yao, Maosheng

2012-01-01

13

Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solubility of inhaled radionuclides in the human lung is an important characteristic of the compounds needed to perform internal dosimetry assessments for exposed workers. A solubility testing method for uranium and several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALSsp°ler ) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of Usb3Osb8. This makes it possible to characterize solubility profiles in every section of operating facilities where airborne nuclides are found using common breathing zone air samples. The new method was evaluated by analyzing uranium compounds from two uranium mills whose product had been previously analyzed by in vitro solubility testing in the laboratory and in vivo solubility testing in rodents. The new technique compared well with the in vivo rodent solubility profiles. The method was then used to evaluate the solubility profiles in all process sections of an operating in situ uranium plant using breathing zone and area air samples collected during routine plant operations. The solubility profiles developed from this work showed excellent agreement with the results of the worker urine bioassay program at the plant and identified a significant error in existing internal dose assessments at this facility.

Metzger, Robert Lawrence

14

Blood Pressure Associated With Sleep-Disordered Breathing in a Population Sample of Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current criteria for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children are not based on a clinically relevant outcome. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of blood pressure with SDB in a random sample of the local elementary school children (kindergarten through grade 5) using a 2-phased strategy. During phase 1, a brief questionnaire was completed for all

Edward O. Bixler; Alexandros N. Vgontzas; Hung-Mo Lin; Duanping Liao; Susan Calhoun; Fred Fedok; Vukmir Vlasic; Gavin Graff

2010-01-01

15

Psychometric Evaluation of the Beck Anxiety Inventory: A Sample With Sleep-Disordered Breathing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to document the psychometric properties of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) within a population with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), given concerns about overlapping symptomatology between anxiety and sleep apnea. Results supported good internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity for the BAI and a single-factor solution for men, women, and the total sample. Women had higher scores than

Stacy D. Sanford; Andrew J. Bush; Kristen C. Stone; Kenneth L. Lichstein; Neal Aguillard

2008-01-01

16

Fluid sample collection and storage device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid sampling device collects a sample from a low-pressure fluid system and stores it for an indefinite period, with little risk of contamination of either the sample or the surrounding environment. The collector /a plastic bladder/ is separated from the sampler after a sample is collected.

Cohen, D.; Stone, S. E.

1969-01-01

17

SAMPLING AND MASS SPECTROMETRY APPROACHES FOR THE DETECTION OF DRUGS AND FOREIGN CONTAMINANTS IN BREATH FOR HOMELAND SECURITY APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Homeland security relies heavily on analytical chemistry to identify suspicious materials and persons. Traditionally this role has focused on attribution, determining the type and origin of an explosive, for example. But as technology advances, analytical chemistry can and will play an important role in the prevention and preemption of terrorist attacks. More sensitive and selective detection techniques can allow suspicious materials and persons to be identified even before a final destructive product is made. The work presented herein focuses on the use of commercial and novel detection techniques for application to the prevention of terrorist activities. Although drugs are not commonly thought of when discussing terrorism, narcoterrorism has become a significant threat in the 21st century. The role of the drug trade in the funding of terrorist groups is prevalent; thus, reducing the trafficking of illegal drugs can play a role in the prevention of terrorism by cutting off much needed funding. To do so, sensitive, specific, and robust analytical equipment is needed to quickly identify a suspected drug sample no matter what matrix it is in. Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) is a novel technique that has previously been applied to biological and chemical detection. The current work applies SPAMS to drug analysis, identifying the active ingredients in single component, multi-component, and multi-tablet drug samples in a relatively non-destructive manner. In order to do so, a sampling apparatus was created to allow particle generation from drug tablets with on-line introduction to the SPAMS instrument. Rules trees were developed to automate the identification of drug samples on a single particle basis. A novel analytical scheme was also developed to identify suspect individuals based on chemical signatures in human breath. Human breath was sampled using an RTube{trademark} and the trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were preconcentrated using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and identified using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Modifications to the sampling apparatus allowed for increased VOC collection efficiency, and reduced the time of sampling and analysis by over 25%. The VOCs are present in breath due to either endogenous production, or exposure to an external source through absorption, inhalation, or ingestion. Detection of these exogenous chemicals can provide information on the prior location and activities of the subject. Breath samples collected before and after exposure in a hardware store and nail salon were analyzed to investigate the prior location of a subject; breath samples collected before and after oral exposure to terpenes and terpenoid compounds, pseudoephedrine, and inhalation exposure to hexamine and other explosive related compounds were analyzed to investigate the prior activity of a subject. The elimination of such compounds from the body was also monitored. In application, this technique may provide an early warning system to identify persons of interest in the prevention and preemption stages of homeland security.

Martin, A N

2009-01-27

18

Stability of selected volatile breath constituents in Tedlar, Kynar and Flexfilm sampling bags.  

PubMed

The stability of 41 selected breath constituents in three types of polymer sampling bags, Tedlar, Kynar, and Flexfilm, was investigated using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The tested molecular species belong to different chemical classes (hydrocarbons, ketones, aldehydes, aromatics, sulphurs, esters, terpenes, etc.) and exhibit close-to-breath low ppb levels (3-12 ppb) with the exception of isoprene, acetone and acetonitrile (106 ppb, 760 ppb, 42 ppb respectively). Stability tests comprised the background emission of contaminants, recovery from dry samples, recovery from humid samples (RH 80% at 37 °C), influence of the bag's filling degree, and reusability. Findings yield evidence of the superiority of Tedlar bags over remaining polymers in terms of background emission, species stability (up to 7 days for dry samples), and reusability. Recoveries of species under study suffered from the presence of high amounts of water (losses up to 10%). However, only heavier volatiles, with molecular masses higher than 90, exhibited more pronounced losses (20-40%). The sample size (the degree of bag filling) was found to be one of the most important factors affecting the sample integrity. To sum up, it is recommended to store breath samples in pre-conditioned Tedlar bags up to 6 hours at the maximum possible filling volume. Among the remaining films, Kynar can be considered as an alternative to Tedlar; however, higher losses of compounds should be expected even within the first hours of storage. Due to the high background emission Flexfilm is not suitable for sampling and storage of samples for analyses aiming at volatiles at a low ppb level. PMID:23323261

Mochalski, Pawe?; King, Julian; Unterkofler, Karl; Amann, Anton

2013-03-01

19

Optimising sample collection for placental research.  

PubMed

Biobanks provide an important repository of samples for research purposes. However, for those samples to reflect the in vivo state, and for experimental reliability and reproducibility, careful attention to collection, processing and storage is essential. This is particularly true for the placenta, which is potentially subjected to stressful conditions during delivery, and sample collection may be delayed owing to routine postpartum inspection by clinical staff. In addition, standardisation of the collection procedure enables samples to be shared among research groups, allowing larger datasets to be established. Here, we provide an evidence-based and experts' review of the factors surrounding collection that may influence data obtained from the human placenta. We outline particular requirements for specific techniques, and propose a protocol for optimal sample collection. We recognise that the relevance of these factors, and of the sample types collected to a particular study will depend on the research questions being addressed. We therefore anticipate that researchers will select from the protocol to meet their needs and resources available. Wherever possible, we encourage researchers to extend their collection to include additional samples that can be shared on an international collaborative basis, with appropriate informed consent, to raise the quality, as well as quantity, of placental research. PMID:24290528

Burton, G J; Sebire, N J; Myatt, L; Tannetta, D; Wang, Y-L; Sadovsky, Y; Staff, A C; Redman, C W

2014-01-01

20

ANIMAL BEHAVIOR Sampling Methods, Data Collection, & Ethograms  

E-print Network

1 ANIMAL BEHAVIOR LAB #2 Sampling Methods, Data Collection, & Ethograms Pond Exercise Summary Today with a deeper understanding of how to describe and classify animal behaviors. Background A) Sampling Methods. A variety of sampling methods can be used to obtain a partial record that still provides us with a valid

21

Rossman/Chance Applet Collection: Sampling Words  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet samples words. The user can control the sample size and the number of samples. It displays the number, the word, the number of letters, whether it is long and whether or not it is a noun. Then, each one is plotted. This is part of a larger collection of applets on statistics from the California Poly San Luis Obispo.

Rossman, Allan; Chance, Beth

2008-09-08

22

Chapter A4. Collection of Water Samples  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data that are used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter addresses preparations and appropriate methods for the collection of surface-water, groundwater, and associated quality-control samples. Among the topics covered are considerations and procedures to prevent sample contamination; establishing site files; instructions for collecting depth-integrated isokinetic and nonisokinetic samples at flowing- and still-water sites; and guidelines for collecting formation water from wells having various types of construction and hydraulic and aquifer characteristics.

Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By)

1999-01-01

23

Water sample-collection and distribution system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Collection and distribution system samples water from six designated stations, filtered if desired, and delivers it to various analytical sensors. System may be controlled by Water Monitoring Data Acquisition System or operated manually.

Brooks, R. R.

1978-01-01

24

Final Report BW Sample Collection& Preparation Device  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop the technique needed to prepare a field collected sample for laboratory analysis and build a portable integrated biological detection instrument with new miniaturized and automated sample purification capabilities. The device will prepare bacterial spores, bacterial vegetative cells, and viral particles for PCR amplification.

Koopman, R P; Belgrader, P; Meyer, G; Benett, W J; Richards, J B; Hadley, D R; Stratton, P L; Milanovich, F P

2002-01-31

25

Rossman/Chance Applet Collection: Sampling Pennies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet demonstrates drawing numbered pennies from a large sample. The user can change the sample size and the number of samples. Once the pennies have been drawn, the number of the penny and its year is shown. The mean and standard deviation are also displayed. The top plot is of the average year drawn and the lower plot is of the average year of all of the samples. This is part of a larger collection of applets on statistics from the California Poly San Luis Obispo.

Rossman, Allan; Chance, Beth

2008-09-08

26

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in sixteen cities in the United States as determined by personal breathing zone air sampling.  

PubMed

Approximately one hundred nonsmoking individuals in each of 16 metropolitan areas of the United States collected a sample of air from their breathing zone while in their workplace and a sample while away from work during their 24-hour days. Individuals were selected for the study in an attempt to equally represent those working and living in smoking and nonsmoking environments. Collected samples were analyzed for respirable particulate matter (RSP) (3.5 microns diameter), ultraviolet absorbing particulate matter, fluorescing particulate matter, solanesol, scopoletin, nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine, and myosmine. Individuals living and/or working in environments where smoking occurs were confirmed to be the most highly exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Residential RSP levels ranged from 50 to 113% of those which have been reported by other investigators. For the majority of subjects who either lived or worked in smoking environments, the home was found to be the greater source of ETS exposure. Exposures of subjects whose spouses smoked unrestrictedly within the home were a factor of two to four higher than those of subjects who worked in locations where smoking occurred and was not restricted. Exposures of typical subjects to nicotine in the workplace were 30-60% of those estimated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and 15-20% of those estimated by the OSHA for the most highly exposed workers. PMID:9087866

Jenkins, R A; Palausky, A; Counts, R W; Bayne, C K; Dindal, A B; Guerin, M R

1996-01-01

27

Automated collection and processing of environmental samples  

DOEpatents

For monitoring an environmental parameter such as the level of nuclear radiation, at distributed sites, bar coded sample collectors are deployed and their codes are read using a portable data entry unit that also records the time of deployment. The time and collector identity are cross referenced in memory in the portable unit. Similarly, when later recovering the collector for testing, the code is again read and the time of collection is stored as indexed to the sample collector, or to a further bar code, for example as provided on a container for the sample. The identity of the operator can also be encoded and stored. After deploying and/or recovering the sample collectors, the data is transmitted to a base processor. The samples are tested, preferably using a test unit coupled to the base processor, and again the time is recorded. The base processor computes the level of radiation at the site during exposure of the sample collector, using the detected radiation level of the sample, the delay between recovery and testing, the duration of exposure and the half life of the isotopes collected. In one embodiment, an identity code and a site code are optically read by an image grabber coupled to the portable data entry unit.

Troyer, Gary L. (Richland, WA); McNeece, Susan G. (Richland, WA); Brayton, Darryl D. (Richland, WA); Panesar, Amardip K. (Kennewick, WA)

1997-01-01

28

Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples  

SciTech Connect

A solubility testing method for several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS{reg_sign}) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Profiles developed for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} samples show good agreement with in vitro and in vivo tests performed by other investigators on samples from the same uranium mills.

Metzger, R.L.; Jessop, B.H.; McDowell, B.L. [Radiation Safety Engineering, Inc., Chandler, AZ (United States)

1996-02-01

29

Breathing Room  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this health activity, learners explore breathing, lungs and asthma. Learners test their lung capacity by blowing air into balloons. Learners are also encouraged to determine how the amount of air in a balloon changes as you vary the size of the hole you blow through. Safety note: Check for latex allergies before purchasing balloons. Learners with respiratory problems should not breathe through the straws or blow up the balloons, but they can help record measurements and collect data.

Television, Twin C.

2010-01-01

30

NEW METHODOLOGY FOR IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL HUMAN BIOMARKERS BY COLLECTION AND CONCENTRATION OF EXHALED BREATH CONDENSATE  

EPA Science Inventory

In many studies of human exposure, the measurement of pollutant chemicals in the environment (air, water, food, soil, etc.) is being supplemented by their additional measurement in biological media such as human breath, blood, and urine. This allows an unambiguous confirmation...

31

Sampling of exhaled nitric oxide in children: end-expiratory plateau, balloon and tidal breathing methods compared.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare exhaled nitric oxide concentrations obtained during controlled slow exhalation, presently considered as the method of choice, with two sampling methods that are easily performed by children: blowing air into a balloon and tidal breathing through a mouthpiece. One hundred and one well controlled, stable allergic asthmatic children (median age 11.7 yrs) performed the following tasks in duplicate: 1) exhalation from total lung capacity through a mouthpiece against a resistor with a standardized flow rate of 20% of the subject's vital capacity per second, using a biofeedback system; 2) a single deep exhalation into an NO-impermeable mylar balloon; and 3) tidal breathing through a low resistance mouthpiece over 2 min. NO was measured using a chemiluminescence analyser. Twenty-nine children (29%) were not able to perform a constant-flow exhalation of at least 3 s. All children performed the balloon and tidal breathing methods without difficulty. NO concentrations (means +/-SEM) were 5.3+/-0.2 parts per billion (ppb) at the end-expiratory plateau, 5.2+/-0.3 ppb in balloons (intraclass correlation coefficient (r(i)) = 0.73) and 8.0+/-0.4 ppb during tidal breathing (p<0.001, r(i) = 0.53 compared to plateau values). Mean values of NO during tidal breathing increased significantly with time, suggesting increasing contamination with nasal air. It was concluded that, in asthmatic children, the end-expiratory plateau concentration of nitric oxide during exhalation at 20% of the vital capacity per second is similar to the values obtained with the balloon method, with satisfactory agreement, but differs from values obtained during tidal breathing. The balloon method is cheap, simple and offers the interesting possibility to study exhaled nitric oxide in young children independently of the presence of a nitric oxide analyser. PMID:10445620

Jöbsis, Q; Schellekens, S L; Kroesbergen, A; Hop, W C; de Jongste, J C

1999-06-01

32

Sleep-disordered breathing and postoperative outcomes after bariatric surgery: Analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample  

PubMed Central

Background Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has been increasingly recognized as a possible risk factor for adverse perioperative outcomes in non-bariatric surgeries. However, the impact of SDB on postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing bariatric surgery remains less clearly defined. We hypothesized that SDB would be independently associated with worse postoperative outcomes. Methods Data were obtained from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, and included a total of 91,028 adult patients undergoing bariatric surgeries from 2004 to 2008. The primary outcomes were in-hospital death, total charges and length of stay. There were two secondary outcomes of interest: respiratory and cardiac complications. Regression models were fitted to assess the independent association between SDB and the outcomes of interest. Results SDB was independently associated with decreased mortality (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.23-0.50, p<0.001), total charges (-$869, p<0.001), and length of stay (-0.25 days, p<0.001). SDB was independently associated with significantly increased odds ratio of emergent endotracheal intubation (OR 4.35, 95% CI 3.97-4.77, p<0.001), noninvasive ventilation (OR 14.12, 95% CI 12.09-16.51, p<0.001), and atrial fibrillation (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.11-1.41, p<0.001). Emergent intubation occurred significantly earlier in the postoperative course in patients with SDB. Although non-SDB patients had an overall lower risk of emergent intubation compared to SDB patients, their outcomes were significantly worse when they did get emergently intubated. Conclusions In this large nationally representative sample, despite the increased association of SDB with postoperative cardiopulmonary complications, the diagnosis of SDB was negatively, rather than positively, associated with in-hospital mortality and resource use. PMID:23690272

Mokhlesi, Babak; Hovda, Margaret D.; Vekhter, Benjamin; Arora, Vineet M.; Chung, Frances; Meltzer, David O.

2013-01-01

33

News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.  

PubMed

This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 11 to 14 September 2011. The meeting, which was jointly organized by the International Association for Breath Research and the University of Parma, was attended by more than 250 delegates from 33 countries, and offered 34 invited lectures and 64 unsolicited scientific contributions. The summit was organized to provide a forum to scientists, engineers and clinicians to present their latest findings and to meet industry executives and entrepreneurs to discuss key trends, future directions and technologies available for breath analysis. A major focus was on nitric oxide, exhaled breath condensate, electronic nose, mass spectrometry and newer sensor technologies. Medical applications ranged from asthma and other respiratory diseases to gastrointestinal disease, occupational diseases, critical care and cancer. Most people identify breath tests with breathalysers used by police to estimate ethanol concentration in blood. However, breath testing has far more sophisticated applications. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as a new frontier in medical testing for disease states in the lung and beyond. Every individual has a breath fingerprint-or 'breathprint'-that can provide useful information about his or her state of health. This breathprint comprises the many thousands of molecules that are expelled with each breath we exhale. Breath research in the past few years has uncovered the scientific and molecular basis for such clinical observations. Relying on mass spectrometry, we have been able to identify many such unique substances in exhaled breath, including gases, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), and a wide array of volatile organic compounds. Exhaled breath also carries aerosolized droplets that can be collected as an exhaled breath condensate that contains endogenously produced non-volatile compounds. Breath analysis is now used to diagnose and monitor asthma, check for transplant organ rejection, detect lung cancer and test for Helicobacter pyloriinfection-and the list is growing. A major milestone in the scientific study of breath was marked in the 1970s when Linus Pauling demonstrated that there is more to exhaled breath than the classic gases of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapour-a lot more. Based on the gas-liquid partition chromatography analysis, Pauling reported the presence of 250 substances in exhaled breath. We now have the technology to test for any and all of these components. The field of breath analysis has made considerable advances in the 21st century and the utility of breath analysis in health care is advancing quickly. The science is rapidly expanding, the technology is improving and several new applications have been developed or are under commercial development. Breath analysis may rely on both direct (on line) and indirect (off line) reading methods: in the on-line method, breath analysis is immediately available, whereas the use of indirect methods generally involves collecting and trapping the breath sample and subsequently transferring it to an analytical instrument for analysis. Various kinds of breath samples have been used in biological monitoring, including mixed expired air and end expired air: end exhaled air represents the alveolar air concentration and mixed exhaled air represents the gas mixture coming from the dead space of the bronchial tree and the alveolar gas-exchange space. Exhaled breath analysis is an area where the modern day advances in technology and engineering meet the ever expanding need in medicine for more sensitive, specific and non-invasive tests which makes this area a major front in the interface between medicine and engineering. A major breakthrough over the past decade has been the increase in breath-based tests approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Devices measuring common breath gases (oxygen, nitrogen, water vapour and CO(2)) in patient respiratory monitoring have served as

Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

2012-05-23

34

7 CFR 160.22 - Collecting samples; issuing certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL STORES REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Methods of Analysis, Inspection, Sampling and Grading § 160.22 Collecting samples; issuing certificates. The collection of...

2010-01-01

35

7 CFR 160.22 - Collecting samples; issuing certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL STORES REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Methods of Analysis, Inspection, Sampling and Grading § 160.22 Collecting samples; issuing certificates. The collection of...

2013-01-01

36

7 CFR 160.22 - Collecting samples; issuing certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL STORES REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Methods of Analysis, Inspection, Sampling and Grading § 160.22 Collecting samples; issuing certificates. The collection of...

2012-01-01

37

7 CFR 160.22 - Collecting samples; issuing certificates.  

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL STORES REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Methods of Analysis, Inspection, Sampling and Grading § 160.22 Collecting samples; issuing certificates. The collection of...

2014-01-01

38

7 CFR 160.22 - Collecting samples; issuing certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL STORES REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Methods of Analysis, Inspection, Sampling and Grading § 160.22 Collecting samples; issuing certificates. The collection of...

2011-01-01

39

28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing §...

2013-07-01

40

28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing §...

2010-07-01

41

28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing §...

2014-07-01

42

28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing §...

2012-07-01

43

28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing §...

2011-07-01

44

Extra intestinal influences on exhaled breath hydrogen measurements during the investigation of gastrointestinal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the clinical investigation of patients with gastrointestinal disease by exhaled breath hydrogen measurement, the occurrence of inexplicable variations in recorded hydrogen values led to a search for extra intestinal factors which were capable of adversely influencing breath hydrogen concentration and impairing the diagnostic accuracy of the test. Serial breath samples were collected from normal subjects under a variety of

D G Thompson; P Binfield; A De Belder; J OBrien; S Warren; M Wilson

1985-01-01

45

Analysis of the research sample collections of uppsala biobank.  

PubMed

Uppsala Biobank is the joint and only biobank organization of the two principals, Uppsala University and Uppsala University Hospital. Biobanks are required to have updated registries on sample collection composition and management in order to fulfill legal regulations. We report here the results from the first comprehensive and overall analysis of the 131 research sample collections organized in the biobank. The results show that the median of the number of samples in the collections was 700 and that the number of samples varied from less than 500 to over one million. Blood samples, such as whole blood, serum, and plasma, were included in the vast majority, 84.0%, of the research sample collections. Also, as much as 95.5% of the newly collected samples within healthcare included blood samples, which further supports the concept that blood samples have fundamental importance for medical research. Tissue samples were also commonly used and occurred in 39.7% of the research sample collections, often combined with other types of samples. In total, 96.9% of the 131 sample collections included samples collected for healthcare, showing the importance of healthcare as a research infrastructure. Of the collections that had accessed existing samples from healthcare, as much as 96.3% included tissue samples from the Department of Pathology, which shows the importance of pathology samples as a resource for medical research. Analysis of different research areas shows that the most common of known public health diseases are covered. Collections that had generated the most publications, up to over 300, contained a large number of samples collected systematically and repeatedly over many years. More knowledge about existing biobank materials, together with public registries on sample collections, will support research collaborations, improve transparency, and bring us closer to the goals of biobanks, which is to save and prolong human lives and improve health and quality of life. PMID:25340941

Engelmark, Malin T; Beskow, Anna H

2014-10-01

46

PNNL-20412 Data Package of Samples Collected  

E-print Network

and analytical quality control requirements, calibration requirements, acceptance criteria, and failure actions for sample delivery group ESL090017 · Cover Sheet · Narrative · Analytical Results · Quality Control results, estimated quantification limits (EQL), and quality control data. Quality Control The preparatory

47

Automatic Collection of Rock and Soil Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed machine would sample rock or soil automatically. Mounted on a wheeled or tracked vehicle, machine positions drill for cut at any angle from horizontal to vertical, moves power head to drive drill into cut, and stores drilled core in a container. New concept may also be useful in terrestrial agricultural and geologic surveys.

Kyrias, G. M.

1982-01-01

48

7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section 29...Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco...the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide residues shall be sampled in...

2011-01-01

49

7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section 29...Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco...the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide residues shall be sampled in...

2010-01-01

50

Snow White Trench Prepared for Sample Collection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The informally named 'Snow White' trench is the source for the next sample to be acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander for analysis by the wet chemistry lab.

The Surface Stereo Imager on Phoenix took this shadow-enhanced image of the trench, on the eastern end of Phoenix's work area, on Sol 103, or the 103rd day of the mission, Sept. 8, 2008. The trench is about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide.

The wet chemistry lab is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

51

21 CFR 1230.30 - Collection of samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Administrative Procedures § 1230.30 Collection of samples. Samples for examination by or under the...

2010-04-01

52

The development of a Martian atmospheric Sample collection canister  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The collection of an atmospheric sample from Mars would provide significant insight to the understanding of the elemental composition and sub-surface out-gassing rates of noble gases. A team of engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology have developed an atmospheric sample collection canister for Martian application. The engineering strategy has two basic elements: first, to collect two separately sealed 50 cubic centimeter unpressurized atmospheric samples with minimal sensing and actuation in a self contained pressure vessel; and second, to package this atmospheric sample canister in such a way that it can be easily integrated into the orbiting sample capsule for collection and return to Earth. Sample collection and integrity are demonstrated by emulating the atmospheric collection portion of the Mars Sample Return mission on a compressed timeline. The test results achieved by varying the pressure inside of a thermal vacuum chamber while opening and closing the valve on the sample canister at Mars ambient pressure. A commercial off-the-shelf medical grade micro-valve is utilized in the first iteration of this design to enable rapid testing of the system. The valve has been independently leak tested at JPL to quantify and separate the leak rates associated with the canister. The results are factored in to an overall system design that quantifies mass, power, and sensing requirements for a Martian atmospheric Sample Collection (MASC) canister as outlined in the Mars Sample Return mission profile. Qualitative results include the selection of materials to minimize sample contamination, preliminary science requirements, priorities in sample composition, flight valve selection criteria, a storyboard from sample collection to loading in the orbiting sample capsule, and contributions to maintaining “ Earth” clean exterior surfaces on the orbiting sample capsule.

Kulczycki, E.; Galey, C.; Kennedy, B.; Budney, C.; Bame, D.; Van Schilfgaarde, R.; Aisen, N.; Townsend, J.; Younse, P.; Piacentine, J.

53

Breath-based biomarkers for tuberculosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the potential of breath analysis by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to discriminate between samples collected prospectively from patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB). Samples were obtained in a TB endemic setting in South Africa where 28% of the culture proven TB patients had a Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) negative sputum smear. A training set of breath samples from 50 sputum culture proven TB patients and 50 culture negative non-TB patients was analyzed by GC-MS. A classification model with 7 compounds resulted in a training set with a sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 86% and accuracy of 79% compared with culture. The classification model was validated with an independent set of breath samples from 21 TB and 50 non-TB patients. A sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 84% and accuracy of 77% was found. We conclude that the 7 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that discriminate breath samples from TB and non-TB patients in our study population are probably host-response related VOCs and are not derived from the VOCs secreted by M. tuberculosis. It is concluded that at present GC-MS breath analysis is able to differentiate between TB and non-TB breath samples even among patients with a negative ZN sputum smear but a positive culture for M. tuberculosis. Further research is required to improve the sensitivity and specificity before this method can be used in routine laboratories.

Kolk, Arend H. J.; van Berkel, Joep J. B. N.; Claassens, Mareli M.; Walters, Elisabeth; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Dallinga, Jan W.; van Schooten, Fredrik-Jan

2012-06-01

54

SOIL SAMPLE COLLECTION AND HANDLING FOR VOLATILE ORGANICS ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The guidance document will detail the Region I EPA New England requirements for the collection of soil samples for volatile organics analysis by SW-846, Method 5035. The guidance will describe the project planning process for the collection of soil samples for volatile organics ...

55

Collection Systems James P. Heaney, Len Wright, and David Sample  

E-print Network

Stormwater and wastewater collection systems are a critical link in the urban water cycle, especially under6-1 Chapter 6 Collection Systems James P. Heaney, Len Wright, and David Sample Introduction/I). Research in the area of collection systems as a means of wet-weather pollution control is showing signs

Pitt, Robert E.

56

Scientific guidelines for preservation of samples collected from Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The maximum scientific value of Martian geologic and atmospheric samples is retained when the samples are preserved in the conditions that applied prior to their collection. Any sample degradation equates to loss of information. Based on detailed review of pertinent scientific literature, and advice from experts in planetary sample analysis, number values are recommended for key parameters in the environmental control of collected samples with respect to material contamination, temperature, head-space gas pressure, ionizing radiation, magnetic fields, and acceleration/shock. Parametric values recommended for the most sensitive geologic samples should also be adequate to preserve any biogenic compounds or exobiological relics.

Gooding, James L. (editor)

1990-01-01

57

40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. 761.286...Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.286 Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. At each...

2013-07-01

58

40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. 761.286...Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.286 Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. At each...

2012-07-01

59

40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. 761.286...Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.286 Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. At each...

2011-07-01

60

Proper Oil Sampling Intervals and Sample Collection Techniques Gasoline/Diesel/Natural Gas Engines  

E-print Network

Proper Oil Sampling Intervals and Sample Collection Techniques Gasoline/Diesel/Natural Gas Engines: � Oil samples can be collected during oil changes. Follow manufacturers recommendations on frequency (hours, mileage, etc) of oil changes. � Capture a sample from the draining oil while the oil is still hot

61

40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.  

...Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. 761.286...Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.286 Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. At each...

2014-07-01

62

CHARACTERIZATION OF CORE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

During the month of September 2008, grout core samples were collected from the Saltstone Disposal Facility, Vault 4, cell E. This grout was placed during processing campaigns in December 2007 from Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment Batch 2 salt solution. The 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria sample collected on 11/16/07 represents the salt solution in the core samples. Core samples were retrieved to initiate the historical database of properties of emplaced Saltstone and to demonstrate the correlation between field collected and laboratory prepared samples. Three samples were collected from three different locations. Samples were collected using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit. In April 2009, the core samples were removed from the evacuated sample container, inspected, transferred to PVC containers, and backfilled with nitrogen. Samples furthest from the wall were the most intact cylindrically shaped cored samples. The shade of the core samples darkened as the depth of coring increased. Based on the visual inspection, sample 3-3 was selected for all subsequent analysis. The density and porosity of the Vault 4 core sample, 1.90 g/cm{sup 3} and 59.90% respectively, were comparable to values achieved for laboratory prepared samples. X-ray diffraction analysis identified phases consistent with the expectations for hydrated Saltstone. Microscopic analysis revealed morphology features characteristic of cementitious materials with fly ash and calcium silicate hydrate gel. When taken together, the results of the density, porosity, x-ray diffraction analysis and microscopic analysis support the conclusion that the Vault 4, Cell E core sample is representative of the expected waste form.

Cozzi, A.; Duncan, A.

2010-01-28

63

Collecting Ground Samples for Balloon-Borne Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed system in a gondola containing scientific instruments suspended by a balloon over the surface of the Saturn moon Titan would quickly acquire samples of rock or ice from the ground below. Prototypes of a sample-collecting device that would be a major part of the system have been tested under cryogenic and non-cryogenic conditions on Earth. Systems like this one could also be used in non-cryogenic environments on Earth to collect samples of rock, soil, ice, mud, or other ground material from such inaccessible or hazardous locations as sites of suspected chemical spills or biological contamination. The sample-collecting device would be a harpoonlike device that would be connected to the balloon-borne gondola by a tether long enough to reach the ground. The device would be dropped from the gondola to acquire a sample, then would be reeled back up to the gondola, where the sample would be analyzed by the onboard instruments. Each prototype of the sample-collecting device has a sharp front (lower) end, a hollow core for retaining a sample, a spring for holding the sample in the hollow core, and a rear (upper) annular cavity for retaining liquid sample material. Aerodynamic fins at the rear help to keep the front end pointed downward. In tests, these prototype devices were dropped from various heights and used to gather samples of dry sand, moist sand, cryogenic water ice, and warmer water ice.

Jones, Jack; Zimmerman, Wayne; Wu, Jiunn Jenq

2009-01-01

64

COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...

65

21 CFR 1230.31 - Where samples may be collected.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Administrative Procedures § 1230.31 Where samples may be collected. Caustic or corrosive substances within...

2010-04-01

66

Testing Your Soil: How to Collect and Send Samples  

E-print Network

Soil tests can be used to estimate the kinds and amounts of soil nutrients available to plants and as aids in determining fertilizer needs. This publication covers the three-step procedure for obtaining sample bags and instructions, collecting...

Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

2002-06-26

67

Rossman/Chance Applet Collection: Reese's Pieces Samples  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet demonstrates a machine dispensing Reese's Pieces. The Reese's Pieces are seperated into different colors. The user can change the sample size and the number of samples. The mean and standard deviation are displayed and a plot of the normal curve can also be shown. This is part of a larger collection of applets on statistics from the California Poly San Luis Obispo.

Rossman, Allan; Chance, Beth

2008-09-19

68

USGS Technician Collects Water Sample at a Weir  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A USGS technician collects a water sample at the Faka Union Canal Weir #1, Collier County, Florida. The sample was used to help determine the source of the warm water responsible for the site's popularity among manatees as a warm water refuge....

2010-06-01

69

Breath Analysis in Disease Diagnosis: Methodological Considerations and Applications  

PubMed Central

Breath analysis is a promising field with great potential for non-invasive diagnosis of a number of disease states. Analysis of the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath with an acceptable accuracy are assessed by means of using analytical techniques with high sensitivity, accuracy, precision, low response time, and low detection limit, which are desirable characteristics for the detection of VOCs in human breath. “Breath fingerprinting”, indicative of a specific clinical status, relies on the use of multivariate statistics methods with powerful in-built algorithms. The need for standardisation of sample collection and analysis is the main issue concerning breath analysis, blocking the introduction of breath tests into clinical practice. This review describes recent scientific developments in basic research and clinical applications, namely issues concerning sampling and biochemistry, highlighting the diagnostic potential of breath analysis for disease diagnosis. Several considerations that need to be taken into account in breath analysis are documented here, including the growing need for metabolomics to deal with breath profiles. PMID:24957037

Lourenco, Celia; Turner, Claire

2014-01-01

70

Rossman/Chance Applet Collection: Simulating Senators Samples  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet draws a sample of senators (from Senators in 2005). The user can control the sample size and the number of samples. The applet displays the senator's name, number of years in the senate, their party and gender. Each set is then plotted. The mean and standard deviation is displayed. This is part of a larger collection of applets on statistics from the California Poly San Luis Obispo.

Rossman, Allan; Chance, Beth

2009-03-31

71

Methods for collection and analysis of water samples  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to collect, preserve, and analyze water samples. Throughout, the emphasis is on obtaining analytical results that accurately describe the chemical composition of the water in situ. Among the topics discussed are selection of sampling sites, frequency of sampling, field equipment, preservatives and fixatives, analytical techniques of water analysis, and instruments. Seventy-seven laboratory and field procedures are given for determining fifty-three water properties.

Rainwater, Frank Hays; Thatcher, Leland Lincoln.

1960-01-01

72

Application of cabin atmosphere monitors to rapid screening of breath samples for the early detection of disease states  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of human breath is a nonintrusive method to monitor both endogenous and exogenous chemicals found in the body. Several technologies were investigated and developed which are applicable to monitoring some organic molecules important in both physiological and pathological states. Two methods were developed for enriching the organic molecules exhaled in the breath of humans. One device is based on a respiratory face mask fitted with a polyethylene foam wafer; while the other device is a cryogenic trap utilizing an organic solvent. Using laboratory workers as controls, two organic molecules which occurred in the enriched breath of all subjects were tentatively identified as lactic acid and contisol. Both of these substances occurred in breath in sufficient amounts that the conventional method of gas-liquid chromatography was adequate for detection and quantification. To detect and quantitate trace amounts of chemicals in breath, another type of technology was developed in which analysis was conducted using high pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

Valentine, J. L.; Bryant, P. J.

1975-01-01

73

A low cost multi-level sampling device for synchronous aseptic collection of environmental water samples.  

PubMed

We describe a simple device for the aseptic collection of environmental water samples at high spatial resolution to depths of 50m. To demonstrate the utility of this technique we present geochemical and archaeal community data from samples collected throughout the water column of a stratified lake. PMID:25043843

McCormick, Michael L; Banishki, Nikola; Powell, Sarah; Rumack, Amy; Garrett, Jinnie M

2014-10-01

74

Bad Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... Body Works Main Page The Pink Locker Society Bad Breath KidsHealth > Kids > Staying Healthy > Being Good to ... visit your dentist or doctor . Continue What Causes Bad Breath? Here are three common causes of bad ...

75

Can Chest Trauma Patients Provide Breath Sample With Lion SD400 Alcometer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various investigators have addressed the minimum lung function required to activate breathalyzers, and the impact of comorbid respiratory illness. We postulated that subjects with significant chest trauma may have difficulty in providing an adequate breathalyzer sample. A prospective self-controlled study of 20 patients who underwent thoracotomy was conducted between August 2005 and December 2005, using a Lion Alcometer SD-400. The

Sridhar Rathinam; David Luke; Prakash Nanjaiah; Maninder S Kalkat; Richard S Steyn

2009-01-01

76

Sampling strategy for a core collection of Peruvian quinoa germplasm.  

PubMed

Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is an Andean crop with a high potential for cultivation under temperate agricultural conditions. A new quinoa cultivar for such an environment requires plant characteristics that may be available primarily largely in genetic resources held in gene banks. A core collection may simplify management and enhance the utilisation of quinoa genetic resources. This paper describes the development of a core subset of the whole quinoa gene bank (1029 accessions) of the Universidad Nacional del Altiplano (UNAP). All accessions available in this gene bank have location and altitude descriptors and a partial description for qualitative and quantitative descriptors. The core collection (103 accessions) contains chosen ecotypes or landraces that capture most of the genetic variability available in this Peruvian germplasm. The accessions were selected for the core collection based on a geographically stratified non-overlapping sampling procedure. The number of accessions that were allocated to the core subset was determined using a proportional method adjusted by the relative importance of the quinoa crop in each geographical cluster as determined by its acreage. The sampling method also considered the morphological diversity within four geographical clusters of at least 100 accessions. The multivariate pattern of morphological variation was defined within each of these clusters by independent principal component analyses. A comparison of phenotypic diversity between the entire collection and its core subset confirmed that the proper sampling strategy for this core collection of Peruvian quinoa germplasm had been applied. The most important phenotypic correlations between quantitative descriptors observed in the entire collection, which may be under the control of co-adapted gene complexes, were also preserved by the core collection. The most comprenhensive quinoa core collection should consider accessions from other gene banks in Bolivia and Ecuador, a few accessions from coastal Chile and wild sympatric cross-compatible Chenopodium species. This core collection will be a point of entry to the proper exploitation of the genetic resources available in respective quinoa gene banks. PMID:24710887

Ortiz, R; Ruiz-Tapia, E N; Mujica-Sanchez, A

1998-03-01

77

APOLLO 12: C.Conrad Jr. collects geological samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

APOLLO 12: 'Pete' Conrad collects samples from the lunar surface, while at the same time adjusting to, and remarking on, the working conditions. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 12: 'Pinpoint for Science'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLLO 12: Second manned lunar landing and return with Charles 'Pete' Conrad, Jr., Richard F. Gordon, and Alan F. Bean. Landed in the Ocean of Storms on November 19, 1969; deployed television camera and ALSEP experiments; two EVA's performed; collected core samples and lunar materials; photographed and retrieved parts from surveyor 3 spacecraft. Mission duration 244hrs 36min 24sec

1974-01-01

78

Astronaut Harrison Schmitt collects lunar rake samples during EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt collects lunar rake samples at Station 1 during the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This picture was taken by Astronaut Eugene Cernan, Apollo 17 commander. Schmitt is the lunar module pilot. The lunar rake, an Apollo lunar geology hand tool, is used to collect discrete samples of rocks and rock chips ranging in size from one-half inch (1.3 cm) to one inch (2.5 cm).

1972-01-01

79

Astronaut Harrison Schmitt collects lunar rake samples during EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt collects lunar rake samples at Station 1 during the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This picture was taken by Astronatu Eugene Cernan, Apollo 17 commander. Schmitt is the lunar module pilot. The lunar rake, An Apollo lunar geology hand tool, is used to collect discrete samples of rocks and rock chips ranging in size from one-half inch (1.3 cm) to one inch (2.5 cm).

1972-01-01

80

Urine sampling and collection system optimization and testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Urine Sampling and Collection System (USCS) engineering model was developed to provide for the automatic collection, volume sensing and sampling of urine from each micturition. The purpose of the engineering model was to demonstrate verification of the system concept. The objective of the optimization and testing program was to update the engineering model, to provide additional performance features and to conduct system testing to determine operational problems. Optimization tasks were defined as modifications to minimize system fluid residual and addition of thermoelectric cooling.

Fogal, G. L.; Geating, J. A.; Koesterer, M. G.

1975-01-01

81

Chemical analysis of rain samples collected over the Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

During seven research cruises in the Pacific Ocean from 1984 to 1989 we collected rain samples for chemical analyses. The geographical and temporal variations of rain chemistry were studied in relation to natural and anthropogenic sources and transport of the constituents. The pH values of rain samples ranged from 3.9 to 7.2, with a mean of 5.6 (n=104, sigma=0.5). The

C. Nagamoto; F. Parungo; B. Kopcewicz; M. Y. Zhou

1990-01-01

82

Apparatus and process for collection of gas and vapor samples  

DOEpatents

A gas sampling apparatus and process is provided in which a standard crimping tool is modified by an attached collar. The collar permits operation of the crimping tool while also facilitating the introduction of a supply of gas to be introduced into a storage vial. The introduced gas supply is used to purge ambient air from a collection chamber and an interior of the sample vial. Upon completion of the purging operation, the vial is sealed using the crimping tool.

