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1

Methodological Issues of Sample Collection and Analysis of Exhaled Breath  

EPA Science Inventory

Recommended standardized procedures have been developed for measurement of exhaled lower respiratory nitric oxide (NO) and nasal NO. It would be desirable to develop similar guidelines for the sampling of exhaled breath related to other compounds. For such systemic volatile o...

2

Human breath analysis: methods for sample collection and reduction of localized background effects.  

PubMed

Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied, in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, to the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human breath samples without requiring exhaled breath condensate collection. A new procedure, exhaled breath vapor (EBV) collection, involving the active sampling and preconcentration of a breath sample with a SPME fiber fitted inside a modified commercial breath-collection device, the RTube, is described. Immediately after sample collection, compounds are desorbed from the SPME fiber at 250 degrees C in the GC-MS injector. Experiments were performed using EBV collected at -80 degrees C and at room temperature, and the results compared to the traditional method of collecting exhaled breath condensate at -80 degrees C followed by passive SPME sampling of the collected condensate. Methods are compared in terms of portability, ease-of-use, speed of analysis, and detection limits. The need for a clean air supply for the study subjects is demonstrated using several localized sources of VOC contaminants including nail polish, lemonade, and gasoline. Various simple methods to supply clean inhaled air to a subject are presented. Chemical exposures are used to demonstrate the importance of providing cleaned air (organic vapor respirator) or an external air source (tubing stretched to a separate room). These techniques allow for facile data interpretation by minimizing background contaminants. It is demonstrated herein that this active SPME breath-sampling device provides advantages in the forms of faster sample collection and data analysis, apparatus portability and avoidance of power or cooling requirements, and performance for sample collection in a contaminated environment. PMID:19844696

Martin, Audrey N; Farquar, George R; Jones, A Daniel; Frank, Matthias

2009-10-22

3

Reducing the dilution of breath samples for breath hydrogen testing.  

PubMed

Breath hydrogen testing has a diagnostic potential as a gastrointestinal function test that could be performed in general practice. The purpose of this study was to improve techniques for collection of breath samples and transfer of samples to transport vessels. Breath samples from 10 dogs were collected using both a snug-fitting and a loose-fitting standard anesthetic mask attached to a reservoir bag, and a modified snug-fitting system. CO(2) was used as internal standard and mean CO(2) concentrations were 1.19+/-0.76, 2.17+/-0.66 and 2.68+/-0.92, respectively. Additional samples were saved in transport tubes for 19 days, during which the hydrogen and carbon dioxide concentrations remained stable. A reliable method for transferring the breath samples from the reservoir bag to vacuum transport tubes was also identified. Our results demonstrate less contamination of breath samples with air than previously reported, and a reproducible method to transfer breath samples to transport vessels. PMID:19095274

Toresson, L; Steiner, J M; Williams, D A

2008-12-17

4

ALVEOLAR BREATH SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS IN HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Alveolar breath sampling and analysis can be extremely useful in exposure assessment studies involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over recent years scientists from the EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory have developed and refined an alveolar breath collection ...

5

An investigation of suitable bag materials for the collection and storage of breath samples containing hydrogen cyanide.  

PubMed

The SPACE study will assess exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide (HCN) concentrations as a marker of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection in 240 children with cystic fibrosis (CF). It will use off-line selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) analysis and so we needed to investigate which breath sampling bag material to use, the maximum storage time before analysis and the benefit of warming the bag samples. We studied 15 children with CF, 8 had chronic PA infection and 7 did not. Each exhaled directly into the instrument (on-line) and also into two 25 µm thick Nalophan (25N), two 70 µm Nalophan (70N) and two Tedlar® bags. Bags were stored at 20 or 37 °C. HCN concentrations were analysed at 1, 6, 24 and 48 h (off-line). Acetone and water vapour concentrations were also measured in parallel. Correlation between on-line and off-line concentrations measured by SIFT-MS was better for all compounds and bag types at 37 °C. The median (IQR) on-line HCN concentration was 8.9(4.4-13.7) parts per billion by volume, ppbv. Both on-line and off-line HCN concentrations were significantly higher in patients with PA infection than those without. At 37 °C the correlation between on-line and off-line HCN concentrations was good up to 6 h in the 25N bag (R(2) = 0.79) and up to 24 h for the 70N and Tedlar bags (R(2) = 0.82 and 0.86). The correlation between on- and off-line acetone concentrations at 37 °C was good up to 24 h in 25N, 70N and Tedlar bags (R(2) = 0.89, 0.93 and 0.97). In all three types of bag the water vapour concentration fell quickly and by 24 h was equivalent to that of lab air. Samples stored in Tedlar or 70N bags, warmed to 37 °C and analysed within 24 h, give HCN and acetone concentrations which correlate well with on-line measurements. PMID:22759377

Gilchrist, Francis J; Razavi, Cyrus; Webb, A Kevin; Jones, Andrew M; Span?l, Patrik; Smith, David; Lenney, Warren

