Sample records for breath samples collected

  1. Self-collected breath sampling for monitoring low-level benzene exposures among automobile mechanics.

    PubMed

    Egeghy, Peter P; Nylander-French, Leena; Gwin, Kristin K; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Rappaport, Stephen M

    2002-07-01

    Automobile mechanics are exposed to benzene through their contact with gasoline vapor and engine exhaust. This study investigated the benzene uptake associated with these exposures. We first evaluated the reliability of self-collected breath samples among a subset of subjects and found good agreement between these samples and those collected under expert supervision (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.79, n = 69). We then used self-monitoring together with a longitudinal sampling design (with up to three measurements per worker) to measure benzene in air and benzene in end-exhaled breath among 81 workers from 12 automobile repair garages in North Carolina. A statistically significant difference (P < 0.0001, Mann-Whitney rank sum test) was observed between non-smokers and smokers for post-exposure benzene concentration in breath (median values of 18.9 and 39.1 micro g/m(3), respectively). Comparing pre- and post-exposure breath concentrations within these two groups, the difference was significant among non-smokers (P < 0.0001) but not significant among smokers (P > 0.05). Mixed effects regression analysis using backwards elimination yielded five significant predictors of benzene concentration in breath, namely benzene exposure (P < 0.0001), pre-exposure benzene concentration in breath (P = 0.021), smoking status (P < 0.0001), fuel system work (P = 0.0043) and carburetor cleaner use (P < 0.0001). The between-person variance component comprised only 28% of the total variance in benzene levels in breath, indicating that differences among individuals related to physiological and metabolic characteristics had little influence on benzene uptake among these workers. PMID:12176763

  2. ALVEOLAR BREATH SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS IN HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alveolar breath sampling and analysis can be extremely useful in exposure assessment studies involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over recent years scientists from the EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory have developed and refined an alveolar breath collection ...

  3. Collecting Samples

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Collecting Samples at Embden 3. Embden 3 is a 60-degree V trapezoidal flume in a bured concreate culvert located on the other side of the north-south road east of the large data shelter. The flow is measured and sampled from the V flume underground and periodic QW grab samples are taken form the blu...

  4. Simplified single sample 13Carbon urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori: comparison with histology, culture, and ELISA serology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R P Logan; R J Polson; J J Misiewicz; G Rao; N Q Karim; D Newell; P Johnson; J Wadsworth; M M Walker; J H Baron

    1991-01-01

    There is no ideal method for detecting Helicobacter pylori. The 'standard' 13Carbon urea breath test (13C-UBT), which involves collecting eight to 15 breath samples and subsequent costly analysis, was modified by pooling 21 samples of expired breath taken at five minute intervals for 40 minutes into a collecting bag, from which a single 20 ml aliquot was taken and analysed

  5. Appropriate sample bags and syringes for preserving breath samples in breath odor research: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Winkel, E G; Tangerman, A

    2008-03-01

    It is now generally accepted that the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide are the main contributors to halitosis when of oropharyngeal origin. The VSCs hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan are the major causes of bad breath in oral malodour whereas dimethyl sulfide is generally the major cause of bad breath in extra-oral halitosis. To facilitate research in the field of halitosis, it is highly advantageous to be able to preserve breath samples for longer periods of time before measurement of the VSCs, e.g. for sampling patients at home or when studying a large cohort of patients where an immediate measurement of the VSCs is not possible. After testing numerous sample bags, ultimately the foil balloons, coated inside with the synthetic polymer polyethylene, were the preferred ones. All the VSCs in breath remained quite stable for at least 3 days in these balloons. Besides the sampling bags, the use of an appropriate syringe for sampling mouth air and for injecting samples in e.g. a gas chromatograph is also of great importance. Usually, syringes with a rubber barrel seal are used. However, some rubbers quickly adsorb the VSCs in breath. When preserving breath samples for longer periods, the rubber also releases VSCs, especially methyl mercaptan. It was also found that these syringes release a compound which interferes with dimethyl sulfide, when using gas chromatographic measurements with the OralChroma. We now use all-plastic syringes (B/Braun Injekt), made of polypropylene and polyethylene, in which the VSCs in breath remain quite stable for at least 9 h. PMID:21386155

  6. Exhaled breath condensate collection in the mechanically ventilated patient.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stewart R; Davis, Christopher S; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2012-05-01

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a non-invasive means of sampling the airway-lining fluid of the lungs. EBC contains numerous measurable mediators, whose analysis could change the management of patients with certain pulmonary diseases. While initially popularized in investigations involving spontaneously breathing patients, an increasing number of studies have been performed using EBC in association with mechanical ventilation. Collection of EBC in mechanically ventilated patients follows basic principles of condensation, but is influenced by multiple factors. Effective collection requires selection of a collection device, adequate minute ventilation, low cooling temperatures, and sampling times of greater than 10 min. Condensate can be contaminated by saliva, which needs to be filtered. Dilution of samples occurs secondary to distilled water in vapors and humidification in the ventilator circuit. Dilution factors may need to be employed when investigating non-volatile biomarkers. Storage and analysis should occur promptly at -70 °C to -80 °C to prevent rapid degradation of samples. The purpose of this review is to examine and describe methodologies and problems of EBC collection in mechanically ventilated patients. A straightforward and safe framework has been established to investigate disease processes in this population, yet technical aspects of EBC collection still exist that prevent clinical practicality of this technology. These include a lack of standardization of procedure and analysis of biomarkers, and of normal reference ranges for mediators in healthy individuals. Once these procedural aspects have been addressed, EBC could serve as a non-invasive alternative to invasive evaluation of lungs in mechanically ventilated patients. PMID:22398157

  7. Exhaled Breath Condensate Collection in the Mechanically Ventilated Patient

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Stewart R; Davis, Christopher S; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2012-01-01

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a non-invasive means of sampling the airway-lining fluid of the lungs. EBC contains numerous measurable mediators, whose analysis could change the management of patients with certain pulmonary diseases. While initially popularized in investigations involving spontaneously breathing patients, an increasing number of studies have been performed using EBC in association with mechanical ventilation. Collection of EBC in mechanically ventilated patients follows basic principles of condensation, but is influenced by multiple factors. Effective collection requires selection of a collection device, adequate minute ventilation, low cooling temperatures, and sampling times of greater than ten minutes. Condensate can be contaminated by saliva, which needs to be filtered. Dilution of samples occurs secondary to distilled water in vapors and humidification in the ventilator circuit. Dilution factors may need to be employed when investigating non-volatile biomarkers. Storage and analysis should occur promptly at ?70° C to ?80° C to prevent rapid degradation of samples. The purpose of this review is to examine and describe methodologies and problems of EBC collection in mechanically ventilated patients. A straightforward and safe framework has been established to investigate disease processes in this population, yet technical aspects of EBC collection still exist that prevent clinical practicality of this technology. These include a lack of standardization of procedure and analysis of biomarkers, and of normal reference ranges for mediators in healthy individuals. Once these procedural aspects have been addressed, EBC could serve as a non-invasive alternative to invasive evaluation of lungs in mechanically ventilated patients. PMID:22398157

  8. The effect of temperature on exhaled breath condensate collection.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Aditya; Zhang, Qi; Gunaratne, Shyamini; Lee, Wei; Lin, Jiun-Lih; Lin, Jiun-Shiang; Warwick, Geoffrey; Thomas, Paul S

    2012-09-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection is an innovative method of non-invasively sampling the lung, and can detect a variety of volatile and non-volatile biomarkers, but the disadvantage is the small volume of sample collected. It was hypothesized that a collection system at a lower temperature would increase the volume collected, but may alter the relative concentration of the biomarkers of interest. EBC was collected in a cross-over study using a custom-made collection system, cooled using either wet (4 °C) or dry ice (-20 °C) in randomized order in normal non-smoking volunteers. The volume of the EBC collected per unit time was determined as were conductivity, the concentrations and total amount of protein, hydrogen peroxide, and nitrite/nitrate concentrations. Dry ice was associated with a 79% greater volume of EBC than the wet ice (1387 ± 612 µL; 773 ± 448 µL respectively, p < 0.0001). Conductivity was influenced by the temperature of collection (18.78 ± 6.71 µS cm(-1) for wet ice and 15.32 ± 6.28 µS cm(-1) for dry ice, p = 0.02) as was hydrogen peroxide (1.34 ± 0.88 µg mL(-1) for wet ice and 0.68 ± 0.32 µg mL(-1) for dry ice, p = 0.009) while the concentrations and total values for protein and nitrate/nitrite were not significantly different (p > 0.05). This pilot study suggests that lower collection temperatures facilitate the collection of a larger sample volume. This larger volume is not simply more dilute, with increased water content, nor is there a simple correction factor that can be applied to the EBC biomarkers to correct for the different methods. PMID:22740588

  9. Collecting Samples for Testing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... will be limited. Search Help? Collecting Samples for Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? Introduction | ... From Within | Conclusion | Sources Overview Today's technologies allow testing on an impressively wide variety of samples collected ...

  10. Storage of breath samples for H2 analyses.

    PubMed

    Ellis, C J; Kneip, J M; Levitt, M D

    1988-03-01

    Breath hydrogen tests are limited by leak of gases from breath samples from standard glass or plastic syringes. These losses may be substantial when these samples are stored for long periods of time. We describe a simple manipulation involving the use of a mineral oil or water seal at the end of the syringe barrel that markedly reduces the leakage of H2 and other gases to negligible levels. PMID:3123304

  11. Comparison of Two Devices and Two Breathing Patterns for Exhaled Breath Condensate Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Hattesohl, Akira; Schmid, Severin; Noeske, Sarah; Herr, Christian; John, Gerrit; Jörres, Rudolf A.; Müller, Bernd; Vogelmeier, Claus; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a noninvasive method to access the epithelial lining fluid of the lungs. Due to standardization problems the method has not entered clinical practice. The aim of the study was to assess the comparability for two commercially available devices in healthy controls. In addition, we assessed different breathing patterns in healthy controls with protein markers to analyze the source of the EBC. Methods EBC was collected from ten subjects using the RTube and ECoScreen Turbo in a randomized crossover design, twice with every device - once in tidal breathing and once in hyperventilation. EBC conductivity, pH, surfactant protein A, Clara cell secretory protein and total protein were assessed. Bland-Altman plots were constructed to display the influence of different devices or breathing patterns and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. The volatile organic compound profile was measured using the electronic nose Cyranose 320. For the analysis of these data, the linear discriminant analysis, the Mahalanobis distances and the cross-validation values (CVV) were calculated. Results Neither the device nor the breathing pattern significantly altered EBC pH or conductivity. ICCs ranged from 0.61 to 0.92 demonstrating moderate to very good agreement. Protein measurements were greatly influenced by breathing pattern, the device used, and the way in which the results were reported. The electronic nose could distinguish between different breathing patterns and devices, resulting in Mahalanobis distances greater than 2 and CVVs ranging from 64% to 87%. Conclusion EBC pH and (to a lesser extent) EBC conductivity are stable parameters that are not influenced by either the device or the breathing patterns. Protein measurements remain uncertain due to problems of standardization. We conclude that the influence of the breathing maneuver translates into the necessity to keep the volume of ventilated air constant in further studies. PMID:22087323

  12. Collecting Volcanic Gas Samples

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Steven Ingebritsen (lower right, in blue hat) kneels in the warm mud as he collects samples of the gases emitted from the fumaroles on the north side of Crater Rock on Mount Hood. The samples are taken back to the laboratory for an analysis of the gases' chemical composition. By routinely collecting...

  13. Detection of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol in exhaled breath collected from cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof; Sandqvist, Sören; Dubbelboer, Ilse; Franck, Johan

    2011-10-01

    Exhaled breath has recently been proposed as a new possible matrix for drugs of abuse testing. A key drug is cannabis, and the present study was aimed at investigating the possibility of detecting tetrahydrocannabinol and tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid in exhaled breath after cannabis smoking. Exhaled breath was sampled from 10 regular cannabis users and 8 controls by directing the exhaled breath by suction through an Empore C(18) disk. The disk was extracted with hexane/ethyl acetate, and the resulting extract was evaporated to dryness and redissolved in 100 ?L hexane/ethyl acetate. A 3-?L aliquot was injected onto the LC-MS-MS system and analyzed using positive electrospray ionization and selected reaction monitoring. In samples collected 1-12 h after cannabis smoking, tetrahydrocannabinol was detected in all 10 subjects. The rate of excretion was between 9.0 and 77.3 pg/min. Identification of tetrahydrocannabinol was based on correct retention time relative to tetrahydrocannabinol-d(3) and correct product ion ratio. In three samples, peaks were observed for tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid, but these did not fulfill identification criteria. Neither tetrahydrocannabinol or tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid was detected in the controls. These results confirm older reports that tetrahydrocannabinol is present in exhaled breath following cannabis smoking and extend the detection time from minutes to hours. The results further support the idea that exhaled breath is a promising matrix for drugs-of-abuse testing. PMID:22004672

  14. Collecting Grab Samples

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Bill Damschen(USGS) collecting a grab sample after a rain event from the outflow pipe drain tiles, at the North Dakota Discoery Farms Embden Farm located in southeast Cass County about 8 miles south of Embden, North Dakota....

  15. Investigation of Organic Vapor Losses to Condensed Water Vapor in Tedlar® Bags Used for Exhaled-Breath Sampling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William A. Groves; Edward T. Zellers

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential loss of organic vapors to condensed water in bags used for breath sampling. “Wet” test atmospheres were prepared by transferring nitrogen into 1-L Tedlar® bags and spiking with water and each of several organic solvents (methanol, acetone, 2-butanone, m-xylene, 1, 1, 1 trichloroethane, and perchloroethylene) to yield atmospheres representative of a 500-mL breath sample collected

  16. Method for the Collection and Assay of Volatile Organic Compounds in Breath

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Phillips

    1997-01-01

    Breath testing for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) provides an intrinsically safe method for investigating human metabolism. An improved breath-collecting apparatus (BCA) is described which was acceptable to patients, simple to use, highly sensitive, and free from chemical contamination. VOCs in 10.0 L alveolar breath and 10.0 L room air were collected onto adsorptive traps. Using automated instrumentation, VOCs were thermally

  17. Method for the collection and assay of volatile organic compounds in breath.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M

    1997-05-01

    Breath testing for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) provides an intrinsically safe method for investigating human metabolism. An improved breath-collecting apparatus (BCA) is described which was acceptable to patients, simple to use, highly sensitive, and free from chemical contamination. VOCs in 10.0 L alveolar breath and 10.0 L room air were collected onto adsorptive traps. Using automated instrumentation, VOCs were thermally desorbed and assayed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Twenty normal volunteers were studied, and the alveolar gradient (concentration in breath minus concentration in air) was determined for the most abundant VOCs. A total of 1259 VOCs were observed and tentatively identified in the breath of normal subjects. The mean alveolar gradients were positive in 461 VOCs and negative in 798 VOCs. The method provided a sensitive and convenient assay for breath VOCs and permitted tentative determination of their origin from either inside or outside the body. PMID:9177688

  18. COLLECTION OF A SINGLE ALVEOLAR EXHALED BREATH FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurement of specific organic compounds in exhaled breath has been used as an indicator of recent exposure to pollutants or as an indicator of the health of an individual. Typical application involves the collection of multiple breaths onto a sorbent cartridge or into an evacua...

  19. Standardised exhaled breath collection for the measurement of exhaled volatile organic compounds by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exhaled breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis for airway disease monitoring is promising. However, contrary to nitric oxide the method for exhaled breath collection has not yet been standardized and the effects of expiratory flow and breath-hold have not been sufficiently studied. These manoeuvres may also reveal the origin of exhaled compounds. Methods 15 healthy volunteers (34?±?7 years) participated in the study. Subjects inhaled through their nose and exhaled immediately at two different flows (5 L/min and 10 L/min) into methylated polyethylene bags. In addition, the effect of a 20 s breath-hold following inhalation to total lung capacity was studied. The samples were analyzed for ethanol and acetone levels immediately using proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometer (PTR-MS, Logan Research, UK). Results Ethanol levels were negatively affected by expiratory flow rate (232.70?±?33.50 ppb vs. 202.30?±?27.28 ppb at 5 L/min and 10 L/min, respectively, p?breath hold (242.50?±?34.53 vs. 237.90?±?35.86 ppb, without and with breath hold, respectively, p?=?0.11). On the contrary, acetone levels were increased following breath hold (1.50?±?0.18 ppm) compared to the baseline levels (1.38?±?0.15 ppm), but were not affected by expiratory flow (1.40?±?0.14 ppm vs. 1.49?±?0.14 ppm, 5 L/min vs. 10 L/min, respectively, p?=?0.14). The diet had no significant effects on the gasses levels which showed good inter and intra session reproducibility. Conclusions Exhalation parameters such as expiratory flow and breath-hold may affect VOC levels significantly; therefore standardisation of exhaled VOC measurements is mandatory. Our preliminary results suggest a different origin in the respiratory tract for these two gasses. PMID:23837867

  20. Molecular and microscopic analysis of bacteria and viruses in exhaled breath collected using a simple impaction and condensing method.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenqiang; Shen, Fangxia; Li, Xiaoguang; Wu, Yan; Chen, Qi; Jie, Xu; Yao, Maosheng

    2012-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is increasingly being used as a non-invasive method for disease diagnosis and environmental exposure assessment. By using hydrophobic surface, ice, and droplet scavenging, a simple impaction and condensing based collection method is reported here. Human subjects were recruited to exhale toward the device for 1, 2, 3, and 4 min. The exhaled breath quickly formed into tiny droplets on the hydrophobic surface, which were subsequently scavenged into a 10 µL rolling deionized water droplet. The collected EBC was further analyzed using culturing, DNA stain, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and colorimetry (VITEK 2) for bacteria and viruses.Experimental data revealed that bacteria and viruses in EBC can be rapidly collected using the method developed here, with an observed efficiency of 100 µL EBC within 1 min. Culturing, DNA stain, SEM, and qPCR methods all detected high bacterial concentrations up to 7000 CFU/m(3) in exhaled breath, including both viable and dead cells of various types. Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Kocuria variants were found dominant in EBC samples using VITEK 2 system. SEM images revealed that most bacteria in exhaled breath are detected in the size range of 0.5-1.0 µm, which is able to enable them to remain airborne for a longer time, thus presenting a risk for airborne transmission of potential diseases. Using qPCR, influenza A H3N2 viruses were also detected in one EBC sample. Different from other devices restricted solely to condensation, the developed method can be easily achieved both by impaction and condensation in a laboratory and could impact current practice of EBC collection. Nonetheless, the reported work is a proof-of-concept demonstration, and its performance in non-invasive disease diagnosis such as bacterimia and virus infections needs to be further validated including effects of its influencing matrix. PMID:22848436

  1. Comment on 'The effect of temperature on exhaled breath condensate collection'

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard M Effros; Richard Casaburi; Janos Porszasz; Edith M Morales; Aditi Saraswat; Virender Rehan

    2012-01-01

    Vyas et al [1] reported that the collection of exhaled breath condensates (EBCs) can be increased 79% by cooling their condenser with dry ice rather than ice water. This was accompanied by what may have been a modest decrease in EBC conductivity and protein concentrations, suggesting that some but not all of the increases in EBC volume were due to

  2. Aerosol collection of the (Bladewerx Corporation) breathing zone monitor and portable workplace monitor.

    PubMed

    Moore, Murray E; Kennedy, Trevor J; Dimmerling, Paul J

    2007-11-01

    The Radiation Protection Group at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has a wind tunnel capable of measuring the aerosol collection efficiencies of air sampling devices. In the fall of 2005, the group received an internal Los Alamos request to perform aerosol collection efficiency tests on two air samplers manufactured by the Bladewerx Corporation (Rio Rancho, NM). This paper presents the results from tests performed in the wind tunnel facility at a test velocity of 0.5 m s. The SabreAlert (Portable Workplace Monitor) and the SabreBZM (Breathing Zone Monitor) are both designed to detect and measure the presence of alpha emitting isotopes in atmospheres. The SabreAlert was operated at two test air flow rates of 6 and 45 liters per minute (LPM), and the SabreBZM was operated at two test air flow rates of 3 and 19 LPM. The aerosol collection efficiencies of both samplers were evaluated with oleic acid (monodisperse) liquid droplet aerosols tagged with sodium fluorescein tracer. These test aerosols varied in size from about 2.3 to 17.2 microns (aerodynamic equivalent diameter). The SabreAlert was roughly 100% efficient in aerosol collection at a flow rate of 6 LPM, and had an aerodynamic cutpoint diameter of 11.3 microns at the 45 LPM flow rate. The SabreBZM had an aerodynamic cutpoint diameter of 6.7 microns at the 3 LPM flow rate, but the SabreBZM aerosol collection efficiency never exceeded 13.6% at the 19 LPM test flow rate condition. PMID:18049245

  3. BIOLOGIC SAMPLE COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS PLANS: Collection

    E-print Network

    be quickly released with one hand. 5) Swab the venipuncture area with an alcohol pad. 6) Wipe off excess will be provided for each participant. Instruct each person to do the following for urine collection: - Hands County, Nevada: Protocol for Collecting Blood Specimens 1) Have the following items on hand and available

  4. A simple, reliable method for the determination of chlorinated volatile organics in human breath and air using glass sampling tubes.

    PubMed

    Stein, V B; Narang, R S; Wilson, L; Aldous, K M

    1996-01-01

    A method for determining chloroform, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, and trichloroethene in breath samples was developed. It consisted of collecting samples in 40-ml. glass-silanized tubes that were 16-in. long and had a 0.64-in. diameter. The ends tapered, resulting in a tube with a 1/4-in. diameter that was 1 3/4-in. long; each end had a shutoff valve attached. One end had a strip of rubber tube attached to the shutoff valve for collecting the breath sample, and the other end contained a 1/4-in. Swagelok nut with a rubber septum for withdrawing the sample. Samples were withdrawn using a pressure-lock, gastight syringe, and they were injected onto a gas chromatograph fitted with an electron-capture detector. The analytes were stable for at least 22 days in these tubes. The method detection limit was determined to be 0.03, 0.08, 0.04, and 0.04 pg/ml. for chloroform, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, and trichloroethene, respectively. Precision, based on 13 injections, was determined to be 13% for 0.09 pg chloroform, 13% for 0.21 pg 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 8% for 0.16 pg carbon tetrachloride, and 14% for 0.1 pg trichloroethene. In all, the proposed method is a sensitive and reliable one for determining volatile organic compounds in breath and a method that can also be applied to air sampling. PMID:8735193

  5. Sample collection, processing and storage.

    PubMed

    Landi, M T; Caporaso, N

    1997-01-01

    We review issues related to the inclusion of biospecimens in epidemiological studies. Technical advances and the revolution in molecular biology have rendered the use of biomarkers increasingly feasible in epidemiological investigations, however the cost and complexity require interdisciplinary expertise and careful attention to methodological detail in order to ensure validity. The widespread banking of biospecimens for long-term (cohort) studies requires special attention to be paid to these issues. Blood, urine and tumour tissue are in common use in medicine and at least some aspects of sample handling derives directly from this clinical experience, although special considerations apply in the epidemiological setting. An increasingly broad array of biospecimen types have been studied, including exhaled air, nail clippings, buccal cells, saliva, semen, faeces and breast milk. Relevant issues in the processing, storage, shipping, timing of collection and safety procedures are examined in terms of their potential to distort results. The role of carefully developed quality control protocols is emphasized. In order to take full advantage of the opportunities afforded by the use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies, careful attention to biospecimen processing, the stability of the biomarker and the precautions to be taken during transportation and storage of samples is necessary. PMID:9354922

  6. Hydrogen breath test for diagnosis of lactose malabsorption: The importance of timing and the number of breath samples

    PubMed Central

    Di Camillo, Mauro; Marinaro, Vanessa; Argnani, Fiorenza; Foglietta, Tiziana; Vernia, Piero

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The hydrogen breath test (H2BT) is the most widely used procedure in the diagnostic workup of lactose malabsorption and lactose intolerance. AIM: To establish whether a simplified two-or three-sample test may reduce time, costs and staff resources without reducing the sensitivity of the procedure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from 1112 patients (292 men, 820 women) with a positive 4 h, nine-sample H2BT were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were stratified according to the degree of lactose malabsorption, the occurrence and type of symptoms. Loss of sensitivity in the procedure was evaluated taking into account two-sample tests (0 min and 120 min or 0 min and 210 min) or three-sample tests (0 min, 120 min and 180 min or 0 min, 120 min and 210 min). RESULTS: Using a two-sample test (0 min and 120 min or 0 min and 210 min) the false-negative rate was 33.4% and 22.7%, respectively. With a three-sample test (0 min, 120 min and 180 min or 0 min, 120 min or 210 min), lactose malabsorption was diagnosed in 91.2% (1014 of 1112) patients and in 96.1% (1068 of 1112) patients, respectively. Of 594 patients with abdominal symptoms, 158 (26.6%) and 73 (12.2%) would have false-negative results with 0 min and 120 min or 0 min and 210 min two-sample tests, respectively. The three-sample tests, 0 min, 120 min and 180 min or 0 min, 120 min and 210 min, have a false-negative rate of 5.9% and 2.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A three-sample H2BT is time-and cost-sparing without significant loss of sensitivity for the diagnosis both of lactose malabsorption and lactose intolerance. PMID:16609755

  7. Blood Pressure Associated With Sleep-Disordered Breathing in a Population Sample of Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward O. Bixler; Alexandros N. Vgontzas; Hung-Mo Lin; Duanping Liao; Susan Calhoun; Fred Fedok; Vukmir Vlasic; Gavin Graff

    2010-01-01

    The current criteria for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children are not based on a clinically relevant outcome. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of blood pressure with SDB in a random sample of the local elementary school children (kindergarten through grade 5) using a 2-phased strategy. During phase 1, a brief questionnaire was completed for all

  8. Relationship between 24-H blood pressure and sleep disordered breathing in a normotensive community sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jackson T. Wright; Susan Redline; Anne L. Taylor; Joan Aylor; Kathryn Clark; Barbara O’Malia; Gregory Graham; Guang-Sheng Liao; Sunny Morton

    2001-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and hypertension are commonly associated. In this study, we assessed how longitudinal measures of SDB predict a 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) profile. Participants (n = 82) were recruited from a community-based urban (26% African American) sample and included family members of patients with laboratory diagnosed SDB (cases) and family members of neighborhood control subjects

  9. Composites of carbon nanotubes and non-polymeric materials for diagnosing lung cancer via breath samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Gang; Trock, Elena; Haick, Hossam

    2008-08-01

    We show here that an array of random network of carbon nanotubes coated with non-polymeric organic materials and conjugated with pattern recognition algorithms has a high potential for diagnosis of lung cancer via breath samples. The results indicate that the sensors array allow excellent discrimination between the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in the breath of patients with lung cancer, relative to healthy controls, especially if the sensors array is preceded with either water extractor and/or pre-concentrator of VOCs.

  10. Snoring and breathing pauses during sleep: telephone interview survey of a United Kingdom population sample.

    PubMed Central

    Ohayon, M. M.; Guilleminault, C.; Priest, R. G.; Caulet, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of snoring, breathing pauses during sleep, and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and determine the relation between these events and sociodemographic variables, other health problems, driving accidents, and consumption of healthcare resources. DESIGN: Telephone interview survey directed by a previously validated computerised system (Sleep-Eval). SETTING: United Kingdom. SUBJECTS: 2894 women and 2078 men aged 15-100 years who formed a representative sample of the non-institutionalised population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Interview responses. RESULTS: Forty per cent of the population reported snoring regularly and 3.8% reported breathing pauses during sleep. Regular snoring was significantly associated with male sex, age 25 or more, obesity, daytime sleepiness or naps, night time awakenings, consuming large amounts of caffeine, and smoking. Breathing pauses during sleep were significantly associated with obstructive airways or thyroid disease, male sex, age 35-44 years, consumption of anxiety reducing drugs, complaints of non-restorative sleep, and consultation with a doctor in the past year. The two breathing symptoms were also significantly associated with drowsiness while driving. Based on minimal criteria of the International classification of Sleep Disorders (1990), 1.9% of the sample had obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. In the 35-64 year age group 1.5% of women (95% confidence interval 0.8% to 2.2%) and 3.5% of men (2.4% to 4.6%) had obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Disordered breathing during sleep is widely underdiagnosed in the United Kingdom. The condition is linked to increased use of medical resources and a greater risk of daytime sleepiness, which augments the risk of accidents. Doctors should ask patients and bed partners regularly about snoring and breathing pauses during sleep. PMID:9093095

  11. Characterization of a portable method for the collection of exhaled breath condensate and subsequent analysis of metal content.

    PubMed

    Fox, Julie R; Spannhake, Ernst W; Macri, Kristin K; Torrey, Christine M; Mihalic, Jana N; Eftim, Sorina E; Lees, Peter S J; Geyh, Alison S

    2013-04-01

    Using exhaled breath condensate (EBC) as a biological media for analysis of biomarkers of exposure may facilitate the understanding of inhalation exposures. In this study, we present method validation for the collection of EBC and analysis of metals in EBC. The collection method was designed for use in a small scale longitudinal study with the goal of improving reproducibility while maintaining economic feasibility. We incorporated the use of an Rtube with additional components as an assembly, and trained subjects to breathe into the apparatus. EBC was collected from 8 healthy adult subjects with no known elevated exposures to Mn, Cr, Ni, and Cd repeatedly (10 times) within 7 days and analyzed for these metals via ICP-MS. Method detection limits were obtained by mimicking the process of EBC collection with ultrapure water, and resulted in 46-62% of samples falling in a range less than the method detection limit. EBC metal concentrations were found to be statistically significantly associated (p < 0.05) with room temperature and relative humidity during collection, as well as with the gender of the subject. The geometric mean EBC metal concentrations in our unexposed subjects were 0.57 ?g Mn per L, 0.25 ?g Cr per L, 0.87 ?g Ni per L, and 0.14 ?g Cd per L. The overall standard deviation was greater than the mean estimate, and the major source in EBC metals concentrations was due to fluctuations in subjects' measurements over time rather than to the differences between separate subjects. These results suggest that measurement and control of EBC collection and analytical parameters are critical to the interpretation of EBC metals measurements. In particular, rigorous estimation of method detection limits of metals in EBC provides a more thorough evaluation of accuracy. PMID:23450296

  12. USGS Collects Sample at Gulf Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists collected environmental data and samples in coastal areas affected by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.  Samples of water, sediments, benthic invertebrates, and microorganisms were collected by the USGS at beach, barrier island,...

  13. Sample collection system for gel electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Olivares, Jose A.; Stark, Peter C.; Dunbar, John M.; Hill, Karen K.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Roybal, Gustavo

    2004-09-21

    An automatic sample collection system for use with an electrophoretic slab gel system is presented. The collection system can be used with a slab gel have one or more lanes. A detector is used to detect particle bands on the slab gel within a detection zone. Such detectors may use a laser to excite fluorescently labeled particles. The fluorescent light emitted from the excited particles is transmitted to low-level light detection electronics. Upon the detection of a particle of interest within the detection zone, a syringe pump is activated, sending a stream of buffer solution across the lane of the slab gel. The buffer solution collects the sample of interest and carries it through a collection port into a sample collection vial.

  14. Asteroid Redirect Mission: EVA and Sample Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul; Stich, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) Overview (1) Notional Development Schedule, (2) ARV Crewed Mission Accommodations; Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) Mission Summary; ARCM Accomplishments; Sample collection/curation plan (1) CAPTEM Requirements; SBAG Engagement Plan

  15. Sediment transport sampling for environmental data collection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERNEST L. PEMBERTON

    1981-01-01

    Case histories are presented on the collection of adequate sediment samples for rivers where environ­ mental concerns are critical. The environmental concerns are associated with improving and\\/or maintaining the biological properties of a river channel for fishery- habitat and the desirable vegetative growth character­ istics for migratory birds such as whooping cranes. The collected sediment data consist of suspended sediment

  16. The single-breath transfer factor for carbon monoxide and respiratory symptoms in a Norwegian community sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Welle; G. E. Eide; P. S. Bakke; A. Gulsvik

    1999-01-01

    Relationship between the single-breath transfer factor for carbon monoxide and res- piratory symptoms in a Norwegian community sample. I. Welle, G.E. Eide, P.S. Bakke, A. Gulsvik. #ERS Journals Ltd 1999. ABSTRACT: Reduced single-breath transfer factors of the lung for carbon monoxide are seen in a number of conditions. The hypothesis of the present study was that self- reported respiratory symptoms

  17. Detection of gaseous compounds by needle trap sampling and direct thermal-desorption photoionization mass spectrometry: concept and demonstrative application to breath gas analysis.

    PubMed

    Kleeblatt, Juliane; Schubert, Jochen K; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2015-02-01

    A fast detection method to analyze gaseous organic compounds in complex gas mixtures was developed, using a needle trap device (NTD) in conjunction with thermal-desorption photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TD-PI-TOFMS). The mass spectrometer was coupled via a deactivated fused silica capillary to an injector of a gas chromatograph. In the hot injector, the analytes collected on the NTD were thermally desorbed and directly transferred to the PI-TOFMS ion source. The molecules are softly ionized either by single photon ionization (SPI, 118 nm) or by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI, 266 nm), and the molecular ion signals are detected in the TOF mass analyzer. Analyte desorption and the subsequent PI-TOFMS detection step only lasts ten seconds. The specific selectivity of REMPI (i.e., aromatic compounds) and universal ionization characteristics render PI-MS as a promising detection system. As a first demonstrative application, the alveolar phase breath gas of healthy, nonsmoking subjects was sampled on NTDs. While smaller organic compounds such as acetone, acetaldehyde, isoprene, or cysteamine can be detected in the breath gas with SPI, REMPI depicts the aromatic substances phenol and indole at 266 nm. In the breath gas of a healthy, smoking male subject, several xenobiotic substances such as benzene, toluene, styrene, and ethylbenzene can be found as well. Furthermore, the NTD-REMPI-TOFMS setup was tested for breath gas taken from a mechanically ventilated pig under continuous intravenous propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol, narcotic drug) infusion. PMID:25517186

  18. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, R.L.; Jessop, B.H.; McDowell, B.L. [Radiation Safety Engineering, Inc., Chandler, AZ (United States)

    1996-02-01

    A solubility testing method for several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS{reg_sign}) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Profiles developed for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} samples show good agreement with in vitro and in vivo tests performed by other investigators on samples from the same uranium mills.

  19. Automated Sample collection and Analysis unit

    SciTech Connect

    Latner, Norman; Sanderson, Colin G.; Negro, Vincent C.

    1999-03-31

    Autoramp is an atmospheric radionuclide collection and analysis unit designed for unattended operation. A large volume of air passes through one of 31 filter cartridges which is then moved from a sampling chamber and past a bar code reader, to a shielded enclosure. The collected dust-borne radionuclides are counted with a high resolution germanium gamma-ray detector. An analysis is made and the results are transmitted to a central station that can also remotely control the unit.

  20. Evaluation of needle trap micro-extraction and automatic alveolar sampling for point-of-care breath analysis.

    PubMed

    Trefz, Phillip; Rösner, Lisa; Hein, Dietmar; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2013-04-01

    Needle trap devices (NTDs) have shown many advantages such as improved detection limits, reduced sampling time and volume, improved stability, and reproducibility if compared with other techniques used in breath analysis such as solid-phase extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction. Effects of sampling flow (2-30 ml/min) and volume (10-100 ml) were investigated in dry gas standards containing hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and aromatic compounds and in humid breath samples. NTDs contained (single-bed) polymer packing and (triple-bed) combinations of divinylbenzene/Carbopack X/Carboxen 1000. Substances were desorbed from the NTDs by means of thermal expansion and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. An automated CO2-controlled sampling device for direct alveolar sampling at the point-of-care was developed and tested in pilot experiments. Adsorption efficiency for small volatile organic compounds decreased and breakthrough increased when sampling was done with polymer needles from a water-saturated matrix (breath) instead from dry gas. Humidity did not affect analysis with triple-bed NTDs. These NTDs showed only small dependencies on sampling flow and low breakthrough from 1-5 %. The new sampling device was able to control crucial parameters such as sampling flow and volume. With triple-bed NTDs, substance amounts increased linearly with increasing sample volume when alveolar breath was pre-concentrated automatically. When compared with manual sampling, automatic sampling showed comparable or better results. Thorough control of sampling and adequate choice of adsorption material is mandatory for application of needle trap micro-extraction in vivo. The new CO2-controlled sampling device allows direct alveolar sampling at the point-of-care without the need of any additional sampling, storage, or pre-concentration steps. PMID:23388692

  1. Biopolymers for sample collection, protection, and preservation.

    PubMed

    Sorokulova, Iryna; Olsen, Eric; Vodyanoy, Vitaly

    2015-07-01

    One of the principal challenges in the collection of biological samples from air, water, and soil matrices is that the target agents are not stable enough to be transferred from the collection point to the laboratory of choice without experiencing significant degradation and loss of viability. At present, there is no method to transport biological samples over considerable distances safely, efficiently, and cost-effectively without the use of ice or refrigeration. Current techniques of protection and preservation of biological materials have serious drawbacks. Many known techniques of preservation cause structural damages, so that biological materials lose their structural integrity and viability. We review applications of a novel bacterial preservation process, which is nontoxic and water soluble and allows for the storage of samples without refrigeration. The method is capable of protecting the biological sample from the effects of environment for extended periods of time and then allows for the easy release of these collected biological materials from the protective medium without structural or DNA damage. Strategies for sample collection, preservation, and shipment of bacterial, viral samples are described. The water-soluble polymer is used to immobilize the biological material by replacing the water molecules within the sample with molecules of the biopolymer. The cured polymer results in a solid protective film that is stable to many organic solvents, but quickly removed by the application of the water-based solution. The process of immobilization does not require the use of any additives, accelerators, or plastifiers and does not involve high temperature or radiation to promote polymerization. PMID:25982001

  2. Breathing Room

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-01-28

    In this health activity, learners explore breathing, lungs and asthma. Learners test their lung capacity by blowing air into balloons. Learners are also encouraged to determine how the amount of air in a balloon changes as you vary the size of the hole you blow through.

    Safety note: Check for latex allergies before purchasing balloons. Learners with respiratory problems should not breathe through the straws or blow up the balloons, but they can help record measurements and collect data.

  3. Sampling of exhaled nitric oxide in children: end-expiratory plateau, balloon and tidal breathing methods compared.

    PubMed

    Jöbsis, Q; Schellekens, S L; Kroesbergen, A; Hop, W C; de Jongste, J C

    1999-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare exhaled nitric oxide concentrations obtained during controlled slow exhalation, presently considered as the method of choice, with two sampling methods that are easily performed by children: blowing air into a balloon and tidal breathing through a mouthpiece. One hundred and one well controlled, stable allergic asthmatic children (median age 11.7 yrs) performed the following tasks in duplicate: 1) exhalation from total lung capacity through a mouthpiece against a resistor with a standardized flow rate of 20% of the subject's vital capacity per second, using a biofeedback system; 2) a single deep exhalation into an NO-impermeable mylar balloon; and 3) tidal breathing through a low resistance mouthpiece over 2 min. NO was measured using a chemiluminescence analyser. Twenty-nine children (29%) were not able to perform a constant-flow exhalation of at least 3 s. All children performed the balloon and tidal breathing methods without difficulty. NO concentrations (means +/-SEM) were 5.3+/-0.2 parts per billion (ppb) at the end-expiratory plateau, 5.2+/-0.3 ppb in balloons (intraclass correlation coefficient (r(i)) = 0.73) and 8.0+/-0.4 ppb during tidal breathing (p<0.001, r(i) = 0.53 compared to plateau values). Mean values of NO during tidal breathing increased significantly with time, suggesting increasing contamination with nasal air. It was concluded that, in asthmatic children, the end-expiratory plateau concentration of nitric oxide during exhalation at 20% of the vital capacity per second is similar to the values obtained with the balloon method, with satisfactory agreement, but differs from values obtained during tidal breathing. The balloon method is cheap, simple and offers the interesting possibility to study exhaled nitric oxide in young children independently of the presence of a nitric oxide analyser. PMID:10445620

  4. NEW METHODOLOGY FOR IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL HUMAN BIOMARKERS BY COLLECTION AND CONCENTRATION OF EXHALED BREATH CONDENSATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In many studies of human exposure, the measurement of pollutant chemicals in the environment (air, water, food, soil, etc.) is being supplemented by their additional measurement in biological media such as human breath, blood, and urine. This allows an unambiguous confirmation...

  5. Four-sample lactose hydrogen breath test for diagnosis of lactose malabsorption in irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-Feng; Fox, Mark; Chu, Hua; Zheng, Xia; Long, Yan-Qin; Pohl, Daniel; Fried, Michael; Dai, Ning

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To validate 4-sample lactose hydrogen breath testing (4SLHBT) compared to standard 13-sample LHBT in the clinical setting. METHODS: Irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea (IBS-D) and healthy volunteers (HVs) were enrolled and received a 10 g, 20 g, or 40 g dose lactose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) in a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. The lactase gene promoter region was sequenced. Breath samples and symptoms were acquired at baseline and every 15 min for 3 h (13 measurements). The detection rates of lactose malabsorption (LM) and lactose intolerance (LI) for a 4SLHBT that acquired four measurements at 0, 90, 120, and 180 min from the same data set were compared with the results of standard LHBT. RESULTS: Sixty IBS-D patients and 60 HVs were studied. The genotype in all participants was C/C-13910. LM and LI detection rates increased with lactose dose from 10 g, 20 g to 40 g in both groups (P < 0.001). 4SLHBT showed excellent diagnostic concordance with standard LHBT (97%-100%, Kappa?? 0.815-0.942) with high sensitivity (90%-100%) and specificity (100%) at all three lactose doses in both groups. CONCLUSION: Reducing the number of measurements from 13 to 4 samples did not significantly impact on the accuracy of LHBT in health and IBS-D. 4SLHBT is a valid test for assessment of LM and LI in clinical practice.

  6. The Relationship between Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Hypertension in a Nationally Representative Sample.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Sarah Dee; Shankar, Anoop

    2015-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), characterized by abnormal respiratory patterns or inadequate quantity of ventilation, is common in adults. A positive association between SDB and hypertension has been established, in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. One void in the literature concerns the role of race/ethnicity in the association between SDB and hypertension. In this context, a cross-sectional study was performed on 6,783 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008. Participants were ?age 20 and free from cardiovascular disease. The outcome of interest was hypertension, defined as ?140?mmHg systolic blood pressure (BP), and/or ?90?mmHg diastolic BP or antihypertensive medication use. Self-reported SDB was positively associated with hypertension, independent of confounders such as depression, diabetes, cholesterol levels, and body mass index, among others. The association persisted in subgroup analyses by gender, with a stronger association among males than females, as well as by race/ethnicity, with non-Hispanic blacks displaying the strongest association. In the multivariable-adjusted model, compared to a sleep summary score of zero (referent), the OR (95% CI) of hypertension for non-Hispanic blacks was 1.34 (0.98-1.83) for a sleep summary score of 1, 1.44 (1.06-1.97) for a score of 2 and 3.72 (1.98-7.00) for a score of >3; p-trend < 0.0001. SDB was positively associated with hypertension in a large, nationally representative sample of US adults. Along with being prevalent, SDB is also treatable. Therefore, our results are important for minority race/ethnic groups who typically experience a higher baseline for negative health outcomes. PMID:26064690

  7. The Relationship between Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Hypertension in a Nationally Representative Sample

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, Sarah Dee; Shankar, Anoop

    2015-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), characterized by abnormal respiratory patterns or inadequate quantity of ventilation, is common in adults. A positive association between SDB and hypertension has been established, in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. One void in the literature concerns the role of race/ethnicity in the association between SDB and hypertension. In this context, a cross-sectional study was performed on 6,783 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008. Participants were ?age 20 and free from cardiovascular disease. The outcome of interest was hypertension, defined as ?140?mmHg systolic blood pressure (BP), and/or ?90?mmHg diastolic BP or antihypertensive medication use. Self-reported SDB was positively associated with hypertension, independent of confounders such as depression, diabetes, cholesterol levels, and body mass index, among others. The association persisted in subgroup analyses by gender, with a stronger association among males than females, as well as by race/ethnicity, with non-Hispanic blacks displaying the strongest association. In the multivariable-adjusted model, compared to a sleep summary score of zero (referent), the OR (95% CI) of hypertension for non-Hispanic blacks was 1.34 (0.98–1.83) for a sleep summary score of 1, 1.44 (1.06–1.97) for a score of 2 and 3.72 (1.98–7.00) for a score of >3; p-trend < 0.0001. SDB was positively associated with hypertension in a large, nationally representative sample of US adults. Along with being prevalent, SDB is also treatable. Therefore, our results are important for minority race/ethnic groups who typically experience a higher baseline for negative health outcomes.

  8. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing §...

  9. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing §...

  10. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing §...

  11. Assessment of the impact of collection temperature and sampler design on the measurement of exhaled breath condensate pH in healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Andrew G; Love, Sandy; Parkin, Timothy D H; Duz, Marco; Cathcart, Michael; Hughes, Kristopher J

    2012-02-01

    The pH measurement of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) may provide a non-invasive method of assessing the lower airways of horses but the methodology used may influence findings. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two sampling devices and three methods of condensation surface cooling (ethanol slush, -100°C; dry ice, -75°C; water ice, 0°C) on EBC pH. Each method was tested 30 times using six healthy ponies. Sample pH was determined before and after de-aeration with argon for 10 min. Sampler design was found to significantly affect pH. Samples collected as a liquid had a significantly higher pH than samples frozen during collection (P<0.05). De-aeration resulted in significantly higher pH (P<0.05) with less variation. This study has shown that device design and condensation surface temperature will influence EBC pH, which will prevent a direct comparison of results when different methodologies are used. PMID:21251858

  12. Current Status of Methods and Techniques for Breath Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenqing Cao; Yixiang Duan

    2007-01-01

    Due to the great potentials in clinical diagnosis, disease state monitoring, and environmental exposure assessment, the breath test is becoming one of the most desirable noninvasive procedures for clinical diagnostics. This article reviews the technical aspects of breath analysis including sample collection, analyte preconcentration, vapor desorption, and various measurement techniques, as well as some recent developments in the field. Because

  13. USE OF EXHALED BREATH CONDENSATE IN A HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a noninvasive, repeatable collection technique to sample biomarkers of lung inflammation, oxidative stress, and environmental exposure. It is unclear whether EBC is an effective tool in human environmental exposure studies with multi-day samplin...

  14. Analysis of the research sample collections of Uppsala biobank.

    PubMed

    Engelmark, Malin T; Beskow, Anna H

    2014-10-01

    Uppsala Biobank is the joint and only biobank organization of the two principals, Uppsala University and Uppsala University Hospital. Biobanks are required to have updated registries on sample collection composition and management in order to fulfill legal regulations. We report here the results from the first comprehensive and overall analysis of the 131 research sample collections organized in the biobank. The results show that the median of the number of samples in the collections was 700 and that the number of samples varied from less than 500 to over one million. Blood samples, such as whole blood, serum, and plasma, were included in the vast majority, 84.0%, of the research sample collections. Also, as much as 95.5% of the newly collected samples within healthcare included blood samples, which further supports the concept that blood samples have fundamental importance for medical research. Tissue samples were also commonly used and occurred in 39.7% of the research sample collections, often combined with other types of samples. In total, 96.9% of the 131 sample collections included samples collected for healthcare, showing the importance of healthcare as a research infrastructure. Of the collections that had accessed existing samples from healthcare, as much as 96.3% included tissue samples from the Department of Pathology, which shows the importance of pathology samples as a resource for medical research. Analysis of different research areas shows that the most common of known public health diseases are covered. Collections that had generated the most publications, up to over 300, contained a large number of samples collected systematically and repeatedly over many years. More knowledge about existing biobank materials, together with public registries on sample collections, will support research collaborations, improve transparency, and bring us closer to the goals of biobanks, which is to save and prolong human lives and improve health and quality of life. PMID:25340941

  15. Sensitive determination of isoprostanes in exhaled breath condensate samples with use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Janicka, Monika; Kubica, Pawe?; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Kot, Jacek; Namie?nik, Jacek

    2012-04-15

    Oxidative stress is the hallmark of various inflammatory lung diseases. Increased concentrations of reactive oxygen species in the lungs are reflected by elevated concentrations of oxidative stress markers in the breath, airways, lung tissue and blood. The aim of this work was to develop a method for the fast measurement of F2-isoprostanes in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples using equipment which is nowadays available and routinely exploited in analytical laboratories, liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Because of the limited volume of an EBC sample and the very low concentrations of biomarkers, we chose lyophilization as the preconcentration technique. The diastereoisomers determined show similar fragmentation patterns, which is why complete chromatographic separation with excellent peak shapes was essential for accurate quantitation. Isoprostanes were separated using a narrow-bore Agilent Extend C-18 column in isocratic elution mode using acetonitrile/methanol and water with the addition of 0.01%(v/v) formic acid. The limits of determination and quantitation for the determination of four isoprostanes in samples of EBC ranged from 1 to 3 pg/ml. The recoveries of all isoprostanes ranged from 96.7 to 101.7, with a relative standard deviation of <7%. The stability of the isoprostanes at different temperatures was measured as well. PMID:22445305

  16. DS Software for Analyzing Data Collected Using Double Sampling

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    DS ­ Software for Analyzing Data Collected Using Double Sampling Open-File Report 2011­1269 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey #12;#12;DS ­ Software for Analyzing Data Collected Using, DS ­ Software for analyzing data collected using double sampling: U.S. Geological Survey Open

  17. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section 29...Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco...the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide residues shall be sampled in...