Jackson, Dennis G. (Augusta, GA); Peterson, Kurt D. (Aiken, SC); Riha, Brian D. (Augusta, GA)

2008-04-01

83

General anesthesia and exhaled breath hydrogen peroxide.  

PubMed

To study the role of free radical formation on the impairment of pulmonary function seen with general anesthesia, we measured the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration in the exhaled breath condensate of 27 patients. Patients were divided into three study groups: a healthy patient group (group 1, n = 15) consisting of ASA physical status 1 and 2 patients undergoing elective noncardiothoracic surgery; a specific anesthetic event group (group 2, n = 6) composed of patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB); and a positive control group (group 3, n = 6) consisting of patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The exhaled breath condensate was collected by diverting exhaled breath through a glass condensation coil submerged in an ice/salt water bath. The exhaled breath condensate samples were then assayed using a spectrophotometric method. In group 1, samples were collected before and after the induction of general anesthesia with intravenous drugs, and before and after the administration of the inhalational anesthetics isoflurane (1.5%) (n = 7) or N2O (70%) (n = 8). In group 2, samples were collected pre- and post-CPB, and in group 3, when specific diagnostic criteria for ARDS were met. There was no significantly detectable H2O2 (not significantly different from zero) in any of the samples from the group 1 patients. Similarly, group 2 patients had exhaled breath H2O2 concentrations near zero except for one patient who was positive for the lupus anticoagulant. Group 3 patients had a mean (+/- SE) exhaled breath H2O2 concentration of 0.55 (+/- 0.08) microM, which was significantly greater than zero (P less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1575337

Wilson, W C; Swetland, J F; Benumof, J L; Laborde, P; Taylor, R

1992-05-01

84

Can chest trauma patients provide breath sample with Lion SD-400 Alcometer?  

PubMed

Various investigators have addressed the minimum lung function required to activate breathalyzers, and the impact of comorbid respiratory illness. We postulated that subjects with significant chest trauma may have difficulty in providing an adequate breathalyzer sample. A prospective self-controlled study of 20 patients who underwent thoracotomy was conducted between August 2005 and December 2005, using a Lion Alcometer SD-400. The mean age of the patients was 69.3 years (range, 37-83 years). Preoperatively, their mean forced expiratory volume was 1.97 L (range, 1.19-2.46 L), and peak expiratory flow rate was 240 L min(-1) (range, 126-520 L min(-1)). Postoperatively, mean forced expiratory volume was 1.14 L (range, 0.34-2.2 L) and peak expiratory flow rate was 179 L min(-1) (range, 36-492 L min(-1)). These decreases were highly significant. All patients activated the breathalyzer device preoperatively, but only 2 (10%) could activate it postoperatively. Extrapolating this to patients with chest injury, most may find it impossible to activate breathalyzers. PMID:19643853

Rathinam, Sridhar; Luke, David; Nanjaiah, Prakash; Kalkat, Maninder S; Steyn, Richard S

2009-06-01

85

Variability of collagen crosslinks: impact of sample collection period  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of the variability of collagen crosslinks, their use as markers for bone resorption is often criticized. We hypothesized that the variability could be reduced by collecting urine for 24 hours (or longer) instead of using single voids, and by not normalizing to creatinine. Urine samples were collected from 22 healthy subjects during two or more 24-hour periods. Each 24-hour pool and each 2nd void of the day were analyzed for N-telopeptide (NTX), pyridinium (PYD), and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks. Data were analyzed by using linear regression. For NTX, R2 for the two, 2nd-void samples (n = 38) was 0.55, whereas R2 for the two 24-hour pools was 0.51 or 0.52, expressed per day or per creatinine. For PYD and DPD, R2 for the 2nd-void samples was 0.26 and 0.18, R2 for the 24-hour pools expressed per day was 0.58 and 0.74, and R2 for the 24-hour pools expressed per creatinine was 0.65 and 0.76, respectively. Regression of the 2nd void and the corresponding 24-hour pool, expressed per day, yielded R2 = 0.19, 0.19, and 0.08, for NTX, PYD, and DPD, respectively (n = 76 each). For the 2nd-void sample and its corresponding 24-hour pool, expressed per creatinine, R2 = 0.24, 0.33, and 0.08, respectively. In a separate study, the coefficient of variation for NTX was reduced (P < 0.05) when data from more than one 24-hour collection were combined. Thus, the variability inherent in crosslink determinations can be reduced by collecting urine for longer periods. In research studies, the high variability of single-void collections, compounded by creatinine normalization, may alter or obscure findings.

Smith, S. M.; Dillon, E. L.; DeKerlegand, D. E.; Davis-Street, J. E.

2004-01-01

86

A 'feather-trap' for collecting DNA samples from birds.  

PubMed

Genetic analyses of birds are usually based on DNA extracted from a blood sample. For some species, however, obtaining blood samples is difficult because they are sensitive to handling, pose a conservation or animal welfare concern, or evade capture. In such cases, feathers obtained from live birds in the wild can provide an alternative source of DNA. Here, we provide the first description and evaluation of a 'feather-trap', consisting of small strips of double-sided adhesive tape placed close to a nest with chicks, as a simple, inexpensive and minimally invasive method to collect feathers. The feather-trap was tested in tropical conditions on the Australian pheasant coucal (Centropus phasianinus). None of the 12 pairs of coucals on which the feather-trap was used abandoned the nest, and feeding rates did not differ from those of birds not exposed to a feather-trap. On average, 4.2 feathers were collected per trap over 2-5?days and, despite exposure to monsoonal rain, DNA was extracted from 71.4% of samples, albeit at low concentrations. The amount of genomic DNA extracted from each feather was sufficient to reliably genotype individuals at up to five microsatellite loci for parentage analysis. We show that a feather-trap can provide a reliable alternative for obtaining DNA in species where taking blood is difficult. It may also prove useful for collecting feather samples for other purposes, e.g. stable-isotope analysis. PMID:21564997

Maurer, Golo; Beck, Nadeena; Double, Michael C

2010-01-01

87

Collection and preparation of rodent embryonic samples for transcriptome study.  

PubMed

The need for large-scale collection of rodent embryos and individual embryonic tissues for genomic and proteomic studies requires modification of traditional practices of embryo necropsy. The sample intended for transcriptome study should be rapidly dissected and stabilized to preserve its molecular integrity. The retrieval of high-quality RNA, DNA, and proteins from the target tissue is crucial for informative molecular analysis (e.g., gene profiling on microarray platform). We present a reliable method of collection and preparation of rodent embryos for genomic studies supported by detailed protocols and RNA extraction results for different stages of mouse embryonic development. PMID:24318829

Golubeva, Yelena; Symer, David

2014-01-01

88

Apollo 17 Astronaut Harrison Schmitt Collects Lunar Rock Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this Apollo 17 onboard photo, Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt collects rock samples from a huge boulder near the Valley of Tourus-Littrow on the lunar surface. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Schmitt; Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan; and Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans, lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE) and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center designed Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The mission ended on December 19, 1972

1972-01-01

89

21 CFR 111.80 - What representative samples must you collect?  

...2014-04-01 false What representative samples must you collect? 111.80 Section 111...System § 111.80 What representative samples must you collect? The representative samples that you must collect include: (a)...

2014-04-01

90

Lunar Samples: Apollo Collection Tools, Curation Handling, Surveyor III and Soviet Luna Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 6 Apollo missions that landed on the lunar surface returned 2196 samples comprised of 382 kg. The 58 samples weighing 21.5 kg collected on Apollo 11 expanded to 741 samples weighing 110.5 kg by the time of Apollo 17. The main goal on Apollo 11 was to obtain some material and return it safely to Earth. As we gained experience, the sampling tools and a more specific sampling strategy evolved. A summary of the sample types returned is shown in Table 1. By year 1989, some statistics on allocation by sample type were compiled [2]. The "scientific interest index" is based on the assumption that the more allocations per gram of sample, the higher the scientific interest. It is basically a reflection of the amount of diversity within a given sample type. Samples were also set aside for biohazard testing. The samples set aside and used for biohazard testing were represen-tative, as opposed to diverse. They tended to be larger and be comprised of less scientifically valuable mate-rial, such as dust and debris in the bottom of sample containers.

Allton, J.H.

2009-01-01

91

MEASUREMENTS OF AIR POLLUTANT BIOMARKERS WITH EXHALED BREATH TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Use of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has appeal as a noninvasive surrogate sample for lung-derived fluid. Additionally, EBC can be collected multiple times over the course of a study, unlike many other lung sampling techniques which can be performed fewer times. However validat...

92

Bad Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... But certain strong-smelling foods like onions and garlic can cause bad breath. So can smoking. And ... that can leave behind strong smells, like cabbage, garlic, raw onions, and coffee. If you’re trying ...

93

Breathing Difficulties  

MedlinePLUS

... confusion) Awakening frequently during the night (insomnia) Difficulty lying flat ALS and Your Lungs When you breathe ... be aware of this phenomenon. When you are lying down the strength of your diaphragm to push ...

94

Sample Collection for Investigation of Mars (SCIM): An Early Mars Sample Return Mission Through the Mars Scout Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sample Collection for Investigation of Mars (SCIM) mission is designed to (1) make a ~40 km pass through the Martian atmosphere, (2) collect dust and atmospheric gas, and (3) return the samples to Earth for analysis.

L. A. Leshin; A. Yen; J. Bomba; B. Clark; C. Epp; L. Forney; T. Gamber; C. Graves; J. Hupp; S. Jones; A. J. G. Jurewicz; K. Oakman; J. Rea; M. Richardson; K. Romeo; T. Sharp; B. Sutter; M. Thiemens; J. Thornton; D. Vicker; W. Willcockson; M. Zolensky

2002-01-01

95

Sulfate and nitrate collected by filter sampling near the tropopause  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Filter samples collected near the tropopause with an F-106 aircraft and two Boeing 747 aircraft were analyzed for sulfate and nitrate ion content. Within the range of routine commercial flight altitudes (at or below 12.5 km), stratospheric mass mixing ratios for the winter-spring group averaged 0.26 ppbm for sulfate and 0.35 ppbm for nitrate. For the summer-fall group, stratosphere mixing ratios averaged 0.13 ppbm and 0.25 ppbm for sulfate and nitrate, respectively. Winter-spring group tropospheric mass mixing ratios averaged 0.08 ppbm for sulfate and 0.10 ppbm for nitrate, while summer-fall group tropospheric mixing ratios averaged 0.05 ppbm for sulfate and 0.08 ppbm for nitrate. Correlations of the filter data with available ozone data suggest that the sulfate and nitrate are transported from the stratosphere to the troposphere.

Humenik, F. M.; Lezberg, E. A.; Otterson, D. A.

1980-01-01

96

January 15, 2002 / Vol. 27, No. 2 / OPTICS LETTERS 107 Simultaneous NO and CO2 measurement in human breath with  

E-print Network

nitric oxide (eNO) and carbon dioxide CO2 simultaneously in human breath over a single exhalation. Breath was sampled in real time, and eNO levels were measured from seven volunteers, two steroid-naive asthmatics collection and calculate eNO values. Calculated eNO concentrations agreed well with reported values

McCann, Patrick

97

Breathing difficulty - lying down  

MedlinePLUS

... breath; Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; PND; Difficulty breathing while lying down; Orthopnea ... Obesity (does not directly cause difficulty breathing while lying down but often aggravates other conditions that lead ...

98

75 FR 79033 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records...collection for Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records...any of the following methods: (1) Electronic mail...provisions for radiation sampling and exposure records...not employ statistical methods. Type of Review:...

2010-12-17

99

75 FR 80072 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records...collection for Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records...any of the following methods: (1) Electronic mail...provisions for radiation sampling and exposure records...not employ statistical methods. Type of Review:...

2010-12-21

100

Sampling Effort and Collection Methods "A little experience often upsets a lot of theory."  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 5 Sampling Effort and Collection Methods "A little experience often upsets a lot................................................................326 Summary: Basic Sample Collection Methods experimental design methods enabling the user to determine the sampling effort needed to accomplish project

Pitt, Robert E.

101

General Sample Taking Information Specific directions for collecting soil samples are given on the individual Soil Test Information Forms.  

E-print Network

. · The form and check should NOT be put directly in the bag with wet soil. · There is no need to stapleGeneral Sample Taking Information Specific directions for collecting soil samples are given on the individual Soil Test Information Forms. In general samples should be collected as follows: · The soil sample

New Hampshire, University of

102

DS — Software for analyzing data collected using double sampling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

DS analyzes count data to estimate density or relative density and population size when appropriate. The software is available at http://iwcbm.dev4.fsr.com/IWCBM/default.asp?PageID=126. The software was designed to analyze data collected using double sampling, but it also can be used to analyze index data. DS is not currently configured to apply distance methods or methods based on capture-recapture theory. Double sampling for the purpose of this report means surveying a sample of locations with a rapid method of unknown accuracy and surveying a subset of these locations using a more intensive method assumed to yield unbiased estimates. "Detection ratios" are calculated as the ratio of results from rapid surveys on intensive plots to the number actually present as determined from the intensive surveys. The detection ratios are used to adjust results from the rapid surveys. The formula for density is (results from rapid survey)/(estimated detection ratio from intensive surveys). Population sizes are estimated as (density)(area). Double sampling is well-established in the survey sampling literature—see Cochran (1977) for the basic theory, Smith (1995) for applications of double sampling in waterfowl surveys, Bart and Earnst (2002, 2005) for discussions of its use in wildlife studies, and Bart and others (in press) for a detailed account of how the method was used to survey shorebirds across the arctic region of North America. Indices are surveys that do not involve complete counts of well-defined plots or recording information to estimate detection rates (Thompson and others, 1998). In most cases, such data should not be used to estimate density or population size but, under some circumstances, may be used to compare two densities or estimate how density changes through time or across space (Williams and others, 2005). The Breeding Bird Survey (Sauer and others, 2008) provides a good example of an index survey. Surveyors record all birds detected but do not record any information, such as distance or whether each bird is recorded in subperiods, that could be used to estimate detection rates. Nonetheless, the data are widely used to estimate temporal trends and spatial patterns in abundance (Sauer and others, 2008). DS produces estimates of density (or relative density for indices) by species and stratum. Strata are usually defined using region and habitat but other variables may be used, and the entire study area may be classified as a single stratum. Population size in each stratum and for the entire study area also is estimated for each species. For indices, the estimated totals generally are only useful if (a) plots are surveyed so that densities can be calculated and extrapolated to the entire study area and (b) if the detection rates are close to 1.0. All estimates are accompanied by standard errors (SE) and coefficients of variation (CV, that is, SE/estimate).

Bart, Jonathan; Hartley, Dana

2011-01-01

103

Collection of Aerosolized Human Cytokines Using Teflon® Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCollection of exhaled breath samples for the analysis of inflammatory biomarkers is an important area of research aimed at improving our ability to diagnose, treat and understand the mechanisms of chronic pulmonary disease. Current collection methods based on condensation of water vapor from exhaled breath yield biomarker levels at or near the detection limits of immunoassays contributing to problems with

Jennifer H. McKenzie; James J. McDevitt; M. Patricia Fabian; Grace M. Hwang; Donald K. Milton

2012-01-01

104

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF URINE SAMPLES (SOP-2.14)  

EPA Science Inventory

This SOP describes the method for collecting urine samples from the study participants (children and their primary caregivers). Urine samples will be approximate 48-hr collections, collected as spot urine samples accumulated over the 48-hr sampling period. If the household or da...

105

Exhaled breath condensate: methodological recommendations and unresolved questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a noninvasive method for obtaining samples from the lungs. EBC contains large number of mediators including adenosine, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, isoprostanes, leukotrienes, nitrogen oxides, peptides and cytokines. Concentrations of these mediators are influenced by lung diseases and modulated by therapeutic interventions. Similarly EBC pH also changes in respiratory diseases. The aim of the

I. Horvath; J. Hunt; P. J. Barnes; K. Alving; A. Antczak; E. Baraldi; G. Becher; W. J. C van Beurden; M. Corradi; P. N. R. Dekhuijzen; R. A. Dweik; T. Dwyer; R. Effros; S. Erzurum; B. Gaston; C. Gessner; A. Greening; L. P. Ho; J. Hohlfeld; Q. Jobsis; D. Laskowski; S. Loukides; D. Marlin; P. Montuschi; A. C. Olin; A. E. Redington; P. Reinhold; E. L. van Rensen; I. Rubinstein; P. Silkoff; K. Toren; G. Vass; C. Vogelberg; H. Wirtz

2005-01-01

106

Can volatile compounds in exhaled breath be used to monitor control in diabetes mellitus?  

PubMed

Although it has been known for centuries that there are compounds in exhaled breath that are altered in disease, it is only in the last few decades that it has been possible to measure them with sufficient accuracy and precision to make them clinically useful. The clinical utility of breath analysis has also been limited by the practical difficulties of collecting representative breath samples, free from contaminants. More recent methods of breath analysis have allowed real-time analysis of breath, eliminating the need for sample collection, and therefore potentially allowing the rapid feedback of results to patient and clinician. One possible future application of breath analysis may be the monitoring of metabolic control in patients with diabetes mellitus. This perspective article provides an overview of the studies of breath analysis in diabetes, focusing on the breath metabolites; acetone, isoprene and also methyl nitrate that have previously been reported to be altered in diabetes, highlighting the factors that may potentially confound their interpretation. Specific attention is given to selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) and proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), because they are techniques that have been developed specifically for the absolute quantification of breath metabolites in real time, although reference is made to some of the alternative techniques, including sensors and optical devices. Whilst breath analysis, using SIFT-MS, PTR-MS and other sensitive techniques, can potentially be used for the non-invasive monitoring of metabolic conditions that may include diabetes mellitus, further work is required in terms of the clinical and analytical validation. Furthermore, it is unclear at present what breath metabolites should be monitored and what factors may confound their interpretation. Although a non-invasive method of monitoring glycaemic control is clearly desirable, it will be important to demonstrate its analytical comparability with the well-established and validated methods for blood glucose measurement. PMID:21512208

Smith, David; Span?l, Patrik; Fryer, Anthony A; Hanna, Fahmy; Ferns, Gordon A A

2011-06-01

107

Convergence of Sequential Sampling Policies for Bayesian Information Collection Problems  

E-print Network

Test the policy with monte carlo simulation on a collection of test cases. 3 If it performs badly, go with monte carlo simulation on a collection of test cases. 3 If the policy performs badly, go back to step 1, deciding which types of measurement to make as we go. e.g., We decide sequentially where to measure

Keinan, Alon

108

Report on the Workshop on Human Biological Sample Collections 5 November 1999, The Wellcome Trust, London  

E-print Network

1 Report on the Workshop on Human Biological Sample Collections 5 November 1999, The Wellcome Trust reports the results of the workshop on human biological sample collections which was held on 5 November

Rambaut, Andrew

109

Atmospheric CO sub 2 concentrations derived from flask samples collected at USSR-operated sampling sites  

SciTech Connect

This document presents daily atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations from four USSR-operated sampling sites (Teriberka Station, Ocean Station Charlie, Bering Island, and Kotelny Island). The period of record varies by station with the earliest measurements dating back to 1983 and recent estimates from early 1991. These CO{sub 2} concentrations are derived from air samples collected in 1.5-L stainless steel electropolished flasks and later analyzed at the Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg, USSR) using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer. Measurements not meeting wind direction, wind speed, inter-flask agreement, and climate condition criteria were either discarded or flagged. All measurements have been corrected for drift biases introduced during flask storage. These atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are considered indicative of regional background air conditions and are directly traceable to the World Meteorological Organization's primary CO{sub 2} standards. These measurements support the rising trend in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations measured at other monitoring sites around the world and may be compared with similar measurements made by various monitoring programs at other northern latitude sites. The document presents the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations in graphical and tabular form, describes the sampling methods, defines limitations and restrictions of the data, and describes the information on the magnetic media.

Boden, T.A. (comp.) (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center); Brounshtein, A.M.; Faber, E.V.; Shashkov, A.A. (Glavnaya Geofizicheskaya Observatoriya, St. Petersburg (USSR))

1991-12-01

110

Innovative on-site sample collection and analytical technologies  

SciTech Connect

Innovative advances in probe sampling and mobile laboratory technologies provide powerful tools which can substantially decrease the cost and shorten the duration of site investigation and remediation projects. Recent probe sampling technology advancements enable probes to obtain representative subsurface samples with the same quality of data as drilling techniques. Probe sampling equipment is specifically designed for environmental sampling and has several advantages over conventional methods for most sampling applications. Innovative mobile laboratory technology is currently available which enables mobile labs to rapidly deploy and generate cost effective regulatory compliant data on-site. The utilization of these technologies together provides a unique synergistic advantage for site assessment projects. It is now possible to fully characterize the extent of contamination of many sites in a single mobilization. Two case studies, a Superfund site and UST site, are included to demonstrate the use and advantages of these technologies.

McLeod, M.D. [Fibertec Environmental Services, Holt, MI (United States); Yantz, C.S. [Warzyn Inc., Novi, MI (United States); Marcelletti, N. [Engineering-Science, Bingham Farms, MI (United States)

1994-12-31

111

40 CFR 761.310 - Collecting the sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Porous...

2010-07-01

112

Association of cardiac autonomic function measures with severity of sleep-disordered breathing in a community-based sample  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that spectral indices of heart rate variability, such as high-frequency power (HFP), low-to-high frequency power (LHR), and their respiration-adjusted counterparts (HFPra, LHRra) are correlated with severity of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), as quantified by the respiratory disturbance index (RDI). A total of 436 subjects, non-smoking, normotensive, and free of cardiovascular disease and diabetes were selected from the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS). Of these, 288 records with sufficiently high quality electrocardiogram signals were selected for further analysis [males / females: 221 / 67; age: 46.1 to 74.9 years; body mass index (BMI): 21.5 to 46.4 kg m?2; 0.3 < RDI < 85.0?1]. From each polysomnogram, the respiration channels (thoracic and abdominal) and R-R interval (RRI) derived from the electrocardiogram were subjected to spectral analysis and autoregressive moving average modeling in consecutive 5-min segments. After adjusting for age and BMI, mean RRI was found to be negatively correlated with RDI in men in all sleep-wake states (all P < 0.001). HFP and HFPra were negatively correlated with RDI in men only during wakefulness (all P < 0.01). In women, LHR and LHRra were not correlated with RDI during wakefulness, but were positively correlated during non-rapid eye movement Stage 1 and 2 sleep (all P < 0.01). These findings suggest that the indices of cardiac autonomic control are correlated with SDB severity, but gender and state affect the nature of these correlations. In both genders, however, vagal modulation of heart rate increases while sympathetic modulation decreases from wakefulness to sleep. PMID:18547374

Wang, Wenli; Tretriluxana, Suradej; Redline, Susan; Surovec, Susan; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Khoo, Michael C. K.

2009-01-01

113

Ion-trap detection of volatile organic compounds in alveolar breath  

SciTech Connect

We describe a method for the collection and microanalysis of the volatile organic compounds in human breath. A transportable apparatus supplies subjects with purified air and samples their alveolar breath; the volatile organic compounds are captured in an adsorptive trap containing activated carbon and molecular sieve. The sample is thermally desorbed from the trap in an automated microprocessor-controlled device, concentrated by two-stage cryofocusing, and assayed by gas chromatography with ion-trap detection. Compounds are identified by reference to a computer-based library of mass spectra with subtraction of the background components present in the inspired air. We used this device to study 10 normal subjects and determined the relative abundance of the volatile organic compounds in their alveolar breath. The breath-collecting apparatus was convenient to operate and was well tolerated by human volunteers.

Phillips, M.; Greenberg, J. (Department of Medicine, St. Vincent's Medical Center of Richmond, Staten Island, NY (United States))

1992-01-01

114

A Method for the Collection of Air Samples for Analysis by Gas Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for the collection of air samples for solvent vapors for subsequent analysis by gas chromatograph. Through the use of special closures, it is possible to collect the samples in standard 4-OZ French Square sample bottles. The samples can be transported for long distances and kept for as long as one month before analysis. The chromatographic technique

R. Van Houten; George Lee

1969-01-01

115

Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC has undertaken a 4-year data restoration project effort for the lunar science community funded by the LASER program (Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research) to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images. These sample photographs are not easily accessible outside of JSC, and currently exist only on degradable film in the Curation Data Storage Facility

Lofgren, Gary E.; Todd, Nancy S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.

2011-01-01

116

Origin of Exhaled Breath Particles from Healthy and Human Rhinovirus-Infected Subjects  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Exhaled breath studies suggest that humans exhale fine particles during tidal breathing, but little is known of their physical origin in the respiratory system during health or disease. Methods Particles generated by 3 healthy and 16 human rhinovirus (HRV)-infected subjects were counted using an optical particle counter with nominal diameter-size bins ranging between 0.3 and 10??m. Data were collected from HRV-infected subjects during tidal breathing. In addition, data from healthy subjects were collected during coughs, swallows, tidal breathing, and breathing to total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV). Using general additive models, we graphed exhaled particle concentration versus airflow during exhalation. Exhaled particles were collected from expired air on gelatin filters and analyzed for HRV via quantitative PCR. Results HRV-infected subjects exhaled from 0.1 to 7200 particles per liter of exhaled air during tidal breathing (geometric mean?=?32 part/L). A small fraction (24%) of subjects exhaled most (81%) of the particles measured and 82% of particles detected were 0.300–0.499??m. Minute ventilation, maximum airflow during exhalation, and forced expiratory volume 1 second (FEV1 % predicted) were positively correlated with particle production. No human rhinovirus was detected in exhaled breath samples. Three healthy subjects exhaled less than 100 particles per liter of exhaled air during tidal breathing and increased particle concentrations more with exhalation to RV than with coughing, swallowing, or rapid exhalation. Conclusions Submicron particles were detected in the exhaled breath of healthy and HRV-infected subjects. Particle concentrations were correlated with airflow during the first half of exhalation, and peaked at the end of exhalation, indicating both lower and upper airways as particle sources. The effect of breathing maneuver suggested a major contribution from lower airways, probably the result of opening collapsed small airways and alveoli. PMID:21361786

Brain, Joseph; Houseman, E. Andres; Gern, James; Milton, Donald K.

2011-01-01

117

Determination of acetone in breath  

Microsoft Academic Search

A light emitting diode (LED)-based photometric method for the measurement of gaseous acetone in human breath is presented. The detection chemistry is based on the reaction of acetone with alkaline salicylaldehyde to form a colored product, which absorbs in the blue and can be monitored with GaN-based LEDs with emission centered at 465nm. Gaseous acetone in breath is sampled with

Norio Teshima; Jianzhong Li; Kei Toda; Purnendu K. Dasgupta

2005-01-01

118

Deep breathing after surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... way to do so is by doing deep breathing exercises. Deep breathing keeps your lungs well-inflated and ... your or nurse told you. Do these deep-breathing exercises as directed by your doctor or nurse.

119

Breath alcohol test  

MedlinePLUS

Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

120

Shortness of Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... symptoms of heart failure include difficult breathing when lying down (this is a specific symptom of heart ... shortness of breath; coughing at night or when lying down; experiencing shortness of breath with activity; swelling ...

121

Collecting baseline corticosterone samples in the field: is under 3 min good enough?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating corticosterone (CORT) responses to stress in free-living vertebrates requires knowing the unstressed titers prior to capture. Based upon laboratory data, the assumption has been that samples collected in less than 3 min of capture will reflect these unstressed concentrations. This assumption was tested for six species using samples collected from 945 individuals at 0–6 min after capture. Samples were

L. Michael Romero; J. Michael Reed

2005-01-01

122

A critical evaluation of wet only precitation collection using separate mercury and trace element sampling trains  

SciTech Connect

Precipitation samples are being collected as part of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance study for mercury and other trace elements at five sites surrounding the lake. Event precipitation collection is scheduled for April through October and weekly composite collection during the winter months. This necessitated the development of a versatile system that combined ultra-clean techniques including removable sampling trains with wet-only automatic precipitation collection. Mercury samples are collected using a glass funnel equipped with a newly-designed glass vapor lock connected directly to a Teflon bottle containing an HCl preservative. Other trace elements are collected in an all polypropylene sampling train. Performance characteristics such as collocated precision, collector opening efficiency, spike recovery, system blanks and bottle blanks were rigorously evaluated. In addition, acidified versus non-acidified event collection, wet-only event versus event bulk, and wet only event versus weekly bulk samples were compared.

Landis, M.S.; Keeler, G.J. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1995-12-31

123

Chemical Analysis of Whale Breath Volatiles: A Case Study for Non-Invasive Field Health Diagnostics of Marine Mammals  

PubMed Central

We explored the feasibility of collecting exhaled breath from a moribund gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) for potential non-invasive health monitoring of marine mammals. Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) profiling is a relatively new field of research, in which the chemical composition of breath is used to non-invasively assess the health and physiological processes on-going within an animal or human. In this study, two telescopic sampling poles were designed and tested with the primary aim of collecting whale breath exhalations (WBEs). Once the WBEs were successfully collected, they were immediately transferred onto a stable matrix sorbent through a custom manifold system. A total of two large volume WBEs were successfully captured and pre-concentrated onto two Tenax®-TA traps (one exhalation per trap). The samples were then returned to the laboratory where they were analyzed using solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 70 chemicals were identified (58 positively identified) in the whale breath samples. These chemicals were also matched against a database of VOCs found in humans, and 44% of chemicals found in the whale breath are also released by healthy humans. The exhaled gray whale breath showed a rich diversity of chemicals, indicating the analysis of whale breath exhalations is a promising new field of research. PMID:25222833

Cumeras, Raquel; Cheung, William H.K.; Gulland, Frances; Goley, Dawn; Davis, Cristina E.

2014-01-01

124

Collection and analysis of NASA clean room air samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The environment of the HALOE assembly clean room at NASA Langley Research Center is analyzed to determine the background levels of airborne organic compounds. Sampling is accomplished by pumping the clean room air through absorbing cartridges. For volatile organics, cartridges are thermally desorbed and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, compounds are identified by searching the EPA/NIH data base using an interactive operator INCOS computer search algorithm. For semivolatile organics, cartridges are solvent entracted and concentrated extracts are analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection, compound identification is made by matching gas chromatogram retention times with known standards. The detection limits for the semivolatile organics are; 0.89 ng cu m for dioctylphlhalate (DOP) and 1.6 ng cu m for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The detection limit for volatile organics ranges from 1 to 50 parts per trillion. Only trace quantities of organics are detected, the DOP levels do not exceed 2.5 ng cu m and the PCB levels do not exceed 454 ng cu m.

Sheldon, L. S.; Keever, J.

1985-01-01

125

Atmospheric Environment 37 (2003) 14351449 Sampling methods used for the collection of particle-phase  

E-print Network

Atmospheric Environment 37 (2003) 1435­1449 Sampling methods used for the collection of particle. In this paper detailed comparisons between filter-based carbonaceous aerosol sampling methods are made

126

Breathing zone air sampler  

DOEpatents

A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

Tobin, John (Bethel Park, PA)

1989-01-01

127

Do You Have Traveler's Breath?  

MedlinePLUS

... About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Halitosis (Bad Breath) Do You Have Traveler's Breath? Bad breath ... and treatment. ; Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Halitosis (Bad Breath) Does a Smaller Waist Mean Smelly Breath? ...

128

The Application and E ect of Sampling Methods on Collecting Network Trac Statistics  

E-print Network

The Application and E#11;ect of Sampling Methods on Collecting Network Tra�c Statistics Kedar, jypang@cs.cmu.edu April 28, 2001 Abstract The relative performance of di#11;erent sampling methods the sampled data have compared to the original tra�c, which sampling method works best for a given tra

129

Can human papillomavirus DNA testing of self-collected vaginal samples compare with physician-collected cervical samples and cytology for cervical cancer screening in developing countries?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To determine human papillomavirus (HPV) types by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-reverse line blot assay and examine the concordance between HPV by Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and PCR on self-collected vaginal and physician-collected cervical samples and cytology. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 546 sexually active women aged ?30 years with persistent vaginal discharge, intermenstrual or postcoital bleeding or

Neerja Bhatla; Lalit Dar; A. Rajkumar Patro; Pankaj Kumar; Alka Kriplani; Arti Gulati; Venkateswaran K. Iyer; Sandeep R. Mathur; Vishnubhatla Sreenivas; Keerti V. Shah; Patti E. Gravitt

2009-01-01

130

PIXE analysis of cascade impactor samples collected at the Kruger National Park, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerosol samples were collected in parallel with eight-stage cascade impactors (CIs) and stacked filter units (SFUs) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, in September-October 1992. The collections took place at a regional ``background'' site and near prescribed savanna fires. The results obtained by PIXE analysis from the 41 parallel daily samples at the regional site were compared in terms

I. Salma; W. Maenhaut; J. Cafmeyer; H. J. Annegarn; M. O. Andreae

1994-01-01

131

Collecting urine samples from young children using cotton gauze for pesticide studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

To estimate pesticide exposure, urine samples are often needed to analyze pesticide metabolites. However, this is difficult for children wearing diapers because simple and feasible techniques suitable for field collection are not available. The objectives of this study were to test the validity of using cotton gauze pad as a medium for collecting urine samples from young children and to

Y A HU; D B BARR; G AKLAND; L MELNYK; L NEEDHAM; E D PELLIZZARI; J H RAYMER; J M ROBERDS

2000-01-01

132

The use of Vacutainer tubes for collection of soil samples for helium analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measurements of the helium concentration of soil samples collected and stored in Vacutainer-brand evacuated glass tubes show that Vacutainers are reliable containers for soil collection. Within the limits of reproducibility, helium content of soils appears to be independent of variations in soil temperature, barometric pressure, and quantity of soil moisture present in the sample.

Hinkle, Margaret E.; Kilburn, James E.

1979-01-01

133

Guidelines for collection and field analysis of ground-water samples for selected unstable constituents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The unstable nature of many chemical and physical constituents in ground water requires special collection procedures and field analysis immediately after collection. This report describes the techniques and equipment commonly used m the collection and field analysis of samples for pH, temperature, carbonate, bicarbonate, specific conductance, Eh, and dissolved oxygen.

Wood, Warren W.

1976-01-01

134

Collecting cometary soil samples? Development of the ROSETTA sample acquisition system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the reference scenario of the ROSETTA CNRS mission, the Sample Acquisition System is mounted on the Comet Lander. Its tasks are to acquire three kinds of cometary samples and to transfer them to the Earth Return Capsule. Operations are to be performed in vacuum and microgravity, on a probably rough and dusty surface, in a largely unknown material, at temperatures in the order of 100 K. The concept and operation of the Sample Acquisition System are presented. The design of the prototype corer and surface sampling tool, and of the equipment for testing them at cryogenic temperatures in ambient conditions and in vacuum in various materials representing cometary soil, are described. Results of recent preliminary tests performed in low temperature thermal vacuum in a cometary analog ice-dust mixture are provided.

Coste, P. A.; Fenzi, M.; Eiden, Michael

1993-01-01

135

Breath hydrogen test for lactose absorption capacity: importance of timing of hydrogen excretion and of high fasting hydrogen concentration.  

PubMed

The breath hydrogen (H2) test for lactose absorption capacity is a simple, noninvasive method for the determination of the adult lactase phenotypes, lactose absorber and malabsorber, in healthy subjects. Two breath H2 tests with a load of 50 g lactose monohydrate were performed on 25 healthy adult lactose malabsorbers in order to determine the validity of simplified versions of the test for field studies. A high variability of peak H2 excretion times, rapid changes in breath H2 concentrations and a significant correlation of intraindividual peak H2 excretion times were observed. High fasting excretion of H2 in breath was a frequent cause of misclassification of probands. It is recommended that at least three breath samples per proband should be collected in field studies of lactose absorption and that special diagnostic criteria be applied in classifying subjects with high initial H2 excretion. PMID:6711477

Flatz, G; Kühnau, W; Naftali, D

1984-05-01

136

Characterisation and classification of hoarfrost samples collected in Poland (2003–2005) by discriminant analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly informative chemometrical method using linear discriminant analysis was employed in this paper for the characterisation and classification of hoarfrost samples collected in Poland. From the classification matrix, it was concluded that good discrimination (an overall 69% correct classification and 93% correct classification for the samples originated from Gda?sk) between hoarfrost samples of different origin could be achieved by

Kamila Klimaszewska; Costel Sârbu; ?aneta Polkowska; Barbara Walna; Jacek Namie?nik

2009-01-01

137

Simultaneous NO and CO(2) measurement in human breath with a single IV-VI mid-infrared laser.  

PubMed

A tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) system equipped with a IV-VI mid-IR laser operating near 5.2>mu;m was used to measure exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) simultaneously in human breath over a single exhalation. Breath was sampled in real time, and eNO levels were measured from seven volunteers, two steroid-naive asthmatics and five nonasthmatics. Measured CO(2) levels were used as an internal standard to verify correct breath collection and calculate eNO values. Calculated eNO concentrations agreed well with reported values for asthmatic and nonasthmatic individuals. PMID:18007727

Roller, C; Namjou, K; Jeffers, J; Potter, W; McCann, P J; Grego, J

2002-01-15

138

Measuring Your Breathing Frequency at Rest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about the brain and sleep (on page 138 of the PDF), learners measure their resting breathing rates. Learners will discover that breathing frequencies vary amongst individuals. This activity can be enhanced by sharing the "Astronaut's Sleep" Podcast with learners (see related resource link). This resource guide includes background information and sample evaluation questions.

Macleish, Marlene Y.; Mclean, Bernice R.

2013-05-15

139

Collection of solid and gaseous samples to diagnose inertial confinement fusion implosions.  

PubMed

Collection of representative samples of debris following inertial confinement fusion implosions in order to diagnose implosion conditions and efficacy is a challenging endeavor because of the unique conditions within the target chamber such as unconverted laser light, intense pulse of x-rays, physical chunks of debris, and other ablative effects. We present collection of gas samples following an implosion for the first time. High collection fractions for noble gases were achieved. We also present collection of solid debris samples on flat plate collectors. Geometrical collection efficiencies for Au hohlraum material were achieved and collection of capsule debris (Be and Cu) was also observed. Asymmetric debris distributions were observed for Au and Be samples. Collection of Be capsule debris was higher for solid collectors viewing the capsule through the laser entrance hole in the hohlraum than for solid collectors viewing the capsule around the waist of the hohlraum. Collection of Au hohlraum material showed the opposite pattern: more Au debris was collected around the waist than through the laser entrance hole. The solid debris collectors were not optimized for minimal Cu backgrounds, which limited the conclusions about the symmetry of the Cu debris. The quality of the data limited conclusions on chemical fractionation effects within the burning, expanding, and then cooling plasma. PMID:22380089

Stoyer, M A; Velsko, C A; Spears, B K; Hicks, D G; Hudson, G B; Sangster, T C; Freeman, C G

2012-02-01

140

Sample Collection of Ash and Burned Soils from the October 2007 Southern California Wildfires  

E-print Network

Sample Collection of Ash and Burned Soils from the October 2007 Southern California Wildfires Wildfires: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009­1038, 64 p. Any use of trade, product, or firm names

141

21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse...

2011-04-01

142

21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse...

2010-04-01

143

21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.  

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse...

2014-04-01

144

21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse...

2012-04-01

145

21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse...

2013-04-01

146

Quality management for the collection of biological samples in multicentre studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large scale international multicentre studies require sophisticated quality management for the collection, processing and\\u000a logistics of biological samples to ensure a maximum degree of standardisation across different environmental conditions and\\u000a settings. This paper describes a quality management system for the collection of biological samples (QMS-BS) which was applied\\u000a during IDEFICS, a large European multicentre study. The application was evaluated by

J. PepliesA; A. Fraterman; R. Scott; P. Russo; K. Bammann

2010-01-01

147

Automated System for Collecting Multiple, Sequential Samples from Soil Water Percolation Samplers under Continuous Vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manually collecting a series of sequential, discrete water samples from soil water percolation samplers, or similar devices that withdraw water from unsaturated porous media under continuous vacuum, is a logistical challenge, though the resulting collection can provide valuable information on the dynamics present in both laboratory and field studies. This article describes a sequential tension autosampler (STAS) that executes such

Rodrick D. Lentz

2006-01-01

148

Sex bias in biopsy samples collected from free-ranging dolphins SOPHIE QUROUIL  

E-print Network

1 Sex bias in biopsy samples collected from free-ranging dolphins SOPHIE QU�ROUIL 1,2,* , LUÍS sex ratio has to be inferred indirectly. We used molecular sexing to determine the gender of 340, and common dolphins, Delphinus delphis, collected around the Azores and Madeira. Sex ratio was globally

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

149

Mars Rover Sample Return: A sample collection and analysis strategy for exobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For reasons defined elsewhere it is reasonable to search for biological signatures, both chemical and morphological, of extinct life on Mars. Life on Earth requries the presence of liquid water, therefore, it is important to explore sites on Mars where standing bodies of water may have once existed. Outcrops of layered deposits within the Valles Marineris appear to be ancient lake beds. Because the outcrops are well exposed, relatively shallow core samples would be very informative. The most important biological signature to detect would be organics, microfossils, or larger stromato-like structures, although the presence of cherts, carbonates, clays, and shales would be significant. In spite of the limitations of current robotics and pattern recognition, and the limitations of rover power, computation, Earth communication bandwidth, and time delays, a partial scenario was developed to implement such a scientific investigation. The rover instrumentation and the procedures and decisions and IR spectrometer are described in detail. Preliminary results from a collaborative effort are described, which indicate the rover will be able to autonomously detect stratification, and hence will ease the interpretation burden and lead to greater scientific productivity during the rover's lifetime.