2012-07-04

6

Validating a breath collection and analysis system for the new tuberculosis breath test.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis releases four volatile compounds, methyl phenyl-acetate, methyl nicotinate, methyl p-anisate and o-phenylanisole, some of which we have previously been reported to be detected in the breath of tuberculosis patients (Syhre et al 2009 Tuberculosis 89 263-6). These volatiles have the potential to offer a non-invasive and sensitive breath test for the detection of tuberculosis infection. To determine the best sample collection and pre-concentration system a number of variables were examined. The four markers were most stable when breath was collected in a salinized glass sampling bulb compared to either Tedlar® TA, Supel(TM) Inert Foil or Supel(TM) Inert Gas bags. Concentration of breath onto thermal desorption cartridges indicated that Tenax® TA was the most universal sorbent for the collection of all four volatiles. Increasing the number of breath exhalations captured and analysed actively increased the detectable level of volatiles. The most important discovery was samples of methyl nicotinate, methyl p-anisate and o-phenylanisole remained stable on Tenax® TA cartridges for over two months at various altitudes. PMID:23867751

Scott-Thomas, Amy; Epton, Michael; Chambers, Stephen

2013-07-18

7

Simplified single sample 13Carbon urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori: comparison with histology, culture, and ELISA serology  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no ideal method for detecting Helicobacter pylori. The 'standard' 13Carbon urea breath test (13C-UBT), which involves collecting eight to 15 breath samples and subsequent costly analysis, was modified by pooling 21 samples of expired breath taken at five minute intervals for 40 minutes into a collecting bag, from which a single 20 ml aliquot was taken and analysed

R P Logan; R J Polson; J J Misiewicz; G Rao; N Q Karim; D Newell; P Johnson; J Wadsworth; M M Walker; J H Baron

1991-01-01

8

Exhaled Breath Condensate Collection in the Mechanically Ventilated Patient  

PubMed Central

Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a non-invasive means of sampling the airway-lining fluid of the lungs. EBC contains numerous measurable mediators, whose analysis could change the management of patients with certain pulmonary diseases. While initially popularized in investigations involving spontaneously breathing patients, an increasing number of studies have been performed using EBC in association with mechanical ventilation. Collection of EBC in mechanically ventilated patients follows basic principles of condensation, but is influenced by multiple factors. Effective collection requires selection of a collection device, adequate minute ventilation, low cooling temperatures, and sampling times of greater than ten minutes. Condensate can be contaminated by saliva, which needs to be filtered. Dilution of samples occurs secondary to distilled water in vapors and humidification in the ventilator circuit. Dilution factors may need to be employed when investigating non-volatile biomarkers. Storage and analysis should occur promptly at ?70° C to ?80° C to prevent rapid degradation of samples. The purpose of this review is to examine and describe methodologies and problems of EBC collection in mechanically ventilated patients. A straightforward and safe framework has been established to investigate disease processes in this population, yet technical aspects of EBC collection still exist that prevent clinical practicality of this technology. These include a lack of standardization of procedure and analysis of biomarkers, and of normal reference ranges for mediators in healthy individuals. Once these procedural aspects have been addressed, EBC could serve as a non-invasive alternative to invasive evaluation of lungs in mechanically ventilated patients.

Carter, Stewart R; Davis, Christopher S; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

2012-01-01

9

Collecting Samples for Testing  

MedlinePLUS

... impressively wide variety of samples collected from the human body. Most often, all that is required is ... current science. A review may not require any modifications to the article, so the two dates may ...

10

Biomarker reproducibility in exhaled breath condensate collected with different condensers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal collection and analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) are prerequisites for standardisation and reproducibility of assessments. The present study aimed to assess reproducibility of EBC volume, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 8-isoprostane and cytokine measurements using different condensers, including a newly developed glass condenser. At four points in time, 30 healthy subjects performed sequential EBC collections randomly using the following four

P. P. Rosias; C. M. Robroeks; A. Kester; G. J. den Hartog; W. K. Wodzig; G. T. Rijkerse; L. J. Zimmermann; C. P. van Schayck; Q. Jobsis; E. Dompeling

2008-01-01

11

METHODS FOR SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF BREATH  

EPA Science Inventory

The research program surveyed and evaluated the methods and procedures used to identify and quantitate chemical constituents in human breath. Methods have been evaluated to determine their ease and rapidity, as well as cost, accuracy, and precision. During the evaluation, a secon...