  18. Evaluating Sampling Methods for Uncooperative Collections

    E-print Network

    Hawking, David

    to provide a 1 DIR is also referred to as "metasearch" or "federated search". Permission to make digital which depend only on the normal query- response mechanism of the applicable search facilities. We Distributed information retrieval, random sampling 1. INTRODUCTION Simultaneous search of documents from

  19. Collection and Preparation of Thin Sections of Oriented Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Vicki Lynn

    1990-01-01

    Outlined is a method for collecting and cutting oriented samples for microstructural analysis including handling the samples in the laboratory, cutting and orienting chips parallel to the motion plane, and cutting and orienting chips normal to Le and foliation. (CW)

  20. 21 CFR 1230.30 - Collection of samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Administrative Procedures § 1230.30 Collection of samples. Samples for examination by or under the...

  1. 21 CFR 1230.30 - Collection of samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Administrative Procedures § 1230.30 Collection of samples. Samples for examination by or under the...

  2. 21 CFR 1230.30 - Collection of samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Administrative Procedures § 1230.30 Collection of samples. Samples for examination by or under the...

  3. 21 CFR 1230.30 - Collection of samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Administrative Procedures § 1230.30 Collection of samples. Samples for examination by or under the...

  4. 21 CFR 1230.30 - Collection of samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Administrative Procedures § 1230.30 Collection of samples. Samples for examination by or under the...

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF CORE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cozzi; A. Duncan

    2010-01-01

    During the month of September 2008, grout core samples were collected from the Saltstone Disposal Facility, Vault 4, cell E. This grout was placed during processing campaigns in December 2007 from Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment Batch 2 salt solution. The 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria sample collected on 11\\/16\\/07 represents the salt solution in the core samples. Core samples were retrieved

  6. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. 761.286...Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.286 Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. At each...

  7. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. 761.286...Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.286 Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. At each...

  8. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. 761.286...Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.286 Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. At each...

  9. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. 761.286...Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.286 Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. At each...

  10. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. 761.286...Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.286 Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. At each...

  11. Ion-trap detection of volatile organic compounds in alveolar breath

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Phillips; J. Greenberg

    1992-01-01

    We describe a method for the collection and microanalysis of the volatile organic compounds in human breath. A transportable apparatus supplies subjects with purified air and samples their alveolar breath; the volatile organic compounds are captured in an adsorptive trap containing activated carbon and molecular sieve. The sample is thermally desorbed from the trap in an automated microprocessor-controlled device, concentrated

  12. Avian influenza virus sample types, collection, and handling.

    PubMed

    Killian, Mary Lea

    2014-01-01

    Successful detection of avian influenza (AI) virus, viral antigen, nucleic acid, or antibody is dependent upon the collection of the appropriate sample type, the quality of the sample, and the proper storage and handling of the sample. The diagnostic tests to be performed should be considered prior to sample collection. Sera are acceptable samples for ELISA or agar gel precipitin tests, but not for real-time RT-PCR. Likewise, swabs and/or tissues are acceptable for real-time RT-PCR and virus isolation. The sample type will also depend on the type of birds that are being tested; although it is optimal to collect both oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs, oropharyngeal swabs should be collected from gallinaceous poultry and cloacal swabs should be collected from waterfowl. In addition to collecting the appropriate sample for the tests to be performed, selecting the right materials for sample collection (i.e., type of swab) is very important. This chapter outlines the collection of different specimen types and procedures for proper specimen handling. PMID:24899422

  13. Snow White Trench Prepared for Sample Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The informally named 'Snow White' trench is the source for the next sample to be acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander for analysis by the wet chemistry lab.

    The Surface Stereo Imager on Phoenix took this shadow-enhanced image of the trench, on the eastern end of Phoenix's work area, on Sol 103, or the 103rd day of the mission, Sept. 8, 2008. The trench is about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide.

    The wet chemistry lab is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. The 2011 International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meeting in Parma, Italy: a collection of comments from attendees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joachim D Pleil; Anton Amann

    2011-01-01

    ForewordThe 2011 Conference 'Breath Analysis Summit' was hosted by Antonio Mutti and Massimo Corradi, professors from the University of Parma, Italy. It was held at the Centro Congressi di Parma (Conference Center) in Parma. This was our highest attended breath conference to date, and by all measures, extremely successful. For this editorial the authors solicited comments from the attendees and

  15. Breath Analysis in Disease Diagnosis: Methodological Considerations and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Célia; Turner, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Breath analysis is a promising field with great potential for non-invasive diagnosis of a number of disease states. Analysis of the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath with an acceptable accuracy are assessed by means of using analytical techniques with high sensitivity, accuracy, precision, low response time, and low detection limit, which are desirable characteristics for the detection of VOCs in human breath. “Breath fingerprinting”, indicative of a specific clinical status, relies on the use of multivariate statistics methods with powerful in-built algorithms. The need for standardisation of sample collection and analysis is the main issue concerning breath analysis, blocking the introduction of breath tests into clinical practice. This review describes recent scientific developments in basic research and clinical applications, namely issues concerning sampling and biochemistry, highlighting the diagnostic potential of breath analysis for disease diagnosis. Several considerations that need to be taken into account in breath analysis are documented here, including the growing need for metabolomics to deal with breath profiles. PMID:24957037

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF CORE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, A.; Duncan, A.

    2010-01-28

    During the month of September 2008, grout core samples were collected from the Saltstone Disposal Facility, Vault 4, cell E. This grout was placed during processing campaigns in December 2007 from Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment Batch 2 salt solution. The 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria sample collected on 11/16/07 represents the salt solution in the core samples. Core samples were retrieved to initiate the historical database of properties of emplaced Saltstone and to demonstrate the correlation between field collected and laboratory prepared samples. Three samples were collected from three different locations. Samples were collected using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit. In April 2009, the core samples were removed from the evacuated sample container, inspected, transferred to PVC containers, and backfilled with nitrogen. Samples furthest from the wall were the most intact cylindrically shaped cored samples. The shade of the core samples darkened as the depth of coring increased. Based on the visual inspection, sample 3-3 was selected for all subsequent analysis. The density and porosity of the Vault 4 core sample, 1.90 g/cm{sup 3} and 59.90% respectively, were comparable to values achieved for laboratory prepared samples. X-ray diffraction analysis identified phases consistent with the expectations for hydrated Saltstone. Microscopic analysis revealed morphology features characteristic of cementitious materials with fly ash and calcium silicate hydrate gel. When taken together, the results of the density, porosity, x-ray diffraction analysis and microscopic analysis support the conclusion that the Vault 4, Cell E core sample is representative of the expected waste form.

  17. Matrix isolation apparatus with extended sample collection capability

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, Gerald T. (Bourbonnais, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A gas-sample collection device provides for the matrix isolation of increased amounts of a sample material for spectrographic analysis from a gas chromatographic separation. The device includes an evacuated sample collection chamber containing a disc-like specular carousel having a generally circular lateral surface upon which the sample is deposited in an inert gas matrix for infrared (IR) spectral analysis. The evacuated sample chamber is mounted in a fixed manner and is coupled to and supports a rotating cryostatic coupler which, in turn, supports the specular carousel within the collection chamber. A rotational drive system connected to the cryostatic coupler provides for its rotational displacement as well as that of the sample collecting carousel. In addition, rotation of the cryostatic coupler effects vertical displacement of the carousel to permit the collection of an extended sample band in a helical configuration on the entire lateral surface of the carousel. The various components of the carousel's angular/linear displacement drive system are located exterior to the cryostatic coupler for easy access and improved operation. The cryostatic coupler includes a 360.degree. rotary union assembly for permitting the delivery of a high pressure working fluid to the cryostatic coupler in a continuous flow manner for maintaining the specular carousel at a low temperature, e.g., 10.degree.-20.degree. K., for improved uninterrupted gas sample collection and analysis.

  18. A perception and manipulation system for collecting rock samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, T.; Delingette, H.; Deluise, M.; Hsin, Y.; Hebert, M.; Ikeuchi, Katsushi

    1991-01-01

    An important part of a planetary exploration mission is to collect and analyze surface samples. As part of the Carnegie Mellon University Ambler Project, researchers are investigating techniques for collecting samples using a robot arm and a range sensor. The aim of this work is to make the sample collection operation fully autonomous. Described here are the components of the experimental system, including a perception module that extracts objects of interest from range images and produces models of their shapes, and a manipulation module that enables the system to pick up the objects identified by the perception module. The system was tested on a small testbed using natural terrain.

  19. Collecting Ground Samples for Balloon-Borne Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack; Zimmerman, Wayne; Wu, Jiunn Jenq

    2009-01-01

    A proposed system in a gondola containing scientific instruments suspended by a balloon over the surface of the Saturn moon Titan would quickly acquire samples of rock or ice from the ground below. Prototypes of a sample-collecting device that would be a major part of the system have been tested under cryogenic and non-cryogenic conditions on Earth. Systems like this one could also be used in non-cryogenic environments on Earth to collect samples of rock, soil, ice, mud, or other ground material from such inaccessible or hazardous locations as sites of suspected chemical spills or biological contamination. The sample-collecting device would be a harpoonlike device that would be connected to the balloon-borne gondola by a tether long enough to reach the ground. The device would be dropped from the gondola to acquire a sample, then would be reeled back up to the gondola, where the sample would be analyzed by the onboard instruments. Each prototype of the sample-collecting device has a sharp front (lower) end, a hollow core for retaining a sample, a spring for holding the sample in the hollow core, and a rear (upper) annular cavity for retaining liquid sample material. Aerodynamic fins at the rear help to keep the front end pointed downward. In tests, these prototype devices were dropped from various heights and used to gather samples of dry sand, moist sand, cryogenic water ice, and warmer water ice.

  20. Testing Your Soil: How to Collect and Send Samples 

    E-print Network

    Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

    2002-06-26

    Soil tests can be used to estimate the kinds and amounts of soil nutrients available to plants and as aids in determining fertilizer needs. This publication covers the three-step procedure for obtaining sample bags and instructions, collecting...

  1. Testing Your Soil: How to Collect and Send Samples

    E-print Network

    Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

    2002-06-26

    Soil tests can be used to estimate the kinds and amounts of soil nutrients available to plants and as aids in determining fertilizer needs. This publication covers the three-step procedure for obtaining sample bags and instructions, collecting...

  2. 21 CFR 1230.31 - Where samples may be collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Administrative Procedures § 1230.31 Where samples may be collected. Caustic or corrosive substances within...

  3. 21 CFR 1230.31 - Where samples may be collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Administrative Procedures § 1230.31 Where samples may be collected. Caustic or corrosive substances within...

  4. 21 CFR 1230.31 - Where samples may be collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Administrative Procedures § 1230.31 Where samples may be collected. Caustic or corrosive substances within...

  5. 21 CFR 1230.31 - Where samples may be collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Administrative Procedures § 1230.31 Where samples may be collected. Caustic or corrosive substances within...

  6. 21 CFR 1230.31 - Where samples may be collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Administrative Procedures § 1230.31 Where samples may be collected. Caustic or corrosive substances within...

  7. Aerosol sampling system for collection of Capstone depleted uranium particles in a high-energy environment.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Thomas D; Guilmette, Raymond A; Cheng, Yung Sung; Parkhurst, Mary Ann; Hoover, Mark D

    2009-03-01

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study was undertaken to obtain aerosol samples resulting from a large-caliber DU penetrator striking an Abrams or Bradley test vehicle. The sampling strategy was designed to (1) optimize the performance of the samplers and maintain their integrity in the extreme environment created during perforation of an armored vehicle by a DU penetrator, (2) collect aerosols as a function of time post perforation, and (3) obtain size-classified samples for analysis of chemical composition, particle morphology, and solubility in lung fluid. This paper describes the experimental setup and sampling methodologies used to achieve these objectives. Custom-designed arrays of sampling heads were secured to the inside of the target in locations approximating the breathing zones of the crew locations in the test vehicles. Each array was designed to support nine filter cassettes and nine cascade impactors mounted with quick-disconnect fittings. Shielding and sampler placement strategies were used to minimize sampler loss caused by the penetrator impact and the resulting fragments of eroded penetrator and perforated armor. A cyclone train was used to collect larger quantities of DU aerosol for measurement of chemical composition and solubility. A moving filter sample was used to obtain semicontinuous samples for DU concentration determination. Control for the air samplers was provided by five remotely located valve control and pressure monitoring units located inside and around the test vehicle. These units were connected to a computer interface chassis and controlled using a customized LabVIEW engineering computer control program. The aerosol sampling arrays and control systems for the Capstone study provided the needed aerosol samples for physicochemical analysis, and the resultant data were used for risk assessment of exposure to DU aerosol. PMID:19204482

  8. Aerosol Sampling System for Collection of Capstone Depleted Uranium Particles in a High-Energy Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Thomas D.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Hoover, Mark D.

    2009-03-01

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Study was undertaken to obtain aerosol samples resulting from a kinetic-energy cartridge with a large-caliber depleted uranium (DU) penetrator striking an Abrams or Bradley test vehicle. The sampling strategy was designed to (1) optimize the performance of the samplers and maintain their integrity in the extreme environment created during perforation of an armored vehicle by a DU penetrator, (2) collect aerosols as a function of time post-impact, and (3) obtain size-classified samples for analysis of chemical composition, particle morphology, and solubility in lung fluid. This paper describes the experimental setup and sampling methodologies used to achieve these objectives. Custom-designed arrays of sampling heads were secured to the inside of the target in locations approximating the breathing zones of the vehicle commander, loader, gunner, and driver. Each array was designed to support nine filter cassettes and nine cascade impactors mounted with quick-disconnect fittings. Shielding and sampler placement strategies were used to minimize sampler loss caused by the penetrator impact and the resulting fragments of eroded penetrator and perforated armor. A cyclone train was used to collect larger quantities of DU aerosol for chemical composition and solubility. A moving filter sample was used to obtain semicontinuous samples for depleted uranium concentration determination. Control for the air samplers was provided by five remotely located valve control and pressure monitoring units located inside and around the test vehicle. These units were connected to a computer interface chassis and controlled using a customized LabVIEW engineering computer control program. The aerosol sampling arrays and control systems for the Capstone study provided the needed aerosol samples for physicochemical analysis, and the resultant data were used for risk assessment of exposure to DU aerosol.

  9. Biological sample collection, processing, storage and information management.

    PubMed

    Vaught, Jimmie B; Henderson, Marianne K

    2011-01-01

    The collection, processing and storage of biological samples occur in the larger context of organizations known as biological resource centres or biospecimen resources. Biological resource centres are service providers and repositories of living cells, as well as genomes of organisms, archived cells and tissues, and information relating to these materials. The US National Cancer Institute defines a biospecimen resource as a "... collection of human specimens and associated data for research purposes, the physical entity where the collection is stored, and all relevant processes and policies." The complexities involved in proper sample management policies and procedures are often underestimated. Prior to initiating a study that will involve the collection of biological samples, many decisions need to be made that will affect the quality of the samples and the outcome of the study. The appropriate sample type(s) needs to be chosen. The processing protocol that will result in samples of suitable quality for the intended laboratory analyses must be selected from among various possible protocols. Consideration must be given to the proper storage conditions to maintain sample quality until analyses are completed. All of these activities must be monitored and controlled by appropriate sample tracking and laboratory informatics systems. A comprehensive quality management system, with standard operating procedures and other appropriate controls, is necessary to assure that biological samples are of consistent quality and right for the intended analyses and study goals. PMID:22997855

  10. USGS Technician Collects Water Sample at a Weir

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A USGS technician collects a water sample at the Faka Union Canal Weir #1, Collier County, Florida. The sample was used to help determine the source of the warm water responsible for the site's popularity among manatees as a warm water refuge....

  11. COLLECTING REPRESENTATIVE SOIL SAMPLES FOR N AND P FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil fertilizer recommendations in modern crop production rely on laboratory analysis of representative soil samples. Regardless on where the samples were collected (grid points, management zones, or whole fields) the accuracy and precision of the fertilizer recommendation can be improved by consid...

  12. COLLECTING REPRESENTATIVE SOIL SAMPLES FOR N AND P FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil fertilizer recommendations in modern crop production rely on laboratory analysis of representative soil samples. Regardless of where the samples were collected (grid points, management zones, or whole fields), the accuracy and precision of the fertilizer recommendation can be improved by consi...

  13. Collection requirements for trace-element analyses of extraterrestrial samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, George J.; Sutton, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    Trace-element abundances have proven important in understanding the evolution of and interrelationships between different meteorites. Preliminary investigations of the trace-element contents of interplanetary dust particles indicate that trace-element abundances will prove equally important in distinguishing between micrometeorites of different types, comparing the interplanetary dust to the meteorites, and assessing the degree of thermal alteration experienced either on the parent body or during the collection process. Sample collection, delivery, and curation must be accomplished in a manner to avoid contamination with even trace amounts of the elements to be analyzed. The present SXRF sensitivity for micrometeorite analysis is of order 1 femtogram, but anticipated improvements in sensitivity will require sample contamination substantially below this level. Sample collection and handling equipment should be constructed from materials selected for ultrahigh purity, and serious consideration should be given in selecting the particular set of elements from which the collection apparatus is composed so as not to compromise useful information.

  14. Collection requirements for trace-element analyses of extraterrestrial samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, George J.; Sutton, S. R.

    Trace-element abundances have proven important in understanding the evolution of and interrelationships between different meteorites. Preliminary investigations of the trace-element contents of interplanetary dust particles indicate that trace-element abundances will prove equally important in distinguishing between micrometeorites of different types, comparing the interplanetary dust to the meteorites, and assessing the degree of thermal alteration experienced either on the parent body or during the collection process. Sample collection, delivery, and curation must be accomplished in a manner to avoid contamination with even trace amounts of the elements to be analyzed. The present SXRF sensitivity for micrometeorite analysis is of order 1 femtogram, but anticipated improvements in sensitivity will require sample contamination substantially below this level. Sample collection and handling equipment should be constructed from materials selected for ultrahigh purity, and serious consideration should be given in selecting the particular set of elements from which the collection apparatus is composed so as not to compromise useful information.

  15. Bad Breath

    MedlinePLUS

    ... breath? Maybe you shouldn't have put extra onions on your hamburger at lunch. What's a kid ... bad breath: foods and drinks, such as garlic, onions, cheese, orange juice, and soda poor dental hygiene ( ...

  16. On the improvement of blood sample collection at clinical laboratories

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood samples are usually collected daily from different collection points, such hospitals and health centers, and transported to a core laboratory for testing. This paper presents a project to improve the collection routes of two of the largest clinical laboratories in Spain. These routes must be designed in a cost-efficient manner while satisfying two important constraints: (i) two-hour time windows between collection and delivery, and (ii) vehicle capacity. Methods A heuristic method based on a genetic algorithm has been designed to solve the problem of blood sample collection. The user enters the following information for each collection point: postal address, average collecting time, and average demand (in thermal containers). After implementing the algorithm using C programming, this is run and, in few seconds, it obtains optimal (or near-optimal) collection routes that specify the collection sequence for each vehicle. Different scenarios using various types of vehicles have been considered. Unless new collection points are added or problem parameters are changed substantially, routes need to be designed only once. Results The two laboratories in this study previously planned routes manually for 43 and 74 collection points, respectively. These routes were covered by an external carrier company. With the implementation of this algorithm, the number of routes could be reduced from ten to seven in one laboratory and from twelve to nine in the other, which represents significant annual savings in transportation costs. Conclusions The algorithm presented can be easily implemented in other laboratories that face this type of problem, and it is particularly interesting and useful as the number of collection points increases. The method designs blood collection routes with reduced costs that meet the time and capacity constraints of the problem. PMID:24406140

  17. Evaluation of Bio-VOC Sampler for Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in Exhaled Breath.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jae; Fan, Maomian; Harshman, Sean W; Garrison, Catherine E; Dershem, Victoria L; Phillips, Jeffrey B; Grigsby, Claude C; Ott, Darrin K

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from exhaled breath has been used to determine exposures of humans to chemicals. Prior to analysis of VOCs, breath samples are often collected with canisters or bags and concentrated. The Bio-VOC breath sampler, a commercial sampling device, has been recently introduced to the market with growing use. The main advantage for this sampler is to collect the last portion of exhaled breath, which is more likely to represent the air deep in the lungs. However, information about the Bio-VOC sampler is somewhat limited. Therefore, we have thoroughly evaluated the sampler here. We determined the volume of the breath air collected in the sampler was approximately 88 mL. When sampling was repeated multiple times, with the succeeding exhalations applied to a single sorbent tube, we observed linear relationships between the normalized peak intensity and the number of repeated collections with the sampler in many of the breath VOCs detected. No moisture effect was observed on the Tenax sorbent tubes used. However, due to the limitation in the collection volume, the use of the Bio-VOC sampler is recommended only for detection of VOCs present at high concentrations unless repeated collections of breath samples on the sampler are conducted. PMID:25532709

  18. Factors influencing breath ammonia determination.

    PubMed

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew; Spacek, Lisa A; Lewicki, Rafal; Tittel, Frank; Loccioni, Claudio; Russo, Adolfo; Risby, Terence H

    2013-09-01

    Amongst volatile compounds (VCs) present in exhaled breath, ammonia has held great promise and yet it has confounded researchers due to its inherent reactivity. Herein we have evaluated various factors in both breath instrumentation and the breath collection process in an effort to reduce variability. We found that the temperature of breath sampler and breath sensor, mouth rinse pH, and mode of breathing to be important factors. The influence of the rinses is heavily dependent upon the pH of the rinse. The basic rinse (pH 8.0) caused a mean increase of the ammonia concentration by 410 ± 221 ppb. The neutral rinse (pH 7.0), slightly acidic rinse (pH 5.8), and acidic rinse (pH 2.5) caused a mean decrease of the ammonia concentration by 498 ± 355 ppb, 527 ± 198 ppb, and 596 ± 385 ppb, respectively. Mode of breathing (mouth-open versus mouth-closed) demonstrated itself to have a large impact on the rate of recovery of breath ammonia after a water rinse. Within 30 min, breath ammonia returned to 98 ± 16% that of the baseline with mouth open breathing, while mouth closed breathing allowed breath ammonia to return to 53 ± 14% of baseline. These results contribute to a growing body of literature that will improve reproducibly in ammonia and other VCs. PMID:23774041

  19. APOLLO 12: C.Conrad Jr. collects geological samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 12: 'Pete' Conrad collects samples from the lunar surface, while at the same time adjusting to, and remarking on, the working conditions. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 12: 'Pinpoint for Science'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLLO 12: Second manned lunar landing and return with Charles 'Pete' Conrad, Jr., Richard F. Gordon, and Alan F. Bean. Landed in the Ocean of Storms on November 19, 1969; deployed television camera and ALSEP experiments; two EVA's performed; collected core samples and lunar materials; photographed and retrieved parts from surveyor 3 spacecraft. Mission duration 244hrs 36min 24sec

  20. Apparatus and process for collection of gas and vapor samples

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Dennis G. (Augusta, GA); Peterson, Kurt D. (Aiken, SC); Riha, Brian D. (Augusta, GA)

    2008-04-01

    A gas sampling apparatus and process is provided in which a standard crimping tool is modified by an attached collar. The collar permits operation of the crimping tool while also facilitating the introduction of a supply of gas to be introduced into a storage vial. The introduced gas supply is used to purge ambient air from a collection chamber and an interior of the sample vial. Upon completion of the purging operation, the vial is sealed using the crimping tool.

  1. Characteristics of the samples in the FNG fission deposit collection

    SciTech Connect

    Meadows, J.W.

    1990-12-01

    Information concerning the samples in the Fast Neutron Generator (FNG) Group's fission deposit collection has been assembled. This includes the physical dimensions, isotopic analyses, half-lives, alpha emission rates specific activities and deposit weights. 10 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. USGS Collects Sediment Samples at Grand Isle Beach

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists collected environmental data and samples at beach, barrier island, and wetland sites in response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.  The USGS Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas Science Centers collaborated to ...

  3. USGS Collects Sediment Samples at East Ship Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists collected environmental data and samples at beach, barrier island, and wetland sites in response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.  The USGS Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas Science Centers collaborated to ...

  4. Experimental Design for the INL Sample Collection Operational Test

    SciTech Connect

    Amidan, Brett G.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Matzke, Brett D.; Filliben, James J.; Jones, Barbara

    2007-12-13

    This document describes the test events and numbers of samples comprising the experimental design that was developed for the contamination, decontamination, and sampling of a building at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This study is referred to as the INL Sample Collection Operational Test. Specific objectives were developed to guide the construction of the experimental design. The main objective is to assess the relative abilities of judgmental and probabilistic sampling strategies to detect contamination in individual rooms or on a whole floor of the INL building. A second objective is to assess the use of probabilistic and Bayesian (judgmental + probabilistic) sampling strategies to make clearance statements of the form “X% confidence that at least Y% of a room (or floor of the building) is not contaminated. The experimental design described in this report includes five test events. The test events (i) vary the floor of the building on which the contaminant will be released, (ii) provide for varying or adjusting the concentration of contaminant released to obtain the ideal concentration gradient across a floor of the building, and (iii) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. The ideal contaminant gradient would have high concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations decreasing to zero in rooms at the opposite end of the building floor. For each of the five test events, the specified floor of the INL building will be contaminated with BG, a stand-in for Bacillus anthracis. The BG contaminant will be disseminated from a point-release device located in the room specified in the experimental design for each test event. Then judgmental and probabilistic samples will be collected according to the pre-specified sampling plan. Judgmental samples will be selected based on professional judgment and prior information. Probabilistic samples will be selected in sufficient numbers to provide desired confidence for detecting contamination or clearing uncontaminated (or decontaminated) areas. Following sample collection for a given test event, the INL building will be decontaminated using Cl2O gas. For possibly contaminated areas (individual rooms or the whole floor of a building), the numbers of probabilistic samples were chosen to provide 95% confidence of detecting contaminated areas of specified sizes. The numbers of judgmental samples were chosen based on guidance from experts in judgmental sampling. For rooms that may be uncontaminated following a contamination event, or for whole floors after decontamination, the numbers of judgmental and probabilistic samples were chosen using a Bayesian approach that provides for combining judgmental and probabilistic samples to make a clearance statement of the form “95% confidence that at least 99% of the room (or floor) is not contaminated”. The experimental design also provides for making 95%/Y% clearance statements using only probabilistic samples, where Y < 99. For each test event, the numbers of samples were selected for a minimal plan (containing fewer samples) and a preferred plan (containing more samples). The preferred plan is recommended over the minimal plan. The preferred plan specifies a total of 1452 samples, 912 after contamination and 540 after decontamination. The minimal plan specifies a total of 1119 samples, 744 after contamination and 375 after decontamination. If the advantages of the “after decontamination” portion of the preferred plan are judged to be small compared to the “after decontamination” portion of the minimal plan, it is an option to combine the “after contamination” portion of the preferred plan (912 samples) with the “after decontamination” portion of the minimal plan (375 samples). This hybrid plan would involve a total of 1287 samples.

  5. Molecular epidemiology biomarkers-Sample collection and processing considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Nina T. [Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, 317 Warren Hall, Berkeley 94720-7360 (United States)]. E-mail: ninah@berkeley.edu; Pfleger, Laura [Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, 317 Warren Hall, Berkeley 94720-7360 (United States); Berger, Eileen [Input Automation Inc., Sonoma Mountain Road, Glen Ellen, CA 95442 (United States); Ho, Alan [Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, 317 Warren Hall, Berkeley 94720-7360 (United States); Bastaki, Maria [Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, 317 Warren Hall, Berkeley 94720-7360 (United States)

    2005-08-07

    Biomarker studies require processing and storage of numerous biological samples with the goals of obtaining a large amount of information and minimizing future research costs. An efficient study design includes provisions for processing of the original samples, such as cryopreservation, DNA isolation, and preparation of specimens for exposure assessment. Use of standard, two-dimensional and nanobarcodes and customized electronic databases assure efficient management of large sample collections and tracking results of data analyses. Standard operating procedures and quality control plans help to protect sample quality and to assure validity of the biomarker data. Specific state, federal and international regulations are in place regarding research with human samples, governing areas including custody, safety of handling, and transport of human samples. Appropriate informed consent must be obtained from the study subjects prior to sample collection and confidentiality of results maintained. Finally, examples of three biorepositories of different scale (European Cancer Study, National Cancer Institute and School of Public Health Biorepository, University of California, Berkeley) are used to illustrate challenges faced by investigators and the ways to overcome them. New software and biorepository technologies are being developed by many companies that will help to bring biological banking to a new level required by molecular epidemiology of the 21st century.

  6. MEASUREMENTS OF AIR POLLUTANT BIOMARKERS WITH EXHALED BREATH TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has appeal as a noninvasive surrogate sample for lung-derived fluid. Additionally, EBC can be collected multiple times over the course of a study, unlike many other lung sampling techniques which can be performed fewer times. However validat...

  7. Sample Collection Method Bias Effects in Quantitative Phosphoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Kanshin, Evgeny; Tyers, Michael; Thibault, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Current advances in selective enrichment, fractionation, and MS detection of phosphorylated peptides allowed identification and quantitation of tens of thousands phosphosites from minute amounts of biological material. One of the major challenges in the field is preserving the in vivo phosphorylation state of the proteins throughout the sample preparation workflow. This is typically achieved by using phosphatase inhibitors and denaturing conditions during cell lysis. Here we determine if the upstream cell collection techniques could introduce changes in protein phosphorylation. To evaluate the effect of sample collection protocols on the global phosphorylation status of the cell, we compared different sample workflows by metabolic labeling and quantitative mass spectrometry on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cultures. We identified highly similar phosphopeptides for cells harvested in ice cold isotonic phosphate buffer, cold ethanol, trichloroacetic acid, and liquid nitrogen. However, quantitative analyses revealed that the commonly used phosphate buffer unexpectedly activated signaling events. Such effects may introduce systematic bias in phosphoproteomics measurements and biochemical analysis. PMID:26040406

  8. Solid-state gas sensors for breath analysis: a review.

    PubMed

    Di Natale, Corrado; Paolesse, Roberto; Martinelli, Eugenio; Capuano, Rosamaria

    2014-05-01

    The analysis of volatile compounds is an efficient method to appraise information about the chemical composition of liquids and solids. This principle is applied to several practical applications, such as food analysis where many important features (e.g. freshness) can be directly inferred from the analysis of volatile compounds. The same approach can also be applied to a human body where the volatile compounds, collected from the skin, the breath or in the headspace of fluids, might contain information that could be used to diagnose several kinds of diseases. In particular, breath is widely studied and many diseases can be potentially detected from breath analysis. The most fascinating property of breath analysis is the non-invasiveness of the sample collection. Solid-state sensors are considered the natural complement to breath analysis, matching the non-invasiveness with typical sensor features such as low-cost, easiness of use, portability, and the integration with the information networks. Sensors based breath analysis is then expected to dramatically extend the diagnostic capabilities enabling the screening of large populations for the early diagnosis of pathologies. In the last years there has been an increased attention to the development of sensors specifically aimed to this purpose. These investigations involve both specific sensors designed to detect individual compounds and non-specific sensors, operated in array configurations, aimed at clustering subjects according to their health conditions. In this paper, the recent significant applications of these sensors to breath analysis are reviewed and discussed. PMID:24759744

  9. Variability of collagen crosslinks: impact of sample collection period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Dillon, E. L.; DeKerlegand, D. E.; Davis-Street, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    Because of the variability of collagen crosslinks, their use as markers for bone resorption is often criticized. We hypothesized that the variability could be reduced by collecting urine for 24 hours (or longer) instead of using single voids, and by not normalizing to creatinine. Urine samples were collected from 22 healthy subjects during two or more 24-hour periods. Each 24-hour pool and each 2nd void of the day were analyzed for N-telopeptide (NTX), pyridinium (PYD), and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks. Data were analyzed by using linear regression. For NTX, R2 for the two, 2nd-void samples (n = 38) was 0.55, whereas R2 for the two 24-hour pools was 0.51 or 0.52, expressed per day or per creatinine. For PYD and DPD, R2 for the 2nd-void samples was 0.26 and 0.18, R2 for the 24-hour pools expressed per day was 0.58 and 0.74, and R2 for the 24-hour pools expressed per creatinine was 0.65 and 0.76, respectively. Regression of the 2nd void and the corresponding 24-hour pool, expressed per day, yielded R2 = 0.19, 0.19, and 0.08, for NTX, PYD, and DPD, respectively (n = 76 each). For the 2nd-void sample and its corresponding 24-hour pool, expressed per creatinine, R2 = 0.24, 0.33, and 0.08, respectively. In a separate study, the coefficient of variation for NTX was reduced (P < 0.05) when data from more than one 24-hour collection were combined. Thus, the variability inherent in crosslink determinations can be reduced by collecting urine for longer periods. In research studies, the high variability of single-void collections, compounded by creatinine normalization, may alter or obscure findings.

  10. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 864.3260 Section...test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification...test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a device...

  11. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 864.3260 Section...test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification...test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a device...

  12. Fluid sample collection and distribution system. [qualitative analysis of aqueous samples from several points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. L. (inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A multipoint fluid sample collection and distribution system is provided wherein the sample inputs are made through one or more of a number of sampling valves to a progressive cavity pump which is not susceptible to damage by large unfiltered particles. The pump output is through a filter unit that can provide a filtered multipoint sample. An unfiltered multipoint sample is also provided. An effluent sample can be taken and applied to a second progressive cavity pump for pumping to a filter unit that can provide one or more filtered effluent samples. The second pump can also provide an unfiltered effluent sample. Means are provided to periodically back flush each filter unit without shutting off the whole system.

  13. Experimental and Sampling Design for the INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2009-02-16

    This report describes the experimental and sampling design developed to assess sampling approaches and methods for detecting contamination in a building and clearing the building for use after decontamination. An Idaho National Laboratory (INL) building will be contaminated with BG (Bacillus globigii, renamed Bacillus atrophaeus), a simulant for Bacillus anthracis (BA). The contamination, sampling, decontamination, and re-sampling will occur per the experimental and sampling design. This INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test is being planned by the Validated Sampling Plan Working Group (VSPWG). The primary objectives are: 1) Evaluate judgmental and probabilistic sampling for characterization as well as probabilistic and combined (judgment and probabilistic) sampling approaches for clearance, 2) Conduct these evaluations for gradient contamination (from low or moderate down to absent or undetectable) for different initial concentrations of the contaminant, 3) Explore judgment composite sampling approaches to reduce sample numbers, 4) Collect baseline data to serve as an indication of the actual levels of contamination in the tests. A combined judgmental and random (CJR) approach uses Bayesian methodology to combine judgmental and probabilistic samples to make clearance statements of the form "X% confidence that at least Y% of an area does not contain detectable contamination” (X%/Y% clearance statements). The INL-2 experimental design has five test events, which 1) vary the floor of the INL building on which the contaminant will be released, 2) provide for varying the amount of contaminant released to obtain desired concentration gradients, and 3) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. Desirable contaminant gradients would have moderate to low concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations down to zero in other rooms. Such gradients would provide a range of contamination levels to challenge the sampling, sample extraction, and analytical methods to be used in the INL-2 study. For each of the five test events, the specified floor of the INL building will be contaminated with BG using a point-release device located in the room specified in the experimental design. Then quality control (QC), reference material coupon (RMC), judgmental, and probabilistic samples will be collected according to the sampling plan for each test event. Judgmental samples will be selected based on professional judgment and prior information. Probabilistic samples were selected with a random aspect and in sufficient numbers to provide desired confidence for detecting contamination or clearing uncontaminated (or decontaminated) areas. Following sample collection for a given test event, the INL building will be decontaminated. For possibly contaminated areas, the numbers of probabilistic samples were chosen to provide 95% confidence of detecting contaminated areas of specified sizes. For rooms that may be uncontaminated following a contamination event, or for whole floors after decontamination, the numbers of judgmental and probabilistic samples were chosen using the CJR approach. The numbers of samples were chosen to support making X%/Y% clearance statements with X = 95% or 99% and Y = 96% or 97%. The experimental and sampling design also provides for making X%/Y% clearance statements using only probabilistic samples. For each test event, the numbers of characterization and clearance samples were selected within limits based on operational considerations while still maintaining high confidence for detection and clearance aspects. The sampling design for all five test events contains 2085 samples, with 1142 after contamination and 943 after decontamination. These numbers include QC, RMC, judgmental, and probabilistic samples. The experimental and sampling design specified in this report provides a good statistical foundation for achieving the objectives of the INL-2 study.

  14. Collecting Representative Soil Samples for N and P Fertilizer Recommendations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Clay; N. Kitchen; C. G. Carlson; J. L. Kleinjan; W. A. Tjentland

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Soil fertilizer recommendations,in modern,crop production,rely on laboratory analysis,of representative soil samples.,Regardless,on how,soil samples,are collected (grid points, management zones, or whole fields) the accuracy and precision,of the fertilizer recommendation,can,be improved,by considering,the factors influencing nutrient variability. As producer’s crop enterprise varies, it is recommended,that producers,select approaches,that are suited for their operation.,The objectives,of this guide,are to discuss,how,management,influences nutrient,variability,and,to provide,insight,into designing,soil sampling,protocols that,provide,accurate,and,precise,fertilizer

  15. Lunar Samples: Apollo Collection Tools, Curation Handling, Surveyor III and Soviet Luna Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    The 6 Apollo missions that landed on the lunar surface returned 2196 samples comprised of 382 kg. The 58 samples weighing 21.5 kg collected on Apollo 11 expanded to 741 samples weighing 110.5 kg by the time of Apollo 17. The main goal on Apollo 11 was to obtain some material and return it safely to Earth. As we gained experience, the sampling tools and a more specific sampling strategy evolved. A summary of the sample types returned is shown in Table 1. By year 1989, some statistics on allocation by sample type were compiled [2]. The "scientific interest index" is based on the assumption that the more allocations per gram of sample, the higher the scientific interest. It is basically a reflection of the amount of diversity within a given sample type. Samples were also set aside for biohazard testing. The samples set aside and used for biohazard testing were represen-tative, as opposed to diverse. They tended to be larger and be comprised of less scientifically valuable mate-rial, such as dust and debris in the bottom of sample containers.

  16. Organic analysis of ambient samples collected near Tank 241-C-103: Results from samples collected on May 12, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Lucke, R.B.; Young, J.S.; McCulloch, M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes organic analyses results from ambient samples collected both upwind and through the vapor sampling system (VSS) near Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-103 (referred to as Tank C-103). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed. Quantitative results were obtained for organic compounds. Five organic tentatively identified compounds (TICS) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, we looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes. We observed 39. Of these, only one was observed above the 2-ppbv calibrated instrument detection limit. Dichloromethane was above the detection limits using both methods, but the result from the TO-14 method is traceable to a standard gas mixture and is considered more accurate. Organic analytes were found only in the sample collected through the VSS, suggesting that these compounds were residual contamination from a previous sampling job. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text.

  17. A sample collector for robotic sample return missions I: Temperature effect on collected mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzen, M. A.; Roe, L. A.; Buffington, J. A.; Sears, D. W. G.

    2008-07-01

    Sample return is playing an increasingly important role in solar system exploration. Among the possible mission on the horizon, are sample return from asteroids, comets, the Moon and Mars. A collector initially intended for near-Earth asteroids is the touch-and-go-impregnable-pad (TGIP). Here we explore the effect of temperature on its collection capabilities. Temperatures expected on near-Earth asteroid mission targets range from -43 to 36 °C. Experiments were conducted at -75, -50, -25, 23, 65, and 105 °C. It was found that the mass of sample collected by the TGIP increased almost linearly to 23 °C and then leveled off at higher temperatures. We also found that the collector did not lose its ability to collect samples after being subjected to -75 °C temperatures (essentially frozen) and then thawed. These experiments have shown that the TGIP can operate effectively at temperatures expected on near-Earth asteroids, especially if collection is performed on the sunward side of the asteroid.

  18. Breathing and Holding Your Breath

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ingrid Waldron

    Students begin with interactive activities to develop a basic understanding of why cells need oxygen and need to get rid of carbon dioxide, how the circulatory and respiratory systems cooperate to bring oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from cells all over the body, and how the nervous system regulates breathing. Then, students carry out an experiment to test whether changing levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide influence how long they can hold their breath.

  19. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF URINE SAMPLES (SOP-2.14)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collecting urine samples from the study participants (children and their primary caregivers). Urine samples will be approximate 48-hr collections, collected as spot urine samples accumulated over the 48-hr sampling period. If the household or da...

  20. Ion-trap detection of volatile organic compounds in alveolar breath

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, M.; Greenberg, J. (Department of Medicine, St. Vincent's Medical Center of Richmond, Staten Island, NY (United States))

    1992-01-01

    We describe a method for the collection and microanalysis of the volatile organic compounds in human breath. A transportable apparatus supplies subjects with purified air and samples their alveolar breath; the volatile organic compounds are captured in an adsorptive trap containing activated carbon and molecular sieve. The sample is thermally desorbed from the trap in an automated microprocessor-controlled device, concentrated by two-stage cryofocusing, and assayed by gas chromatography with ion-trap detection. Compounds are identified by reference to a computer-based library of mass spectra with subtraction of the background components present in the inspired air. We used this device to study 10 normal subjects and determined the relative abundance of the volatile organic compounds in their alveolar breath. The breath-collecting apparatus was convenient to operate and was well tolerated by human volunteers.

  1. Breathing Yeasties

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    Does yeast breathe? Find out by watching how plastic bags filled with yeast, warm water and different amounts of sugar change over time. Demonstrate the interaction of microorganisms and the carbon cycle with yeast, sugar and water, and discover how organisms are dependent on water and energy flow.

  2. Standard Practice for Bulk Sample Collection and Swab Sample Collection of Visible Powders Suspected of Being Biological Agents from Nonporous Surfaces: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Locascio, Laurie E; Harper, Bruce; Robinson, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    The draft ASTM Standard, "Standard Practice for Bulk Sample Collection and Swab Sample Collection of Visible Powders Suspected of Being Biological Agents from Nonporous Surfaces," was validated in a collaborative study consisting of 6 teams comprised of Civil Support personnel and First Responders, 2 levels of Bacillus anthracis Sterne and Bacillus thuringiensis Kurstaki spores, and 7 nonporous surfaces. The sample collection standard includes collection of the bulk sample (Method A) using a dry swab to push the sample onto a collection card and collection of residual sample (Method B) using an onsite test kit followed by a wet swab intended for additional onsite testing. Method A is to be performed prior to Method B in order to preserve unadulterated sample as potential criminal evidence. While statistical differences were observed between surfaces, between teams, and the interaction of surfaces and teams for the various sample types collected, these differences are due to the very low variability of the data and a much more narrow distribution than an ideal normal distribution, rather than to any practical differences. The data demonstrate that from both the 1.0 and 0.01 g powder samples, high levels of spores (mean >10(6) CFU) are recovered from the 7 surfaces by both the dry swab used in bulk sample collection (Method A) and the wet swab (Method B) sampling of the residual powder after bulk sample collection. Thus, after bulk sample collection, there is a high level of residual spores remaining for onsite biological testing and both Methods A and B should be performed in the field. PMID:17373464

  3. 78 FR 26849 - Model Specifications for Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIIDs)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ...vehicle when the driver's breath alcohol concentration...Overarching Issues 1. Sensor Technology 2. Removable...Performance Requirements i. Breath Sample Volume and Flow...precision requirements; sensor technology; sample size...manufacturer of Evidential Breath Testing Devices...

  4. Nanotube-based sensor arrays for clinical breath analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gelperin; A. T. C. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Instrumentation for clinical breath analysis is being developed using a variety of sensor technologies and information processing strategies. One type of instrumentation for clinical breath analysis uses an array of sensors for detection of volatile analytes in breath and pattern recognition and categorization algorithms able to learn and store information about the constant and variable components of human breath samples.

  5. Combined sensing platform for advanced diagnostics in exhaled mouse breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortes, Paula R.; Wilk, Andreas; Seichter, Felicia; Cajlakovic, Merima; Koestler, Stefan; Ribitsch, Volker; Wachter, Ulrich; Vogt, Josef; Radermacher, Peter; Carter, Chance; Raimundo, Ivo M.; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Breath analysis is an attractive non-invasive strategy for early disease recognition or diagnosis, and for therapeutic progression monitoring, as quantitative compositional analysis of breath can be related to biomarker panels provided by a specific physiological condition invoked by e.g., pulmonary diseases, lung cancer, breast cancer, and others. As exhaled breath contains comprehensive information on e.g., the metabolic state, and since in particular volatile organic constituents (VOCs) in exhaled breath may be indicative of certain disease states, analytical techniques for advanced breath diagnostics should be capable of sufficient molecular discrimination and quantification of constituents at ppm-ppb - or even lower - concentration levels. While individual analytical techniques such as e.g., mid-infrared spectroscopy may provide access to a range of relevant molecules, some IR-inactive constituents require the combination of IR sensing schemes with orthogonal analytical tools for extended molecular coverage. Combining mid-infrared hollow waveguides (HWGs) with luminescence sensors (LS) appears particularly attractive, as these complementary analytical techniques allow to simultaneously analyze total CO2 (via luminescence), the 12CO2/13CO2 tracer-to-tracee (TTR) ratio (via IR), selected VOCs (via IR) and O2 (via luminescence) in exhaled breath, yet, establishing a single diagnostic platform as both sensors simultaneously interact with the same breath sample volume. In the present study, we take advantage of a particularly compact (shoebox-size) FTIR spectrometer combined with novel substrate-integrated hollow waveguide (iHWG) recently developed by our research team, and miniaturized fiberoptic luminescence sensors for establishing a multi-constituent breath analysis tool that is ideally compatible with mouse intensive care stations (MICU). Given the low tidal volume and flow of exhaled mouse breath, the TTR is usually determined after sample collection via gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometric detection. Here, we aim at potentially continuously analyzing the TTR via iHWGs and LS flow-through sensors requiring only minute (< 1 mL) sample volumes. Furthermore, this study explores non-linearities observed for the calibration functions of 12CO2 and 13CO2 potentially resulting from effects related to optical collision diameters e.g., in presence of molecular oxygen. It is anticipated that the simultaneous continuous analysis of oxygen via LS will facilitate the correction of these effects after inclusion within appropriate multivariate calibration models, thus providing more reliable and robust calibration schemes for continuously monitoring relevant breath constituents.

  6. Breathing Blue

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mission Science Workshop

    2013-01-01

    In this activity, learners test exhaled breath for carbon dioxide and learn how to use an indicator as a simple way to measure pH. Learners also explore what happens when an acid (lemon) is mixed with the indicator. This activity can be related to the topic of global climate change. This activity can also be used to discuss atmospheric warming, which is occurring due to increased amounts of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane in the atmosphere.