Sims, M. H.; Fischler, M.; Schwartz, D. E.; Rosenthal, Donald A.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.; Nedell, Susan S.; Gamble, E.; Mckay, Christopher P.

1989-01-01

150

Breath holding spell  

MedlinePLUS

... holding spell are not at more risk of getting a seizure disorder. ... spells If your child's breath holding spells are getting worse or ... breathing Your child has seizures for more than one minute

151

Minimizing Shortness of Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... pursed-lip breathing. This is one very effective technique that, if used properly, can decrease shortness of ... out slowly, do not force it out. This technique helps to slow down your breathing rate and ...

152

Shortness of Breath and Eating  

MedlinePLUS

... of Breath and Eating Shortness of Breath and Eating Shortness of breath can make eating hard work. If you use all your energy ... tired. Breathe evenly while you are chewing and eating. Stop eating if you need to catch your ...

153

Mass spectrometry for real-time quantitative breath analysis.  

PubMed

Breath analysis research is being successfully pursued using a variety of analytical methods, prominent amongst which are gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, GC-MS, ion mobility spectrometry, IMS, and the fast flow and flow-drift tube techniques called selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, and proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, PTR-MS. In this paper the case is made for real-time breath analysis by obviating sample collection into bags or onto traps that can suffer from partial degradation of breath metabolites or the introduction of impurities. Real-time analysis of a broad range of volatile chemical compounds can be best achieved using SIFT-MS and PTR-MS, which are sufficiently sensitive and rapid to allow the simultaneous analyses of several trace gas metabolites in single breath exhalations. The basic principles and the ion chemistry that underpin these two analytical techniques are briefly described and the differences between them, including their respective strengths and weaknesses, are revealed, especially with reference to the analysis of the complex matrix that is exhaled breath. A recent innovation is described that combines time-of-flight mass spectrometry with the proton transfer flow-drift tube reactor, PTR-TOFMS, which provides greater resolution in the analytical mass spectrometer and allows separation of protonated isobaric molecules. Examples are presented of some recent data that well illustrate the quality and real-time feature of SIFT-MS and PTR-MS for the analysis of exhaled breath for physiological/biochemical/pharmacokinetics studies and for the identification and quantification of biomarkers relating to specific disease states. PMID:24682047

Smith, David; Špan?l, Patrik; Herbig, Jens; Beauchamp, Jonathan

2014-06-01

154

A chemometric study on human breath mass spectra for biomarker identification in cystic fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alveolar breath samples from a small case-control study population have been collected and measured via ion-molecule reaction mass spectrometry, and a constructive statistical approach to the identification of volatile biomarkers has been formulated by applying multivariate statistical methods on the mass spectra. The nature of the data is such that the number of variables largely exceeds the observations, representing a

L. Bennett; L. Ciaffoni; W. Denzer; G. Hancock; A. D. Lunn; R. Peverall; S. Praun; G. A. D. Ritchie

2009-01-01

155

Using Scent-Marking Stations to Collect Hair Samples to Monitor Eurasian Lynx Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noninvasive sampling of mammalian hairs for surveying their populations and for providing density estimations is widely applicable in wildlife ecology and management. However, the efficiency of the method may differ depending on the species or local circumstances. We modified a method of hair trapping from free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) to collect DNA samples to work in a low-density population.

KRZYSZTOF SCHMIDT; RAFA? KOWALCZYK

2006-01-01

156

77 FR 38323 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Respirable Coal Mine Dust Sampling  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Respirable Coal Mine Dust Sampling...assure that requested data can be provided in...Mine Operator Dust Data Card'' to ``Respirable Coal Mine Dust Sampling...Operator Dust Data Card Sec. Sec...standards that require coal mine operators...

2012-06-27

157

Assessment of sample collection and storage methods for multicenter immunologic research in children.  

PubMed

Multicenter studies involving both large and small centers separated by significant distances pose unique challenges to biological sample collection. The objective of this study was to evaluate protocols for determining inflammatory biomarkers that are cost and manpower efficient for handling blood destined for a sample repository. Tempus (Applied Biosystems) and Paxgene (Qiagen) blood collection systems were evaluated for RNA isolation. P100 tubes (BD), containing propriety stabilizers for preservation of plasma proteins, were evaluated for protein content and compared with plasma collected in conventional tubes. Blood for plasma separation was spiked with recombinant TNF-alpha and IL-2 prior to being processed and stored under various conditions. The Tempus RNA system produced a significantly greater yield of RNA at comparable quality when stored at 4 degrees C and shipped at ambient temperature than any other condition tested. The Tempus system was 20% less expensive and required approximately 40% less processing time thereby reducing costs. The P100 system preserved recombinant TNF-alpha in blood shipped at ambient temperature significantly better than conventionally collected plasma that was shipped on dry ice. There was no significant difference in IL-2 levels between the two collection methods and shipping temperatures. The Tempus RNA blood collection tubes and the P100 protein stabilization system provide the opportunity for reliable collection and ambient temperature transport of samples in multicenter studies. This cost-effective, standardized protocol for a large multicenter trial ensures the integrity of biological samples and maximizes study participation by both large and small centers. PMID:18771669

Matheson, Loren A; Duong, Trang T; Rosenberg, Alan M; Yeung, Rae S M

2008-11-30

158

Correlations between blood glucose and breath components from portable gas sensors and PTR-TOF-MS.  

PubMed

Acetone is one of the most abundant volatile compounds in the human breath and might be important for monitoring diabetic patients. Here, a portable acetone sensor consisting of flame-made, nanostructured, Si-doped WO3 sensing films was used to analyse the end tidal fraction of the breath (collected in Tedlar bags) from eight healthy volunteers after overnight fasting (morning) and after lunch (afternoon). After breath sampling, the gaseous components were also analysed by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS), and each person's blood glucose level was measured. The portable sensor accurately detected the presence of acetone with fast response/recovery times (<12 s) and a high signal-to-noise ratio. Statistical analysis of the relationship between the PTR-TOF-MS measurements of breath gases (e.g., acetone, isoprene, ethanol and methanol), sensor response and the blood glucose level was performed for both sampling periods. The best correlations were found after overnight fasting (morning): in particular, between blood glucose level and breath acetone (Pearson's 0.98 and Spearman's 0.93). Whereas the portable sensor response correlated best with the blood glucose (Pearson's 0.96 and Spearman's 0.81) and breath acetone (Pearson's 0.92 and Spearman's 0.69). PMID:23959908

Righettoni, M; Schmid, A; Amann, A; Pratsinis, S E

2013-09-01

159

Detection of Breathing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic signals originate by the flow of air through the trachea during breathing. These signals are possible to pick-up by microphone. This paper describes a method of the breathing detection based on the sensing of acoustic signals in trachea. Parameters of the breathing, detection inspiration and expiration and apnoea pause are possible to determine from these signals. This method is

Jiri Kroutil; M. Husak

2008-01-01

160

A new device for collecting time-integrated water samples from springs and surface water bodies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new device termed the 'seepage sampler' was developed to collect representative water samples from springs, streams, and other surface-water bodies. The sampler collects composite, time-integrated water samples over short (hours) or extended (weeks) periods without causing significant changes to the chemical composition of the samples. The water sample within the sampler remains at the ambient temperature of the water body and does not need to be cooled. Seepage samplers are inexpensive to construct and easy to use. A sampling program of numerous springs and/or streams can be designed at a relatively low cost through the use of these samplers. Transient solutes migrating through such flow systems, potentially unnoticed by periodic sampling, may be detected. In addition, the mass loading of solutes (e.g., agrichemicals) may be determined when seepage samplers are used in conjunction with discharge measurements.

Panno, S.V.; Krapac, I.G.; Keefer, D.A.

1998-01-01

161

Population screening for the human adult lactase phenotypes with a multiple breaths version of the breath hydrogen test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactose tolerance tests with conventional blood glucose determination and with breath hydrogen analysis after storage of breath samples in aluminium aerosol cans were simultaneously performed in 60 healthy adult subjects. Both tests were equally reliable in the diagnosis of the lactase phenotype in healthy persons. In subjects with decreased glucose metabolism the breath hydrogen test seems to be more reliable

J. N. Howell; T. Schockenhoff; G. Flatz

1981-01-01

162

A strategy on constructing core collections by least distance stepwise sampling.  

PubMed

A strategy was proposed for constructing core collections by least distance stepwise sampling (LDSS) based on genotypic values. In each procedure of cluster, the sampling is performed in the subgroup with the least distance in the dendrogram during constructing a core collection. Mean difference percentage (MD), variance difference percentage (VD), coincidence rate of range (CR) and variable rate of coefficient of variation (VR) were used to evaluate the representativeness of core collections constructed by this strategy. A cotton germplasm collection of 1,547 accessions with 18 quantitative traits was used to construct core collections. Genotypic values of all quantitative traits of the cotton collection were unbiasedly predicted based on mixed linear model approach. By three sampling percentages (10, 20 and 30%), four genetic distances (city block distance, Euclidean distance, standardized Euclidean distance and Mahalanobis distance) combining four hierarchical cluster methods (nearest distance method, furthest distance method, unweighted pair-group average method and Ward's method) were adopted to evaluate the property of this strategy. Simulations were conducted in order to draw consistent, stable and reproducible results. The principal components analysis was performed to validate this strategy. The results showed that core collections constructed by LDSS strategy had a good representativeness of the initial collection. As compared to the control strategy (stepwise clusters with random sampling strategy), LDSS strategy could construct more representative core collections. For LDSS strategy, cluster methods did not need to be considered because all hierarchical cluster methods could give same results completely. The results also suggested that standardized Euclidean distance was an appropriate genetic distance for constructing core collections in this strategy. PMID:17404701

Wang, J C; Hu, J; Xu, H M; Zhang, S

2007-06-01

163

Analyses of tipple and delivered samples of coal collected during fiscal year 1985  

SciTech Connect

This Department of Energy (DOE) publication updates a series of Topical Reports (formerly ''Reports of Investigation'') on the quality of coal purchases under specifications for government use. Listed in alphabetical order by state, county, town, and mine are analytical data on the composition and quality of tipple and delivered samples of coal collected during the fiscal year 1985. Tipple samples were collected by certified commercial laboratories in accordance with instructions given by the Analytical Research Branch (ARB), Coal Science Division (CSD). The delivered samples were collected at destination by installation personnel, and all samples were analyzed under the supervision of the DOE-CSD located at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, or the US Army General Material and Petroleum Activity Laboratory, located at New Cumberland, Pennsylvania.

Schultz, H.; Retcofsky, H.L.; Davis, L.R.

1988-01-01

164

Methods for collecting algal samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Benthic algae (periphyton) and phytoplankton communities are characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. This multidisciplinary approach provides multiple lines of evidence for evaluating water-quality status and trends, and for refining an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. Water quality can be characterized by evaluating the results of qualitative and quantitative measurements of the algal community. Qualitative periphyton samples are collected to develop of list of taxa present in the sampling reach. Quantitative periphyton samples are collected to measure algal community structure within selected habitats. These samples of benthic algal communities are collected from natural substrates, using the sampling methods that are most appropriate for the habitat conditions. Phytoplankton samples may be collected in large nonwadeable streams and rivers to meet specific program objectives. Estimates of algal biomass (chlorophyll content and ash-free dry mass) also are optional measures that may be useful for interpreting water-quality conditions. A nationally consistent approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection, as well as information on methods and equipment for qualitative and quantitative sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data locally, regionally, and nationally.

Porter, Stephen D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

1993-01-01

165

A sampling system for collecting gas-tight time-series hydrothermal fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that the hydrothermal venting has temporal variations associated with tectonic and geochemical processes. To date, the methods for long-term monitoring of the seafloor hydrothermal systems are rare. A new sampling system has been designed to be deployed at seafloor for long term to collect gas-tight time-series samples from hydrothermal vents. Based on the modular design principle, the sampling system is currently composed of a control module and six sampling modules, which is convenient to be upgraded by adding more sampling modules if needed. The control module consists of a rechargeable battery pack and a circuit board with functions of sampling control, temperature measurement, data storage and communication. Each sampling module has an independent sampling valve, a valve actuator and a sampling cylinder. The sampling cylinder consists of a sample chamber and an accumulator chamber. Compressed nitrogen gas is used to maintain the sample at in-situ pressure. A prototype of the sampling system has been constructed and tested. First, the instrument was tested in a high-pressure vessel at a pressure of 40 MPa. Six sampling modules were successfully triggered and water samples were collected and kept at in-situ pressure after experiment. Besides, the instrument was field tested at the shallow hydrothermal field near off Kueishantao islet (24°51'N, 121°55'E), which is located offshore of northeastern Taiwan, from May 25 to May 28, 2011. The sampling system worked at an automatic mode. Each sampling module was triggered according to the preset time. Time-series hydrothermal fluids have been collected from a shallow hydrothermal vent with a depth of 16 m. The preliminary tests indicated the success of the design and construction of the prototype of the sampling system. Currently, the sampling system is being upgraded by integration of a DC-DC power conversion and serial-to-Ethernet conversion module, so that it can utilize the continuous power supply and network communication of seafloor cabled observatories. In this case, the sampling system will be remotely controlled through Internet. Then the sampling modules can be triggered manually based on the judgment of temperature anomaly. The upgraded sampling system will be tested on the Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) in this fall.

Wu, S.; Yang, C.; Ding, K.

2012-12-01

166

Planning Considerations Related to Collecting and Analyzing Samples of the Martian Soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Sample Return (MSR) End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (E2E-iSAG [1]) established scientific objectives associ-ated with Mars returned-sample science that require the return and investigation of one or more soil samples. Soil is defined here as loose, unconsolidated materials with no implication for the presence or absence of or-ganic components. The proposed Mars 2020 (M-2020) rover is likely to collect and cache soil in addition to rock samples [2], which could be followed by future sample retrieval and return missions. Here we discuss key scientific consid-erations for sampling and caching soil samples on the proposed M-2020 rover, as well as the state in which samples would need to be preserved when received by analysts on Earth. We are seeking feedback on these draft plans as input to mission requirement formulation. A related planning exercise on rocks is reported in an accompanying abstract [3].

Liu, Yang; Mellon, Mike T.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Noble, Sarah K.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Beaty, David W.

2014-01-01

167

Human blood RNA stabilization in samples collected and transported for a large biobank  

PubMed Central

Background The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) is a nation-wide population-based pregnancy cohort initiated in 1999, comprising more than 108.000 pregnancies recruited between 1999 and 2008. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of integrating RNA analyses into existing MoBa protocols. We compared two different blood RNA collection tube systems – the PAXgene™ Blood RNA system and the Tempus™ Blood RNA system - and assessed the effects of suboptimal blood volumes in collection tubes and of transportation of blood samples by standard mail. Endpoints to characterize the samples were RNA quality and yield, and the RNA transcript stability of selected genes. Findings High-quality RNA could be extracted from blood samples stabilized with both PAXgene and Tempus tubes. The RNA yields obtained from the blood samples collected in Tempus tubes were consistently higher than from PAXgene tubes. Higher RNA yields were obtained from cord blood (3 – 4 times) compared to adult blood with both types of tubes. Transportation of samples by standard mail had moderate effects on RNA quality and RNA transcript stability; the overall RNA quality of the transported samples was high. Some unexplained changes in gene expression were noted, which seemed to correlate with suboptimal blood volumes collected in the tubes. Temperature variations during transportation may also be of some importance. Conclusions Our results strongly suggest that special collection tubes are necessary for RNA stabilization and they should be used for establishing new biobanks. We also show that the 50,000 samples collected in the MoBa biobank provide RNA of high quality and in sufficient amounts to allow gene expression analyses for studying the association of disease with altered patterns of gene expression. PMID:22988904

2012-01-01

168

14C-urea breath test in C pylori gastritis.  

PubMed Central

14C-urea breath test was used to detect Campylobacter pylori colonisation in 129 consecutive non-ulcer dyspepsia patients. Fasting patients were given 3 microCi (110 kBq) of 14C-labelled urea after a test meal. Breath samples were collected at 10 minute intervals for 90 minutes and the C-14 activity was counted on a liquid scintillation analyser. Urea derived 14CO2 appears in the exhaled breath of Campylobacter pylori culture positive individuals within 20-30 minutes. Likelihood analysis revealed a most favourable cut off level of [0.07% dose 14C-urea/mmol CO2] multiplied by body weight at t = 40 minutes, to separate culture positive from culture negative subjects. Using this upper limit of normal, a positive likelihood ratio of 50 and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.05 was calculated. Sensitivity of the test was 95% and specificity 98%. The 14C-urea breath test is a simple, sensitive and non-invasive test, that detects viable C pylori microorganism and semiquantitatively assesses the bacterial load of C pylori colonisation. Administration of a single dose of colloidal bismuth subcitrate resulted in a rapid decrease in 14CO2 excretion, so this test can be used to confirm eradication of the bacterium in therapeutic trials without endoscopy, or need for culture. PMID:2753404

Rauws, E A; Royen, E A; Langenberg, W; Woensel, J V; Vrij, A A; Tytgat, G N

1989-01-01

169

Archival policies and collections database for the Woods Hole Science Center's marine sediment samples  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Woods Hole Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been an active member of the Woods Hole research community, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, for over 40 years. In that time there have been many projects that involved the collection of sediment samples conducted by USGS scientists and technicians for the research and study of seabed environments and processes. These samples were collected at sea or near shore and then brought back to the Woods Hole Science Center (WHSC) for analysis. While at the center, samples are stored in ambient temperature, refrigerated and freezing conditions ranging from +2º Celsius to -18º Celsius, depending on the best mode of preparation for the study being conducted or the duration of storage planned for the samples. Recently, storage methods and available storage space have become a major concern at the WHSC. The core and sediment archive program described herein has been initiated to set standards for the management, methods, and duration of sample storage. A need has arisen to maintain organizational consistency and define storage protocol. This handbook serves as a reference and guide to all parties interested in using and accessing the WHSC's sample archive and also defines all the steps necessary to construct and maintain an organized collection of geological samples. It answers many questions as to the way in which the archive functions.

Buczkowski, Brian J.; Kelsey, Sarah A.

2007-01-01

170

Application of bar codes to the automation of analytical sample data collection  

SciTech Connect

The Health Protection Department at the Savannah River Plant collects 500 urine samples per day for tritium analyses. Prior to automation, all sample information was compiled manually. Bar code technology was chosen for automating this program because it provides a more accurate, efficient, and inexpensive method for data entry. The system has three major functions: sample labeling is accomplished at remote bar code label stations composed of an Intermec 8220 (Intermec Corp.) interfaced to an IBM-PC, data collection is done on a central VAX 11/730 (Digital Equipment Corp.). Bar code readers are used to log-in samples to be analyzed on liquid scintillation counters. The VAX 11/730 processes the data and generates reports, data storage is on the VAX 11/730 and backed up on the plant's central computer. A brief description of several other bar code applications at the Savannah River Plant is also presented.

Jurgensen, H A

1986-01-01

171

Noninvasive detection of lung cancer by analysis of exhaled breath  

PubMed Central

Background Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death in Europe and the western world. At present, diagnosis of lung cancer very often happens late in the course of the disease since inexpensive, non-invasive and sufficiently sensitive and specific screening methods are not available. Even though the CT diagnostic methods are good, it must be assured that "screening benefit outweighs risk, across all individuals screened, not only those with lung cancer". An early non-invasive diagnosis of lung cancer would improve prognosis and enlarge treatment options. Analysis of exhaled breath would be an ideal diagnostic method, since it is non-invasive and totally painless. Methods Exhaled breath and inhaled room air samples were analyzed using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and solid phase microextraction with subsequent gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GCMS). For the PTR-MS measurements, 220 lung cancer patients and 441 healthy volunteers were recruited. For the GCMS measurements, we collected samples from 65 lung cancer patients and 31 healthy volunteers. Lung cancer patients were in different disease stages and under treatment with different regimes. Mixed expiratory and indoor air samples were collected in Tedlar bags, and either analyzed directly by PTR-MS or transferred to glass vials and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). Only those measurements of compounds were considered, which showed at least a 15% higher concentration in exhaled breath than in indoor air. Compounds related to smoking behavior such as acetonitrile and benzene were not used to differentiate between lung cancer patients and healthy volunteers. Results Isoprene, acetone and methanol are compounds appearing in everybody's exhaled breath. These three main compounds of exhaled breath show slightly lower concentrations in lung cancer patients as compared to healthy volunteers (p < 0.01 for isoprene and acetone, p = 0.011 for methanol; PTR-MS measurements). A comparison of the GCMS-results of 65 lung cancer patients with those of 31 healthy volunteers revealed differences in concentration for more than 50 compounds. Sensitivity for detection of lung cancer patients based on presence of (one of) 4 different compounds not arising in exhaled breath of healthy volunteers was 52% with a specificity of 100%. Using 15 (or 21) different compounds for distinction, sensitivity was 71% (80%) with a specificity of 100%. Potential marker compounds are alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and hydrocarbons. Conclusion GCMS-SPME is a relatively insensitive method. Hence compounds not appearing in exhaled breath of healthy volunteers may be below the limit of detection (LOD). PTR-MS, on the other hand, does not need preconcentration and gives much more reliable quantitative results then GCMS-SPME. The shortcoming of PTR-MS is that it cannot identify compounds with certainty. Hence SPME-GCMS and PTR-MS complement each other, each method having its particular advantages and disadvantages. Exhaled breath analysis is promising to become a future non-invasive lung cancer screening method. In order to proceed towards this goal, precise identification of compounds observed in exhaled breath of lung cancer patients is necessary. Comparison with compounds released from lung cancer cell cultures, and additional information on exhaled breath composition in other cancer forms will be important. PMID:19788722

2009-01-01

172

An unmanned mission to Mars with sample collection and in-situ resource utilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design for the Mars Analysis and Return Vehicle with In-Situ Resource Utilization (MARVIN) project is outlined. The MARVIN mission is designed to collect samples of the Martian environment; to produce fuel from local Martian resources; and to use the fuel produced to return the samples to earth. It uses only existing technologies. Exploratory Technologies' mission-design efforts have focused on methods of orbit determination, sample collection, fuel production, power, communications, control, and structural design. Lambert Targeting provided Delta-V's, launch dates, and travel times. The landing site is the Tharsis Plateau, to the southeast of Olympus Mons, chosen for its substantial scientific value. Samples of soil, dust, and atmosphere are collected with lander-based collection devices: the soil sample, with a robotic arm similar to those used in the Viking missions; the atmospheric sample, from a bleed line to the compressor in the fuel-production facility; a dust sample, from the dust-collection container in the fuel-production facility; and a redundant dust sample, with a with a passive filter system, which relies upon neither a power source nor other collection methods. The sample-return capsule (SRC) houses these samples, which are triply contained to prevent contamination. Proven technology can be used to produce methane and oxygen for fuel with relative ease at the landing site: the Sabatier reactor produces methane and water by combining carbon dioxide and hydrogen (brought from earth); the Reverse Water-Gas Shift unit combines carbon dioxide and hydrogen to form carbon monoxide and water; a water-electrolysis unit splits the water into hydrogen and oxygen. The Mars-lander vehicle (MLV) transports the equipment from earth to Mars. The Mars-ascent vehicle (MAV) contains the SRC and the engine, which is the same for both the MLV and the MAV. All equipment that is unnecessary for the Mars-Earth trajectory remains on Mars. This report presents detailed sizing information, for which a spreadsheet has been developed. The trends suggest possibilities for expansion, and suggestions for future work in these areas are offered.

1994-05-01

173

Perforated dried blood spot accurate microsampling: the concept and its applications in toxicokinetic sample collection.  

PubMed

Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling has gained considerable interest as a microsampling technique to support drug discovery and development owing to its enormous ethical and practical benefits. Quantitative determinations of drugs and/or their metabolites collected in DBS matrix in its current format, however, have encountered technical challenges and regulatory uncertainty. The challenges of DBS bioanalysis are largely ascribed to the way how samples are collected and analyzed. Currently, an uncontrolled amount of a blood sample, e.g. 20 µl, is collected per time point per sample and spotted onto cellulose paper. Quantitation is based on removal of a fixed area of the DBS sample, resulting in sample waste, a need for mechanical punching and concomitant potential punching carryover, uncertainty in recovery assessment and the adverse impact of hematocrit on accurate quantitation. Here, we describe the concept and applications of a novel concept, namely perforated dried blood spot (PDBS), for accurate microsampling that addresses previous challenges. Advantages of PDBS are enumerated and compared with conventional DBS in the context of microsampling and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry bioanalysis. Two approaches for accurate microsampling of a small volume of blood (5 µl) are proposed and demonstrated, i.e. Microsafe® pipettes and the Drummond incremental pipette. Two online sample enrichment techniques to enhance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry sensitivity for microsampling bioanalysis are discussed. The PDBS concept was successfully applied for accurate sample collection (5 µl) in a toxicokinetic study in rats given a single oral gavage dose of acetaminophen. Perspectives on bioanalytical method validation for regulated DBS/PDBS microsampling are also presented. PMID:22576879

Li, Fumin; Ploch, Stephen; Fast, Douglas; Michael, Steve

2012-05-01

174

Sources of variability in collection and preparation of paint and lead-coating samples.  

PubMed

Chronic exposure of children to lead (Pb) can result in permanent physiological impairment. Since surfaces coated with lead-containing paints and varnishes are potential sources of exposure, it is extremely important that reliable methods for sampling and analysis be available. The sources of variability in the collection and preparation of samples were investigated to improve the performance and comparability of methods and to ensure that data generated will be adequate for its intended use. Paint samples of varying sizes (areas and masses) were collected at different locations across a variety of surfaces including metal, plaster, concrete, and wood. A variety of grinding techniques were compared. Manual mortar and pestle grinding for at least 1.5 min and mechanized grinding techniques were found to generate similar homogenous particle size distributions required for aliquots as small as 0.10 g. When 342 samples were evaluated for sample weight loss during mortar and pestle grinding, 4% had 20% or greater loss with a high of 41%. Homogenization and sub-sampling steps were found to be the principal sources of variability related to the size of the sample collected. Analysis of samples from different locations on apparently identical surfaces were found to vary by more than a factor of two both in Pb concentration (mg cm-2 or %) and areal coating density (g cm-2). Analyses of substrates were performed to determine the Pb remaining after coating removal. Levels as high as 1% Pb were found in some substrate samples, corresponding to more than 35 mg cm-2 Pb. In conclusion, these sources of variability must be considered in development and/or application of any sampling and analysis methodologies. PMID:11432274

Harper, S L; Gutknecht, W F

2001-06-01

175

Field guidelines for collection, treatment, and analysis of water samples, Montana district  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual provides a set of standardized guidelines and quality-control procedures for the collection and preservation of water samples and defines procedures for field analyses of unstable constituents or properties. Seldom is the water being samples of such uniformity that a single grab sample is representative of the whole. For this reason a variety of sampler types and sampling methods have been devised. Descriptions and procedures for field use are given for a number of sampler types. Several methods of sampling are described for which these samplers can be used. Sample-processing devices such as sample splitters and filtration apparatus are discussed along with methods of cleaning. Depending on the type of analysis to be performed in the laboratory, samples may need to be preserved shortly after collection. Various types of preservation are described in detail. Analyses for unstable constituents or properties are of necessity accomplished in the field. This manual addresses analytical techniques and quality assurance for: (1) Water temperature, (2) specific conductance, (3) pH, (4) alkalinity, (5) dissolved oxygen, and (6) bacteria. Examples of field report forms are given as attachments. Information pertinent to certain field calculations is also presented. (USGS)

Knapton, J.R.

1985-01-01

176

The Autism Simplex Collection: an international, expertly phenotyped autism sample for genetic and phenotypic analyses  

PubMed Central

Background There is an urgent need for expanding and enhancing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) samples, in order to better understand causes of ASD. Methods In a unique public-private partnership, 13 sites with extensive experience in both the assessment and diagnosis of ASD embarked on an ambitious, 2-year program to collect samples for genetic and phenotypic research and begin analyses on these samples. The program was called The Autism Simplex Collection (TASC). TASC sample collection began in 2008 and was completed in 2010, and included nine sites from North America and four sites from Western Europe, as well as a centralized Data Coordinating Center. Results Over 1,700 trios are part of this collection, with DNA from transformed cells now available through the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) measures are available for all probands, as are standardized IQ measures, Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales (VABS), the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), and physical measures (height, weight, and head circumference). At almost every site, additional phenotypic measures were collected, including the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ) and Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R), as well as the non-word repetition scale, Communication Checklist (Children’s or Adult), and Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC). Moreover, for nearly 1,000 trios, the Autism Genome Project Consortium (AGP) has carried out Illumina 1 M SNP genotyping and called copy number variation (CNV) in the samples, with data being made available through the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Whole exome sequencing (WES) has been carried out in over 500 probands, together with ancestry matched controls, and this data is also available through the NIH. Additional WES is being carried out by the Autism Sequencing Consortium (ASC), where the focus is on sequencing complete trios. ASC sequencing for the first 1,000 samples (all from whole-blood DNA) is complete and data will be released in 2014. Data is being made available through NIH databases (database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP) and National Database for Autism Research (NDAR)) with DNA released in Dist 11.0. Primary funding for the collection, genotyping, sequencing and distribution of TASC samples was provided by Autism Speaks and the NIH, including the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the National Human Genetics Research Institute (NHGRI). Conclusions TASC represents an important sample set that leverages expert sites. Similar approaches, leveraging expert sites and ongoing studies, represent an important path towards further enhancing available ASD samples.

2014-01-01

177

Chemical fingerprinting of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon oil spill samples collected from Alabama shoreline  

E-print Network

Chemical fingerprinting of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon oil spill samples collected of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: BP oil spill Deepwater Horizon oil spill Hopane analysis Fingerprinting Tar balls a b s t r a c t We compare

Clement, Prabhakar

178

COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN USING GAUZE FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

To estimate pesticide exposure, urine samples are often needed to analyze pesticide metabolites. However, this is difficult for children wearing diapers because simple and feasible techniques suitable for field collection are not available. The objectives of this study were to te...

179

COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN USING COTTON GAUZE FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

To estimate pesticide exposure, urine samples are often needed to analyze pesticide metabolites. However, this is difficult for children wearing diapers because simple and feasible techniques suitable for field collection are not available. The objectives of this study were to t...

180

78 FR 25308 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices...helps to assure that requested data can be provided in the desired...concentration of respirable dust in coal mines. CPDMs must be designed and constructed for coal miners to wear and...

2013-04-30

181

Sample collection for high throughput radiation biodosimetry , H.C. Turner1  

E-print Network

Sample collection for high throughput radiation biodosimetry G. Garty1 , H.C. Turner1 , Y. Chen2 Radiation Biodosimetry, RARAF - Columbia University, P. O. Box 21, Irvington, NY 10533, USA 2 Department & Medicine, University of Arizona, Phoenix, AZ 85004 Abstract The Rapid Automated BIodosimetry Tool (RABIT

Simaan, Nabil

182

Astronauts Young and Duke collect rock samples along simulated lunar traverse  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts John W. Young, left, prime crew commander for Apollo 16, and Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, collect rock samples along a simulated lunar traverse route in the Coso Hills, near Ridgecrest, California. Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, right background, prime crew commander for Apollo 17, looks on. The astronauts trained at the U.S. Naval Ordnance Test Station.

1971-01-01

183

Composition of selected rain samples collected at Menlo Park, California, 1971  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical analysis are tabulated for 104 rain samples that were collected at Menlo Park, California, during November and December 1971. Of the 13 constituents determined, chloride was the most prominent with a range from less than 0.1 to 15.0 mg/liter. (Woodard-USGS)

Kennedy, Vance C.; Zellweger, Gary W.; Avanzino, Ronald J.

1976-01-01

184

College Students' Perceptions of Collective Efficacy: Results from a Nonurban Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and collective efficacy is well established in urban populations with community samples, it is unclear if this relationship holds in rural areas. The current study fills this gap by assessing the perceptions of adolescents from nonurban areas to examine the relationships between…

Domoff, Sarah E.; Hayman, Jennifer; Tompsett, Carolyn J.

2012-01-01

185

Fetal breathing: a review.  

PubMed

The history, physiology, pharmacology, and clinical application of fetal breathing are reviewed. Early optimism that measurements of fetal breathing would aid in perinatal management decisions has remained unfulfilled. Problems to be overcome include standardization of technique and measurement parameters and allowance for physiologic variations. Recent research developments indicate that the likely role of fetal breathing in perinatal medicine will be in conjunction with other established tests of fetal health. PMID:36761

Lewis, P; Boylan, P

1979-07-01

186

Modeling and enhanced sampling of molecular systems with smooth and nonlinear data-driven collective variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collective variables (CVs) are low-dimensional representations of the state of a complex system, which help us rationalize molecular conformations and sample free energy landscapes with molecular dynamics simulations. Given their importance, there is need for systematic methods that effectively identify CVs for complex systems. In recent years, nonlinear manifold learning has shown its ability to automatically characterize molecular collective behavior. Unfortunately, these methods fail to provide a differentiable function mapping high-dimensional configurations to their low-dimensional representation, as required in enhanced sampling methods. We introduce a methodology that, starting from an ensemble representative of molecular flexibility, builds smooth and nonlinear data-driven collective variables (SandCV) from the output of nonlinear manifold learning algorithms. We demonstrate the method with a standard benchmark molecule, alanine dipeptide, and show how it can be non-intrusively combined with off-the-shelf enhanced sampling methods, here the adaptive biasing force method. We illustrate how enhanced sampling simulations with SandCV can explore regions that were poorly sampled in the original molecular ensemble. We further explore the transferability of SandCV from a simpler system, alanine dipeptide in vacuum, to a more complex system, alanine dipeptide in explicit water.

Hashemian, Behrooz; Millán, Daniel; Arroyo, Marino

2013-12-01

187

Toward Lower Organic Environments in Astromaterial Sample Curation for Diverse Collections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Great interest was taken during the frenzied pace of the Apollo lunar sample return to achieve and monitor organic cleanliness. Yet, the first mission resulted in higher organic contamination to samples than desired. But improvements were accomplished by Apollo 12 [1]. Quarantine complicated the goal of achieving organic cleanliness by requiring negative pressure glovebox containment environments, proximity of animal, plant and microbial organic sources, and use of organic sterilants in protocols. A special low organic laboratory was set up at University of California Berkeley (UCB) to cleanly subdivide a subset of samples [2, 3, 4]. Nevertheless, the basic approach of handling rocks and regolith inside of a positive pressure stainless steel glovebox and restrict-ing the tool and container materials allowed in the gloveboxes was established by the last Apollo sample re-turn. In the last 40 years, the collections have grown to encompass Antarctic meteorites, Cosmic Dust, Genesis solar wind, Stardust comet grains and Hayabusa asteroid grains. Each of these collections have unique curation requirements for organic contamination monitor-ing and control. Here is described some changes allowed by improved technology or driven by changes in environmental regulations and economy, concluding with comments on organic witness wafers. Future sample return missions (OSIRIS-Rex; Mars; comets) will require extremely low levels of organic contamination in spacecraft collection and thus similarly low levels in curation. JSC Curation is undertaking a program to document organic baseline levels in current operations and devise ways to reduce those levels.

Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.; Burkett, P. J.; Calaway, M. J.; Oehler, D. Z.

2012-01-01

188

SAMPLING EFFORT AND COLLECTION METHODS 273 The samples should be sent via overnight courier so they arrive while laboratory personnel are  

E-print Network

SAMPLING EFFORT AND COLLECTION METHODS 273 The samples should be sent via overnight courier so subsampling methods, type of containers, and temperature used for sample storage 12. Record any measurements to schedule a sample shipment and fax a confirmation of the sample shipping information. Always keep a copy

Pitt, Robert E.

189

Prevalence and genotyping of Cryptosporidium in stool samples collected from children in Taif City (Saudi Arabia).  

PubMed

This study was conducted to estimate the frequency of Cryptosporidium infections in Taif (Saudi Arabia). Stool samples from children under 10 years by modified Ziehl-Neelson staining and two PCR techniques were used for genotyping experiments. The microscopic examination showed that, eleven samples were positive for presence of Cryptosporidium. With 11 of 100 samples, DNA extraction and subsequent genotyping was successful. By means of RAPD technique, the genetic similarity among the collected isolates was 55%. The 18S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that all Cryptosporidium-isolates belonged to Cryptosporidium parvum. In comparison with reference strains from different species of Cryptosporidium species from GenBank, all collected isolates belonged to Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum clade. The fact that only human genotypes were detected suggests that cryptosporidiosis must primarily be considered as a non zoonotic disease in Taif region. PMID:25134890

Shalaby, I; Gherbawy, Y; Jamjoom, M; Banaja, A

2014-06-01

190

Comparison of blood chemistry values for samples collected from juvenile chinook salmon by three methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thirteen blood chemistry indices were compared for samples collected by three commonly used methods: caudal transection, heart puncture, and caudal vessel puncture. Apparent biases in blood chemistry values for samples obtained by caudal transection were consistent with dilution with tissue fluids: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride, and K+ were increased and Na+ and Cl- were decreased relative to values for samples obtained by caudal vessel puncture. Some enzyme activities (ALT, AST, LDH) and K+ concentrations were also greater in samples taken by heart puncture than in samples taken by caudal vessel puncture. Of the methods tested, caudal vessel puncture had the least effect on blood chemistry values and should be preferred for blood chemistry studies on juvenile salmonids.

Congleton, J. L.; LaVoie, W. J.

2001-01-01

191

MRT letter: Micro- to nanoscale sample collection for high throughput microscopy.  

PubMed

In high throughput microscopy, it is often assumed that the objects under investigation are fixed spatially. In addition, it is also presumed that the objects are sufficiently populated, otherwise there will be need to search through vast tracks of field of views before any recording can be done. The ability to collect objects at one location in the hydrated state is thus desirable and this is a challenge when the density of target objects in a sample is very low. In this work, we report that the generation of a squeezing flow from a circular coverslip compressing on suspensions is able to collect particulate (microbeads, fluorescent nanobeads and live algal cells) and non-particulate (EGFP) objects at the rim region of the coverslip. With a coverslip of 13 mm diameter, volumes between 2 µL and 4 µL were found to completely fill the coverslip without breaching the rims. Sample compression speeds between 100 µm/s and 1000 µm/s did not have any effect on object collection outcomes. In effect, the simple placement of coverslips on top the drop of sample by hand without a motorized translator was found to produce similar collection outcomes. Quantitative measurements confirmed that all the objects investigated were displaced and relocated at the rim regions to a very high degree. PMID:23733610

Cheong, Brandon Huey-Ping; Liew, Oi Wah; Ng, Tuck Wah

2013-08-01

192

Comparative analyses of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from patients, tumors and transformed cell lines for the validation of lung cancer-derived breath markers.  

PubMed

Breath analysis for the purpose of non-invasive diagnosis of lung cancer has yielded numerous candidate compounds with still questionable clinical relevance. To arrive at suitable volatile organic compounds our approach combined the analysis of different sources: isolated tumor samples compared to healthy lung tissues, and exhaled breath from lung cancer patients and healthy controls. Candidate compounds were further compared to substances previously identified in the comparison of transformed and normal lung epithelial cell lines. For human studies, a breath sampling device was developed enabling automated and CO2-controlled collection of the end-tidal air. All samples were first preconcentrated on multibed sorption tubes and analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations in all three types of cancer samples studied were observed for ethanol and n-octane. Additional metabolites (inter alia 2-methylpentane, n-hexane) significantly released by lung cancer cells were observed at higher levels in cancer lung tissues and breath samples (compared to respective healthy controls) with statistical significance (p < 0.05) only in breath samples. The results obtained confirmed the cancer-related origin of volatile metabolites, e.g. ethanol and octane that were both detected at significantly (p < 0.05) elevated concentrations in all three kinds of cancer samples studied. This work is an important step towards identification of volatile breath markers of lung cancer through the demonstration of cancer-related origin of certain volatile metabolites. PMID:24862102

Filipiak, Wojciech; Filipiak, Anna; Sponring, Andreas; Schmid, Thomas; Zelger, Bettina; Ager, Clemens; Klodzinska, Ewa; Denz, Hubert; Pizzini, Alex; Lucciarini, Paolo; Jamnig, Herbert; Troppmair, Jakob; Amann, Anton

2014-06-01

193

Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations derived from flask samples collected at USSR-operated sampling sites  

SciTech Connect

This document presents daily atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations from four USSR-operated sampling sites (Teriberka Station, Ocean Station Charlie, Bering Island, and Kotelny Island). The period of record varies by station with the earliest measurements dating back to 1983 and recent estimates from early 1991. These CO{sub 2} concentrations are derived from air samples collected in 1.5-L stainless steel electropolished flasks and later analyzed at the Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg, USSR) using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer. Measurements not meeting wind direction, wind speed, inter-flask agreement, and climate condition criteria were either discarded or flagged. All measurements have been corrected for drift biases introduced during flask storage. These atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are considered indicative of regional background air conditions and are directly traceable to the World Meteorological Organization`s primary CO{sub 2} standards. These measurements support the rising trend in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations measured at other monitoring sites around the world and may be compared with similar measurements made by various monitoring programs at other northern latitude sites. The document presents the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations in graphical and tabular form, describes the sampling methods, defines limitations and restrictions of the data, and describes the information on the magnetic media.