12

Comparison of Two Devices and Two Breathing Patterns for Exhaled Breath Condensate Sampling  

PubMed Central

Introduction Analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a noninvasive method to access the epithelial lining fluid of the lungs. Due to standardization problems the method has not entered clinical practice. The aim of the study was to assess the comparability for two commercially available devices in healthy controls. In addition, we assessed different breathing patterns in healthy controls with protein markers to analyze the source of the EBC. Methods EBC was collected from ten subjects using the RTube and ECoScreen Turbo in a randomized crossover design, twice with every device - once in tidal breathing and once in hyperventilation. EBC conductivity, pH, surfactant protein A, Clara cell secretory protein and total protein were assessed. Bland-Altman plots were constructed to display the influence of different devices or breathing patterns and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. The volatile organic compound profile was measured using the electronic nose Cyranose 320. For the analysis of these data, the linear discriminant analysis, the Mahalanobis distances and the cross-validation values (CVV) were calculated. Results Neither the device nor the breathing pattern significantly altered EBC pH or conductivity. ICCs ranged from 0.61 to 0.92 demonstrating moderate to very good agreement. Protein measurements were greatly influenced by breathing pattern, the device used, and the way in which the results were reported. The electronic nose could distinguish between different breathing patterns and devices, resulting in Mahalanobis distances greater than 2 and CVVs ranging from 64% to 87%. Conclusion EBC pH and (to a lesser extent) EBC conductivity are stable parameters that are not influenced by either the device or the breathing patterns. Protein measurements remain uncertain due to problems of standardization. We conclude that the influence of the breathing maneuver translates into the necessity to keep the volume of ventilated air constant in further studies.

Hattesohl, Akira; Schmid, Severin; Noeske, Sarah; Herr, Christian; John, Gerrit; Jorres, Rudolf A.; Muller, Bernd; Vogelmeier, Claus; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert

2011-01-01

13

Measurement of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath as collected in evacuated electropolished canisters.  

PubMed

A set of three complementary analytical methods were developed specifically for exhaled breath as collected in evacuated stainless steel canisters using gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric detection. The first is a screening method to quantify the carbon dioxide component (generally at 4-5% concentration), the second method measures the very volatile high-level endogenous compounds [e.g. acetone and isoprene at 500-1000 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), methanol, ethanol, dimethylsulfide at 2-10 ppbv], and the third method is designed to measure trace-level environmental contaminants and other endogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (sub-ppbv) in breath. The canister-based sample format allows all three methods to be applied to each individual sample for complete constituent characterization. Application of these methods is shown to be useful in the following ways: analysis of CO2 levels indicates the approximate quantity of alveolar breath collected (as opposed to whole breath) in a sample; levels of major endogenous compounds are shown to be influenced by physical activities and subsequent recovery periods; and environmental exposures to xenobiotic VOCs can be characterized by assessment of post-exposure breath elimination curves. The instrumentation and methodology are described and example chromatograms and quantitative data plots demonstrating the utility of the methods are presented. PMID:7795807

Pleil, J D; Lindstrom, A B

1995-03-24

14

Appropriate sample bags and syringes for preserving breath samples in breath odor research: a technical note  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now generally accepted that the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide are the main contributors to halitosis when of oropharyngeal origin. The VSCs hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan are the major causes of bad breath in oral malodour whereas dimethyl sulfide is generally the major cause of bad breath in extra-oral halitosis. To

E G Winkel; A Tangerman

2008-01-01

15

Modular Sampling and Analysis Techniques for the Real-Time Analysis of Human Breath  

SciTech Connect

At LLNL and UC Davis, we are developing several techniques for the real-time sampling and analysis of trace gases, aerosols and exhaled breath that could be useful for a modular, integrated system for breath analysis. Those techniques include single-particle bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) for the analysis of exhaled aerosol particles or droplets as well as breath samplers integrated with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or MEMS-based differential mobility spectrometry (DMS). We describe these techniques and present recent data obtained from human breath or breath condensate, in particular, addressing the question of how environmental exposure influences the composition of breath.

Frank, M; Farquar, G; Adams, K; Bogan, M; Martin, A; Benner, H; Spadaccini, C; Steele, P; Davis, C; Loyola, B; Morgan, J; Sankaran, S

2007-07-09

16

Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples  

SciTech Connect

In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject`s body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

1992-11-01

17

Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples  

SciTech Connect

In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject's body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

1992-11-01

18

COLLECTION OF A SINGLE ALVEOLAR EXHALED BREATH FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Measurement of specific organic compounds in exhaled breath has been used as an indicator of recent exposure to pollutants or as an indicator of the health of an individual. Typical application involves the collection of multiple breaths onto a sorbent cartridge or into an evacua...

19

Alveolar breath sampling and analysis to assess trihalomethane exposures during competitive swimming training.  

PubMed Central

Alveolar breath sampling was used to assess trihalomethane (THM) exposures encountered by collegiate swimmers during a typical 2-hr training period in an indoor natatorium. The breath samples were collected at regular intervals before, during, and for 3 hr after a moderately intense training workout. Integrated and grab whole-air samples were collected during the training period to help determine inhalation exposures, and pool water samples were collected to help assess dermal exposures. Resulting breath samples collected during the workout demonstrated a rapid uptake of two THMs (chloroform and bromodichloromethane), with chloroform concentrations exceeding the natatorium air levels within 8 min after the exposure began. Chloroform levels continued to rise steeply until they were more than two times the indoor levels, providing evidence that the dermal route of exposure was relatively rapid and ultimately more important than the inhalation route in this training scenario. Chloroform elimination after the exposure period was fitted to a three compartment model that allowed estimation of compartmental half-lives, resulting minimum bloodborne dose, and an approximation of the duration of elevated body burdens. We estimated the dermal exposure route to account for 80% of the blood chloroform concentration and the transdermal diffusion efficiency from the water to the blood to in excess of 2%. Bromodichloromethane elimination was fitted to a two compartment model which provided evidence of a small, but measurable, body burden of this THM resulting from vigorous swim training. These results suggest that trihalomethane exposures for competitive swimmers under prolonged, high-effort training are common and possibly higher than was previously thought and that the dermal exposure route is dominant. The exposures and potential risks associated with this common recreational activity should be more thoroughly investigated. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5.