  7. Sample Collection for Investigation of Mars (SCIM): An Early Mars Sample Return Mission Through the Mars Scout Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leshin, L. A.; Yen, A.; Bomba, J.; Clark, B.; Epp, C.; Forney, L.; Gamber, T.; Graves, C.; Hupp, J.; Jones, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Sample Collection for Investigation of Mars (SCIM) mission is designed to: (1) make a 40 km pass through the Martian atmosphere; (2) collect dust and atmospheric gas; and (3) return the samples to Earth for analysis. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Sample Collection, Preparation, and Quantitation in the Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Electrophoresis of Gunshot Residues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Northrop; William A. Mac Crehan

    1992-01-01

    Application of micellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresis (MECE) to gunshot residue (GSR) analysis was accomplished by developing appropriate sample collection and handling techniques. Masking adhesive-tape particle collection was used to minimize analyte losses and coextraction of sample matrix interferences associated with solvent swabbing collection methods. In addition, ethylene glycol (EG) was added to the extraction solvent to prevent analyte loss during

  9. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePLUS

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  10. Collecting baseline corticosterone samples in the field: is under 3 min good enough?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Michael Romero; J. Michael Reed

    2005-01-01

    Evaluating corticosterone (CORT) responses to stress in free-living vertebrates requires knowing the unstressed titers prior to capture. Based upon laboratory data, the assumption has been that samples collected in less than 3 min of capture will reflect these unstressed concentrations. This assumption was tested for six species using samples collected from 945 individuals at 0–6 min after capture. Samples were

  11. Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Todd, Nancy S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC has undertaken a 4-year data restoration project effort for the lunar science community funded by the LASER program (Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research) to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images. These sample photographs are not easily accessible outside of JSC, and currently exist only on degradable film in the Curation Data Storage Facility

  12. Meteorite collection and ice samples from the Pecora Escarpment, Antarctica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul P. Sipiera; Birgit I. Sattler

    2004-01-01

    In January 2002 the Planetary Studies Foundation returned to Antarctica to conduct a systematic search for meteorites on the blue ice fields near the Pecora Escarpment. The Pecora Escarpment area was previously searched by two National Science Foundation (NSF) teams that collectively recovered 526 meteorites. The two primary goals of the PSF Antarctica 2002 expedition were to determine if a

  13. Convergence of Sequential Sampling Policies for Bayesian Information Collection Problems

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    ;Application: Radiation Detection Following the release of radioactive material in a major city, we would need(,i) is the human and economic cost of the resulting action. 5 / 20 #12;Sequential Bayesian Information Collection that performs well in some numerical experiments, we would like to know that it is also asymptotically optimal

  14. Self-Collected versus Clinician-Collected Sampling for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Screening: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lunny, Carole; Taylor, Darlene; Hoang, Linda; Wong, Tom; Gilbert, Mark; Lester, Richard; Krajden, Mel; Ogilvie, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Background The increases in STI rates since the late 1990s in Canada have occurred despite widespread primary care and targeted public health programs and in the setting of universal health care. More innovative interventions are required that would eliminate barriers to STI testing such as internet-based or mail-in home and community service testing for patients that are hard to reach, who refuse to go for clinician-based testing, or who decline an examination. Jurisdictions such as New Zealand and some American states currently use self-collected sampling, but without the required evidence to determine whether self-collected specimens are as accurate as clinician-collected specimens in terms of chlamydia and gonorrhea diagnostic accuracy. The objective of the review is to compare self-collected vaginal, urine, pharyngeal and rectal samples to our reference standard - clinician-collected cervical, urethral, pharyngeal and rectal sampling techniques to identify a positive specimen using nucleic acid amplification test assays. Methods The hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic and the fixed effect models were used to assess the accuracy of comparable specimens that were collected by patients compared to clinicians. Sensitivity and specificity estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported as our main outcome measures. Findings We included 21 studies based on over 6100 paired samples. Fourteen included studies examined chlamydia only, 6 compared both gonorrhea and chlamydia separately in the same study, and one examined gonorrhea. The six chlamydia studies comparing self-collection by vaginal swab to a clinician-collected cervical swab had the highest sensitivity (92%, 95% CI 87-95) and specificity (98%, 95% CI 97-99), compared to other specimen-types (urine/urethra or urine/cervix). Six studies compared urine self-samples to urethra clinician-collected samples in males and produced a sensitivity of 88% (95% CI 83-93) and a specificity of 99% (95% CI 0.94-0.99). Taking into account that urine samples may be less sensitive than cervical samples, eight chlamydia studies that compared urine self-collected verses clinician-collected cervical samples had a sensitivity of 87% (95% CI 81-91) and high specificity of 99% (95% CI 0.98-1.00). For gonorrhea testing, self-collected urine samples compared to clinician-collected urethra samples in males produced a sensitivity of 92% (95% CI 83-97) and specificity of 99% (95% CI 0.98-1.00). Conclusion The sensitivity and specificity of vaginal self-collected swabs compared to swabs collected by clinicians supports the use of vaginal swab as the recommended specimen of choice in home-based screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea. Urine samples for gonorrhea collected by men had comparably high sensitivity and specificity, so could be recommended as they can be left at room temperature for several days, allowing for the possibility of mail-in home-based testing. In populations that may not go for testing at all, do not have the option of clinical testing, or who refuse a clinical examination, self-collected screening would be a good alternative. We recommend that guidelines on how to self-collect gonorrhea and chlamydia urine, vaginal, rectal and pharyngeal specimens be published. PMID:26168051

  15. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, John (Bethel Park, PA)

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  16. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section...sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Over-the-counter...sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing (§ 864.3260 of...

  17. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section...sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Over-the-counter...sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing (§ 864.3260 of...

  18. Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Wörle, Katharina; Seichter, Felicia; Wilk, Andreas; Armacost, Chris; Day, Tim; Godejohann, Matthias; Wachter, Ulrich; Vogt, Josef; Radermacher, Peter; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2013-03-01

    With the availability of broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs), particularly bright mid-infrared (MIR; 3-20 ?m) light sources are available offering high spectral brightness along with an analytically relevant spectral tuning range of >2 ?m. Accurate isotope ratio determination of (12)CO2 and (13)CO2 in exhaled breath is of critical importance in the field of breath analysis, which may be addressed via measurements in the MIR spectral regime. Here, we combine for the first time an EC-QCL tunable across the (12)CO2/(13)CO2 spectral band with a miniaturized hollow waveguide gas cell for quantitatively determining the (12)CO2/(13)CO2 ratio within the exhaled breath of mice. Due to partially overlapping spectral features, these studies are augmented by appropriate multivariate data evaluation and calibration techniques based on partial least-squares regression along with optimized data preprocessing. Highly accurate determinations of the isotope ratio within breath samples collected from a mouse intensive care unit validated via hyphenated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry confirm the viability of IR-HWG-EC-QCL sensing techniques for isotope-selective exhaled breath analysis. PMID:23320383

  19. A UNIFYING MODEL OF PERFUSION AND MOTION APPLIED TO RECONSTRUCTION OF SPARSELY SAMPLED FREE-BREATHING MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION MRI

    E-print Network

    the problem of reducing respiratory motion artifacts in DCE-MRI is considerably simplified. In the followingA UNIFYING MODEL OF PERFUSION AND MOTION APPLIED TO RECONSTRUCTION OF SPARSELY SAMPLED FREE imaging (DCE-MRI) is currently limited by respiratory induced motion of the heart. This paper presents

  20. EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that...

  1. Breathing Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bleja, David

    Visual simulation and representation programs and applications have been popping up online in greater numbers, and this recent find is one that will pique the interest of scientists, policy makers, and others who are concerned about carbon dioxide emission rates across the Earth. The Breathing Earth site was created by David Bleja, and he draws on a number of resources (such as the World Factbook and the United Nations) for the data that is utilized to create this site. Visitors can scroll over different countries to learn about their population, their emissions, and their birth and death rate. This interactive map and educational resource also contains a legend in the right-hand corner which explains the various symbols in use here.

  2. SPME–GC analysis of THC in saliva samples collected with “EPITOPE” device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Fucci; N De Giovanni; M Chiarotti; S Scarlata

    2001-01-01

    In this study we examined the presence of cannabinoids in saliva samples obtained from 24 drug-abusers. The saliva specimens were collected by “EPITOPE” system and the subsequent elution of samples was achieved by centrifugation. The resulting ultrafiltrates have been directly sampled with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and then analyzed by GC\\/MS. Saliva sampling is less invasive than collection of blood.

  3. Collection and preparation of water samples for hydrogeochemical reconnaissance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. I. Baucom; R. B. Ferguson; R. M. Wallace

    1977-01-01

    A method based on ion exchange and neutron activation analysis (NAA) was developed and field-tested to determine uranium over the range 0.02 to 10,000 ppb in natural water using a single procedure. Water samples are filtered in the field using a specially-designed one-liter filter apparatus pressurized to 40 psig with an inert gas. The filtered water is treated with a

  4. Agreement Between Exhaled Breath Carbon Monoxide Threshold Levels and Self-Reported Cigarette Smoking in a Sample of Male Adolescents in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Mangnall, Linda J Thomson; Gallagher, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to measure the percent agreement between Exhaled Breath Carbon Monoxide (eBCO) measure using a piCO+ smokerlyzer® and self-reported cigarette smoking status and to determine the optimal thresholds for definite identification of cigarette smokers of male school students in Jordan. A descriptive, cross sectional, study of a random sample of male adolescents in grades 7 and 8 from four public high schools in Irbid, completed an adaptation of a standardized Arabic-language tobacco smoking questionnaire and an eBCO measure. Sensitivity and specificity of the eBCO were calculated against self-reported cigarette smoking. Participants (n = 439) had a mean age of 12.5 years (SD = 0.50) and 174 (39.9%) reported being an ever smoker of whom 59 (33.9%) reported being a recent (30-day) smoker. The optimal eBCO cut-off point for recent smoking was 4.5 ppm with a sensitivity of 84.7% and specificity of 65.5%. Overall, eBCO can accurately identify recent smokers and distinguish them from non-smokers. The eBCO use enables healthcare professionals and researchers to assess efficacy of smoking cessation and prevention programs without necessarily relying on self-report. Further research is indicated to validate our findings and should be expanded to include females, detailed characteristics of cigarette and waterpipe smoking. PMID:25599375

  5. Extravehicular Activity Asteroid Exploration and Sample Collection Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipila, Stephanie A.; Scoville, Zebulon C.; Bowie, Jonathan T.; Buffington, Jesse A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenging primary objectives associated with NASA's Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) is to demonstrate deep space Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and tools and to obtain asteroid samples to return to Earth for further study. Prior Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) spacewalks have benefited from engineered EVA interfaces which have been designed and manufactured on Earth. Rigid structurally mounted handrails, and tools with customized interfaces and restraints optimize EVA performance. For ARCM, EVA complexity increases due to the uncertainty of the asteroid properties. The variability of rock size, shape and composition, as well as behavior of the asteroid capture mechanism will complicate EVA translation, tool restraint, and body stabilization. The unknown asteroid hardness and brittleness will complicate tool use. The rock surface will introduce added safety concerns for cut gloves and debris control. Feasible solutions to meet ARCM EVA objectives were identified using experience gained during Apollo, Shuttle, and ISS EVAs, terrestrial mountaineering practices, NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 16 mission, and during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory testing in the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) suit. This paper will summarize the overall operational concepts for conducting EVAs for the ARCM mission including translation paths and body restraint methods, potential tools used to extract the samples, design implications for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) for EVA, and the results of early development testing of potential EVA tasks.

  6. 24 CFR 35.1315 - Collection and laboratory analysis of samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. 35.1315 Section 35...POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint...35.1315 Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. All paint chip,...

  7. 24 CFR 35.1315 - Collection and laboratory analysis of samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. 35.1315 Section 35...POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint...35.1315 Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. All paint chip,...

  8. 24 CFR 35.1315 - Collection and laboratory analysis of samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. 35.1315 Section 35...POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint...35.1315 Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. All paint chip,...

  9. 24 CFR 35.1315 - Collection and laboratory analysis of samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. 35.1315 Section 35...POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint...35.1315 Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. All paint chip,...

  10. 24 CFR 35.1315 - Collection and laboratory analysis of samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. 35.1315 Section 35...POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint...35.1315 Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. All paint chip,...

  11. AHDC FACT SHEET 1 DL-1050 5/12 Anthrax Sample Collection and Shipping Guidelines

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    Animals Bacillus anthracis is NOT considered endemic in the State of New York. While other regionsAHDC FACT SHEET 1 DL-1050 5/12 Anthrax Sample Collection and Shipping Guidelines Animal Health-mail: diagcenter@cornell.edu AHDC FACT SHEET Guidelines for Diagnosis and Sample Collection of Anthrax Suspect

  12. Collecting urine samples from young children using cotton gauze for pesticide studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y A HU; D B BARR; G AKLAND; L MELNYK; L NEEDHAM; E D PELLIZZARI; J H RAYMER; J M ROBERDS

    2000-01-01

    To estimate pesticide exposure, urine samples are often needed to analyze pesticide metabolites. However, this is difficult for children wearing diapers because simple and feasible techniques suitable for field collection are not available. The objectives of this study were to test the validity of using cotton gauze pad as a medium for collecting urine samples from young children and to

  13. SELF-ORGANIZATION OF ATOMIC SAMPLES IN RESONATORS AND COLLECTIVE LIGHT FORCES

    E-print Network

    Vuletic, Vladan

    SELF-ORGANIZATION OF ATOMIC SAMPLES IN RESONATORS AND COLLECTIVE LIGHT FORCES ADAM T. BLACK, HILTON verify the dependencies of the threshold for the self-organization process on incident-light and atomic of collective friction force acting on the center-of-mass motion of a self-organizing atomic sample inside

  14. Protocols for the analysis of algal samples collected as part of the

    E-print Network

    Charles, Donald

    RESEARCH #12;#12;Protocols for the analysis of algal samples collected as part of the U.S. GeologicalProtocols for the analysis of algal samples collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Center for Environmental Research­Phycology Section 1900 Benjamin Franklin Parkway Philadelphia, PA 19103

  15. Quantum breathing mode for electrons with 1/r2 interaction

    E-print Network

    Geller, Michael R.

    contains a ``breathing'' mode of frequency 2 , where 2 0 2 1 4 c 2 and c is the cyclotron frequency a collective ``breathing'' mode excitation with frequency 2 , 1 where 2 0 2 1 4 c 2 , 2 and where c to first order in the displacements, the classical breathing mode frequency is generally 2 0 2 c 2 . 14

  16. Feasibility of emotion recognition from breath gas information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiko Takahashi; Iwao Sugimoto

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a smart gas sensing system to achieve emotion recognition using breath gas information. A breath gas sensing system is designed by using a quartz crystal resonator with a plasma-polymer film as a sensor. To collect breath gas data under emotional state, psychological experiments are carried out using a dental rise to excite emotions. In computational experiment of

  17. ANALYSIS OF ACID PRECIPITATION SAMPLES COLLECTED BY STATE AGENCIES--SAMPLING PERIOD JAN 1988 - DEC 1988

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents analytical data from the 30 acid precipitation collection sites in the State-operated Network. amples are collected weekly in plastic bag liners and shipped in 500 mL polyethylene bottles to Global Geochemistry Corporation (the central laboratory for the netw...

  18. ANALYSIS OF ACID PRECIPITATION SAMPLES COLLECTED BY STATE AGENCIES SAMPLING PERIOD JANUARY 1990 - DECEMBER 1990

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents analytical data from the 30 acid precipitation collection sites in the State-Operated Network. amples are collected weekly in plastic bag liners and shipped in 500 mL polyethylene bottles to Global Geochemistry Corporation (the central laboratory for the netw...

  19. ANALYSIS OF ACID PRECIPITATION SAMPLES COLLECTED BY STATE AGENCIES SAMPLING PERIOD: JANUARY 1992 - DECEMBER 1992

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents analytical data from 30 acid precipitation collection sites in the State-Operated Network. amples are collected weekly in plastic bag bucket liners and shipped in 500 mL polyethylene bottled to Global Geochemistry Corporation, the central laboratory for the n...

  20. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    SciTech Connect

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site in support of DOE`s environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE`s General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives.

  1. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    SciTech Connect

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives.

  2. Sampling error associated with collection and analysis of soil samples at TNT-contaminated sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. F. Jenkins; C. L. Grant; G. S. Brar; P. G. Thorne; P. W. Schumacher; T. A. Ranney

    1997-01-01

    This study assessed short-range spatial het- erogeneity of TNT concentrations in surface soils at ex- plosives-contaminated sites. Discrete and composite samples were analyzed by both on-site calorimetric techniques and standard laboratory protocols. Three lo- cations were sampled at each of three installations, and the results were used to estimate the relative contribu- tions of analytical error and sampling error. The

  3. ORIGINAL PAPER Sex bias in biopsy samples collected from free-ranging

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL PAPER Sex bias in biopsy samples collected from free-ranging dolphins Sophie Quérouil 2009 /Published online: 7 July 2009 # Springer-Verlag 2009 Abstract Biological samples of free developed to obtain samples from free-ranging cetaceans. The most commonly used techniques are skin swabbing

  4. Collection of ambient particulate matter by porous vegetation barriers: Sampling and characterization methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abhishek Tiwary; Adam Reff; Jeremy J. Colls

    2008-01-01

    Sampling and characterization methods for assessing the effect of vegetative barriers on particulate matter (PM10) concentrations and functional group composition were developed and applied in a case study. Ambient PM10 was concurrently sampled upwind and downwind of a hawthorn hedge at a rural location in the UK. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of PM10 samples were collected to characterize the

  5. Correlations between blood glucose and breath components from portable gas sensors and PTR-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Righettoni, M; Schmid, A; Amann, A; Pratsinis, S E

    2013-09-01

    Acetone is one of the most abundant volatile compounds in the human breath and might be important for monitoring diabetic patients. Here, a portable acetone sensor consisting of flame-made, nanostructured, Si-doped WO3 sensing films was used to analyse the end tidal fraction of the breath (collected in Tedlar bags) from eight healthy volunteers after overnight fasting (morning) and after lunch (afternoon). After breath sampling, the gaseous components were also analysed by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS), and each person's blood glucose level was measured. The portable sensor accurately detected the presence of acetone with fast response/recovery times (<12 s) and a high signal-to-noise ratio. Statistical analysis of the relationship between the PTR-TOF-MS measurements of breath gases (e.g., acetone, isoprene, ethanol and methanol), sensor response and the blood glucose level was performed for both sampling periods. The best correlations were found after overnight fasting (morning): in particular, between blood glucose level and breath acetone (Pearson's 0.98 and Spearman's 0.93). Whereas the portable sensor response correlated best with the blood glucose (Pearson's 0.96 and Spearman's 0.81) and breath acetone (Pearson's 0.92 and Spearman's 0.69). PMID:23959908

  6. Extrathoracic and intrathoracic removal of O3 in tidal-breathing humans

    SciTech Connect

    Gerrity, T.R.; Weaver, R.A.; Berntsen, J.; House, D.E.; O'Neil, J.J.

    1988-07-01

    We measured the efficiency of O3 removal from inspired air by the extrathoracic and intrathoracic airways in 18 healthy, nonsmoking, young male volunteers. Removal efficiencies were measured as a function of O3 concentration (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 ppm), mode of breathing (nose only, mouth only, and oronasal), and respiration frequency (12 and 24 breaths/min). Subjects were placed in a controlled environmental chamber into which O3 was introduced. A small polyethylene tube was then inserted into the nose of each subject, with the tip positioned in the posterior pharynx. Samples of air were collected from the posterior pharynx through the tube and into a rapidly responding O3 analyzer yielding inspiratory and expiratory O3 concentrations in the posterior pharynx. The O3 removal efficiency of the extrathoracic airways was computed with the use of the inspiratory concentration and the chamber concentration, and intrathoracic removal efficiency was computed with the use of the inspiratory and expiratory concentrations. The mean extrathoracic removal efficiency for all measurements was 39.6 +/- 0.7% (SE), and the mean intrathoracic removal efficiency was 91.0 +/- 0.5%. Significantly less O3 was removed both extrathoracically and intrathoracically when subjects breathed at 24 breaths/min compared with 12 breaths/min (P less than 0.001). O3 concentration had no effect on extrathoracic removal efficiency, but there was a significantly greater intrathoracic removal efficiency at 0.4 ppm than at 0.1 ppm (P less than 0.05). Mode of breathing significantly affected extrathoracic removal efficiency, with less O3 removed during nasal breathing than during either mouth breathing or oronasal breathing (P less than 0.01).

  7. Assembly for collecting samples for purposes of identification or analysis and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Cyril V. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Smith, Rob R. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-02-02

    An assembly and an associated method for collecting a sample of material desired to be characterized with diagnostic equipment includes or utilizes an elongated member having a proximal end with which the assembly is manipulated by a user and a distal end. In addition, a collection tip which is capable of being placed into contact with the material to be characterized is supported upon the distal end. The collection tip includes a body of chemically-inert porous material for binding a sample of material when the tip is placed into contact with the material and thereby holds the sample of material for subsequent introduction to the diagnostic equipment.

  8. Collecting cometary soil samples? Development of the ROSETTA sample acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coste, P. A.; Fenzi, M.; Eiden, Michael

    1993-01-01

    In the reference scenario of the ROSETTA CNRS mission, the Sample Acquisition System is mounted on the Comet Lander. Its tasks are to acquire three kinds of cometary samples and to transfer them to the Earth Return Capsule. Operations are to be performed in vacuum and microgravity, on a probably rough and dusty surface, in a largely unknown material, at temperatures in the order of 100 K. The concept and operation of the Sample Acquisition System are presented. The design of the prototype corer and surface sampling tool, and of the equipment for testing them at cryogenic temperatures in ambient conditions and in vacuum in various materials representing cometary soil, are described. Results of recent preliminary tests performed in low temperature thermal vacuum in a cometary analog ice-dust mixture are provided.

  9. Collection of solid and gaseous samples to diagnose inertial confinement fusion implosions.

    PubMed

    Stoyer, M A; Velsko, C A; Spears, B K; Hicks, D G; Hudson, G B; Sangster, T C; Freeman, C G

    2012-02-01

    Collection of representative samples of debris following inertial confinement fusion implosions in order to diagnose implosion conditions and efficacy is a challenging endeavor because of the unique conditions within the target chamber such as unconverted laser light, intense pulse of x-rays, physical chunks of debris, and other ablative effects. We present collection of gas samples following an implosion for the first time. High collection fractions for noble gases were achieved. We also present collection of solid debris samples on flat plate collectors. Geometrical collection efficiencies for Au hohlraum material were achieved and collection of capsule debris (Be and Cu) was also observed. Asymmetric debris distributions were observed for Au and Be samples. Collection of Be capsule debris was higher for solid collectors viewing the capsule through the laser entrance hole in the hohlraum than for solid collectors viewing the capsule around the waist of the hohlraum. Collection of Au hohlraum material showed the opposite pattern: more Au debris was collected around the waist than through the laser entrance hole. The solid debris collectors were not optimized for minimal Cu backgrounds, which limited the conclusions about the symmetry of the Cu debris. The quality of the data limited conclusions on chemical fractionation effects within the burning, expanding, and then cooling plasma. PMID:22380089

  10. Collection of solid and gaseous samples to diagnose inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, M. A.; Velsko, C. A.; Spears, B. K.; Hicks, D. G.; Hudson, G. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Freeman, C. G. [State University of New York at Geneseo, Geneseo, New York 14454 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Collection of representative samples of debris following inertial confinement fusion implosions in order to diagnose implosion conditions and efficacy is a challenging endeavor because of the unique conditions within the target chamber such as unconverted laser light, intense pulse of x-rays, physical chunks of debris, and other ablative effects. We present collection of gas samples following an implosion for the first time. High collection fractions for noble gases were achieved. We also present collection of solid debris samples on flat plate collectors. Geometrical collection efficiencies for Au hohlraum material were achieved and collection of capsule debris (Be and Cu) was also observed. Asymmetric debris distributions were observed for Au and Be samples. Collection of Be capsule debris was higher for solid collectors viewing the capsule through the laser entrance hole in the hohlraum than for solid collectors viewing the capsule around the waist of the hohlraum. Collection of Au hohlraum material showed the opposite pattern: more Au debris was collected around the waist than through the laser entrance hole. The solid debris collectors were not optimized for minimal Cu backgrounds, which limited the conclusions about the symmetry of the Cu debris. The quality of the data limited conclusions on chemical fractionation effects within the burning, expanding, and then cooling plasma.

  11. Immediate effects of breath holding maneuvers onto composition of exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Sukul, Pritam; Trefz, Phillip; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2014-09-01

    Rapid concentration changes due to physiological or pathophysiological effects rather than appearance of unique disease biomarkers are important for clinical application of breath research. Simple maneuvers such as breath holding may significantly affect breath biomarker concentrations. In this study, exhaled volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations were assessed in real time before and after different breath holding maneuvers. Continuous breath-resolved measurements (PTR-ToF-MS-8000) were performed in 31 healthy human subjects in a side-stream sampling mode. After 1 min of tidal breathing participants held their breath for 10, 20, 40, 60 s and as long as possible. Afterwards they continued to breathe normally for another minute. VOC profiles could be monitored in real time by assigning online PTR-ToF-MS data to alveolar or inspired phases of breath. Sudden and profound changes of exhaled VOC concentrations were recorded after different breath holding maneuvers. VOC concentrations returned to base line levels 10-20 s after breath holding. Breath holding induced concentration changes depended on physico-chemical properties of the substances. When substance concentrations were normalized onto end-tidal CO2 content, variation of acetone concentrations decreased, whereas variations of isoprene concentrations were not affected. As the effects of breathing patterns on exhaled substance concentrations depend on individual substance properties, sampling procedures have to be validated for each compound by means of appropriate real-time analysis. Normalization of exhaled concentrations onto exhaled CO2 is only valid for substances having similar physico-chemical properties as CO2. PMID:25189647

  12. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse...

  13. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse...

  14. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse...

  15. Sex bias in biopsy samples collected from free-ranging dolphins SOPHIE QUROUIL

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Sex bias in biopsy samples collected from free-ranging dolphins SOPHIE QUÉROUIL 1,2,* , LUÍS sex ratio has to be inferred indirectly. We used molecular sexing to determine the gender of 340, and common dolphins, Delphinus delphis, collected around the Azores and Madeira. Sex ratio was globally

  16. Method for quantifying the sample collected by an Andersen Cascade Impactor using total organic carbon analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lia G. Rebits; David J. Bennett; Pradnya A. Bhagwat; Andrea Morin; Robert E. Sievers

    2007-01-01

    A sensitive and precise method is proposed in which total organic carbon (TOC) analysis is used to quantify aerosol powder samples collected on the stages of an Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI). In order to demonstrate the versatility of the method, size distributions of powders of varying composition and dose are presented. The results of ACI collections analyzed by both the

  17. ANALYSIS OF ACID PRECIPITATION SAMPLES COLLECTED BY STATE AGENCIES: JANUARY 1987 - DECEMBER 1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents the analytical data from the 31 acid precipitation collection sites in the State Operated Network. Samples are collected weekly in plastic bag liners and shipped in 500 mL polyethylene bottles to Global Geochemistry Corp. (the central laboratory for the networ...

  18. Collecting Samples of Workplace Air. Module 8. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on collecting samples of workplace air. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) collecting information about…

  19. AUTOMATED SYSTEM FOR COLLECTING MULTIPLE, SEQUENTIAL SAMPLES FROM SOIL WATER SAMPLERS UNDER CONTINUOUS VACUUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manually collecting a series of sequential, discrete water samples from soil water percolation samplers, or similar devices, that withdraw water from unsaturated porous media under continuous vacuum is a logistical challenge, though the resulting collection can provide valuable information on the dy...

  20. OSIRIS-REx Touch-and-Go (TAG) Mission Design for Asteroid Sample Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Alexander; Sutter, Brian; Linn, Timothy; Bierhaus, Beau; Berry, Kevin; Mink, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in September 2016 to rendezvous with the near-Earth asteroid Bennu in October 2018. After several months of proximity operations to characterize the asteroid, OSIRIS-REx flies a Touch-And-Go (TAG) trajectory to the asteroid's surface to collect at least 60 g of pristine regolith sample for Earth return. This paper provides mission and flight system overviews, with more details on the TAG mission design and key events that occur to safely and successfully collect the sample. An overview of the navigation performed relative to a chosen sample site, along with the maneuvers to reach the desired site is described. Safety monitoring during descent is performed with onboard sensors providing an option to abort, troubleshoot, and try again if necessary. Sample collection occurs using a collection device at the end of an articulating robotic arm during a brief five second contact period, while a constant force spring mechanism in the arm assists to rebound the spacecraft away from the surface. Finally, the sample is measured quantitatively utilizing the law of conservation of angular momentum, along with qualitative data from imagery of the sampling device. Upon sample mass verification, the arm places the sample into the Stardust-heritage Sample Return Capsule (SRC) for return to Earth in September 2023.

  1. AN APPROACH FOR COLLECTION OF NEARFIELD GROUNDwATER SAMPLES IN SUBMERGED LIMESTONE

    E-print Network

    Virginia, University of

    AN APPROACH FOR COLLECTION OF NEARFIELD GROUNDwATER SAMPLES IN SUBMERGED LIMESTONE CAVERNS PRISTOP groundwater samples in sub merged limestone caverns walls of submerged caves feeding Florida springs are often and submerged caves in such locations are often rich in sulfur-oxidizing, autotrophic bacteria (Brigmon et al

  2. Using Scent-Marking Stations to Collect Hair Samples to Monitor Eurasian Lynx Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KRZYSZTOF SCHMIDT; RAFA? KOWALCZYK

    2006-01-01

    Noninvasive sampling of mammalian hairs for surveying their populations and for providing density estimations is widely applicable in wildlife ecology and management. However, the efficiency of the method may differ depending on the species or local circumstances. We modified a method of hair trapping from free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) to collect DNA samples to work in a low-density population.

  3. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF ZOOPLANKTON SAMPLES COLLECTED DURING PHASE II OF THE EASTERN LAKE SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples from 146 lakes in the northeastern United States, collected during Phase II of the Eastern Lake Survey (ELS-II) were analyzed for abundance of each species and each size class of zooplankton. n estimate of sampling and counting error was provided by replication of lake sa...

  4. Ultrasensitive silicon nanowire for real-world gas sensing: noninvasive diagnosis of cancer from breath volatolome.

    PubMed

    Shehada, Nisreen; Brönstrup, Gerald; Funka, Konrads; Christiansen, Silke; Leja, Marcis; Haick, Hossam

    2015-02-11

    We report on an ultrasensitive, molecularly modified silicon nanowire field effect transistor that brings together the lock-and-key and cross-reactive sensing worlds for the diagnosis of (gastric) cancer from exhaled volatolome. The sensor is able to selectively detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are linked with gastric cancer conditions in exhaled breath and to discriminate them from environmental VOCs that exist in exhaled breath samples but do not relate to the gastric cancer per se. Using breath samples collected from actual patients with gastric cancer and from volunteers who do not have cancer, blind analysis validated the ability of the reported sensor to discriminate between gastric cancer and control conditions with >85% accuracy, irrespective of important confounding factors such as tobacco consumption and gender. The reported sensing approach paves the way to use the power of silicon nanowires for simple, inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive diagnosis of cancer and other disease conditions. PMID:25494909

  5. sup 14 C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S.J.; Tytgat, K.M.; Hollingsworth, J.; Jalali, S.; Rshid, F.A.; Bowen, B.M.; Goldie, J.; Goodacre, R.L.; Riddell, R.H.; Hunt, R.H. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-04-01

    The high urease activity of Helicobacter pylori can be used to detect this bacterium by noninvasive breath tests. We have developed a {sup 14}C-urea breath test which uses 5 microCi {sup 14}C with 50 mg nonradioactive urea. Breath samples are collected at baseline and every 30 min for 2 h. Our study compared the outcome of the breath test to the results of histology and culture of endoscopically obtained gastric biopsies in 84 patients. The breath test discriminated well between the 50 positive patients and the 34 patients negative for Helicobacter pylori: the calculated sensitivity was 100%, specificity 88%, positive predictive value 93%, and negative predictive value 100%. Treatment with bismuth subsalicylate and/or ampicillin resulted in lower counts of exhaled {sup 14}CO{sub 2} which correlated with histological improvement in gastritis. The {sup 14}C-urea breath test is a better gold standard for the detection of Helicobacter pylori than histology and/or culture.

  6. A new device for collecting time-integrated water samples from springs and surface water bodies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panno, S.V.; Krapac, I.G.; Keefer, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    A new device termed the 'seepage sampler' was developed to collect representative water samples from springs, streams, and other surface-water bodies. The sampler collects composite, time-integrated water samples over short (hours) or extended (weeks) periods without causing significant changes to the chemical composition of the samples. The water sample within the sampler remains at the ambient temperature of the water body and does not need to be cooled. Seepage samplers are inexpensive to construct and easy to use. A sampling program of numerous springs and/or streams can be designed at a relatively low cost through the use of these samplers. Transient solutes migrating through such flow systems, potentially unnoticed by periodic sampling, may be detected. In addition, the mass loading of solutes (e.g., agrichemicals) may be determined when seepage samplers are used in conjunction with discharge measurements.

  7. A comparison of surgical and endoscopic sample collection for pancreatic cyst fluid biomarker identification

    PubMed Central

    Partyka, Katie; McDonald, Mitchell; Maupin, Kevin A.; Brand, Randall; Kwon, Richard; Simeone, Diane M.; Allen, Peter; Haab, Brian B.

    2012-01-01

    Significant efforts are underway to develop new biomarkers from pancreatic cyst fluid. Previous research has made use of cyst fluid collected from surgically-removed cysts, but the clinical implementation of biomarkers would use cyst fluid collected by endoscopic ultrasound-guided, fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical applicability of cyst fluid research obtained using surgical specimens. Matched pairs of operating-room collected (OR) and EUS-FNA samples from 12 patients were evaluated for the levels of three previously described biomarkers, CA 19-9, CEA, and glycan levels detected by wheat germ agglutinin on MUC5AC (MUC5AC-WGA). CA 19-9 and MUC5AC-WGA correlated well between the sample types, although CEA was more variable between the sample types for certain patients. The variability was not due to the time delay between EUS-FNA and OR collection or differences in total protein concentrations but may be caused by contamination of the cyst fluid with blood proteins. The classification of each patient based on thresholds for each marker was perfectly consistent between sample types for CA 19-9 and MUC5AC-WGA and mostly consistent for CEA. Therefore, results obtained using OR-collected pancreatic cyst fluid samples should reliably transfer to the clinical setting using EUS-FNA samples. PMID:22439797

  8. Collecting Comet Samples by ER-2 Aircraft: Cosmic Dust Collection During the Draconid Meteor Shower in October 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastien, Ron; Burkett, P. J.; Rodriquez, M.; Frank, D.; Gonzalez, C.; Robinson, G.-A.; Zolensky, M.; Brown, P.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Broce, S.; Kapitzke, M.; Moes, T.; Steel, D.; Williams, T.; Gearheart, D.

    2014-01-01

    Many tons of dust grains, including samples of asteroids and comets, fall from space into the Earth's atmosphere each day. NASA periodically collects some of these particles from the Earth's stratosphere using sticky collectors mounted on NASA's high-flying aircraft. Sometimes, especially when the Earth experiences a known meteor shower, a special opportunity is presented to associate cosmic dust particles with a known source. NASA JSC's Cosmic Dust Collection Program has made special attempts to collect dust from particular meteor showers and asteroid families when flights can be planned well in advance. However, it has rarely been possible to make collections on very short notice. In 2012, the Draconid meteor shower presented that opportunity. The Draconid meteor shower, originating from Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner, has produced both outbursts and storms several times during the last century, but the 2012 event was not predicted to be much of a show. Because of these predictions, the Cosmic Dust team had not targeted a stratospheric collection effort for the Draconids, despite the fact that they have one of the slowest atmospheric entry velocities (23 km/s) of any comet shower, and thus offer significant possibilities of successful dust capture. However, radar measurements obtained by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar during the 2012 Draconids shower indicated a meteor storm did occur October 8 with a peak at 16:38 (+/-5 min) UTC for a total duration of approximately 2 hours.

  9. Effect of collection material and sample processing on pig oral fluid testing results.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Chris; Karriker, Locke; Wang, Chong; Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Renukaradhya, Gourapura; Kittawornrat, Apisit; Lizano, Sergio; Coetzee, Johann; Main, Rodger; Meiszberg, Allison; Panyasing, Yaowalak; Zimmerman, Jeffrey

    2013-10-01

    The effect of sampling material, sample processing, and collection order on the detection of analytes in pig oral fluid specimens was evaluated. Oral fluid samples were collected from 104 pens of commercial wean-to-finish pigs using ropes made of three different materials. Processed (centrifuged and filtered) and unprocessed oral fluid samples were tested using commercial ELISAs for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) antibodies and total IgM, IgA, and IgG. Unprocessed samples were tested for PRRSV nucleic acid and processed samples were assayed for PRRSV neutralizing antibodies. Analysis of the data using repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer adjusted t tests found statistically significant, non-uniform, and assay-dependent effects of all three factors. Therefore, when testing oral fluid specimens, swine health specialists, veterinarians, and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential impact of these factors on specific analytes. For monitoring health and welfare parameters, oral fluid samples should be collected using cotton-based materials and undergo minimal post-collection processing. PMID:24011474

  10. Planning Considerations Related to Collecting and Analyzing Samples of the Martian Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yang; Mellon, Mike T.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Noble, Sarah K.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Beaty, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (E2E-iSAG [1]) established scientific objectives associ-ated with Mars returned-sample science that require the return and investigation of one or more soil samples. Soil is defined here as loose, unconsolidated materials with no implication for the presence or absence of or-ganic components. The proposed Mars 2020 (M-2020) rover is likely to collect and cache soil in addition to rock samples [2], which could be followed by future sample retrieval and return missions. Here we discuss key scientific consid-erations for sampling and caching soil samples on the proposed M-2020 rover, as well as the state in which samples would need to be preserved when received by analysts on Earth. We are seeking feedback on these draft plans as input to mission requirement formulation. A related planning exercise on rocks is reported in an accompanying abstract [3].

  11. Sample collection of virulent and non-virulent B. anthracis and Y. pestis for bioforensics analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hong-geller, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdez, Yolanda E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shou, Yulin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yoshida, Thomas M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marrone, Babetta L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dunbar, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Validated sample collection methods are needed for recovery of microbial evidence in the event of accidental or intentional release of biological agents into the environment. To address this need, we evaluated the sample recovery efficiencies of two collection methods -- swabs and wipes -- for both non-virulent and virulent strains of B. anthracis and Y. pestis from four types of non-porous surfaces: two hydrophilic surfaces, stainless steel and glass, and two hydrophobic surfaces, vinyl and plastic. Sample recovery was quantified using Real-time qPCR to assay for intact DNA signatures. We found no consistent difference in collection efficiency between swabs or wipes. Furthermore, collection efficiency was more surface-dependent for virulent strains than non-virulent strains. For the two non-virulent strains, B. anthracis Sterne and Y. pestis A1122, collection efficiency was approximately 100% and 1 %, respectively, from all four surfaces. In contrast, recovery of B. anthracis Ames spores and Y. pestis C092 from vinyl and plastic was generally lower compared to collection from glass or stainless steel, suggesting that surface hydrophobicity may playa role in the strength of pathogen adhesion. The surface-dependent collection efficiencies observed with the virulent strains may arise from strain-specific expression of capsular material or other cell surface receptors that alter cell adhesion to specific surfaces. These findings contribute to validation of standard bioforensics procedures and emphasize the importance of specific strain and surface interactions in pathogen detection.

  12. Personal exposures, indoor-outdoor relationships, and breath levels of toxic air pollutants measured for 355 persons in New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Lance A.; Pellizzari, Edo D.; Hartwell, Ty D.; Sparacino, Charles M.; Sheldon, Linda S.; Zelon, Harvey

    EPA's TEAM Study has measured exposures to 20 volatile organic compounds in personal air, outdoor air, drinking water and the breath of 355 persons in NJ, in the fall of 1981. The NJ residents were selected by a probability sampling scheme to represent 128,000 inhabitants of Elizabeth and Bayonne. Participants carried a personal monitor to collect two 12-h air samples and gave a breath sample at the end of the day. Two consecutive 12-h outdoor air samples were also collected on identical Tenax cartridges in the back yards of 90 of the participants. About 3000 samples were collected, of which 1000 were quality control samples. Eleven compounds were often present in air. Personal exposures were consistently higher than outdoor concentrations for these chemicals, and were sometimes ten times the outdoor concentrations. Indoor sources appeared responsible for much of the difference. Breath concentrations also usually exceed outdoor concentrations, and correlated more strongly with personal exposures than with outdoor concentrations. Some activities (smoking, driving, visiting dry cleaners or service stations) and occupations (chemical, paint and plastics plants) were associated with significantly elevated exposures and breath levels for certain toxic chemicals.

  13. Water column and bed-sediment core samples collected from Brownlee Reservoir near Oxbow, Oregon, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fosness, Ryan L.; Naymik, Jesse; Hopkins, Candice B.; DeWild, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Idaho Power Company, collected water-column and bed-sediment core samples from eight sites in Brownlee Reservoir near Oxbow, Oregon, during May 5–7, 2012. Water-column and bed-sediment core samples were collected at each of the eight sites and analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury. Additional bed-sediment core samples, collected from three of the eight sites, were analyzed for pesticides and other organic compounds, trace metals, and physical characteristics, such as particle size. Total mercury and methylmercury were detected in each of the water column and bed-sediment core samples. Only 17 of the 417 unique pesticide and organic compounds were detected in bed-sediment core samples. Concentrations of most organic wastewater compounds detected in bed sediment were less than the reporting level. Trace metals detected were greater than the reporting level in all the bed-sediment core samples submitted for analysis. The particle size distribution of bed-sediment core samples was predominantly clay mixed with silt.

  14. Archival policies and collections database for the Woods Hole Science Center's marine sediment samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buczkowski, Brian J.; Kelsey, Sarah A.

    2007-01-01

    The Woods Hole Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been an active member of the Woods Hole research community, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, for over 40 years. In that time there have been many projects that involved the collection of sediment samples conducted by USGS scientists and technicians for the research and study of seabed environments and processes. These samples were collected at sea or near shore and then brought back to the Woods Hole Science Center (WHSC) for analysis. While at the center, samples are stored in ambient temperature, refrigerated and freezing conditions ranging from +2º Celsius to -18º Celsius, depending on the best mode of preparation for the study being conducted or the duration of storage planned for the samples. Recently, storage methods and available storage space have become a major concern at the WHSC. The core and sediment archive program described herein has been initiated to set standards for the management, methods, and duration of sample storage. A need has arisen to maintain organizational consistency and define storage protocol. This handbook serves as a reference and guide to all parties interested in using and accessing the WHSC's sample archive and also defines all the steps necessary to construct and maintain an organized collection of geological samples. It answers many questions as to the way in which the archive functions.

  15. Monitoring Breathing via Signal Strength in Wireless Networks

    E-print Network

    Patwari, Neal; R., Sai Ananthanarayanan P; Kasera, Sneha K; Westenskow, Dwayne

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows experimentally that standard wireless networks which measure received signal strength (RSS) can be used to reliably detect human breathing and estimate the breathing rate, an application we call "BreathTaking". We show that although an individual link cannot reliably detect breathing, the collective spectral content of a network of devices reliably indicates the presence and rate of breathing. We present a maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) of breathing rate, amplitude, and phase, which uses the RSS data from many links simultaneously. We show experimental results which demonstrate that reliable detection and frequency estimation is possible with 30 seconds of data, within 0.3 breaths per minute (bpm) RMS error. Use of directional antennas is shown to improve robustness to motion near the network.

  16. A Mobile-Phone-Based Breath Carbon Monoxide Meter to Detect Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Mobile phones hold considerable promise for delivering evidence-based smoking cessation interventions that require frequent and objective assessment of smoking status via breath carbon monoxide (Breath CO) measurement. However, there are currently no commercially available mobile-phone-based Breath CO meters. We developed a mobile-phone-based Breath CO meter prototype that attaches to and communicates with a smartphone through an audio port. We then evaluated the reliability and the validity of Breath CO measures collected with the mobile meter prototype and assessed the usability and acceptability of the meter. Methods: Participants included 20 regular smokers (?10 cigarettes/day), 20 light smokers (<10 cigarettes/day), and 20 nonsmokers. Expired air samples were collected 4 times from each participant: twice with the mobile meter and twice with a commercially available Breath CO meter. Results: Measures calculated by the mobile meter correlated strongly with measures calculated by the commercial meter (r = .96, p < .001). Additionally, the mobile meter accurately distinguished between smokers and nonsmokers. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for the mobile meter was 94.7%, and the meter had a combined sensitivity and specificity of 1.86 at an abstinence threshold of ?6 ppm. Responses on an acceptability survey indicated that smokers liked the meter and would be interested in using it during a quit attempt. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that a mobile-phone-based Breath CO meter is a reliable, valid, and acceptable device for distinguishing between smokers and nonsmokers. PMID:24470633

  17. Investigation of reflectance sampling depth in biological tissues for various common illumination/collection configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonios, George

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of light penetration characteristics is very important in almost all studies in biomedical optics. In this work, the reflectance sampling depth in biological tissues was investigated using Monte Carlo simulations for various common illumination/collection configurations. The analysis shows that the average sampling depth can be described by two simple empirical analytical expressions over the entire typical ranges of absorption and scattering properties relevant to in vivo biological tissue, regardless of the specific illumination/collection configuration details. These results are promising and helpful for the quick, efficient, and accurate design of reflectance studies for various biological tissue applications.

  18. Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeson, Phillip E., (Edited By); Ehlke, T.A.; Irwin, G.A.; Lium, B.W.; Slack, K.V.

    1977-01-01

    Chapter A4 contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to collect, preserve, and analyze waters to determine their biological and microbiological properties. Part 1 discusses biological sampling and sampling statistics. The statistical procedures are accompanied by examples. Part 2 consists of detailed descriptions of more than 45 individual methods, including those for bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, seston, periphyton, macrophytes, benthic invertebrates, fish and other vertebrates, cellular contents, productivity, and bioassays. Each method is summarized, and the application, interferences, apparatus, reagents, collection, analysis, calculations, reporting of results, precision and references are given. Part 3 consists of a glossary. Part 4 is a list of taxonomic references.

  19. Sample collection and preparation of biofluids and extracts for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M; Al-Talla, Zeyad A; Kharbatia, Najeh M

    2015-01-01

    To maximize the utility of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in metabonomics research, all stages of the experimental design should be standardized, including sample collection, storage, preparation, and sample separation. Moreover, the prerequisite for any GC-MS analysis is that a compound must be volatile and thermally stable if it is to be analyzed using this technique. Since many metabolites are nonvolatile and polar in nature, they are not readily amenable to analysis by GC-MS and require initial chemical derivatization of the polar functional groups in order to reduce the polarity and to increase the thermal stability and volatility of the analytes. In this chapter, an overview is presented of the optimum approach to sample collection, storage, and preparation for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabonomics with particular focus on urine samples as example of biofluids. PMID:25677148

  20. Measurement of low breath-alcohol concentrations: laboratory studies and field experience.

    PubMed

    Dubowski, K M; Essary, N A

    1999-10-01

    Recent federal rules and traffic law changes impose breath-alcohol thresholds of 0.02 and 0.04 g/210 L upon some classes of motor vehicle operators, such as juveniles and commercial vehicle operators. In federally regulated alcohol testing in the workplace, removal of covered workers from safety-sensitive duties, and other adverse actions, also occur at breath-alcohol concentrations (BrACs) of 0.02 and 0.04 g/210 L. We therefore studied performance of vapor-alcohol and breath-alcohol measurement at low alcohol concentrations in the laboratory and in the field, with current-generation evidential analyzers. We report here chiefly our field experience with evidential breath-alcohol testing of drinking drivers on paired breath samples using 62 Intoxilyzer 5000-D analyzers, for BrACs of 0-0.059 g/210 L. The data from 62 law enforcement breath-alcohol testing sites were collected and pooled, with BrACs recorded to three decimal places, and otherwise carried out under the standard Oklahoma evidential breath-alcohol testing protocol. For 2105 pooled simulator control tests at 0.06-0.13 g/210 L the mean +/- SD of the differences between target and result were -0.001 +/- 0.0035 g/210 L and 0.003 +/- 0.0023 g/210 L for signed and absolute differences, respectively (spans -0.016-0.010, 0.000-0.016). For 2078 paired duplicate breath-alcohol measurements with the Intoxilyzer 5000-D, the mean +/- SD difference (BrAC1-BrAC2) were 0.002 +/- 0.0026 (span 0-0.020 g/210 L). Variability of breath-alcohol measurements was related inversely to the alcohol concentration. Ninety-nine percent prediction limits for paired BrAC measurements correspond to a 0.020 g/210 L maximum absolute difference, meeting the NSC/CAOD recommendation that paired breath-alcohol analysis results within 0.02 g/210 L shall be deemed to be in acceptable agreement. We conclude that the field system for breath-alcohol analysis studied by us can and does perform reliably and accurately at low BrACs. PMID:10517542

  1. An unmanned mission to Mars with sample collection and in-situ resource utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    The design for the Mars Analysis and Return Vehicle with In-Situ Resource Utilization (MARVIN) project is outlined. The MARVIN mission is designed to collect samples of the Martian environment; to produce fuel from local Martian resources; and to use the fuel produced to return the samples to earth. It uses only existing technologies. Exploratory Technologies' mission-design efforts have focused on methods of orbit determination, sample collection, fuel production, power, communications, control, and structural design. Lambert Targeting provided Delta-V's, launch dates, and travel times. The landing site is the Tharsis Plateau, to the southeast of Olympus Mons, chosen for its substantial scientific value. Samples of soil, dust, and atmosphere are collected with lander-based collection devices: the soil sample, with a robotic arm similar to those used in the Viking missions; the atmospheric sample, from a bleed line to the compressor in the fuel-production facility; a dust sample, from the dust-collection container in the fuel-production facility; and a redundant dust sample, with a with a passive filter system, which relies upon neither a power source nor other collection methods. The sample-return capsule (SRC) houses these samples, which are triply contained to prevent contamination. Proven technology can be used to produce methane and oxygen for fuel with relative ease at the landing site: the Sabatier reactor produces methane and water by combining carbon dioxide and hydrogen (brought from earth); the Reverse Water-Gas Shift unit combines carbon dioxide and hydrogen to form carbon monoxide and water; a water-electrolysis unit splits the water into hydrogen and oxygen. The Mars-lander vehicle (MLV) transports the equipment from earth to Mars. The Mars-ascent vehicle (MAV) contains the SRC and the engine, which is the same for both the MLV and the MAV. All equipment that is unnecessary for the Mars-Earth trajectory remains on Mars. This report presents detailed sizing information, for which a spreadsheet has been developed. The trends suggest possibilities for expansion, and suggestions for future work in these areas are offered.