Boden, T.A. [comp.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Brounshtein, A.M.; Faber, E.V.; Shashkov, A.A. [Glavnaya Geofizicheskaya Observatoriya, St. Petersburg (USSR)

1991-12-01

194

Alkylphenol Polyethoxylate Derivatives in Groundwater and Blood Samples Collected from Pig Herds in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Alkylphenol polyethoxylate (APEO) derivatives, such as nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO), nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO), nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP), have been detected in the surface water, sediment, food and groundwater of numerous countries. Because groundwater is the main source of water for pig herds, the aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of APEO derivatives in groundwater and blood samples that were collected from pig herds raised near the Wuluo River in Southern Taiwan. The mean concentrations of NP, OP, NP1EO and NP2EO in the groundwater supply for 10 pig herds were 0.04 µg/l, 0.26 ± 0.23 µg/l, 0.74 ± 0.69 µg/l and 0.17 ± 0.22 µg/l, respectively. NP was detected in all blood samples collected from 5 of the 10 pig herds. The highest concentrations detected in the blood samples collected from six-week-old piglets and sows were 12.00 µg/l and 56.94 µg/l, respectively. Blood samples from 4 of the 5 herds showed OP contamination. The highest OP concentrations detected in 6-week-old piglets and sows were 275.58 µg/l and 566.32 µg/l, respectively. These results indicate that APEO derivatives accumulated in the groundwater supply and the bloodstreams of the pigs. PMID:24694943

CHIU, Tai-Shun; HSIEH, Chi-Ying; MIAW, Chang-Ling; LIN, Chao-Nan; CHANG, Tsung-Chou; YEN, Chia-Hung; CHIOU, Ming-Tang

2014-01-01

195

Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chapter A4, methods for collection and analyses of aquatic biological and microbiological samples, contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to collect, preserve, and analyze waters to determine their biological and microbiological properties. Part 1 consists of detailed descriptions of more than 45 individual methods, including those for bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, seston, periphyton, macrophytes, benthic invertebrates, fish and other vertebrates, cellular contents, productivity and bioassay. Each method is summarized, and the applications, interferences, apparatus, reagents, analyses, calculations, reporting of results, precisions, and references are given. Part 2 consists of a glossary. Part 3 is a list of taxonomic references. (USGS)

Britton, L. J.; Greeson, P. E.

1988-01-01

196

Voluntary control of breathing does not alter vagal modulation of heart rate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Variations in respiratory pattern influence the heart rate spectrum. It has been suggested, hence, that metronomic respiration should be used to correctly assess vagal modulation of heart rate by using spectral analysis. On the other hand, breathing to a metronome has been reported to increase heart rate spectral power in the high- or respiratory frequency region; this finding has led to the suggestion that metronomic respiration enhances vagal tone or alters vagal modulation of heart rate. To investigate whether metronomic breathing complicates the interpretation of heart rate spectra by altering vagal modulation, we recorded the electrocardiogram and respiration from eight volunteers during three breathing trials of 10 min each: 1) spontaneous breathing (mean rate of 14.4 breaths/min); 2) breathing to a metronome at the rate of 15, 18, and 21 breaths/min for 2, 6, and 2 min, respectively; and 3) breathing to a metronome at the rate of 18 breaths/min for 10 min. Data were also collected from eight volunteers who breathed spontaneously for 20 min and breathed metronomically at each subject's mean spontaneous breathing frequency for 20 min. Results from the three 10-min breathing trials showed that heart rate power in the respiratory frequency region was smaller during metronomic breathing than during spontaneous breathing. This decrease could be explained fully by the higher breathing frequencies used during trials 2 and 3 of metronomic breathing. When the subjects breathed metronomically at each subject's mean breathing frequency, the heart rate powers during metronomic breathing were similar to those during spontaneous breathing. Our results suggest that vagal modulation of heart rate is not altered and vagal tone is not enhanced during metronomic breathing.

Patwardhan, A. R.; Evans, J. M.; Bruce, E. N.; Eckberg, D. L.; Knapp, C. F.

1995-01-01

197

Just Breathe Green: Measuring Transpiration Rates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through multi-trial experiments, students are able to see and measure something that is otherwise invisible to themâseeing plants breathe. Student groups are given two small plants of native species and materials to enclose them after watering with colored water. After being enclosed for 5, 10 and 15 minutes, teams collect and measure the condensed water from the plants' "breathing," and then calculate the rates at which the plants breathe. A plant's breath is known as transpiration, which is the flow of water from the ground where it is taken up by roots (plant uptake) and then lost through the leaves. Students plot volume/time data for three different native plant species, determine and compare their transpiration rates to see which had the highest reaction rate and consider how a plant's unique characteristics (leaf surface area, transpiration rate) might figure into engineers' designs for neighborhood stormwater management plans.

Water Awareness Research and Education (WARE) Research Experience for Teachers (RET),

198

Metabolite Content Profiling of Bottlenose Dolphin Exhaled Breath  

PubMed Central

Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We describe the analysis workflow to profile exhaled breath metabolites and provide here a first library of volatile and nonvolatile compounds in cetacean exhaled breath. The described analytical methodology enabled us to document baseline compounds in exhaled breath of healthy animals and to study changes in metabolic content of dolphin breath with regard to a variety of factors. The method of breath analysis may provide a very valuable tool in future wildlife conservation efforts as well as deepen our understanding of marine mammals biology and physiology. PMID:25254551

2014-01-01

199

Metabolite content profiling of bottlenose dolphin exhaled breath.  

PubMed

Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We describe the analysis workflow to profile exhaled breath metabolites and provide here a first library of volatile and nonvolatile compounds in cetacean exhaled breath. The described analytical methodology enabled us to document baseline compounds in exhaled breath of healthy animals and to study changes in metabolic content of dolphin breath with regard to a variety of factors. The method of breath analysis may provide a very valuable tool in future wildlife conservation efforts as well as deepen our understanding of marine mammals biology and physiology. PMID:25254551

Aksenov, Alexander A; Yeates, Laura; Pasamontes, Alberto; Siebe, Craig; Zrodnikov, Yuriy; Simmons, Jason; McCartney, Mitchell M; Deplanque, Jean-Pierre; Wells, Randall S; Davis, Cristina E

2014-11-01

200

Breathing Time Warp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time Warp and Breathing Time Buckets are two general-purpose optimistic synchronization strategies for supporting parallel discrete-event simulations. However, each one of these approaches has potential fatal shortcomings. Time Warp may exhibit rollback explosions that can cause an avalance of antimessages. Breathing Time Buckets, on the other hand, may not be able to process enough events per synchronization cycle to remain

Jeff S. Steinrnan

1993-01-01

201

Evaluation of water samples collected during LANDSAT-1 overpasses of the lower Chesapeake Bay area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water samples were collected on 18 days when the LANDSAT-1 satellite was passing over the lower Chesapeake Bay area. A correlation between the various water parameters has been performed for the more than 300 surface samples. Six days were sufficiently cloudless that MSS digital tapes were useful for analysis. Correlation of radiance values with the water parameters revealed a low correlation for chlorophyll and good correlations with particles and sediment. The relation of total particles to sediment was linear, but varied from day to day.

Bowker, D. E.; Witte, W. G.

1976-01-01

202

Characterization Data Package for Containerized Sludge Samples Collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210  

SciTech Connect

This data package contains the K Basin sludge characterization results obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory during processing and analysis of four sludge core samples collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210 in 2010 as requested by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company. Sample processing requirements, analytes of interest, detection limits, and quality control sample requirements are defined in the KBC-33786, Rev. 2. The core processing scope included reconstitution of a sludge core sample distributed among four to six 4-L polypropylene bottles into a single container. The reconstituted core sample was then mixed and subsampled to support a variety of characterization activities. Additional core sludge subsamples were combined to prepare a container composite. The container composite was fractionated by wet sieving through a 2,000 micron mesh and a 500-micron mesh sieve. Each sieve fraction was sampled to support a suite of analyses. The core composite analysis scope included density determination, radioisotope analysis, and metals analysis, including the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit metals (with the exception of mercury). The container composite analysis included most of the core composite analysis scope plus particle size distribution, particle density, rheology, and crystalline phase identification. A summary of the received samples, core sample reconstitution and subsampling activities, container composite preparation and subsampling activities, physical properties, and analytical results are presented. Supporting data and documentation are provided in the appendices. There were no cases of sample or data loss and all of the available samples and data are reported as required by the Quality Assurance Project Plan/Sampling and Analysis Plan.

Fountain, Matthew S.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Baldwin, David L.; Daniel, Richard C.; Bos, Stanley J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Carlson, Clark D.; Coffey, Deborah S.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Neiner, Doinita; Oliver, Brian M.; Pool, Karl N.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Urie, Michael W.

2013-09-10

203

Developing Your Statistics The Statistics tab is used to display statistics for some or all of your collected samples. You will need at least one sample  

E-print Network

Developing Your Statistics The Statistics tab is used to display statistics for some or all of your collected samples. You will need at least one sample and a plot to view statistics. Select Samples Select. are displayed and the statistics are added to the Master Statistics Table. Uncheck samples to remove them from

204

Chemical sensors for breath gas analysis: the latest developments at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013.  

PubMed

Profiling the body chemistry by means of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath opens exciting new avenues in medical diagnostics. Gas sensors could provide ideal platforms for realizing portable, hand-held breath testing devices in the near future. This review summarizes the latest developments and applications in the field of chemical sensors for diagnostic breath testing that were presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013 in Wallerfangen, Germany. Considerable progress has been made towards clinically applicable breath testing devices, especially by utilizing chemo-sensitive nanomaterials. Examples of several specialized breath testing applications are presented that are either based on stand-alone nanomaterial-based sensors being highly sensitive and specific to individual breath compounds over others, or on combinations of several highly specific sensors, or on experimental nanomaterial-based sensors arrays. Other interesting approaches include the adaption of a commercially available MOx-based sensor array to indirect breath testing applications, using a sample pre-concentration method, and the development of compact integrated GC-sensor systems. The recent trend towards device integration has led to the development of fully integrated prototypes of point-of-care devices. We describe and compare the performance of several prototypes that are based on different sensing technologies and evaluate their potential as low-cost and readily available next-generation medical devices. PMID:24682160

Tisch, Ulrike; Haick, Hossam

2014-06-01

205

Sampling and Selection Factors that Enhance the Diversity of Microbial Collections: Application to Biopesticide Development  

PubMed Central

Diverse bacteria are known to colonize plants. However, only a small fraction of that diversity has been evaluated for their biopesticide potential. To date, the criteria for sampling and selection in such bioprospecting endeavors have not been systematically evaluated in terms of the relative amount of diversity they provide for analysis. The present study aimed to enhance the success of bio-prospecting efforts by increasing the diversity while removing the genotypic redundancy often present in large collections of bacteria. We developed a multivariate sampling and marker-based selection strategy that significantly increase the diversity of bacteria recovered from plants. In doing so, we quantified the effects of varying sampling intensity, media composition, incubation conditions, plant species, and soil source on the diversity of recovered isolates. Subsequent sequencing and high-throughput phenotypic analyses of a small fraction of the collected isolates revealed that this approach led to the recovery of over a dozen rare and, to date, poorly characterized genera of plant-associated bacteria with significant biopesticide activities. Overall, the sampling and selection approach described led to an approximately 5-fold improvement in efficiency and the recovery of several novel strains of bacteria with significant biopesticide potential.

Park, Jun-Kyung; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Jang-Hoon; Han, Songhee; Kang, Hunseung; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Kim, Young Cheol; Gardener, Brian McSpadden

2013-01-01

206

Regression modeling of particle size distributions in urban storm water: advancements through improved sample collection methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new sample collection system was developed to improve the representation of sediment entrained in urban storm water by integrating water quality samples from the entire water column. The depth-integrated sampler arm (DISA) was able to mitigate sediment stratification bias in storm water, thereby improving the characterization of suspended-sediment concentration and particle size distribution at three independent study locations. Use of the DISA decreased variability, which improved statistical regression to predict particle size distribution using surrogate environmental parameters, such as precipitation depth and intensity. The performance of this statistical modeling technique was compared to results using traditional fixed-point sampling methods and was found to perform better. When environmental parameters can be used to predict particle size distributions, environmental managers have more options when characterizing concentrations, loads, and particle size distributions in urban runoff.

Fienen, Michael N.; Selbig, William R.

2012-01-01

207

Collection and storage of human blood and adipose for genomic analysis of clinical samples  

PubMed Central

In this methods paper, we describe collection and storage of clinically acquired blood and adipose samples for transcript analysis in an ongoing study exploring obesity in renal transplant recipients. Total ribonucleic acid (RNA) was isolated from whole blood using the LeukoLOCK™ Total RNA Isolation System (n=4), and comparisons between fresh and frozen samples were made. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose samples (n=4) were obtained during kidney transplantation, flash frozen, and stored at ?80°C. Adipose RNA was extracted using either the STAT-60 method modified for lipids or Trizol plus RNeasy extraction. Affymetrix HG-U133 plus 2.0 arrays and Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST arrays were used for both blood and adipose transcriptome analysis. Purity, quality and quantity of RNA were high with comparable results using both array platforms. PMID:21812005

Cashion, Ann K.; Umberger, Reba A.; Goodwin, Shirlean B.; Sutter, Thomas R.

2011-01-01

208

Investigation of C3-C10 aldehydes in the exhaled breath of healthy subjects using selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS).  

PubMed

Aldehydes have attracted great scientific and clinical interest as potential disease biomarkers. We have investigated selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) in detecting and quantifying C3 to C10 saturated aldehydes (propanal, butanal, pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal and decanal) from the exhaled breath of 26 healthy human volunteers. To assess the reliability of the Nalophan® bag sampling method employed, the water level in the breath sample was measured up to 4 h after collection and showed no significant degradation. Propanal was found to be the most abundant aldehyde in the exhaled breath of healthy volunteers. For the C4-C10 aldehydes, their median concentrations were all less than 3 ppbv, demonstrating only trace quantities are present in the exhaled breath of the 26 healthy volunteers. PMID:25190002

Huang, Juzheng; Kumar, Sacheen; Hanna, George B

2014-09-01

209

Pesticide-sampling equipment, sample-collection and processing procedures, and water-quality data at Chicod Creek, North Carolina, 1992  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-quality samples were collected from Chicod Creek in the Coastal Plain Province of North Carolina during the summer of 1992 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Chicod Creek is in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage area, one of four study units designated to test equipment and procedures for collecting and processing samples for the solid-phase extraction of selected pesticides, The equipment and procedures were used to isolate 47 pesticides, including organonitrogen, carbamate, organochlorine, organophosphate, and other compounds, targeted to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sample-collection and processing equipment equipment cleaning and set-up procedures, methods pertaining to collecting, splitting, and solid-phase extraction of samples, and water-quality data resulting from the field test are presented in this report Most problems encountered during this intensive sampling exercise were operational difficulties relating to equipment used to process samples.

Manning, T.K.; Smith, K.E.; Wood, C.D.; Williams, J.B.

1994-01-01

210

High volume electrostatic field-sampler for collection of fine particle bulk samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high volume electrostatic field-sampler was developed for collection of fine particles, which easily can be recovered for subsequent sample characterisation and bioassays. The sampler was based on a commercial office air cleaner and consisted of a prefilter followed by electrostatic collection plates operating at 2.7 kV. The sampler performance was characterised for 26 nm to 5.4 ?m-size particles in urban street air. The collection efficiency reached a maximum (60-70%) between 0.2 and 0.8 ?m and dropped to ˜25% at 30 nm and 2.5 ?m, respectively. After extraction in water, the particle loss was<2%. The extraction efficiency for dry lyophilised particulate matter was above 80%, allowing retrievement of ˜12 mg day -1 in urban street air at PM 10 levels of ˜24 ?g m -3. The ozone generating capacity of the corona discharge during operation was on the order of 10 ppb. A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) degradation test using benzo[a]pyrene as a model showed that ˜85% was degraded after 24 h. However, similar results were observed when the corona discharge was switched off. Hence, the ozone and other corona discharge reactants do not appear to contribute considerably to PAH-degradation. The overall results show that the sampler type is a promising alternative to traditional sampling of fine particles for bulk analysis and bioassays. The main advantages are simple operation, high stability, high quantifiable particle recovery rates and low cost.

Kumar Sharma, Anoop; Wallin, Håkan; Alstrup Jensen, Keld

211

A continuous flow from sample collection to data acceptability determination using an automated system  

SciTech Connect

In its role as regulator, EPA is the recipient of enormous reams of analytical data, especially within the Superfund Program. In order to better manage the volume of paper that comes in daily, Superfund has required its laboratories to provide data that is contained on reporting forms to be delivered also on a diskette for uploading into data bases for various purposes, such as checking for contractual compliance, tracking quality assurance parameters, and, ultimately, for reviewing the data by computer. This last area, automated review of the data, has generated programs that are not necessarily appropriate for use by clients other than Superfund. Such is the case with Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Environmental Chemistry Group and its emerging subcontractor community, designed to meet the needs of the remedial action program at LANL. LANL is in the process of implementing an automated system that will be used from the planning stage of sample collection to the production of a project-specific report on analytical data quality. Included are electronic scheduling and tracking of samples, data entry, checking and transmission, data assessment and qualification for use, and report generation that will tie the analytical data quality back to the performance criteria defined prior to sample collection. Industry standard products will be used (e.g., ORACLE, Microsoft Excel) to ensure support for users, prevent dependence on proprietary software, and to protect LANL`s investment for the future.

Fisk, J.F.; Leasure, C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Sauter, A.D. [PAR Enterprises, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (US)

1993-08-01

212

Conceptual study and key technology development for Mars Aeroflyby sample collection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conceptual study of Mars Aeroflyby Sample Collection (MASC) is conducted as a part of the next Mars exploration mission currently entertained in Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. In the mission scenario, an atmospheric entry vehicle is flown into the Martian atmosphere, collects the Martian dust particles as well as atmospheric gases during the guided hypersonic flight, exits the Martian atmosphere, and is inserted into a parking orbit from which a return system departs for the earth to deliver the dust and gas samples. In order to accomplish a controlled flight and a successful orbit insertion, aeroassist orbit transfer technologies are introduced into the guidance and control system. System analysis is conducted to assess the feasibility and to make a conceptual design, finding that the MASC system is feasible at the minimum system mass of 600 kg approximately. The aerogel, which is one of the candidates for the dust sample collector, is assessed by arcjet heating tests to examine its behavior when exposed to high-temperature gases, as well as by particle impingement tests to evaluate its dust capturing capability.

Fujita, K.; Ozawa, T.; Okudaira, K.; Mikouchi, T.; Suzuki, T.; Takayanagi, H.; Tsuda, Y.; Ogawa, N.; Tachibana, S.; Satoh, T.

2014-01-01

213

A carbon free filter for collection of large volume samples of cellular biomass from oligotrophic waters.  

PubMed

Isotopic analysis of cellular biomass has greatly improved our understanding of carbon cycling in the environment. Compound specific radiocarbon analysis (CSRA) of cellular biomass is being increasingly applied in a number of fields. However, it is often difficult to collect sufficient cellular biomass for analysis from oligotrophic waters because easy-to-use filtering methods that are free of carbon contaminants do not exist. The goal of this work was to develop a new column based filter to autonomously collect high volume samples of biomass from oligotrophic waters for CSRA using material that can be baked at 450°C to remove potential organic contaminants. A series of filter materials were tested, including uncoated sand, ferrihydrite-coated sand, goethite-coated sand, aluminum-coated sand, uncoated glass wool, ferrihydrite-coated glass wool, and aluminum-coated glass wool, in the lab with 0.1 and 1.0 ?m microspheres and Escherichia coli. Results indicated that aluminum-coated glass wool was the most efficient filter and that the retention capacity of the filter far exceeded the biomass requirements for CSRA. Results from laboratory tests indicate that for oligotrophic waters with 1×10(5) cells ml(-1), 117l of water would need to be filtered to collect 100 ?g of PLFA for bulk PLFA analysis and 2000 l for analysis of individual PLFAs. For field sampling, filtration tests on South African mine water indicated that after filtering 5955l, 450 ?g of total PLFAs were present, ample biomass for radiocarbon analysis. In summary, we have developed a filter that is easy to use and deploy for collection of biomass for CSRA including total and individual PLFAs. PMID:22561839

Mailloux, Brian J; Dochenetz, Audra; Bishop, Michael; Dong, Hailiang; Ziolkowski, Lori A; Wommack, K Eric; Sakowski, Eric G; Onstott, Tullis C; Slater, Greg F

2012-09-01

214

Medical Issues: Breathing  

MedlinePLUS

... Breathing Care It is important to visit a pulmonologist (a doctor who specializes in respiratory care) soon after an SMA diagnosis. The pulmonologist will evaluate your child, establish a baseline for ...

215

Rapid shallow breathing  

MedlinePLUS

... rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive pulmonary COPD and other chronic lung diseases Heart failure Infection in the smallest air passages of the ...

216

Bad Breath (Halitosis)  

MedlinePLUS

... your cheeks. When bacteria use these cells for food, they produce a foul odor. In addition, bad breath can be caused by the following: Poor dental hygiene — Infrequent or improper brushing and flossing, allows bits ...

217

Methods for collecting benthic invertebrate samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Benthic invertebrate communities are evaluated as part of the ecological survey component of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These biological data are collected along with physical and chemical data to assess water-quality conditions and to develop an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. The objectives of benthic invertebrate community characterizations are to (1) develop for each site a list of tax a within the associated stream reach and (2) determine the structure of benthic invertebrate communities within selected habitats of that reach. A nationally consistent approach is used to achieve these objectives. This approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection and methods and equipment for qualitative multihabitat sampling and semi-quantitative single habitat sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data within and among study units.

Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

1993-01-01

218

Geochemistry of Rock Samples Collected from the Iron Hill Carbonatite Complex, Gunnison County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study conducted in 2006 by the U.S. Geological Survey collected 57 surface rock samples from nine types of intrusive rock in the Iron Hill carbonatite complex. This intrusive complex, located in Gunnison County of southwestern Colorado, is known for its classic carbonatite-alkaline igneous geology and petrology. The Iron Hill complex is also noteworthy for its diverse mineral resources, including enrichments in titanium, rare earth elements, thorium, niobium (columbium), and vanadium. This study was performed to reexamine the chemistry and metallic content of the major rock units of the Iron Hill complex by using modern analytical techniques, while providing a broader suite of elements than the earlier published studies. The report contains the geochemical analyses of the samples in tabular and digital spreadsheet format, providing the analytical results for 55 major and trace elements.

Van Gosen, Bradley S.

2008-01-01

219

Ram-air sample collection device for a chemical warfare agent sensor  

DOEpatents

In a surface acoustic wave sensor mounted within a body, the sensor having a surface acoustic wave array detector and a micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator exposed on a surface of the body, an apparatus for collecting air for the sensor, comprising a housing operatively arranged to mount atop the body, the housing including a multi-stage channel having an inlet and an outlet, the channel having a first stage having a first height and width proximate the inlet, a second stage having a second lower height and width proximate the micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator, a third stage having a still lower third height and width proximate the surface acoustic wave array detector, and a fourth stage having a fourth height and width proximate the outlet, where the fourth height and width are substantially the same as the first height and width.

Megerle, Clifford A. (Manassas, VA); Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM)

2002-01-01

220

Ground-Water Data-Collection Protocols and Procedures for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program: Collection and Documentation of Water-Quality Samples and Related Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Protocols for ground-water sampling are described in a report written in 1989 as part of the pilot program for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). These protocols have been reviewed and revised to address the needs of the full-scale implementation of the NAWQA Program that began in 1991. This report, which is a collaborative effort between the NAWQA Program and the USGS Office of Water Quality, is the result of that review and revision. This report describes protocols and recommended procedures for the collection of water-quality samples and related data from wells for the NAWQA Program. Protocols and recommended procedures discussed include (1) equipment setup and other preparations for data collection; (2) well purging and field measurements; (3) collecting and processing ground-water-quality samples; (4) equipment decontamination; (5) quality-control sampling; and (6) sample handling and shipping.

Koterba, Michael T.; Wilde, Franceska D.; Lapham, Wayne W.

1995-01-01

221

Combined-sewer overflow data and methods of sample collection for selected sites, Detroit, Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From October 1, 1994 through December 31, 1995, four combined-sewer discharging to the Detroit River in Detroit, Michigan were monitored to characterize storm-related water quantity and quality. Water velocity, stage, discharge, and precipitation were measured continuously and recorded at 5-minute intervals. Water-quality samples were collected at discrete times during each storm and analyzed for inorganic and organic pollutants. This report includes the sampling approach, field collection and processing techniques, and methods of chemical analysis, as well as a compilation of combined sewer discharge volumes, chemical data, and quality control data. These data may be used by resource managers and scientists (1) to describe temporal variation for pollutant concentrations in combined-sewage for various overflow events; (2) to describe spatial distribution of selected pollutants in the four combined-sewer overflows discharging to the Detroit River; (3) to calculate pollutant loads to the Detroit River from the four overflow sites for the monitored storm events; (4) to estimate pollutant loadings form other overflow sites; and, (5) to provide data and information which can be used to define appropriate management methods to reduce or eliminate untreated combined-sewer overflows. Selected combined-sewers were sampled between 30 and 82 times for inorganic pollutants, and between 14 and 22 times for organic pollutants, depending on the site. These samples represented between 8 and 17 storms during which one or more combined-sewers overflowed. The monitored pollutants included fecal coliform, fecal streptococci, and Escherichia coli; antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, total chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, silver, thallium and zinc; and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, volatile organic compounds, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. In general, metal and non-metal inorganic pollutants were detected at all sites. Many organic pollutants were not detected at all.

Sweat, M. J.; Wolf, J. R.

1997-01-01

222

Exhaled breath analysis for lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Early diagnosis of lung cancer results in improved survival compared to diagnosis with more advanced disease. Early disease is not reliably indicated by symptoms. Because investigations such as bronchoscopy and needle biopsy have associated risks and substantial costs, they are not suitable for population screening. Hence new easily applicable tests, which can be used to screen individuals at risk, are required. Biomarker testing in exhaled breath samples is a simple, relatively inexpensive, non-invasive approach. Exhaled breath contains volatile and non-volatile organic compounds produced as end-products of metabolic processes and the composition of such compounds varies between healthy subjects and subjects with lung cancer. Many studies have analysed the patterns of these compounds in exhaled breath. In addition studies have also reported that the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) can reveal gene mutations or DNA abnormalities in patients with lung cancer. This review has summarised the scientific evidence demonstrating that lung cancer has distinct chemical profiles in exhaled breath and characteristic genetic changes in EBC. It is not yet possible to accurately identify individuals with lung cancer in at risk populations by any of these techniques. However, analysis of both volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and of EBC have great potential to become clinically useful diagnostic and screening tools for early stage lung cancer detection. PMID:24163746

Sutedja, Tom G.; Zimmerman, Paul V.

2013-01-01

223

Activity concentrations of environmental samples collected in Fukushima Prefecture immediately after the Fukushima nuclear accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radionuclide concentrations in environmental samples such as surface soils, plants and water were evaluated by high purity germanium detector measurements. The contribution rate of short half-life radionuclides such as 132I to the exposure dose to residents was discussed from the measured values. The highest values of the 131I/137Cs activity ratio ranged from 49 to 70 in the environmental samples collected at Iwaki City which is located to the south of the F1-NPS. On the other hand, the 132I/131I activity ratio in the same environmental samples had the lowest values, ranging from 0.01 to 0.02. By assuming that the 132I/131I activity ratio in the atmosphere was equal to the ratio in the environmental samples, the percent contribution to the thyroid equivalent dose by 132I was estimated to be less than 2%. Moreover, the contribution to the thyroid exposure by 132I might be negligible if 132I contamination was restricted to Iwaki City.

Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Monzen, Satoru; Osanai, Minoru; Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sahoo, Sarata K.; Kovács, Tibor; Yamada, Masatoshi; Nakata, Akifumi; Yoshida, Mitsuaki; Yoshino, Hironori; Mariya, Yasushi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

2013-07-01

224

Activity concentrations of environmental samples collected in Fukushima Prefecture immediately after the Fukushima nuclear accident  

PubMed Central

Radionuclide concentrations in environmental samples such as surface soils, plants and water were evaluated by high purity germanium detector measurements. The contribution rate of short half-life radionuclides such as 132I to the exposure dose to residents was discussed from the measured values. The highest values of the 131I/137Cs activity ratio ranged from 49 to 70 in the environmental samples collected at Iwaki City which is located to the south of the F1-NPS. On the other hand, the 132I/131I activity ratio in the same environmental samples had the lowest values, ranging from 0.01 to 0.02. By assuming that the 132I/131I activity ratio in the atmosphere was equal to the ratio in the environmental samples, the percent contribution to the thyroid equivalent dose by 132I was estimated to be less than 2%. Moreover, the contribution to the thyroid exposure by 132I might be negligible if 132I contamination was restricted to Iwaki City. PMID:23887080

Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Monzen, Satoru; Osanai, Minoru; Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sahoo, Sarata K.; Kovacs, Tibor; Yamada, Masatoshi; Nakata, Akifumi; Yoshida, Mitsuaki; Yoshino, Hironori; Mariya, Yasushi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

2013-01-01

225

Comparison of self-collected vaginal, vulvar and urine samples with physician-collected cervical samples for human papillomavirus testing to detect high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical samples are strongly associated with squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and invasive cer- vical carcinoma. We determined and compared the test characteristics of testing for HPV with samples obtained by patients and with samples obtained by their physicians. Methods: In a consecutive series of women referred to a colposcopy clinic at a

Father Sean O'Sullivan; John W. Sellors; Attila T. Lorincz; James B. Mahony; Iwona Mielzynska; Alice Lytwyn; Paula Roth; Michelle Howard; Sylvia Chong; Dean Daya; William Chapman; Max Chernesky

226

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF DISLODGEABLE RESIDUES -- PUF ROLLER SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.18)  

EPA Science Inventory

This SOP describes the method to collect transferable residues from indoor floor surfaces. The sampling procedures described are applicable to bare floors or covered floor surfaces, e.g., carpeting and vinyl flooring. The samples will be collected only in the day care centers o...

227

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FLOOR DUST SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.19)  

EPA Science Inventory

This SOP describes the method for collecting a floor dust sample from carpet. Dust samples will be collected in the room that the child uses most at home and/or at day care using a High Volume Small Surface Sampler (HVS3). In addition, participants will also be asked to donate a ...

228

A REVIEW OF SOME TRACER-TEST DESIGN EQUATIONS FOR TRACER-MASS ESTIMATION AND SAMPLE COLLECTION FREQUENCY  

EPA Science Inventory

Determination of necessary tracer mass, initial sample-collection time, and subsequent sample-collection frequency are the three most difficult aspects to estimate for a proposed tracer test prior to conducting the tracer test. To facilitate tracer-mass estimation, 33 mass-estima...

229

Comparison of Different Blood Collection, Sample Matrix, and Immunoassay Methods in a Prenatal Screening Setting  

PubMed Central

We compared how measurements of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and the free beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (f?-hCG) in maternal blood are influenced by different methods for blood collection, sample matrix, and immunoassay platform. Serum and dried blood spots (DBS) were obtained by venipuncture and by finger prick of 19 pregnant women. PAPP-A and f?-hCG from serum and from DBS were measured by conventional indirect immunoassay on an AutoDELFIA platform and by antibody microarray. We compared methods based on the recoveries for both markers as well as marker levels correlations across samples. All method comparisons showed high correlations for both marker concentrations. Recovery levels of PAPP-A from DBS were 30% lower, while those of f?-hCG from DBS were 50% higher compared to conventional venipuncture serum. The recoveries were not affected by blood collection or immunoassay method. The high correlation coefficients for both markers indicate that DBS from finger prick can be used reliably in a prenatal screening setting, as a less costly and minimally invasive alternative for venipuncture serum, with great logistical advantages. Additionally, the use of antibody arrays will allow for extending the number of first trimester screening markers on maternal and fetal health. PMID:25132703

Imholz, Sandra; Kuc, Sylwia; de Vries, Annemieke; Rodenburg, Wendy

2014-01-01

230

Variability issues in determining the concentration of isoprene in human breath by PTR-MS.  

PubMed

This paper deals with variability issues connected with the proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) measurements of isoprene concentration. We focus on isoprene as an abundant and widely studied compound in human breath. The variability caused by the measurement process is described by the within-sample distribution. Thus, based on the formula for computing isoprene concentration that reflects the principle of the PTR-MS, a theoretical model for the within-sample distribution of isoprene concentration is suggested. This model, which assumes that the distribution is proportional to a quotient of two independent Poisson-distributed random variables, is then confronted with empirical distributions obtained from 17 breath samples collected from a healthy individual within a month. (In each sample, isoprene concentration was determined 97 times.) The empirical within-sample distributions are also compared to normal and log-normal distributions. While those seem to be satisfactory approximations, the theoretical model is found suitable only in 10 out of 17 breath samples. We also comment on the stability of samples during the measurement process in the PTR-MS instrument and, for the sake of comparison, determine the within-sample and the within-subject variability of isoprene concentrations in our data. The respective geometric standard deviations are 1.01 and 1.29. PMID:21386168

Arendacká, Barbora; Schwarz, Konrad; Stolc, Svorad; Wimmer, Gejza; Witkovský, Viktor

2008-09-01

231

Exhaled breath condensate in pulmonary arterial hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, several new agents have been developed for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and blood biomarkers have been developed which aim to monitor such treatment, and which correlate well with physiological parameters, symptoms and mortality. However, little is known regarding biomarkers collected using non-invasive methods such as exhaled breath condensate (EBC). EBC biomarkers show potential

Geoffrey Warwick; Eugene Kotlyar; Sharron Chow; Paul S Thomas; Deborah H Yates

2012-01-01

232

Preparation of polyethylene sacks for collection of precipitation samples for chemical analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Polyethylene sacks are used to collect precipitation samples. Washing polyethylene with acetone, hexane, methanol, or nitric acid can change the adsorptive characteristics of the polyethylene. In this study, simulated precipitation at pH 4.5 was in contact with the polyethylene sacks for 21 days; subsamples were removed for chemical analysis at 7, 14, and 21 days after intitial contact. Sacks washed with acetone adsorbed iron and lithium; sacks washed with hexane adsorbed barium, iron , and lithium; sacks washed with methanol adsorbed calcium and iron; and sacks washed with 0.30 N nitric acid adsorbed iron. Leaching the plastic sacks with 0.15 N nitric acid did not result in 100-percent recovery of any of the adsorbed metals. Washing polyethylene sacks with dilute nitric acid caused the pH of the simulated precipitation to be decreased by 0.2 pH unit after 1 week of contact with the polyethylene. The specific conductance increased by 10 microsiemens per centimeter. Contamination of precipitation samples by lead was determined to be about 0.1 microgram per liter from contact with precleaned polyethylene sacks. No measurable contamination of precipitation samples by zinc occurred. (USGS)

Schroder, L.J.; Bricker, A.W.

1985-01-01

233

Molecular detection and genetic characterization of kobuviruses in fecal samples collected from diarrheic cattle in Korea.  

PubMed

Kobuviruses are small, non-enveloped viruses with single-stranded, positive-sense genomic RNA, belonging to the family Picornaviridae, a highly diverse family of important pathogens of humans and animals. In spite of discovery of bovine kobuvirus was first reported in 2003, which is several years ago, information about the virus is lacking. In this study, we first identified bovine kobuviruses from Korean diarrheic cattle by RT-PCR using the generic kobuvirus primers with subsequent cloning and sequencing, and reported genetic characterization of Korean bovine kobuviruses by phylogenetic analysis. Among 62 diarrheic fecal samples collected from 36 cattle farms in 2008-2010 in Korea, 16 (25.8%) samples and 13 (36.1%) farms were positive for kobuvirus, and this indicated that kobuvirus infections are endemic in diarrheic cattle in Korea. The rates of evolutionary substitution of kobuvirus and age of MRCA of Korean kobuvirus were estimated on the basis of temporal information of the sequences by divergence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that six strains except CPF4293 belonged to bovine kobuviruses and formed the exclusive branch with other bovine kobuvirus reference strains; The CPF4293 strain, however, was especially close to porcine kobuviruses rather than to any other kobuviruses, and showed the close genetic relationship with porcine kobuvirus strains isolated in 2009 in Japan, even though it was originated from bovine fecal sample. These data raise questions as to whether interspecies transmission of porcine kobuvirus to cattle may occur in nature. PMID:21382521

Park, Seong-Jun; Kim, Hye-Kwon; Song, Dae-Sub; Moon, Hyoung-Joon; Park, Bong-Kyun

2011-07-01

234

Sampling methods used for the collection of particle-phase organic and elemental carbon during ACE-Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semi-volatile nature of carbonaceous aerosols complicates their collection, and for this reason special air sampling configurations must be utilized. ACE-Asia provided a unique opportunity to compare different sampling techniques for collecting carbonaceous aerosols. In this paper detailed comparisons between filter-based carbonaceous aerosol sampling methods are made. The majority of organic carbon (OC) present on a backup quartz fiber filter

B. t. Mader; J. j. Schauer; J. h. Seinfeld; R. c. Flagan; J. z. Yu; H. Yang; Ho-Jin Lim; B. j. Turpin; J. t. Deminter; G. Heidemann; M. s. Bae; P. Quinn; T. Bates; D. j. Eatough; B. j. Huebert; T. Bertram; S. Howell

2003-01-01

235

DEVELOPMENT OF A TAMPER RESISTANT/INDICATING AEROSOL COLLECTION SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AT BULK HANDLING FACILITIES  

SciTech Connect

Environmental sampling has become a key component of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards approaches since its approval for use in 1996. Environmental sampling supports the IAEA's mission of drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear material or nuclear activities in a Nation State. Swipe sampling is the most commonly used method for the collection of environmental samples from bulk handling facilities. However, augmenting swipe samples with an air monitoring system, which could continuously draw samples from the environment of bulk handling facilities, could improve the possibility of the detection of undeclared activities. Continuous sampling offers the opportunity to collect airborne materials before they settle onto surfaces which can be decontaminated, taken into existing duct work, filtered by plant ventilation, or escape via alternate pathways (i.e. drains, doors). Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been working to further develop an aerosol collection technology that could be installed at IAEA safeguarded bulk handling facilities. The addition of this technology may reduce the number of IAEA inspector visits required to effectively collect samples. The principal sample collection device is a patented Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) which utilizes electrostatic precipitation principles to deposit particulates onto selected substrates. Recent work has focused on comparing traditional swipe sampling to samples collected via an ACE system, and incorporating tamper resistant and tamper indicating (TRI) technologies into the ACE system. Development of a TRI-ACE system would allow collection of samples at uranium/plutonium bulk handling facilities in a manner that ensures sample integrity and could be an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. This work was supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA).

Sexton, L.

2012-06-06

236

The Consistency of Isotopologues of Ambient Atmospheric Nitric Acid in Passively Collected Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic sources of nitrogen oxides have previously been shown to have distinctive isotopic signatures of oxygen and nitrogen. Nylon filters are currently used in passive sampling arrays to measure ambient atmospheric nitric acid concentrations and estimate deposition rates. This experiment measured the ability of nylon filters to consistently collect isotopologues of atmospheric nitric acid in the same ratios as they are present in the atmosphere. Samplers were deployed in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) and at field sites across a nitrogen deposition gradient in Southern California. Filters were exposed over a four week period with individual filters being subjected to 1-4 week exposure times. Extracted nitric acid were measured for ?18O and ?15N ratios and compared for consistency based on length of exposure and amount of HNO3 collected. Filters within the CSTRs collected HNO3 at a consistent rate in both high and low concentration chambers. After two weeks of exposure, the mean ?18O values were within 0.5‰ of the ?18O of the source HNO3 solution. The mean of all weekly exposures were within 0.5‰ of the ?15N of the source solution, but after three weeks, the mean ?15N of adsorbed HNO3 was within 0.2‰. As the length of the exposure increased, the variability of measured delta values decreased for both elements. The field samplers collected HNO3 consistent with previously measured values along a deposition gradient. The mean ?18O at high deposition sites was 52.2‰ compared to 35.7‰ at the low deposition sites. Mean ?15N values were similar at all sites across the deposition gradient. Due to precipitation events occurring during the exposure period, the ?15N and ?18O of nitric acid were highly variable at all field sites. At single sites, changes in ?15N and ?18O were negatively correlated, consistent with two-sourcing mixing dynamics, but the slope of the regressions differed between high and low deposition sites. Anthropogenic sources of atmospheric nitric acid accounted for 58% of the atmospheric nitric acid at the high deposition sites and 36.5% of the atmospheric nitric acid at the low deposition sites. The nylon filters proved to be an effective means of collecting isotopologues of HNO3 consistent with atmospheric concentrations. A length of the exposure of two weeks stabilizes isotopologue composition and minimizes the chance of variable weather events altering atmospheric values.