Lindstrom, A B; Pleil, J D; Berkoff, D C

1997-01-01

20

Collecting saliva samples by mail.  

PubMed

Collecting saliva samples by mail can serve numerous purposes in epidemiologic research. The objectives of this study were to assess what proportion of participants in a mail survey would provide a saliva sample and whether incentives could improve participation. In 1995, 2,994 students, faculty, and staff members of Geneva University, Geneva, Switzerland, were randomized to receive, together with a mailed questionnaire about smoking, a saliva vial, a ballpoint pen, the offer of a lottery, or any combination of these. After one mailing and a reminder letter, response rates were 52% among those who had been requested to provide saliva and 63% among controls (p < 0.001). In the former group, most respondents (98%) provided a saliva sample. Incentives improved participation only among those who were asked to provide saliva (lottery: +11% response, p = 0.003; pen: +6% response, p = 0.1). The final participation, after up to three reminders, was 76% overall. The authors conclude that while the collection of saliva samples by mail is feasible it tends to decrease response rates. PMID:9457003

Etter, J F; Perneger, T V; Ronchi, A

1998-01-15

21

Comparison of breath and in-mouth collection for the measurement of oral malodorous compounds by gas chromatography using sulfur chemiluminescence detection.  

PubMed

Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), specifically hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide, are generally considered to be the primary volatiles responsible for 'morning' malodors in breath. To date, the 'gold standard' for detecting VSC concentrations in breath is the use of gas chromatography coupled with sulfur chemiluminescence detection. Breath gas is often collected in a polypropylene syringe and then aliquots are injected into a gas chromatograph for analysis. The objective of this work was to compare the Twister™ bar in-mouth extraction methodology for measurement of VSCs with the gas syringe breath-sampling collection technique. The Twister bar technology captures malodorous compounds in the mouth as opposed to breath gas. Using these techniques, comparable results were obtained in studies demonstrating the efficacy of a proprietary oral malodor counteraction system. PMID:21386211

Paetznick, Debbie J; Reineccius, G A; Peppard, T L; Herkert, J M; Lenton, P

2010-02-18

22

Alveolar breath sampling and analysis to assess exposures to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) during motor vehicle refueling.  

PubMed

Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is added to gasoline (15% by volume) in many areas of the U.S. to help control carbon monoxide emissions from motor vehicles. In this study we present a sampling and analytical methodology that can be used to assess consumers' exposures to MTBE that may result from routine vehicle refueling operations. The method is based on the collection of alveolar breath samples using evacuated one-liter stainless steel canisters and analysis using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer equipped with a patented "valveless" cryogenic preconcentrator. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, a series of breath samples was collected from two individuals (the person pumping the fuel and a nearby observer) immediately before and for 64 min after a vehicle was refueled with premium grade gasoline. Results demonstrate low levels of MTBE in both subjects' breaths before refueling, and levels that increased by a factor of 35 to 100 after the exposure. Breath elimination models fitted to the post exposure measurements indicate that the half-life of MTBE in the first physiological compartment was between 1.3 and 2.9 min. Analysis of the resulting models suggests that breath elimination of MTBE during the 64 min monitoring period was approximately 115 micrograms for the refueling subject while it was only 30 micrograms for the nearby observer. This analysis also shows that the post exposure breath elimination of other gasoline constituents was consistent with previously published observations. These results demonstrate that this new methodology can be used effectively in studies designed to assess exposures to MTBE. The method can be used to objectively demonstrate recent exposures, the relative magnitude of an exposure, and the approximate duration of the resulting bloodborne dose. Once a blood/breath partition coefficient for MTBE has been firmly established, the bloodborne concentration of the absorbed material can be determined using these techniques as well. PMID:9028175

Lindstrom, A B; Pleil, J D

1996-07-01

23

Safety and feasibility of exhaled breath condensate collection in ventilated infants and children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to develop a technique for the collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from ventilated children and assess its safety and feasibility. Collection of EBC is used to investigate markers of oxidative stress in the lower airway. No studies have assessed its safety in ventilated children. An in vitro model was developed by connecting a