  2. Voluntary control of breathing does not alter vagal modulation of heart rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patwardhan, A. R.; Evans, J. M.; Bruce, E. N.; Eckberg, D. L.; Knapp, C. F.

    1995-01-01

    Variations in respiratory pattern influence the heart rate spectrum. It has been suggested, hence, that metronomic respiration should be used to correctly assess vagal modulation of heart rate by using spectral analysis. On the other hand, breathing to a metronome has been reported to increase heart rate spectral power in the high- or respiratory frequency region; this finding has led to the suggestion that metronomic respiration enhances vagal tone or alters vagal modulation of heart rate. To investigate whether metronomic breathing complicates the interpretation of heart rate spectra by altering vagal modulation, we recorded the electrocardiogram and respiration from eight volunteers during three breathing trials of 10 min each: 1) spontaneous breathing (mean rate of 14.4 breaths/min); 2) breathing to a metronome at the rate of 15, 18, and 21 breaths/min for 2, 6, and 2 min, respectively; and 3) breathing to a metronome at the rate of 18 breaths/min for 10 min. Data were also collected from eight volunteers who breathed spontaneously for 20 min and breathed metronomically at each subject's mean spontaneous breathing frequency for 20 min. Results from the three 10-min breathing trials showed that heart rate power in the respiratory frequency region was smaller during metronomic breathing than during spontaneous breathing. This decrease could be explained fully by the higher breathing frequencies used during trials 2 and 3 of metronomic breathing. When the subjects breathed metronomically at each subject's mean breathing frequency, the heart rate powers during metronomic breathing were similar to those during spontaneous breathing. Our results suggest that vagal modulation of heart rate is not altered and vagal tone is not enhanced during metronomic breathing.

  3. Family selection study among DNA samples collected from Amerindian ethnic group (Wayuu) in northern Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshimichi Yamamoto; Tadashi Gomyoda; Toshinari Ito; Kaoru Saijo; Inaho Danjoh; Yukio Nakamura

    In the Sonoda-Tajima Cell Collection, one of the cell bank of RIKEN BioResource Center, DNA samples from an Amerindian ethnic minority group (Wayuu) in Colombia analysed for 21 autosomal STRs, 17 Y-STRs and HV-I and -II regions in mtDNA to select the kinships among those samples in order to study on how the kinships influence population genetic analysis. As a

  4. The effect of soil sample handling between collection and drying on nitrate concentration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Westfall; M. A. Henson; E. P. Evans

    1978-01-01

    The residual soil NO3?N concentration is used in determining the N fertilizer recommendation for many crops in the arid United States. Accurate representation of the field levels of residual NO3?N is complicated by the fact that the NO3 concentration in a soil sample can change significantly if the sample is not handled properly after collection. This will result in erroneous

  5. Perforated dried blood spot accurate microsampling: the concept and its applications in toxicokinetic sample collection.

    PubMed

    Li, Fumin; Ploch, Stephen; Fast, Douglas; Michael, Steve

    2012-05-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling has gained considerable interest as a microsampling technique to support drug discovery and development owing to its enormous ethical and practical benefits. Quantitative determinations of drugs and/or their metabolites collected in DBS matrix in its current format, however, have encountered technical challenges and regulatory uncertainty. The challenges of DBS bioanalysis are largely ascribed to the way how samples are collected and analyzed. Currently, an uncontrolled amount of a blood sample, e.g. 20 µl, is collected per time point per sample and spotted onto cellulose paper. Quantitation is based on removal of a fixed area of the DBS sample, resulting in sample waste, a need for mechanical punching and concomitant potential punching carryover, uncertainty in recovery assessment and the adverse impact of hematocrit on accurate quantitation. Here, we describe the concept and applications of a novel concept, namely perforated dried blood spot (PDBS), for accurate microsampling that addresses previous challenges. Advantages of PDBS are enumerated and compared with conventional DBS in the context of microsampling and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry bioanalysis. Two approaches for accurate microsampling of a small volume of blood (5 µl) are proposed and demonstrated, i.e. Microsafe® pipettes and the Drummond incremental pipette. Two online sample enrichment techniques to enhance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry sensitivity for microsampling bioanalysis are discussed. The PDBS concept was successfully applied for accurate sample collection (5 µl) in a toxicokinetic study in rats given a single oral gavage dose of acetaminophen. Perspectives on bioanalytical method validation for regulated DBS/PDBS microsampling are also presented. PMID:22576879

  6. Colorado coal analyses, 1975 (Analyses of 64 samples collected in 1975)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Boreck; D. C. Jones; D. K. Murray; J. E. Schultz; D. C. Suek

    1977-01-01

    During 1975, the Colorado Geological Survey collected 64 samples from mines in four of the coal-bearing regions in the State as part of a grant program funded by the US Geological Survey. The samples obtained included coal, partings within coal beds, and associated roof-rock and floor-rock from eight surface and two underground mines located in the Boulder-Weld (Denver basin region),

  7. Field guidelines for collection, treatment, and analysis of water samples, Montana district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knapton, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    This manual provides a set of standardized guidelines and quality-control procedures for the collection and preservation of water samples and defines procedures for field analyses of unstable constituents or properties. Seldom is the water being samples of such uniformity that a single grab sample is representative of the whole. For this reason a variety of sampler types and sampling methods have been devised. Descriptions and procedures for field use are given for a number of sampler types. Several methods of sampling are described for which these samplers can be used. Sample-processing devices such as sample splitters and filtration apparatus are discussed along with methods of cleaning. Depending on the type of analysis to be performed in the laboratory, samples may need to be preserved shortly after collection. Various types of preservation are described in detail. Analyses for unstable constituents or properties are of necessity accomplished in the field. This manual addresses analytical techniques and quality assurance for: (1) Water temperature, (2) specific conductance, (3) pH, (4) alkalinity, (5) dissolved oxygen, and (6) bacteria. Examples of field report forms are given as attachments. Information pertinent to certain field calculations is also presented. (USGS)

  8. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. 26.95 Section 26.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath...

  9. Metabolite content profiling of bottlenose dolphin exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Aksenov, Alexander A; Yeates, Laura; Pasamontes, Alberto; Siebe, Craig; Zrodnikov, Yuriy; Simmons, Jason; McCartney, Mitchell M; Deplanque, Jean-Pierre; Wells, Randall S; Davis, Cristina E

    2014-11-01

    Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We describe the analysis workflow to profile exhaled breath metabolites and provide here a first library of volatile and nonvolatile compounds in cetacean exhaled breath. The described analytical methodology enabled us to document baseline compounds in exhaled breath of healthy animals and to study changes in metabolic content of dolphin breath with regard to a variety of factors. The method of breath analysis may provide a very valuable tool in future wildlife conservation efforts as well as deepen our understanding of marine mammals biology and physiology. PMID:25254551

  10. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN USING COTTON GAUZE FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure, urine samples are often needed to analyze pesticide metabolites. However, this is difficult for children wearing diapers because simple and feasible techniques suitable for field collection are not available. The objectives of this study were to t...

  11. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN USING GAUZE FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure, urine samples are often needed to analyze pesticide metabolites. However, this is difficult for children wearing diapers because simple and feasible techniques suitable for field collection are not available. The objectives of this study were to te...

  12. INTERLABORATORY COMPARISONS OF STRONTIUM SAMPLES COLLECTED AND ANALYZED FROM 1953 THROUGH 1956

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. P. Jr. Hardy; J. H. Harley

    1957-01-01

    Data are tabulated on the strontium-90 and calcium content in samples of ; bone, milk, cheese, hay, and soils collected throughout the United States from ; 1953 through 1956. Results are discussed. A comparison is made of analytical ; results from the participating laborratories. (C.H.);

  13. Sample collection for high throughput radiation biodosimetry , H.C. Turner1

    E-print Network

    Simaan, Nabil

    , as implemented manually, are in current use in radiation biodosimetry, and are highly radiation- specific [11Sample collection for high throughput radiation biodosimetry G. Garty1 , H.C. Turner1 , Y. Chen2 population would not be carrying physical dosimeters, a very high throughput means of assessing the radiation

  14. Efficient Data Collection with Sampling in WSNs: Making Use of Matrix Completion Techniques

    E-print Network

    in Fig. 1. WSNs were originally build in military fields and related applications are battlefieldEfficient Data Collection with Sampling in WSNs: Making Use of Matrix Completion Techniques 1 Jie of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Especially, to accommodate ever increasing demands of signal source coding

  15. Composition of selected rain samples collected at Menlo Park, California, 1971

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Vance C.; Zellweger, Gary W.; Avanzino, Ronald J.

    1976-01-01

    Chemical analysis are tabulated for 104 rain samples that were collected at Menlo Park, California, during November and December 1971. Of the 13 constituents determined, chloride was the most prominent with a range from less than 0.1 to 15.0 mg/liter. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Ram-air sample collection device for a chemical warfare agent sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clifford A. Megerle; Douglas R. Adkins; Gregory C. Frye-Mason

    2002-01-01

    In a surface acoustic wave sensor mounted within a body, the sensor having a surface acoustic wave array detector and a micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator exposed on a surface of the body, an apparatus for collecting air for the sensor, comprising a housing operatively arranged to mount atop the body, the housing including a multi-stage channel having an inlet and an

  17. An evaluation of optimal methods for avian influenza virus sample collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sample collection and transport are critical components of any diagnostic testing program and due to the amount of avian influenza virus (AIV) testing in the U.S. and worldwide, small improvements in sensitivity and specificity can translate into substantial cost savings from better test accuracy. ...

  18. Chemical fingerprinting of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon oil spill samples collected from Alabama shoreline

    E-print Network

    Clement, Prabhakar

    Chemical fingerprinting of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon oil spill samples collected of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: BP oil spill Deepwater Horizon oil spill Hopane analysis Fingerprinting Tar balls a b s t r a c t We compare

  19. DISTRIBUTION COEFICIENTS (KD) GENERATED FROM A CORE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Almond; D. Kaplan

    2011-01-01

    Core samples originating from Vault 4, Cell E of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) were collected in September of 2008 (Hansen and Crawford 2009, Smith 2008) and sent to SRNL to measure chemical and physical properties of the material including visual uniformity, mineralogy, microstructure, density, porosity, distribution coefficients (K{sub d}), and chemical composition. Some data from these experiments have been

  20. College Students' Perceptions of Collective Efficacy: Results from a Nonurban Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domoff, Sarah E.; Hayman, Jennifer; Tompsett, Carolyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Although the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and collective efficacy is well established in urban populations with community samples, it is unclear if this relationship holds in rural areas. The current study fills this gap by assessing the perceptions of adolescents from nonurban areas to examine the relationships between…

  1. RAGS: The Gaseous Sample Collection Diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah L. Nelson; Dawn A. Shaughnessy; Lee A. Bernstein; Darren L. Bleuel; Charles J. Cerjan; Kenton J. Moody; Dieter H. G. Schneider; Wolfgang Stoeffl

    2011-01-01

    Radiochemical diagnostic techniques such as solid- and gas-phase capsule debris analysis may prove to be successful methods for establishing the success or failure of ignition exper- iments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Samples in the gas phase offer the most direct method of collection by simply pumping out the large target chamber following a NIF shot. The target capsules

  2. Gene banking: A quality control perspective on collection, and analysis of samples for a national repository

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP) is developing a national repository for germplasm (semen, oocytes, embryos, blood, DNA, tissue) for all agricultural species in the United States. Currently, the swine collection consists of 127,479 samples from 886 boars representing 20 major, minor and...

  3. Just Breathe Green: Measuring Transpiration Rates

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Through multi-trial experiments, students are able to see and measure something that is otherwise invisible to them—seeing plants breathe. Student groups are given two small plants of native species and materials to enclose them after watering with colored water. After being enclosed for 5, 10 and 15 minutes, teams collect and measure the condensed water from the plants' "breathing," and then calculate the rates at which the plants breathe. A plant's breath is known as transpiration, which is the flow of water from the ground where it is taken up by roots (plant uptake) and then lost through the leaves. Students plot volume/time data for three different native plant species, determine and compare their transpiration rates to see which had the highest reaction rate and consider how a plant's unique characteristics (leaf surface area, transpiration rate) might figure into engineers' designs for neighborhood stormwater management plans.

  4. Electronic Nose and Use of Bags to Collect Odorous Air Samples in Meat Quality Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, G.; Masoero, G.; Battaglini, L. M.; Cornale, P.; Barbera, S.

    2009-05-01

    To test EN reliability and use of bags on meat, 17 bulls (one group of 9 and one of 8) fed similarly, except for a supplementary feedingstuff, were used. Samples were prepared according to the MCS protocol and repeated three times on different days for a total of 51 samples. Bags were used to collect raw and cooked meat air samples, and to test odour changes among samples analysed at different times. The first time analysis was performed immediately after collection then was repeated, 1 hour, 1 day and 1 week later. The Electronic Nose is very discriminant and clear differences were evident among raw, cooked and bags odorous profiles. The highest values were found in cooked samples and the broad range class (W5S) was the most representative. The EN also recognized the two tested feed treatments. In the cooked samples, all sensor responses decrease while time enhances, indicating a progressive chemical variation of the air composition in the bag, with a less correlation shown in the raw samples. When using bags, to avoid bias, is important to fix analysis in order to obtain useful results.

  5. A 20-minute breath test for helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, B.J.; Plankey, M.W.; Hoffman, S.R.; Boyd, C.L.; Dye, K.R.; Frierson, H.F. Jr.; Guerrant, R.L.; McCallum, R.W. (Univ. of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville (USA))

    1991-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated a simplified rapid {sup 14}C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. Fasting patients undergoing initial assessment for H. pylori drank 5 microCi of {sup 14}C-urea in 20 ml of water. Breath was collected at intervals for 30 min. Samples were counted in a beta-counter, and the results were expressed as counts per minute (cpm). In the same week, patients underwent endoscopy, and a blinded investigator examined biopsy samples of gastric mucosa by culture and histology for H. pylori. There were 49 H. pylori-negative (HP-) and 104 H. pylori-positive (HP+) patients in the study. HP+ patients expired a mean of 4398 cpm (SD 2468) per mmol CO{sub 2} in a sample taken 20 min after ingestion of the isotope. In contrast, HP--patients expired only 340 cpm (SD 196). If the mean +3 SD of HP- patients was used as a cutoff value, the 20-minute sample gave a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 100% for detecting H. pylori. The radiation exposure from this test is less than 1% of that received from an upper gastrointestinal series, and the short collection time makes it both convenient and cost effective.

  6. Collecting urine samples from young children using cotton gauze for pesticide studies.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y A; Barr, D B; Akland, G; Melnyk, L; Needham, L; Pellizzari, E D; Raymer, J H; Roberds, J M

    2000-01-01

    To estimate pesticide exposure, urine samples are often needed to analyze pesticide metabolites. However, this is difficult for children wearing diapers because simple and feasible techniques suitable for field collection are not available. The objectives of this study were to test the validity of using cotton gauze pad as a medium for collecting urine samples from young children and to examine the stability of the recoveries for creatinine and pesticide metabolites over 24 h. Urine spiked with a pesticide and four metabolites, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (which is mainly eliminated from urine unchanged), 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (metabolite for synthetic pyrethroids), atrazine mercapturate (metabolite for atrazine), malathion dicarboxylic acid (metabolite for malathion), and 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine (metabolite for diazinon) was added to the gauze pads and kept in jars at 37 degrees C in a water bath. Urine was expressed from the gauze pads immediately and after 1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 h, then analyzed. The recoveries, calculated as the percentage of concentration in expressed urine divided by that of the control urine sample, were within a range of 70-130%. The metabolite and creatinine concentrations did not change with time in either expressed urine samples or controls. The results suggest that cotton gauze pad is a promising candidate for collecting urine samples from young children wearing diapers for studies in which these five urinary pesticide metabolites are to be analyzed. PMID:11138662

  7. PIXE Analysis of Aerosol and Soil Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoskowitz, Joshua; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of aerosol and soil samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the aerosol samples near Piseco Lake and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The soil samples were also collected at Piseco Lake and pressed into cylindrical pellets for experimentation. PIXE analysis of the aerosol and soil samples were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. There are higher concentrations of sulfur at smaller particle sizes (0.25-1 ?m), suggesting that it could be suspended in the air for days and originate from sources very far away. Other elements with significant concentrations peak at larger particle sizes (1-4 ?m) and are found in the soil samples, suggesting that these elements could originate in the soil. The PIXE analysis will be described and the resulting data will be presented.

  8. Comparison of blood chemistry values for samples collected from juvenile chinook salmon by three methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Congleton, J.L.; LaVoie, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen blood chemistry indices were compared for samples collected by three commonly used methods: caudal transection, heart puncture, and caudal vessel puncture. Apparent biases in blood chemistry values for samples obtained by caudal transection were consistent with dilution with tissue fluids: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride, and K+ were increased and Na+ and Cl- were decreased relative to values for samples obtained by caudal vessel puncture. Some enzyme activities (ALT, AST, LDH) and K+ concentrations were also greater in samples taken by heart puncture than in samples taken by caudal vessel puncture. Of the methods tested, caudal vessel puncture had the least effect on blood chemistry values and should be preferred for blood chemistry studies on juvenile salmonids.

  9. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of gaseous biomarker in simulated breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Hanh N. D.; U-Thainual, Paweena; Kim, Do-Hyun

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a photoacoustic detector integrated with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to measure biomarkers in gas samples independently. Simulated exhaled breath samples were created by mixing varying concentrations of acetone, ammonia and ethane. The results of these measurements demonstrate the potential of photoacoustic spectroscopy to detect biomarkers from human breath.

  10. Developing Your Statistics The Statistics tab is used to display statistics for some or all of your collected samples. You will need at least one sample

    E-print Network

    Developing Your Statistics The Statistics tab is used to display statistics for some or all of your collected samples. You will need at least one sample and a plot to view statistics. Select Samples Select. are displayed and the statistics are added to the Master Statistics Table. Uncheck samples to remove them from

  11. Chemical sensors for breath gas analysis: the latest developments at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013.

    PubMed

    Tisch, Ulrike; Haick, Hossam

    2014-06-01

    Profiling the body chemistry by means of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath opens exciting new avenues in medical diagnostics. Gas sensors could provide ideal platforms for realizing portable, hand-held breath testing devices in the near future. This review summarizes the latest developments and applications in the field of chemical sensors for diagnostic breath testing that were presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013 in Wallerfangen, Germany. Considerable progress has been made towards clinically applicable breath testing devices, especially by utilizing chemo-sensitive nanomaterials. Examples of several specialized breath testing applications are presented that are either based on stand-alone nanomaterial-based sensors being highly sensitive and specific to individual breath compounds over others, or on combinations of several highly specific sensors, or on experimental nanomaterial-based sensors arrays. Other interesting approaches include the adaption of a commercially available MOx-based sensor array to indirect breath testing applications, using a sample pre-concentration method, and the development of compact integrated GC-sensor systems. The recent trend towards device integration has led to the development of fully integrated prototypes of point-of-care devices. We describe and compare the performance of several prototypes that are based on different sensing technologies and evaluate their potential as low-cost and readily available next-generation medical devices. PMID:24682160

  12. The U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS): a master catalog and collections management plan for U.S. Geological Survey geologic samples and sample collections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geologic Materials Repository Working Group

    2015-01-01

    The general consideration for implementation of the GCMS is that all active USGS geologic sample repositories will form the core of GCMS and that participating science centers will develop procedures based on proposed GCMS methodologies. The GCMS is a collective resource for the entire USGS community and the users who discover the geologic materials kept in these repositories and seek to access them.

  13. BREATHE to Understand©

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisa, Maxine

    2015-01-01

    BREATHE is an acronym for Breathe, Reflect, Empathize, Accept, Thank, Hearten, Engage. The addition of Understand allows for a holistic approach to living a healthy and balanced life both inside and outside the classroom. This paper took form as a result of my personal, spiritual journey, as well as my teaching practice. I noticed that the…

  14. Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or pneumonia (say: "new-moan-yuh"). Less common causes of breathing problems are lung cancer, a blood clot in the lungs, air leakage around the lungs and scarring of the lung tissue. ... What tests will my doctor perform? Your doctor can help find the cause of your breathing problem by asking you questions ...

  15. Every Breath You Take

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    In an activity designed to help students develop number sense, each student estimates the number of times s/he breathes in one hour, and the class graphs the estimates, finds the mean and median of the estimates, and discusses outliers. Students then brainstorm how they could find out how many breaths a person actually takes in a day—and implement their strategies.

  16. From breathing to respiration.

    PubMed

    Fitting, Jean-William

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of breathing remained an enigma for a long time. The Hippocratic school described breathing patterns but did not associate breathing with the lungs. Empedocles and Plato postulated that breathing was linked to the passage of air through pores of the skin. This was refuted by Aristotle who believed that the role of breathing was to cool the heart. In Alexandria, breakthroughs were accomplished in the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. Later, Galen proposed an accurate description of the respiratory muscles and the mechanics of breathing. However, his heart-lung model was hampered by the traditional view of two non-communicating vascular systems - veins and arteries. After a period of stagnation in the Middle Ages, knowledge progressed with the discovery of pulmonary circulation. The comprehension of the purpose of breathing progressed by steps thanks to Boyle and Mayow among others, and culminated with the contribution of Priestley and the discovery of oxygen by Lavoisier. Only then was breathing recognized as fulfilling the purpose of respiration, or gas exchange. A century later, a controversy emerged concerning the active or passive transfer of oxygen from alveoli to the blood. August and Marie Krogh settled the dispute, showing that passive diffusion was sufficient to meet the oxygen needs. PMID:25532022

  17. Alkylphenol Polyethoxylate Derivatives in Groundwater and Blood Samples Collected from Pig Herds in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    CHIU, Tai-Shun; HSIEH, Chi-Ying; MIAW, Chang-Ling; LIN, Chao-Nan; CHANG, Tsung-Chou; YEN, Chia-Hung; CHIOU, Ming-Tang

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Alkylphenol polyethoxylate (APEO) derivatives, such as nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO), nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO), nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP), have been detected in the surface water, sediment, food and groundwater of numerous countries. Because groundwater is the main source of water for pig herds, the aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of APEO derivatives in groundwater and blood samples that were collected from pig herds raised near the Wuluo River in Southern Taiwan. The mean concentrations of NP, OP, NP1EO and NP2EO in the groundwater supply for 10 pig herds were 0.04 µg/l, 0.26 ± 0.23 µg/l, 0.74 ± 0.69 µg/l and 0.17 ± 0.22 µg/l, respectively. NP was detected in all blood samples collected from 5 of the 10 pig herds. The highest concentrations detected in the blood samples collected from six-week-old piglets and sows were 12.00 µg/l and 56.94 µg/l, respectively. Blood samples from 4 of the 5 herds showed OP contamination. The highest OP concentrations detected in 6-week-old piglets and sows were 275.58 µg/l and 566.32 µg/l, respectively. These results indicate that APEO derivatives accumulated in the groundwater supply and the bloodstreams of the pigs. PMID:24694943

  18. Microbial monitoring and methods of sample collection: a GITMO survey (Gruppo Trapianto di Midollo Osseo)

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Erica; Callea, Emanuela; Alberani, Francesca; Orlando, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The collection of microbiological samples represents an important aspect of care both for doctors as well as nurses. It is important to recognise and identify some key points, to avoid performing ‘unnecessary’ or ‘incorrect’ sampling, which may give useless or even misleading results, these are: the moment at which the sample is collected, the collection method and timing (if indicated). The comparison between the various nursing members of the Italian National bone marrow transplant group (GITMO), showed diversity of practice across all fields. A formal survey was therefore conducted within GITMO centres looking at the methods of microbiological sample collection. These results were compared with the literature, and in addition to the lack of homogeneity of practice within the centres, a lack of compliance with the recommendations was also observed. To evaluate the effectiveness of this survey in highlighting awareness of this issue and the presence of relevant guidelines, the questionnaire was repeated (with the same centres responding), which demonstrated no major changes in care practices. Conclusion: The survey has allowed us to highlight many critical issues regarding common procedures which are not commonly discussed. Considerable differences were noted between different transplant centres, which may be attributable to the lack of Italian guidelines that can be used as a starting point for clinical practice. The plenary discussion allowed for an exchange of findings with the medical staff, who are usually responsible for requesting microbiological samples. The ideal solution would be a unique field-based training programme, associated with the dissemination of a common procedural document for ensuring evidence-based practice. PMID:24834116

  19. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 ?m. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  20. Collective efficacy and obesity-related health behaviors in a community sample of African Americans.

    PubMed

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Bellamy, Scarlett; Briggs, Vanessa; Bowman, Marjorie; Delmoor, Ernestine; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Rogers, Rodney; Purnell, Joseph; Weathers, Benita; Johnson, Jerry C

    2014-02-01

    The social environment is important to body mass index and obesity. However, it is unknown if perceptions of the social environment are associated with obesity-related behaviors in populations at greatest risk for being overweight or obese. We evaluated the relationship between collective efficacy and diet and physical activity in a community-based sample of African American adults who were residents in an urban area. Data were collected as part of an academic-community partnership from November 2009 to 2011. We evaluated whether participants met the recommended guidelines for diet and physical activity based on collective efficacy and their sociodemographic background, health care variables, and self-efficacy in a community-based sample of African American adults (n = 338) who were residents in the Philadelphia, PA metropolitan area. Overall, many participants did not meet the recommended guidelines for fruit and vegetable intake or physical activity. The likelihood of meeting the recommended guidelines for fruit intake increased with greater levels of collective efficacy (OR 1.56, 95 % CI 1.18, 2.07, p = 0.002) and self-efficacy for diet (OR 1.56, 95 % CI 1.19, 2.04, p = 0.001). Collective efficacy was not associated with physical activity and the positive association between collective efficacy and vegetable intake was not statistically significant (OR 1.25, 95 % CI 0.94, 1.65, p = 0.12). It is important to determine the most effective methods and settings for improving diet and physical activity behaviors in urban African Americans. Enhancing collective efficacy may be important to improving adherence to recommended guidelines for obesity-related health behaviors. PMID:24026302

  1. Collective Efficacy and Obesity-Related Health Behaviors in a Community Sample of African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Bellamy, Scarlett; Briggs, Vanessa; Bowman, Marjorie; Delmoor, Ernestine; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Rogers, Rodney; Purnell, Joseph; Weathers, Benita; Johnson, Jerry C.

    2013-01-01

    The social environment is important to body mass index and obesity. However, it is unknown if perceptions of the social environment are associated with obesity-related behaviors in populations at greatest risk for being overweight or obese. We evaluated the relationship between collective efficacy and diet and physical activity in a community-based sample of African American adults who were residents in an urban area. Data were collected as part of an academic-community partnership from November 2009–2011. We evaluated whether participants met the recommended guidelines for diet and physical activity based on collective efficacy and their sociodemographic background, health care variables, and self-efficacy in a community-based sample of African American adults (n=338) who were residents in the Philadelphia, PA metropolitan area. Overall, many participants did not meet the recommended guidelines for fruit and vegetable intake or physical activity. The likelihood of meeting the recommended guidelines for fruit intake increased with greater levels of collective efficacy (OR=1.57, 95% CI=1.18, 2.07, p=0.002) and self-efficacy for diet (OR=1.56, 95% CI=1.19, 2.04, p=0.001). Collective efficacy was not associated with physical activity and the positive association between collective efficacy and vegetable intake was not statistically significant (OR=1.25, 95% CI=0.94, 1.65, p=0.12). It is important to determine the most effective methods and settings for improving diet and physical activity behaviors in urban African Americans. Enhancing collective efficacy may be important to improving adherence to recommended guidelines for obesity-related health behaviors. PMID:24026302

  2. Multiple Approaches to Down Sizing of the Lunar Sample Return Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Horz, F.

    2010-01-01

    Future Lunar missions are planned for at least 7 days, significantly longer than the 3 days of the later Apollo missions. The last of those missions, A-17, returned 111 kg of samples plus another 20 kg of containers. The current Constellation program requirements for return weight for science is 100 kg with the hope of raising that limit to near 250 kg including containers and other non-geological materials. The estimated return weight for rock and soil samples will, at best, be about 175 kg. One method proposed to accomplish down-sizing of the collection is the use of a Geo-Lab in the lunar habitat to complete a preliminary examination of selected samples and facilitate prioritizing the return samples.

  3. Characterization Data Package for Containerized Sludge Samples Collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Baldwin, David L.; Daniel, Richard C.; Bos, Stanley J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Carlson, Clark D.; Coffey, Deborah S.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Neiner, Doinita; Oliver, Brian M.; Pool, Karl N.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Urie, Michael W.

    2013-09-10

    This data package contains the K Basin sludge characterization results obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory during processing and analysis of four sludge core samples collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210 in 2010 as requested by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company. Sample processing requirements, analytes of interest, detection limits, and quality control sample requirements are defined in the KBC-33786, Rev. 2. The core processing scope included reconstitution of a sludge core sample distributed among four to six 4-L polypropylene bottles into a single container. The reconstituted core sample was then mixed and subsampled to support a variety of characterization activities. Additional core sludge subsamples were combined to prepare a container composite. The container composite was fractionated by wet sieving through a 2,000 micron mesh and a 500-micron mesh sieve. Each sieve fraction was sampled to support a suite of analyses. The core composite analysis scope included density determination, radioisotope analysis, and metals analysis, including the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit metals (with the exception of mercury). The container composite analysis included most of the core composite analysis scope plus particle size distribution, particle density, rheology, and crystalline phase identification. A summary of the received samples, core sample reconstitution and subsampling activities, container composite preparation and subsampling activities, physical properties, and analytical results are presented. Supporting data and documentation are provided in the appendices. There were no cases of sample or data loss and all of the available samples and data are reported as required by the Quality Assurance Project Plan/Sampling and Analysis Plan.

  4. Enhanced Conformational Sampling Using Replica Exchange with Collective-Variable Tempering

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The computational study of conformational transitions in RNA and proteins with atomistic molecular dynamics often requires suitable enhanced sampling techniques. We here introduce a novel method where concurrent metadynamics are integrated in a Hamiltonian replica-exchange scheme. The ladder of replicas is built with different strengths of the bias potential exploiting the tunability of well-tempered metadynamics. Using this method, free-energy barriers of individual collective variables are significantly reduced compared with simple force-field scaling. The introduced methodology is flexible and allows adaptive bias potentials to be self-consistently constructed for a large number of simple collective variables, such as distances and dihedral angles. The method is tested on alanine dipeptide and applied to the difficult problem of conformational sampling in a tetranucleotide. PMID:25838811

  5. Enhanced Conformational Sampling using Replica Exchange with Collective-Variable Tempering

    E-print Network

    Gil-Ley, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The computational study of conformational transitions in RNA and proteins with atomistic molecular dynamics often requires suitable enhanced sampling techniques. We here introduce a novel method where concurrent metadynamics are integrated in a Hamiltonian replica-exchange scheme. The ladder of replicas is built with different strength of the bias potential exploiting the tunability of well-tempered metadynamics. Using this method, free-energy barriers of individual collective variables are significantly reduced compared with simple force-field scaling. The introduced methodology is flexible and allows adaptive bias potentials to be self-consistently constructed for a large number of simple collective variables, such as distances and dihedral angles. The method is tested on alanine dipeptide and applied to the difficult problem of conformational sampling in a tetranucleotide.

  6. Sample collection guidelines for trace elements in blood and urine. IUPAC Commission of Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, R; Heinzow, B; Herber, R F; Christensen, J M; Poulsen, O M; Sabbioni, E; Templeton, D M; Thomassen, Y; Vahter, M; Vesterberg, O

    1996-06-01

    This paper presents an organized system for element-specific sample collection and handling of human blood (whole blood, serum or plasma, packed cells or erythrocytes) and urine also indicating a proper definition of the subject and sample. Harmonized procedures for collection, preparation, analysis and quality control are suggested. The aim is to assist scientists worldwide to produce comparable data which will be useful on a regional, national and international scale. The guidelines are directed to the elements aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium and zinc. These include the most important elements measured for their occupational or clinical significance, and serve as examples of principles that will guide development of methods for other elements in the future. PMID:8829133

  7. Monitoring real-time aerosol distribution in the breathing zone

    SciTech Connect

    Martinelli, C.A.; Harley, N.H.; Lippmann, M.; Cohen, B.S.

    1983-01-01

    A prototype air sampling, data recording, and data retrieval system was developed for monitoring aerosol concentrations in a worker's breathing zone. Three continuous-reading, light-scattering aerosol monitors and a tape recorder were incorporated into a specially designed and fabricated backpack for detailed field monitoring of both temporal and spatial variability in aerosol concentrations within the breathing zone. The backpack was worn by workers in a beryllium refinery. The aerosol which passed through each monitor was collected on a back-up filter for later chemical analysis for Be and Cu. The aerosol concentrations were recorded on magnetic tape as a function of time. The recorded signals were subsequently transcribed onto a strip chart recorder, then evaluated using a microcomputer with graphics capability. Field measurements made of the aerosol concentration at the forehead, nose, and lapel of operators during the melting and casting of beryllium-copper alloy demonstrated that there is considerable variability in concentration at different locations within the breathing zone. They also showed that operations resulting in worker exposure can be identified, and the precise time and duration of exposure can be determined.

  8. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS AND HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that u...

  9. Pesticide-sampling equipment, sample-collection and processing procedures, and water-quality data at Chicod Creek, North Carolina, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, T.K.; Smith, K.E.; Wood, C.D.; Williams, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected from Chicod Creek in the Coastal Plain Province of North Carolina during the summer of 1992 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Chicod Creek is in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage area, one of four study units designated to test equipment and procedures for collecting and processing samples for the solid-phase extraction of selected pesticides, The equipment and procedures were used to isolate 47 pesticides, including organonitrogen, carbamate, organochlorine, organophosphate, and other compounds, targeted to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sample-collection and processing equipment equipment cleaning and set-up procedures, methods pertaining to collecting, splitting, and solid-phase extraction of samples, and water-quality data resulting from the field test are presented in this report Most problems encountered during this intensive sampling exercise were operational difficulties relating to equipment used to process samples.

  10. Sampling and Selection Factors that Enhance the Diversity of Microbial Collections: Application to Biopesticide Development.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun-Kyung; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Jang-Hoon; Han, Songhee; Kang, Hunseung; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Kim, Young Cheol; Gardener, Brian McSpadden

    2013-06-01

    Diverse bacteria are known to colonize plants. However, only a small fraction of that diversity has been evaluated for their biopesticide potential. To date, the criteria for sampling and selection in such bioprospecting endeavors have not been systematically evaluated in terms of the relative amount of diversity they provide for analysis. The present study aimed to enhance the success of bio-prospecting efforts by increasing the diversity while removing the genotypic redundancy often present in large collections of bacteria. We developed a multivariate sampling and marker-based selection strategy that significantly increase the diversity of bacteria recovered from plants. In doing so, we quantified the effects of varying sampling intensity, media composition, incubation conditions, plant species, and soil source on the diversity of recovered isolates. Subsequent sequencing and high-throughput phenotypic analyses of a small fraction of the collected isolates revealed that this approach led to the recovery of over a dozen rare and, to date, poorly characterized genera of plant-associated bacteria with significant biopesticide activities. Overall, the sampling and selection approach described led to an approximately 5-fold improvement in efficiency and the recovery of several novel strains of bacteria with significant biopesticide potential. PMID:25288941

  11. Pitfalls in the analysis of volatile breath biomarkers: suggested solutions and SIFT-MS quantification of single metabolites.

    PubMed

    Smith, David; Spanel, Patrik

    2015-06-01

    The experimental challenges presented by the analysis of trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath with the objective of identifying reliable biomarkers are brought into focus. It is stressed that positive identification and accurate quantification of the VOCs are imperative if they are to be considered as discreet biomarkers. Breath sampling procedures are discussed and it is suggested that for accurate quantification on-line real time sampling and analysis is desirable. Whilst recognizing such real time analysis is not always possible and sample collection is often required, objective recognition of the pitfalls involved in this is essential. It is also emphasized that mouth-exhaled breath is always contaminated to some degree by orally generated compounds and so, when possible, analysis of nose-exhaled breath should be performed. Some difficulties in breath analysis are mitigated by the choice of analytical instrumentation used, but no single instrument can provide solutions to all the analytical challenges. Analysis and interpretation of breath analysis data, however acquired, needs to be treated circumspectly. In particular, the excessive use of statistics to treat imperfect mass spectrometry/mobility spectra should be avoided, since it can result in unjustifiable conclusions. It is should be understood that recognition of combinations of VOCs in breath that, for example, apparently describe particular cancer states, will not be taken seriously until they are replicated in other laboratories and clinics. Finally, the inhibiting notion that single biomarkers of infection and disease will not be identified and utilized clinically should be dispelled by the exemplary and widely used single biomarkers NO and H2 and now, as indicated by recent selected ion flow tube mass spectroscopy (SIFT-MS) results, triatomic hydrogen cyanide and perhaps pentane and acetic acid. Hopefully, these discoveries will provide encouragement to research workers to be more open-minded on this important and desirable issue. PMID:25830501

  12. Micropreconcentrator in LTCC Technology with Mass Spectrometry for the Detection of Acetone in Healthy and Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus Patient Breath

    PubMed Central

    Rydosz, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Breath analysis has long been recognized as a potentially attractive method for the diagnosis of several diseases. The main advantage over other diagnostic methods such as blood or urine analysis is that breath analysis is fully non-invasive, comfortable for patients and breath samples can be easily obtained. One possible future application of breath analysis may be the diagnosing and monitoring of diabetes. It is, therefore, essential, to firstly determine a relationship between exhaled biomarker concentration and glucose in blood as well as to compare the results with the results obtained from non-diabetic subjects. Concentrations of molecules which are biomarkers of diseases’ states, or early indicators of disease should be well documented, i.e., the variations of abnormal concentrations of breath biomarkers with age, gender and ethnic issues need to be verified. Furthermore, based on performed measurements it is rather obvious that analysis of exhaled acetone as a single biomarker of diabetes is unrealistic. In this paper, the author presents results of his research conducted on samples of breath gas from eleven healthy volunteers (HV) and fourteen type-1 diabetic patients (T1DM) which were collected in 1-l SKC breath bags. The exhaled acetone concentration was measured using mass spectrometry (HPR-20 QIC, Hiden Analytical, Warrington, UK) coupled with a micropreconcentrator in LTCC (Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic). However, as according to recent studies the level of acetone varies to a significant extent for each blood glucose concentration of single individuals, a direct and absolute relationship between blood glucose and acetone has not been proved. Nevertheless, basing on the research results acetone in diabetic breath was found to be higher than 1.11 ppmv, while its average concentration in normal breath was lower than 0.83 ppmv. PMID:25310087

  13. Chemical composition of rainwater collected at two sampling sites in the city of Rijeka.

    PubMed

    Alebi?-Jureti?, A; Sojat, V

    1998-09-01

    This study compares the chemical composition of rainwater samples collected at two sampling sites, the first situated in the Rijeka city centre and the second in a suburban site 120 m above the sea level. The rainwater samples were analysed for precipitation weighted average concentrations of hydrogen, sulphate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. The results suggest that the local washout of the atmosphere enhanced the rainwater acidity in the city centre which also received significant marine contributions of sulphate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium content. Rainwater in the suburban site was affected by soil dust and/or fertilizers used in the nearby gardens, resulting in partial neutralization with rising of pH value. While the content of S-SO4 was practically equal at both sites, the quantities of N-NO3 and N-NH4 nearly doubled at the suburban site. PMID:10376356

  14. Regression modeling of particle size distributions in urban storm water: advancements through improved sample collection methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fienen, Michael N.; Selbig, William R.

    2012-01-01

    A new sample collection system was developed to improve the representation of sediment entrained in urban storm water by integrating water quality samples from the entire water column. The depth-integrated sampler arm (DISA) was able to mitigate sediment stratification bias in storm water, thereby improving the characterization of suspended-sediment concentration and particle size distribution at three independent study locations. Use of the DISA decreased variability, which improved statistical regression to predict particle size distribution using surrogate environmental parameters, such as precipitation depth and intensity. The performance of this statistical modeling technique was compared to results using traditional fixed-point sampling methods and was found to perform better. When environmental parameters can be used to predict particle size distributions, environmental managers have more options when characterizing concentrations, loads, and particle size distributions in urban runoff.

  15. Presence of aflatoxin M1 in raw, reconstituted, and powdered milk samples collected in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Redouane-Salah, S; Morgavi, D P; Arhab, R; Messaï, A; Boudra, H

    2015-06-01

    Aflatoxins are potent toxic metabolites produced by Aspergillus spp. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a metabolite of aflatoxin B1 that can be present in milk, and it is a public health concern. There is scarce information on the incidence of aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk consumed in Algeria. The presence of AFM1 was investigated in raw milk samples collected between February and October 2011 from 11 dairy farms representative of Algerian production conditions and that were located around Constantine city. Reconstituted and powdered milk samples were purchased from local supermarkets. The analysis was performed by liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity purification. AFM1 was detected in 5 out of 47 samples (11 %) at levels ranging from 9 to 103 ng/L, with one sample exceeding the limit of 50 ng/L set by European regulations. Traces of AFM1 (less than 8 ng/L) were also found in 11 other samples. The incidence of AFM1 contamination was higher in imported powdered milk (29 %) than in raw milk (5 %). Although the concentration of AFM1 in contaminated samples was low, the relatively considerable prevalence found in this exploratory study justifies more detailed and continuous monitoring to reduce consumers' exposure to AFM1. PMID:26009161

  16. Aqueous Processing of Atmospheric Organic Particles in Cloud Water Collected via Aircraft Sampling.

    PubMed

    Boone, Eric J; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Wirth, Christopher; Shepson, Paul B; Stirm, Brian H; Pratt, Kerri A

    2015-07-21

    Cloudwater and below-cloud atmospheric particle samples were collected onboard a research aircraft during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) over a forested region of Alabama in June 2013. The organic molecular composition of the samples was studied to gain insights into the aqueous-phase processing of organic compounds within cloud droplets. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) with nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) and direct infusion electrospray ionization (ESI) were utilized to compare the organic composition of the particle and cloudwater samples, respectively. Isoprene and monoterpene-derived organosulfates and oligomers were identified in both the particles and cloudwater, showing the significant influence of biogenic volatile organic compound oxidation above the forested region. While the average O:C ratios of the organic compounds were similar between the atmospheric particle and cloudwater samples, the chemical composition of these samples was quite different. Specifically, hydrolysis of organosulfates and formation of nitrogen-containing compounds were observed for the cloudwater when compared to the atmospheric particle samples, demonstrating that cloud processing changes the composition of organic aerosol. PMID:26068538

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A TAMPER RESISTANT\\/INDICATING AEROSOL COLLECTION SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AT BULK HANDLING FACILITIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2012-01-01

    Environmental sampling has become a key component of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards approaches since its approval for use in 1996. Environmental sampling supports the IAEA's mission of drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear material or nuclear activities in a Nation State. Swipe sampling is the most commonly used method for the collection of environmental samples from

  18. Design of the emotion database based on ISO\\/IEC 11179 using the breathing rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyunseung Son; Byounghee Son

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of the breathing capacity in the respiratory function of patients, a health examination of common people, and an industrial disaster evaluation are planned for the entire nation. Particularly, in typical environments as the importance of emotional technology increases, interest in research related to emotion reasoning according to breathing capacity has increased. Data collected by breathing capacity sensors can extract

  19. Detection of Helicobacter pylori infection by examination of human breath odor using electronic nose Bloodhound-214ST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shnayder, E. P.; Moshkin, M. P.; Petrovskii, D. V.; Shevela, A. I.; Babko, A. N.; Kulikov, V. G.

    2009-05-01

    Our aim was to examine the possibility of use e-nose Bloodhound-214ST to determine presence or absence of H. pylori infection using exhalation samples of patients. Breath samples were collected twice: at baseline and after oral administration of 500 mg of urea. H. pylori status of patients was confirmed by antral biopsy. Using two approaches for the data analysis we showed the possibility to distinguish H. pylori free and infected patients.

  20. High volume electrostatic field-sampler for collection of fine particle bulk samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Sharma, Anoop; Wallin, Håkan; Alstrup Jensen, Keld

    A high volume electrostatic field-sampler was developed for collection of fine particles, which easily can be recovered for subsequent sample characterisation and bioassays. The sampler was based on a commercial office air cleaner and consisted of a prefilter followed by electrostatic collection plates operating at 2.7 kV. The sampler performance was characterised for 26 nm to 5.4 ?m-size particles in urban street air. The collection efficiency reached a maximum (60-70%) between 0.2 and 0.8 ?m and dropped to ˜25% at 30 nm and 2.5 ?m, respectively. After extraction in water, the particle loss was<2%. The extraction efficiency for dry lyophilised particulate matter was above 80%, allowing retrievement of ˜12 mg day -1 in urban street air at PM 10 levels of ˜24 ?g m -3. The ozone generating capacity of the corona discharge during operation was on the order of 10 ppb. A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) degradation test using benzo[a]pyrene as a model showed that ˜85% was degraded after 24 h. However, similar results were observed when the corona discharge was switched off. Hence, the ozone and other corona discharge reactants do not appear to contribute considerably to PAH-degradation. The overall results show that the sampler type is a promising alternative to traditional sampling of fine particles for bulk analysis and bioassays. The main advantages are simple operation, high stability, high quantifiable particle recovery rates and low cost.

  1. Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with blood clots in the legs or pelvis (deep venous thrombosis), debilitating medical conditions, immobility, or inherited ... it hard for a person to take a deep breath, which usually results in retention of carbon ...

  2. Medical Issues: Breathing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not to Trach Article University of Utah Respiratory Management website Support & Care For Newly Diagnosed Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life Grief & Loss Community & Local Support For ...

  3. Shortness-of-Breath

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that can lead to shortness of breath include anxiety, panic attacks, anemia and even constipation. The experience ... helpful in cases of bacterial pneumonia, while anti-anxiety medications are used to treat patients with anxiety ...

  4. Stop, Breathe & Think app.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Natalie

    2014-07-15

    The Stop, Breathe & Think app is free, thanks to underwriting from Tools for Peace, the non-profit organisation that teaches people of all ages how to develop and apply kindness and compassion in their daily lives. PMID:25005405

  5. Minimizing Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePLUS

    ... More About Us Newsroom Departments & Divisions Locations & Directions Who We Are Connect With Us Contact Us More Breathing and ... Information Pediatric Conditions Healthy Lifestyle More About Us Who We Are Newsroom Network of Locations More eNewsletters and More © ...

  6. Bad Breath (Halitosis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your cheeks. When bacteria use these cells for food, they produce a foul odor. In addition, bad breath can be caused by the following: Poor dental hygiene — Infrequent or improper brushing and flossing, allows bits ...

  7. Single-breath analysis using a novel simple sampler and capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductometric detection.

    PubMed

    Greguš, Michal; Foret, František; Kubá?, Petr

    2015-02-01

    The analysis of ionic content of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from one single breath by CE with C(4) D is demonstrated for the first time. A miniature sampler made from a 2-mL syringe and an aluminum cooling cylinder for collection of EBC was developed. Various parameters of the sampler that influence its collection efficiency, repeatability, and effect of respiratory patterns were studied in detail. Efficient procedures for the cleanup of the miniature sampler were also developed and resulted in significant improvement of sampling repeatability. Analysis of EBC was performed by CE-C(4) D in a 60 mM MES/l-histidine BGE with 30 ?M CTAB and 2 mM 18-crown-6 at pH 6 and excellent repeatability of migration times (RSD < 1.3% (n = 7)) and peak areas (RSD < 7% (n = 7)) of 12 inorganic anions, cations, and organic acids was obtained. It has been shown that the breathing pattern has a significant impact on the concentration of the analytes in the collected EBC. As the ventilatory pattern can be easily controlled during single exhalation, the developed collection system and method provides a highly reproducible and fast way of collecting EBC with applicability in point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:25377628

  8. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF DISLODGEABLE RESIDUES -- PUF ROLLER SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.18)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method to collect transferable residues from indoor floor surfaces. The sampling procedures described are applicable to bare floors or covered floor surfaces, e.g., carpeting and vinyl flooring. The samples will be collected only in the day care centers o...