Bell, M. D.; Sickman, J. O.; Bytnerowicz, A.; Padgett, P.; Allen, E. B.

2012-12-01

237

Breath tests: principles, problems, and promise.  

PubMed

Breath tests rely on the measurement of gases produced in the intestine, absorbed, and expired in the breath. Carbohydrates, such as lactose and sucrose, can be administered in physiologic doses; if malabsorbed, they will be metabolized to hydrogen by colonic bacteria. Since hydrogen is not produced by human metabolic reactions, a rise in breath hydrogen, as measured by gas chromatography, is evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption. Likewise, a rise in breath hydrogen marks the transit time of nonabsorbable carbohydrates such as lactulose through the small intestine into the colon. Simple end-expiratory interval collection into nonsiliconized vacutainer tubes has made these noninvasive tests quite convenient to perform, but various problems, including changes in stool pH, intestinal motility, or metabolic rate, may influence results. Another group of breath tests uses substrates labeled with radioactive or stable isotopes of carbon. Labeled fat substrates such as trioctanoin, tripalmitin, and triolein do not produce the expected rise in labeled breath CO2 if there is fat malabsorption. Bile acid malabsorption and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth can be measured with labeled cholylglycine or cholyltaurine. Labeled drugs such as aminopyrine, methacetin, and phenacetin can be used as an indication of drug metabolism and liver function. Radioactive substrates have been used to trace metabolic pathways and can be measured by scintillation counters. The availability of nonradioactive stable isotopes has made these ideal for use in children and pregnant women, but the cost of substrates and the mass spectrometers to measure them has so far limited their use to research centers. It is hoped that new techniques of processing and measurement will allow further realization of the exciting potential breath analysis has in a growing list of clinical applications. PMID:7180696

Lo, C W; Carter, E A; Walker, W A

1982-01-01

238

Determination of trace gases in Learjet and U-2 whole air samples collected during the intertropical convergence zone study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Whole air samples collected from ground level to 13.7 using a Learjet sampling platform, were analyzed for selected halocarbons, C2 hydrocarbons, N2O and SF6. Low pressure whole air samples collected between 13.7 km and 21.3 km were analyzed for selected halocarbon species and N2O. These tracer compounds were determined in order to study the magnitude of injection of tropospheric air into the stratosphere in the intertropical convergence zone as well as transport processes in the equatorial regions. Sampling methods, analytical methods, and results are discussed. Data tables for all samples analyzed are included.

Cronn, D. R.; Robinson, E.

1978-01-01

239

Examination of Microbial Proteome Preservation Techniques Applicable to Autonomous Environmental Sample Collection  

PubMed Central

Improvements in temporal and spatial sampling frequency have the potential to open new windows into the understanding of marine microbial dynamics. In recent years, efforts have been made to allow automated samplers to collect microbial biomass for DNA/RNA analyses from moored observatories and autonomous underwater vehicles. Measurements of microbial proteins are also of significant interest given their biogeochemical importance as enzymes that catalyze reactions and transporters that interface with the environment. We examined the influence of five preservatives solutions (SDS-extraction buffer, ethanol, trichloroacetic acid, B-PER, and RNAlater) on the proteome integrity of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus WH8102 after 4?weeks of storage at room temperature. Four approaches were used to assess degradation: total protein recovery, band integrity on an SDS detergent polyacrylamide electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gel, and number of protein identifications and relative abundances by 1-dimensional LC–MS/MS proteomic analyses. Total protein recoveries from the preserved samples were lower than the frozen control due to processing losses, which could be corrected for with internal standardization. The trichloroacetic acid preserved sample showed significant loss of protein band integrity on the SDS-PAGE gel. The RNAlater preserved sample showed the highest number of protein identifications (103% relative to the control; 520?±?31 identifications in RNAlater versus 504?±?4 in the control), equivalent to the frozen control. Relative abundances of individual proteins in the RNAlater treatment were quite similar to that of the frozen control (average ratio of 1.01?±?0.27 for the 50 most abundant proteins), while the SDS-extraction buffer, ethanol, and B-PER all showed significant decreases in both number of identifications and relative abundances of individual proteins. Based on these findings, RNAlater was an effective proteome preservative, although further study is warranted on additional marine microbes. PMID:22069397

Saito, Mak A.; Bulygin, Vladimir V.; Moran, Dawn M.; Taylor, Craig; Scholin, Chris

2011-01-01

240

Chemical fingerprinting of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon oil spill samples collected from Alabama shoreline.  

PubMed

We compare the chromatographic signatures of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon (DH) source oil, three other reference crude oils, DH emulsified mousse that arrived on Alabama's shoreline in June 2010, and seven tar balls collected from Alabama beaches from 2011 to 2012. Characteristic hopane and sterane fingerprints show that all the tar ball samples originated from DH oil. In addition, the diagnostic ratios of various hopanes indicate an excellent match. Quantitation data for C????-hopane concentration levels show that most of the weathering observed in DH-related tar balls found on Alabama's beaches is likely the result of natural evaporation and dissolution that occurred during transport across the Gulf of Mexico prior to beach deposition. Based on the physical and biomarker characterization data presented in this study we conclude that virtually all fragile, sticky, brownish tar balls currently found on Alabama shoreline originated from the DH oil spill. PMID:23523118

Mulabagal, V; Yin, F; John, G F; Hayworth, J S; Clement, T P

2013-05-15

241

Floating sample-collection platform with stage-activated automatic water sampler for streams with large variation in stage  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A floating sample-collection platform is described for stream sites where the vertical or horizontal distance between the stream-sampling point and a safe location for the sampler exceed the suction head of the sampler. The platform allows continuous water sampling over the entire storm-runoff hydrogrpah. The platform was developed for a site in southern Illinois.

Tarte, Stephen R.; Schmidt, A.R.; Sullivan, Daniel J.

1992-01-01

242

The optimum conditions to collect X-ray data from very small samples.  

PubMed

A previous paper [Nave & Hill (2005). J. Synchrotron Rad. 12, 299-303] examined the possibility of reduced radiation damage for small crystals (10 microm and below in size) under conditions where the photoelectrons could escape from the sample. The conclusion of this paper was that higher-energy radiation (e.g. 40 keV) could offer an advantage as the photoelectron path length was greater and less energy would be deposited in the crystal. This paper refines these calculations further by including the effects of energy deposited owing to Compton scattering and the energy difference between the incident photon and the emitted photoelectron. An estimate is given for the optimum wavelength for collecting data from a protein crystal of a given size and composition. Another way of reducing radiation damage from a protein crystal is to collect data with a very short pulsed X-ray source where a single image can be obtained before subsequent radiation damage occurs. A comparison of this approach compared with the use of shorter wavelengths is made. PMID:18728316

Cowan, John A; Nave, Colin

2008-09-01

243

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR FIELD COLLECTION OF INDOOR FLOOR SAMPLES AND POST FIELD SAMPLE HANDLING (UA-F-7.1)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to establish a uniform procedure for the collection of indoor floor dust samples in the field. This procedure was followed to ensure consistent data retrieval of dust samples during the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border" study. Keywords: field; va...

244

Control of the positional relationship between a sample collection instrument and a surface to be analyzed during a sampling procedure using a laser sensor  

DOEpatents

A system and method utilizes distance-measuring equipment including a laser sensor for controlling the collection instrument-to-surface distance during a sample collection process for use, for example, with mass spectrometric detection. The laser sensor is arranged in a fixed positional relationship with the collection instrument, and a signal is generated by way of the laser sensor which corresponds to the actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface. The actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface is compared to a target distance between the laser sensor and the surface when the collection instrument is arranged at a desired distance from the surface for sample collecting purposes, and adjustments are made, if necessary, so that the actual distance approaches the target distance.

Van Berkel, Gary J. (Clinton, TN); Kertesz, Vilmos (Knoxville, TN)

2012-02-21

245

Conducting Internet Research With the Transgender Population: Reaching Broad Samples and Collecting Valid Data  

PubMed Central

Health research on transgender people has been hampered by the challenges inherent in studying a hard-to-reach, relatively small, and geographically dispersed population. The Internet has the potential to facilitate access to transgender samples large enough to permit examination of the diversity and syndemic health disparities found among this population. In this article, we describe the experiences of a team of investigators using the Internet to study HIV risk behaviors of transgender people in the United States. We developed an online instrument, recruited participants exclusively via websites frequented by members of the target population, and collected data using online quantitative survey and qualitative synchronous and asynchronous interview methods. Our experiences indicate that the Internet environment presents the investigator with some unique challenges and that commonly expressed criticisms about Internet research (e.g., lack of generalizable samples, invalid study participants, and multiple participation by the same subject) can be overcome with careful method design, usability testing, and pilot testing. The importance of both usability and pilot testing are described with respect to participant engagement and retention and the quality of data obtained online. PMID:24031157

Miner, Michael H.; Bockting, Walter O.; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Raman, Sivakumaran

2013-01-01

246

Volatile organic compounds in the exhaled breath of young patients with cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

Inflammatory mediators in the exhaled breath are receiving growing medical interest as noninvasive disease markers. Volatile organic compounds have been investigated in this context, but clinical information and methodological standards are limited. The levels of ethane, propane, n-pentane, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, acetone, isoprene, benzene, toluene, dimethyl sulphide (DMS) and limonene were measured in repeated breath samples from 20 cystic fibrosis patients and 20 healthy controls (aged 8-29 yrs). Three end-exhaled and one ambient air sample were collected per person and analysed on a customised gas chromatography system. Intra-subject coefficients of variation ranged between 9 and 34%, and hydrocarbon breath levels were influenced by their inspired concentrations. The alveolar gradient for pentane was higher in cystic fibrosis patients than in healthy controls (0.36 versus 0.21 ppb) and inversely proportional to forced expiratory volume in one second; highest values were observed in patients with pulmonary exacerbations (0.73 versus 0.24 ppb). Cystic fibrosis patients also exhibited a lower output of DMS (3.9 versus 7.6 ppb). Group differences were not significant for ethane and the remaining substances. It was concluded that chemical breath analysis for volatile organic compounds is feasible and may hold potential for the noninvasive diagnosis and follow-up of inflammatory processes in cystic fibrosis lung disease. PMID:16455833

Barker, M; Hengst, M; Schmid, J; Buers, H-J; Mittermaier, B; Klemp, D; Koppmann, R

2006-05-01

247

Location and Age Database for Selected Foraminifer Samples Collected by Exxon Petroleum Geologists in California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most of the geologic maps published for central California before 1960 were made without the benefit of age determinations from microfossils. The ages of Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks in the mostly poorly exposed and structurally complex sedimentary rocks represented in the Coast Ranges are critical in determining stratigraphic succession or lack of it, and in determining whether the juxtaposition of similar appearing but different age formations means a fault is present. Since the 1930’s, at least, oil company geologists have used microfossils to assist them in geologic mapping and in determining the environments of deposition of the sediment containing the microfossils. This information has been so confidential that some companies even coded the names of foraminifers to prevent disclosure. In the past 20 years, however, the attitude of petroleum companies about this information has changed, and many of the formerly confidential materials and reports are now available. We report here on 1,964 Exxon foraminifer samples mostly from surface localities in the San Francisco Bay region, and elsewhere in California. Most but not all the samples were plotted on U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) 7.5’ topographic maps or on obsolete USGS 15’ maps. The information from the slides can be used to update geologic maps prepared without the benefit of microfossil data, to analyze the depth and temperature of ocean water covering parts of California during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras, and for solving nomenclature and other scientific problems. A similar report on more than 30,000 slides for surface samples collected by Chevron geologists has been released (Brabb and Parker, 2003), and another report provides information on slides for more than 2000 oil test wells in Northern California (Brabb, Powell, and Brocher, 2001).

Brabb, Earl E.; Parker, John M.

2003-01-01

248

Analysis of non-methane hydrocarbons in air samples collected aboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) is a long-term monitoring program making regular atmospheric measurements from an instrument container installed monthly aboard a passenger aircraft. Typical cruising altitudes of the aircraft allow for the study of the free troposphere and the extra-tropical upper troposphere as well as the lowermost stratosphere. CARIBIC measurements include a number of real time analyses as well as the collection of aerosol and whole air samples. These whole air samples are analyzed post-flight for a suite of trace gases, which includes non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). The NMHC measurement system and its analytical performance are described here. Precision was found to vary slightly by compound, and is less than 2% for the C2-C6 alkanes and ethyne, and between 1% and 6% for C7-C8 alkanes and aromatic compounds. Preliminary results from participation in a Global Atmospheric Watch (WMO) VOC audit indicate accuracies within the precision of the system. Limits of detection are 1 pptv for most compounds, and up to 3 pptv for some aromatics. These are sufficiently low to measure mixing ratios typically observed in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere for the longer-lived NMHC, however, in air samples from these regions many of the compounds with shorter lifetimes (<5 days) were frequently below the detection limit. Observed NMHC concentrations span several orders of magnitude, dependent on atmospheric region and air mass history, with concentrations typically decreasing with shorter chemical lifetimes.

Baker, A. K.; Slemr, F.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

2010-02-01

249

Analysis of non-methane hydrocarbons in air samples collected aboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) is a long-term monitoring program making regular atmospheric measurements from an instrument container installed monthly aboard a passenger aircraft. Typical cruising altitudes of the aircraft allow for the study of the free troposphere and the extra-tropical upper troposphere as well as the lowermost stratosphere. CARIBIC measurements include a number of real time analyses as well as the collection of aerosol and whole air samples. These whole air samples are analyzed post-flight for a suite of trace gases, which includes non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). The NMHC measurement system and its analytical performance are described here. Precision was found to vary slightly by compound, and is less than 2% for the C2-C6 alkanes and ethyne, and between 1 and 6% for C7-C8 alkanes and aromatic compounds. Preliminary results from participation in a Global Atmospheric Watch (WMO) VOC audit indicate accuracies within the precision of the system. Limits of detection are 1 pptv for most compounds, and up to 3 pptv for some aromatics. These are sufficiently low to measure mixing ratios typically observed in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere for the longer-lived NMHC, however, in air samples from these regions many of the compounds with shorter lifetimes (<5 d) were frequently below the detection limit. Observed NMHC concentrations span many orders of magnitude, dependent on atmospheric region and air mass history, with concentrations typically decreasing with shorter chemical lifetimes.

Baker, A. K.; Slemr, F.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

2009-10-01

250

Influence of speed of sample processing on placental energetics and signalling pathways: Implications for tissue collection?  

PubMed Central

Introduction The placenta is metabolically highly active due to extensive endocrine and active transport functions. Hence, placental tissues soon become ischaemic after separation from the maternal blood supply. Ischaemia rapidly depletes intracellular ATP, and leads to activation of stress-response pathways aimed at reducing metabolic demands and conserving energy resources for vital functions. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate the effects of ischaemia ex vivo as may occur during tissue collection on phosphorylation of placental proteins and kinases involved in growth and cell survival, and on mitochondrial complexes. Methods Eight term placentas obtained from normotensive non-laboured elective caesarean sections were kept at room-temperature and sampled at 10, 20, 30 and 45 min after delivery. Samples were analyzed by Western blotting. Results Between 10 and 45 min the survival signalling pathway intermediates, P-AKT, P-GSK3? and ?, P-4E-BP1 and P-p70S6K were reduced by 30–65%. Stress signalling intermediates, P-eIF2? increased almost 3 fold after 45 min. However, other endoplasmic reticulum stress markers and the Heat Shock Proteins, HSP27, HSP70 and HSP90, did not change. Phosphorylation of AMPK, an energy sensor, was elevated 2 fold after 45 min. Contemporaneously, there was an ?25% reduction in mitochondrial complex IV subunit I. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that for placental signalling studies, samples should be taken and processed within 10 min of caesarean delivery to minimize the impact of ischaemia on protein phosphorylation. PMID:24406266

Yung, H.W.; Colleoni, F.; Atkinson, D.; Cook, E.; Murray, A.J.; Burton, G.J.; Charnock-Jones, D.S.

2014-01-01

251

Geochemical results from stream-water and stream-sediment samples collected in Colorado and New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey are studying the relationship between watershed lithology and stream-water chemistry. As part of this effort, 60 stream-water samples and 43 corresponding stream-sediment samples were collected in 2010 and 2011 from locations in Colorado and New Mexico. Sample sites were selected from small to midsize watersheds composed of a high percentage of one rock type or geologic unit. Stream-water and stream-sediment samples were collected, processed, preserved, and analyzed in a consistent manner. This report releases geochemical data for this phase of the study.

Hageman, Philip L.; Todd, Andrew S.; Smith, Kathleen S.; DeWitt, Ed; Zeigler, Mathew P.

2013-01-01

252

Characterization of Solid and Liquid GB Samples Collected from M55 Rockets Processed at Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (ANCDF).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Program Manager, Assembled Chemical Weapon Alternatives (PM- ACWA), requested that the U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC) conduct a fall analytical characterization of a OB sample collected at the Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal Fac...

T. E. Rosso, J. J. Loss, S. D. Norman, P. L. Abercrombie, A. B. Butrow

2005-01-01

253

Human Breath Gas Analysis in the Screening of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background We present a pilot study on the feasibility of the application and advantages of online, noninvasive breath gas analysis (BGA) by proton transfer reaction quadrupole mass spectrometry for the screening of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in 52 pregnant women by means of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Subjects and Methods We collected and identified samples of end-tidal breath gas from patients during OGTT. Time evolution parameters of challenge-responsive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human breath gas were estimated. Multivariate analysis of variance and permutation analysis were used to assess feasibility of BGA as a diagnostic tool for GDM. Results Standard OGTT diagnosis identified pregnant women as having GDM (n=8), impaired glucose tolerance (n=12), and normal glucose tolerance (n=32); a part of this latter group was further subdivided into a “marginal” group (n=9) because of a marginal high 1-h or 2-h OGTT value. We observed that OGTT diagnosis (four metabolic groups) could be mapped into breath gas data. The time evolution of oxidation products of glucose and lipids, acetone metabolites, and thiols in breath gas after a glucose challenge was correlated with GDM diagnosis (P=0.035). Furthermore, basal (fasting) values of dimethyl sulfide and values of methanol in breath gas were inversely correlated with phenotype characteristics such as homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (R=?0.538; P=0.0002, Pcorrected=0.0034) and pregestational body mass index (R=?0.433; P=0.0013, Pcorrected=0.022). Conclusions Noninvasive BGA in challenge response studies was successfully applied to GDM diagnosis and offered an insight into metabolic pathways involved. We propose a new approach to the identification of diagnosis thresholds for GDM screening. PMID:22775148

Halbritter, Susanne; Fedrigo, Mattia; Höllriegl, Vera; Szymczak, Wilfried; Maier, Joerg M.; Hummel, Michael

2012-01-01

254

Automated biowaste sampling system improved feces collection, mass measurement and sampling. [by use of a breadboard model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability of the basic automated Biowaste Sampling System (ABSS) hardware was extended and improved through the design, fabrication and test of breadboard hardware. A preliminary system design effort established the feasibility of integrating the breadboard concepts into the ABSS.

Fogal, G. L.; Mangialardi, J. K.; Young, R.

1974-01-01

255

Use of salivary biomarkers in biobehavioral research: cotton-based sample collection methods can interfere with salivary immunoassay results  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of studies, we evaluated the susceptibility of immunoassays for saliva biomarkers to interference effects caused by cotton materials used to absorb saliva during sample collection. Salivary assay results for testosterone, DHEA, progesterone, and estradiol are artificially high, and for sIgA artificially low, when samples are collected using cotton absorbent materials. In contrast, results for salivary cortisol, DHEA–S,

Elizabeth A Shirtcliff; Douglas A Granger; Eve Schwartz; Mary J Curran

2001-01-01

256

{sup 222}Rn in water: A comparison of two sample collection methods and two sample transport methods, and the determination of temporal variation in North Carolina ground water  

SciTech Connect

Objectives of this field experiment were: (1) determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between the radon concentrations of samples collected by EPA`s standard method, using a syringe, and an alternative, slow-flow method; (2) determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between the measured radon concentrations of samples mailed vs samples not mailed; and (3) determine whether there was a temporal variation of water radon concentration over a 7-month period. The field experiment was conducted at 9 sites, 5 private wells, and 4 public wells, at various locations in North Carolina. Results showed that a syringe is not necessary for sample collection, there was generally no significant radon loss due to mailing samples, and there was statistically significant evidence of temporal variations in water radon concentrations.

Hightower, J.H. III [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering] [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering

1994-12-31

257

Detection of manipulation in doping control urine sample collection: a multidisciplinary approach to determine identical urine samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manipulation of urine sampling in sports drug testing is considered a violation of anti-doping rules and is consequently sanctioned\\u000a by regulatory authorities. In 2003, three identical urine specimens were provided by three different athletes, and the identity\\u000a of all urine samples was detected and substantiated using numerous analytical strategies including gas chromatography–mass\\u000a spectrometry with steroid and metabolite profiling, gas chromatography–nitrogen\\/phosphorus

Mario Thevis; Hans Geyer; Ute Mareck; Gerd Sigmund; Jürgen Henke; Lotte Henke; Wilhelm Schänzer

2007-01-01

258

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FOOD PREPARATION SURFACE WIPE SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.17)  

EPA Science Inventory

This SOP describes the method for collection of the food preparation surface wipe samples for the measurement of persistent organic pollutants (POP). This method uses a wipe to collect POP residues from a surface where a study participant prepares food the most often (i.e., kitch...

259

Metabolic breath analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument measures metabolic breathing rate and dynamics of human beings in atmospheres ranging from normal air to 100 percent oxygen at ambient pressures from 14.7 to 3.0 psia. Measurements are made at rest or performing tasks up to maximum physical capacity under either zero or normal gravity.

Perry, C. L.

1971-01-01

260

Shortness of Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... be caused by many things, including the following: Asthma Other lung diseases, including emphysema (say: "em-fa-see-ma"), which is a lung disease that is most often caused by smoking Heart failure Panic attacks If you are short of breath ...

261

Firefighter's Breathing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System, based on open-loop demand-type compressed air concept, is lighter and less bulky than former systems, yet still provides thirty minutes of air supply. Comfort, visibility, donning time, and breathing resistance have been improved. Apparatus is simple to recharge and maintain and is comparable in cost to previously available systems.

Mclaughlan, P. B.; Giorgini, E. A.; Sullivan, J. L.; Simmonds, M. R.; Beck, E. J.

1976-01-01

262

Donât Breathe the Moondust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA site describes how an Apollo caught "lunar dust hay feverâ and how breathing lunar dust poses a serious health risk. The site contains several images of lunar dust. In addition, the even more serious hazard of dust on Mars is presented.

2008-04-25

263

The effect of a paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT) intervention on the profile of volatile organic compounds in human breath: a pilot study.  

PubMed

This study sought to identify if detectable changes in human breath profiles may be observed following a psychological intervention designed to induce stress, a paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT). Breath samples were collected from 22 participants (10 male and 12 female) following a double cross-over randomized design with two experimental interventions. One intervention required participants to listen to classical music chosen to be neutral. The other intervention required participants to undertake a PASAT that induced cardiovascular responses consistent with acute stress. Both interventions also involved two sequences of cognitive function tests. Blood-pressure and heart-rate were recorded throughout each intervention and distal breath samples were collected onto Tenax® TA/Carbograph 1 thermal desorption tubes, using an adaptive breath sampler. Samples were collected before and after the PASAT. Breath samples were analysed by thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data registration using retention indexing and peak deconvolution followed by partial least-squares discriminant analysis identified six stress sensitive compounds. A principal components analysis model based on these components generated a model that predicted post-PASAT versus post-neutral intervention samples with a sensitivity of 83.3% and a selectivity of 91.6% for females, compared to 100% sensitivity and 90% selectivity for males. Of the six compounds indole, 2-hydroxy-1-phenylethanone, benzaldehyde, and 2-ethylhexan-1-ol were identified on the basis of mass spectral, retention indexing and confirmation against pure standards. 2-methylpentadecane was tentatively identified from mass spectral and retention indexing, whilst one component has yet to be assigned, although the mass spectrum is indicative of a terpene. Indole and 2-methylpentadecane concentrations increased in response to the PASAT intervention, while the other compounds reduced in their abundance in human breath, possibly as a result of ventilation effects. PMID:23445666

Turner, M A; Bandelow, S; Edwards, L; Patel, P; Martin, H J; Wilson, I D; Thomas, C L P

2013-03-01

264

Collection of Aerosolized Human Cytokines Using Teflon(R) Filters  

PubMed Central

Background Collection of exhaled breath samples for the analysis of inflammatory biomarkers is an important area of research aimed at improving our ability to diagnose, treat and understand the mechanisms of chronic pulmonary disease. Current collection methods based on condensation of water vapor from exhaled breath yield biomarker levels at or near the detection limits of immunoassays contributing to problems with reproducibility and validity of biomarker measurements. In this study, we compare the collection efficiency of two aerosol-to-liquid sampling devices to a filter-based collection method for recovery of dilute laboratory generated aerosols of human cytokines so as to identify potential alternatives to exhaled breath condensate collection. Methodology/Principal Findings Two aerosol-to-liquid sampling devices, the SKC® Biosampler and Omni 3000™, as well as Teflon® filters were used to collect aerosols of human cytokines generated using a HEART nebulizer and single-pass aerosol chamber setup in order to compare the collection efficiencies of these sampling methods. Additionally, methods for the use of Teflon® filters to collect and measure cytokines recovered from aerosols were developed and evaluated through use of a high-sensitivity multiplex immunoassay. Our results show successful collection of cytokines from pg/m3 aerosol concentrations using Teflon® filters and measurement of cytokine levels in the sub-picogram/mL concentration range using a multiplex immunoassay with sampling times less than 30 minutes. Significant degradation of cytokines was observed due to storage of cytokines in concentrated filter extract solutions as compared to storage of dry filters. Conclusions Use of filter collection methods resulted in significantly higher efficiency of collection than the two aerosol-to-liquid samplers evaluated in our study. The results of this study provide the foundation for a potential new technique to evaluate biomarkers of inflammation in exhaled breath samples. PMID:22574123

McKenzie, Jennifer H.; McDevitt, James J.; Fabian, M. Patricia; Hwang, Grace M.; Milton, Donald K.

2012-01-01

265

Variation in aluminum, iron, and particle concentrations in oxic ground-water samples collected by use of tangential-flow ultrafiltration with low-flow sampling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Particulates that move with ground water and those that are artificially mobilized during well purging could be incorporated into water samples during collection and could cause trace-element concentrations to vary in unfiltered samples, and possibly in filtered samples (typically 0.45-um (micron) pore size) as well, depending on the particle-size fractions present. Therefore, measured concentrations may not be representative of those in the aquifer. Ground water may contain particles of various sizes and shapes that are broadly classified as colloids, which do not settle from water, and particulates, which do. In order to investigate variations in trace-element concentrations in ground-water samples as a function of particle concentrations and particle-size fractions, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, collected samples from five wells completed in the unconfined, oxic Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system of the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Samples were collected by purging with a portable pump at low flow (0.2-0.5 liters per minute and minimal drawdown, ideally less than 0.5 foot). Unfiltered samples were collected in the following sequence: (1) within the first few minutes of pumping, (2) after initial turbidity declined and about one to two casing volumes of water had been purged, and (3) after turbidity values had stabilized at less than 1 to 5 Nephelometric Turbidity Units. Filtered samples were split concurrently through (1) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter, (2) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter and a 0.0029-um pore size tangential-flow filter in sequence, and (3), in selected cases, a 0.45-um and a 0.05-um pore size capsule filter in sequence. Filtered samples were collected concurrently with the unfiltered sample that was collected when turbidity values stabilized. Quality-assurance samples consisted of sequential duplicates (about 25 percent) and equipment blanks. Concentrations of particles were determined by light scattering. Variations in concentrations aluminum and iron (1 -74 and 1-199 ug/L (micrograms per liter), respectively), common indicators of the presence of particulate-borne trace elements, were greatest in sample sets from individual wells with the greatest variations in turbidity and particle concentration. Differences in trace-element concentrations in sequentially collected unfiltered samples with variable turbidity were 5 to 10 times as great as those in concurrently collected samples that were passed through various filters. These results indicate that turbidity must be both reduced and stabilized even when low-flow sample-collection techniques are used in order to obtain water samples that do not contain considerable particulate artifacts. Currently (2001) available techniques need to be refined to ensure that the measured trace-element concentrations are representative of those that are mobile in the aquifer water.

Szabo, Z.; Oden, J.H.; Gibs, J.; Rice, D.E.; Ding, Y.

2001-01-01

266

Simultaneous quantification of stevioside and rebaudioside A in different stevia samples collected from the Indian subcontinent  

PubMed Central

Background: A high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed for simultaneous estimation of stevioside and rebaudioside A in Stevia rebaudiana samples collected from different regions of Indian subcontinent. Materials and Methods: The separation was achieved by using acetone: ethyl acetate: water (5:4:1, v/v/v) as the solvent system on precoated silica gel 60 F254 TLC plates. The densitometric quantification of stevia glycosides was carried out at wavelength 360 nm in absorption mode after spraying with anisaldehyde sulphuric acid as detecting reagent. Results: The well resolved peaks for stevioside and rebaudioside A were observed at Rf values 0.31± 0.02 and 0.21± 0.02 respectively. The calibration curves were found linear with a wide range of concentration 100 - 2000 ng spot-1 with good correlation coefficient 0.996 and 0.991 for stevioside and rebaudioside A, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed method was validated as per the ICH (International Conferences on Harmonization) guidelines and found simple, sensitive, economic, reproducible, robust and accurate for quantitative analysis of stevia glycosides, which can be applied for quality control of stevia as well as to check. PMID:23248559

Chester, Karishma; Tamboli, Ennus T.; Singh, Mhaveer; Ahmad, Sayeed

2012-01-01

267

Variation in aluminum, iron, and particle concentrations in oxic groundwater samples collected by use of tangential-flow ultrafiltration with low-flow sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulates that move with ground water and those that are artificially mobilized during well purging could be incorporated into water samples during collection and could cause trace-element concentrations to vary in unfiltered samples, and possibly in filtered samples (typically 0.45-um (micron) pore size) as well, depending on the particle-size fractions present. Therefore, measured concentrations may not be representative of those in the aquifer. Ground water may contain particles of various sizes and shapes that are broadly classified as colloids, which do not settle from water, and particulates, which do. In order to investigate variations in trace-element concentrations in ground-water samples as a function of particle concentrations and particle-size fractions, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, collected samples from five wells completed in the unconfined, oxic Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system of the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Samples were collected by purging with a portable pump at low flow (0.2-0.5 liters per minute and minimal drawdown, ideally less than 0.5 foot). Unfiltered samples were collected in the following sequence: (1) within the first few minutes of pumping, (2) after initial turbidity declined and about one to two casing volumes of water had been purged, and (3) after turbidity values had stabilized at less than 1 to 5 Nephelometric Turbidity Units. Filtered samples were split concurrently through (1) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter, (2) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter and a 0.0029-um pore size tangential-flow filter in sequence, and (3), in selected cases, a 0.45-um and a 0.05-um pore size capsule filter in sequence. Filtered samples were collected concurrently with the unfiltered sample that was collected when turbidity values stabilized. Quality-assurance samples consisted of sequential duplicates (about 25 percent) and equipment blanks. Concentrations of particles were determined by light scattering.

Szabo, Zoltan; Oden, Jeannette H.; Gibs, Jacob; Rice, Donald E.; Ding, Yuan

2002-02-01

268

The legal, social and ethical controversy of the collection and storage of fingerprint profiles and DNA samples in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collection and storage of fingerprint profiles and DNA samples in the field of forensic science for nonviolent crimes is highly controversial. While biometric techniques such as fingerprinting have been used in law enforcement since the early 1900s, DNA presents a more invasive and contentious technique as most sampling is of an intimate nature (e.g. buccal swab). A fingerprint is

Katina Michael

2010-01-01

269

Sampling methods --The Survey 200 is a core CAP LTER legacy data set that was first collected in  

E-print Network

Sampling methods -- The Survey 200 is a core CAP LTER legacy data set that was first collected of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 Background Sampling methods cont. -- Then finer-scale within- urban residential land-use categories were used to define

Hall, Sharon J.

270

Homologue and isomer distribution of dioxins observed in water samples collected from Kahokugata Lagoon and inflowing rivers, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water samples were collected at 17 sites in Kahokugata Water Basin, a closed water basin in central Japan. We determined the concentration of dioxins of the water samples. Linear relationships between toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of dioxin and concentrations of suspended solid (SS) were obtained at sites in Kahokugata Lagoon and in the rivers flowing into the lagoon. Homologue composition

Hitoshi Kakimoto; Hideo Oka; Yoshiaki Miyata; Yumiko Yonezawa; Akiko Niikawa; Hirohisa Kyudo; Ning Tang; Akira Toriba; Ryoichi Kizu; Kazuichi Hayakawa

2006-01-01

271

77 FR 36567 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application and Approval To Manipulate, Examine, Sample...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Approval To Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods AGENCY: U.S. Customs...and Approval to Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods. This request for...and Approval to Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods. OMB Number:...

2012-06-19

272

77 FR 51818 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Application and Approval To Manipulate, Examine, Sample...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Approval To Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods AGENCY: U.S. Customs...and Approval to Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods. This is a proposed...and Approval to Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods. OMB Number:...

2012-08-27

273

Results of chemical and stable isotopic analyses of water samples collected in the Patagonia Mountains, southern Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water samples were collected in the Patagonia Mountains in February, 1997. Most of the samples were collected from portals of abandoned mines, or from stream drainages immediately downstream from abandoned mines. Most of the samples have low pH ( 1000 mg/L). Anion composition of the water samples is dominated by sulfate, while cation compositions range from calcium-dominated to mixed calcium-magnesium or calcium-sodium-dominated waters. Metals such as iron, manganese, copper, zinc, and aluminum contribute a significant portion (>10%) of the cation content to the water samples. Because of the low pH?s, protons contribute up to several percent of the cation character of the waters in some of the samples. The data are presented in tabular and graphical formats, with descriptions of data quality and brief descriptions of results.

Wanty, Richard B.; Shanks, Wayne C., III; Lamothe, Paul; Meier, A.L.; Lichte, Fred; Briggs, Paul H.; Berger, Byron R.

2001-01-01

274

A review of historical data on the radionuclide content of soil samples collected from the Hanford Site and vicinity  

SciTech Connect

The measurement of radioactive materials in soil samples collected from the environs of the Hanford Site has been a routine part of environmental monitoring since 1971. Soil samples have also been collected and analyzed for special-purpose studies. The main objective of this report is to review and summarize the historical record of soil sampling results related to environmental monitoring from the late 1950s through 1987. Other objectives are to publish previously unpublished data and to consolidate results from routine environmental monitoring and special studies into a single document. 51 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs.

Price, K.R.

1988-11-01

275

Clinical forensic sample collection techniques following consensual intercourse in volunteers - Cervical canal brush compared to conventional swabs.  

PubMed

The purpose of the research was to evaluate gynecological evidence collection techniques; the benefit of cervical canal brush sample compared to vaginal fornix and cervical swab samples and the time frame for detecting Y-chromosomal material QiAmp DNA Mini Kit(®) and Quantifiler Y Human Male DNA Quantification Kit(®) in adult volunteers following consensual intercourse. Eighty-four adult female volunteers following consensual intercourse were recruited for the study. By combining all sample collecting techniques, 81.0% of the volunteers were Y-DNA positive. Up to 60 h the conventional swab sampling techniques detected more Y-DNA positive samples when compared to the brush technique. However, after 60 h, the cervical canal brush sample technique showed its benefit by detecting 27.3% (6/22) of Y-DNA positive samples, which were Y-DNA negative in both conventional swab sampling techniques. By combining swab and brush techniques, 75% of the volunteers were still Y-DNA positive in 72-144 post-coital hours. The rate of measurable Y-DNA decreased approximately 3% per hour. Despite reported consensual intercourse, 6.8% (3/44) of volunteers were Y-DNA negative within 48 h. Y-DNA was not detected after 144 post-coital hours (6 days). In conclusion, the brush as a forensic evidence collection method may provide additional biological trace evidence from the cervical canal, although the best biological trace evidence collection can be obtained by combining all three sampling techniques. The time frame for gynecological forensic evidence sample collection should be considered to be at least a week if sexual violence is suspected. PMID:25287800

Joki-Erkkilä, Minna; Tuomisto, Sari; Seppänen, Mervi; Huhtala, Heini; Ahola, Arja; Rainio, Juha; Karhunen, Pekka J

2014-10-01

276

Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposures of firefighters during suppression of structural burns.  

PubMed

Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposures over a working lifetime, in particular about low-level exposures that might serve as initiating events for adverse outcome pathways (AOP) leading to cancer. As part of a larger US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study of dermal exposure protection from safety gear used by the City of Chicago firefighters, we collected pre- and post-fire fighting breath samples and analyzed for single-ring and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as bioindicators of occupational exposure to gas-phase toxicants. Under the assumption that SCBA protects completely against inhalation exposures, any changes in the exhaled profile of combustion products were attributed to dermal exposures from gas and particle penetration through the protective clothing. Two separate rounds of firefighting activity were performed each with 15 firefighters per round. Exhaled breath samples were collected onto adsorbent tubes and analyzed with gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a targeted approach using selective ion monitoring. We found that single ring aromatics and some PAHs were statistically elevated in post-firefighting samples of some individuals, suggesting that fire protective gear may allow for dermal exposures to airborne contaminants. However, in comparison to a previous occupational study of Air Force maintenance personnel where similar compounds were measured, these exposures are much lower suggesting that firefighters' gear is very effective. This study suggests that exhaled breath sampling and analysis for specific targeted compounds is a suitable method for assessing systemic dermal exposure in a simple and non-invasive manner. PMID:25190461

Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Fent, Kenneth W

2014-09-01

277

The cardiac output response and the oxygen cost of increased work of breathing  

E-print Network

OF THE WORK OF BREATHING 17 19 22 27 29 29 32 37 43 45 50 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) APPENDIX B ? INFORMED CONSENT FORM VITA Page 65 70 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Inspiratory threshold loading valve C02 rebreathing tracing showing the Fet...CO2 determination Page 12 18 C02 rebreathing tracing showing the FeqCO2 determination 18 Work of breathing measurement of a single breath at rest . 20 Work of breathing measurement from a twenty second collection period Loaded breathing...

Krause, Kevin Michael

2012-06-07

278

Mapleson's Breathing Systems  

PubMed Central

Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification) are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages. PMID:24249884

Kaul, Tej K; Mittal, Geeta

2013-01-01

279

Screening of Pediatric Sleep-Disordered Breathing  

PubMed Central

Background: Identification of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) using questionnaires is critical from a clinical and research perspective. However, which questions to use and how well such questionnaires perform has thus far been fraught with substantial uncertainty. We aimed at delineating the usefulness of a set of questions for identifying pediatric SDB. Methods: Random prospective sampling of urban 5- to 9-year-old children from the community and enriched for habitual snoring underwent overnight sleep study. Subjective indicators or questions were evaluated to further characterize and discriminate SDB. Results: Of 1,133 subjects, 52.8% were habitual snorers. This sample was analyzed based on a clinical grouping (ie, established apnea-hypopnea index cutoffs). Several statistical steps were performed and indicated that complaints can be ranked according to a severity hierarchy: shake child to breathe, apnea during sleep, struggle breathing when asleep, and breathing concerns while asleep, followed by loudness of snoring and snoring while asleep. With a posteriori cutoff, a predictive score > 2.72 on the severity scale was found (ie, area under the curve, 0.79 ± 0.03; sensitivity, 59.03%; specificity, 82.85%; positive predictive value, 35.4; negative predictive value, 92.7), making this cutoff applicable for confirmatory purposes. Conclusions: As a result, the set of six hierarchically arranged questions will aid the screening of children at high risk for SDB but cannot be used as the sole diagnostic approach. PMID:22677350

Spruyt, Karen

2012-01-01

280

The Air We Breathe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This picture book is designed to introduce children to the Earth's atmosphere and its importance to life on Earth. It also introduces how the addition of new gases (e.g., ozone) contributes to changing the quality of air we breathe. With an understanding of how our atmosphere works, we can begin to understand how our activities may be contributing to some of those changes in air quality.