W. G. Muller; F. Morini; S. Eaton; M. Peters; A. Jaffe

2006-01-01

24

Diagnosis of H. pylori Infection by Means of Reduced-dose 13C-urea Breath Test and Early Sampling of Exhaled Breath.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the accuracy of reduced-dose C-urea breath test and early sampling of exhaled breath for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in children and adolescents. METHODS:: Patients up to 20 years old that underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with gastric biopsies were included. The C-urea breath test (C-UBT) was performed after a 4-hour fasting period with 4 points of collection: baseline (T0), and at 10, 20 and 30 minutes (T10, T20 and T30) after ingestion of 25?mg C-urea diluted in 100 mL of apple juice. The infection status was defined through three invasive methods, and a patient was considered infected with a positive culture or concomitant positive histology and rapid urease test (RUT). The absence of infection was defined by all negative histology, RUT and culture. Analysis of exhaled breath samples was performed with an isotope-selective infrared spectrometer. A ROC curve analysis was done to define cutoff delta over baseline (DOB) values. RESULTS:: 129 patients between the ages of 2.1 and 19 years old (median?=?11.6 y; mean age?±?SD?=?11.5 y?±?3.8; F:M?=?85:44) were included. The prevalence of infection was 41.1%. The sensitivity (S) and specificity (Sp) were: at T10 (cutoff DOB?=?2.55‰), S?=?94.7% (95%CI?=?90.9-98.5%) and Sp?=?96.8% (95%CI?=?93.4-100%); at T20 (DOB?=?2.5‰), S?=?96.2% (95%CI?=?92.9-99.5%) and Sp?=?96.1% (95%CI?=?93.7-99.8%); and at T30 (DOB?=?1.6‰), S?=?96.2% (95%CI?=?92.9-99.5%) and Sp?=?94.7% (95%CI?=?90.8-98.6%). CONCLUSION:: Low dose C-urea breath test with early sampling is accurate for diagnosing H. pylori infection in children and adolescents. PMID:23783010

Pacheco, Sylmara Libertis Machado; Ogata, Silvio Kazuo; Machado, Rodrigo Strehl; Patrício, Francy Reis da Silva; Pardo, Mario Luis Escobar; Kawakami, Elisabete

2013-06-18

25

Psychometric Evaluation of the Beck Anxiety Inventory: A Sample With Sleep-Disordered Breathing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to document the psychometric properties of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) within a population with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), given concerns about overlapping symptomatology between anxiety and sleep apnea. Results supported good internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity for the BAI and a single-factor solution for men, women, and the total sample. Women had higher scores than

Stacy D. Sanford; Andrew J. Bush; Kristen C. Stone; Kenneth L. Lichstein; Neal Aguillard

2008-01-01

26

Collection of Samples for Chemical Agent Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter describes procedures for the collection and analysis of samples of various matrices for the purpose of determining the presence of chemical agents in a civilian setting. This appendix is intended to provide the reader with sufficient information to make informed decisions about the sampling and analysis process and to suggest analytical strategies that might be implemented by the

C Koester; C Thompson; T Doerr; R Scripsick

2005-01-01

27

Evaluation of H2O2 and pH in exhaled breath condensate samples: methodical and physiological aspects.  

PubMed

This veterinary study is aimed at further standardization of H(2)O(2) and pH measurements in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Data obtained in the study provide valuable information for many mammalian species including humans, and may help to avoid general pitfalls in interpretation of EBC data. EBC was sampled via the 'ECoScreen' in healthy calves (body weight 63-98 kg). Serum samples and condensates of ambient (indoor) air were collected in parallel. In the study on H(2)O(2), concentrations of H(2)O(2) in EBC, blood and ambient air were determined with the biosensor system 'ECoCheck'. In EBC, the concentration of H(2)O(2) was found to be dependent on food intake and increased significantly in the course of the day. Physiologically, lowest H(2)O(2) concentrations at 06:00 varied within the range 138-624 nmol l(-1) EBC or 0.10-0.94 nmol per 100 l exhaled breath and individual concentrations were significantly different indicating a remarkable intersubject variability. Highly reproducible results were seen within each subject (three different days within 4 weeks). No correlation existed between H(2)O(2) concentrations in EBC and blood, and EBC-H(2)O(2) was not influenced by variables of spontaneous breathing. Further results confirmed that standardization of H(2)O(2) measurements in EBC requires (1) the re-calculation of the concentration exhaled per 100 l exhaled breath (because the analyzed concentration in the liquid condensate underlies multiple methodological sources of variability given by the collection process), and (2) subtracting the concentration of inspired indoor H(2)O(2). In the study on pH use of the ISFET electrode (Sentron, the Netherlands) and a blood gas analyzer ABL 550 (Radiometer, Denmark) led to comparable results for EBC-pH (r=0.89, R(2)=79.3%, psamples varied between 5.3 and 6.5, and were not significantly different between subjects, but were significantly higher in the evening compared with the morning. EBC-pH was not dependent on variables of spontaneous breathing pattern or ambient conditions, and no significant correlation was found between serum and EBC for pH. PMID:18415804

Knobloch, Henri; Becher, Gunther; Decker, Manfred; Reinhold, Petra

2008-05-01

28

Automated collection and processing of environmental samples  

DOEpatents

For monitoring an environmental parameter such as the level of nuclear radiation, at distributed sites, bar coded sample collectors are deployed and their codes are read using a portable data entry unit that also records the time of deployment. The time and collector identity are cross referenced in memory in the portable unit. Similarly, when later recovering the collector for testing, the code is again read and the time of collection is stored as indexed to the sample collector, or to a further bar code, for example as provided on a container for the sample. The identity of the operator can also be encoded and stored. After deploying and/or recovering the sample collectors, the data is transmitted to a base processor. The samples are tested, preferably using a test unit coupled to the base processor, and again the time is recorded. The base processor computes the level of radiation at the site during exposure of the sample collector, using the detected radiation level of the sample, the delay between recovery and testing, the duration of exposure and the half life of the isotopes collected. In one embodiment, an identity code and a site code are optically read by an image grabber coupled to the portable data entry unit.