  9. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FLOOR DUST SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.19)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collecting a floor dust sample from carpet. Dust samples will be collected in the room that the child uses most at home and/or at day care using a High Volume Small Surface Sampler (HVS3). In addition, participants will also be asked to donate a ...

  10. A REVIEW OF SOME TRACER-TEST DESIGN EQUATIONS FOR TRACER-MASS ESTIMATION AND SAMPLE COLLECTION FREQUENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determination of necessary tracer mass, initial sample-collection time, and subsequent sample-collection frequency are the three most difficult aspects to estimate for a proposed tracer test prior to conducting the tracer test. To facilitate tracer-mass estimation, 33 mass-estima...

  11. Toxin profile in samples collected in fresh and brackish water in Germany.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, I; Rodriguez, C; Alfonso, A; Otero, P; Meyer, T; Breitenbach, U; Botana, L M

    2014-12-01

    The simultaneous detection of cyanotoxins is an important issue in order to prevent intoxications. In the present paper an Ultra Performance liquid Chromatography tandem mass spectrometry UPLC-MS/MS method was developed in order to simultaneously identify and quantify cylindrospermopsin (CYN), several microcystins (MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-YR) and some anatoxin-a (ATX-a) analogues. By using this new method all these toxins can be quickly separate. In addition the amino acid phenylalanine (Phe) can also be separate and therefore misidentifications with ATX-a can be avoided. By using this new method the presence of these toxins was studied in samples collected in several German localizations within the sampling program of the European Project ?Aqua (Universal microarrays for the evaluation of fresh-water quality based on detection of pathogens and their toxins). In these conditions, several ATX-a analogues, Phe, MC-LR and MC-RR were reported in samples collected. PMID:25448386

  12. Miniature CVD-diamond corning drills for robotic sample collection and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D. T. (David T.); Trava-Airoldi, V.J.; Bish, D. L. (David L.); Chipera, S. J. (Steve J.)

    2003-01-01

    Coring tools have been used etlectivelv on the Moon, but to date no such tools have been used on any other extraterrestrial surface. The lunar experience includes both manual (Apollo) and robotic (Luna) systems . These coring systems were concerned primarily with acquiring samples from depth for return to Earth or for the creation of instrument emplacement holes (e .g ., heat probes). Current designs for planetary drills differ from the lunar tools primarily in that they are integrated with robotic instrumentation for remote analysis, but the role of the drilling or coring system remains one of acquiring samples that must be extracted from the core barrel for analysis . Missing from current sample collection systems is a tool that can double as both a conng device and a sample holder. This dual utility can minimize the number of motions, the mass, and the power required for several classes of instruments in planetary surface exploration. To be effective, such a system must be durable and simple in operation. Hollow CVD diamond drills possess the hardness, excellent cutting properties, and heat resistance required for drilling into a wide variety of rocks and minerals. Because CVD diamond is also unreactive and transparent to infrared radiation and to X-rays of moderate to high energry, it can be used as a sample holder in various instruments for X-ray diffraction (XRD), Xray fluorescence (XRF), infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermal analysis.

  13. Comparative evaluation of vacuum-based surface sampling methods for collection of Bacillus spores.

    PubMed

    Calfee, M Worth; Rose, Laura J; Morse, Stephen; Mattorano, Dino; Clayton, Matt; Touati, Abderrahmane; Griffin-Gatchalian, Nicole; Slone, Christina; McSweeney, Neal

    2013-12-01

    In this study, four commonly-used sampling devices (vacuum socks, 37 mm 0.8 ?m mixed cellulose ester (MCE) filter cassettes, 37 mm 0.3 ?m polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filter cassettes, and 3M™ forensic filters) were comparatively evaluated for their ability to recover surface-associated spores. Aerosolized spores (~10(5)CFUcm(-2)) of a Bacillus anthracis surrogate were allowed to settle onto three material types (concrete, carpet, and upholstery). Ten replicate samples were collected using each vacuum method, from each material type. Stainless steel surfaces, inoculated simultaneously with test materials, were sampled with pre-moistened wipes. Wipe recoveries were utilized to normalize vacuum-based recoveries across trials. Recovery (CFUcm(-2)) and relative recovery (vacuum recovery/wipe recovery) were determined for each method and material type. Recoveries and relative recoveries ranged from 3.8 × 10(3) to 7.4 × 10(4)CFUcm(-2) and 0.035 to 1.242, respectively. ANOVA results indicated that the 37 mm MCE method exhibited higher relative recoveries than the other methods when used for sampling concrete or upholstery. While the vacuum sock resulted in the highest relative recoveries on carpet, no statistically significant difference was detected. The results of this study may be used to guide selection of sampling approaches following biological contamination incidents. PMID:24184017

  14. Koala + Phoenix Koala is a data-collection system for TinyOS. Sensor nodes periodically sample their sensors,

    E-print Network

    Amir, Yair

    Koala + Phoenix Koala is a data-collection system for TinyOS. Sensor nodes periodically sample code for the Koala data collection system is available via git from git clone git-state information. After data is collected, this information can be used to map measurements (timestamped in node

  15. Assessment of an improved stack sample collection system for 3H and 14C.

    PubMed

    Jelinski, John; Wahl, Linnea; Donovan, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a simple, efficient, and cost-effective replacement for the traditional glass column system used to monitor H and C emissions from rooftop stacks. The primary goals in developing a replacement (the modified jar system) were to 1) maintain or improve collection efficiency while keeping leakage to less than 5%, 2) simplify the set-up process, and 3) reduce costs. Both the traditional glass column assembly and the modified jar system were operated in tandem for a 13-mo period. Results showed that the modified sample jar system provided equivalent or improved collection efficiency for both H and C. Additional advantages included reduced leak-test errors, quicker and simpler set-up, and material costs that were reduced by nearly an order of magnitude. PMID:23803665

  16. Use of breath hydrogen and methane as markers of colonic fermentation in epidemiologic studies: circadian patterns of excretion.

    PubMed Central

    Le Marchand, L; Wilkens, L R; Harwood, P; Cooney, R V

    1992-01-01

    Fermentation in the large bowel has been postulated to play a protective role against colon cancer. Hydrogen and methane are end products of this fermentation process and are absorbed into the bloodstream and excreted via expired air in the breath. Breath levels of hydrogen and, to a lesser extent, methane correlate strongly with colonic fermentation and may serve as useful biomarkers for this process. In a preliminary study to assess the usefulness of these two markers in epidemiologic studies, we followed the hourly excretion of the two gases in expired alveolar air for 48 hr in 20 healthy subjects, using a Quintron gas chromatograph equipped with a solid-state detector specific for reducing gases. All subjects excreted hydrogen, but 71% did not excrete methane. Possible atmospheric contamination of the samples was corrected for on the basis of breath carbon dioxide levels. A clear circadian pattern of excretion was observed for breath hydrogen, with a decrease during the early morning followed by a progressive increase during the rest of the day. Methane excretion was constant throughout the day. This study shows that four samples collected at convenient times (0600, 1300, 1800, and 2200 hr) are optimal to characterize individuals by their breath excretions of hydrogen and methane during a 24-hr period. PMID:1486849

  17. Isotopic composition and origin of uranium and plutonium in selected soil samples collected in Kosovo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Danesi; A. Bleise; W. Burkart; T. Cabianca; M. J. Campbell; M. Makarewicz; J. Moreno; C. Tuniz; M. Hotchkis

    2003-01-01

    Soil samples collected from locations in Kosovo where depleted uranium (DU) ammunition was expended during the 1999 Balkan conflict were analysed for uranium and plutonium isotopes content (234U,235U,236U,238U,238Pu,239+240Pu). The analyses were conducted using gamma spectrometry (235U,238U), alpha spectrometry (238Pu,239+240Pu), inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP—MS) (234U,235U,236U,238U) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) (236U). The results indicated that whenever the U concentration exceeded

  18. Ram-air sample collection device for a chemical warfare agent sensor

    DOEpatents

    Megerle, Clifford A. (Manassas, VA); Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    2002-01-01

    In a surface acoustic wave sensor mounted within a body, the sensor having a surface acoustic wave array detector and a micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator exposed on a surface of the body, an apparatus for collecting air for the sensor, comprising a housing operatively arranged to mount atop the body, the housing including a multi-stage channel having an inlet and an outlet, the channel having a first stage having a first height and width proximate the inlet, a second stage having a second lower height and width proximate the micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator, a third stage having a still lower third height and width proximate the surface acoustic wave array detector, and a fourth stage having a fourth height and width proximate the outlet, where the fourth height and width are substantially the same as the first height and width.

  19. Environmental testing of escape breathing apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Stengel, J W

    1982-05-03

    A new generation of 60-minute self-contained breathing apparatus was being introduced into the underground coal mining industry for use as respiratory protection during fires and mine disasters. Little field experience existed from which to predict the survivability of this new life-support equipment. A series of environmental tests was proposed consisting of exposure to heat, cold, shock, and vibration. Treated and untreated apparatus were evaluated and compared by use on human subjects and a mechanical breathing simulator. Results are reported. After field data have been collected, information may be able to be correlated with environmental testing and used as a predictor of survivability.

  20. Breath tests: principles, problems, and promise.

    PubMed

    Lo, C W; Carter, E A; Walker, W A

    1982-01-01

    Breath tests rely on the measurement of gases produced in the intestine, absorbed, and expired in the breath. Carbohydrates, such as lactose and sucrose, can be administered in physiologic doses; if malabsorbed, they will be metabolized to hydrogen by colonic bacteria. Since hydrogen is not produced by human metabolic reactions, a rise in breath hydrogen, as measured by gas chromatography, is evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption. Likewise, a rise in breath hydrogen marks the transit time of nonabsorbable carbohydrates such as lactulose through the small intestine into the colon. Simple end-expiratory interval collection into nonsiliconized vacutainer tubes has made these noninvasive tests quite convenient to perform, but various problems, including changes in stool pH, intestinal motility, or metabolic rate, may influence results. Another group of breath tests uses substrates labeled with radioactive or stable isotopes of carbon. Labeled fat substrates such as trioctanoin, tripalmitin, and triolein do not produce the expected rise in labeled breath CO2 if there is fat malabsorption. Bile acid malabsorption and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth can be measured with labeled cholylglycine or cholyltaurine. Labeled drugs such as aminopyrine, methacetin, and phenacetin can be used as an indication of drug metabolism and liver function. Radioactive substrates have been used to trace metabolic pathways and can be measured by scintillation counters. The availability of nonradioactive stable isotopes has made these ideal for use in children and pregnant women, but the cost of substrates and the mass spectrometers to measure them has so far limited their use to research centers. It is hoped that new techniques of processing and measurement will allow further realization of the exciting potential breath analysis has in a growing list of clinical applications. PMID:7180696

  1. Sampling methods used for the collection of particle-phase organic and elemental carbon during ACE-Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. t. Mader; J. j. Schauer; J. h. Seinfeld; R. c. Flagan; J. z. Yu; H. Yang; Ho-Jin Lim; B. j. Turpin; J. t. Deminter; G. Heidemann; M. s. Bae; P. Quinn; T. Bates; D. j. Eatough; B. j. Huebert; T. Bertram; S. Howell

    2003-01-01

    The semi-volatile nature of carbonaceous aerosols complicates their collection, and for this reason special air sampling configurations must be utilized. ACE-Asia provided a unique opportunity to compare different sampling techniques for collecting carbonaceous aerosols. In this paper detailed comparisons between filter-based carbonaceous aerosol sampling methods are made. The majority of organic carbon (OC) present on a backup quartz fiber filter

  2. The applicability of sample collection and analysis in support of nuclear arms control agreements

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    Agreements are being negotiated to halt the spread of nuclear arms both within the declared nuclear weapons states and to states not heretofore declaring their possession. With the verification regime of the recently negotiated Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) as a model, negotiators are considering variations of on-site inspection as formulas to enhance the assurance of compliance with future agreements. These on-site inspections may be part of a treaty dictated verification regime or one of a set of voluntary {open_quotes}confidence building{close_quotes} measures. In either case, the collection of material samples for analysis could be an integral component of the inspection as it is in the CWC. The following is an assessment of the applicability of sampling and analysis for compliance monitoring nuclear arms control agreements currently envisioned. There are two essentially orthogonal ways of approaching this question of applicability: the consideration of the analytical questions and the consideration of the specifics of the individual agreements. This study is meant to utilize both approaches in examining the possible impact of sampling and analysis on compliance assessment. First attention must be given to technical questions relating to the efficacy of sampling and analysis.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A TAMPER RESISTANT/INDICATING AEROSOL COLLECTION SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AT BULK HANDLING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, L.

    2012-06-06

    Environmental sampling has become a key component of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards approaches since its approval for use in 1996. Environmental sampling supports the IAEA's mission of drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear material or nuclear activities in a Nation State. Swipe sampling is the most commonly used method for the collection of environmental samples from bulk handling facilities. However, augmenting swipe samples with an air monitoring system, which could continuously draw samples from the environment of bulk handling facilities, could improve the possibility of the detection of undeclared activities. Continuous sampling offers the opportunity to collect airborne materials before they settle onto surfaces which can be decontaminated, taken into existing duct work, filtered by plant ventilation, or escape via alternate pathways (i.e. drains, doors). Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been working to further develop an aerosol collection technology that could be installed at IAEA safeguarded bulk handling facilities. The addition of this technology may reduce the number of IAEA inspector visits required to effectively collect samples. The principal sample collection device is a patented Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) which utilizes electrostatic precipitation principles to deposit particulates onto selected substrates. Recent work has focused on comparing traditional swipe sampling to samples collected via an ACE system, and incorporating tamper resistant and tamper indicating (TRI) technologies into the ACE system. Development of a TRI-ACE system would allow collection of samples at uranium/plutonium bulk handling facilities in a manner that ensures sample integrity and could be an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. This work was supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA).

  4. Anopheles sinensis mosquito insecticide resistance: comparison of three mosquito sample collection and preparation methods and mosquito age in resistance measurements

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria mosquitoes is essential for guiding the rational use of insecticides in vector control programs. Resistance bioassay is the first step for insecticide monitoring and it lays an important foundation for molecular examination of resistance mechanisms. In the literature, various mosquito sample collection and preparation methods have been used, but how mosquito sample collection and preparation methods affect insecticide susceptibility bioassay results is largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine whether mosquito sample collection and preparation methods affected bioassay results, which may cause incorrect classification of mosquito resistance status. Methods The study was conducted in Anopheles sinensis mosquitoes in two study sites in central China. Three mosquito sample collection and preparation methods were compared for insecticide susceptibility, kdr frequencies and metabolic enzyme activities: 1) adult mosquitoes collected from the field; 2) F1 adults from field collected, blood-fed mosquitoes; and 3) adult mosquitoes reared from field collected larvae. Results Mosquito sample collection and preparation methods significantly affected mortality rates in the standard WHO tube resistance bioassay. Mortality rate of field-collected female adults was 10-15% higher than in mosquitoes reared from field-collected larvae and F1 adults from field collected blood-fed females. This pattern was consistent in mosquitoes from the two study sites. High kdr mutation frequency (85-95%) with L1014F allele as the predominant mutation was found in our study populations. Field-collected female adults consistently exhibited the highest monooxygenase and GST activities. The higher mortality rate observed in the field-collected female mosquitoes may have been caused by a mixture of mosquitoes of different ages, as older mosquitoes were more susceptible to deltamethrin than younger mosquitoes. Conclusions Female adults reared from field-collected larvae in resistance bioassays are recommended to minimize the effect of confounding factors such as mosquito age and blood feeding status so that more reliable and reproducible mortality may be obtained. PMID:24472598

  5. Collection of Aerosolized Human Cytokines Using Teflon® Filters

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Jennifer H.; McDevitt, James J.; Fabian, M. Patricia; Hwang, Grace M.; Milton, Donald K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Collection of exhaled breath samples for the analysis of inflammatory biomarkers is an important area of research aimed at improving our ability to diagnose, treat and understand the mechanisms of chronic pulmonary disease. Current collection methods based on condensation of water vapor from exhaled breath yield biomarker levels at or near the detection limits of immunoassays contributing to problems with reproducibility and validity of biomarker measurements. In this study, we compare the collection efficiency of two aerosol-to-liquid sampling devices to a filter-based collection method for recovery of dilute laboratory generated aerosols of human cytokines so as to identify potential alternatives to exhaled breath condensate collection. Methodology/Principal Findings Two aerosol-to-liquid sampling devices, the SKC® Biosampler and Omni 3000™, as well as Teflon® filters were used to collect aerosols of human cytokines generated using a HEART nebulizer and single-pass aerosol chamber setup in order to compare the collection efficiencies of these sampling methods. Additionally, methods for the use of Teflon® filters to collect and measure cytokines recovered from aerosols were developed and evaluated through use of a high-sensitivity multiplex immunoassay. Our results show successful collection of cytokines from pg/m3 aerosol concentrations using Teflon® filters and measurement of cytokine levels in the sub-picogram/mL concentration range using a multiplex immunoassay with sampling times less than 30 minutes. Significant degradation of cytokines was observed due to storage of cytokines in concentrated filter extract solutions as compared to storage of dry filters. Conclusions Use of filter collection methods resulted in significantly higher efficiency of collection than the two aerosol-to-liquid samplers evaluated in our study. The results of this study provide the foundation for a potential new technique to evaluate biomarkers of inflammation in exhaled breath samples. PMID:22574123

  6. Mapping of Sample Collection Data: GIS Tools for the Natural Product Researcher.

    PubMed

    Oberlies, Nicholas H; Rineer, James I; Alali, Feras Q; Tawaha, Khaled; Falkinham, Joseph O; Wheaton, William D

    2009-02-19

    Scientists engaged in the research of natural products often either conduct field collections themselves or collaborate with partners who do, such as botanists, mycologists, or SCUBA divers. The information gleaned from such collecting trips (e.g. longitude/latitude coordinates, geography, elevation, and a multitude of other field observations) have provided valuable data to the scientific community (e.g., biodiversity), even if it is tangential to the direct aims of the natural products research, which are often focused on drug discovery and/or chemical ecology. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used to display, manage, and analyze geographic data, including collection sites for natural products. However, to the uninitiated, these tools are often beyond the financial and/or computational means of the natural product scientist. With new, free, and easy-to-use geospatial visualization tools, such as Google Earth, mapping and geographic imaging of sampling data are now within the reach of natural products scientists. The goals of the present study were to develop simple tools that are tailored for the natural products setting, thereby presenting a means to map such information, particularly via open source software like Google Earth. PMID:20161345

  7. Human Breath Gas Analysis in the Screening of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Halbritter, Susanne; Fedrigo, Mattia; Höllriegl, Vera; Szymczak, Wilfried; Maier, Joerg M.; Hummel, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background We present a pilot study on the feasibility of the application and advantages of online, noninvasive breath gas analysis (BGA) by proton transfer reaction quadrupole mass spectrometry for the screening of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in 52 pregnant women by means of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Subjects and Methods We collected and identified samples of end-tidal breath gas from patients during OGTT. Time evolution parameters of challenge-responsive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human breath gas were estimated. Multivariate analysis of variance and permutation analysis were used to assess feasibility of BGA as a diagnostic tool for GDM. Results Standard OGTT diagnosis identified pregnant women as having GDM (n=8), impaired glucose tolerance (n=12), and normal glucose tolerance (n=32); a part of this latter group was further subdivided into a “marginal” group (n=9) because of a marginal high 1-h or 2-h OGTT value. We observed that OGTT diagnosis (four metabolic groups) could be mapped into breath gas data. The time evolution of oxidation products of glucose and lipids, acetone metabolites, and thiols in breath gas after a glucose challenge was correlated with GDM diagnosis (P=0.035). Furthermore, basal (fasting) values of dimethyl sulfide and values of methanol in breath gas were inversely correlated with phenotype characteristics such as homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (R=?0.538; P=0.0002, Pcorrected=0.0034) and pregestational body mass index (R=?0.433; P=0.0013, Pcorrected=0.022). Conclusions Noninvasive BGA in challenge response studies was successfully applied to GDM diagnosis and offered an insight into metabolic pathways involved. We propose a new approach to the identification of diagnosis thresholds for GDM screening. PMID:22775148

  8. Comparison of self-collected vaginal, vulvar and urine samples with physician-collected cervical samples for human papillomavirus testing to detect high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Father Sean O'Sullivan; John W. Sellors; Attila T. Lorincz; James B. Mahony; Iwona Mielzynska; Alice Lytwyn; Paula Roth; Michelle Howard; Sylvia Chong; Dean Daya; William Chapman; Max Chernesky

    Background: Certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical samples are strongly associated with squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and invasive cer- vical carcinoma. We determined and compared the test characteristics of testing for HPV with samples obtained by patients and with samples obtained by their physicians. Methods: In a consecutive series of women referred to a colposcopy clinic at a

  9. Source-Receptor Modeling Using Trace Metals in Aerosols Collected at Three Rural Canadian Great Lakes Sampling Stations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven R. Biegalski; Sheldon Landsberger; Raymond M. Hoff

    1998-01-01

    High-volume air samplers were used to collect aerosol samples on Whatman 41 air filters at the Canadian air sampling stations Burnt Island, Egbert, and Point Petre. The samples were analyzed for trace elements by neutron activation analysis. Air concentrations of over 30 trace elements were determined. Factor analysis, elemental ratios, and enrichment factor analysis were used to determine source-receptor relationships

  10. Floating sample-collection platform with stage-activated automatic water sampler for streams with large variation in stage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarte, Stephen R.; Schmidt, A.R.; Sullivan, Daniel J.

    1992-01-01

    A floating sample-collection platform is described for stream sites where the vertical or horizontal distance between the stream-sampling point and a safe location for the sampler exceed the suction head of the sampler. The platform allows continuous water sampling over the entire storm-runoff hydrogrpah. The platform was developed for a site in southern Illinois.

  11. DISTRIBUTION COEFICIENTS (KD) GENERATED FROM A CORE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Almond, P.; Kaplan, D.

    2011-04-25

    Core samples originating from Vault 4, Cell E of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) were collected in September of 2008 (Hansen and Crawford 2009, Smith 2008) and sent to SRNL to measure chemical and physical properties of the material including visual uniformity, mineralogy, microstructure, density, porosity, distribution coefficients (K{sub d}), and chemical composition. Some data from these experiments have been reported (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). In this study, leaching experiments were conducted with a single core sample under conditions that are representative of saltstone performance. In separate experiments, reducing and oxidizing environments were targeted to obtain solubility and Kd values from the measurable species identified in the solid and aqueous leachate. This study was designed to provide insight into how readily species immobilized in saltstone will leach from the saltstone under oxidizing conditions simulating the edge of a saltstone monolith and under reducing conditions, targeting conditions within the saltstone monolith. Core samples were taken from saltstone poured in December of 2007 giving a cure time of nine months in the cell and a total of thirty months before leaching experiments began in June 2010. The saltstone from Vault 4, Cell E is comprised of blast furnace slag, class F fly ash, portland cement, and Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) Batch 2 salt solution. The salt solution was previously analyzed from a sample of Tank 50 salt solution and characterized in the 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) report (Zeigler and Bibler 2009). Subsequent to Tank 50 analysis, additional solution was added to the tank solution from the Effluent Treatment Project as well as from inleakage from Tank 50 pump bearings (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). Core samples were taken from three locations and at three depths at each location using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit (1-1, 1-2, 1-3; 2-1, 2-2, 2-3; 3-1, 3-2, 3-3) (Hansen and Crawford 2009). Leaching experiments were conducted with a section of core sample 3-2. All cores from location 3 were drilled without using water. Core sample 3-2 was drilled from approximately six inches to a depth of approximately 13 inches. Approximately six inches of the core was removed but it broke into two pieces during removal from the bit. At the time of drilling, core material appeared olive green in color (Smith 2008). The fact that the samples were cored as olive green and were received after storage with a gray outer layer is indicative that some oxidation had occurred prior to leaching studies.

  12. Occupational exposure monitoring using breath analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. O. Droz; M. P. Guillemin

    1986-01-01

    Breath analysis has been proposed on numerous occasions for monitoring solvent exposure. Nevertheless, it is still rarely used routinely because of difficulties in the methodology itself (sampling and analysis) and lack of data concerning its relationship to exposure dose. The various methods available today are briefly reviewed, compared, and discussed. Emphasis is on the simultaneous use of COâ as a

  13. Volatile organic components of air samples collected from Vertical Launch Missile capsules. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Tappan, D.V.; Knight, D.R.; Heyder, E.; Weathersby, P.K.

    1988-09-27

    Gas chromatographic/mass spectroscopic analyses are presented for the volatile organic components found in air samples collected from the inboard vents from Vertical Launch System (VLS) missile capsules aboard a 688 class submarine. Similar analyses were also conducted for a sample of the ship's high pressure air used to fill the missile tubes. A wide variety of organics was detected in the air from the missile capsules; and while no unique components have yet been identified, a significant contribution has been shown to be made by pressure-ventilation of the VLS capsules into the submarine atmosphere which is already heavily laden with volatile organic compounds. The most apparent conclusion from these preliminary analyses is that the mixtures of organic components in the air within VLS missile capsules vary greatly from capsule to capsule (and probably from time to time). Many such samples need to be investigated to provide sufficient information to judge the seriousness of the possibility of venting toxic components into the submarine atmosphere during the maintenance or firing of VLS missiles.

  14. Preparation of polyethylene sacks for collection of precipitation samples for chemical analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroder, L.J.; Bricker, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    Polyethylene sacks are used to collect precipitation samples. Washing polyethylene with acetone, hexane, methanol, or nitric acid can change the adsorptive characteristics of the polyethylene. In this study, simulated precipitation at pH 4.5 was in contact with the polyethylene sacks for 21 days; subsamples were removed for chemical analysis at 7, 14, and 21 days after intitial contact. Sacks washed with acetone adsorbed iron and lithium; sacks washed with hexane adsorbed barium, iron , and lithium; sacks washed with methanol adsorbed calcium and iron; and sacks washed with 0.30 N nitric acid adsorbed iron. Leaching the plastic sacks with 0.15 N nitric acid did not result in 100-percent recovery of any of the adsorbed metals. Washing polyethylene sacks with dilute nitric acid caused the pH of the simulated precipitation to be decreased by 0.2 pH unit after 1 week of contact with the polyethylene. The specific conductance increased by 10 microsiemens per centimeter. Contamination of precipitation samples by lead was determined to be about 0.1 microgram per liter from contact with precleaned polyethylene sacks. No measurable contamination of precipitation samples by zinc occurred. (USGS)

  15. Analytical results from samples collected during coal-bed methane exploration drilling in Caldwell Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, Peter D.; Breland, F. Clayton, Jr.; Hackley, Paul C.; Dulong, Frank T.; Nichols, Douglas J.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Bustin, R. Marc; Barker, Charles E.; Willett, Jason C.; Trippi, Michael H.

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, and 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Louisiana Geological Survey (LGS), through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Devon SFS Operating, Inc. (Devon), participated in an exploratory drilling and coring program for coal-bed methane in north-central Louisiana. The USGS and LGS collected 25 coal core and cuttings samples from two coal-bed methane test wells that were drilled in west-central Caldwell Parish, Louisiana. The purpose of this report is to provide the results of the analytical program conducted on the USGS/LGS samples. The data generated from this project are summarized in various topical sections that include: 1. molecular and isotopic data from coal gas samples; 2. results of low-temperature ashing and X-ray analysis; 3. palynological data; 4. down-hole temperature data; 5. detailed core descriptions and selected core photographs; 6. coal physical and chemical analytical data; 7. coal gas desorption results; 8. methane and carbon dioxide coal sorption data; 9. coal petrographic results; and 10. geophysical logs.

  16. Increased DNA amplification success of non-invasive genetic samples by successful removal of inhibitors from faecal samples collected in the field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louise Hebert; Safi K. Darden; Bo Vest Pedersen; Torben Dabelsteen

    2011-01-01

    The use of non-invasive genetic sampling (NGS) is becoming increasingly important in the study of wild animal populations.\\u000a Obtaining DNA from faecal samples is of particular interest because faeces can be collected without deploying sample capture\\u000a devices. However, PCR amplification of DNA extracted from faeces is problematic because of high concentrations of inhibitors.\\u000a Here we present a method for increasing

  17. Field guide for collecting and processing stream-water samples for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Larry R.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program includes extensive data- collection efforts to assess the quality of the Nations's streams. These studies require analyses of stream samples for major ions, nutrients, sediments, and organic contaminants. For the information to be comparable among studies in different parts of the Nation, consistent procedures specifically designed to produce uncontaminated samples for trace analysis in the laboratory are critical. This field guide describes the standard procedures for collecting and processing samples for major ions, nutrients, organic contaminants, sediment, and field analyses of conductivity, pH, alkalinity, and dissolved oxygen. Samples are collected and processed using modified and newly designed equipment made of Teflon to avoid contamination, including nonmetallic samplers (D-77 and DH-81) and a Teflon sample splitter. Field solid-phase extraction procedures developed to process samples for organic constituent analyses produce an extracted sample with stabilized compounds for more accurate results. Improvements to standard operational procedures include the use of processing chambers and capsule filtering systems. A modified collecting and processing procedure for organic carbon is designed to avoid contamination from equipment cleaned with methanol. Quality assurance is maintained by strict collecting and processing procedures, replicate sampling, equipment blank samples, and a rigid cleaning procedure using detergent, hydrochloric acid, and methanol.

  18. Plutonium in Colorado residents: results of autopsy bone samples collected during 1975-1979.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, S A; Warren, G M; Whicker, F W; Efurd, D W

    2002-08-01

    Concentrations of (239,240)Pu and the 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios were measured in rib samples from 55 non-occupationally exposed Colorado residents. Samples were collected at autopsy during 1975-1979 under an earlier study intended to compare plutonium levels in liver and lung of people who lived at various proximities to the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) near Denver. Overall, median (239,240)Pu concentrations from rib samples were 100, 80, and 57 microBq g(-1) ash weight for area locations A, B, and C, respectively. Area A encompassed subjects who lived within 25 km of RFETS, area B was between 25 and 50 km from RFETS, and area C included all of Colorado outside 50 km from the site and east of the continental divide. The corresponding median plutonium skeletal burdens estimated for these area locations were 146, 93, and 71 mBq, respectively. A statistically significant difference was noted only between plutonium concentrations in male rib samples and their skeletal burdens from area A compared to area C. However, based on a regression analysis of all study subjects, distance from RFETS was not statistically correlated to plutonium rib concentrations or skeletal burdens in this sample. Overall, median 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios were 0.20, 0.18, and 0.17 for areas A, B, and C, respectively. Although higher (239,240)Pu concentrations and skeletal burdens were indicated in area A males than area C males, we cannot conclude that RFETS releases may have caused this difference. The decreasing trends in the 240Pu/239Pu ratios with distance from RFETS are contrary with such a conclusion and strongly indicate that the material was primarily global fallout rather than weapons-grade plutonium that was processed at RFETS. Furthermore, there are other plausible explanations for the differences observed between area A and C residents. These include a decreasing trend in global fallout from the Rocky Mountain foothills eastward, smoking history differences, sample selection criteria, and possibly other unidentified factors. Nevertheless, estimated levels of total plutonium in this sample of Colorado residents were low and within the range of reported literature values for general, world-wide populations. PMID:12132705

  19. The Consistency of Isotopologues of Ambient Atmospheric Nitric Acid in Passively Collected Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, M. D.; Sickman, J. O.; Bytnerowicz, A.; Padgett, P.; Allen, E. B.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic sources of nitrogen oxides have previously been shown to have distinctive isotopic signatures of oxygen and nitrogen. Nylon filters are currently used in passive sampling arrays to measure ambient atmospheric nitric acid concentrations and estimate deposition rates. This experiment measured the ability of nylon filters to consistently collect isotopologues of atmospheric nitric acid in the same ratios as they are present in the atmosphere. Samplers were deployed in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) and at field sites across a nitrogen deposition gradient in Southern California. Filters were exposed over a four week period with individual filters being subjected to 1-4 week exposure times. Extracted nitric acid were measured for ?18O and ?15N ratios and compared for consistency based on length of exposure and amount of HNO3 collected. Filters within the CSTRs collected HNO3 at a consistent rate in both high and low concentration chambers. After two weeks of exposure, the mean ?18O values were within 0.5‰ of the ?18O of the source HNO3 solution. The mean of all weekly exposures were within 0.5‰ of the ?15N of the source solution, but after three weeks, the mean ?15N of adsorbed HNO3 was within 0.2‰. As the length of the exposure increased, the variability of measured delta values decreased for both elements. The field samplers collected HNO3 consistent with previously measured values along a deposition gradient. The mean ?18O at high deposition sites was 52.2‰ compared to 35.7‰ at the low deposition sites. Mean ?15N values were similar at all sites across the deposition gradient. Due to precipitation events occurring during the exposure period, the ?15N and ?18O of nitric acid were highly variable at all field sites. At single sites, changes in ?15N and ?18O were negatively correlated, consistent with two-sourcing mixing dynamics, but the slope of the regressions differed between high and low deposition sites. Anthropogenic sources of atmospheric nitric acid accounted for 58% of the atmospheric nitric acid at the high deposition sites and 36.5% of the atmospheric nitric acid at the low deposition sites. The nylon filters proved to be an effective means of collecting isotopologues of HNO3 consistent with atmospheric concentrations. A length of the exposure of two weeks stabilizes isotopologue composition and minimizes the chance of variable weather events altering atmospheric values.

  20. Lessons Learned for Geologic Data Collection and Sampling: Insights from the Desert RATS 2010 Geologist Crewmembers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurtado, J. M., Jr.; Bleacher, J. E.; Rice, J.; Young, K.; Garry, W. B.; Eppler, D.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1997, Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) has conducted hardware and operations tests in the Arizona desert that advance human and robotic planetary exploration capabilities. D-RATS 2010 (8/31-9/13) simulated geologic traverses through a terrain of cinder cones, lava flows, and underlying sedimentary units using a pair of crewed rovers and extravehicular activities (EVAs) for geologic fieldwork. There were two sets of crews, each consisting of an engineer/commander and an experienced field geologist drawn from the academic community. A major objective of D-RATS was to examine the functions of a science support team, the roles of geologist crewmembers, and protocols, tools, and technologies needed for effective data collection and sample documentation. Solutions to these problems must consider how terrestrial field geology must be adapted to geologic fieldwork during EVAs

  1. Chemical fingerprinting of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon oil spill samples collected from Alabama shoreline.

    PubMed

    Mulabagal, V; Yin, F; John, G F; Hayworth, J S; Clement, T P

    2013-05-15

    We compare the chromatographic signatures of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon (DH) source oil, three other reference crude oils, DH emulsified mousse that arrived on Alabama's shoreline in June 2010, and seven tar balls collected from Alabama beaches from 2011 to 2012. Characteristic hopane and sterane fingerprints show that all the tar ball samples originated from DH oil. In addition, the diagnostic ratios of various hopanes indicate an excellent match. Quantitation data for C????-hopane concentration levels show that most of the weathering observed in DH-related tar balls found on Alabama's beaches is likely the result of natural evaporation and dissolution that occurred during transport across the Gulf of Mexico prior to beach deposition. Based on the physical and biomarker characterization data presented in this study we conclude that virtually all fragile, sticky, brownish tar balls currently found on Alabama shoreline originated from the DH oil spill. PMID:23523118

  2. Information on collective scattering spatial resolution using a two-sample-volume cross-correlation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Brower, D.L.; Peebles, W.A.; Rettig, C.L.; Yu, C.X. (Electrical Engineering Department, and Institute of Plasma and Fusion Research, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States))

    1992-10-01

    The spatial resolution of small-angle collective scattering systems is often ambiguous due to the extended length of the scattering volume. By examining two sample volumes at the same wave vector (or scattering angle) that lie along the incident beam, and by varying the separation between these two volumes, one can examine their cross-correlation through use of simple digital signal processing techniques. As the separation between the two volumes is increased, the signals are observed to decorrelate. Application of this technique on the DIII-D and TEXT tokamaks shows that when the volumes are located at the plasma edge and core, the two signals are decorrelated indicating that fluctuations in the plasma core can be resolved.

  3. A pilot study exploring the use of breath analysis to differentiate healthy cattle from cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Christine K; Stahl, Randal S; Nol, Pauline; Waters, W Ray; Palmer, Mitchell V; Rhyan, Jack C; VerCauteren, Kurt C; McCollum, Matthew; Salman, M D

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a zoonotic disease of international public health importance. Ante-mortem surveillance is essential for control; however, current surveillance tests are hampered by limitations affecting ease of use or quality of results. There is an emerging interest in human and veterinary medicine in diagnosing disease via identification of volatile organic compounds produced by pathogens and host-pathogen interactions. The objective of this pilot study was to explore application of existing human breath collection and analysis methodologies to cattle as a means to identify M. bovis infection through detection of unique volatile organic compounds or changes in the volatile organic compound profiles present in breath. Breath samples from 23 male Holstein calves (7 non-infected and 16 M. bovis-infected) were collected onto commercially available sorbent cartridges using a mask system at 90 days post-inoculation with M. bovis. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and chromatographic data were analyzed using standard analytical chemical and metabolomic analyses, principle components analysis, and a linear discriminant algorithm. The findings provide proof of concept that breath-derived volatile organic compound analysis can be used to differentiate between healthy and M. bovis-infected cattle. PMID:24586655

  4. Micro gas analyzer measurement of nitric oxide in breath by direct wet scrubbing and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Toda, Kei; Koga, Takahiro; Kosuge, Junichi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Oguchi, Hiroshi; Arimoto, Takemi

    2009-08-15

    A novel method is proposed to measure NO in breath. Breath NO is a useful diagnostic measure for asthma patients. Due to the low water solubility of NO, existing wet chemical NO measurements are conducted on NO(2) after removal of pre-existing NO(2) and conversion of NO to NO(2). In contrast, this study utilizes direct measurement of NO by wet chemistry. Gaseous NO was collected into an aqueous phase by a honeycomb-patterned microchannel scrubber and reacted with diaminofluorescein-2 (DAF-2). Fluorescence of the product was measured using a miniature detector, comprising a blue light-emitting diode (LED) and a photodiode. The response intensity was found to dramatically increase following addition of NO(2) into the absorbing solution or air sample. By optimizing the conditions, the sensitivity obtained was sufficient to measure parts per billion by volume levels of NO continuously. The system was applied to real analysis of NO in breath, and the effect of coexisting compounds was investigated. The proposed system could successfully measure breath NO. PMID:20337385

  5. Extracting samples of high diversity from thematic collections of large gene banks using a genetic-distance based approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Breeding programs are usually reluctant to evaluate and use germplasm accessions other than the elite materials belonging to their advanced populations. The concept of core collections has been proposed to facilitate the access of potential users to samples of small sizes, representative of the genetic variability contained within the gene pool of a specific crop. The eventual large size of a core collection perpetuates the problem it was originally proposed to solve. The present study suggests that, in addition to the classic core collection concept, thematic core collections should be also developed for a specific crop, composed of a limited number of accessions, with a manageable size. Results The thematic core collection obtained meets the minimum requirements for a core sample - maintenance of at least 80% of the allelic richness of the thematic collection, with, approximately, 15% of its size. The method was compared with other methodologies based on the M strategy, and also with a core collection generated by random sampling. Higher proportions of retained alleles (in a core collection of equal size) or similar proportions of retained alleles (in a core collection of smaller size) were detected in the two methods based on the M strategy compared to the proposed methodology. Core sub-collections constructed by different methods were compared regarding the increase or maintenance of phenotypic diversity. No change on phenotypic diversity was detected by measuring the trait "Weight of 100 Seeds", for the tested sampling methods. Effects on linkage disequilibrium between unlinked microsatellite loci, due to sampling, are discussed. Conclusions Building of a thematic core collection was here defined by prior selection of accessions which are diverse for the trait of interest, and then by pairwise genetic distances, estimated by DNA polymorphism analysis at molecular marker loci. The resulting thematic core collection potentially reflects the maximum allele richness with the smallest sample size from a larger thematic collection. As an example, we used the development of a thematic core collection for drought tolerance in rice. It is expected that such thematic collections increase the use of germplasm by breeding programs and facilitate the study of the traits under consideration. The definition of a core collection to study drought resistance is a valuable contribution towards the understanding of the genetic control and the physiological mechanisms involved in water use efficiency in plants. PMID:20576152

  6. Use of salivary biomarkers in biobehavioral research: cotton-based sample collection methods can interfere with salivary immunoassay results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A Shirtcliff; Douglas A Granger; Eve Schwartz; Mary J Curran

    2001-01-01

    In a series of studies, we evaluated the susceptibility of immunoassays for saliva biomarkers to interference effects caused by cotton materials used to absorb saliva during sample collection. Salivary assay results for testosterone, DHEA, progesterone, and estradiol are artificially high, and for sIgA artificially low, when samples are collected using cotton absorbent materials. In contrast, results for salivary cortisol, DHEA–S,

  7. Soil phosphorus testing: 2. Assessment of a rotary blade soil sampler for collecting soil samples to measure soil test phosphorus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. A. Bolland; M. J. Baker; I. R. Wilson

    1994-01-01

    In Western Australia soil samples to measure soil?test phosphorus (P) are collected November to March when soils are usually dry. Most of the soils are hard?setting when dry and it is difficult to penetrate and collect soil samples to 10 cm using the traditional sampler, which is a 2.5 cm diameter tube that is pushed into the soil by foot.

  8. Breathing sensor selection during movement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan Holtzman; Daphne Townsend; Rafik Goubran; Frank Knoefel

    2011-01-01

    A pressure sensor array placed below a mattress can be used to estimate the breathing effort signal unobtrusively. When multiple breathing effort sensor outputs are available, there is sometimes a need to choose the sensor with the best approximation of the actual breathing effort. Previous work with pressure sensor arrays placed on top of or under mattresses used for respiration

  9. Conditions for collection of serum samples for the measurement of fibrin(ogen) degradation products by radioimmunoassay of fragment E

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M J Martin; Y B Gordon; S M Ratky; L R Baker; T Chard

    1976-01-01

    A number of conditions have been assessed for the collection of serum samples for the measurement of fibrin(ogen) degradation products using a radioimmunoassay for degradation fragment E, which permits precise quantitation of differences. Blood should be collected using minimal venous occlusion into glass tubes containing 10 mg\\/ml of epsilon amino caproic acid and allowed to clot at 4 to 20

  10. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FOOD PREPARATION SURFACE WIPE SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.17)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collection of the food preparation surface wipe samples for the measurement of persistent organic pollutants (POP). This method uses a wipe to collect POP residues from a surface where a study participant prepares food the most often (i.e., kitch...

  11. Effects on Animal Wellbeing and Sample Quality of 2 Techniques for Collecting Blood from the Facial Vein of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Cassie C; Howarth, Gordon S; Whittaker, Alexandra L

    2015-01-01

    When sampling blood from mice, several different techniques can be used, with retroorbital sinus sampling traditionally being the most common. Given the severe tissue trauma caused by retroorbital sampling, alternative methods such as the facial vein route have been developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate 2 techniques for facial vein bleeding in conscious mice to ascertain whether differences in clinical outcomes, practicability of sample collection, and hematologic parameters were apparent. Blood samples were obtained from the facial vein of 40 BALB/c mice by using either a 21-gauge needle or a lancet. Subsequently, the protocol was repeated with isoflurane-anesthetized mice sampled by using the lancet method (n = 20). Behavior immediately after sampling was observed, and sample quantity, sampling time, and time until bleeding ceased were measured. Clinical pathology data and hematoma diameter at necropsy were analyzed also. The mean sample quantity collected (approximately 0.2 mL) was comparable among methods, but sampling was much more rapid when mice were anesthetized by using isoflurane. The only other noteworthy finding was a significantly reduced number of platelets in samples from anesthetized mice. Adverse, ongoing clinical signs were rare regardless of the method used. The results revealed no significant differences in welfare implications or blood sample quality among the methods or between conscious and anesthetized mice. Therefore, any of the methods we evaluated for obtaining blood samples from the facial vein are appropriate for use in research studies.

  12. Conducting Internet Research With the Transgender Population: Reaching Broad Samples and Collecting Valid Data

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Michael H.; Bockting, Walter O.; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Raman, Sivakumaran

    2013-01-01

    Health research on transgender people has been hampered by the challenges inherent in studying a hard-to-reach, relatively small, and geographically dispersed population. The Internet has the potential to facilitate access to transgender samples large enough to permit examination of the diversity and syndemic health disparities found among this population. In this article, we describe the experiences of a team of investigators using the Internet to study HIV risk behaviors of transgender people in the United States. We developed an online instrument, recruited participants exclusively via websites frequented by members of the target population, and collected data using online quantitative survey and qualitative synchronous and asynchronous interview methods. Our experiences indicate that the Internet environment presents the investigator with some unique challenges and that commonly expressed criticisms about Internet research (e.g., lack of generalizable samples, invalid study participants, and multiple participation by the same subject) can be overcome with careful method design, usability testing, and pilot testing. The importance of both usability and pilot testing are described with respect to participant engagement and retention and the quality of data obtained online. PMID:24031157

  13. Influence of the time of acidification after sample collection on the preservation of drinking water for lead determination

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.G.; Doerger, J.U.; Kopfler, F.C.; Stober, J.; Roberson, P.

    1985-01-01

    It has been suggested that to obtain accurate data for trace metal analysis of drinking water, immediate acidification at the time of collection is necessary. However, because of problems encountered by EPA in field operations and epidemiology studies, further investigation into this requirement was pursued. Drinking waters containing known concentrations of lead were acidified at different time intervals after collection. The water samples were then stored at room temperature for varying time intervals before analysis for lead. For each time period there were seven samples with three aliquots from each taken for analysis in duplicate by flameless Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). All samples that were acidified gave a higher lead value than those samples containing lead but were not acidified. There were lead recovery variabilities among the time periods studies, however, it was evident that acidification of water samples after collection could be delayed up to 14 days without any adverse effect on lead concentration data.

  14. Firefighter's Breathing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlan, P. B.; Giorgini, E. A.; Sullivan, J. L.; Simmonds, M. R.; Beck, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    System, based on open-loop demand-type compressed air concept, is lighter and less bulky than former systems, yet still provides thirty minutes of air supply. Comfort, visibility, donning time, and breathing resistance have been improved. Apparatus is simple to recharge and maintain and is comparable in cost to previously available systems.

  15. Life and Breath

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Helen D.

    1974-01-01

    This article describes a public education program combining the screening process and a follow-up program for teaching victims of emphysema and other respiratory diseases how to better their living condition through proper breathing, avoidance of air pollutants and cigarette smoking, and taking better care of themselves physically. (PD)

  16. INTERMITTENT POSITIVE PRESSURE BREATHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efficacy of long-term intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) treatment when used as an adjunct to the overall care of ambulatory outpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The evaluation compared the use of IPPB with use of a powered nebulizer....

  17. Metabolic breath analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    Instrument measures metabolic breathing rate and dynamics of human beings in atmospheres ranging from normal air to 100 percent oxygen at ambient pressures from 14.7 to 3.0 psia. Measurements are made at rest or performing tasks up to maximum physical capacity under either zero or normal gravity.