281

The Baby's First Breath  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page of Hyperphysics, from Georgia State University, uses elasticity to explain why a baby needs help--like a smack on the bottom--to take its first breath and also why people with emphysema have so much difficulty exhaling. Another section explains why capillaries can be extremely thin, whereas large arteries must have strong, thick walls. A third section describes the physics of the aneurysm, a bulge in the walls of a larger artery.

Nave, Rod

2010-01-14

282

952 IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 10, NO. 5, MAY 2010 Collection of Gaseous and Aerosolized Samples  

E-print Network

://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/JSEN.2009.2038071 rity, air pollution monitoring, and medical diagnosis Kool-Aid particles, using deionized (DI) water as the collecting fluidic stream. Increasing the exposed- tential was also demonstrated through measurement of DI water resistance by collecting varying

Jiang, Hongrui

283

Cardiovascular Biomarkers In Exhaled Breath  

PubMed Central

With each breath we exhale, thousands of molecules are expelled in our breath giving individuals a “breath-print” that can tell a lot about them and their state of health. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as the new frontier in medical testing. The end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century have arguably witnessed a revolution in our understanding of the constituents of exhaled breath and the development of the field of breath analysis and testing. Thanks to major breakthroughs in new technologies (infrared, electrochemical, chemiluminescence, and others) and the availability of mass spectrometers, the field of breath analysis has made considerable advances in the 21st century. Several methods are now in clinical use or nearly ready to enter that arena. Breath analysis has the potential to offer relatively inexpensive, rapid, noninvasive methods for detecting and/or monitoring a variety of diseases. Breath analysis also has applications in fields beyond medicine, including environmental monitoring, security and others. This review will focus on exhaled breath as a potential source of biomarkers for medical applications with specific attention to applications (and potential applications) in cardiovascular disease. PMID:22824108

Cikach, Frank S.; Dweik, Raed A.

2014-01-01

284

Analytical results for 544 water samples collected in the Attean Quartz Monzonite in the vicinity of Jackman, Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water samples were collected in the vicinity of Jackman, Maine as a part of the study of the relationship of dissolved constituents in water to the sediments subjacent to the water. Each sample was analyzed for specific conductance, alkalinity, acidity, pH, fluoride, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and silica. Trace elements determined were copper, zinc, molybdenum, lead, iron, manganese, arsenic, cobalt, nickel, and strontium. The longitude and latitude of each sample location and a sample site map are included in the report as well as a table of the analytical results.

Ficklin, W.H.; Nowlan, G.A.; Preston, D.J.

1983-01-01

285

MACRO- MICRO-PURGE SOIL GAS SAMPLING METHODS FOR THE COLLECTION OF CONTAMINANT VAPORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Purging influence on soil gas concentrations for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as affected by sampling tube inner diameter and sampling depth (i.e., dead-space purge volume), was evaluated at different field sites. A macro-purge sampling system consisted of a standard hollo...

286

76 FR 24862 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Protocol for Access to Tissue Specimen Samples...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Protocol for Access to Tissue Specimen Samples From the National Marine Mammal Tissue...opportunity to request tissue specimen samples from the NMMTB and, (2) to enable the...specimen banking information sheet for every sample submitted to the Bank. Methods of...

2011-05-03

287

Protocols for the analysis of algal samples collected as part of the  

E-print Network

Protocols for Analysis of NAWQA Algae Samples Patrick Center for Environmental Research i TABLE OF CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 P-13-47: Log-in Procedures for USGS NAWQA Program Algal Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 P-13-48: Subsampling Procedures for USGS NAWQA Program Periphyton Samples . . . . . . . . . . 17 P

Charles, Donald

288

Analysis of potential duplicates in barley gene bank collections using re-sampling of microsatellite data.  

PubMed

Redundant duplication among putative Nordic spring barley material held at 12 gene banks worldwide was studied using 35 microsatellite primer pairs covering the entire barley genome. These microsatellite markers revealed an average of 7.1 alleles per locus, and a range of 1 to 17 different alleles per locus. Similarity of accession name was initially used to partition the 174 repatriated accessions into 36 potential duplicate groups, and one group containing 36 apparently unique or unrelated accessions. This partitioning was efficient to produce a distribution of mainly small average genetic distances within potential duplicate groups compared to distances from the group of unique accessions. However, comparisons within potential duplicate groups still contained large genetic distances of the same size as distances between unique accessions indicating classification errors. A bootstrap approach based on re-sampling of both microsatellite markers and alleles within marker loci was used to test for homogeneity within potential duplicate groups. The test was used in each group for sequential elimination of accessions with a significantly large average genetic distance to identify a homogeneous group. Such genetically homogeneous groups of two or more accessions were identified in 22 among the 36 potential duplicate groups studied. Results from the genetic analysis of some potential duplicate groups supported previous conclusions based on passport data through inclusion of the historically most-original accession in the genetically homogeneous group. In other potential duplicate groups the apparently most-original accession according to passport data was not included in the homogeneous set of accessions, indicating that this most-original accession does not have duplicate accessions in the group. During the present study the largest average genetic distance accepted in any homogeneous group was smaller than the smallest distance declared significant in any group, with a threshold average genetic distance of approximately 0.14. The results are discussed with respect to the identification of duplicate accessions within potential duplicate groups, as well as the elimination of genetic off types in such groups. Furthermore, large barley gene bank collections may be screened for potential duplicates with genetic distances below the suggested threshold of 0.14. PMID:12671763

Lund, B; Ortiz, R; Skovgaard, I M; Waugh, R; Andersen, S B

2003-04-01

289

Apparatus for Collection of Fecal Samples from Undisturbed Spiny Mice (Acomys cahirinus) Living in a Complex Social Group  

PubMed Central

Assessment of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites has become a widely used method for monitoring stress responses. Because most small rodents are social animals whose physiologic parameters are affected by social stimuli, individual housing may compromise these data. Nevertheless, housing rodents in families or social groups may be an important limitation to the experimental design. The challenge is to collect samples from individual rodents while avoiding stress-associated effects from the sampling method itself. Here we present an apparatus and protocol allowing routine repeated collection of an individual rodent's fresh fecal samples without noticeable disturbance of any of the study animals; continuous maintenance of studied animals in a familiar environment; group housing; and uninterrupted visual and olfactory communication among group members during sampling. The apparatus consists of 1 central and 4 lateral compartments. The experimental animal was allowed to enter a lateral compartment voluntarily, where it remained for the short (4 h) period necessary for sample collection before rejoining the rest of the group. Evaluations involved Egyptian spiny mice, a social rodent increasingly studied in laboratories. The results confirmed the repeatability of the assessment of baseline levels of glucocorticoid metabolites. Moreover, keeping the animals in our experimental apparatus did not induce any increase in the levels of glucocorticoid metabolites, even when isolation in the compartment was relatively prolonged. We interpret these results as confirmation that our sampling procedure allows repeated individual sampling within a nearly undisturbed social unit. PMID:19383218

Frynta, Daniel; Novakova, Marcela; Kutalova, Hana; Palme, Rupert; Sedlacek, Frantisek

2009-01-01

290

Novel intravenous 13C-methionine breath test as a measure of liver function in children with short bowel syndrome  

PubMed Central

Monitoring hepatic function in children with short bowel syndrome (SBS) and parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) is currently limited to conventional blood testing or liver biopsy. Metabolism of the stable isotope L[1-13C]methionine occurs exclusively in liver mitochondria and can be noninvasively quantified in expired breath samples. We hypothesized that the 13C-methionine breath test (13C-MBT) could be a safe, noninvasive, and valid measure of hepatic mitochondrial function in children with SBS and PNALD. Methods Baseline breath samples were collected in 8 children with SBS before intravenous administration of 2 mg/kg of L[1-13C]methionine. Six paired breath samples were obtained at 20-minute intervals. The 13CO2 enrichment was analyzed using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Results All 8 patients (5 males; mean age, 8.9 months) tolerated the 13C-MBT without adverse events. Two patients underwent serial testing. One patient, tested before and after resolution of cholestasis, demonstrated increased cumulative percentage dose (4.7% to 6.6%) and area under the curve (AUC) (270–303). A second patient with progressive PNALD demonstrated decreased cumulative percentage dose (from 7.8% to 5.9%) and AUC (from 335 to 288). Conclusion The 13C-MBT is a feasible, safe, and potentially clinically relevant measure of hepatic mitochondrial function in children with SBS and PNALD. PMID:19159749

Duro, Debora; Duggan, Christopher; Valim, Clarissa; Bechard, Lori; Fitzgibbons, Shimae; Jaksic, Tom; Yu, Yong-Ming

2011-01-01

291

21 CFR 111.80 - What representative samples must you collect?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...collect? 111.80 Section 111.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING,...

2011-04-01

292

21 CFR 111.80 - What representative samples must you collect?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...collect? 111.80 Section 111.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING,...

2010-04-01

293

21 CFR 111.80 - What representative samples must you collect?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...collect? 111.80 Section 111.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING,...

2012-04-01

294

21 CFR 111.80 - What representative samples must you collect?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...collect? 111.80 Section 111.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING,...

2013-04-01

295

Computational crowd camera : enabling remote-vision via sparse collective plenoptic sampling  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I present a near real-time algorithm for interactively exploring a collectively captured moment without explicit 3D reconstruction. This system favors immediacy and local coherency to global consistency. ...

Arpa, Ayd?n

2013-01-01

296

Development and characterization of an electrostatic particle sampling system for the selective collection of trace explosives.  

PubMed

Detection of trace explosives residues at people and cargo control points has become a key security challenge. A severe obstacle is that all commercial and military high explosives have low to extremely low vapor pressures which make them very hard to detect. With detectable vapors not being present, explosives detection needs to proceed through a series of sequential steps including particle collection, thermal vapor conversion and vapor detection. The present paper describes the design and test of an electrostatic particle precipitator which allows particle residue to be collected from the environment, the collected particle residue to be separated into high- and low-electron affinity fractions and the high-electron-affinity one to be concentrated onto a small-area collector surface for later vaporization. The selectivity of this particle collection and separation process is demonstrated and a full-chain demonstration of a DNT detection experiment is presented (DNT: di-nitro-toluene). PMID:22284515

Beer, Sebastian; Müller, Gerhard; Wöllenstein, Jürgen

2012-01-30

297

Collection, storage, and filtration of in vivo study samples using 96-well filter plates to facilitate automated sample preparation and LC/MS/MS analysis.  

PubMed

The benefits of high-throughput bioanalysis within the pharmaceutical industry are well established. One of the most significant bottlenecks in bioanalysis is transferring in vivo-generated study samples from their collection tubes during sample preparation and extraction. In most cases, the plasma samples must be stored frozen prior to analysis, and the freeze/thaw (F/T) process introduces thrombin clots that are capable of plugging pipets and automated liquid-transfer systems. A new approach to dealing with this problem involves the use of Ansys Captiva 96-well 20-microm polypropylene filter plates to collect, store frozen, and filter plasma samples prior to bioanalysis. The samples are collected from the test subjects, and the corresponding plasma samples are placed directly into the wells of the filter plate. Two Duoseal (patent pending) covers are used to seal the top and bottom of the plate, and the plate is stored at down to -70 degrees C. Prior to sample analysis, the seals are removed and the plate is placed in a 96-well SPE manifold. As the plasma thaws, it passes (by gravity or mild vacuum) through the polypropylene filter into a 96-well collection plate. A multichannel pipet or automated liquid-transfer system is used to transfer sample aliquots without fear of plugging. A significant advantage of this approach is that, unlike other methods, issues related to incomplete pipetting are virtually eliminated. The entire process is rapid since thawing and filtering take place simultaneously, and if a second F/T cycle is required for reanalysis, it is not necessary to refilter the samples (additional clotting was not observed after three F/T cycles). This technique was tested using monkey, rat, and dog plasma and sodium heparin and EDTA anticoagulants. To assess the possibility of nonspecific binding to the polypropylene filter, a variety of drug candidates from diverse drug classes were studied. Validation data generated for two Lilly compounds from distinct classes, before and after filtering, are presented in this paper as practical examples of this technique. While LC/MS/MS is the primary method of bioanalysis in our laboratory, the technique presented in this paper is applicable to other forms of detection as well. PMID:11924985

Berna, M; Murphy, A T; Wilken, B; Ackermann, B

2002-03-01

298

Low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids and related polar compounds in the remote marine rain samples collected from Western Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the western Pacific Ocean cruise of R\\/V Hakuho-Maru (20°N-40°S), fourteen rainwater samples were collected. They were studied by a capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) for the molecular distributions of C2?C10 ?, ?-dicarboxylic acids and related polar compounds, i.e. ketoacids (C2?C9) and ?-dicarbonyls (C2?C3). Samples were also analysed for dissolved (DOC) and total organic carbon (TOC). Total

Richard Sempéré; Kimitaka Kawamura

1996-01-01

299

Analyses of Gas, Steam and Water Samples Collected in and Around Lassen Volcanic National Park, California, 1975-2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains physical and chemical data from gas, steam, and water samples collected between July 1975 and September 2002 from locations in and around Lassen Volcanic National Park, California. Data are compiled as tables in Excel spreadsheets and are organized by locale. Most data are keyed to 1 of 107 site codes that are shown on local- and regional-scale maps. Brief descriptions of terminology, sampling, and analytical methods are provided.

Janik, Cathy J.; Bergfeld, Deborah

2010-01-01

300

A Review of Metal Concentrations Measured in Surface Soil Samples Collected on and Around the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The data used in this report was collected by two separate projects. The Surface Environmental Surveillance Project collected routine samples in 2008 at 41 locations on and around the Hanford Site, and had them analyzed for metals in addition to the normal radiological constituents. In 2004 and 2005, soil samples were collected at 117 locations on the Hanford Reach National Monument (HRNM) in support of the radiological release of that property. In 2008, archived HRNM soil samples were analyzed for metals to supplement the radiological analyses. Concentration results for 30 individual metals were generated by the analytical methods. Selenium and antimony were not measured at detectable concentrations in most of the samples. Mercury was detected in about half of the samples analyzed. All other constituents were measured at detectable concentrations in nearly all samples analyzed. The average concentrations measured in this study were well below the soil cleanup levels for unrestricted land use established by the Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA). In addition to the average concentration being less than the benchmark, the 90th percentile concentration was also lower than the benchmark for the metals included in the MTCA. The results indicate that the measured concentrations of metals in surface soil were within the expected natural range of concentrations.

Fritz, Brad G.

2009-07-27

301

Analysis of Biodiesel Blends Samples Collected in the United States in 2008 (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

NREL sampled and tested the quality of U.S. B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% petroleum diesel) in 2008; 32 samples from retail locations and fleets were tested against a proposed ASTM D7467 B6-B20 specification, now in effect.

Alleman, T. L.; Fouts, L.; McCormick, R. L.

2010-12-01

302

EFFECTS OF SAMPLING NOZZLES ON THE PARTICLE COLLECTION CHARACTERISTICS OF INERTIAL SIZING DEVICES  

EPA Science Inventory

In several particle-sizing samplers, the sample extraction nozzle is necessarily closely coupled to the first inertial sizing stage. Devices of this type include small sampling cyclones, right angle impactor precollectors for in-stack impactors, and the first impaction stage of s...

303

Illuminating the NARS data entry black box: what happens between sample collection and data availability for use in assessments?  

EPA Science Inventory

The steps between field collection of data and samples and availability of the resulting data from National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) can appear to be a black box. This presentation is intended to shed some light on that process. The pathway for data depends on their source...

304

Low genotyping error rates in non-invasively collected samples from roe deer of the Bavarian Forest National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic wildlife monitoring is increasingly carried out on the basis of non-invasively collected samples, whereby the most commonly used DNA sources are skin appendages (hairs, feathers) and faeces. In order to guide decisions regarding future adequate ways to monitor the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) population of the Bavarian Forest National Park in Germany, we tested these two different types of

Joerns Fickel; Oleg A. Bubliy; Julia Brand; Kathrin Mayer; Marco Heurich

305

EVALUATING COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DERMAL WIPES, COTTON SUITES, AND ALTERNATIVE URINARY COLLECTION MATERIALS FOR PESTICIDE SAMPLING FROM INFANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

As the Human Exposure Program focuses on the exposure of children to pesticides, there are concerns about the effect, or perceived effect, of components of the sampling procedure on the health and well-being of the infant and the ability to collect pesticide residues. One...

306

Macroinvertebrate and algal community sample collection methods and data collected at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 2000-07  

USGS Publications Warehouse

State and local agencies are concerned about the effects of increasing urban development and human population growth on water quality and the biological condition of regional streams in the Eagle River watershed. In response to these needs, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a study in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, Colorado Springs Utilities, Denver Water, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. As part of this study, previously collected macroinvertebrate and algal data from the Eagle River watershed were compiled. This report includes macroinvertebrate data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and(or) the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service from 73 sites from 2000 to 2007 and algal data collected from up to 26 sites between 2000 and 2001 in the Eagle River watershed. Additionally, a brief description of the sample collection methods and data processing procedures are presented.

Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.

2010-01-01

307

Measurement of Ethanol in Gaseous Breath Using a Miniature Gas Chromatograph  

PubMed Central

We designed and built a novel, miniature gas chromatograph (mGC) to use exhaled breath to estimate blood ethanol concentrations that may offer GC quality sensitivity and specificity, but with portability, reduced size, and decreased cost. We hypothesized that the mGC would accurately estimate the serum ethanol concentration using exhaled breath. Human subjects (n = 8) were dosed with ethanol employing the Widmark criteria, targeting a blood concentration of 0.08 g/dL. Serum and breath samples were collected concurrently over an hour. Ethanol concentrations in serum were measured using a CLIA-approved laboratory. Ethanol concentrations in conventional breath were assayed using a calibrated mGC or Intoxilyzer 400PA. Data were analyzed using Bland-Altman analysis using serum concentrations as a “gold standard”. For the mGC, the regression line (correlation coefficient), bias, and 95% limits of agreement were y = 1.013x ? 0.009 (r = 0.91), ?0.008 g/dL, and ?0.031 to 0.016 g/dL, respectively, for 30 specimens. For the Intoxilyzer 400PA, the regression line (correlation coefficient), bias, and 95% limits of agreement were y = 0.599x + 0.008 (r = 0.86), ?0.024 g/dL, and ?0.049 to 0.002 g/dL, respectively, for 71 specimens with a large magnitude effect. We concluded that the mGC, using exhaled breath, performed well to estimate the serum ethanol concentrations. PMID:21439148

Morey, Timothy E.; Booth, Matthew M.; Prather, Robert A.; Nixon, Sara J.; Boissoneault, Jeff; Melker, Richard J.; Goldberger, Bruce A.; Wohltjen, Hank; Dennis, Donn M.

2011-01-01

308

Disposable diaper to collect urine samples from young children for pyrethroid pesticide studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposable diapers are widely used in the US and many other areas in the world; therefore, they are ideal media for urine collection for measurement of young children's exposure to pesticides. However, disposable diapers normally contain polyacrylate polymers that make the extraction and analysis of urine very difficult. The objectives of this paper were to evaluate whether disposable diapers that

Ye Hu; James Beach; James Raymer; Micheal Gardner

2004-01-01

309

CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 01: RECRUITMENT SURVEY FOR DAY CARE CENTER SAMPLE SUBJECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This data collection form is used to identify eligible preschool children who attend day care during the day and recruit them into the study. The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Pollutant (CTEPP) study was one of the largest aggregate ex...

310

CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 01_RDD: RECRUITMENT SURVEY FOR HOME SAMPLE SUBJECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This data collection form is used to identify eligible preschool children who stay home during the day with their primary adult care giver and recruit them into the study. The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Pollutant (CTEPP) study was o...

311

The cross-sectional GRAS sample: A comprehensive phenotypical data collection of schizophrenic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is the collective term for an exclusively clinically diagnosed, heterogeneous group of mental disorders with still obscure biological roots. Based on the assumption that valuable information about relevant genetic and environmental disease mechanisms can be obtained by association studies on patient cohorts of ? 1000 patients, if performed on detailed clinical datasets and quantifiable biological readouts, we generated

Katja Ribbe; Heidi Friedrichs; Martin Begemann; Sabrina Grube; Sergi Papiol; Anne Kästner; Martin F Gerchen; Verena Ackermann; Asieh Tarami; Annika Treitz; Marlene Flögel; Lothar Adler; Josef B Aldenhoff; Marianne Becker-Emner; Thomas Becker; Adelheid Czernik; Matthias Dose; Here Folkerts; Roland Freese; Rolf Günther; Sabine Herpertz; Dirk Hesse; Gunther Kruse; Heinrich Kunze; Michael Franz; Frank Löhrer; Wolfgang Maier; Andreas Mielke; Rüdiger Müller-Isberner; Cornelia Oestereich; Frank-Gerald Pajonk; Thomas Pollmächer; Udo Schneider; Hans-Joachim Schwarz; Birgit Kröner-Herwig; Ursula Havemann-Reinecke; Jens Frahm; Walter Stühmer; Peter Falkai; Nils Brose; Klaus-Armin Nave; Hannelore Ehrenreich

2010-01-01

312

Time between Collection and Storage Significantly Influences Bacterial Sequence Composition in Sputum Samples from Cystic Fibrosis Respiratory Infections  

PubMed Central

Spontaneously expectorated sputum is traditionally used as the sampling method for the investigation of lower airway infections. While guidelines exist for the handling of these samples for culture-based diagnostic microbiology, there is no comparable consensus on their handling prior to culture-independent analysis. The increasing incorporation of culture-independent approaches in diagnostic microbiology means that it is of critical importance to assess potential biases. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of delayed freezing on culture-independent microbiological analyses and to identify acceptable parameters for sample handling. Sputum samples from eight adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients were collected and aliquoted into sterile Bijou bottles. Aliquots were stored at room temperature before being frozen at ?80°C for increasing intervals, up to a 72-h period. Samples were treated with propidium monoazide to distinguish live from dead cells prior to DNA extraction, and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was used to characterize their bacterial compositions. Substantial variation was observed in samples with high-diversity bacterial communities over time, whereas little variation was observed in low-diversity communities dominated by recognized CF pathogens, regardless of time to freezing. Partitioning into common and rare species demonstrated that the rare species drove changes in similarity. The percentage abundance of anaerobes over the study significantly decreased after 12 h at room temperature (P = 0.008). Failure to stabilize samples at ?80°C within 12 h of collection results in significant changes in the detected community composition. PMID:24920767

Cuthbertson, Leah; Rogers, Geraint B.; Walker, Alan W.; Oliver, Anna; Hafiz, Tarana; Hoffman, Lucas R.; Carroll, Mary P.; Parkhill, Julian; Bruce, Kenneth D.

2014-01-01

313

Sampling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial covers some of the key terms in sampling like "population" and "sampling frame," some of the statistical terms used in sampling, and the major distinction between probability and Nonprobability sampling methods.

William Trochim (Cornell University)

2006-10-20

314

9 CFR 147.12 - Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...samples. 147.12 Section 147.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...the center of the fold, applying the staple at a right angle to the twine and parallel to the...

2010-01-01

315

9 CFR 147.12 - Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples...  

...samples. 147.12 Section 147.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...the center of the fold, applying the staple at a right angle to the twine and parallel to the...

2014-01-01

316

9 CFR 147.12 - Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...samples. 147.12 Section 147.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...the center of the fold, applying the staple at a right angle to the twine and parallel to the...

2012-01-01

317

9 CFR 147.12 - Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...samples. 147.12 Section 147.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...the center of the fold, applying the staple at a right angle to the twine and parallel to the...

2013-01-01

318

9 CFR 147.12 - Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...samples. 147.12 Section 147.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...the center of the fold, applying the staple at a right angle to the twine and parallel to the...

2011-01-01

319

Effects of sampling nozzles on the particle-collection characteristics of inertial sizing devices. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In several particle-sizing samplers, the sample extraction nozzle is necessarily closely coupled to the first inertial sizing stage. Devices of this type include small sampling cyclones, right-angle impactor precollectors for in-stack impactors, and the first impaction stage of several cascade impactors. In a recent laboratory study of a stack-sampling cyclone with various sampling nozzles, significant perturbations were observed in the actual D50 when some of the nozzles were used. Some nozzles caused the D50 of the cyclone to be reduced from 10 micrometers to less than 6 micrometers. Several alternate nozzle designs were considered to alleviate this behavior. Simple extension of the nozzle length was sufficient to restore the 10-micrometers sampler D50, but at the expense of enhanced deposition of the test-aerosol particles on the nozzle walls.

Williamson, A.D.; Farthing, W.E.; Ward, T.E.; Midgett, M.R.

1987-05-01

320

Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-C-109: Results from samples collected on 8/10/94  

SciTech Connect

This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from the Hanford waste Tank 241-C-109 (referred to as Tank C-109). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and to analyze inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The sample job was designated S4053, and samples were collected by WHC on August 10, 1994, using the vapor sampling system (VSS). Sampling devices, including six sorbent trains (for inorganic analyses) and five SUMMA{sup {trademark}} canisters (for organic analyses) were supplied to the WHC sampling staff on August 8. Samples were taken (by WHC) from the tank headspace on August 10 and were returned to PNL from the field on August 12. The samples were inspected upon delivery to the 326/23B laboratory and logged into PNL record book 55408 before implementation of PNL Technical Procedure PNL-TVP-07. Custody of the sorbent traps was transferred to PNL personnel performing the inorganic analysis and stored at refrigerated ({<=}10{degrees}C) temperature until the time of analysis. The canister was stored in the 326/23B laboratory at ambient (25{degrees}C) temperature until time of analysis. Access to the 326/23B laboratory is limited to PNL personnel working on the waste-tank safety program. Analyses described in this report were performed at PNL in the 300 area of the Hanford Reservation. Analytical methods that were used are described in the text. In summary, sorbent traps for inorganic analyses containing sample materials were either weighed (for water analysis) or desorbed with the appropriate aqueous solutions (for ammonia (NH{sub 3}) or nitrite (NO{sub 2}) analyses). The aqueous extracts were analyzed either by selective electrode or by ion chromatography (IC). Organic analyses were performed using cryogenic preconcentration followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).

Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W. [and others

1995-06-01

321

Effect of blood sample handling post-collection on Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae antibody titres.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine the effect of blood sample mishandling on the performance of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies against Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. Eleven sample maltreatments (storage at -10 degrees C, storage at 4 degrees C, heat treatment of clotted blood, haemolysis, repetitive freeze-thaw cycling, and substitution of plasma in place of serum) were simulated in a laboratory environment and then run concurrently against a gold standard sample (storage at -80 degrees C). The mishandling treatment groups that simulated high levels of haemolysis had significantly lower optical density (OD) readings when compared to the gold standard. However, the magnitude of the effects was relatively small and only samples with OD values close to the cut-off changed state from positive to negative. Heat treatment had a minor, but non-significant, effect on OD values. Findings from this study suggested that immunoglobulin G antibody was stable in the face of most common sample mishandling events. PMID:18783968

Neumann, Eric J; Bonistalli, Kathryn N

2009-06-01

322

Recovery of a fish pathogenic bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, from ebonyshell mussels Fusconaia ebena using nondestructive sample collection procedures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Refugia are increasingly being used to maintain and propagate imperiled freshwater mussels for future population augmentations. Success for this endeavor is dependent on good husbandry, including a holistic program of resource health management. A significant aspect to optimal health is the prevention or control of infectious diseases. Describing and monitoring pathogens and diseases in mussels involves examination of tissues or samples collected from an appropriate number of individuals that satisfies a certain confidence level for expected prevalences of infections. In the present study, ebonyshell mussels Fusconaia ebena were infected with a fish pathogenic bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, through their cohabitation with diseased brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis. At a 100% prevalence of infection, the F. ebena were removed from the cohabitation tank to clean tanks that were supplied with pathogen-free water, which initiated their depuration of A. salmonicida. Three samples (nondestructive fluid, mantle, hemolymph) collected using nondestructive procedures were compared with fluids and soft tissue homogenates collected after sacrificing the mussels for recovery of the bacterium during this period of depuration. Nondestructive sample collections, especially ND fluid, provide a comparable alternative to sacrificing mussels to determine pathogen status.

Starliper, C.E.

2008-01-01

323

Clinical applications of breath testing  

PubMed Central

Breath testing has the potential to benefit the medical field as a cost-effective, non-invasive diagnostic tool for diseases of the lung and beyond. With growing evidence of clinical worth, standardization of methods, and new sensor and detection technologies the stage is set for breath testing to gain considerable attention and wider application in upcoming years. PMID:21173863

Paschke, Kelly M; Mashir, Alquam

2010-01-01

324

Patient's breath controls comfort devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Patient assist system for totally disabled persons was developed which permits a person, so paralyzed as to be unable to move, to activate by breathing, a call system to summon assistance, turn the page of a book, ajust his bed, or do any one of a number of other things. System consists of patient assist control and breath actuated switch.

Schrader, M.; Carpenter, B.; Nichols, C. D.

1972-01-01

325

Determination of trace gases in learjet and U-2 whole air samples collected during the intertropical convergence zone experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The contribution of Washington State University (WSU) to the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) study, conducted in the Panama Canal Zone in July 1977 is reported. The ITCZ program had the objective to study the meteorology and air chemistry to determine, if possible, the magnitude of injection of tropospheric air into the stratosphere in the ITCZ. WSU was responsible for two phases of the air chemistry program for the ITCZ study: (1) the collection of whole-air samples from ground level to 13.7 km using a Learjet as a sampling platform, and the analysis of the samples for selected halocarbons, C2 hydrocarbons, N2O, and SF6; and (2) the analysis for selected halocarbon species and N2O of low pressure whole-air samples, collected between 13.7 km and 21.3 km by a U-2 aircraft. The report is divided into separate sections describing the Learjet and the U-2 sampling methods, analytical methods, and results. Complete data tables for all samples analyzed are given.

Cronn, D. R.; Robinson, E.

1979-01-01

326

Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-C-101: Results from samples collected on 9/1/94  

SciTech Connect

This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from the Hanford waste Tank 241-C-101 (referred to as Tank C-101) and the ambient air collected - 30 ft upwind near the tank and through the VSS near the tank. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and to analyze inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The sample job was designated S4056, and samples were collected by WHC on September 1, 1994, using the vapor sampling system (VSS). The samples were inspected upon delivery to the 326/23B laboratory and logged into PNL record book 55408 before implementation of PNL Technical Procedure PNL-TVP-07. Custody of the sorbent traps was transferred to PNL personnel performing the inorganic analysis and stored at refrigerated ({le} 10{degrees}C) temperature until the time of analysis. The canisters were stored in the 326/23B laboratory at ambient (25{degrees}C) temperature until the time of the analysis. Access to the 326/23B laboratory is limited to PNL personnel working on the waste-tank safety program. Analyses described in this report were performed at PNL in the 300 area of the Hanford Reservation. Analytical methods that were used are described in the text. In summary, sorbent traps for inorganic analyses containing sample materials were either weighed (for water analysis) or desorbed with the appropriate aqueous solutions (for NH{sub 3}, NO{sub 2}, and NO analyses). The aqueous extracts were analyzed either by selective electrode or by ion chromatography (IC). Organic analyses were performed using cryogenic preconcentration followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).

Lucke, R.B.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W. [and others

1995-11-01

327

Tank 241-SX-106 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-01

328

Quantitative x-ray diffraction phase analysis of coarse airborne particulate collected by cascade impactor sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineralogical composition of Castellon (Spanish Mediterranean coast) atmospheric aerosol was studied by X-ray diffraction by sampling with a cascade impactor without filters. Quantitative phase analysis of natural phases present in the atmospheric coarse aerosol was performed using a modified version of the computer program MENGE, that uses the standardless X-ray method developed by Rius for the quantitative analysis of multiphase

L. E. Ochando; J. M. Amigó

1997-01-01

329

Trace-element analysis in biological fluids: evaluation of contamination in samples collected with metallic needles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study refers to the determination of trace elements in biological fluids, specially copper in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from animals and it assesses the possible contamination of the samples with copper originating from the systems (metallic needles) employed for their extraction from the animals. The results show that there is a significant incorporation of copper originating from the material

A Sánchez Misiego; R. M Garc??a-Moncó Carra; M. P Ambel Carracedo

2003-01-01

330

SOURCES OF VARIABILITY IN COLLECTION AND PREPARATION OF PAINT AND LEAD-COATING SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Chronic exposure of children to lead can result in permanent physiologic impairment. Since surfaces coated with lead-containing paints and varnishes are potential sources of exposure, it is extremely important that reliable methods for sampling and analysis be available. The so...

331

Tank 241-U-107 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-01

332

Survey of trace elements in household and bottled drinking water samples collected in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total dissolved beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) were measured in the drinking water of 101 households and 21 samples of retail bottled waters purchased in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to ascertain the water quality for human consumption. The Inductively

I Al-Saleh; I Al-Doush

1998-01-01

333

Tank 241-T-107 Headspace Gas and Vapor Characterization Results for Samples Collected in January 1995  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-26

334

COLLECTION OF AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER BY POROUS VEGETATION BARRIERS: SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

This manuscript describes work done by A. Reff as part of a collaboration begun 3 years ago at Rutgers University with A. Tiwary who was then at the University of Nottingham. The work describes sampling and characterization methods for investigating the effects of vegetative bar...

335

Escherichia coli in Settled-Dust and Air Samples Collected in Residential Environments in Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli, an important indicator of the presence of fecal material, was isolated from indoor and out- door environments in Mexico City. The heterogeneity of E. coli was represented by 89 serotypes, most of them coming from settled-dust indoor samples; 21% of them presented antibiotic multiresistance. The numbers of plasmids were higher among the antibiotic-resistant strains. The results of this

IRMA ROSAS; EVA SALINAS; ALMA YELA; EDMUNDO CALVA; CARLOS ESLAVA; ALEJANDRO CRAVIOTO

1997-01-01

336

Tank 241-U-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-27

337

SAMPLE COLLECTION AND PREPARATION METHODS AFFECTING MUTAGENICITY AND CYTOTOXICITY OF COAL FLY ASH  

EPA Science Inventory

Reports by several investigators describing the biological activity of coal fly ash have presented a variety of results which in some cases are conflicting. The biological activity of coal fly ash may differ because of one or more of the following factors: (1) the samples studied...

338

Biological sample collections from minors for genetic research: a systematic review of guidelines and position papers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stored tissue samples are an important resource for epidemiological genetic research. Genetic research on biological material from minors can yield valuable information on the development and genesis of early-onset genetic disorders and the early interaction of environmental and genetic factors. The use of such tissue raises some specific ethical and governance questions, which are not completely covered by the discussion

Kristien Hens; Herman Nys; Jean-Jacques Cassiman; Kris Dierickx

2009-01-01

339

Tank 241-C-102 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1994  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Therapy

1995-09-01

340

A fast chemiluminescent method for H 2O 2 measurement in exhaled breath condensate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Breath condensate can give useful information on volatile compounds produced at alveolar level. Actual concentration of H2O2 in breath condensate is dependent on its production at alveolar level and on the efficacy of the detoxifying systems, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, etc. Methods: In the present paper, a simple chemiluminescent method for the determination of the H2O2 collected in exhaled breath

Bruno Zappacosta; Silvia Persichilli; Flaminio Mormile; Angelo Minucci; Andrea Russo; Bruno Giardina; Pasquale De Sole

2001-01-01

341

Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chapter A4 contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to collect, preserve, and analyze water to determine its biological and microbiological properties. Part 1 consists of detailed descriptions of more than 45 individual methods, including those for bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, seston, periphyton, macrophytes, benthic invertebrates, fish and other vertebrates, cellular contents, productivity, and bioassays. Each method is summarized, and the applications, interferences, apparatus, reagents, analyses, calculations, reporting of results, precisions, and references are given. Part 2 consists of a glossary. Part 3 is a list of taxonomic references.

edited by Britton, Linda J.; Greeson, Phillip E.

1989-01-01

342

Elemental Compositions of Comet 81P/Wild 2 Samples Collected by Stardust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We measured the chemical compositions of material from 23 particles in aerogel and residue in 7 craters in aluminum foil, collected during passage of the Stardust spacecraft through the coma of Comet 81P/Wild 2. These particles are chemically heterogeneous at the largest size-scale analyzed, 180 nanograms. The mean chemical composition of this Wild 2 material agrees with the CI meteorite composition for the refractory elements Mg, Si, Cr, Fe, and Ni to 35%, and for Ca and Mn to 50%. The data suggest the moderately volatile elements Cu, Zn, and Ga may be enriched in this Wild 2 material.

Flynn, G. J.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Bradley, J.; Brenker, F.; Brennan, S.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Bullock, E.; Clark, B. C.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Schwandt, C. S.; See, T. H.; Taylor, S.; Tsou, P.

2006-01-01

343

Evidence of endogenous volatile organic compounds as biomarkers of diseases in alveolar breath.  

PubMed

The effect of oxygen on markers of oxidative stress has been partially elucidated. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are created during the oxidative burst and excreted in the human alveolar breath, which indeed contains biomarkers. A general concept including collection, separation, detection and clinical biomakers validation is presented in this article: (i) a method for the collection and GC-MS of halogenated VOCs in human alveolar breath is described: a transportable apparatus which sampled specifically alveolar breath; the VOCs were captured in a thermal desorption tube, Carbotrap 200® and each sample was thermally desorbed from the trap in an automated GC-MS apparatus; (ii) the inhibitory effects of halogenated alkanes on mitochondria are suspected likely to fight against oxidative stress deleterious reactions; (iii) two-dimensional gas chromatography occurs by the repeated and re-injection of effluent from one chromatographic column into a second column of orthogonal phase. A new commercial GCxGC system is presented; it is accomplished with a dual-stage, quad-jet thermal modulator positioned between the two columns; (iv) the affinity-based sensors usually used in connection with the GCxGC system face a difficulty to take into account different biases coming from different sources of drifting. Compared to other affinity-based sensing modes like electrical ones, gravimetric sensors enable a better decoupling. Nano Electro Mechanical Systems (NEMS)-based resonators are a particular type of gravimetric gas sensors. They are coated with a sensitive layer of polymer where gases of interest present in the atmosphere adsorb, generating an additional mass load which is measured through a frequency shift; (v) examination of exhaled breath has the potential to change the existing routine approaches in human medicine. Breath sampling to identify volatile biomarkers in diseases has been proposed in several respiratory diseases. Several VOCs have been identified in these patients by GC-MS. However, the use of traditional analytical instruments such as GC-MS to detect biomarkers of diseases has not become a routine for clinical applications. Consequently the electronic nose was the logical instrument of choice for disease diagnosis due to the capability of identifying complex mixtures of VOCs (as a whole) within sampled air using pattern-recognition algorithms. PMID:23835018

Sarbach, C; Stevens, P; Whiting, J; Puget, P; Humbert, M; Cohen-Kaminsky, S; Postaire, E

2013-07-01

344

COMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR QUARTER 1 SURFACE WATER SPLIT SAMPLES COLLECTED AT THE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICES SITE ERWIN, TENNESSEE  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on August 22, 2012. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses. The comparison of results using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference. A DER ? 3 indicates that, at a 99% confidence interval, split sample results do not differ significantly when compared to their respective one standard deviation (sigma) uncertainty. The NFS split sample report does not specify the confidence level of reported uncertainties. Therefore, standard two sigma reporting is assumed and uncertainty values were divided by 1.96. A comparison of split sample results, using the DER equation, indicates one set with a DER greater than 3. A DER of 3.1 is calculated for gross alpha results from ORAU sample 5198W0003 and NFS sample MCU-310212003. The ORAU result is 0.98 ± 0.30 pCi/L (value ± 2 sigma) compared to the NFS result of -0.08 ± 0.60 pCi/L. Relatively high DER values are not unexpected for low (e.g., background) analyte concentrations analyzed by separate laboratories, as is the case here. It is noted, however, NFS uncertainties are at least twice the ORAU uncertainties, which contributes to the elevated DER value. Differences in ORAU and NFS minimum detectable activities are even more pronounced. comparison of ORAU and NFS split samples produces reasonably consistent results for low (e.g., background) concentrations.

David A. King, CHP, PMP

2012-10-10

345

Evaluation of a Wipe Surface Sample Method for Collection of Bacillus Spores from Nonporous Surfaces?  

PubMed Central

Polyester-rayon blend wipes were evaluated for efficiency of extraction and recovery of powdered Bacillus atrophaeus spores from stainless steel and painted wallboard surfaces. Method limits of detection were also estimated for both surfaces. The observed mean efficiency of polyester-rayon blend wipe recovery from stainless steel was 0.35 with a standard deviation of ±0.12, and for painted wallboard it was 0.29 with a standard deviation of ±0.15. Evaluation of a sonication extraction method for the polyester-rayon blend wipes produced a mean extraction efficiency of 0.93 with a standard deviation of ±0.09. Wipe recovery quantitative limits of detection were estimated at 90 CFU per unit of stainless steel sample area and 105 CFU per unit of painted wallboard sample area. The method recovery efficiency and limits of detection established in this work provide useful guidance for the planning of incident response environmental sampling following the release of a biological agent such as Bacillus anthracis. PMID:17122390

Brown, Gary S.; Betty, Rita G.; Brockmann, John E.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Souza, Caroline A.; Walsh, Kathryn S.; Boucher, Raymond M.; Tezak, Mathew; Wilson, Mollye C.; Rudolph, Todd

2007-01-01

346

Evaluation of surface sampling techniques for collection of Bacillus spores on common drinking water pipe materials.  