Troyer, Gary L. (Richland, WA); McNeece, Susan G. (Richland, WA); Brayton, Darryl D. (Richland, WA); Panesar, Amardip K. (Kennewick, WA)

1997-01-01

29

Comparison of breath and in-mouth collection for the measurement of oral malodorous compounds by gas chromatography using sulfur chemiluminescence detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), specifically hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide, are generally considered to be the primary volatiles responsible for 'morning' malodors in breath. To date, the 'gold standard' for detecting VSC concentrations in breath is the use of gas chromatography coupled with sulfur chemiluminescence detection. Breath gas is often collected in a polypropylene syringe and then aliquots

Debbie J. Paetznick; G. A. Reineccius; T. L. Peppard; J. M. Herkert; P. Lenton

2010-01-01

30

Comparison of breath and in-mouth collection for the measurement of oral malodorous compounds by gas chromatography using sulfur chemiluminescence detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), specifically hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide, are generally considered to be the primary volatiles responsible for ‘morning’ malodors in breath. To date, the ‘gold standard’ for detecting VSC concentrations in breath is the use of gas chromatography coupled with sulfur chemiluminescence detection. Breath gas is often collected in a polypropylene syringe and then aliquots

Debbie J Paetznick; G A Reineccius; T L Peppard; J M Herkert; P Lenton

2010-01-01

31

Stability of selected volatile breath constituents in Tedlar, Kynar and Flexfilm sampling bags.  

PubMed

The stability of 41 selected breath constituents in three types of polymer sampling bags, Tedlar, Kynar, and Flexfilm, was investigated using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The tested molecular species belong to different chemical classes (hydrocarbons, ketones, aldehydes, aromatics, sulphurs, esters, terpenes, etc.) and exhibit close-to-breath low ppb levels (3-12 ppb) with the exception of isoprene, acetone and acetonitrile (106 ppb, 760 ppb, 42 ppb respectively). Stability tests comprised the background emission of contaminants, recovery from dry samples, recovery from humid samples (RH 80% at 37 °C), influence of the bag's filling degree, and reusability. Findings yield evidence of the superiority of Tedlar bags over remaining polymers in terms of background emission, species stability (up to 7 days for dry samples), and reusability. Recoveries of species under study suffered from the presence of high amounts of water (losses up to 10%). However, only heavier volatiles, with molecular masses higher than 90, exhibited more pronounced losses (20-40%). The sample size (the degree of bag filling) was found to be one of the most important factors affecting the sample integrity. To sum up, it is recommended to store breath samples in pre-conditioned Tedlar bags up to 6 hours at the maximum possible filling volume. Among the remaining films, Kynar can be considered as an alternative to Tedlar; however, higher losses of compounds should be expected even within the first hours of storage. Due to the high background emission Flexfilm is not suitable for sampling and storage of samples for analyses aiming at volatiles at a low ppb level. PMID:23323261

Mochalski, Pawe?; King, Julian; Unterkofler, Karl; Amann, Anton

2013-03-01

32

Influence of age and sex in exhaled breath samples investigated by means of infrared laser absorption spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Breath gas analysis provides insight into human metabolism of healthy and ill individuals. As an innovative and non-invasive method, it opens up options to improve diagnostics, monitoring and treatment decisions. Mid-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy is utilized to detect CH(4), H(2)O, CO(2), NH(3) and CH(3)OH in exhaled human breath. An off-line approach using breath sampling by means of Tedlar bags is applied. The breath gas samples are measured within the population-based epidemiological Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) performed at the University of Greifswald. The study covers about 5000 adult subjects aged 20-79 years within 3 years. Besides breath gas analysis many other examinations are conducted. It is expected to find associations between distinct concentration levels of species in the exhaled breath and diseases assessed in this study. The study will establish reference values for exhaled breath components and serve as background population for case-control studies. In the long run, morbidity and mortality follow-ups will be conducted, which will answer the question whether end-expiratory breath gas components predict future diseases and death. As first results, we present data from 45 dialysis patients (23 males, 22 females) which were recruited in a preliminary study in preparation for SHIP-TREND. PMID:21460420

Hannemann, M; Antufjew, A; Borgmann, K; Hempel, F; Ittermann, T; Welzel, S; Weltmann, K D; Völzke, H; Röpcke, J

2011-04-01

33

Deconvolving an Estimate of Breath Measured Blood Alcohol Concentration from Biosensor Collected Transdermal Ethanol Data£  