  18. Breathing Like a Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

  19. A model to estimate the population contributing to the wastewater using samples collected on census day.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jake W; Thai, Phong K; Eaglesham, Geoff; Ort, Christoph; Scheidegger, Andreas; Carter, Steve; Lai, Foon Yin; Mueller, Jochen F

    2014-01-01

    An important uncertainty when estimating per capita consumption of, for example, illicit drugs by means of wastewater analysis (sometimes referred to as "sewage epidemiology") relates to the size and variability of the de facto population in the catchment of interest. In the absence of a day-specific direct population count any indirect surrogate model to estimate population size lacks a standard to assess associated uncertainties. Therefore, the objective of this study was to collect wastewater samples at a unique opportunity, that is, on a census day, as a basis for a model to estimate the number of people contributing to a given wastewater sample. Mass loads for a wide range of pharmaceuticals and personal care products were quantified in influents of ten sewage treatment plants (STP) serving populations ranging from approximately 3500 to 500?000 people. Separate linear models for population size were estimated with the mass loads of the different chemical as the explanatory variable: 14 chemicals showed good, linear relationships, with highest correlations for acesulfame and gabapentin. De facto population was then estimated through Bayesian inference, by updating the population size provided by STP staff (prior knowledge) with measured chemical mass loads. Cross validation showed that large populations can be estimated fairly accurately with a few chemical mass loads quantified from 24-h composite samples. In contrast, the prior knowledge for small population sizes cannot be improved substantially despite the information of multiple chemical mass loads. In the future, observations other than chemical mass loads may improve this deficit, since Bayesian inference allows including any kind of information relating to population size. PMID:24283359

  20. Location and Age Database for Selected Foraminifer Samples Collected by Exxon Petroleum Geologists in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabb, Earl E.; Parker, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Most of the geologic maps published for central California before 1960 were made without the benefit of age determinations from microfossils. The ages of Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks in the mostly poorly exposed and structurally complex sedimentary rocks represented in the Coast Ranges are critical in determining stratigraphic succession or lack of it, and in determining whether the juxtaposition of similar appearing but different age formations means a fault is present. Since the 1930’s, at least, oil company geologists have used microfossils to assist them in geologic mapping and in determining the environments of deposition of the sediment containing the microfossils. This information has been so confidential that some companies even coded the names of foraminifers to prevent disclosure. In the past 20 years, however, the attitude of petroleum companies about this information has changed, and many of the formerly confidential materials and reports are now available. We report here on 1,964 Exxon foraminifer samples mostly from surface localities in the San Francisco Bay region, and elsewhere in California. Most but not all the samples were plotted on U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) 7.5’ topographic maps or on obsolete USGS 15’ maps. The information from the slides can be used to update geologic maps prepared without the benefit of microfossil data, to analyze the depth and temperature of ocean water covering parts of California during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras, and for solving nomenclature and other scientific problems. A similar report on more than 30,000 slides for surface samples collected by Chevron geologists has been released (Brabb and Parker, 2003), and another report provides information on slides for more than 2000 oil test wells in Northern California (Brabb, Powell, and Brocher, 2001).

  1. Variation in aluminum, iron, and particle concentrations in oxic ground-water samples collected by use of tangential-flow ultrafiltration with low-flow sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, Z.; Oden, J.H.; Gibs, J.; Rice, D.E.; Ding, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Particulates that move with ground water and those that are artificially mobilized during well purging could be incorporated into water samples during collection and could cause trace-element concentrations to vary in unfiltered samples, and possibly in filtered samples (typically 0.45-um (micron) pore size) as well, depending on the particle-size fractions present. Therefore, measured concentrations may not be representative of those in the aquifer. Ground water may contain particles of various sizes and shapes that are broadly classified as colloids, which do not settle from water, and particulates, which do. In order to investigate variations in trace-element concentrations in ground-water samples as a function of particle concentrations and particle-size fractions, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, collected samples from five wells completed in the unconfined, oxic Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system of the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Samples were collected by purging with a portable pump at low flow (0.2-0.5 liters per minute and minimal drawdown, ideally less than 0.5 foot). Unfiltered samples were collected in the following sequence: (1) within the first few minutes of pumping, (2) after initial turbidity declined and about one to two casing volumes of water had been purged, and (3) after turbidity values had stabilized at less than 1 to 5 Nephelometric Turbidity Units. Filtered samples were split concurrently through (1) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter, (2) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter and a 0.0029-um pore size tangential-flow filter in sequence, and (3), in selected cases, a 0.45-um and a 0.05-um pore size capsule filter in sequence. Filtered samples were collected concurrently with the unfiltered sample that was collected when turbidity values stabilized. Quality-assurance samples consisted of sequential duplicates (about 25 percent) and equipment blanks. Concentrations of particles were determined by light scattering. Variations in concentrations aluminum and iron (1 -74 and 1-199 ug/L (micrograms per liter), respectively), common indicators of the presence of particulate-borne trace elements, were greatest in sample sets from individual wells with the greatest variations in turbidity and particle concentration. Differences in trace-element concentrations in sequentially collected unfiltered samples with variable turbidity were 5 to 10 times as great as those in concurrently collected samples that were passed through various filters. These results indicate that turbidity must be both reduced and stabilized even when low-flow sample-collection techniques are used in order to obtain water samples that do not contain considerable particulate artifacts. Currently (2001) available techniques need to be refined to ensure that the measured trace-element concentrations are representative of those that are mobile in the aquifer water.

  2. Application of the BMWP-Costa Rica biotic index in aquatic biomonitoring: sensitivity to collection method and sampling intensity.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E; Lorion, Christopher M

    2014-04-01

    The use of aquatic macroinvertebrates as bio-indicators in water quality studies has increased considerably over the last decade in Costa Rica, and standard biomonitoring methods have now been formulated at the national level. Nevertheless, questions remain about the effectiveness of different methods of sampling freshwater benthic assemblages, and how sampling intensity may influence biomonitoring results. In this study, we compared the results of qualitative sampling using commonly applied methods with a more intensive quantitative approach at 12 sites in small, lowland streams on the southern Caribbean slope of Costa Rica. Qualitative samples were collected following the official protocol using a strainer during a set time period and macroinvertebrates were field-picked. Quantitative sampling involved collecting ten replicate Surber samples and picking out macroinvertebrates in the laboratory with a stereomicroscope. The strainer sampling method consistently yielded fewer individuals and families than quantitative samples. As a result, site scores calculated using the Biological Monitoring Working Party-Costa Rica (BMWP-CR) biotic index often differed greatly depending on the sampling method. Site water quality classifications using the BMWP-CR index differed between the two sampling methods for 11 of the 12 sites in 2005, and for 9 of the 12 sites in 2006. Sampling intensity clearly had a strong influence on BMWP-CR index scores, as well as perceived differences between reference and impacted sites. Achieving reliable and consistent biomonitoring results for lowland Costa Rican streams may demand intensive sampling and requires careful consideration of sampling methods. PMID:25189083

  3. Novel intravenous 13C-methionine breath test as a measure of liver function in children with short bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Duro, Debora; Duggan, Christopher; Valim, Clarissa; Bechard, Lori; Fitzgibbons, Shimae; Jaksic, Tom; Yu, Yong-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring hepatic function in children with short bowel syndrome (SBS) and parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) is currently limited to conventional blood testing or liver biopsy. Metabolism of the stable isotope L[1-13C]methionine occurs exclusively in liver mitochondria and can be noninvasively quantified in expired breath samples. We hypothesized that the 13C-methionine breath test (13C-MBT) could be a safe, noninvasive, and valid measure of hepatic mitochondrial function in children with SBS and PNALD. Methods Baseline breath samples were collected in 8 children with SBS before intravenous administration of 2 mg/kg of L[1-13C]methionine. Six paired breath samples were obtained at 20-minute intervals. The 13CO2 enrichment was analyzed using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Results All 8 patients (5 males; mean age, 8.9 months) tolerated the 13C-MBT without adverse events. Two patients underwent serial testing. One patient, tested before and after resolution of cholestasis, demonstrated increased cumulative percentage dose (4.7% to 6.6%) and area under the curve (AUC) (270–303). A second patient with progressive PNALD demonstrated decreased cumulative percentage dose (from 7.8% to 5.9%) and AUC (from 335 to 288). Conclusion The 13C-MBT is a feasible, safe, and potentially clinically relevant measure of hepatic mitochondrial function in children with SBS and PNALD. PMID:19159749

  4. Variation in aluminum, iron, and particle concentrations in oxic groundwater samples collected by use of tangential-flow ultrafiltration with low-flow sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabo, Zoltan; Oden, Jeannette H.; Gibs, Jacob; Rice, Donald E.; Ding, Yuan

    2002-02-01

    Particulates that move with ground water and those that are artificially mobilized during well purging could be incorporated into water samples during collection and could cause trace-element concentrations to vary in unfiltered samples, and possibly in filtered samples (typically 0.45-um (micron) pore size) as well, depending on the particle-size fractions present. Therefore, measured concentrations may not be representative of those in the aquifer. Ground water may contain particles of various sizes and shapes that are broadly classified as colloids, which do not settle from water, and particulates, which do. In order to investigate variations in trace-element concentrations in ground-water samples as a function of particle concentrations and particle-size fractions, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, collected samples from five wells completed in the unconfined, oxic Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system of the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Samples were collected by purging with a portable pump at low flow (0.2-0.5 liters per minute and minimal drawdown, ideally less than 0.5 foot). Unfiltered samples were collected in the following sequence: (1) within the first few minutes of pumping, (2) after initial turbidity declined and about one to two casing volumes of water had been purged, and (3) after turbidity values had stabilized at less than 1 to 5 Nephelometric Turbidity Units. Filtered samples were split concurrently through (1) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter, (2) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter and a 0.0029-um pore size tangential-flow filter in sequence, and (3), in selected cases, a 0.45-um and a 0.05-um pore size capsule filter in sequence. Filtered samples were collected concurrently with the unfiltered sample that was collected when turbidity values stabilized. Quality-assurance samples consisted of sequential duplicates (about 25 percent) and equipment blanks. Concentrations of particles were determined by light scattering.

  5. Variability of Organophosphorous Pesticide Metabolite Levels in Spot and 24-hr Urine Samples Collected from Young Children during 1 Week

    PubMed Central

    Kogut, Katherine; Eisen, Ellen A.; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Castorina, Rosemary; Chevrier, Jonathan; Holland, Nina T.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Kavanagh-Baird, Geri; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites in spot urine samples are frequently used to characterize children’s exposures to organophosphorous (OP) pesticides. However, variable exposure and short biological half-lives of OP pesticides could result in highly variable measurements, leading to exposure misclassification. Objective: We examined within- and between-child variability in DAP metabolites in urine samples collected during 1 week. Methods: We collected spot urine samples over 7 consecutive days from 25 children (3–6 years of age). On two of the days, we collected 24-hr voids. We assessed the reproducibility of urinary DAP metabolite concentrations and evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of spot urine samples as predictors of high (top 20%) or elevated (top 40%) weekly average DAP metabolite concentrations. Results: Within-child variance exceeded between-child variance by a factor of two to eight, depending on metabolite grouping. Although total DAP concentrations in single spot urine samples were moderately to strongly associated with concentrations in same-day 24-hr samples (r ? 0.6–0.8, p < 0.01), concentrations in spot samples collected > 1 day apart and in 24-hr samples collected 3 days apart were weakly correlated (r ? –0.21 to 0.38). Single spot samples predicted high (top 20%) and elevated (top 40%) full-week average total DAP excretion with only moderate sensitivity (? 0.52 and ? 0.67, respectively) but relatively high specificity (? 0.88 and ? 0.78, respectively). Conclusions: The high variability we observed in children’s DAP metabolite concentrations suggests that single-day urine samples provide only a brief snapshot of exposure. Sensitivity analyses suggest that classification of cumulative OP exposure based on spot samples is prone to type 2 classification errors. PMID:23052012

  6. Impact of collection container material and holding times on sample integrity for mercury and methylmercury in water

    SciTech Connect

    Riscassi, Ami L [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in streamwater can vary on short timescales (hourly or less) during storm flow and on a diel cycle; the frequency and timing of sampling required to accurately characterize these dynamics may be difficult to accomplish manually. Automated sampling can assist in sample collection; however use has been limited for Hg and MeHg analysis due to stability concerns of trace concentrations during extended storage times. We examined the viability of using automated samplers with disposable low-density polyethylene (LDPE) sample bags to collect industrially contaminated streamwater for unfiltered and filtered Hg and MeHg analysis. Specifically we investigated the effect of holding times ranging from hours to days on streamwater collected during baseflow and storm flow. Unfiltered and filtered Hg and MeHg concentrations decreased with increases in time prior to sample processing; holding times of 24 hours or less resulted in concentration changes (mean 11 7% different) similar to variability in duplicates collected manually during analogous field conditions (mean 7 10% different). Comparisons of samples collected with manual and automated techniques throughout a year for a wide range of stream conditions were also found to be similar to differences observed between duplicate grab samples. These results demonstrate automated sampling into LDPE bags with holding times of 24 hours or less can be effectively used to collect streamwater for Hg and MeHg analysis, and encourage the testing of these materials and methods for implementation in other aqueous systems where high-frequency sampling is warranted.

  7. Airborne detection and quantification of swine influenza a virus in air samples collected inside, outside and downwind from swine barns.

    PubMed

    Corzo, Cesar A; Culhane, Marie; Dee, Scott; Morrison, Robert B; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    Airborne transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) in swine is speculated to be an important route of virus dissemination, but data are scarce. This study attempted to detect and quantify airborne IAV by virus isolation and RRT-PCR in air samples collected under field conditions. This was accomplished by collecting air samples from four acutely infected pig farms and locating air samplers inside the barns, at the external exhaust fans and downwind from the farms at distances up to 2.1 km. IAV was detected in air samples collected in 3 out of 4 farms included in the study. Isolation of IAV was possible from air samples collected inside the barn at two of the farms and in one farm from the exhausted air. Between 13% and 100% of samples collected inside the barns tested RRT-PCR positive with an average viral load of 3.20E+05 IAV RNA copies/m³ of air. Percentage of exhaust positive air samples also ranged between 13% and 100% with an average viral load of 1.79E+04 RNA copies/m³ of air. Influenza virus RNA was detected in air samples collected between 1.5 and 2.1 Km away from the farms with viral levels significantly lower at 4.65E+03 RNA copies/m³. H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes were detected in the air samples and the hemagglutinin gene sequences identified in the swine samples matched those in aerosols providing evidence that the viruses detected in the aerosols originated from the pigs in the farms under study. Overall our results indicate that pigs can be a source of IAV infectious aerosols and that these aerosols can be exhausted from pig barns and be transported downwind. The results from this study provide evidence of the risk of aerosol transmission in pigs under field conditions. PMID:23951164

  8. Airborne Detection and Quantification of Swine Influenza A Virus in Air Samples Collected Inside, Outside and Downwind from Swine Barns

    PubMed Central

    Corzo, Cesar A.; Culhane, Marie; Dee, Scott; Morrison, Robert B.; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    Airborne transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) in swine is speculated to be an important route of virus dissemination, but data are scarce. This study attempted to detect and quantify airborne IAV by virus isolation and RRT-PCR in air samples collected under field conditions. This was accomplished by collecting air samples from four acutely infected pig farms and locating air samplers inside the barns, at the external exhaust fans and downwind from the farms at distances up to 2.1 km. IAV was detected in air samples collected in 3 out of 4 farms included in the study. Isolation of IAV was possible from air samples collected inside the barn at two of the farms and in one farm from the exhausted air. Between 13% and 100% of samples collected inside the barns tested RRT-PCR positive with an average viral load of 3.20E+05 IAV RNA copies/m3 of air. Percentage of exhaust positive air samples also ranged between 13% and 100% with an average viral load of 1.79E+04 RNA copies/m3 of air. Influenza virus RNA was detected in air samples collected between 1.5 and 2.1 Km away from the farms with viral levels significantly lower at 4.65E+03 RNA copies/m3. H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes were detected in the air samples and the hemagglutinin gene sequences identified in the swine samples matched those in aerosols providing evidence that the viruses detected in the aerosols originated from the pigs in the farms under study. Overall our results indicate that pigs can be a source of IAV infectious aerosols and that these aerosols can be exhausted from pig barns and be transported downwind. The results from this study provide evidence of the risk of aerosol transmission in pigs under field conditions. PMID:23951164

  9. Breathing simulator of workers for respirator performance test

    PubMed Central

    YUASA, Hisashi; KUMITA, Mikio; HONDA, Takeshi; KIMURA, Kazushi; NOZAKI, Kosuke; EMI, Hitoshi; OTANI, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Breathing machines are widely used to evaluate respirator performance but they are capable of generating only limited air flow patterns, such as, sine, triangular and square waves. In order to evaluate the respirator performance in practical use, it is desirable to test the respirator using the actual breathing patterns of wearers. However, it has been a difficult task for a breathing machine to generate such complicated flow patterns, since the human respiratory volume changes depending on the human activities and workload. In this study, we have developed an electromechanical breathing simulator and a respiration sampling device to record and reproduce worker’s respiration. It is capable of generating various flow patterns by inputting breathing pattern signals recorded by a computer, as well as the fixed air flow patterns. The device is equipped with a self-control program to compensate the difference in inhalation and exhalation volume and the measurement errors on the breathing flow rate. The system was successfully applied to record the breathing patterns of workers engaging in welding and reproduced the breathing patterns. PMID:25382381

  10. Results of chemical and stable isotopic analyses of water samples collected in the Patagonia Mountains, southern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanty, Richard B.; Shanks, Wayne C., III; Lamothe, Paul; Meier, A.L.; Lichte, Fred; Briggs, Paul H.; Berger, Byron R.

    2001-01-01

    Water samples were collected in the Patagonia Mountains in February, 1997. Most of the samples were collected from portals of abandoned mines, or from stream drainages immediately downstream from abandoned mines. Most of the samples have low pH ( 1000 mg/L). Anion composition of the water samples is dominated by sulfate, while cation compositions range from calcium-dominated to mixed calcium-magnesium or calcium-sodium-dominated waters. Metals such as iron, manganese, copper, zinc, and aluminum contribute a significant portion (>10%) of the cation content to the water samples. Because of the low pH?s, protons contribute up to several percent of the cation character of the waters in some of the samples. The data are presented in tabular and graphical formats, with descriptions of data quality and brief descriptions of results.

  11. Automated biowaste sampling system improved feces collection, mass measurement and sampling. [by use of a breadboard model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Mangialardi, J. K.; Young, R.

    1974-01-01

    The capability of the basic automated Biowaste Sampling System (ABSS) hardware was extended and improved through the design, fabrication and test of breadboard hardware. A preliminary system design effort established the feasibility of integrating the breadboard concepts into the ABSS.

  12. Simultaneous quantification of stevioside and rebaudioside A in different stevia samples collected from the Indian subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Karishma; Tamboli, Ennus T.; Singh, Mhaveer; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2012-01-01

    Background: A high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed for simultaneous estimation of stevioside and rebaudioside A in Stevia rebaudiana samples collected from different regions of Indian subcontinent. Materials and Methods: The separation was achieved by using acetone: ethyl acetate: water (5:4:1, v/v/v) as the solvent system on precoated silica gel 60 F254 TLC plates. The densitometric quantification of stevia glycosides was carried out at wavelength 360 nm in absorption mode after spraying with anisaldehyde sulphuric acid as detecting reagent. Results: The well resolved peaks for stevioside and rebaudioside A were observed at Rf values 0.31± 0.02 and 0.21± 0.02 respectively. The calibration curves were found linear with a wide range of concentration 100 - 2000 ng spot-1 with good correlation coefficient 0.996 and 0.991 for stevioside and rebaudioside A, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed method was validated as per the ICH (International Conferences on Harmonization) guidelines and found simple, sensitive, economic, reproducible, robust and accurate for quantitative analysis of stevia glycosides, which can be applied for quality control of stevia as well as to check. PMID:23248559

  13. Mercury speciation in wet deposition samples collected from a coastal area of Minamata Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marumoto, Kohji; Matsuyama, Akito

    2014-04-01

    To better understand the methylation and demethylation of mercury (Hg) in the atmosphere, monomethyl mercury (MMHg) concentrations in wet deposition samples collected in the Minamata Bay area from September, 2009 to August, 2010 were determined. The concentrations of total Hg (dissolved Hg + particulate Hg) and dissolved reactive Hg were also measured. The volume-weighted mean concentrations of dissolved MMHg and total Hg were 0.061 and 5.9 ng L-1, respectively. Almost 90% of total Hg was in the dissolved phase and dissolved reactive Hg was the dominant Hg species in the wet deposition. The wet deposition fluxes of total Hg and reactive Hg increased in the rainy season (summer and fall), while the concentrations and wet deposition fluxes of MMHg were higher in winter and spring than in summer. Factors affecting this seasonal variation of MMHg were also considered. The MMHg in wet depositions may be decomposed by the increased levels of UV radiation in summer months, although MMHg can also be emitted from anthropogenic and biogenic sources and/or produced by photochemical reactions. Long-range transport from the Asian continent may also contribute to the seasonal variation of the wet MMHg deposition flux.

  14. 77 FR 38323 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Respirable Coal Mine Dust Sampling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ...collected. Chronic exposure to respirable coal mine dust causes lung diseases including coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), emphysema, silicosis, and chronic bronchitis, known collectively as ``black lung.'' These diseases are debilitating and...

  15. Emergency Response Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Aerospace Design & Development, Inc.'s (ADD's) SCAMP was developed under an SBIR contract through Kennedy Space Center. SCAMP stands for Supercritical Air Mobility Pack. The technology came from the life support fuel cell support systems used for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs. It uses supercritical cryogenic air and is able to function in microgravity environments. SCAMP's self-contained breathing apparatus(SCBA) systems are also ground-based and can provide twice as much air than traditional SCBA's due to its high-density capacity. The SCAMP system was designed for use in launch pad emergency rescues. ADD also developed a protective suit for use with SCAMP that is smaller and lighter system than the old ones. ADD's SCAMP allows for body cooling and breathing from the supercritical cryogenic air, requiring no extra systems. The improvement over the traditional SCBA allows for a reduction of injuries, such as heat stress, and makes it easier for rescuers to save lives.

  16. The Air We Breathe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This picture book is designed to introduce children to the Earth's atmosphere and its importance to life on Earth. It also introduces how the addition of new gases (e.g., ozone) contributes to changing the quality of air we breathe. With an understanding of how our atmosphere works, we can begin to understand how our activities may be contributing to some of those changes in air quality.

  17. Use of a Dry-Plasma Collection Device to Overcome Problems with Storage and Transportation of Blood Samples for Epidemiology Studies in Developing Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ZHANNAT Z. NURGALIEVA; R. Almuchambetova; A. Machmudova; D. Kapsultanova; MICHAEL S. OSATO; JEFFREY PEACOCK; RICHARD P. ZOLTEK; PATRICE A. MARCHILDON; DAVID Y. GRAHAM; ABAI ZHANGABYLOV

    2000-01-01

    Studies are difficult in areas lacking modern facilities due to the inability to reliably collect, store, and ship samples. Thus, we sought to evaluate the use of a dry plasma collection device for seroepidemiology studies. Plasma was obtained by fingerstick using a commercial dry plasma collection device (Chemcard Plasma Collection Device) and serum (venipuncture) from individuals in Kazakhstan. Plasma samples

  18. Cardiovascular Biomarkers In Exhaled Breath

    PubMed Central

    Cikach, Frank S.; Dweik, Raed A.

    2014-01-01

    With each breath we exhale, thousands of molecules are expelled in our breath giving individuals a “breath-print” that can tell a lot about them and their state of health. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as the new frontier in medical testing. The end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century have arguably witnessed a revolution in our understanding of the constituents of exhaled breath and the development of the field of breath analysis and testing. Thanks to major breakthroughs in new technologies (infrared, electrochemical, chemiluminescence, and others) and the availability of mass spectrometers, the field of breath analysis has made considerable advances in the 21st century. Several methods are now in clinical use or nearly ready to enter that arena. Breath analysis has the potential to offer relatively inexpensive, rapid, noninvasive methods for detecting and/or monitoring a variety of diseases. Breath analysis also has applications in fields beyond medicine, including environmental monitoring, security and others. This review will focus on exhaled breath as a potential source of biomarkers for medical applications with specific attention to applications (and potential applications) in cardiovascular disease. PMID:22824108

  19. PERSONAL EXPOSURES, INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR CONCENTRATIONS, AND EXHALED BREATH CONCENTRATIONS OF SELECTED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS MEASURED FOR 600 RESIDENTS OF NEW JERSEY, NORTH DAKOTA, NORTH CAROLINA AND CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's TEAM Study has measured exposures to 20 volatile organic compounds in personal air, outdoor air, drinking water, and breath of 600 residents of New Jersey, North Carolina, North Dakota, and California. Participants carried a personal monitor to collect two 12-hour air sampl...

  20. Analytical results for 544 water samples collected in the Attean Quartz Monzonite in the vicinity of Jackman, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ficklin, W.H.; Nowlan, G.A.; Preston, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Water samples were collected in the vicinity of Jackman, Maine as a part of the study of the relationship of dissolved constituents in water to the sediments subjacent to the water. Each sample was analyzed for specific conductance, alkalinity, acidity, pH, fluoride, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and silica. Trace elements determined were copper, zinc, molybdenum, lead, iron, manganese, arsenic, cobalt, nickel, and strontium. The longitude and latitude of each sample location and a sample site map are included in the report as well as a table of the analytical results.

  1. Monolayer-capped gold nanoparticles for disease detection from breath.

    PubMed

    Nakhleh, Morad K; Broza, Yoav Y; Haick, Hossam

    2014-09-01

    The recognition of volatile organic compounds in breath samples is a promising approach for noninvasive safe diagnosis of disease. Spectrometry and spectroscopy methods used for breath analysis suffer from suboptimal accuracy, are expensive and are unsuitable for diagnostics. This article presents a concise review on arrays of monolayer-capped gold nanoparticle (GNP) sensors in conjugation with pattern recognition methods for cost-effective, fast and high-throughput point-of-care diagnostic results from exhaled breath samples. The article starts with a general introduction to the rationale and advantages of breath analysis as well as with a presentation of the utility of monolayer-capped GNP sensors in this field. The article continues with a presentation of the main fabrication and operation principles of these GNP sensors and concludes with selected examples regarding their utility in different fields of medicine, particularly in neurology, infectiology, respiratory medicine and oncology. PMID:25343349

  2. Apparatus for Collection of Fecal Samples from Undisturbed Spiny Mice (Acomys cahirinus) Living in a Complex Social Group

    PubMed Central

    Frynta, Daniel; Nováková, Marcela; Kutalová, Hana; Palme, Rupert; Sedlá?ek, František

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites has become a widely used method for monitoring stress responses. Because most small rodents are social animals whose physiologic parameters are affected by social stimuli, individual housing may compromise these data. Nevertheless, housing rodents in families or social groups may be an important limitation to the experimental design. The challenge is to collect samples from individual rodents while avoiding stress-associated effects from the sampling method itself. Here we present an apparatus and protocol allowing routine repeated collection of an individual rodent's fresh fecal samples without noticeable disturbance of any of the study animals; continuous maintenance of studied animals in a familiar environment; group housing; and uninterrupted visual and olfactory communication among group members during sampling. The apparatus consists of 1 central and 4 lateral compartments. The experimental animal was allowed to enter a lateral compartment voluntarily, where it remained for the short (4 h) period necessary for sample collection before rejoining the rest of the group. Evaluations involved Egyptian spiny mice, a social rodent increasingly studied in laboratories. The results confirmed the repeatability of the assessment of baseline levels of glucocorticoid metabolites. Moreover, keeping the animals in our experimental apparatus did not induce any increase in the levels of glucocorticoid metabolites, even when isolation in the compartment was relatively prolonged. We interpret these results as confirmation that our sampling procedure allows repeated individual sampling within a nearly undisturbed social unit. PMID:19383218

  3. Influence of the time of acidification after sample collection on the preservation of drinking water for lead determination

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.G.; Doerger, J.U.; Kopfler, F.C.; Stober, J.; Roberson, P.

    1985-05-01

    It has been suggested that to obtain accurate data for trace metal analysis of drinking water, immediate acidification at the time of collection is necessary. However, because of problems encountered by EPA in field operations and epidemiology studies, further injection into this requirement was pursued. Drinking water samples containing known concentrations of lead were acidified at different time intervals after collection. The water samples were then stored at room temperature for varying time intervals before being analyzed for lead. For each time period there were seven samples with three aliquots from each taken for analysis in duplicate by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). All acidified samples that were spiked with lead gave a higher lead value than the unacidified samples having comparable lead concentrations. Lead recovery varied among the time periods studied; however, the results indicated that acidification of water samples after collection could be delayed up to 14 days without any adverse effect on lead concentration data. This would allow acidification after samples are received in the laboratory and thus facilitate field studies. 10 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research

    PubMed Central

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Green, Carla A.; Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Duan, Naihua; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Purposeful sampling is widely used in qualitative research for the identification and selection of information-rich cases related to the phenomenon of interest. Although there are several different purposeful sampling strategies, criterion sampling appears to be used most commonly in implementation research. However, combining sampling strategies may be more appropriate to the aims of implementation research and more consistent with recent developments in quantitative methods. This paper reviews the principles and practice of purposeful sampling in implementation research, summarizes types and categories of purposeful sampling strategies and provides a set of recommendations for use of single strategy or multistage strategy designs, particularly for state implementation research. PMID:24193818

  5. Purposeful Sampling for Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis in Mixed Method Implementation Research.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Horwitz, Sarah M; Green, Carla A; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Duan, Naihua; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2013-11-01

    Purposeful sampling is widely used in qualitative research for the identification and selection of information-rich cases related to the phenomenon of interest. Although there are several different purposeful sampling strategies, criterion sampling appears to be used most commonly in implementation research. However, combining sampling strategies may be more appropriate to the aims of implementation research and more consistent with recent developments in quantitative methods. This paper reviews the principles and practice of purposeful sampling in implementation research, summarizes types and categories of purposeful sampling strategies and provides a set of recommendations for use of single strategy or multistage strategy designs, particularly for state implementation research. PMID:24193818

  6. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241BY111: Results from samples collected on November 15, 1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Lucke; M. W. Ligotke; B. D. McVeety

    1995-01-01

    This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from the Hanford waste Tank 241-BY-111 (referred to as Tank By-111). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and to analyze inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The target analytes for TO- 14

  7. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241BY107: Results from samples collected on 10\\/26\\/94

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. W. Clauss; M. W. Ligotke; K. H. Pool

    1995-01-01

    This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from the Hanford waste Tank 241-BY-107 (referred to as Tank BY-107). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and to analyze inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The organic analytes for TO-14 compounds

  8. PCDD\\/Fs in Soil Samples Collected in the Vicinity of a Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator: Human Health Risks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Schuhmacher; A. Xifró; J. M. Llobet; H. A. M. de Kok; J. L. Domingo

    1997-01-01

    .   The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) were determined in soil samples taken from 24 sites in the vicinity\\u000a of a municipal solid waste incinerator (Montcada, Barcelona, Spain). Samples were collected within a radius of 3 km in each\\u000a of the three main directions of the wind rose in that area. Hepta- and octa-CDDs were the

  9. Baseline assessment of prevalence and geographical distribution of HPV types in Chile using self-collected vaginal samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catterina Ferreccio; Alejandro Corvalán; Paula Margozzini; Paola Viviani; Claudia González; Ximena Aguilera; Patti E Gravitt

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chile has broad variations in weather, economics and population from the far desert north (Region 1) to the cold, icy south (Region 12). A home-based self-collected vaginal sampling was nested in the 2003 Chilean population-based health survey in order to explore the possibility of a type-specific geographical variation for human papillomavirus METHODS: The population was a national probability sample

  10. Analyses of Gas, Steam and Water Samples Collected in and Around Lassen Volcanic National Park, California, 1975-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janik, Cathy J.; Bergfeld, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    This report contains physical and chemical data from gas, steam, and water samples collected between July 1975 and September 2002 from locations in and around Lassen Volcanic National Park, California. Data are compiled as tables in Excel spreadsheets and are organized by locale. Most data are keyed to 1 of 107 site codes that are shown on local- and regional-scale maps. Brief descriptions of terminology, sampling, and analytical methods are provided.

  11. AMS analysis of 129I in Japanese soil samples collected from background areas far from nuclear facilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuyuki Muramatsu; Yukari Takada; Hiroyuki Matsuzaki; Satoshi Yoshida

    2008-01-01

    Analytical procedures in the determination of iodine-129 (half-life: 1.6×107 y) have been studied using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), with special references to the separation procedures of iodine from soil samples for the AMS measurement. Iodine was successfully volatilized from soil samples by pyrohydrolysis at 1000°C and collected in a trap solution. Iodine was purified from the matrix by solvent extraction.

  12. Detecting Breaths in Capnography Time Series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Nilsson; Mattias Karlsson; Andreas Selenwall; Peter Funk

    2005-01-01

    Finding individual breaths is essential in the classification of respiratory sinus arrhythmia. The identification task may become quite difficult if the sampling rates of available physiological measurements are low, as in the HR3Modul decision support system. We introduce an improved respiration analysis of the HR3Modul system that uses an Euclidian distance based Nearest-Neighbour classification of low resolu- tion capnography time-series

  13. Remote Measurement of Breathing Rate in Real Time Using a High Precision, Single-Point Infrared Temperature Sensor

    E-print Network

    O'Kane, Jason

    a high precision, single-point infrared sensor. Remote breathing detec- tion is especially useful-nasal region of the face, continuously targeting and sampling the infrared sensor. The breathing rateRemote Measurement of Breathing Rate in Real Time Using a High Precision, Single-Point Infrared

  14. Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug, Markus K.; Reisecker, Michael; Hohenau, Andreas; Ditlbacher, Harald; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Krenn, Joachim R.

    2014-10-01

    The confinement of surface plasmon modes in flat nanoparticles gives rise to plasmonic breathing modes. With a vanishing net dipole moment, breathing modes do not radiate, i.e., they are optically dark. Having thus escaped optical detection, breathing modes were only recently revealed in silver nanodisks with electron energy loss spectroscopy in an electron microscope. We show that for disk diameters >200 nm, retardation induced by oblique optical illumination relaxes the optically dark character. This makes breathing modes and thus the full plasmonic mode spectrum accessible to optical spectroscopy. The experimental spectroscopy data are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations.

  15. Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, Markus K., E-mail: markus.krug@uni-graz.at; Reisecker, Michael; Hohenau, Andreas; Ditlbacher, Harald; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Krenn, Joachim R. [Institute of Physics, Karl-Franzens-University, Universitätsplatz 5, 8010 Graz (Austria)

    2014-10-27

    The confinement of surface plasmon modes in flat nanoparticles gives rise to plasmonic breathing modes. With a vanishing net dipole moment, breathing modes do not radiate, i.e., they are optically dark. Having thus escaped optical detection, breathing modes were only recently revealed in silver nanodisks with electron energy loss spectroscopy in an electron microscope. We show that for disk diameters >200?nm, retardation induced by oblique optical illumination relaxes the optically dark character. This makes breathing modes and thus the full plasmonic mode spectrum accessible to optical spectroscopy. The experimental spectroscopy data are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations.

  16. Acceptability and usability of self-collected sampling for HPV testing among African American women living in the Mississippi Delta

    PubMed Central

    Scarinci, Isabel C.; Litton, Allison G.; Garcés-Palacio, Isabel C.; Partridge, Edward E.; Castle, Philip E.

    2012-01-01

    Background HPV DNA testing has been shown to be an effective approach to cervical cancer screening, and self-collection sampling for HPV testing could be a potential alternative to Pap test, provided that women who tested positive by any method get timely follow-up and care. This feasibility study examined acceptability and usability of self-collected sampling for HPV testing among African American (AA) women in the Mississippi Delta in order to inform the development of interventions to promote cervical cancer screening in this population. Methods The study consisted of two phases. Phase I consisted of eight focus groups (N=87) with AA women to explore knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about cervical cancer and HPV infection as well as acceptability of self-collected sampling for HPV testing. In Phase II, we examined the usability of this technology through one discussion group (N=9). The Health Belief Model guided data collection and analysis. Results Although participants perceived themselves as susceptible to cervical cancer and acknowledged its severity, there was a lack of knowledge of the link between HPV and cervical cancer, and they expressed a number of misconceptions. The most frequent barriers to screening included embarrassment, discomfort, and fear of the results. Women in both phases were receptive to self-collection sampling for HPV testing. All participants in the usability phase expressed that self-collection was easy and they did not experience any difficulties. Conclusion Self-collection for HPV testing is an acceptable and feasible method among AA women in the Mississippi Delta to complement current cytology cervical cancer screening programs. PMID:23410619

  17. Efficient Data Collection with Sampling in WSNs: Making Use of Matrix Completion Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Cheng; Hongbo Jiang; Xiaoqiang Ma; Lanchao Liu; Lijun Qian; Chen Tian; Wenyu Liu

    2010-01-01

    Data collection is of paramount importance in many applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Especially, to accommodate ever increasing demands of signal source coding applications, the capacity of processing multi-user data query is crucial in WSNs where the efficiency is one key consideration. To that end, this paper presents EDCA: an Efficient Data Collection Approach for data query in WSNs,

  18. ASAP: An Adaptive Sampling Approach to Data Collection in Sensor Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling Liu; Philip S. Yu

    2007-01-01

    One of the most prominent and comprehensive ways of data collection in sensor networks is to periodically extract raw sensor readings. This way of data collection enables complex analysis of data, which may not be possible with in-network aggregation or query processing. However, this flexibility in data analysis comes at the cost of power consumption. In this paper, we develop

  19. The Air We Breathe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This picture book is designed to introduce children to the Earth's atmosphere and its importance to life on Earth. It also introduces how the addition of new gases (e.g., ozone) contributes to changing the quality of air we breathe. With an understanding of how our atmosphere works, we can begin to understand how our activities may be contributing to some of those changes in air quality. The back cover includes a short demo/activity called Making a Gas You Can’t See (Carbon Dioxide).

  20. Probes of Cold Gases: Collective Modes

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Hamiltonian What is being measured? breathing modes Collective Coordinates Monday, July 29, 13 #12;Calculate Breathing mode Equation of motion approach Use Calculate Monday, July 29, 13 #12;Calculate Breathing mode gives modes Monday, July 29, 13 #12;Interacting Gas What is the frequency is all omegas are equal

  1. Swine gene banking: A quality control perspective on collection, and analysis of samples for a national repository

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP) is developing a national repository for germplasm (semen, oocytes, embryos, blood, DNA, tissue) for all agricultural species in the United States. Currently, the swine collection consists of 127,479 samples from 886 boars representing 20 major, minor and...

  2. Metal distribution in road dust samples collected in an urban area close to a petrochemical plant at Gela, Sicily

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emanuela Manno; Daniela Varrica; Gaetano Dongarrà

    2006-01-01

    Eight samples of road dust were collected from three different localities (industrial, urban, peripheral) of the town of Gela (Italy) to characterize their chemical composition and to assess (a) the influence of the petrochemical plant and the urban traffic on the trace element content in different grain-size fractions of street dust and (b) the solid-phase speciation of the analysed metal

  3. Protocols for the analysis of algal samples collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey

    E-print Network

    Charles, Donald

    Protocols for the analysis of algal samples collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey for Environmental Research­Phycology Section 1900 Benjamin Franklin Parkway Philadelphia, PA 19103-1195 www of Natural Sciences, an international museum of natural history operating since 1812, undertakes research

  4. saliva and urine samples were collected before and 4, 5, 6,7 and 8 h after labeling 41

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    saliva and urine samples were collected before and 4, 5, 6,7 and 8 h after labeling 41 healthy a determination of TBW using 10% 180 water (enrichment of TBW increased by 307 ppm). Isotopic enrichments were measured by gas-chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry. TBW (in % of body weight) did not differ

  5. EVALUATING COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DERMAL WIPES, COTTON SUITES, AND ALTERNATIVE URINARY COLLECTION MATERIALS FOR PESTICIDE SAMPLING FROM INFANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the Human Exposure Program focuses on the exposure of children to pesticides, there are concerns about the effect, or perceived effect, of components of the sampling procedure on the health and well-being of the infant and the ability to collect pesticide residues. One...

  6. Investigation into Alternative Sample Preparation Techniques for the Determination of Heavy Metals in Stationary Source Emission Samples Collected on Quartz Filters

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Sharon L.; Brown, Richard J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring stationary source emissions for heavy metals generally requires the use of quartz filters to collect samples because of the high temperature and high moisture sampling environment. The documentary standard method sample preparation technique in Europe, EN 14385, uses digestion in hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid (HF/HNO3) followed by complexing with boric acid (H3BO3) prior to analysis. However, the use of this method presents a number of problems, including significant instrumental drift during analysis caused by the matrix components, often leading to instrument breakdown and downtime for repairs, as well as posing significant health and safety risks. The aim of this work was to develop an alternative sample preparation technique for emissions samples on quartz filters. The alternative techniques considered were: (i) acid digestion in a fluoroboric acid (HBF4) and HNO3 mixture and (ii) acid extraction in an aqua regia (AR) mixture (HCl and HNO3). Assessment of the effectiveness of these options included determination of interferences and signal drift, as well as validating the different methods by measurement of matrix certified reference materials (CRMs), and comparing the results obtained from real test samples and sample blanks to determine limits of detection. The results showed that the HBF4/HNO3 mixture provides the most viable alternative to the documentary standard preparation technique. PMID:25407906

  7. Investigation into alternative sample preparation techniques for the determination of heavy metals in stationary source emission samples collected on quartz filters.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Sharon L; Brown, Richard J C

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring stationary source emissions for heavy metals generally requires the use of quartz filters to collect samples because of the high temperature and high moisture sampling environment. The documentary standard method sample preparation technique in Europe, EN 14385, uses digestion in hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid (HF/HNO3) followed by complexing with boric acid (H3BO3) prior to analysis. However, the use of this method presents a number of problems, including significant instrumental drift during analysis caused by the matrix components, often leading to instrument breakdown and downtime for repairs, as well as posing significant health and safety risks. The aim of this work was to develop an alternative sample preparation technique for emissions samples on quartz filters. The alternative techniques considered were: (i) acid digestion in a fluoroboric acid (HBF4) and HNO3 mixture and (ii) acid extraction in an aqua regia (AR) mixture (HCl and HNO3). Assessment of the effectiveness of these options included determination of interferences and signal drift, as well as validating the different methods by measurement of matrix certified reference materials (CRMs), and comparing the results obtained from real test samples and sample blanks to determine limits of detection. The results showed that the HBF4/HNO3 mixture provides the most viable alternative to the documentary standard preparation technique. PMID:25407906

  8. 75 FR 61820 - Model Specifications for Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIIDs)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ...alcohol) or other emerging sensor technologies? Or, should NHTSA not specify the sensor technology and rely on...Specifications set the minimum breath sampling size at 1...the ignition without a breath sample between 20 to...semiconductor-type alcohol sensor. Conduct Test 1b...

  9. Development and characterization of an electrostatic particle sampling system for the selective collection of trace explosives.

    PubMed

    Beer, Sebastian; Müller, Gerhard; Wöllenstein, Jürgen

    2012-01-30

    Detection of trace explosives residues at people and cargo control points has become a key security challenge. A severe obstacle is that all commercial and military high explosives have low to extremely low vapor pressures which make them very hard to detect. With detectable vapors not being present, explosives detection needs to proceed through a series of sequential steps including particle collection, thermal vapor conversion and vapor detection. The present paper describes the design and test of an electrostatic particle precipitator which allows particle residue to be collected from the environment, the collected particle residue to be separated into high- and low-electron affinity fractions and the high-electron-affinity one to be concentrated onto a small-area collector surface for later vaporization. The selectivity of this particle collection and separation process is demonstrated and a full-chain demonstration of a DNT detection experiment is presented (DNT: di-nitro-toluene). PMID:22284515

  10. Mapping of sample collection data: GIS tools for the natural product researcher

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas H. Oberlies; James I. Rineer; Feras Q. Alali; Khaled Tawaha; Joseph O. Falkinham III; William D. Wheaton

    2009-01-01

    Scientists engaged in the research of natural products often either conduct field collections themselves or collaborate with partners who do, such as botanists, mycologists, or SCUBA divers. The information gleaned from such collecting trips (e.g. longitude\\/latitude coordinates, geography, elevation, and a multitude of other field observations) have provided valuable data to the scientific community (e.g., biodiversity), even if it is

  11. Feasibility of collecting self-sampled vaginal swabs by mail: quantity and quality of genomic DNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. D. Baay; V. Verhoeven; H. A. J. Lambrechts; G. G. O. Pattyn; F. Lardon; P. Van Royen; J. B. Vermorken

    2009-01-01

    Vaginal self-sampling may be valuable as an alternative method of cervical cancer screening in areas of poor resources, to\\u000a enrol women who, otherwise, would not participate in population-based cervical cancer screening and in epidemiological follow-up\\u000a studies. We assessed the reliability of mailed vaginal samples by evaluating the quantity and quality of genomic DNA in the\\u000a samples. Mailed swabs (n?=?201) were

  12. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis M. Bramble; David R. Carrier

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in

  13. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joachim D Pleil; Armin Hansel

    2012-01-01

    ForewordThe International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of

  14. Clinical applications of breath testing

    PubMed Central

    Paschke, Kelly M; Mashir, Alquam

    2010-01-01

    Breath testing has the potential to benefit the medical field as a cost-effective, non-invasive diagnostic tool for diseases of the lung and beyond. With growing evidence of clinical worth, standardization of methods, and new sensor and detection technologies the stage is set for breath testing to gain considerable attention and wider application in upcoming years. PMID:21173863

  15. Fiber ringdown breathing rate sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhihao Chen; Huiqing Yim; Ju Teng Teo; Soon Huat Ng

    2011-01-01

    We describe a new sensor for patient's breathing measurement by using fiber loop ringdown spectroscopy. The sensing system consists of a typical single mode fiber-loop ring-down spectroscopy and a sensor mat which is used to introduce breathing related optical loss. The sensor mat could be put in the chair or embedded in the bed. It is non invasive measurement. The

  16. Sample Collection from Small Airless Bodies: Examination of Temperature Constraints for the TGIP Sample Collector for the Hera Near-Earth Asteroid Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franzen, M. A.; Roe, L. A.; Buffington, J. A.; Sears, D. W. G.

    2005-01-01

    There have been a number of missions that have explored the solar system with cameras and other instruments but profound questions remain that can only be addressed through the analysis of returned samples. However, due to lack of appropriate technology, high cost, and high risk, sample return has only recently become a feasible part of robotic solar system exploration. One specific objective of the President s new vision is that robotic exploration of the solar system should enhance human exploration as it discovers and understands the the solar system, and searches for life and resources [1]. Missions to small bodies, asteroids and comets, will partially fill the huge technological void between missions to the Moon and missions to Mars. However, such missions must be low cost and inherently simple, so they can be applied routinely to many missions. Sample return from asteroids, comets, Mars, and Jupiter s moons will be an important and natural part of the human exploration of space effort. Here we describe the collector designed for the Hera Near-Earth Asteroid Sample Return Mission. We have built a small prototype for preliminary evaluation, but expect the final collector to gather approx.100 g of sample of dust grains to centimeter sized clasts on each application to the surface of the asteroid.

  17. Diagnosing lung cancer in exhaled breath using gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Gang; Tisch, Ulrike; Adams, Orna; Hakim, Meggie; Shehada, Nisrean; Broza, Yoav Y.; Billan, Salem; Abdah-Bortnyak, Roxolyana; Kuten, Abraham; Haick, Hossam

    2009-11-01

    Conventional diagnostic methods for lung cancer are unsuitable for widespread screening because they are expensive and occasionally miss tumours. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry studies have shown that several volatile organic compounds, which normally appear at levels of 1-20 ppb in healthy human breath, are elevated to levels between 10 and 100 ppb in lung cancer patients. Here we show that an array of sensors based on gold nanoparticles can rapidly distinguish the breath of lung cancer patients from the breath of healthy individuals in an atmosphere of high humidity. In combination with solid-phase microextraction, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to identify 42 volatile organic compounds that represent lung cancer biomarkers. Four of these were used to train and optimize the sensors, demonstrating good agreement between patient and simulated breath samples. Our results show that sensors based on gold nanoparticles could form the basis of an inexpensive and non-invasive diagnostic tool for lung cancer.

  18. Macroinvertebrate and algal community sample collection methods and data collected at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 2000-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.

    2010-01-01

    State and local agencies are concerned about the effects of increasing urban development and human population growth on water quality and the biological condition of regional streams in the Eagle River watershed. In response to these needs, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a study in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, Colorado Springs Utilities, Denver Water, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. As part of this study, previously collected macroinvertebrate and algal data from the Eagle River watershed were compiled. This report includes macroinvertebrate data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and(or) the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service from 73 sites from 2000 to 2007 and algal data collected from up to 26 sites between 2000 and 2001 in the Eagle River watershed. Additionally, a brief description of the sample collection methods and data processing procedures are presented.

  19. Chemical defense collective protection technology. Volume 12. A procedure for recharging self-contained breathing apparatus air bottles in the presence of simulated chemical warfare agents. Final report, 6-11 September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, J.P.; Tucker, D.M.; Moore, G.

    1993-05-01

    A procedure was developed and tested for recharging Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) cylinders in an atmosphere contaminated with chemical agent simulant at concentrations which would produce casualties if actual agent were used. With the exception of a rack for storing the cylinders before and after recharging, all items used are currently available commercially or through off-the-shelf DOD supply sources. Cylinders were successfully recharged without contamination in the presence of chemical agent simulant in the compressor area as well as in the cylinder filling area. Inexperienced personnel easily learned and successfully followed the recharging procedures even though they were burdened by protective clothing and equipment. Chemical agents, SCBA, Firefighting, Self-contained breathing apparatus.