PubMed

Drinking water utilities may face biological contamination of the distribution system from a natural incident or deliberate contamination. Determining the extent of contamination or the efficacy of decontamination is a challenge, because it may require sampling of the wetted surfaces of distribution infrastructure. This study evaluated two sampling techniques that utilities might use to sample exhumed pipe sections. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), cement-lined ductile iron, and ductile iron pipe coupons (3 cm x 14 cm) cut from new water main piping were conditioned for three months in dechlorinated Cincinnati, Ohio tap water. Coupons were spiked with Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii, a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis. Brushing and scraping were used to recover the inoculated spores from the coupons. Mean recoveries for all materials ranged from 37 +/- 30% to 43 +/- 20% for brushing vs. 24 +/- 10% to 51 +/- 29% for scraping. On cement-lined pipe, brushing yielded a significantly different recovery than scraping. No differences were seen between brushing and scraping the PVC and iron pipe coupons. Mean brushing and scraping recoveries from PVC coupons were more variable than mean recoveries from cement-lined and iron coupons. Spore retention differed between pipe materials and the presence of established biofilms also had an impact. Conditioned PVC coupons (with established biofilms) had significantly lower spore retention (31 +/- 11%) than conditioned cement-lined coupons (61 +/- 14%) and conditioned iron coupons (71 +/- 8%). PMID:20082033

Packard, Benjamin H; Kupferle, Margaret J

2010-01-01

347

Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-BY-111: Results from samples collected on November 15, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from the Hanford waste Tank 241-BY-111 (referred to as Tank By-111). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and to analyze inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The target analytes for TO- 14 compounds were extended to include 14 analytes identified by the Toxicological Review Panel for Tank C-103 and reported by Mahlum et al. (1994). Program management included these analytes for future tank analyses as identified in the fiscal year work plan. This plan is attached to a letter dated 9/30/94 and addressed to Mr. T.J. Kelly of WHC. The plan also requires PNL to analyze for the permanent gases as shown in Table 3.7. The sample job was designated S4083, and samples wee collected by WHC on November 16, 1994, using the vapor sampling system (VSS). The results of the analyses are expected to be used to estimate the potential toxicity of tank-headspace gas as described in Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Vapor Issue Resolution, WHC-SD-WM-DQO-002, Rev. 0.

Lucke, R.B.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D. [and others

1995-06-01

348

A radiometric and petrographic interpretation of discrepancies on uranium content in samples collected at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).  

PubMed

The main goal of this work is to evaluate a correlation between anomalous Uranium (U) content and petrographic features of some soil and rock samples collected at Alte Madonie Mounts region (North-central Sicily, Italy). A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in "Marinelli" beakers for 20 days before the measurement to ensure that radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi was reached. Gamma-ray spectrometric analysis was used to quantify radioactivity concentrations. Mineralogical and chemical features of the samples were determined by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope - Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM-EDS) analyses. The average values of concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ac and (40)K were respectively 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1) while the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1). Linear relationships were observed between (226)Ra, (228)Ac and (40)K concentrations: the activities of (226)Ra and (228)Ac were comparable, while those of (40)K were about 10 times greater. An exception was highlighted for a group of samples where (226)Ra activities were much higher than expectations. Chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples have made it possible to justify these anomalies. PMID:24389108

Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

2014-03-01

349

Radioactivity measurements in moss (Hypnum cupressiforme) and lichen (Cladonia rangiformis) samples collected from Marmara region of Turkey.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to compare the (137)Cs, (40)K, (232)Th, and (238)U activity concentrations in epigeic moss (Hypnum cupressiforme) and lichen (Cladonia rangiformis). The activity levels in 37 moss and 38 lichen samples collected from the Marmara region of Turkey were measured using a gamma spectrometer equipped with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (40)K, (232)Th, and (238)U in the moss samples were found to be in the range of 0.36-8.13, 17.1-181.1, 1.51-6.17, and 0.87-6.70 Bq kg(-1) respectively, while these values were below detection limit (BDL)-4.32, 16.6-240.0, 1.32-6.47, and BDL-3.57 Bq kg(-1) respectively in lichen. The average moss/lichen activity ratios of (137)Cs, (40)K, (232)Th, and (238)U were found to be 1.32 +/- 0.57, 2.79 +/- 1.67, 2.11 +/- 0.82, and 2.19 +/- 1.02, respectively. Very low (137)Cs concentrations were observed in moss and lichen samples compared to soil samples collected from the same locations in a previous study. Seasonal variations of the measured radionuclide activities were also examined in the three sampling stations. PMID:20659779

Belivermi?, Murat; Cotuk, Yavuz

2010-11-01

350

Meteorites and Microbes: Meteorite Collection and Ice Sampling at Patriot Hills, Thiel Mountains, and South Pole, Antarctica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Antarctica 2000 Expedition, sponsored by the Planetary Studies Foundation, meteorites and ice microbiota were collected from the Patriot Hills, and Thiel Mountains of Antarctica and snow samples were at the South Pole. Psychrophilic and psychrotrophic microbiota were obtained from blue ice, cryoconite and ice-bubble systems. Twenty frozen meteorites were collected using aseptic techniques from the blue ice fields near the Moulton Escarpment of the Thiel Mountains (85 S, 94 W) and from the Morris Moraine of the Patriot Hills (80 S, 81 W) Ellsworth Mountains. These ice and meteorite samples are of potential significance to Astrobiology. They may help refine chemical and morphological biomarkers and refine characteristics of microbial life in one of the harshest environments on Earth. We discuss the Antarctica 2000 Expedition and provide preliminary results of the investigation of the meteorites and ice microbiota recovered.

Sipiera, Paul P.; Hoover, Richard B.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

351

Geochemical data for core and bottom-sediment samples collected in 2007 from Grand Lake O' the Cherokees, northeast Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Grand Lake O' the Cherokees is a large reservoir in northeast Oklahoma, below the confluence of the Neosho and Spring Rivers, both of which drain the Tri-State Mining District to the north. The Tri-State district covers an area of 1,200 mi2 (3,100 km2) and comprises Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits. A result of 120 years of mining activity is an estimated 75 million tons of processed mine tailings (chat) remaining in the district. Concerns of sediment quality and the possibility of human exposure to cadmium and lead through eating fish have led to several studies of the sediments in the Tri-State district. In order to record the transport and deposition of metals from the Tri-State district by the Spring and Neosho Rivers into Grand Lake O' the Cherokees, the U.S. Geological Survey collected 11 sediment cores and 15 bottom-sediment samples in September 2007. Subsamples from five selected cores and the bottom-sediment samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and forms of carbon. The sediment samples collected from the sediment-water interface had larger average concentrations of zinc, cadmium, and lead than local background. The core collected from the Spring River had the largest concentrations of mining-related elements. A core collected just south of Twin Bridges State Park, at the confluence of the Spring and Neosho Rivers, showed a mixing zone with more mining-related elements coming from the Spring River side. The element zinc showed the most definitive patterns in graphs depicting concentration-versus-depth profiles. A core collected from the main body of the reservoir showed affected sediment down to a depth of 85 cm (33 in). This core and two others appear to have penetrated to below mining-affected sediment.

Fey, David L.; Becker, Mark F.; and Smith, Kathleen S.

2010-01-01

352

Breath alcohol, multisensor arrays, and electronic noses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept behind a volatile compound mapper, or electronic nose, is to use the combination of multiple gas sensors and pattern recognition techniques to detect and quantify substances in gas mixtures. There are several different kinds of sensors which have been developed during recent years of which the base techniques are conducting polymers, piezo electrical crystals and solid state devices. In this work we have used a combination of gas sensitive field effect devices and semiconducting metal oxides. The most useful pattern recognition routine was found to be ANNs, which is a mathematical approximation of the human neural network. The aim of this work is to evaluate the possibility of using electronic noses in field instruments to detect drugs, arson residues, explosives etc. As a test application we have chosen breath alcohol measurements. There are several reasons for this. Breath samples are a quite complex mixture contains between 200 and 300 substances at trace levels. The alcohol level is low but still possible to handle. There are needs for replacing large and heavy mobile instruments with smaller devices. Current instrumentation is rather sensitive to interfering substances. The work so far has dealt with sampling, how to introduce ethanol and other substances in the breath, correlation measurements between the electronic nose and headspace GC, and how to evaluate the sensor signals.

Paulsson, Nils; Winquist, Fredrik

1997-01-01

353

Directional photomanipulation of breath figure arrays.  

PubMed

Porous polymeric films are of paramount importance in many areas of modern science and technology. However, processing methods typically based on direct writing, imprint, and lithography techniques have low throughput and are often limited to specific fabricated shapes. Herein, we demonstrate the directional photomanipulation of breath figure arrays (BFAs) formed by an azobenzene-containing block copolymer to address the aforementioned problems. Under the irradiation of linearly polarized light, the round pores in the BFAs were converted to rectangular, rhombic, and parallelogram-shaped pores in 30?min, due to the anisotropic mass migration based on the photo-reconfiguration of the azobenzene units. Through a secondary irradiation after rotating the sample by 90°, the transformed pores were apparently recovered. Therefore, this non-contacted, directional photomanipulation technique in conjunction with breath figure processing opens a new route to nano/microporous films with finely tuned features. PMID:25243818

Wang, Wei; Du, Can; Wang, Xiaofan; He, Xiaohua; Lin, Jiaping; Li, Lei; Lin, Shaoliang

2014-11-01

354

Concentration of particulate plutonium in surface and deep-water samples collected during the IAEA’97 expedition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of particulate plutonium together with dissolved plutonium and the biogenic unique organic ligand (SOL) in particulate matter (PM) in surface and deep waters were determined in samples collected during the IAEA’97 cruise to the Pacific Ocean. Concentrations of particulate 239,240Pu in the water column ranged from 0.04 to 0.28mBqm?3. The percentage of particulate 239,240Pu to total 239,240Pu in seawater

Katsumi Hirose; Michio Aoyama; Pavel P. Povinec

2003-01-01

355

Radioactivity measurements in moss ( Hypnum cupressiforme) and lichen ( Cladonia rangiformis) samples collected from Marmara region of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to compare the 137Cs, 40K, 232Th, and 238U activity concentrations in epigeic moss (Hypnum cupressiforme) and lichen (Cladonia rangiformis). The activity levels in 37 moss and 38 lichen samples collected from the Marmara region of Turkey were measured using a gamma spectrometer equipped with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The activity concentrations of 137Cs,

Murat Belivermi?; Yavuz Çotuk

2010-01-01

356

Disposable diaper to collect urine samples from young children for pyrethroid pesticide studies.  

PubMed

Disposable diapers are widely used in the US and many other areas in the world; therefore, they are ideal media for urine collection for measurement of young children's exposure to pesticides. However, disposable diapers normally contain polyacrylate polymers that make the extraction and analysis of urine very difficult. The objectives of this paper were to evaluate whether disposable diapers that contain polyacrylate granules can be extracted using salt solutions, and whether they can be used for the collection and quantitative measurements of selected urinary pyrethroid pesticide metabolites and creatinine. The storage stability of the metabolites and creatinine in a wet diaper at body temperature and at refrigeration temperature was also evaluated. Salt solutions including calcium chloride dihydrate, magnesium sulfate, ammonium acetate, and sodium chloride solutions were tested for efficiency of polymer shrinkage. Pyrethroid metabolites 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-(1-cyclopropane) carboxylic acid (DCCA), 3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2,dimethyl-(1-cyclopropane) carboxylic acid (DBCA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) were analyzed using LC/MS/MS and evaluated for recoveries in the urine released from the diapers. The study found calcium chloride dihydate to be satisfactory in releasing urine and metabolites from the polymers. The percent recoveries for the three tested pyrethroid metabolites were mostly in the range of 65-130. The percent recoveries for creatinine were in the range of 71-133. The detection limit for each of the three metabolites was 0.1 microg/l. The pyrethroid metabolites and creatinine were stable on the diaper for at least 72 h. We concluded from this study that calcium chloride dihydrate can successfully release urine and metabolites from polyacrylate-containing diapers, and the method is promising for studies of pyrethroid metabolites. PMID:15361896

Hu, Ye; Beach, James; Raymer, James; Gardner, Micheal

2004-09-01

357

Epigenome-wide Association Study of Breast Cancer Using Prospectively Collected Sister Study Samples  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have suggested DNA methylation in blood is a potential epigenetic marker of cancer risk, but this has not been evaluated on a genome-wide scale in prospective studies for breast cancer. Methods We measured DNA methylation at 27578 CpGs in blood samples from 298 women who developed breast cancer 0 to 5 years after enrollment in the Sister Study cohort and compared them with a random sample of 612 cohort women who remained cancer free. We also genotyped women for nine common polymorphisms associated with breast cancer. Results We identified 250 differentially methylated CpGs (dmCpGs) between case subjects and noncase subjects (false discovery rate [FDR] Q < 0.05). Of these dmCpGs, 75.2% were undermethylated in case subjects relative to noncase subjects. Women diagnosed within 1 year of blood draw had small but consistently greater divergence from noncase subjects than did women diagnosed at more than 1 year. Gene set enrichment analysis identified Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes cancer pathways at the recommended FDR of Q less than 0.25. Receiver operating characteristic analysis estimated a prediction accuracy of 65.8% (95% confidence interval = 61.0% to 70.5%) for methylation, compared with 56.0% for the Gail model and 58.8% for genome-wide association study polymorphisms. The prediction accuracy of just five dmCpGs (64.1%) was almost as good as the larger panel and was similar (63.1%) when replicated in a small sample of 81 women with diverse ethnic backgrounds. Conclusions Methylation profiling of blood holds promise for breast cancer detection and risk prediction. PMID:23578854

2013-01-01

358

Sample-based Collection and Adjustment Algorithm of Rules for Metadata Extraction on Business Documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toward facile introduction of metadata-based document management system, we propose an algorithm which uses sample documents and their manually specified metadata as training data, and generates metadata-extraction rules. Our algorithm enumerates candidates of keywords and layout characteristics specific to the metadata on the basis of metadata occurrence in the training data. And then it examines whether each candidate is specific to only one kind of metadata. In an experiment on Japanese business documents and weekly reports, automatically generated rules have achieved metadata extraction as accurate as manually adjusted one.

Matsumoto, Toshiko; Oba, Mitsuharu; Onoyama, Takashi; Akiyoshi, Masanori

359

Field collection of rectal samples for sexually transmitted infection diagnostics among men who have sex with men.  

PubMed

Rectal sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common in men at risk for urethral infections with these pathogens, particularly men who have sex with men (MSM). However, for those individuals not regularly seen by a clinician, screening for rectal STI is not currently a widespread option. Qualitative data and samples (i.e. self-obtained rectal specimens) were collected from 75 MSM in a variety of venues. Upon completion of the rectal self-sampling, each participant completed a brief interview regarding their overall experience with the process. Participants reported an overall high level of acceptability and comfort-level involved with self-sampling for rectal STI. Of the majority of men who agreed to provide a rectal self-sample, all reported that they would provide a sample again in the future. However, many men also appreciated the interaction with a health-care provider that a clinical setting offered. In conclusion, self-sampling is a feasible and acceptable option when offered to MSM in a range of community-based venues. Further research is needed to determine which combinations of STI testing and treatment methods (including self-sampling) are most appropriate for diverse groups of men. PMID:20378897

Dodge, B; Van Der Pol, B; Rosenberger, J G; Reece, M; Roth, A M; Herbenick, D; Fortenberry, J D

2010-04-01

360

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR REIMBURSEMENT FOR FIELD COLLECTION OF FOOD SAMPLES (UA-F-23.1)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to provide a uniform procedure for the financial reimbursement of primary respondents for the collection of diet samples. Respondents were reimbursed for replicate food and beverage samples by type and amount collected over a 24-hour sampling period. ...

361

Quality Sample Collection, Handling, and Preservation for an Effective Microbial Forensics Program.  

SciTech Connect

Science can be part of an effective investigative response to a bioterrorism event or a biocrime by providing capabilities to analyze biological and associated signatures in collected evidence. Microbial forensics, a discipline comprised of several scientific fields, is dedicated to the analysis of evidence from such criminal acts to help determine the responsible party and to exonerate the innocent. A partnership has been formed amount a number of government agencies, academia, and the private sector to better respond and deter potential perpetrators of bioterrorism or biocrimes. This partnership leverages our national scientific and analytical capabilities to support activities of law enforcement agencies. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), whose mission is, in part, to respond to and to prevent acts of terrorism against the United States, has established the national Bioforensics Analysis Center (NBFAC). The NBFAC, in partnership with the FBI, (1) provides a state-of-the-art central laboratory for the analysis of microbial forensic evidence; and (2) serves as a nexus for integrating the national resources to increase the effectiveness of law enforcement in obtaining the highest level of attribution possible in criminal cases where the weapon is a biological agent.

Budowle, Bruce; Schutzer, Steven E.; Burans, James P.; Beecher, Douglas J.; Cebulla, Thomas; Chakraborty, Ranjit; Cobb, William T.; Fletcher, Jacqueline; Hale, Martha L.; Harris, Robert B.; Heitkamp, Michael; Keller, Frederick P.; Kuske, Cheryl; LeClerc, Joseph E.; Marrone, Babetta L.; McKenna, Thomas S.; Morse, Stephen A.; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Yadev, Jagjit

2006-10-01

362

Determination of azole fungicides in atmospheric samples collected in the Canadian prairies by LC/MS/MS.  

PubMed

An LC/MS/MS method has been developed for the determination of azole fungicides in the atmosphere at low pg/m3 concentrations. Detection limits in the range of 0.16 to 1.2 pg/m3 for a weekly air sample were obtained for the 31 fungicides analyzed. This work represents the first detection of propiconazole, prothioconazole-desthio, and trace levels of hexaconazole in gas phase atmospheric samples collected in a Canadian agricultural region. Samples were collected during April-October 2010 at Bratt's Lake, Saskatchewan, in the Canadian prairies where there was known historical use of selected azole fungicides. Atmospheric concentrations were above detection limits only during June-August 2010, with maximum concentrations occurring in July at 77.9 and 37.5 pg/m3 for propiconazole and prothioconazole-desthio, respectively. Gas phase atmospheric concentrations of propiconazole and prothioconazole-desthio increased following a spring and early summer with higher than normal daily precipitation. These azole fungicides showed the largest gas phase concentrations during periods of lower temperature and during sampling events with at least 1 day with no precipitation. The higher atmospheric gas phase concentrations of each azole fungicide were observed on different days, indicating different formulations may be in use in the prairie agricultural region. PMID:23175965

Raina, Renata; Smith, Erika

2012-01-01

363

RAZOR EX Anthrax Air Detection System for detection of Bacillus anthracis spores from aerosol collection samples: collaborative study.  

PubMed

The RAZOR EX Anthrax Air Detection System was validated in a collaborative study for the detection of Bacillus anthracis in aerosol collection buffer. Phosphate-buffered saline was charged with 1 mg/mL standardized dust to simulate an authentic aerosol collection sample. The dust-charged buffer was spiked with either B. anthracis Ames at 2000 spores/mL or Bacillus cereus at 20 000 spores/mL. Twelve collaborators participated in the study, with four collaborators at each of three sites. Each collaborator tested 12 replicates of B. anthracis in dust-charged buffer and 12 replicates of B. cereus in dust-charged buffer. All samples sets were randomized and blind-coded. All collaborators produced valid data sets (no collaborators displayed systematic errors) and there was only one invalid data point. After unblinding, the analysis revealed a cross-collaborator probability of detection (CPOD) of 1.00 (144 positive results from 144 replicates, 95% confidence interval 0.975-1.00) for the B. anthracis samples and a CPOD of 0.00 (0 positive results from 143 replicates, 95% confidence interval 0.00-0.0262) for the B. cereus samples. These data meet the requirements of AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement 2010.003, developed by the Stakeholder Panel on Agent Detection Assays. PMID:23767365

Hadfield, Ted; Ryan, Valorie; Spaulding, Usha K; Clemens, Kristine M; Ota, Irene M; Brunelle, Sharon L

2013-01-01

364

Parent-rated behavior problems associated with overweight before and after controlling for sleep disordered breathing  

PubMed Central

Background Researchers and clinicians are seeking to develop efficacious behavioral interventions to treat overweight children; however, few studies have documented the behavioral correlates of overweight children in community samples. The goal of this study was to determine the nature and prevalence of behavior problems for overweight school-aged children versus normal weight peers before and after controlling for the effect of sleep disordered breathing. Methods Hispanic and Caucasian children were invited to participate in a study of sleep through public elementary school classrooms. Anthropometric evaluation and behavioral ratings were collected for 402 children aged 6–11 years. Overweight was calculated using the Centers for Disease Control age- and gender-specific guidelines. Children were classified as overweight if they were at or above the 95th percentile for their age and gender group. Behavior problems were measured using the Conners' Parent Rating Scales-Revised and the Child Behavior Checklist. Sleep disordered breathing was assessed using in-home overnight polysomnography. Results Approximately 15% (59/402) of the sample was classified as overweight. Simple odds ratios indicated that overweight children were more likely to have clinically relevant levels of internalizing symptoms (OR 2.23, CI 1.05–4.72), psychosomatic complaints (OR 2.15, CI 1.02–4.54), withdrawal (OR 4.69, CI 2.05–10.73), and social problems (3.18, 1.53–6.60). When odds ratios were adjusted for level of sleep disordered breathing, withdrawal (OR 3.83 CI 1.59–9.22) and social problems (OR 2.49 CI 1.14–5.44) remained significantly higher for overweight subjects. Conclusion After controlling for the effect of sleep disordered breathing, behaviors such as withdrawal and social problems, are common in overweight children and need to be taken into account in the design of interventions and services as they may act to moderate the efficacy of behavioral treatments. PMID:17169161

Mulvaney, Shelagh A; Kaemingk, Kristine L; Goodwin, James L; Quan, Stuart F

2006-01-01

365

Total potential source contribution function analysis of trace elements determined in aerosol samples collected near Lake Huron.  

PubMed

Aerosol samples were collected at the rural Burnt Island Ontario Integrated Air Deposition Network air sampling station on the northern shore of Lake Huron from 1992 through 1994. The samples were analyzed for trace elements by neutron activation analysis, and the air concentrations of over 30 elements were determined. Total potential source contribution function analysis (TPSCF) was used to determine the most probable geographical location of these aerosols' origin. The TPSCF results for As, In, Sb, Se, Sn, and Zn are highlighted in this paper. Source regions for these elements ranged from Alma, Quebec, Canada to Carrollton, GA. Because of large seasonal variations in the concentrations of the atmospheric concentrations of these elements, TPSCFvalues were calculated for the summer and winter halves of the year as well as the entire year. PMID:15382853

Biegalski, S R; Hopke, P K

2004-08-15

366

Virtual Blowgun System for Breathing Movement Exercise  

E-print Network

of life and the body works less effectively by causing blocked nose, insomnia, snoring, sleep apnea, panic@esys.tsukuba.ac.jp Abstract. Breathing is the most basic requirement for having good health. However, unhealthy breathing like Introduction Breathing is the most basic requirement for having good health. However, unhealthy breathing like

Boyer, Edmond

367

EDITORIAL: Bad breath and exhaled breath analysis---common fields with common denominators Bad breath and exhaled breath analysis---common fields with common denominators  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 20th century, bad breath and analysis of breath for medical diagnosis evolved as two separate fields. Papers on bad breath were published almost exclusively in dental journals, whereas papers on exhaled breath analysis were more commonly found in medical and chemical analysis journals. When Daniel van Steenberghe and Mel Rosenberg first discussed setting up an international society for

Mel Rosenberg; Anton Amann

2008-01-01

368

Analysis of human breath with micro extraction techniques and continuous monitoring of carbon dioxide concentration.  

PubMed

The detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human breath can be useful for the clinical routine diagnosis of several diseases in a non-invasive manner. Traditional methods of breath analysis have some major technical problems and limitations. Membrane extraction with a sorbent interface (MESI), however, has many advantages over current methods, including good selectivity and sensitivity, and is well suited for breath analysis. The aim of this project was to develop a simple and reproducible sampling device and method based on the MESI system for breath analysis. The feasibility and validity of the MESI system was tested with real human breath samples. Internal standard calibration methods were used for the quantitative analysis of various breath samples. Calibration curves for some main components (target analytes such as acetone and pentane) were determined in the research. The optimized stripping-side and feeding-side gas velocities were determined. The use of breath CO2 as an internal standard for the analysis of breath VOCs is an effective method to solve the difficulties associated with variations in the target analyte concentrations in a sample, which are attributed to mass losses and different breathing patterns of different subjects. In this study, the concentration of breath acetone was successfully expressed normalized to CO2 as in the alveolar air. Breath acetone of healthy males and females profiled at different times of the day was plotted using the MESI system, and results were consistent with the literature. This technique can be used for monitoring breath acetone concentrations of diabetic patients and for applications with other biomarker monitoring. PMID:16847622

Ma, Wei; Liu, Xinyu; Pawliszyn, Janusz

2006-08-01

369

Spectroscopic monitoring of NO traces in plants and human breath: applications and perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical methods based on quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are becoming popular in many life science applications. We report on two trace gas detection schemes based on continuous wave QCLs for on-line detection of nitric oxide (NO) at the sub-part-per-billion level by volume (ppbv, 1:10-9), using wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) and Faraday rotation spectroscopy (FRS) at 1894 cm-1 and 1875.73 cm-1, respectively. Several technical incremental steps are discussed to further improve the sensitivity of these methods. Examples are included to demonstrate the merits of WMS-based sensor: direct monitoring of NO concentrations in exhaled breath, and from plants under pathogen attack. A simple hand-held breath sampling device that allows single breath collection at various exhalation flows (15, 50, 100 and 300 mL/s, respectively) is developed for off-line measurements and validated in combination with the WMS-based sensor. Additionally, the capability of plants to remove environmental NO is presented.

Cristescu, S. M.; Marchenko, D.; Mandon, J.; Hebelstrup, K.; Griffith, G. W.; Mur, L. A. J.; Harren, F. J. M.

2013-02-01

370

Profiling of Volatile Organic Compounds in Exhaled Breath As a Strategy to Find Early Predictive Signatures of Asthma in Children  

PubMed Central

Wheezing is one of the most common respiratory symptoms in preschool children under six years old. Currently, no tests are available that predict at early stage who will develop asthma and who will be a transient wheezer. Diagnostic tests of asthma are reliable in adults but the same tests are difficult to use in children, because they are invasive and require active cooperation of the patient. A non-invasive alternative is needed for children. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) excreted in breath could yield such non-invasive and patient-friendly diagnostic. The aim of this study was to identify VOCs in the breath of preschool children (inclusion at age 2–4 years) that indicate preclinical asthma. For that purpose we analyzed the total array of exhaled VOCs with Gas Chromatography time of flight Mass Spectrometry of 252 children between 2 and 6 years of age. Breath samples were collected at multiple time points of each child. Each breath-o-gram contained between 300 and 500 VOCs; in total 3256 different compounds were identified across all samples. Using two multivariate methods, Random Forests and dissimilarity Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis, we were able to select a set of 17 VOCs which discriminated preschool asthmatic children from transient wheezing children. The correct prediction rate was equal to 80% in an independent test set. These VOCs are related to oxidative stress caused by inflammation in the lungs and consequently lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, we showed that VOCs in the exhaled breath predict the subsequent development of asthma which might guide early treatment. PMID:24752575

Smolinska, Agnieszka; Klaassen, Ester M. M.; Dallinga, Jan W.; van de Kant, Kim D. G.; Jobsis, Quirijn; Moonen, Edwin J. C.; van Schayck, Onno C. P.; Dompeling, Edward; van Schooten, Frederik J.

2014-01-01

371

The effects of dosed tobacco in evidentiary breath testing using non-drinking subjects.  

PubMed

A total of seventeen subjects were administered breath tests with alcohol dosed tobacco to see if there was an interference with the evidentiary breath testing. Fourteen subjects provided one set of two breath samples without the dosed tobacco followed by a set of two breath samples with the dosed tobacco. The other three subjects provided one breath sample without the dosed tobacco and then one breath sample with the dosed tobacco within the same testing sequence. Eight subjects had breath test readings of 0.00g/210L with the dosed tobacco. Mouth alcohol was detected with the dosed tobacco in six of the subjects, and a reading of 0.01g/210L, 0.04g/210L, and 0.05g/210L were found in five of the subjects. If the officer follows the directive of checking the mouth for a foreign substance and following a 15-20min observation/deprivation period, a false positive result will likely be avoided. If the officer does not find tobacco when checking the mouth for a foreign substance, and dosed tobacco is present during the breath test, most likely there would not be a measurable amount of alcohol to report or there would be a mouth alcohol reading from the sample. PMID:22841137

DeChano, Wayne D

2012-09-01

372

A Model to Predict the Breathing Zone Concentrations of Particles Emitted from Surfaces  

EPA Science Inventory

Activity based sampling (ABS) is typically performed to assess inhalation exposure to particulate contaminants known to have low, heterogeneous concentrations on a surface. Activity based sampling determines the contaminant concentration in a person's breathing zone as they perfo...

373

Chemical analysis of exhaled human breath using a terahertz spectroscopic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As many as 3500 chemicals are reported in exhaled human breath. Many of these chemicals are linked to certain health conditions and environmental exposures. This experiment demonstrated a method of breath analysis utilizing a high resolution spectroscopic technique for the detection of ethanol, methanol, and acetone in the exhaled breath of a person who consumed alcohol. This technique is applicable to a wide range of polar molecules. For select species, unambiguous detection in a part per trillion dilution range with a total sample size in a femtomol range is feasible. It compares favorably with other methods of breath analysis.

Fosnight, Alyssa M.; Moran, Benjamin L.; Medvedev, Ivan R.

2013-09-01

374

Low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids and related polar compounds in the remote marine rain samples collected from Western Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the western Pacific Ocean cruise of R/V Hakuho-Maru (20°N-40°S), fourteen rainwater samples were collected. They were studied by a capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the molecular distributions of C 2?C 10 ?, ?-dicarboxylic acids and related polar compounds, i.e. ketoacids (C 2?C 9) and ?-dicarbonyls (C 2?C 3). Samples were also analysed for dissolved (DOC) and total organic carbon (TOC). Total diacid concentration range was 36-959 ?g l-1 and accounted for 3% (av.) of TOC (1.2-2.5 mgC l-1), which is much higher than the previous numbers found in Tokyo rain samples (av. 1 %). This indicates that low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids are an important class of organic compounds in the marine rains. All the samples showed that the smallest diacid (oxalic acid) which comprised 50% of the total diacids was the most abundant followed by malonic (C 3) or succinic acid (C 4). The shorter chain diacids (C 2?C 4) accounted for 63-90% (av. 80%) of total diacids and their relative abundances increase from the Northern to the Southern Hemisphere. These results suggest that shorter chain diacids are in part produced in the marine atmosphere by photochemical oxidation of organic matter through the intermediates such as ketoacids and dicarbonyls. The major portion of diacids and their precursors is probably derived from the Asian and Australian continents by a long-range transport.

Sempéré, Richard; Kawamura, Kimitaka

375

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR FIELD COLLECTION OF YARD COMPOSITE SOIL SAMPLES (UA-F-5.1)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to establish a uniform procedure for the collection of yard composite soil samples in the field. This procedure was followed to ensure consistent and reliable collection of outdoor soil samples during the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border" study. ...

376

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR FIELD COLLECTION OF RESIDENTIAL FOUNDATION SOIL SAMPLES (UA-F-6.1)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to establish a uniform procedure for the collection of residential foundation soil samples in the field. This procedure was followed to ensure consistent and reliable collection of outdoor soil samples during the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border"...

377

Seasonal changes of fulvic acid, Ca and Mg concentrations of water samples collected above and in the Béke Cave of the Aggtelek karst system (Hungary)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium and Ca concentration ratios, fulvic acid content, total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and pH were determined in seepage water and drip water samples collected during one seasonal cycle between June 2000 and May 2001 above and in the Béke Cave of Aggtelek (Hungary). Seepage water samples were collected at 0.5 and 7 m below ground level from an observation

Enikö Tatár; Victor G. Mihucz; László Zámbó; Tibor Gasparics; Gyula Záray

2004-01-01

378

Nasal contribution to exhaled nitric oxide during exhalation against resistance or during breath holding  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The concentration of nitric oxide (NO) is increased in the exhaled air of patients with inflammation of the airways, suggesting that this may be a useful measurement to monitor inflammation in diseases such as asthma. However, there have been concerns that exhaled NO may be contaminated by the high concentrations of NO derived from the upper airways, and that this may account for differences in reported values of exhaled NO using different techniques. A study was performed, with argon as a tracer, to determine the extent of nasal contamination of exhaled NO using different expiratory manoeuvres. METHODS: Exhaled and nasal NO were measured by a chemiluminescence analyser. Argon (4.8%) was delivered continuously to the nose. Gas was sampled from the posterior oropharynx and argon and carbon dioxide were measured by mass spectrometry at the same time as NO. RESULTS: During a single expiration against a low resistance and during breath holding there was no evidence for nasal contamination, whereas during exhalation without resistance argon concentration in the oropharynx was increased from 0.91% (95% CI 0.84% to 0.98%) in ambient air to 1.28% (0.9% to 2.24%, p < 0.0001) during a single breath or 2.37% (2.29% to 2.51%, p < 0.0001) during tidal breathing. CONCLUSIONS: Collection of exhaled NO in a reservoir during tidal breathing is likely to be contaminated by NO derived from the nose and this may underestimate any increases in NO derived from the lower respiratory tract in inflammatory diseases. However, with slow expiration against a resistance and created back pressure to close the soft palate, there is no contamination of exhaled air which then reflects concentrations of NO in the lower airways. ??? PMID:9227721

Kharitonov, S. A.; Barnes, P. J.

1997-01-01

379

Breathing pattern in chronic quadriplegia.  

PubMed

The resting breathing pattern in 14 chronic C6 and C7 traumatic quadriplegics was compared with six age-matched healthy controls. All quadriplegics had complete motor loss below the lesion level and were at least two years postinjury. Tests were performed with subjects seated. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1.0), inspiratory capacity (IC), and maximum inspiratory mouth pressure (Pimax) were measured. Resting breathing pattern was assessed for 20 minutes using mercury in rubber strain gauges and a computer-assisted data acquisition and analysis program. Inspiratory time (Ti), expiratory time (Te), and tidal volume (Vt) were measured, and the remaining timing components were calculated from these values. The variability of breathing was assessed by comparing the coefficients of variation of each variable. The FVC, IC, and Pimax were significantly reduced; Vt was significantly lower (p less than 0.01) and frequency significantly elevated (p less than 0.05) in quadriplegics. The decreased Vt in quadriplegics was due entirely to a significantly decreased mean inspiratory flow (p less than 0.01); Ti was the same in quadriplegics as in controls. The ratio of mean Ti to total cycle time (Ti/Ttot) was significantly longer in quadriplegics (p less than 0.005). There was no difference in variability of breathing between the two groups for any timing component of ventilation. There was no significant difference in sighing frequency between groups for either breaths greater than 2x mean Vt or breaths greater than 3x mean Vt. Chronic quadriplegics demonstrated a rapid, shallow breathing pattern, probably due to the mechanical restrictions resulting from paralysis of the thorax musculature. They retained the ability to sigh, suggesting that chest wall afferents may not be required in this process. PMID:2350219

Loveridge, B M; Dubo, H I

1990-06-01

380

Fukushima radionuclides at air filter and rain water samples collected from Istanbul and their atmospheric removal time.  

PubMed

Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) is one of the most serious accident in the world after Chernobyl accident. Following the continuing release of radionuclides in air after FDNPP, traces of fission products ((131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs) were recorded in the air filter and rain water samples collected from the ÇNAEM area at ?stanbul on 4 April 2011. Airborne particle samples were collected daily in air filters and radio assayed with a high purity germanium detector. The fission products (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were measured with the maximum activity concentrations of 1.03±0.08, 0.25±0.03 and 0.23±0.03 mBq m(-3), respectively. For determination of the origin of the releases the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio was calculated between 1.09 and 0.85. The authors find removal times for (137)Cs of 8.13 d, (134)Cs of 7.25 d and (131)I of 6.82 d. PMID:23962699

Güngör, E; Güngör, N; Yüksel, A; Ba?, G; Orhan, N

2014-01-01

381

Development of a monitoring network for the analysis of elements in aerosol samples collected at Lake Balaton.  

PubMed

Determination of different toxic elements in aerosol and precipitation samples collected at Lake Balaton were carried out. A simple sequential leaching procedure was applied for the determination of the distribution of elements. The distribution of elements was determined among environmentally mobile, bound to carbonates and oxides, and bound to silicates and organic matters (environmentally immobile) fractions. Particular attention was paid to distinguish between environmentally mobile and environmentally immobile fractions because these represent the two extreme modes by which the metals are bound to the solid matrices. Aerosol samples were weekly collected in Tihany, Siófok and Keszthely on 5 cm diameter Teflon filters with a membrane pump. While Cd-compounds have been found enormously in the environmentally mobile fractions, As-compounds accumulated almost evenly among portions. The results of sequential leaching give an indication of the mobility of the elements once the aerosol is mixed directly into natural waters on during scavenging of the aerosol by wet deposition. Based upon the data it can be concluded that the effect of anthropogenic sources is minor in this area. PMID:10574432

Hlavay, J; Polyák, K; Molnár, A; Mészáros, E

1999-01-01

382

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-104: Results from samples collected on July 25, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-104 (Tank SX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5049. Samples were collected by WHC on July 25, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

Thomas, B.L.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1996-05-01

383

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-T-110: Results from samples collected on August 31, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-T-110 (Tank T-110) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5056. Samples were collected by WHC on August 31, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

McVeety, B.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1996-05-01

384

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-105: Results from samples collected on July 26, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-105 (Tank SX-105) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5047. Samples were collected by WHC on July 26, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1996-05-01

385

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-109: Results from samples collected on August 1, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-109 (Tank SX-109) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5048. Samples were collected by WHC on August 1, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1996-05-01

386

The US Navy/Canadian DCIEM research initiative on pressure breathing physiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of improved positive pressure breathing garments for altitude and acceleration protection has occurred without collection of sufficient physiological data to understand the mechanisms of the improvement. Furthermore, modeling of the predicted response of future enhanced garments is greatly hampered by this lack of information. A joint, international effort is under way between Canada's Defense and Civil Institute for Environmental Medicine (DCIEM) and the US Navy's Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Warminster (NAWCACDIVWAR). Using a Canadian subject pool, experiments at both the DCIEM altitude facility and the NAWCADIVWAR Dynamic Flight Simulator have been conducted to determine the cardiovascular and respiratory consequences of high levels of positive pressure breathing for altitude and positive pressure breathing for acceleration protection. Various improved pressure breathing garments were used to collect comparative physiological and performance data. New pressure breathing level and durahon capabilities have been encountered. Further studies will address further improvements in pressure suit design and correlation of altitude and acceleration data.

Whitley, Phillip E.

1994-01-01

387

A Study of the Effects of Breath Management Instruction on the Breathing Mode, Knowledge of Breathing, and Performance Skills of College-Level Brass Players.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effectiveness of breathing instruction on the breath management, performance, and knowledge of breathing among college-level brass musicians. Finds that breathing instruction significantly improved the breath management and knowledge of the breathing for the experimental groups and the musical range of the trombone players in the…

Phillips, Kenneth H.; Sehmann, Karin Harfst

1990-01-01

388

Characterizing the size distribution of particles in urban stormwater by use of fixed-point sample-collection methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) and in collaboration with the Root River Municipal Stormwater Permit Group monitored eight urban source areas representing six types of source areas in or near Madison, Wis. in an effort to improve characterization of particle-size distributions in urban stormwater by use of fixed-point sample collection methods. The types of source areas were parking lot, feeder street, collector street, arterial street, rooftop, and mixed use. This information can then be used by environmental managers and engineers when selecting the most appropriate control devices for the removal of solids from urban stormwater. Mixed-use and parking-lot study areas had the lowest median particle sizes (42 and 54 (u or mu)m, respectively), followed by the collector street study area (70 (u or mu)m). Both arterial street and institutional roof study areas had similar median particle sizes of approximately 95 (u or mu)m. Finally, the feeder street study area showed the largest median particle size of nearly 200 (u or mu)m. Median particle sizes measured as part of this study were somewhat comparable to those reported in previous studies from similar source areas. The majority of particle mass in four out of six source areas was silt and clay particles that are less than 32 (u or mu)m in size. Distributions of particles ranging from 500 (u or mu)m were highly variable both within and between source areas. Results of this study suggest substantial variability in data can inhibit the development of a single particle-size distribution that is representative of stormwater runoff generated from a single source area or land use. Continued development of improved sample collection methods, such as the depth-integrated sample arm, may reduce variability in particle-size distributions by mitigating the effect of sediment bias inherent with a fixed-point sampler.