PubMed Central

Biosensor measurement of transdermal alcohol oncentration in perspiration exhibits significant variance from subject to subject and device to device. Short duration data collected in a controlled clinical setting is used to calibrate a forward model for ethanol transport from the blood to the sensor. The calibrated model is then used to invert transdermal signals collected in the field (short or long duration) to obtain an estimate for breath measured blood alcohol concentration. A distributed parameter model for the forward transport of ethanol from the blood through the skin and its processing by the sensor is developed. Model calibration is formulated as a nonlinear least squares fit to data. The fit model is then used as part of a spline based scheme in the form of a regularized, non-negatively constrained linear deconvolution. Fully discrete, steepest descent based schemes for solving the resulting optimization problems are developed. The adjoint method is used to accurately and efficiently compute requisite gradients. Efficacy is demonstrated on subject field data.

Dumett, M; Rosen, G; Sabat, J; Shaman, A; Tempelman, L; Wang, C; Swift, RM

2008-01-01

34

Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Psychomotor Vigilance in a Community-Based Sample  

PubMed Central

Study Objective Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with impaired psychomotor vigilance performance in patients with sleep apnea patients. A bias toward greater referral of sleep apnea patients with severely impaired performance could explain these findings. Furthermore, no studies on the association between SDB and vigilance performance in a large community-based sample have been reported that encompasses the full spectrum of SDB severity. This study investigated the association between SDB and psychomotor vigilance with cross-sectional data from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study. Setting and Participants: Community-based sample of 265 women and 346 men, mean age of 53.0 ± 7.9 (age range: 35–74) years was used. Within 6 months of completing an overnight polysomnography protocol for SDB assessment, participants completed a 10-minute psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) during a daytime protocol. Measurements: Sleep-disordered breathing was indicated by the number of apneas and hypopneas; psychomotor vigilance task variables included (1) mean of 1/reaction time (RT), (2) number of lapses, (3) mean reciprocal of fastest 10% RTs, (4) mean reciprocal of slowest 10% RTs, (5) slope of linear regression line across the 10 minutes of the task fit to 1/RTs, and (5) number of false responses. Results: Multiple regression analysis showed a significant negative association between the logarithmically transformed apnea-hypopnea index (LogAHI) and number of lapses, mean of the slowest 10%, and number of false responses from the psychomotor vigilance task, independent of sex and body mass index in participants aged 65 years and older. Conclusion: SDB in the community population is associated with impaired psychomotor vigilance in older men and women. Citation: Kim H; Dinges D; Young T. Sleep-disordered breathing and psychomotor vigilance in a community-based sample.

Kim, Hyon; Dinges, David F.; Young, Terry

2007-01-01

35

Assessment of the alveolar volume when sampling exhaled gas at different expired volumes in the single breath diffusion test  

PubMed Central

Background Alveolar volume measured according to the American Thoracic Society-European Respiratory Society (ATS-ERS) guidelines during the single breath diffusion test can be underestimated when there is maldistribution of ventilation. Therefore, the alveolar volume calculated by taking into account the ATS-ERS guidelines was compared to the alveolar volume measured from sequentiallly collected samples of the expired volume in two groups of individuals: COPD patients and healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the maldistribution of ventilation on the real estimate of alveolar volume and to evaluate some indicators suggestive of the presence of maldistribution of ventilation. Methods Thirty healthy individuals and fifty patients with moderate-severe COPD were studied. The alveolar volume was measured either according to the ATS-ERS guidelines or considering the whole expired volume subdivided into five quintiles. An index reflecting the non-uniformity of the distribution of ventilation was then derived (DeltaVA/VE). Results Significant differences were found when comparing the two measurements and the alveolar volume by quintiles appeared to have increased progressively towards residual volume in healthy individuals and much more in COPD patients. Therefore, DeltaVA/VE resulted in an abnormal increase in COPD. Conclusion The results of our study suggest that the alveolar volume during the single breath diffusion test should be measured through the collection of a sample of expired volume which could be more representative of the overall gas composition, especially in the presence of uneven distribution of ventilation. Further studies aimed at clarifying the final effects of this way of calculating the alveolar volume on the measure of DLCO are needed. DeltaVA/VE is an index that can help assess the severity of inhomogeneity in COPD patients.

Prediletto, Renato; Fornai, Edo; Catapano, Giosue; Carli, Cristina

2007-01-01

36

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in sixteen cities in the United States as determined by personal breathing zone air sampling.  