  20. Aerosol Sampling System for Collection of Capstone Depleted Uranium Particles in a High-Energy Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D. Holmes; Raymond A. Guilmette; Yung-Sung Cheng; MaryAnn Parkhurst; Mark D. Hoover

    2009-01-01

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Study was undertaken to obtain aerosol samples resulting from a kinetic-energy cartridge with a large-caliber depleted uranium (DU) penetrator striking an Abrams or Bradley test vehicle. The sampling strategy was designed to (1) optimize the performance of the samplers and maintain their integrity in the extreme environment created during perforation of an armored vehicle by

  1. EFFECTS OF SAMPLING NOZZLES ON THE PARTICLE COLLECTION CHARACTERISTICS OF INERTIAL SIZING DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In several particle-sizing samplers, the sample extraction nozzle is necessarily closely coupled to the first inertial sizing stage. Devices of this type include small sampling cyclones, right angle impactor precollectors for in-stack impactors, and the first impaction stage of s...

  2. Analysis of Biodiesel Blends Samples Collected in the United States in 2008 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, T. L.; Fouts, L.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    NREL sampled and tested the quality of U.S. B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% petroleum diesel) in 2008; 32 samples from retail locations and fleets were tested against a proposed ASTM D7467 B6-B20 specification, now in effect.

  3. Monitoring states of altered carbohydrate metabolism via breath analysis: are times ripe from transition from potential to reality?

    PubMed Central

    Dowlaty, Newsha; Yoon, Amanda; Galassetti, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review To introduce the potential of breath analysis as a potential diagnostic or monitoring tool in diabetes. . Recent findings Blood testing for plasma glucose and other metabolic variables is the base for the diagnosis and management of diabetes, whose two main types (type 1 and type 2, T1DM, T2DM) are projected to affect 450 million by 2030. As blood testing is often uncomfortable, painful, costly, and in some situations unreliable, the quest for alternative, non invasive methods has been ongoing for decades. Breath analysis has emerged as an ideal alternative as sample collection is easy, painless, flexible, non-invasive, practical, and inexpensive. No single exhaled gas can reflect systemic glucose concentrations. Multiple gases, however, have been linked to various aspects of glucose metabolism, and integrated analysis of their simultaneous profiles during prolonged glycemic fluctuations has yielded accurate predictions of plasma values, building expectation that clinically usable breath-based glucometer may be developed within a few years. Summary While prototypes of hand-held breath testing glucometers may still be several years away, current research shows the imminent promise of this methodology, and the widening support for its development. PMID:23739629

  4. Breath alcohol, multisensor arrays, and electronic noses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsson, Nils; Winquist, Fredrik

    1997-01-01

    The concept behind a volatile compound mapper, or electronic nose, is to use the combination of multiple gas sensors and pattern recognition techniques to detect and quantify substances in gas mixtures. There are several different kinds of sensors which have been developed during recent years of which the base techniques are conducting polymers, piezo electrical crystals and solid state devices. In this work we have used a combination of gas sensitive field effect devices and semiconducting metal oxides. The most useful pattern recognition routine was found to be ANNs, which is a mathematical approximation of the human neural network. The aim of this work is to evaluate the possibility of using electronic noses in field instruments to detect drugs, arson residues, explosives etc. As a test application we have chosen breath alcohol measurements. There are several reasons for this. Breath samples are a quite complex mixture contains between 200 and 300 substances at trace levels. The alcohol level is low but still possible to handle. There are needs for replacing large and heavy mobile instruments with smaller devices. Current instrumentation is rather sensitive to interfering substances. The work so far has dealt with sampling, how to introduce ethanol and other substances in the breath, correlation measurements between the electronic nose and headspace GC, and how to evaluate the sensor signals.

  5. A Future Moon Mission: Curatorial Statistics on Regolith Fragments Applicable to Sample Collection by Raking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J. H.; Bevill, T. J.

    2003-01-01

    The strategy of raking rock fragments from the lunar regolith as a means of acquiring representative samples has wide support due to science return, spacecraft simplicity (reliability) and economy [3, 4, 5]. While there exists widespread agreement that raking or sieving the bulk regolith is good strategy, there is lively discussion about the minimum sample size. Advocates of consor-tium studies desire fragments large enough to support petrologic and isotopic studies. Fragments from 5 to 10 mm are thought adequate [4, 5]. Yet, Jolliff et al. [6] demonstrated use of 2-4 mm fragments as repre-sentative of larger rocks. Here we make use of cura-torial records and sample catalogs to give a different perspective on minimum sample size for a robotic sample collector.

  6. Chemical defense collective protection technology. Volume 12. A procedure for recharging self-contained breathing apparatus air bottles in the presence of simulated chemical warfare agents. Final report, 6-11 September 1990

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Conkle; D. M. Tucker; G. Moore

    1993-01-01

    A procedure was developed and tested for recharging Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) cylinders in an atmosphere contaminated with chemical agent simulant at concentrations which would produce casualties if actual agent were used. With the exception of a rack for storing the cylinders before and after recharging, all items used are currently available commercially or through off-the-shelf DOD supply sources. Cylinders

  7. Recovery of a fish pathogenic bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, from ebonyshell mussels Fusconaia ebena using nondestructive sample collection procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    Refugia are increasingly being used to maintain and propagate imperiled freshwater mussels for future population augmentations. Success for this endeavor is dependent on good husbandry, including a holistic program of resource health management. A significant aspect to optimal health is the prevention or control of infectious diseases. Describing and monitoring pathogens and diseases in mussels involves examination of tissues or samples collected from an appropriate number of individuals that satisfies a certain confidence level for expected prevalences of infections. In the present study, ebonyshell mussels Fusconaia ebena were infected with a fish pathogenic bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, through their cohabitation with diseased brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis. At a 100% prevalence of infection, the F. ebena were removed from the cohabitation tank to clean tanks that were supplied with pathogen-free water, which initiated their depuration of A. salmonicida. Three samples (nondestructive fluid, mantle, hemolymph) collected using nondestructive procedures were compared with fluids and soft tissue homogenates collected after sacrificing the mussels for recovery of the bacterium during this period of depuration. Nondestructive sample collections, especially ND fluid, provide a comparable alternative to sacrificing mussels to determine pathogen status.

  8. Hematological assessment in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus): blood sample collection and blood cell identification.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Moore, David M; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Pet guinea pigs are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history and exam findings, diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, the volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal guinea pigs are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of guinea pig leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count. PMID:25421024

  9. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section...Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with breathing...

  10. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section...Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with breathing...

  11. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section...Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with breathing...

  12. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section...Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with breathing...

  13. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section...Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with breathing...

  14. Field geologic observation and sample collection strategies for planetary surface exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS geologist crewmembers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado, José M.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W.

    2013-10-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic fieldwork, the Desert RATS (Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crewmembers who participated in the 2010 field test. We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies related to duplication of samples and observations; logistical constraints on the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to "flexibly execute" their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  15. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR REIMBURSEMENT FOR FIELD COLLECTION OF DIET SAMPLES (UA-F-23.1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to provide a uniform procedure for the financial reimbursement of primary respondents for the collection of diet samples. Respondents were reimbursed for replicate food and beverage samples by type and amount collected over a 24-hour sampling period. ...

  16. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR REIMBURSEMENT FOR FIELD COLLECTION OF FOOD SAMPLES (UA-F-23.1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to provide a uniform procedure for the financial reimbursement of primary respondents for the collection of diet samples. Respondents were reimbursed for replicate food and beverage samples by type and amount collected over a 24-hour sampling period. ...

  17. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE, AND SHIPMENT OF URINE SAMPLES FOR METAL, PESTICIDE, AND CREATININE ANALYSIS (F10)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures for collection, storage, and shipment of urine samples for metal, pesticides, and creatinine analysis. Samples were collected on Days 2 and 8 of each Cycle. The Day 2 sample was analyzed for metals and creatinine. The Day 8...

  18. Profiling of Volatile Organic Compounds in Exhaled Breath As a Strategy to Find Early Predictive Signatures of Asthma in Children

    PubMed Central

    Smolinska, Agnieszka; Klaassen, Ester M. M.; Dallinga, Jan W.; van de Kant, Kim D. G.; Jobsis, Quirijn; Moonen, Edwin J. C.; van Schayck, Onno C. P.; Dompeling, Edward; van Schooten, Frederik J.

    2014-01-01

    Wheezing is one of the most common respiratory symptoms in preschool children under six years old. Currently, no tests are available that predict at early stage who will develop asthma and who will be a transient wheezer. Diagnostic tests of asthma are reliable in adults but the same tests are difficult to use in children, because they are invasive and require active cooperation of the patient. A non-invasive alternative is needed for children. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) excreted in breath could yield such non-invasive and patient-friendly diagnostic. The aim of this study was to identify VOCs in the breath of preschool children (inclusion at age 2–4 years) that indicate preclinical asthma. For that purpose we analyzed the total array of exhaled VOCs with Gas Chromatography time of flight Mass Spectrometry of 252 children between 2 and 6 years of age. Breath samples were collected at multiple time points of each child. Each breath-o-gram contained between 300 and 500 VOCs; in total 3256 different compounds were identified across all samples. Using two multivariate methods, Random Forests and dissimilarity Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis, we were able to select a set of 17 VOCs which discriminated preschool asthmatic children from transient wheezing children. The correct prediction rate was equal to 80% in an independent test set. These VOCs are related to oxidative stress caused by inflammation in the lungs and consequently lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, we showed that VOCs in the exhaled breath predict the subsequent development of asthma which might guide early treatment. PMID:24752575

  19. Nightmares, Insomnia, and Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Fire Evacuees Seeking Treatment for Posttraumatic Sleep Disturbance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry Krakow; Patricia L. Haynes; Teddy D. Warner; Erin Santana; Dominic Melendrez; Lisa Johnston; Michael Hollifield; Brandy N. Sisley; Mary Koss; Laura Shafer

    2004-01-01

    Eight months after the Cerro Grande Fire, 78 evacuees seeking treatment for posttraumatic sleep disturbances were assessed for chronic nightmares, psychophysiological insomnia, and sleep-disordered breathing symptoms. Within this sample, 50% of participants were tested objectively for sleep-disordered breathing; 95% of those tested screened positive for sleep-disordered breathing. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that these three sleep disorders accounted for 37% of

  20. Miniature CVD-Diamond Coring Drills for Robotic Sample Collection and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Trava-Airoldi, V. J.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.

    2003-03-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) can be used to fabricate small diamond core drills that are relatively transparent to X-rays and to infrared radiation, allowing the drill to double as a sample holder.

  1. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 01_RDD: RECRUITMENT SURVEY FOR HOME SAMPLE SUBJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data collection form is used to identify eligible preschool children who stay home during the day with their primary adult care giver and recruit them into the study. The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Pollutant (CTEPP) study was o...

  2. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 01: RECRUITMENT SURVEY FOR DAY CARE CENTER SAMPLE SUBJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data collection form is used to identify eligible preschool children who attend day care during the day and recruit them into the study. The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Pollutant (CTEPP) study was one of the largest aggregate ex...

  3. Elemental Compositions of Comet 81P\\/Wild 2 Samples Collected by Stardust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George J. Flynn; Pierre Bleuet; Janet Borg; John P. Bradley; Frank E. Brenker; Sean Brennan; John Bridges; Don E. Brownlee; Emma S. Bullock; Manfred Burghammer; Benton C. Clark; Zu Rong Dai; Charles P. Daghlian; Zahia Djouadi; Sirine Fakra; Tristan Ferroir; Christine Floss; Ian A. Franchi; Zack Gainsforth; Jean-Paul Gallien; Philippe Gillet; Patrick G. Grant; Giles A. Graham; Simon F. Green; Faustine Grossemy; Philipp R. Heck; Gregory F. Herzog; Peter Hoppe; Friedrich Hörz; Joachim Huth; Konstantin Ignatyev; Hope A. Ishii; Koen Janssens; David Joswiak; Anton T. Kearsley; Hicham Khodja; Antonio Lanzirotti; Jan Leitner; Laurence Lemelle; Hugues Leroux; Katharina Luening; Glenn J. MacPherson; Kuljeet K. Marhas; Matthew A. Marcus; Graciela Matrajt; Tomoki Nakamura; Keiko Nakamura-Messenger; Tsukasa Nakano; Matthew Newville; Dimitri A. Papanastassiou; Piero Pianetta; William Rao; Christian Riekel; Frans J. M. Rietmeijer; Detlef Rost; Craig S. Schwandt; Thomas H. See; Julie Sheffield-Parker; Alexandre Simionovici; Ilona Sitnitsky; Christopher J. Snead; Frank J. Stadermann; Thomas Stephan; Rhonda M. Stroud; Jean Susini; Yoshio Suzuki; Stephen R. Sutton; Susan Taylor; Nick Teslich; D. Troadec; Peter Tsou; Akira Tsuchiyama; Kentaro Uesugi; Bart Vekemans; Edward P. Vicenzi; Laszlo Vincze; Andrew J. Westphal; Penelope Wozniakiewicz; Ernst Zinner; Michael E. Zolensky

    2006-01-01

    We measured the elemental compositions of material from 23 particles in aerogel and from residue in seven craters in aluminum foil that was collected during passage of the Stardust spacecraft through the coma of comet 81P\\/Wild 2. These particles are chemically heterogeneous at the largest size scale analyzed (~180 ng). The mean elemental composition of this Wild 2 material is

  4. Spectroscopic monitoring of NO traces in plants and human breath: applications and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, S. M.; Marchenko, D.; Mandon, J.; Hebelstrup, K.; Griffith, G. W.; Mur, L. A. J.; Harren, F. J. M.

    2013-02-01

    Optical methods based on quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are becoming popular in many life science applications. We report on two trace gas detection schemes based on continuous wave QCLs for on-line detection of nitric oxide (NO) at the sub-part-per-billion level by volume (ppbv, 1:10-9), using wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) and Faraday rotation spectroscopy (FRS) at 1894 cm-1 and 1875.73 cm-1, respectively. Several technical incremental steps are discussed to further improve the sensitivity of these methods. Examples are included to demonstrate the merits of WMS-based sensor: direct monitoring of NO concentrations in exhaled breath, and from plants under pathogen attack. A simple hand-held breath sampling device that allows single breath collection at various exhalation flows (15, 50, 100 and 300 mL/s, respectively) is developed for off-line measurements and validated in combination with the WMS-based sensor. Additionally, the capability of plants to remove environmental NO is presented.

  5. A simple and versatile method for frequent 24 h blood sample collection in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Akintola, A.A.; Jansen, S.W.; Wilde, R.B.P.; Hultzer, G.; Rodenburg, R.; van Heemst, D.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated 24 h blood sampling, which is required for time series analyses of metabolites and/or hormones that show strong fluctuations in blood concentration over time, has a higher failure rate in older adults. We tailored existing venipuncture protocols toward use for 24 h blood sampling (sampling frequency of 10 min) in older adults. The following modifications were made: • Pre-sampling: evidence based risk assessment of older adults. • During sampling:•Ultrasound-guided identification and characterisation of veins.•Use of 20-gauge arterial catheter with guide wire for venous access.•Measures to prevent and/or reduce unidirectional blood flow (fluid flow into but not out of the vein) included:•Use of hot water bottles to dilate veins.•Use of small gauge syringes, shortening of the extension line, and slowing of the blood withdrawal rate to reduce pressure on veins.•Stimulation of movement of the arm or retraction of the IV cannula to relieve mechanical flow obstruction. • Post-sampling: prevention of bruising and prolonged bleeding.

  6. Analysis of selected phthalates in Canadian indoor dust collected using household vacuum and standardized sampling techniques.

    PubMed

    Kubwabo, C; Rasmussen, P E; Fan, X; Kosarac, I; Wu, F; Zidek, A; Kuchta, S L

    2013-12-01

    Phthalates have been used extensively as plasticizers to improve the flexibility of polymers, and they also have found many industrial applications. They are ubiquitous in the environment and have been detected in a variety of environmental and biological matrices. The goal of this study was to develop a method for the determination of 17 phthalate esters in house dust. This method involved sonication extraction, sample cleanup using solid phase extraction, and isotope dilution GC/MS/MS analysis. Method detection limits (MDLs) and recoveries ranged from 0.04 to 2.93 ?g/g and from 84 to 117%, respectively. The method was applied to the analysis of phthalates in 38 paired household vacuum samples (HD) and fresh dust (FD) samples. HD and FD samples compared well for the majority of phthalates detected in house dust. Data obtained from 126 household dust samples confirmed the historical widespread use of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), with a concentration range of 36 ?g/g to 3840 ?g/g. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) were also found in most samples at relatively high concentrations. Another important phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), was detected at a frequency of 98.4% with concentrations ranging from below its MDL of 0.51 ?g/g to 69 ?g/g. PMID:23621316

  7. COMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR QUARTER 1 SURFACE WATER SPLIT SAMPLES COLLECTED AT THE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICES SITE ERWIN, TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect

    David A. King, CHP, PMP

    2012-10-10

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on August 22, 2012. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses. The comparison of results using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference. A DER ? 3 indicates that, at a 99% confidence interval, split sample results do not differ significantly when compared to their respective one standard deviation (sigma) uncertainty. The NFS split sample report does not specify the confidence level of reported uncertainties. Therefore, standard two sigma reporting is assumed and uncertainty values were divided by 1.96. A comparison of split sample results, using the DER equation, indicates one set with a DER greater than 3. A DER of 3.1 is calculated for gross alpha results from ORAU sample 5198W0003 and NFS sample MCU-310212003. The ORAU result is 0.98 ± 0.30 pCi/L (value ± 2 sigma) compared to the NFS result of -0.08 ± 0.60 pCi/L. Relatively high DER values are not unexpected for low (e.g., background) analyte concentrations analyzed by separate laboratories, as is the case here. It is noted, however, NFS uncertainties are at least twice the ORAU uncertainties, which contributes to the elevated DER value. Differences in ORAU and NFS minimum detectable activities are even more pronounced. comparison of ORAU and NFS split samples produces reasonably consistent results for low (e.g., background) concentrations.

  8. Assessment of selected contaminants in streambed- and suspended-sediment samples collected in Bexar County, Texas, 2007-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2011-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of sediment-associated contaminants are typically associated with urban areas such as San Antonio, Texas, in Bexar County, the seventh most populous city in the United States. This report describes an assessment of selected sediment-associated contaminants in samples collected in Bexar County from sites on the following streams: Medio Creek, Medina River, Elm Creek, Martinez Creek, Chupaderas Creek, Leon Creek, Salado Creek, and San Antonio River. During 2007-09, the U.S. Geological Survey periodically collected surficial streambed-sediment samples during base flow and suspended-sediment (large-volume suspended-sediment) samples from selected streams during stormwater runoff. All sediment samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and for organic compounds including halogenated organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Selected contaminants in streambed and suspended sediments in watersheds of the eight major streams in Bexar County were assessed by using a variety of methods—observations of occurrence and distribution, comparison to sediment-quality guidelines and data from previous studies, statistical analyses, and source indicators. Trace elements concentrations were low compared to the consensus-based sediment-quality guidelines threshold effect concentration (TEC) and probable effect concentration (PEC). Trace element concentrations were greater than the TEC in 28 percent of the samples and greater than the PEC in 1.5 percent of the samples. Chromium concentrations exceeded sediment-quality guidelines more frequently than concentrations of any other constituents analyzed in this study (greater than the TEC in 69 percent of samples and greater than the PEC in 8 percent of samples). Mean trace element concentrations generally are lower in Bexar County samples compared to concentrations in samples collected during previous studies in the Austin and Fort Worth, Texas, areas, but considering the relatively large ranges and standard deviations associated with the concentrations measured in all three areas, the trace element concentrations are similar. On the basis of Mann-Whitney U test results, the presence of a military installation in a watershed was associated with statistically significant higher chromium, mercury, and zinc concentrations in streambed sediments compared to concentrations of the same elements in a watershed without a military installation. Halogenated organic compounds analyzed in sediment samples included pesticides (chlordane, dieldrin, DDT, DDD, and DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated flame retardants. Three or more halogenated organic compounds were detected in each sediment sample, and 66 percent of all concentrations were less than the respective interim reporting levels. Halogenated organic compound concentrations were mostly low compared to consensus-based sediment quality guidelines-;TECs were exceeded in 11 percent of the analyses and PECs were exceeded in 1 percent of the analyses. Chlordane compounds were the most frequently detected halogenated organic compounds with one or more detections of chlordane compounds in every watershed; concentrations were greater than the TEC in 6 percent of the samples. Dieldrin was detected in 50 percent of all samples, however all concentrations were much less than the TEC. The DDT compounds (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDE) were detected less frequently than some other halogenated organic compounds, however most detections exceeded the TECs. p,p'-DDT was detected in 13 percent of the samples (TEC exceeded in 67 percent); p,p'-DDD was detected in 19 percent of the samples (TEC exceeded in 78 percent); and p,p'-DDE was detected in 35 percent of the samples (TEC exceeded in 53 percent). p,p'-DDE concentrations in streambed-sediment samples correlate positively with population density and residential, commercial, and transportation land use. One or more PCB congeners were detected in

  9. Meteorites and Microbes: Meteorite Collection and Ice Sampling at Patriot Hills, Thiel Mountains, and South Pole, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipiera, Paul P.; Hoover, Richard B.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    During the Antarctica 2000 Expedition, sponsored by the Planetary Studies Foundation, meteorites and ice microbiota were collected from the Patriot Hills, and Thiel Mountains of Antarctica and snow samples were at the South Pole. Psychrophilic and psychrotrophic microbiota were obtained from blue ice, cryoconite and ice-bubble systems. Twenty frozen meteorites were collected using aseptic techniques from the blue ice fields near the Moulton Escarpment of the Thiel Mountains (85 S, 94 W) and from the Morris Moraine of the Patriot Hills (80 S, 81 W) Ellsworth Mountains. These ice and meteorite samples are of potential significance to Astrobiology. They may help refine chemical and morphological biomarkers and refine characteristics of microbial life in one of the harshest environments on Earth. We discuss the Antarctica 2000 Expedition and provide preliminary results of the investigation of the meteorites and ice microbiota recovered.

  10. COMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR QUARTER 5 SURFACE WATER SPLIT SAMPLES COLLECTED AT THE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICES SITE ERWIN TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-23

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on August 21, 2013. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses, and the comparison of results using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference, are tabulated. All DER values were less than 3 and results are consistent with low (e.g., background) concentrations.

  11. Comparison of flagging, walking, trapping, and collecting from hosts as sampling methods for northern deer ticks, Ixodes dammini , and lone-star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard S. Ginsberg; Curtis P. Ewing

    1989-01-01

    Ticks were sampled by flagging, collecting from the investigator's clothing (walking samples), trapping with dry-ice bait, and collecting from mammal hosts on Fire Island, NY, U.S.A. The habitat distribution of adult deer ticks,Ixodes dammini, was the same in simultaneous collections from the investigator's clothing and from muslin flags. Walking and flagging samples can both be biased by differences between investigators,

  12. Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, L.J.; Greeson P.E. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    Chapter A4 contains methods used by the US Geological Survey to collect, preserve, and analyze waters to determine their biological and microbiological properties. Part 1 consists of detailed descriptions of more than 45 individual methods, including those for bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, seston, periphyton, macrophytes, benthic invertebrates, fish and other vertebrates, cellular contents, productivity, and bioassays; Part 2 consists of a glossary; and Part 3 is a list of taxonomic references.

  13. Hematologic assessment in pet rats, mice, hamsters, and gerbils: blood sample collection and blood cell identification.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Nicole M; Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Hamsters, gerbils, rats, and mice are presented to veterinary clinics and hospitals for prophylactic care and treatment of clinical signs of disease. Physical examination, history, and husbandry practice information can be supplemented greatly by assessment of hematologic parameters. As a resource for veterinarians and their technicians, this article describes the methods for collection of blood, identification of blood cells, and interpretation of the hemogram in mice, rats, gerbils, and hamsters. PMID:25421023

  14. Complete mineralisation of dimethylformamide by Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1 isolated from the soil samples collected from the coalmine leftovers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Veeranagouda; P. V. Emmanuel Paul; P. Gorla; D. Siddavattam; T. B. Karegoudar

    2006-01-01

    A bacterial strain DGVK1 capable of using N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as sole source of carbon and nitrogen was isolated from the soil samples collected from the coalmine leftovers. The molecular phylogram generated using the complete sequence of 16S rDNA of the strain DGVK1 showed close links to the bacteria grouped under Brucellaceae family that belongs to alphaproteobacteria class. Specifically, the 16S

  15. A Model to Predict the Breathing Zone Concentrations of Particles Emitted from Surfaces

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activity based sampling (ABS) is typically performed to assess inhalation exposure to particulate contaminants known to have low, heterogeneous concentrations on a surface. Activity based sampling determines the contaminant concentration in a person's breathing zone as they perfo...

  16. Field Geologic Observation and Sample Collection Strategies for Planetary Surface Exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS Geologist Crewmembers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurtado, Jose M., Jr.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic field- work, the Desert RATS(Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crew members who participated in the 2010 field test.We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies relatedtoduplicationofsamplesandobservations;logisticalconstraintson the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to flexibly execute their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  17. SAMPLE COLLECTION AND PREPARATION METHODS AFFECTING MUTAGENICITY AND CYTOTOXICITY OF COAL FLY ASH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reports by several investigators describing the biological activity of coal fly ash have presented a variety of results which in some cases are conflicting. The biological activity of coal fly ash may differ because of one or more of the following factors: (1) the samples studied...

  18. Tank 241-TY-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  19. Survey of trace elements in household and bottled drinking water samples collected in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Al-Saleh; I Al-Doush

    1998-01-01

    Total dissolved beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) were measured in the drinking water of 101 households and 21 samples of retail bottled waters purchased in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to ascertain the water quality for human consumption. The Inductively

  20. Tank 241-U-107 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  1. Tank 241-BX-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-09-28

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  2. Tank 241-SX-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  3. Tank 241-C-107 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-09-28

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  4. ANALYSIS OF ACID PRECIPITATION SAMPLES COLLECTED BY STATE AGENCIES. ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the analytical results from 30 state operated wet acid deposition sites. All sites submitted their samples to the same laboratory so that comparisons of data could be made from different geographic areas. The use of a central laboratory also provided cost ef...

  5. Tank 241-A-101 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  6. Breath biomarkers of whole-body gamma irradiation in the Göttingen minipig.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Michael; Cataneo, Renee N; Chaturvedi, Anirudh; Kaplan, Peter D; Libardoni, Mark; Mundada, Mayur; Patel, Urvish; Thrall, Karla D; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-05-01

    There is widespread interest in the development of tools to estimate radiation exposures. Exhaled breath provides a novel matrix for assessing biomarkers that could be correlated with exposures. The use of exhaled breath for estimating radiation exposure is warranted, as studies have shown that external exposure to ionizing radiation causes oxidative stress that accelerates lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, liberating alkanes and alkane metabolites that are excreted in the breath as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). As a proof of principle study, small groups (n = 4) of Göttingen minipigs were whole-body irradiated with gamma rays delivered by a 60Co source at absorbed doses of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 2, and 4 Gy. Additional groups (n = 4) were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), with and without concurrent 60Co exposure, at an absorbed dose of 1 Gy. Breath and background air VOC samples were collected on days -3, -2, -1, 0 pre-irradiation, then at 0.25, 24, 48, 72, and 168 h post-irradiation. VOCs were analyzed by automated thermal desorption with two-dimensional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATD GCxGC TOF MS). The results show significant changes in 58 breath VOCs post-irradiation, mainly consisting of methylated and other derivatives of alkanes, alkenes, and benzene. Using a multivariate combination of these VOCs, a radiation response function was constructed, which was significantly elevated at 15 min post irradiation and remained elevated throughout the study (to 168 h post irradiation). As a binary test of radiation absorbed doses ? 0.25 Gy, the radiation response function distinguished irradiated animals from shams (0 Gy) with 83-84% accuracy. A randomly derived radiation response function was robust: When half of the biomarkers were removed, accuracy was 75%. An optimally derived function with two biomarkers was 82% accurate. As a binary test of radiation absorbed doses ? 0.5 Gy, the radiation response function identified irradiated animals with an accuracy of 87% at 15 min post irradiation and 75.5% at 168 h post irradiation. Treatment with LPS and G-CSF did not affect the radiation response function. This proof-of-principle study supports the hypothesis that breath VOCs may be used for estimating radiation exposures. Further studies will be required to validate the sensitivity and specificity of these potential biomarkers. PMID:25811151

  7. Ultrasensitive laser spectroscopy for breath analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtas, J.; Bielecki, Z.; Stacewicz, T.; Miko?ajczyk, J.; Nowakowski, M.

    2012-03-01

    At present there are many reasons for seeking new methods and technologies that aim to develop new and more perfect sensors for different chemical compounds. However, the main reasons are safety ensuring and health care. In the paper, recent advances in the human breath analysis by the use of different techniques are presented. We have selected non-invasive ones ensuring detection of pathogenic changes at a molecular level. The presence of certain molecules in the human breath is used as an indicator of a specific disease. Thus, the analysis of the human breath is very useful for health monitoring. We have shown some examples of diseases' biomarkers and various methods capable of detecting them. Described methods have been divided into non-optical and optical methods. The former ones are the following: gas chromatography, flame ionization detection, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry, proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. In recent twenty years, the optical methods have become more popular, especially the laser techniques. They have a great potential for detection and monitoring of the components in the gas phase. These methods are characterized by high sensitivity and good selectivity. The spectroscopic sensors provide the opportunity to detect specific gases and to measure their concentration either in a sampling place or a remote one. Multipass spectroscopy, cavity ring-down spectroscopy, and photo-acoustic spectroscopy were characterised in the paper as well.

  8. Geochemical Data for Samples Collected in 2007 Near the Concealed Pebble Porphyry Cu-Au-Mo Deposit, Southwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fey, David L.; Granitto, Matthew; Giles, Stuart A.; Smith, Steven M.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an exploration geochemical research study over the Pebble porphyry copper-gold-molydenum (Cu-Au-Mo) deposit in southwest Alaska. The Pebble deposit is extremely large and is almost entirely concealed by tundra, glacial deposits, and post-Cretaceous volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks. The deposit is presently being explored by Northern Dynasty Minerals, Ltd., and Anglo-American LLC. The USGS undertakes unbiased, broad-scale mineral resource assessments of government lands to provide Congress and citizens with information on national mineral endowment. Research on known deposits is also done to refine and better constrain methods and deposit models for the mineral resource assessments. The Pebble deposit was chosen for this study because it is concealed by surficial cover rocks, it is relatively undisturbed (except for exploration company drill holes), it is a large mineral system, and it is fairly well constrained at depth by the drill hole geology and geochemistry. The goals of the USGS study are (1) to determine whether the concealed deposit can be detected with surface samples, (2) to better understand the processes of metal migration from the deposit to the surface, and (3) to test and develop methods for assessing mineral resources in similar concealed terrains. This report presents analytical results for geochemical samples collected in 2007 from the Pebble deposit and surrounding environs. The analytical data are presented digitally both as an integrated Microsoft 2003 Access? database and as Microsoft 2003 Excel? files. The Pebble deposit is located in southwestern Alaska on state lands about 30 km (18 mi) northwest of the village of Illiamna and 320 km (200 mi) southwest of Anchorage (fig. 1). Elevations in the Pebble area range from 287 m (940 ft) at Frying Pan Lake just south of the deposit to 1146 m (3760 ft) on Kaskanak Mountain about 5 km (5 mi) to the west. The deposit is in an area of relatively subdued topographic relief with an elevation of around 300 m (1000 ft). This portion of Alaska is part of the subarctic regime mountains division, Yukon intermontane plateaus-tayga-meadow province ecoregion, as defined by Bailey (U.S. Forest Service, 2007). Between June 28th and July 12th, 2007, scientists from the USGS collected soil, water, stream sediment, vegetation, heavy-mineral concentrate, till, and rock samples from the deposit area. This report contains analytical results for soil, water, stream sediment, and vegetation samples. Analyses for the heavy-mineral concentrate, till, and rock samples are still in progress. The sampling was undertaken during relatively dry and stable weather conditions. Only minor scattered rain showers occurred during the sampling period, so surface conditions were largely unaffected by weather. The predominant sample media collected were soils and surface waters. Soil and water (mostly from ponds and springs, some from small creeks) samples were collected along a single 7.8 km-long (4.8 mi) east-west traverse across the Pebble East and Pebble West zones and from more distal background areas around Koktuli and Kaskanak Mountains. Sample sites are shown on figure 2 and plate 1, and locality coordinates are provided in the accompanying Access and Excel files named FieldSite. Water samples were analyzed by USGS laboratories with one subset analyzed by Activation Laboratories (Actlabs), as indicated below. Soils and stream sediments were analyzed for their total content by SGS Minerals Services under a contract with the USGS. Soil samples were also leached by selected partial-extraction leaching procedures and then analyzed by several commercial laboratories, as described below. Vegetation samples were analyzed as indicated below.

  9. A study of volatile compounds in the breath of children with type 1 diabetes

    E-print Network

    Stevens, S; Wei, C; Greenwood, R; Hamilton-Shield, J; Costello, B de Lacy; Ratcliffe, N; Probert, C

    2013-01-01

    A pilot study of exhaled volatile compounds and their correlation with blood glucose levels in eight children with type 1 diabetes is reported. Five paired blood and breath samples were obtained from each child over a 6 hour period. The blood glucose concentration ranged from 41.4 to 435.6 mg/dL. Breath samples were collected in Tedlar bags and immediately evacuated through thermal desorption tubes packed with Carbopack B and C. The VOCs were later recovered by thermal desorption and analysed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The study identified 74 volatile compounds present in at least 10% of the patient samples. Of these 74 volatiles 36 were found in all patient samples tested. Further analysis of the 36 compounds found that none showed significant overall correlation with blood glucose levels. Isoprene showed a weak negative correlation with blood glucose levels. Acetone was found to have no correlation with blood glucose levels for the patients studied. Some patients showed significant individu...

  10. Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Britton, Linda J., (Edited By); Greeson, Phillip E.

    1989-01-01

    Chapter A4 contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to collect, preserve, and analyze water to determine its biological and microbiological properties. Part 1 consists of detailed descriptions of more than 45 individual methods, including those for bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, seston, periphyton, macrophytes, benthic invertebrates, fish and other vertebrates, cellular contents, productivity, and bioassays. Each method is summarized, and the applications, interferences, apparatus, reagents, analyses, calculations, reporting of results, precisions, and references are given. Part 2 consists of a glossary. Part 3 is a list of taxonomic references.

  11. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-C-105: Results from samples collected on 2/16/94

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, T.W.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from the Hanford waste Tank 241-C-105 (referred to as Tank C-105). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and to analyze inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace. For organic analyses, six SUMMA{trademark} canisters were delivered to WHC on COC 0061 11 on 2/14/94. At the request of WHC, an additional six SUMMA{trademark} canisters were supplied on COC 005127 on 2/16/94. Samples were collected by WHC from the headspace of Tank C-105 through the VSS on 2/16/94, but only three SUMMA{sup {trademark}} canisters were returned to PNL using COC 0061 11 on 2/18/94. The canisters were stored in the 326/23B laboratory at ambient (25{degrees}C) temperature until the time of the analysis. Analyses described in this report were performed at PNL in the 300 area of the Hanford Reservation. Analytical methods that were used are described in the text. In summary, sorbent traps for inorganic analyses containing sample materials were either weighed (for water analysis) or desorbed with the appropriate aqueous solutions. The aqueous extracts were analyzed either by selective electrode or by ion chromatography (IC). Organic analyses were performed using cryogenic preconcentration followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).

  12. RAZOR EX Anthrax Air Detection System for detection of Bacillus anthracis spores from aerosol collection samples: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Hadfield, Ted; Ryan, Valorie; Spaulding, Usha K; Clemens, Kristine M; Ota, Irene M; Brunelle, Sharon L

    2013-01-01

    The RAZOR EX Anthrax Air Detection System was validated in a collaborative study for the detection of Bacillus anthracis in aerosol collection buffer. Phosphate-buffered saline was charged with 1 mg/mL standardized dust to simulate an authentic aerosol collection sample. The dust-charged buffer was spiked with either B. anthracis Ames at 2000 spores/mL or Bacillus cereus at 20 000 spores/mL. Twelve collaborators participated in the study, with four collaborators at each of three sites. Each collaborator tested 12 replicates of B. anthracis in dust-charged buffer and 12 replicates of B. cereus in dust-charged buffer. All samples sets were randomized and blind-coded. All collaborators produced valid data sets (no collaborators displayed systematic errors) and there was only one invalid data point. After unblinding, the analysis revealed a cross-collaborator probability of detection (CPOD) of 1.00 (144 positive results from 144 replicates, 95% confidence interval 0.975-1.00) for the B. anthracis samples and a CPOD of 0.00 (0 positive results from 143 replicates, 95% confidence interval 0.00-0.0262) for the B. cereus samples. These data meet the requirements of AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement 2010.003, developed by the Stakeholder Panel on Agent Detection Assays. PMID:23767365

  13. COMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR QUARTER 2 SURFACE WATER SPLIT SAMPLES COLLECTED AT THE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICES SITE, ERWIN, TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-21

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on November 15, 2012. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses, and the results are compared using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference. A DER {<=} 3 indicates that, at a 99% confidence interval, split sample results do not differ significantly when compared to their respective one standard deviation (sigma) uncertainty (ANSI N42.22). The NFS split sample report does not specify the confidence level of reported uncertainties (NFS 2012). Therefore, standard two sigma reporting is assumed and uncertainty values were divided by 1.96. In conclusion, all DER values were less than 3 and results are consistent with low (e.g., background) concentrations.

  14. LC-ESI-MS determination of diethylene glycol pollution in sea water samples collected around gas extraction platform plants.

    PubMed

    Cappiello, A; Famiglini, G; Palma, P; Termopoli, V; Trufelli, H; Di Mento, R; Mannozzi, M

    2009-11-15

    Produced formation waters (PFWs) represent the largest aqueous wastes that are normally discharged into the marine environment during the offshore gas production processes. The chemical additive diethylene glycol (DEG) is widely used in the gas production line and therefore can be found in the PFW, becoming of environmental concern. In this study, a new method has been developed for trace determination of DEG in sea water samples collected around offshore gas platforms. The method is based on liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). Prior to analysis, water samples were derivatized using the Schotten-Baumann method for the benzoylation of glycols. The derivatization procedure allowed us to maximize the ESI-MS response of DEG and minimize the influence of interfering compounds. The method was validated and allowed a quantification of DEG in sea water samples with a method LOD of 0.4 ng/mL. The applicability of the procedure was demonstrated by analyzing sea water samples collected around eight gas platforms located in the Adriatic Sea (Italy). PMID:19782224

  15. Elimination rates of breath alcohol.

    PubMed

    Pavlic, Marion; Grubwieser, Petra; Libiseller, Kathrin; Rabl, Walter

    2007-08-24

    Legal driving limits are set coequally with 0.5 g/L blood alcohol concentration (BAC) or 0.25 mg/L breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) in Austria as well as in other European countries. As mostly some time elapses between BrAC measurement and driving offence, a back calculation of alcohol concentrations is often required. The calculation of hourly BrAC elimination rates can thereby help to avoid unnecessary variances. A study with 59 participants was performed under social conditions. BrAC was determined with the legally accredited Alcotest 7110 MK III A every 30 min, and concomitantly venous blood samples were drawn. Five hundred and four BrAC/BAC value pairs were evaluated. The overall mean peak BrAC was calculated with 0.456 mg/L (+/-0.119 mg/L standard deviation). The mean hourly BrAC elimination rate was overall determined with 0.082 mg/L per h (0.050-0.114, 95% range). Mean rate of females (0.087 mg/L h(-1)) and the according 95% limits were statistically significantly higher than of males (mean rate 0.078 mg/L h(-1), p<0.04). Our results confirm the possibility to implement hourly BrAC elimination rates, provided that adequate statistical ranges and basic forensic scientific rules that have been set up for alcohol back calculations are observed. PMID:17064864

  16. Monitoring of pesticide residues in human milk, soil, water, and food samples collected from Kafr El-Zayat Governorate.

    PubMed

    Dogheim, S M; Mohamed el-Z; Gad Alla, S A; el-Saied, S; Emel, S Y; Mohsen, A M; Fahmy, S M

    1996-01-01

    Pesticide residues in human milk and environmental samples from Kafr El-Zayat Governorate in Egypt were analyzed. This governorate is located near one of the biggest pesticide factories in Egypt. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides were monitored, including those that have been prohibited from use in Egypt. Human milk samples (31 samples) from Kafr El-Zayat were compared with 11 samples collected from Cairo. Data were compared with results from studies performed in 1987 and 1990. The present study showed that aldrin and dieldrin, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide, and endrin residues have been eliminated from human milk. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of DDT complex and gamma-HCH by breast-fed infants in Kafr El-Zayat were 85.96 and 3.1% of the respective acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). beta-HCH residues showed an increasing pattern, especially in human milk samples from Cairo. DDT complex and HCH isomers in orange, spinach, lettuce, potatoes, and clover samples ranged from undetectable to very low concentrations. Higher levels of DDT and HCH were detected, but aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, and the heptachlors were not detected in food of animal origin. Residues in fish samples were below maximum residue limits established by some developed countries. Those in animal milk samples approached the extraneous residue limits of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues. HCH residues in soil were negligible, but DDT residues in soil were somewhat higher. Among water samples, groundwater samples had the highest residues of HCHs and DDTs, followed by Nile River water and then tap water. However, the organochlorine pesticide residues were found at concentrations below the maximum allowable limits set by the World Health Organization for drinking water. Among 12 organophosphorus pesticides monitored as parent compounds, dimethoate, malathion, methamidophos, and chlorpyrifos residues were detected in low concentrations in soil samples from a pesticide factory. No organophosphorus pesticide residues were found in plant samples, except for very low residues of dimethoate in an orange sample. Water samples were devoid of organophosphorus residues as parent compounds. PMID:8620102

  17. A horizontal sampler for collection of water samples near the bottom

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joeris, Leonard S.

    1964-01-01

    The need to obtain adequate water samples immediately above a lake bottom or at a precisely defined depth is not new. The problem is of particular concern in a large section of central Lake Erie, where dissolved oxygen concentration may be reduced to 1 ppm or less in the hypolimnion and where the metalimnion frequently extends to or within 30 or 60 cm of the bottom (Becton 1963; Cam 1962).It is impossible to sample the hypolimnrtic waters satisfactorily with the usual Nanscn, Kemmerer, and Frautschy bottles (Carr 1962). Although the 500-ml sampler described here was designed, constructed, and used extensively and successfully to meet the particular problem in Lake Erie, it should be equally useful in a varirty of situations.

  18. Total potential source contribution function analysis of trace elements determined in aerosol samples collected near Lake Huron.

    PubMed

    Biegalski, S R; Hopke, P K

    2004-08-15

    Aerosol samples were collected at the rural Burnt Island Ontario Integrated Air Deposition Network air sampling station on the northern shore of Lake Huron from 1992 through 1994. The samples were analyzed for trace elements by neutron activation analysis, and the air concentrations of over 30 elements were determined. Total potential source contribution function analysis (TPSCF) was used to determine the most probable geographical location of these aerosols' origin. The TPSCF results for As, In, Sb, Se, Sn, and Zn are highlighted in this paper. Source regions for these elements ranged from Alma, Quebec, Canada to Carrollton, GA. Because of large seasonal variations in the concentrations of the atmospheric concentrations of these elements, TPSCFvalues were calculated for the summer and winter halves of the year as well as the entire year. PMID:15382853

  19. Protocol for the collection and analysis of volatile POHCs (Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents) using VOST (Volatile Organic Sampling Train)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, E. M.

    1984-03-01

    An operating protocol for sampling and analysis of voltatile organic constituents of flue gas from hazardous waste incinerators or other similar combustor systems using the Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST) is presented. It is intended to be used for guidance by personnel of the regulatory groups, personnel associated with engineering research and development, and the regulated community. The document is in two parts. Part A describes the key components of the train, the procedures for preparing the sorbent materials, and procedures for sample collection using the VOST. Part B describes the procedures for analyzing VOST sorbent cartridges for volatile principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs) using purge-trap-desorb gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (P-T-D GC/MS). Quality control procedures are presented in both parts.

  20. A Timesaving Strategy for MAS NMR Spectroscopy by Combining Non-Uniform Sampling and Paramagnetic Relaxation Assisted Condensed Data Collection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shangjin; Yan, Si; Guo, Changmiao; Li, Mingyue; Hoch, Jeffrey C.; Williams, John C.; Polenova, Tatyana

    2012-01-01

    We present a timesaving strategy for acquiring 3D magic angle spinning NMR spectra for chemical shift assignments in proteins and protein assemblies in the solid state. By simultaneous application of non-uniform sampling (NUS) and paramagnetic-relaxation-assisted condensed data collection (PACC), we can attain 16-fold time reduction in the 3D experiments without sacrificing the signal-to-noise ratio or the resolution. We demonstrate that with appropriate concentration of paramagnetic dopant introduced into the sample the overwhelming majority of chemical shifts are not perturbed, with the exception of a limited number of shifts corresponding to residues located at the surface of the protein, which exhibit small perturbations. This approach enables multi-dimensional MAS spectroscopy in samples of intrinsically low sensitivity and/or high spectral congestion where traditional experiments fail, and is especially beneficial for structural and dynamics studies of large proteins and protein assemblies. PMID:23094591

  1. Electronic health records for biological sample collection: feasibility study of statin-induced myopathy using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    PubMed Central

    O'Meara, Helen; Carr, Daniel F; Evely, Jane; Hobbs, Mark; McCann, Gerard; van Staa, Tjeerd; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2014-01-01

    AIMS Electronic healthcare records (EHRs) are increasingly used to store clinical information. A secondary benefit of EHRs is their use, in an anonymized form, for observational research. The Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) contains EHRs from primary care in the UK and, despite 1083 peer-reviewed research publications, has never been used to obtain pharmacogenetic samples. Using a statin-induced myopathy paradigm, we evaluated using the CPRD to obtain patient samples for a pharmacogenetic study targeting 250 cases and 500 controls from UK general practitioner (GP) practices. METHODS The CPRD identified potential patients fitting specific case-definition criteria (active rhabdomyolysis or creatine phosphokinase > four times the upper limit of normal), and corresponding GP practices were asked to invite patient participation. Consenting patients were requested to provide either saliva or blood samples and to complete an ethnicity questionnaire. Control subjects were recruited from the same GP practice (saliva) or a small number of practices (blood). Samples were forwarded for DNA extraction. RESULTS Thirty-six months of recruitment yielded DNA samples from 149 statin-induced myopathy cases and 587 tolerant controls. Data show that contacting patients through their GP is a reliable method for obtaining samples without compromising anonymity. Saliva collection directly from patients was considerably less effective than blood sampling. After 10 months of recruitment, saliva sampling was suspended in favour of blood sampling. CONCLUSIONS We demonstrate the potential of EHRs for identifying accurately phenotyped cases and controls for pharmacogenetic studies. Recruitment was successful only because of the willingness of GP practices to participate and the existence of strong doctor–patient relationships. The present study provides a model that can be implemented in future genetic analyses using EHRs. PMID:24308359

  2. Evaluation of a Wipe Surface Sample Method for Collection of Bacillus Spores from Nonporous Surfaces?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Gary S.; Betty, Rita G.; Brockmann, John E.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Souza, Caroline A.; Walsh, Kathryn S.; Boucher, Raymond M.; Tezak, Mathew; Wilson, Mollye C.; Rudolph, Todd

    2007-01-01

    Polyester-rayon blend wipes were evaluated for efficiency of extraction and recovery of powdered Bacillus atrophaeus spores from stainless steel and painted wallboard surfaces. Method limits of detection were also estimated for both surfaces. The observed mean efficiency of polyester-rayon blend wipe recovery from stainless steel was 0.35 with a standard deviation of ±0.12, and for painted wallboard it was 0.29 with a standard deviation of ±0.15. Evaluation of a sonication extraction method for the polyester-rayon blend wipes produced a mean extraction efficiency of 0.93 with a standard deviation of ±0.09. Wipe recovery quantitative limits of detection were estimated at 90 CFU per unit of stainless steel sample area and 105 CFU per unit of painted wallboard sample area. The method recovery efficiency and limits of detection established in this work provide useful guidance for the planning of incident response environmental sampling following the release of a biological agent such as Bacillus anthracis. PMID:17122390

  3. Evaluation of surface sampling techniques for collection of Bacillus spores on common drinking water pipe materials.

    PubMed

    Packard, Benjamin H; Kupferle, Margaret J

    2010-01-01

    Drinking water utilities may face biological contamination of the distribution system from a natural incident or deliberate contamination. Determining the extent of contamination or the efficacy of decontamination is a challenge, because it may require sampling of the wetted surfaces of distribution infrastructure. This study evaluated two sampling techniques that utilities might use to sample exhumed pipe sections. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), cement-lined ductile iron, and ductile iron pipe coupons (3 cm x 14 cm) cut from new water main piping were conditioned for three months in dechlorinated Cincinnati, Ohio tap water. Coupons were spiked with Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii, a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis. Brushing and scraping were used to recover the inoculated spores from the coupons. Mean recoveries for all materials ranged from 37 +/- 30% to 43 +/- 20% for brushing vs. 24 +/- 10% to 51 +/- 29% for scraping. On cement-lined pipe, brushing yielded a significantly different recovery than scraping. No differences were seen between brushing and scraping the PVC and iron pipe coupons. Mean brushing and scraping recoveries from PVC coupons were more variable than mean recoveries from cement-lined and iron coupons. Spore retention differed between pipe materials and the presence of established biofilms also had an impact. Conditioned PVC coupons (with established biofilms) had significantly lower spore retention (31 +/- 11%) than conditioned cement-lined coupons (61 +/- 14%) and conditioned iron coupons (71 +/- 8%). PMID:20082033

  4. Evaluation of a wipe surface sample method for collection of Bacillus spores from nonporous surfaces.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gary S; Betty, Rita G; Brockmann, John E; Lucero, Daniel A; Souza, Caroline A; Walsh, Kathryn S; Boucher, Raymond M; Tezak, Mathew; Wilson, Mollye C; Rudolph, Todd

    2007-02-01

    Polyester-rayon blend wipes were evaluated for efficiency of extraction and recovery of powdered Bacillus atrophaeus spores from stainless steel and painted wallboard surfaces. Method limits of detection were also estimated for both surfaces. The observed mean efficiency of polyester-rayon blend wipe recovery from stainless steel was 0.35 with a standard deviation of +/-0.12, and for painted wallboard it was 0.29 with a standard deviation of +/-0.15. Evaluation of a sonication extraction method for the polyester-rayon blend wipes produced a mean extraction efficiency of 0.93 with a standard deviation of +/-0.09. Wipe recovery quantitative limits of detection were estimated at 90 CFU per unit of stainless steel sample area and 105 CFU per unit of painted wallboard sample area. The method recovery efficiency and limits of detection established in this work provide useful guidance for the planning of incident response environmental sampling following the release of a biological agent such as Bacillus anthracis. PMID:17122390

  5. Liquid-Air Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    Compact unit supplies air longer than compressed-air unit. Emergency breathing apparatus stores air as cryogenic liquid instead of usual compressed gas. Intended for firefighting or rescue operations becoming necessary during planned potentially hazardous procedures.