Selbig, William R.; Bannerman, Roger T.

2011-01-01

389

Engineering task plan for determining breathing rates in singleshell tanks using tracer gas  

SciTech Connect

The testing of single shell tanks to determine breathing rates. Inert tracer gases helium, and sulfur hexafluoride will be injected into the tanks AX-103, BY-105, C-107 and U-103. Periodic samples will be taken over a three month interval to determine actual headspace breathing rates.

Andersen, J.A.

1997-04-02

390

Mathematical and statistical approaches for interpreting biomarker compounds in exhaled human breath  

EPA Science Inventory

The various instrumental techniques, human studies, and diagnostic tests that produce data from samples of exhaled breath have one thing in common: they all need to be put into a context wherein a posed question can actually be answered. Exhaled breath contains numerous compoun...

391

Changes in sample collection and analytical techniques and effects on retrospective comparability of low-level concentrations of trace elements in ground water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water sampling techniques were modified to reduce random low-level contamination during collection of filtered water samples for determination of trace-element concentrations. The modified sampling techniques were first used in New Jersey by the US Geological Survey in 1994 along with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis to determine the concentrations of 18 trace elements at the one microgram-per-liter (??g/L) level in the oxic water of the unconfined sand and gravel Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system. The revised technique tested included a combination of the following: collection of samples (1) with flow rates of about 2L per minute, (2) through acid-washed single-use disposable tubing and (3) a single-use disposable 0.45-??m pore size capsule filter, (4) contained within portable glove boxes, (5) in a dedicated clean sampling van, (6) only after turbidity stabilized at values less than 2 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU), when possible. Quality-assurance data, obtained from equipment blanks and split samples, indicated that trace element concentrations, with the exception of iron, chromium, aluminum, and zinc, measured in the samples collected in 1994 were not subject to random contamination at 1??g/L.Results from samples collected in 1994 were compared to those from samples collected in 1991 from the same 12 PVC-cased observation wells using the available sampling and analytical techniques at that time. Concentrations of copper, lead, manganese and zinc were statistically significantly lower in samples collected in 1994 than in 1991. Sampling techniques used in 1994 likely provided trace-element data that represented concentrations in the aquifer with less bias than data from 1991 when samples were collected without the same degree of attention to sample handling. Copyright ?? 2001 .

Ivahnenko, T.; Szabo, Z.; Gibs, J.

2001-01-01

392

Variation in isotopologues of atmospheric nitric acid in passively collected samples along an air pollution gradient in southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sources and oxidation pathways of atmospheric nitric acid (HNO3) can be evaluated using the isotopic signatures of oxygen (O) and nitrogen (N). This study evaluated the ability of Nylasorb nylon filters to passively collect unbiased isotopologues of atmospheric HNO3 under controlled and field conditions. Filters contained in passive samplers were exposed in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) at high (16 ?g/m3) and moderate (8 ?g/m3) HNO3 concentrations during 1-4 week deployment times. Filters were concurrently exposed at high and low N deposition sites along a gradient in the Sonoran Desert. Filters deployed in CSTRs at moderate HNO3 concentrations for 1-2 weeks had greater variation of ?18O relative to the 3-4 week deployments, while high concentration samples were consistent across weeks. All deployment means were within 2‰ of the source solution. The ?15N of all weekly samples were within 0.5‰ of the source solution. Thus, when deployed for longer than 3 weeks, Nylasorb filters collected an isotopically unbiased sample of atmospheric HNO3. The initial HNO3 samples at the high deposition field sites had higher ?15N and ?18O values than the low deposition sites, suggesting either two independent sources of HNO3 were mixing or that heavier isotopologues of HNO3 were preferentially lost from the gas phase through physical deposition or equilibrium chemical reactions. Subsequent HNO3 samples were subject to summer monsoon conditions leading to variation of isotopic signatures of N and O following 2-source mixing dynamics. Both sites mixed with a source that dominated during the two discrete precipitation events. The high number of lightning strikes near the samplers during the monsoon events suggested that lightning-created HNO3 was one of the dominant mixing sources with an approximate isotopic signature of 21.6‰ and -0.6‰ for ?18O and ?15N respectively. Two-source mixing models suggest that lightning-created HNO3 made up between 40 and 42% of atmospheric HNO3 at the high deposition sites and 59-63% at the low deposition during the 4 week exposure.

Bell, Michael D.; Sickman, James O.; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Padgett, Pamela E.; Allen, Edith B.

2014-09-01

393

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-BY-108: Results from samples collected January 23, 1996. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) with and without particulate prefiltration. Samples were collected from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for water, ammonia, permanent gases, total nonmethane hydrocarbons (TNMHCs, also known as TO-12), and organic analytes in samples collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs) from the tank headspace. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sampling and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Sampling and Analysis Plan for Tank Vapor Sampling Comparison Test{close_quotes}, and the sample jobs were designated S6004, S6005, and S6006. Samples were collected by WHC on January 23, 1996, using the VSS, a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe; and the ISVS with and without particulate prefiltration.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B. [and others

1996-07-01

394

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-102: Results from samples collected on January 26, 1996. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) with and without particulate prefiltration. Samples were collected from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for water, ammonia, permanent gases, total nonmethane hydrocarbons (TNMHCs, also known as TO-12), and organic analytes in samples collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs) from the tank headspace. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sampling and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Sampling and Analysis Plan for Tank Vapor Sampling Comparison Test{close_quote}, and the sample jobs were designated S6007, S6008, and S6009. Samples were collected by WHC on January 26, 1996, using the VSS, a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe; and the ISVS with and without particulate prefiltration.

Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H. [and others

1996-07-01

395

Results for the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank, Off Gas Condensate Tank, And Recycle Collection Tank Samples  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF, currently generates approximately 1.4 million gallons of recycle water per year during Sludge-Only operations. DWPF has minimized condensate generation to 1.4 million gallons by not operating the Steam Atomized Scrubbers, SASs, for the melter off gas system. By not operating the SASs, DWPF has reduced the total volume by approximately 800,000 gallons of condensate per year. Currently, the recycle stream is sent to back to the Tank Farm and processed through the 2H Evaporator system. To alleviate the load on the 2H Evaporator system, an acid evaporator design is being considered as an alternate processing and/or concentration method for the DWPF recycle stream. In order to support this alternate processing option, the DWPF has requested that the chemical and radionuclide compositions of the Off Gas Condensate Tank, OGCT, Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank, SMECT, Recycle Collection Tank, RCT, and the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank, DWTT, be determined as a part of the process development work for the acid evaporator design. Samples have been retrieved from the OGCT, RCT, and SMECT and have been sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory, SRNL for this characterization. The DWTT samples have been recently shipped to SRNL. The results for the DWTT samples will be issued at later date.

TERRI, FELLINGER

2004-12-21

396

Sampling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage contains three activities that have students work through problems associated with sampling. Each activity includes a brief description, materials list, and a set of lesson worksheets. The last activity on the page, the "Cereal Toy Investigation" also includes an online simulator in the form of a Java applet.

Kawas, Terry

2012-01-01

397

Dynamic approach to DNA breathing.  

PubMed

Even under physiological conditions, the DNA double-helix spontaneously denatures locally, opening up fluctuating, flexible, single-stranded zones called DNA-bubbles. We present a dynamical description of this DNA-bubble breathing in terms of a Fokker-Planck equation for the bubble size, based on the Poland-Scheraga free energy for DNA denaturation. From this description, we can obtain basic quantities such as the lifetime, an important measure for the description of the interaction of a breathing DNA molecule and selectively single-stranded DNA binding proteins. Our approach is consistent with recent single molecule measurements of bubble fluctuation. We also introduce a master equation approach to model DNA breathing, and discuss its differences from the continuous Fokker-Planck description. PMID:23345902

Metzler, Ralf; Ambjörnsson, Tobias

2005-12-01

398

Collection and characterization of samples for establishment of a serum repository for lyme disease diagnostic test development and evaluation.  

PubMed

Serological assays and a two-tiered test algorithm are recommended for laboratory confirmation of Lyme disease. In the United States, the sensitivity of two-tiered testing using commercially available serology-based assays is dependent on the stage of infection and ranges from 30% in the early localized disease stage to near 100% in late-stage disease. Other variables, including subjectivity in reading Western blots, compliance with two-tiered recommendations, use of different first- and second-tier test combinations, and use of different test samples, all contribute to variation in two-tiered test performance. The availability and use of sample sets from well-characterized Lyme disease patients and controls are needed to better assess the performance of existing tests and for development of improved assays. To address this need, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health prospectively collected sera from patients at all stages of Lyme disease, as well as healthy donors and patients with look-alike diseases. Patients and healthy controls were recruited using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Samples from all included patients were retrospectively characterized by two-tiered testing. The results from two-tiered testing corroborated the need for novel and improved diagnostics, particularly for laboratory diagnosis of earlier stages of infection. Furthermore, the two-tiered results provide a baseline with samples from well-characterized patients that can be used in comparing the sensitivity and specificity of novel diagnostics. Panels of sera and accompanying clinical and laboratory testing results are now available to Lyme disease serological test users and researchers developing novel tests. PMID:25122862

Molins, Claudia R; Sexton, Christopher; Young, John W; Ashton, Laura V; Pappert, Ryan; Beard, Charles B; Schriefer, Martin E

2014-10-01

399

Standardizing operational vector sampling techniques for measuring malaria transmission intensity: evaluation of six mosquito collection methods in western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Operational vector sampling methods lack standardization, making quantitative comparisons of malaria transmission across different settings difficult. Human landing catch (HLC) is considered the research gold standard for measuring human-mosquito contact, but is unsuitable for large-scale sampling. This study assessed mosquito catch rates of CDC light trap (CDC-LT), Ifakara tent trap (ITT), window exit trap (WET), pot resting trap (PRT), and box resting trap (BRT) relative to HLC in western Kenya to 1) identify appropriate methods for operational sampling in this region, and 2) contribute to a larger, overarching project comparing standardized evaluations of vector trapping methods across multiple countries. Methods Mosquitoes were collected from June to July 2009 in four districts: Rarieda, Kisumu West, Nyando, and Rachuonyo. In each district, all trapping methods were rotated 10 times through three houses in a 3?×?3 Latin Square design. Anophelines were identified by morphology and females classified as fed or non-fed. Anopheles gambiae s.l. were further identified as Anopheles gambiae s.s. or Anopheles arabiensis by PCR. Relative catch rates were estimated by negative binomial regression. Results When data were pooled across all four districts, catch rates (relative to HLC indoor) for An. gambiae s.l (95.6% An. arabiensis, 4.4% An. gambiae s.s) were high for HLC outdoor (RR?=?1.01), CDC-LT (RR?=?1.18), and ITT (RR?=?1.39); moderate for WET (RR?=?0.52) and PRT outdoor (RR?=?0.32); and low for all remaining types of resting traps (PRT indoor, BRT indoor, and BRT outdoor; RR?sampling in western Kenya. Ultimately, choice of collection method for operational surveillance should be driven by trap efficacy and scalability, rather than fine-scale precision with respect to HLC. When compared with recent, similar trap evaluations in Tanzania and Zambia, these data suggest that traps which actively lure host-seeking females will be most useful for surveillance in the face of declining vector densities. PMID:23631641

2013-01-01

400

Data file, Continental Margin Program, Atlantic Coast of the United States: vol. 2 sample collection and analytical data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of the data file presented below is twofold: the first purpose is to make available in printed form the basic data relating to the samples collected as part of the joint U.S. Geological Survey - Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution program of study of the Atlantic continental margin of the United States; the second purpose is to maintain these data in a form that is easily retrievable by modern computer methods. With the data in such form, repeate manual transcription for statistical or similar mathematical treatment becomes unnecessary. Manual plotting of information or derivatives from the information may also be eliminated. Not only is handling of data by the computer considerably faster than manual techniques, but a fruitful source of errors, transcription mistakes, is eliminated.

Hathaway, John C.

1971-01-01

401

SAMPLING EFFORT AND COLLECTION METHODS 323 ASTM (1995) in standard D 4823 describes many other types of core samplers. The most  

E-print Network

SAMPLING EFFORT AND COLLECTION METHODS 323 ASTM (1995) in standard D 4823 describes many other retain the sample in the corer (Figure 5.73). The leaves separate and fold against the inside walls, holding the sample in the corer. Plastic liners are also commonly used inside the sampler, simplifying

Pitt, Robert E.

402

The Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus (Scorpiones, Buthidae): component variations in venom samples collected in different geographical areas  

PubMed Central

Backgound The venom of the Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus is poorly study from the point of view of their components at molecular level and the functions associated. The purpose of this article was to conduct a proteomic analysis of venom components from scorpions collected in different geographical areas of the country. Results Venom from the blue scorpion, as it is called, was collected separately from specimens of five distinct Cuban towns (Moa, La Poa, Limonar, El Chote and Farallones) of the Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa mountain massif and fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); the molecular masses of each fraction were ascertained by mass spectrometry analysis. At least 153 different molecular mass components were identified among the five samples analyzed. Molecular masses varied from 466 to 19755 Da. Scorpion HPLC profiles differed among these different geographical locations and the predominant molecular masses of their components. The most evident differences are in the relative concentration of the venom components. The most abundant components presented molecular weights around 4 kDa, known to be K+-channel specific peptides, and 7 kDa, known to be Na+-channel specific peptides, but with small molecular weight differences. Approximately 30 peptides found in venom samples from the different geographical areas are identical, supporting the idea that they all probably belong to the same species, with some interpopulational variations. Differences were also found in the presence of phospholipase, found in venoms from the Poa area (molecular weights on the order of 14 to 19 kDa). The only ubiquitous enzyme identified in the venoms from all five localities studied (hyaluronidase) presented the same 45 kD molecular mass, identified by gel electrophoresis analysis. Conclusions The venom of these scorpions from different geographical areas seem to be similar, and are rich in peptides that have of the same molecular masses of the peptides purified from other scorpions that affect ion-channel functions. PMID:23849540

2013-01-01

403

PM-10 exhaust samples collected during IM-240 dyanamometer tests of in-service vehicles in Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-three vehicles that were recruited by remote sensing and roadside inspection and maintenance (I/M) checks during the 1994 Clark and Washoe Remote Sensing Study (CAWRSS) were tested on the IM240 cycle using a transportable dynamometer. Six of these vehicles emitted visible smoke. Total gas-phase hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) exhaust concentrations were continuously measured in the diluted exhaust stream from the constant volume sampler (CVS) during IM240 testing. Two isokinetic PM-10 samples were collected simultaneously using cyclones and filter holders connected to a dilution tube. Teflon filters were collected for total mass and then extracted for chloride, nitrate, and sulfate ions. Quartz filters were analyzed by the thermal/optical reflectance method for organic and elemental carbon. The quartz filters and backup vapor traps were then extracted and analyzed by GC/MS for 28 separate polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Mass emission rates of PM-10 per vehicle ranged from 5.6 to over 1300 mg/mi, with most of the mass attributable to carbon. Except for one vehicle with high sulfate emissions, the ion emissions were relatively low. Total PAH emissions were in the range of 10-200 mg/mi. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Sagebiel, J.C.; Zielinska, B.; Walsh, P.A.; Chow, J.C. [Desert Research Inst., Reno, NV (United States); Cadle, S.H.; Mulawa, P.A. [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI (United States); Knapp, K.T.; Zweidinger, R.B. [U.S. EPA Mobile Source Emissions Branch, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Snow, R. [ManTech Environmental Technology, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1997-01-01

404

Detection of human coronaviruses in simultaneously collected stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs from hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis  

PubMed Central

Background Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are a well-known cause of respiratory infections but their role in gastrointestinal infections is unclear. The objective of our study was to assess the significance of HCoVs in the etiology of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children <6?years of age. Methods Stool samples and nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs collected from 260 children hospitalized for AGE (160 also had respiratory symptoms) and 157 otherwise healthy control children admitted for elective surgery were tested for the presence of four HCoVs using real time RT-PCR. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (reg. NCT00987519). Results HCoVs were more frequent in patients with AGE than in controls (23/260, 8.8% versus 4/151, 2.6%; odds ratio, OR 3.3; 95% confidence interval, CI 1.3–10.0; P?=?0.01). Three of four HCoV-positive members in the control group, asymptomatic when sampled, recalled gastrointestinal or respiratory symptoms within the previous 14?days. In patients with AGE, HCoVs were present in NP samples more often than in stools (22/256, 8.6%, versus 6/260, 2.3%; P?=?0.0004). In 5/6 children with HCoVs detected in stools, the viruses were also detected in NP swabs. Patients had a significantly higher probability of HCoV detection in stool (OR 4; 95% CI 1.4–15.3; P?=?0.006) and also in stool and/or NP (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.3–10.0; P?=?0.01) than healthy controls. All four HCoVs species were detected in stool and NP samples. Conclusions Although HCoVs were more frequently detected in patients with AGE than in the control group, high prevalence of HCoVs in NP swabs compounded by their low occurrence in stool samples and detection of other viruses in stool samples, indicate that HCoVs probably play only a minor role in causing gastrointestinal illness in children <6?years old. PMID:23379823

2013-01-01

405

Two-zone model application to breathing zone and area welding fume concentration data.  

PubMed

This study assessed a professional pipefitter/welder performing shielded metal arc welding on carbon steel under field conditions. The resulting breathing zone (near field) and area (far field) welding fume concentration data were applied to the two-zone model for the purpose of determining field-derived personal exposure emission (generation) rates during actual welding work. The study is unique in that one welder was evaluated under high production conditions for 2 days at two different welding locations: a boiler room and a breezeway. Samples were collected and analyzed for total particulate following NIOSH Method 0500 and for select metals following NIOSH Method 7300. Breezeway average personal breathing zone sample total particulate concentrations ranged from 2.89 mg/m(3) to 4.38 mg/m(3), Fe concentrations ranged from 0.53 to 0.63 mg/m(3), and Mn concentrations ranged from 0.10 to 0.12 mg/m(3). The boiler room average personal breathing zone sample total particulate concentrations ranged from 4.73 mg/m(3) to 5.90 mg/m(3), Fe concentrations ranged from 0.48 to 0.85 mg/m(3), and Mn concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 0.16 mg/m(3). Average arc times ranged from 20 to 25% of the total sampling time. Both tracer gas and anemometer techniques were used to estimate ventilation of the boiler room. The steady-state form of the two-zone model was applied to long-term and short-term sample total particulate, Fe, and Mn concentrations obtained during welding in the boiler room and breezeway. The average generation rate in the boiler room was 39.2 mg/min for TP, 6.4 mg/min for Fe, and 1.3 mg/min for Mn. The average generation rate in the breezeway was 40.0 mg/min for TP, 6.6 mg/min for Fe, and 1.2 mg/min for Mn. The field-based generation rates were considerably lower than laboratory-derived published emission rates of between 280 and 650 mg/min for TP. This study emphasizes the need for field-derived welding fume generation rates and showed the personal breathing zone and area sample concentrations can be described by the two-zone model in a way that may help the industrial hygienist estimate exposures. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resource: Tables detailing the personal breathing zone and average area sample results for breezeway welding and boiler room welding, two-zone modeling results, and boiler room welding personal breathing zone and area sample results with mixing fans on.]. PMID:19266377

Boelter, Fred W; Simmons, Catherine E; Berman, Laurel; Scheff, Peter

2009-05-01

406

Preliminary Analytical Results for a Mud Sample Collected from the LUSI Mud Volcano, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On May 29, 2006, mud and gases began erupting unexpectedly from a vent 150 meters away from a hydrocarbon exploration well near Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia. The eruption, called the LUSI (Lumpur 'mud'-Sidoarjo) mud volcano, has continued since then at rates as high as 160,000 m3 per day. At the request of the United States Department of State, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been providing technical assistance to the Indonesian Government on the geological and geochemical aspects of the mud eruption. This report presents initial characterization results of a sample of the mud collected on September 22, 2007, as well as inerpretive findings based on the analytical results. The focus is on characteristics of the mud sample (including the solid and water components of the mud) that may be of potential environmental or human health concern. Characteristics that provide insights into the possible origins of the mud and its contained solids and waters have also been evaluated.

Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Casadevall, Thomas J.; Wibowo, Handoko T.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Johnson, Craig A.; Breit, George N.; Lowers, Heather A.; Wolf, Ruth E.; Hageman, Philip L.; Goldstein, Harland; Anthony, Michael W.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Fey, David L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Morman, Suzette A.

2008-01-01

407

Automation impact study of Army training management 2: Extension of sampling and collection of installation resource data  

SciTech Connect

This automation impact study of Army training management (TM) was performed for the Army Development and Employment Agency (ADEA) and the Combined Arms Training Activity (CATA) by the Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The primary objective of the study was to provide the Army with information concerning the potential costs and savings associated with automating the TM process. This study expands the sample of units surveyed in Phase I of the automation impact effort (Sanquist et al., 1988), and presents data concerning installation resource management in relation to TM. The structured interview employed in Phase I was adapted to a self-administered survey. The data collected were compatible with that of Phase I, and both were combined for analysis. Three US sites, one reserve division, one National Guard division, and one unit in the active component outside the continental US (OCONUS) (referred to in this report as forward deployed) were surveyed. The total sample size was 459, of which 337 respondents contributed the most detailed data. 20 figs., 62 tabs.

Sanquist, T.F.; McCallum, M.C.; Hunt, P.S.; Slavich, A.L.; Underwood, J.A.; Toquam, J.L.; Seaver, D.A.

1989-05-01

408

Distribution of vibrio species in shellfish and water samples collected from the atlantic coastline of south-east Nigeria.  

PubMed

Crayfish, lobster, and sea-water samples collected from five fishing islands on the Atlantic coast-Bight of Biafra (Bonny)-belonging to Ibaka Local Government Area of Akwa-Ibom State of Nigeria were bacteriologically evaluated on thiosulphate citrate bile-salt sucrose (TCBS) agar for Vibrio load and pathotypes. Mean log10 Vibrio counts of 7.64+/-2.78 cfu/g (in crayfish), 5.07+/-3.21 cfu/g (in lobster), and 3.06+/-2.27 cfu/mL (in sea-water) were obtained in rainy season (June-July) while counts in the dry season (November-December) were 6.25+/-1.93 cfu/g, 5.99+/-1.54 cfu/g, and 3.84+/-1.78 cfu/mL respectively. The physicochemical measurements (temperature, pH, and total dissolved solutes) of the sea-water did not vary significantly in the two seasons across all five islands. Vibrio species isolated were Vibrio cholerae (both O1 and non-O1 serotypes), V parahaemolyticus, V vulnificus, V mimicus, and V fluvialis. Both Ogawa and Inaba subtypes of V cholerae O1 serotype were found. In addition, the Hikojima subtype, which had not been previously reported in the region, was isolated in two samples. The results show that these Vibrio species are endemic in the area. PMID:24288944

Eyisi, Onyedikachukwu A L; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Iroegbu, Christian U

2013-09-01

409

Post-sigh breathing behavior and spontaneous pauses in the C57BL\\/6J (B6) mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose was to examine sighs and spontaneous pauses in regard to the stability of resting breathing in the B6 strain, compared to the A\\/J strain. A 5-HT1A receptor agonist (buspirone) and a chromosomal substitution strain (B6a1) were used to further alter breathing patterning. Ten-minute recordings of room air breathing were collected from unanaesthetized B6, A\\/J, and B6a1 mice. Despite

Motoo Yamauchi; Hasan Ocak; Jesse Dostal; Frank J. Jacono; Kenneth A. Loparo; Kingman P. Strohl

2008-01-01

410

Comparison of organic compositions in dust storm and normal aerosol samples collected at Gosan, Jeju Island, during spring 2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better understand the current physical and chemical properties of East Asian aerosols, an intensive observation of atmospheric particles was conducted at Gosan site, Jeju Island, South Korea during 2005 spring. Total suspended particle (TSP) samples were collected using pre-combusted quartz filters and a high-volume air sampler with the time intervals ranging from 3 h to 48 h. The kinds and amount of various organic compounds were measured in the samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among the 99 target compounds detected, saccharides (average, 130 ± 14 ng m -3), fatty acids (73 ± 7 ng m -3), alcohols (41 ± 4 ng m -3), n-alkanes (32 ± 3 ng m -3), and phthalates (21 ± 2 ng m -3) were found to be major compound classes with polyols/polyacids, lignin and resin products, PAHs, sterols and aromatic acids being minor. Compared to the previous results reported for 2001 late spring samples, no significant changes were found in the levels of their concentrations and compositions for 4 years, although the economy in East Asia, especially in China, has sharply expanded from 2001 to 2005. During the campaign at Gosan site, we encountered two distinct dust storm episodes with high TSP concentrations. The first dust event occurred on March 28, which was characterized by a predominance of secondary organic aerosols. The second event that occurred on the next day (March 29) was found to be characterized by primary organic aerosols associated with forest fires in Siberia/northeastern China. A significant variation in the molecular compositions, which was found within a day, suggests that the compositions of East Asian aerosols are heterogeneous due to multi-contributions from different source regions together with different pathways of long-range atmospheric transport of particles.

Wang, Gehui; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Lee, Meehye

411

Breathing with Phox2b  

PubMed Central

In the last few years, elucidation of the architecture of breathing control centres has reached the cellular level. This has been facilitated by increasing knowledge of the molecular signatures of various classes of hindbrain neurons. Here, we review the advances achieved by studying the homeodomain factor Phox2b, a transcriptional determinant of neuronal identity in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Evidence from human genetics, neurophysiology and mouse reverse genetics converges to implicate a small population of Phox2b-dependent neurons, located in the retrotrapezoid nucleus, in the detection of CO2, which is a paramount source of the ‘drive to breathe’. Moreover, the same and other studies suggest that an overlapping or identical neuronal population, the parafacial respiratory group, might contribute to the respiratory rhythm at least in some circumstances, such as for the initiation of breathing following birth. Together with the previously established Phox2b dependency of other respiratory neurons (which we review briefly here), our new data highlight a key role of this transcription factor in setting up the circuits for breathing automaticity. PMID:19651649

Dubreuil, Veronique; Barhanin, Jacques; Goridis, Christo; Brunet, Jean-Francois

2009-01-01

412

Submarines, Spacecraft, and Exhaled Breath  

EPA Science Inventory

The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled b...

413

Breath Ammonia Analysis: Clinical Application and Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review covers in detail the complexity of human breath, how the body metabolizes ammonia, clinical conditions which are directly related to the regulation of ammonia concentration, and analysis of current techniques that are capable of detecting breath ammonia. Focusing on these areas provides the information needed to develop a breath ammonia sensor for monitoring dysfunction of the human body.

Troy Hibbard; Anthony J. Killard

2011-01-01

414

Tank 241-B-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization: Results for homogeneity samples collected on October 16, 1996. Tank vapor characterization project  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-B-103 (Tank B-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Samples were collected to determine the homogeneity of selected inorganic and organic headspace constituents. Two risers (Riser 2 and Riser 7) were sampled at three different elevations (Bottom, Middle, and Top) within the tank. Tank headspace samples were collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) and were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL.

Olsen, K.B.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1997-06-01

415

Neural Mechanisms Underlying Breathing Complexity  

PubMed Central

Breathing is maintained and controlled by a network of automatic neurons in the brainstem that generate respiratory rhythm and receive regulatory inputs. Breathing complexity therefore arises from respiratory central pattern generators modulated by peripheral and supra-spinal inputs. Very little is known on the brainstem neural substrates underlying breathing complexity in humans. We used both experimental and theoretical approaches to decipher these mechanisms in healthy humans and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is the most frequent chronic lung disease in the general population mainly due to tobacco smoke. In patients, airflow obstruction associated with hyperinflation and respiratory muscles weakness are key factors contributing to load-capacity imbalance and hence increased respiratory drive. Unexpectedly, we found that the patients breathed with a higher level of complexity during inspiration and expiration than controls. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we scanned the brain of the participants to analyze the activity of two small regions involved in respiratory rhythmogenesis, the rostral ventro-lateral (VL) medulla (pre-Bötzinger complex) and the caudal VL pons (parafacial group). fMRI revealed in controls higher activity of the VL medulla suggesting active inspiration, while in patients higher activity of the VL pons suggesting active expiration. COPD patients reactivate the parafacial to sustain ventilation. These findings may be involved in the onset of respiratory failure when the neural network becomes overwhelmed by respiratory overload We show that central neural activity correlates with airflow complexity in healthy subjects and COPD patients, at rest and during inspiratory loading. We finally used a theoretical approach of respiratory rhythmogenesis that reproduces the kernel activity of neurons involved in the automatic breathing. The model reveals how a chaotic activity in neurons can contribute to chaos in airflow and reproduces key experimental fMRI findings. PMID:24098396

Hess, Agathe; Yu, Lianchun; Klein, Isabelle; De Mazancourt, Marine; Jebrak, Gilles; Mal, Herve; Brugiere, Olivier; Fournier, Michel; Courbage, Maurice; Dauriat, Gaelle; Schouman-Clayes, Elisabeth; Clerici, Christine; Mangin, Laurence

2013-01-01

416

Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-1 in Panama: Origin of Non-B Subtypes in Samples Collected from 2007 to 2013  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic studies have suggested that the HIV-1 epidemic in the Americas is mainly dominated by HIV subtype B. However, countries of South America and the Caribbean have recently reported changes in their circulating HIV-1 genetic profiles. The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular profile of the HIV-1 epidemic in Panama by the analysis of 655 polymerase gene (pol) sequences that were obtained from HIV-infected Panamanians diagnosed between 1987 and 2013. Blood samples were collected from recently infected, antiretroviral drug-naïve and treatment-experienced subjects since mid-2007 to 2013. Viral RNA from plasma was extracted and sequences of HIV protease and reverse transcriptase genes were obtained. Bootscanning and phylogenetic methods were used for HIV subtyping and to trace the putative origin of non-B subtype strains. Our results showed that HIV-1 infections in Panama are dominated by subtype B (98.9%). The remaining 1.1% is represented by a diverse collection of recombinant variants including: three URFs_BC, one CRF20_BG, and one CRF28/29_BF, in addition to one subtype F1 and one subtype C, none of which were previously reported in Panama. The non-B subtype variants detected in Panama were probably introduced from Brazil (subtype F1 and CRF28/29_BF), Cuba (CRF20_BG), Dominican Republic (URFs_BC) and India (subtype C). Panama is the geographical vertex that connects the North with South America and the Caribbean through trade and cultural relations, which may explain the observed introductions of non-B subtype HIV-1 variants from both the Caribbean and South America into this Central American country. PMID:24454808

Mendoza, Yaxelis; Bello, Gonzalo; Castillo Mewa, Juan; Martinez, Alexander A.; Gonzalez, Claudia; Garcia-Morales, Claudia; Avila-Rios, Santiago; Reyes-Teran, Gustavo; Pascale, Juan M.

2014-01-01

417

Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Panama: origin of non-B subtypes in samples collected from 2007 to 2013.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic studies have suggested that the HIV-1 epidemic in the Americas is mainly dominated by HIV subtype B. However, countries of South America and the Caribbean have recently reported changes in their circulating HIV-1 genetic profiles. The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular profile of the HIV-1 epidemic in Panama by the analysis of 655 polymerase gene (pol) sequences that were obtained from HIV-infected Panamanians diagnosed between 1987 and 2013. Blood samples were collected from recently infected, antiretroviral drug-naïve and treatment-experienced subjects since mid-2007 to 2013. Viral RNA from plasma was extracted and sequences of HIV protease and reverse transcriptase genes were obtained. Bootscanning and phylogenetic methods were used for HIV subtyping and to trace the putative origin of non-B subtype strains. Our results showed that HIV-1 infections in Panama are dominated by subtype B (98.9%). The remaining 1.1% is represented by a diverse collection of recombinant variants including: three URFs_BC, one CRF20_BG, and one CRF28/29_BF, in addition to one subtype F1 and one subtype C, none of which were previously reported in Panama. The non-B subtype variants detected in Panama were probably introduced from Brazil (subtype F1 and CRF28/29_BF), Cuba (CRF20_BG), Dominican Republic (URFs_BC) and India (subtype C). Panama is the geographical vertex that connects the North with South America and the Caribbean through trade and cultural relations, which may explain the observed introductions of non-B subtype HIV-1 variants from both the Caribbean and South America into this Central American country. PMID:24454808

Mendoza, Yaxelis; Bello, Gonzalo; Castillo Mewa, Juan; Martínez, Alexander A; González, Claudia; García-Morales, Claudia; Avila-Ríos, Santiago; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo; Pascale, Juan M

2014-01-01

418

Report: Comparative phytochemical, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of various samples of Swertia Chirayita collected from various cities of Pakistan.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are crucial for about 80% of the world population in developing and developed countries for their primary and basic health care needs owing to better tolerability, superior compatibility with human body and having lesser side effects. The present study was conducted on various solvent extracts of three plant samples of Indian and Nepali origin Swertia Chirayita (Roxb.) Buch-ham (Chiratia) collected from various places to establish their comparative phytochemical analysis, chromatographic profile, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities. Nepali Swertia Chirayita was found to have finest Chromatographic profile (TLC). Phytochemical analysis revealed Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, ascorbic acid, glycosides, steroids and triterpenoids in all samples. Different solvent fractions of the methanolic plant extracts of Swertia chirayita were assessed for hepatoprotective activity by carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. The grade of protection was measured by using biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT/AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT/ALT) and total bilirubin. The in-vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts was also evaluated by the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The methanolic and aqueous extracts, at a dose of 200mg/kg and 300mg/kg, produced significant (p<0.05) hepatoprotection by decreasing the activities of the serum enzymes and bilirubin while there were marked scavenging of the DPPH free radicals by the fractions. Decreased observed in the biochemical parameters suggests that the plant extracts possesses hepatoprotective as well as antioxidant activities without any significant variation amongst them. These activities reside mainly in the methanolic extract of whole plant. PMID:25362620

Mahmood, Sidra; Hussain, Shahzad; Tabassum, Sobia; Malik, Farnaz; Riaz, Humayun

2014-11-01

419

Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-105: Results from samples collected on 7/7/94  

SciTech Connect

This report describes organic and inorganic results from vapors of the Hanford single-shell waste storage Tank 241-BY-105 (referred to as Tank BY-105). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. Several organic analytes were quantitatively determined, but quantities of non-TO-14 analytes were only estimated. Approximately 40 tentatively identified organic analytes were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppb, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and their quantitative determination is beyond the scope of this study. The SUMMA{trademark} Canisters were also analyzed for components listed in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) compendium Method TO-14. Of these only a few were observed above the 2-ppb detection limits. These are summarized in Table 3.1. Estimated quantitations also determined were of tentatively identified compounds (TICs). A summary of these results shows quantities of all TICs above the concentration of ca. 10 ppb. This consists of more than 40 organic analytes. The 6 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are shown in Table 1. These 6 analytes account for approximately 45% of the total organic components in Tank BY-105. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Unlike tanks previously studied, normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPHs) did not contribute significantly to the total organic concentration of the vapor headspace of Tank BY-105. The total concentration of TICs detected in the tank headspace samples was also much lower than that seen in other reported tanks averaging 6.5 Mg/m{sup 3} for all three canisters collected.

Pool, K.H.; Ligotke, M.W.; Clauss, T.W.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.; McCulloch, M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

1995-05-01

420

Field guide for collecting samples for analysis of volatile organic compounds in stream water for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For many years, stream samples for analysis of volatile organic compounds have been collected without specific guidelines or a sampler designed to avoid analyte loss. In 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program began aggressively monitoring urban stream-water for volatile organic compounds. To assure representative samples and consistency in collection procedures, a specific sampler was designed to collect samples for analysis of volatile organic compounds in stream water. This sampler, and the collection procedures, were tested in the laboratory and in the field for compound loss, contamination, sample reproducibility, and functional capabilities. This report describes that sampler and its use, and outlines field procedures specifically designed to provide contaminant-free, reproducible volatile organic compound data from stream-water samples. These guidelines and the equipment described represent a significant change in U.S. Geological Survey instructions for collecting and processing stream-water samples for analysis of volatile organic compounds. They are intended to produce data that are both defensible and interpretable, particularly for concentrations below the microgram-per-liter level. The guidelines also contain detailed recommendations for quality-control samples.

Shelton, Larry R.

1997-01-01

421

[Genotoxicity of stack gas condensates of Bavarian waste incineration plants. I. Stack gas condensate--sample collection techniques].  

PubMed

Investigations into the toxicity and the chemical analytics of stack gas condensates from 21 waste incineration plants (locations in Bavaria) were undertaken in the years 1990 to 1995. A decisive prerequisite was the development of a simple, standardizable technique for sample collection. It was done by condensating stack gases at 0 to 5 degrees C in an intensive glass condensator. Certain types of compounds showed a different behaviour of separation at the temperatures which were used. Whereas bivalent ionic mercury and chlorophenols were comparatively well separated with amounts of 60 to 95% and the polychlorinated dioxins, furans and biphenyls (PCBs) were sufficiently separated with 20 to 60%, less than 10% of the chlorobenzenes and polycyclic aromatics (PAHs) were found in the condensates. Sufficiently sensitive biological test procedures must be chosen for a biomonitoring of the condensates on geno- and immunotoxic effects to keep the required quantity of the condensates within practicable limits. The concentration of organic wastes was done through a solid phase extraction for the genotoxicity testing in the period from 1990 to 1991, and uniformly through a dichloromethane extraction for the biological and the simultaneous chemical analytical investigations from 1992 to 1995. PMID:10084203

Raabe, F; Brandl, A; Strobl, J; Dautzenberg, D; Lierse, C; Wichmann, G; Mücke, W

1999-02-01

422

Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogus?aw; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

2014-06-01

423

Analysis of exhaled breath for disease detection.  

PubMed

Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways. PMID:25014347

Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogus?aw; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

2014-01-01

424

Chemically Polymerized Polypyrrole for On-Chip Concentration of Volatile Breath Metabolites  

PubMed Central

A wide range of metabolites are measured in the gas phase of exhaled human breath, and some of these biomarkers are frequently observed to be up- or down-regulated in certain disease states. Portable breath analysis systems have the potential for a wide range of applications in health diagnostics. However, this is currently limited by the lack of concentration mechanisms to enhance trace metabolites found in the breath to levels that can be adequately recorded using miniaturized gas-phase sensors. In this study we have created chip-based polymeric pre-concentration devices capable of absorbing and desorbing breath volatiles for subsequent chemical analysis. These devices appear to concentrate chemicals from both environmental air samples as well as directly from exhaled human breath, and these devices may have applications in lab-on-a-chip-based environmental and health monitoring systems. PMID:20161533

Strand, Nicholas; Bhushan, Abhinav; Schivo, Michael; Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Davis, Cristina E.

2009-01-01

425

NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE, AND SHIPMENT OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR SAMPLES FOR METAL, PESTICIDE, AND PAH ANALYSIS (F02)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures to be used for collecting, storing, and shipping indoor air samples to be analyzed for metals, pesticides, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and outdoor air samples to be analyzed for metals. A Black Box pumping u...

426

Collection Of Sediment And Water Sampling Prior To The Possible Occurrence Of Oil Contamination From The Deepwater Horizon Oil Well At Egmont Key, Florida  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Bruce Bernard (left) and Scott McBride (right) obtain water and sediment samples at Egmont Key which is about 1 mile west of the mouth of Tampa Bay in the Gulf of Mexico. Samples were collected June 14, 2010 prior to the possible occurrence of oil contamination from the Deepwater Horizon's oil well....

2010-08-18

427

Collection of gas and particle semi-volatile organic compounds: use of an oxidant denuder to minimize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation during high-volume air sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decomposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by ozone in gas and particles, under high-volume sampling, was studied by using in parallel a conventional device and a device protected with an oxidant denuder. Three different sampling regimes—short and long sampling under high-ozone concentration and long sampling under low-ozone concentration—were selected at three representative sampling sites—a boreal forest, an urban site and a background marine station. The results of our study suggest that most PAHs are susceptible to ozone degradation under high ozone atmospheric concentrations (>50 ppbv) and long sampling times (>24 h). The highest concentration ratio of total PAHs between the two sampling systems was observed under collection conditions of long sampling and high ozone concentration, especially for the gaseous PAHs (up to 2.10). Conversely, long sampling time under low ozone concentration did not affect the concentration of collected PAHs in the gas or particle phase. The most reactive PAHs collected on filters and polyurethane foam were cyclopentane[ cd]pyrene and pyrene, respectively. The use of an oxidant denuder did not affect the PAH gas-particle distribution study. The slopes mr and the intercepts br of the regression between the log Kp and log P L0 did not substantially deviate between the two sampling devices.

Tsapakis, Manolis; Stephanou, Euripides G.

428

THE UNIQUE VALUE OF BREATH BIOMARKERS FOR ESTIMATING PHARMACOKINETIC RATE CONSTANTS AND BODY BURDEN FROM ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Although detection of breath odor is the oldest of the medical diagnostic techniques, blood and urine biomarker measurements are the current "gold standard" for modern exposure and health assessments. Of late, it has been recognized that