  6. Visualizing Breath using Digital Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, P. R.; Reid, I. D.; Wilton, J. B.

    2013-02-01

    Artist Jayne Wilton and physicists Peter Hobson and Ivan Reid of Brunel University are collaborating at Brunel University on a project which aims to use a range of techniques to make visible the normally invisible dynamics of the breath and the verbal and non-verbal communication it facilitates. The breath is a source of a wide range of chemical, auditory and physical exchanges with the direct environment. Digital Holography is being investigated to enable a visually stimulating articulation of the physical trajectory of the breath as it leaves the mouth. Initial findings of this research are presented. Real time digital hologram replay allows the audience to move through holographs of breath-born particles.

  7. Seed germination from lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) fecal samples collected during the dry season in the Northern Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, Adriana Renata; Bobrowiec, Paulo Estefano D; Sanaiotti, Tânia Margarete; Gribel, Rogério

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the potential of lowland tapirs as seed dispersers in the northern Brazilian Amazon. The study analyzed the viability of seeds after passage through the gut. Fecal samples were collected from 6 different vegetation physiognomies in Viruá National Park during the dry season. The samples were then kept in a greenhouse for 16 months to allow the seeds to germinate. The seedling species were identified and classified according to the type of fruit, plant habit, seed size and type of ingestion. Of the 111 fecal samples, 94 (84.7%) had viable seeds of 75 species. Melastomataceae was the most frequent family with viable seeds in the fecal samples (69.1% of samples, N= 18 species). The data suggest that the importance of the lowland tapirs as dispersers is not restricted to the species consumed actively by frugivory but also extends to species accidentally consumed during browsing. The occurrence of both large and small viable seeds in the fecal samples as well as a number of large drupes, which probably cannot be transported via endozoochory by any other animal species, provide evidence of the ecological importance of lowland tapirs to the dynamics of the forest-campinarana vegetation mosaic in the region. PMID:23586561

  8. COMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR QUARTER 4 SURFACE WATER SPLIT SAMPLES COLLECTED AT THE NUCLEAR FUELS SERVICES SITE, ERWIN, TN

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-08-15

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on June 12, 2013. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses, and Table 1 presents the comparison of results using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference. A DER ≤ 3 indicates at a 99% confidence interval that split sample results do not differ significantly when compared to their respective one standard deviation (sigma) uncertainty (ANSI N42.22). The NFS split sample report specifies 95% confidence level of reported uncertainties (NFS 2013). Therefore, standard two sigma reporting values were divided by 1.96. In conclusion, most DER values were less than 3 and results are consistent with low (e.g., background) concentrations. The gross beta result for sample 5198W0014 was the exception. The ORAU gross beta result of 6.30 ? 0.65 pCi/L from location NRD is well above NFS?s non-detected result of 1.56 ? 0.59 pCi/L. NFS?s data package includes no detected result for any radionuclide at location NRD. At NRC?s request, ORAU performed gamma spectroscopic analysis of sample 5198W0014 to identify analytes contributing to the relatively elevated gross beta results. This analysis identified detected amounts of naturally-occurring constituents, most notably Ac-228 from the thorium decay series, and does not suggest the presence of site-related contamination.

  9. A large, consistent plasma proteomics data set from prospectively collected breast cancer patient and healthy volunteer samples

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Variability of plasma sample collection and of proteomics technology platforms has been detrimental to generation of large proteomic profile datasets from human biospecimens. Methods We carried out a clinical trial-like protocol to standardize collection of plasma from 204 healthy and 216 breast cancer patient volunteers. The breast cancer patients provided follow up samples at 3 month intervals. We generated proteomics profiles from these samples with a stable and reproducible platform for differential proteomics that employs a highly consistent nanofabricated ChipCube™ chromatography system for peptide detection and quantification with fast, single dimension mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Protein identification is achieved with subsequent LC-MS/MS analysis employing the same ChipCube™ chromatography system. Results With this consistent platform, over 800 LC-MS plasma proteomic profiles from prospectively collected samples of 420 individuals were obtained. Using a web-based data analysis pipeline for LC-MS profiling data, analyses of all peptide peaks from these plasma LC-MS profiles reveals an average coefficient of variability of less than 15%. Protein identification of peptide peaks of interest has been achieved with subsequent LC-MS/MS analyses and by referring to a spectral library created from about 150 discrete LC-MS/MS runs. Verification of peptide quantity and identity is demonstrated with several Multiple Reaction Monitoring analyses. These plasma proteomic profiles are publicly available through ProteomeCommons. Conclusion From a large prospective cohort of healthy and breast cancer patient volunteers and using a nano-fabricated chromatography system, a consistent LC-MS proteomics dataset has been generated that includes more than 800 discrete human plasma profiles. This large proteomics dataset provides an important resource in support of breast cancer biomarker discovery and validation efforts. PMID:21619653

  10. Modification of Breath Patterning to Increase Naturalness of a Mildly Dysarthric Speaker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellaire, Karen; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Decreased naturalness of speech in a 20-year-old closed-head injured male was related to short, uniform breath groups, inhalation during every pause, and restricted fundamental frequency. Data related to patterns of breathing and pausing during samples of connected speech along with measures of respiratory control are presented. (Author/CL)

  11. Improved Scanning Geometry to Collect 3D-Geometry Data in Flat Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, P.; Niese, S.; Zschech, E. [Fraunhofer IZFP-D, Maria-Reiche-Str. 2, 01109 Dresden (Germany); Gelb, J.; Feser, M. [Xradia Inc., 5052 Commercial Circle, Concord, CA 94520 (United States)

    2011-09-09

    3D integration through silicon technology of integrated circuits challenges non-destructive testing methods. 3D x-ray methods are the techniques of choice to localize defects in interconnects. The development of high-power x-ray sources enabled the use of x-ray microscopy in laboratory tools. Those devices are able to resolve features down to 40 nm in an acceptable measurement time. However, the field of view is very limited to 16 {mu}m in high-resolution mode and to 65 {mu}m in large-field-of-view mode. To record tomography data, the size of the samples must not exceed the field of view to circumvent specific artifacts. Semiconductor samples usually do not fulfill the condition mentioned above since they have the shape of flat sheets. Therefore limited-angle tomography is typically used. The missing angles cause typical capping artifacts and poor signal-to-noise ratio. We present a modified scanning geometry that overcomes some of the artifacts and yields a better image quality. The geometry and potential applications are presented in comparison to the traditional limited-angle tomography.

  12. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-A-103: Results from samples collected on November 9, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B. [and others

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-A-103 (Tank A-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5073. Samples were collected by WHC on November 9, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  13. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-BX-107: Results from samples collected on November 17, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H. [and others

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-107 (Tank BX-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5080. Samples were collected by WHC on November 17, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  14. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-108: Results from samples collected on December 6, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D. [and others

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-108 (Tank S-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5086. Samples were collected by WHC on December 6, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  15. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-TX-111: Results from samples collected on October 12, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-TX-111 (Tank TX-111) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5069. Samples were collected by WHC on October 12, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  16. Headspace vapor charterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-110: Results from samples collected on December 5, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D. [and others

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-110 (Tank S-110) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5085. Samples were collected by WHC on December 5, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  17. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-BY-102: Results from samples collected on November 21, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H. [and others

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-102 (Tank BY-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5081. Samples were collected by YMC on November 21, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  18. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-112: Results from samples collected on July 11, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage Tank 241-S-112 (Tank S-112) at the Hanford. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5044. Samples were collected by WHC on July 11, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  19. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-109: Results from samples collected on August 1, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-109 (Tank SX-109) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5048. Samples were collected by WHC on August 1, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  20. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-105: Results from samples collected on July 26, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-105 (Tank SX-105) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5047. Samples were collected by WHC on July 26, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  1. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-104: Results from samples collected on July 25, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-104 (Tank SX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5049. Samples were collected by WHC on July 25, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  2. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank AX-103: Results from samples collected on June 21, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W. [and others

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-AX-103 (Tank AX-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5029. Samples were collected by WHC on June 21, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  3. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank AX-101: Results from samples collected on June 15, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D. [and others

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-AX-101 (Tank AX-101) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) under the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5028. Samples were collected by WHC on June 15, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  4. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank SX-102: Results from samples collected on July 19, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    McVeety, B.D.; Evans, J.C.; Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H. [and others

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-102 (Tank SX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed under the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5046. Samples were collected by WHC on July 19, 1995, using the vapor sampling system (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  5. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE, AND SHIPMENT OF HOUSE DUST SAMPLES FOR METAL, PESTICIDE, AND PAH ANALYSIS (F04)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures for collecting house dust samples. Dust from the floor was collected using a high-volume, small surface sampler (HVS3). Half of the sample was analyzed for metal content, and half was analyzed for pesticides and PAHs. Keywo...

  6. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE, AND SHIPMENT OF PERSONAL AIR SAMPLES FOR METAL ANALYSIS (F03)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedure for collecting, storing, and shipping personal air samples. Samples were collected on cellulose ester membrane filters using a Personal Exposure Monitor. The targeted individual in the household used the sampler for a 24-hour...

  7. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR FIELD COLLECTION OF YARD COMPOSITE SOIL SAMPLES (UA-F-5.1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to establish a uniform procedure for the collection of yard composite soil samples in the field. This procedure was followed to ensure consistent and reliable collection of outdoor soil samples during the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border" study. ...

  8. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR FIELD COLLECTION OF RESIDENTIAL FOUNDATION SOIL SAMPLES (UA-F-6.1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to establish a uniform procedure for the collection of residential foundation soil samples in the field. This procedure was followed to ensure consistent and reliable collection of outdoor soil samples during the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border"...

  9. Evaluation of vacuum filter sock surface sample collection method for Bacillus spores from porous and non-porous surfaces.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gary S; Betty, Rita G; Brockmann, John E; Lucero, Daniel A; Souza, Caroline A; Walsh, Kathryn S; Boucher, Raymond M; Tezak, Matthew S; Wilson, Mollye C

    2007-07-01

    Vacuum filter socks were evaluated for recovery efficiency of powdered Bacillus atrophaeus spores from two non-porous surfaces, stainless steel and painted wallboard and two porous surfaces, carpet and bare concrete. Two surface coupons were positioned side-by-side and seeded with aerosolized Bacillus atrophaeus spores. One of the surfaces, a stainless steel reference coupon, was sized to fit into a sample vial for direct spore removal, while the other surface, a sample surface coupon, was sized for a vacuum collection application. Deposited spore material was directly removed from the reference coupon surface and cultured for enumeration of colony forming units (CFU), while deposited spore material was collected from the sample coupon using the vacuum filter sock method, extracted by sonication and cultured for enumeration. Recovery efficiency, which is a measure of overall transfer effectiveness from the surface to culture, was calculated as the number of CFU enumerated from the filter sock sample per unit area relative to the number of CFU enumerated from the co-located reference coupon per unit area. The observed mean filter sock recovery efficiency from stainless steel was 0.29 (SD = 0.14, n = 36), from painted wallboard was 0.25 (SD = 0.15, n = 36), from carpet was 0.28 (SD = 0.13, n = 40) and from bare concrete was 0.19 (SD = 0.14, n = 44). Vacuum filter sock recovery quantitative limits of detection were estimated at 105 CFU m(-2) from stainless steel and carpet, 120 CFU m(-2) from painted wallboard and 160 CFU m(-2) from bare concrete. The method recovery efficiency and limits of detection established in this work provide useful guidance for the planning of incident response environmental sampling for biological agents such as Bacillus anthracis. PMID:17607386

  10. Correlated spatio-temporal data collection in wireless sensor networks based on low rank matrix approximation and optimized node sampling.

    PubMed

    Piao, Xinglin; Hu, Yongli; Sun, Yanfeng; Yin, Baocai; Gao, Junbin

    2014-01-01

    The emerging low rank matrix approximation (LRMA) method provides an energy efficient scheme for data collection in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) by randomly sampling a subset of sensor nodes for data sensing. However, the existing LRMA based methods generally underutilize the spatial or temporal correlation of the sensing data, resulting in uneven energy consumption and thus shortening the network lifetime. In this paper, we propose a correlated spatio-temporal data collection method for WSNs based on LRMA. In the proposed method, both the temporal consistence and the spatial correlation of the sensing data are simultaneously integrated under a new LRMA model. Moreover, the network energy consumption issue is considered in the node sampling procedure. We use Gini index to measure both the spatial distribution of the selected nodes and the evenness of the network energy status, then formulate and resolve an optimization problem to achieve optimized node sampling. The proposed method is evaluated on both the simulated and real wireless networks and compared with state-of-the-art methods. The experimental results show the proposed method efficiently reduces the energy consumption of network and prolongs the network lifetime with high data recovery accuracy and good stability. PMID:25490583

  11. Correlated Spatio-Temporal Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Low Rank Matrix Approximation and Optimized Node Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Xinglin; Hu, Yongli; Sun, Yanfeng; Yin, Baocai; Gao, Junbin

    2014-01-01

    The emerging low rank matrix approximation (LRMA) method provides an energy efficient scheme for data collection in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) by randomly sampling a subset of sensor nodes for data sensing. However, the existing LRMA based methods generally underutilize the spatial or temporal correlation of the sensing data, resulting in uneven energy consumption and thus shortening the network lifetime. In this paper, we propose a correlated spatio-temporal data collection method for WSNs based on LRMA. In the proposed method, both the temporal consistence and the spatial correlation of the sensing data are simultaneously integrated under a new LRMA model. Moreover, the network energy consumption issue is considered in the node sampling procedure. We use Gini index to measure both the spatial distribution of the selected nodes and the evenness of the network energy status, then formulate and resolve an optimization problem to achieve optimized node sampling. The proposed method is evaluated on both the simulated and real wireless networks and compared with state-of-the-art methods. The experimental results show the proposed method efficiently reduces the energy consumption of network and prolongs the network lifetime with high data recovery accuracy and good stability. PMID:25490583

  12. i ??? m ??? Breath : The Effect of Multimedia Biofeedback on Learning Abdominal Breath

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meng-Chieh Yu; Jin-Shing Chen; King-Jen Chang; Su-Chu Hsu; Ming-Sui Lee; Yi-Ping Hung

    \\u000a Breathing is a natural and important exercise for human beings, and the right breath method can make people healthier and\\u000a even happier.i-m-Breath was developed to assist users in learning of abdominal breath, which used Respiration Girth Sensors (RGS) to measure user’s\\u000a breath pattern and provided visual feedback to assist in learning abdominal breath. In this paper, we tried to study

  13. The ex situ conservation strategy for endangered plant species: small samples, storage and lessons from seed collected from US national parks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ex situ collections of seeds sampled from wild populations provide germplasm for restoration and for scientific study about biological diversity. Seed collections of endangered species are urgent because they might forestall ever-dwindling population size and genetic diversity. However, collecting ...

  14. Two-zone model application to breathing zone and area welding fume concentration data.

    PubMed

    Boelter, Fred W; Simmons, Catherine E; Berman, Laurel; Scheff, Peter

    2009-05-01

    This study assessed a professional pipefitter/welder performing shielded metal arc welding on carbon steel under field conditions. The resulting breathing zone (near field) and area (far field) welding fume concentration data were applied to the two-zone model for the purpose of determining field-derived personal exposure emission (generation) rates during actual welding work. The study is unique in that one welder was evaluated under high production conditions for 2 days at two different welding locations: a boiler room and a breezeway. Samples were collected and analyzed for total particulate following NIOSH Method 0500 and for select metals following NIOSH Method 7300. Breezeway average personal breathing zone sample total particulate concentrations ranged from 2.89 mg/m(3) to 4.38 mg/m(3), Fe concentrations ranged from 0.53 to 0.63 mg/m(3), and Mn concentrations ranged from 0.10 to 0.12 mg/m(3). The boiler room average personal breathing zone sample total particulate concentrations ranged from 4.73 mg/m(3) to 5.90 mg/m(3), Fe concentrations ranged from 0.48 to 0.85 mg/m(3), and Mn concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 0.16 mg/m(3). Average arc times ranged from 20 to 25% of the total sampling time. Both tracer gas and anemometer techniques were used to estimate ventilation of the boiler room. The steady-state form of the two-zone model was applied to long-term and short-term sample total particulate, Fe, and Mn concentrations obtained during welding in the boiler room and breezeway. The average generation rate in the boiler room was 39.2 mg/min for TP, 6.4 mg/min for Fe, and 1.3 mg/min for Mn. The average generation rate in the breezeway was 40.0 mg/min for TP, 6.6 mg/min for Fe, and 1.2 mg/min for Mn. The field-based generation rates were considerably lower than laboratory-derived published emission rates of between 280 and 650 mg/min for TP. This study emphasizes the need for field-derived welding fume generation rates and showed the personal breathing zone and area sample concentrations can be described by the two-zone model in a way that may help the industrial hygienist estimate exposures. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resource: Tables detailing the personal breathing zone and average area sample results for breezeway welding and boiler room welding, two-zone modeling results, and boiler room welding personal breathing zone and area sample results with mixing fans on.]. PMID:19266377

  15. Analysis of human plasma proteins: a focus on sample collection and separation using free-flow electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Nissum, Mikkel; Foucher, Aude L

    2008-08-01

    Due to ease of accessibility, plasma has become the sample of choice for proteomics studies directed towards biomarker discovery intended for use in diagnostics, prognostics and even in theranostics. The result of these extensive efforts is a long list of potential biomarkers, very few of which have led to clinical utility. Why have so many potential biomarkers failed validation? Herein, we address certain issues encountered, which complicate biomarker discovery efforts originating from plasma. The advantages of stabilizing the sample at collection by the addition of protease inhibitors are discussed. The principles of free-flow electrophoresis (FFE) separation are provided together with examples applying to various studies. Finally, particular attention is given to plasma or serum analysis using multidimensional separation strategies into which the FFE is incorporated. The advantages of using FFE separation in these workflows are discussed. PMID:18761468

  16. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-102: Results from samples collected on January 26, 1996. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H. [and others

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) with and without particulate prefiltration. Samples were collected from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for water, ammonia, permanent gases, total nonmethane hydrocarbons (TNMHCs, also known as TO-12), and organic analytes in samples collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs) from the tank headspace. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sampling and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Sampling and Analysis Plan for Tank Vapor Sampling Comparison Test{close_quote}, and the sample jobs were designated S6007, S6008, and S6009. Samples were collected by WHC on January 26, 1996, using the VSS, a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe; and the ISVS with and without particulate prefiltration.

  17. COMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR QUARTER 3 SURFACE WATER SPLIT SAMPLES COLLECTED AT THE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICES SITE, ERWIN, TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-05-28

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on March 20, 2013. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses, and Table 1 presents the comparison of results using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference. A DER {<=} 3 indicates that at a 99% confidence interval, split sample results do not differ significantly when compared to their respective one standard deviation (sigma) uncertainty (ANSI N42.22). The NFS split sample report does not specify the confidence level of reported uncertainties (NFS 2013). Therefore, standard two sigma reporting is assumed and uncertainty values were divided by 1.96. In conclusion, most DER values were less than 3 and results are consistent with low (e.g., background) concentrations. The gross beta result for sample 5198W0012 was the exception. The ORAU result of 9.23 {+-} 0.73 pCi/L from location MCD is well above NFS?s result of -0.567 {+-} 0.63 pCi/L (non-detected). NFS?s data package included a detected result for U-233/234, but no other uranium or plutonium detection, and nothing that would suggest the presence of beta-emitting radionuclides. The ORAU laboratory reanalyzed sample 5198W0012 using the remaining portion of the sample volume and a result of 11.3 {+-} 1.1 pCi/L was determined. As directed, the laboratory also counted the filtrate using gamma spectrometry analysis and identified only naturally occurring or ubiquitous man-made constituents, including beta emitters that are presumably responsible for the elevated gross beta values.

  18. Sensors for breath testing: from nanomaterials to comprehensive disease detection.

    PubMed

    Konvalina, Gady; Haick, Hossam

    2014-01-21

    The analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath samples represents a new frontier in medical diagnostics because it is a noninvasive and potentially inexpensive way to detect illnesses. Clinical trials with spectrometry and spectroscopy techniques, the standard volatile-compound detection methods, have shown the potential for diagnosing illnesses including cancer, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, tuberculosis, diabetes, and more via breath tests. Unfortunately, this approach requires expensive equipment and high levels of expertise to operate the necessary instruments, and the tests must be done quickly and use preconcentration techniques, all of which impede its adoption. Sensing matrices based on nanomaterials are likely to become a clinical and laboratory diagnostic tool because they are significantly smaller, easier-to-use, and less expensive than spectrometry or spectroscopy. An ideal nanomaterial-based sensor for breath testing should be sensitive at very low concentrations of volatile organic compounds, even in the presence of environmental or physiological confounding factors. It should also respond rapidly and proportionately to small changes in concentration and provide a consistent output that is specific to a given volatile organic compound. When not in contact with the volatile organic compounds, the sensor should quickly return to its baseline state or be simple and inexpensive enough to be disposable. Several reviews have focused on the methodological, biochemical, and clinical aspects of breath analysis in attempts to bring breath testing closer to practice for comprehensive disease detection. This Account pays particular attention to the technological gaps and confounding factors that impede nanomaterial-sensor-based breath testing, in the hope of directing future research and development efforts towards the best possible approaches to overcome these obstacles. We discuss breath testing as a complex process involving numerous steps, each of which has several possible technological alternatives with advantages and drawbacks that might affect the performance of the nanomaterial-based sensors in a breath-testing system. With this in mind, we discuss how to choose nanomaterial-based sensors, considering the profile of the targeted breath markers and the possible limitations of the approach, and how to design the surrounding breath-testing setup. We also discuss how to tailor the dynamic range and selectivity of the applied sensors to detect the disease-related volatile organic compounds of interest. Finally, we describe approaches to overcome other obstacles by improving the sensing elements and the supporting techniques such as preconcentration and dehumidification. PMID:23926883

  19. Exposing USGS sample collections for broader discovery and access: collaboration between ScienceBase, IEDA:SESAR, and Paleobiology Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, L.; Bristol, S.; Lehnert, K. A.; Arko, R. A.; Peters, S. E.; Uhen, M. D.; Song, L.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is an exemplar of the need for improved cyberinfrastructure for its vast holdings of invaluable physical geoscience data. Millions of discrete paleobiological and geological specimens lie in USGS warehouses and at the Smithsonian Institution. These specimens serve as the basis for many geologic maps and geochemical databases, and are a potential treasure trove of new scientific knowledge. The extent of this treasure is virtually unknown and inaccessible outside a small group of paleogeoscientists and geochemists. A team from the USGS, the Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA) facility, and the Paleobiology Database (PBDB) are working to expose information on paleontological and geochemical specimens for discovery by scientists and citizens. This project uses existing infrastructure of the System for Earth Sample Registration (SESAR) and PBDB, which already contains much of the fundamental data schemas that are necessary to accommodate USGS records. The project is also developing a new Linked Data interface for the USGS National Geochemical Database (NGDB). The International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) is the identifier that links samples between all systems. For paleontological specimens, SESAR and PBDB will be the primary repositories for USGS records, with a data syncing process to archive records within the USGS ScienceBase system. The process began with mapping the metadata fields necessary for USGS collections to the existing SESAR and PBDB data structures, while aligning them with the Observations & Measurements and Darwin Core standards. New functionality needed in SESAR included links to a USGS locality registry, fossil classifications, a spatial qualifier attribution for samples with sensitive locations, and acknowledgement of data and metadata licensing. The team is developing a harvesting mechanism to periodically transfer USGS records from within PBDB and SESAR to ScienceBase. For the NGDB, the samples are being registered with IGSNs in SESAR and the geochemical data are being published as Linked Data. This system allows the USGS collections to benefit from disciplinary and institutional strengths of the participating resources, while simultaneously increasing the discovery, accessibility, and citation of USGS physical collection holdings.

  20. Occurrence, distribution, and concentrations of selected contaminants in streambed- and suspended-sediment samples collected in Bexar County, Texas, 2007-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of sediment-associated contaminants are typically associated with urban areas such as San Antonio, Texas, in Bexar County, the seventh most populous city in the United States. U.S. Geological Survey personnel periodically collected surficial streambed-sediment samples during 2007-09 and collected suspended-sediment samples from selected streams after storms during 2008 and 2009. All sediment samples were analyzed for major and trace elements, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  1. Collections of human biological samples for scientific purposes. Why do current regulation need to be clarified and how?

    PubMed

    Deplanque, Dominique; Birraux, Guillaume; Bertoye, Pierre-Henri; Postaire, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The collection of human biological samples is of major importance for future research in France and Europe. In recent years, new regulatory procedures have been designed to monitor these activities; but they are somewhat complex and some clarifications are needed. The law needs also to be amended. The definition of biobanking activities should be clarified, and regulatory procedures, including consultation of the Ethics Committee, declarations to the Ministry of Research and the protection of personal data, should be simplified. It is also of great importance to correctly define the modalities in which Biobanks are granted their authorisations. The role of Ethics Committees regarding the evaluation of information and the consent procedures should also be clarified, particularly when samples from children are used, or when the samples are used for genetic analyses. As well as scientific and public health aspects, the storage of human biological samples may also have important economic consequences. It is hence crucial to adapt the procedure for submitting patents, particularly when several public or private partners are working together. The possible changes to both French and European laws planned in the next months would be an ideal time to introduce these changes. PMID:19804706

  2. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in environmental samples collected from cattle farms in Eastern and Central Poland (2011-2012).

    PubMed

    Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Cie?lik, Piotr; Mirski, Tomasz; Gawe?, Jerzy; Michalski, Aleksander; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Bartoszcze, Micha?; ?akowska, Dorota; Lasocki, Krzysztof; Knap, Józef; Kocik, Janusz

    2014-12-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the etiologic agent of Q fever. It may occur as two different morphological forms, a large cell variant (LCV) and a small cell variant (SCV). The SCV is characterized by unique resistance to physical and chemical factors and may survive in the environment for many months. The objective of this study was to examine environmental samples for the presence of C. burnetii using real-time PCR in areas where Q fever was previously reported and in randomly selected animal farms where Q fever was not reported. The samples were collected in the following provinces in Poland: Lublin, Subcarpathian and Masovian. Monitoring was performed with real-time PCR and serological methods. Of the 727 environmental samples, 33 (4.54%) contained the multi-copy insertion sequence IS1111, which is specific for C. burnetii. Subsequently, the presence of C. burnetii antibodies was determined using serological tests in selected herds in which positive genetic results were obtained. Serological analyses of 169 serum samples using CFT and ELISA were performed on Polish black-and-white Holstein-Friesian cows and one cow imported from Denmark. Using the CFT method, 11 samples were positive for phase I antibodies and six were positive for phase II antibodies. Moreover, in two cases, the presence of antibodies specific for both phase I and phase II antigens of C. burnetii was detected. However, of the 169 examined serum samples, 20 were positive by ELISA test, of which six were also positive by CFT. Additionally, multi spacer typing (MST) of isolated C. burnetii strains was performed. The MST results identified two new genotypes in Poland, ST3 and ST6. The results indicate that continued research regarding spread of this pathogen within a country is necessary. PMID:25457371

  3. Comparison of Toxocara eggs in hair and faecal samples from owned dogs and cats collected in Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Öge, Hatice; Öge, Semih; Özbak??, Gökben; Gürcan, Safa

    2014-12-15

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Toxocara eggs on hair and in faeces of healthy owned cats and dogs and to make comparisons between data (sex, age, host factor, etc.) collected from dogs and cats. Toxocara eggs were found on the hair of 14% of 100 dogs and 22% of 100 cats. In total, 58 and 136 eggs were recovered from the hair samples of examined cats and dogs, respectively. Of the total number of eggs, 2 were classified as embryonated in cats. One of the eggs recovered was embryonating in dogs. The maximum number of eggs was found in the tail bottom of cats (28 eggs) and dogs (58 eggs). As well as finding Toxocara eggs in dogs and cats hair, we also found eggs of some helminthic parasites; such as Dicrocoelium sp., Fasciola sp., Taenia sp., Dipylidium caninum and Toxascaris leonina. In addition, faecal samples of same dogs and cats were also examined by two techniques (centrifugal flotation and sedimentation): Toxocara eggs were found in 5% and 13% of dogs and cats faeces, respectively. But, 14% of the dogs and 22% of the cats were positive for Toxocara eggs on hair. The prevalence of eggs in faecal samples was lower than those detected from hair samples (P < 0.05). Two techniques for recovering Toxocara eggs from faecal samples were tested for efficiency and suitability for routine use. The results were expressed as the percentage rate of recovery of Toxocara eggs in positive faecal samples. The recovery rate was better with the method of sedimentation than with the method of flotation (P < 0.05). This study indicates that dogs and cats without internal infections were shown to have eggs on their hair and so uninfected animals also pose a threat in terms of the eggs present on their hair, albeit a small risk. PMID:25458563

  4. Fukushima radionuclides at air filter and rain water samples collected from Istanbul and their atmospheric removal time.

    PubMed

    Güngör, E; Güngör, N; Yüksel, A; Ba?, G; Orhan, N

    2014-01-01

    Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) is one of the most serious accident in the world after Chernobyl accident. Following the continuing release of radionuclides in air after FDNPP, traces of fission products ((131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs) were recorded in the air filter and rain water samples collected from the ÇNAEM area at ?stanbul on 4 April 2011. Airborne particle samples were collected daily in air filters and radio assayed with a high purity germanium detector. The fission products (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were measured with the maximum activity concentrations of 1.03±0.08, 0.25±0.03 and 0.23±0.03 mBq m(-3), respectively. For determination of the origin of the releases the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio was calculated between 1.09 and 0.85. The authors find removal times for (137)Cs of 8.13 d, (134)Cs of 7.25 d and (131)I of 6.82 d. PMID:23962699

  5. The CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability) Study: Methods of Data Collection and Characteristics of Study Sample

    PubMed Central

    Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Palmer, Keith T.; Felli, Vanda E.; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H.; Felknor, Sarah A.; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Serra, Consol; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R.; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S. P.; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R.; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Marziale, Maria H.; Sarquis, Leila M.; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V.; Quintana, Leonardo A.; Rojas, Marianela; Salazar Vega, Eduardo J.; Harris, E. Clare; Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Martinez, J. Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G.; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M.; Pesatori, Angela C.; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Sirk, Tuuli; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J.; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A. Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kelsall, Helen L.; Hoe, Victor C. W.; Urquhart, Donna M.; Derett, Sarah; McBride, David; Gray, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Background The CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability) study was established to explore the hypothesis that common musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and associated disability are importantly influenced by culturally determined health beliefs and expectations. This paper describes the methods of data collection and various characteristics of the study sample. Methods/Principal Findings A standardised questionnaire covering musculoskeletal symptoms, disability and potential risk factors, was used to collect information from 47 samples of nurses, office workers, and other (mostly manual) workers in 18 countries from six continents. In addition, local investigators provided data on economic aspects of employment for each occupational group. Participation exceeded 80% in 33 of the 47 occupational groups, and after pre-specified exclusions, analysis was based on 12,426 subjects (92 to 1018 per occupational group). As expected, there was high usage of computer keyboards by office workers, while nurses had the highest prevalence of heavy manual lifting in all but one country. There was substantial heterogeneity between occupational groups in economic and psychosocial aspects of work; three- to five-fold variation in awareness of someone outside work with musculoskeletal pain; and more than ten-fold variation in the prevalence of adverse health beliefs about back and arm pain, and in awareness of terms such as “repetitive strain injury” (RSI). Conclusions/Significance The large differences in psychosocial risk factors (including knowledge and beliefs about MSDs) between occupational groups should allow the study hypothesis to be addressed effectively. PMID:22792189

  6. Anomaly detection with varied ground sample distance utilizing spectropolarimetric imagery collected using a liquid crystal tunable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Brent D.; Schlamm, Ariel

    2011-08-01

    Liquid crystal tunable filters (LCTFs) are a technology that can act as both a spectral and linear polarization filter for an imaging device. Paired with the appropriate hardware, a LCTF can be configured to collect hyperspectral Stokes imagery which contains both spectral as well as polarimetric information on a per-pixel level basis. This data is used to investigate the utility of spectro-polarimetric data with standard spectral analysis algorithms, in this case anomaly detection. A method to simulate different ground sample distances (GSDs) is used to illustrate the effect on algorithm performance. In this paper, a spectro-polarimetric imager is presented that can collect spectro-polarimetric image cubes in units of calibrated sensor reaching radiance. The system is used to collect imagery of two scenes, each containing die-cast scale vehicles and different background types. An anomaly detector is applied to the intensity and polarized image cubes to find those pixels that are different from the background spectrally and/or polarimetrically. The effect of changing the apparent GSD on the anomaly detection performance is explored. This shows that applying anomaly detection to spectro-polarimetric data can improve the false alarm rate over standard spectral data for finding certain types of man-made objects in complex backgrounds.

  7. Collection and Determination of Sulfuryl Fluoride in Air by Ion Chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SPIROS A. BOUYOUCOS; RICHARD G. MELCHER; JAMES R. VACCARO

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the collection and determination of sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) in air. Worker breathing-zone or area samples are collected by pumping air through a glass tube containing one gram of activated charcoal. The sulfuryl fluoride is extracted with dilute sodium hydroxide and undergoes partial hydrolysis to fluoride and fluorosulfonate. Complete hydrolysis to fluoride and sulfate is produced

  8. Characterizing the size distribution of particles in urban stormwater by use of fixed-point sample-collection methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selbig, William R.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) and in collaboration with the Root River Municipal Stormwater Permit Group monitored eight urban source areas representing six types of source areas in or near Madison, Wis. in an effort to improve characterization of particle-size distributions in urban stormwater by use of fixed-point sample collection methods. The types of source areas were parking lot, feeder street, collector street, arterial street, rooftop, and mixed use. This information can then be used by environmental managers and engineers when selecting the most appropriate control devices for the removal of solids from urban stormwater. Mixed-use and parking-lot study areas had the lowest median particle sizes (42 and 54 (u or mu)m, respectively), followed by the collector street study area (70 (u or mu)m). Both arterial street and institutional roof study areas had similar median particle sizes of approximately 95 (u or mu)m. Finally, the feeder street study area showed the largest median particle size of nearly 200 (u or mu)m. Median particle sizes measured as part of this study were somewhat comparable to those reported in previous studies from similar source areas. The majority of particle mass in four out of six source areas was silt and clay particles that are less than 32 (u or mu)m in size. Distributions of particles ranging from 500 (u or mu)m were highly variable both within and between source areas. Results of this study suggest substantial variability in data can inhibit the development of a single particle-size distribution that is representative of stormwater runoff generated from a single source area or land use. Continued development of improved sample collection methods, such as the depth-integrated sample arm, may reduce variability in particle-size distributions by mitigating the effect of sediment bias inherent with a fixed-point sampler.

  9. Radium-226 body burden in U miners by measurement of Rn in exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, G K; Raghavayya, M; Kotrappa, P; Somasundaram, S

    1986-02-01

    Uranium miners were made to inhale Rn-free medical O2 and exhale through a 5.2-1 A1 chamber before reporting to work. The chamber was sealed and isolated from the sampling circuit. An electrostatic plate collected the freshly formed Rn-decay products. The subsequent programmed alpha counting of the plate yielded a Rn concentration in the exhaled breath. Assuming that the exhaled breath represents a certain fraction of the Rn produced inside the body, the body burden of 226Ra was calculated. Standardisation of this procedure and the data collected on 310 miners are discussed. The procedure is simple and applicable for routine measurements. The miner needs to be in the laboratory for only 10 min. The system is also portable for field application. For routine use, the minimum detectable concentration is 3.87 Bq X m-3 which corresponds to a body burden of 0.26 kBq in a typical miner, if one assumes the Rn release fraction from the body as 84%. The system offers a more convenient and sensitive alternative to whole-body counting of workers for 226Ra. PMID:3949515

  10. Variation in isotopologues of atmospheric nitric acid in passively collected samples along an air pollution gradient in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Michael D.; Sickman, James O.; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Padgett, Pamela E.; Allen, Edith B.

    2014-09-01

    The sources and oxidation pathways of atmospheric nitric acid (HNO3) can be evaluated using the isotopic signatures of oxygen (O) and nitrogen (N). This study evaluated the ability of Nylasorb nylon filters to passively collect unbiased isotopologues of atmospheric HNO3 under controlled and field conditions. Filters contained in passive samplers were exposed in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) at high (16 ?g/m3) and moderate (8 ?g/m3) HNO3 concentrations during 1-4 week deployment times. Filters were concurrently exposed at high and low N deposition sites along a gradient in the Sonoran Desert. Filters deployed in CSTRs at moderate HNO3 concentrations for 1-2 weeks had greater variation of ?18O relative to the 3-4 week deployments, while high concentration samples were consistent across weeks. All deployment means were within 2‰ of the source solution. The ?15N of all weekly samples were within 0.5‰ of the source solution. Thus, when deployed for longer than 3 weeks, Nylasorb filters collected an isotopically unbiased sample of atmospheric HNO3. The initial HNO3 samples at the high deposition field sites had higher ?15N and ?18O values than the low deposition sites, suggesting either two independent sources of HNO3 were mixing or that heavier isotopologues of HNO3 were preferentially lost from the gas phase through physical deposition or equilibrium chemical reactions. Subsequent HNO3 samples were subject to summer monsoon conditions leading to variation of isotopic signatures of N and O following 2-source mixing dynamics. Both sites mixed with a source that dominated during the two discrete precipitation events. The high number of lightning strikes near the samplers during the monsoon events suggested that lightning-created HNO3 was one of the dominant mixing sources with an approximate isotopic signature of 21.6‰ and -0.6‰ for ?18O and ?15N respectively. Two-source mixing models suggest that lightning-created HNO3 made up between 40 and 42% of atmospheric HNO3 at the high deposition sites and 59-63% at the low deposition during the 4 week exposure.

  11. Exhaled breath condensate: an overview.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michael D; Montpetit, Alison; Hunt, John

    2012-08-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a promising source of biomarkers of lung disease. EBC may be thought of either as a body fluid or as a condensate of exhaled gas. There are 3 principal contributors to EBC: variable-sized particles or droplets that are aerosolized from the airway lining fluid, distilled water that condenses from gas phase out of the nearly water-saturated exhalate, and water-soluble volatiles that are exhaled and absorbed into the condensing breath. The nonvolatile constituents and the water-soluble volatile constituents are of particular interest. Several key issues are discussed in this article. PMID:22877615

  12. Results for the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank, Off Gas Condensate Tank, And Recycle Collection Tank Samples

    SciTech Connect

    TERRI, FELLINGER

    2004-12-21

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF, currently generates approximately 1.4 million gallons of recycle water per year during Sludge-Only operations. DWPF has minimized condensate generation to 1.4 million gallons by not operating the Steam Atomized Scrubbers, SASs, for the melter off gas system. By not operating the SASs, DWPF has reduced the total volume by approximately 800,000 gallons of condensate per year. Currently, the recycle stream is sent to back to the Tank Farm and processed through the 2H Evaporator system. To alleviate the load on the 2H Evaporator system, an acid evaporator design is being considered as an alternate processing and/or concentration method for the DWPF recycle stream. In order to support this alternate processing option, the DWPF has requested that the chemical and radionuclide compositions of the Off Gas Condensate Tank, OGCT, Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank, SMECT, Recycle Collection Tank, RCT, and the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank, DWTT, be determined as a part of the process development work for the acid evaporator design. Samples have been retrieved from the OGCT, RCT, and SMECT and have been sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory, SRNL for this characterization. The DWTT samples have been recently shipped to SRNL. The results for the DWTT samples will be issued at later date.

  13. Vector-borne pathogens in ticks and EDTA-blood samples collected from client-owned dogs, Kiev, Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia; Zapadynska, Svitlana; Kudrin, Anton; Pfister, Kurt

    2013-02-01

    Due to the availability of adequate habitats in urban environments, e.g. city parks and recreational green areas, ticks from such settings may also carry pathogens of veterinary and public health concern. Thus, tick-borne infections may readily be identified in companion animals residing in urbanised areas. To investigate the presence of vector-borne pathogens in Kiev, Ukraine, 52 engorged adult ticks, 33 Dermacentor reticulatus and 19 Ixodes ricinus, were collected from 15 dogs in the spring of 2010, and further 23 canine EDTA-blood samples were obtained in the spring of 2011 from client-owned patients presented in a veterinary clinic in Kiev. DNA of 9 pathogens was detected by PCR in ticks and canine EDTA-blood samples: Babesia canis canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Ri. monacensis, Ri. raoultii, and Dirofilaria repens (by proxy) were identified in engorged ticks and B. c. canis, Hepatozoon canis, Di. immitis, Di. repens, and Mycoplasma haemocanis in canine EDTA-blood samples. This is the first description of Ri. raoultii in the Ukraine. This study adds information on the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens of veterinary and public health importance in Kiev, Ukraine. PMID:23069260

  14. CO2 isotope analyses using large air samples collected on intercontinental flights by the CARIBIC Boeing 767.

    PubMed

    Assonov, S S; Brenninkmeijer, C A M; Koeppel, C; Röckmann, T

    2009-03-01

    Analytical details for 13C and 18O isotope analyses of atmospheric CO2 in large air samples are given. The large air samples of nominally 300 L were collected during the passenger aircraft-based atmospheric chemistry research project CARIBIC and analyzed for a large number of trace gases and isotopic composition. In the laboratory, an ultra-pure and high efficiency extraction system and high-quality isotope ratio mass spectrometry were used. Because direct comparison with other laboratories was practically impossible, the extraction and measurement procedures were tested in considerable detail. Extracted CO2 was measured twice vs. two different working reference CO2 gases of different isotopic composition. The two data sets agree well and their distributions can be used to evaluate analytical errors due to isotope measurement, ion corrections, internal calibration consistency, etc. The calibration itself is based on NBS-19 and also verified using isotope analyses on pure CO2 gases (NIST Reference Materials (RMs) and NARCIS CO2 gases). The major problem encountered could be attributed to CO2-water exchange in the air sampling cylinders. This exchange decreased over the years. To exclude artefacts due to such isotopic exchange, the data were filtered to reject negative delta18O(CO2) values. Examples of the results are given. PMID:19219897

  15. [13C]Methionine Breath Test to Assess Intestinal Failure-Associated Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    DURO, DEBORA; FITZGIBBONS, SHIMAE; VALIM, CLARISSA; YANG, CHI-FU JEFFREY; ZURAKOWSKI, DAVID; DOLAN, MELANIE; BECHARD, LORI; YU, YONG MING; DUGGAN, CHRISTOPHER; JAKSIC, TOM

    2013-01-01

    Oxidation of L[1-13C]methionine ([13C]-Met) in liver mitochondria can be quantified by measuring exhaled 13CO2. We hypothesized that 13CO2 recovery after i.v. administered [13C]-Met would provide a noninvasive measure of liver function in pediatric intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD). After Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, 27 patients underwent L[1-13C]-Met breath tests ([13C]-MBTs), five of whom underwent repeat testing after clinical changes in liver function. Sterile, pyrogen-free [13C]-Met was given i.v. Six breath samples collected during 120 min were analyzed for 13CO2 enrichment using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Pediatric end-stage liver disease (PELD) scores were recorded, and total carbon dioxide (CO2) production was measured by indirect calorimetry. Twenty-seven patients (median age = 5.3 mo) underwent a total of 34 [13C]-MBTs without adverse events. Fourteen patients had documented liver biopsies (five with cirrhosis and nine with cholestasis or fibrosis). The [13C]-MBT differentiated patients with and without cirrhosis (medians 210 and 350, respectively, p = 0.04). Serial [13C]-MBTs in five patients reflected changing PELD scores. i.v. administering the stable isotope [13C]-Met with serial breath sampling provides a useful, safe, and potentially clinically relevant evaluation of hepatic function in pediatric IFALD. The [13C]-MBT may also help quantify progression or improvement of IFALD. PMID:20581744

  16. Managing Asthma: Learning to Breathe Easier

    MedlinePLUS

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Managing Asthma Learn To Breathe Easier Most people have little ... simple activities can be tough for someone with asthma. Although there’s no cure, you can breathe easier ...

  17. Breath tester: Inside Metabolomx's device, breath is pumped over arrays of 120

    E-print Network

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    -Cancer Breathalyzer Researchers are developing a cheap sensor array that distinguishes the breath of patientsBreath tester: Inside Metabolomx's device, breath is pumped over arrays of 120 chemical reactants that change color in response to volatile breath biomarkers. Technology Review TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 14, 2012

  18. 14C triolein breath test: a routine test in the gastroenterology clinic?

    PubMed Central

    Mylvaganam, K; Hudson, P R; Ross, A; Williams, C P

    1986-01-01

    The absorption of 14C triolein in a standard fat meal was measured in 60 controls and 66 patients with gastrointestinal disorders by 14CO2 breath sampling. A reference range based upon cumulative eight hour values of the controls was independent of height, weight, and sex. The range was of log normal distribution and declined with age (p less than 0.05). Acceptable 'within-day' and 'between-day' reproducibility was found. All patients tested with untreated coeliac disease, pancreatic insufficiency and most with symptomatic small intestinal Crohn's disease had subnormal values. Twenty per cent of those with irritable bowel syndrome had subnormal values. Patients with ulcerative colitis were all normal. The reagents used and the breath samples after collection were stable. In our experience the 14C triolein test is simple, inexpensive, and helpful in the detection of diseases associated with fat malabsorption. It is of value in monitoring the response to treatment of individual patients with coeliac disease. PMID:3792916

  19. www.socaar.utoronto.ca we study the air you breathe

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    www.socaar.utoronto.ca we study the air you breathe Seminar Series 2014 - 2015 Southern Ontario and Florida, over two to three weeks in different seasons. Samples were analyzed for ions; EC and OC, Room 130 #12;

  20. Drive mechanism for production of simulated human breath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Lambert, J. W.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Simulated breath drive mechanism was developed as subsystem to breathing metabolic simulator. Mechanism reproduces complete range of human breath rate, breath depth, and breath waveform, as well as independently controlled functional residual capacity. Mechanism was found capable of simulating various individual human breathing characteristics without any changes of parts.