PubMed

Approximately one hundred nonsmoking individuals in each of 16 metropolitan areas of the United States collected a sample of air from their breathing zone while in their workplace and a sample while away from work during their 24-hour days. Individuals were selected for the study in an attempt to equally represent those working and living in smoking and nonsmoking environments. Collected samples were analyzed for respirable particulate matter (RSP) (3.5 microns diameter), ultraviolet absorbing particulate matter, fluorescing particulate matter, solanesol, scopoletin, nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine, and myosmine. Individuals living and/or working in environments where smoking occurs were confirmed to be the most highly exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Residential RSP levels ranged from 50 to 113% of those which have been reported by other investigators. For the majority of subjects who either lived or worked in smoking environments, the home was found to be the greater source of ETS exposure. Exposures of subjects whose spouses smoked unrestrictedly within the home were a factor of two to four higher than those of subjects who worked in locations where smoking occurred and was not restricted. Exposures of typical subjects to nicotine in the workplace were 30-60% of those estimated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and 15-20% of those estimated by the OSHA for the most highly exposed workers. PMID:9087866

Jenkins, R A; Palausky, A; Counts, R W; Bayne, C K; Dindal, A B; Guerin, M R

37

Sleep Disordered Breathing in Children in a General Population Sample: Prevalence and Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Assess the prevalence based on clinically meaningful criteria (i.e., blood pressure) and identify risk factors of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in a representative sample of elementary school children. Design: A random sample of the local elementary school children (K-5) were assessed using a two-phased strategy. In phase I a brief questionnaire was completed by a parent of each child in local elementary schools (N = 5,740), with a response rate of 78.5%. In phase II, randomly selected children and their parent spent a night in our sleep laboratory (N = 700) with a response rate of 70.0%. Setting: University sleep laboratory Participants: Children enrolled in local elementary schools. Intervention: None Measurement & Results: Each child was assessed with a full polysomnogram and completed a history/physical examination including an electrocardiogram, otolaryngology examination, and pulmonary evaluation. The prevalence of moderate SDB (apnea-hypopnea index ? 5) was 1.2%. The independent risk factors included nasal abnormalities and minority associated only with mild (1 < AHI < 5) SDB and snoring and waist circumference associated with all levels of SDB. Tonsil size, based on visual inspection, was not an independent risk factor. Conclusion: The prevalence of AHI ? 5 was 1.2% in a representative sample of elementary school children. Risk factors for SDB included waist circumference, nasal abnormalities (e.g., chronic sinusitis/rhinitis), and minority. The strong linear relationship between waist circumference and BMI across all degrees of severity of SDB suggests that, as in adults, metabolic factors may be among the most important risk factors for SDB in children. Citation: Bixler EO; Vgontzas AN; Lin HM; Liao D; Calhoun S; Vela-Bueno A; Fedok F; Vlasic V. Sleep disordered breathing in children in a general population sample: prevalence and risk factors. SLEEP 2009;32(6):731-736.

Bixler, Edward O.; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Lin, Hung-Mo; Liao, Duanping; Calhoun, Susan; Vela-Bueno, Antonio; Fedok, Fred; Vlasic, Vukmir; Graff, Gavin

2009-01-01

38

Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples  

SciTech Connect

A solubility testing method for several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS{reg_sign}) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Profiles developed for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} samples show good agreement with in vitro and in vivo tests performed by other investigators on samples from the same uranium mills.

Metzger, R.L.; Jessop, B.H.; McDowell, B.L. [Radiation Safety Engineering, Inc., Chandler, AZ (United States)

1996-02-01

39

28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION] [Chapter I - DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE] [Part 28 - DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM] [Subpart B - DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing] [Sec. 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.] 28 JUDICIAL ADMINISTRATION 1...

2009-07-01

40

28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing §...

2013-07-01

41

28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing §...

2010-07-01

42

7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section 29.426 Agriculture...AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations...426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not...

2013-01-01

43

28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2007-07-01 2007-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing §...

2007-07-01

44

28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2008-07-01 2008-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing §...

2008-07-01

45

28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2006-07-01 2006-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing §...

2006-07-01

46

28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2001-07-01 2001-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing §...

2001-07-01

47

28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2005-07-01 2005-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing §...

2005-07-01

48

28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2004-07-01 2004-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing §...

2004-07-01

49

28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION] [Chapter I - DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE] [Part 28 - DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM] [Subpart B - DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing] [Sec. 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.] 28 JUDICIAL ADMINISTRATION 1...

2002-07-01

50

28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2003-07-01 2003-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing §...

2003-07-01

51

NEW METHODOLOGY FOR IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL HUMAN BIOMARKERS BY COLLECTION AND CONCENTRATION OF EXHALED BREATH CONDENSATE  

EPA Science Inventory

In many studies of human exposure, the measurement of pollutant chemicals in the environment (air, water, food, soil, etc.) is being supplemented by their additional measurement in biological media such as human breath, blood, and urine. This allows an unambiguous confirmation...

52

Total airborne mold particle sampling: evaluation of sample collection, preparation and counting procedures, and collection devices.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate (i) procedures used to collect, prepare, and count total airborne mold spore/particle concentrations, and (ii) the relative field performance of three commercially available total airborne mold spore/particle sampling devices. Differences between factory and laboratory airflow calibration values of axial fan-driven sampling instruments (used in the study) indicated a need for laboratory calibration using a mass flow meter to ensure that sample results were accurately calculated. An aniline blue-amended Calberla's solution adjusted to a pH of 4.2-4.4 provided good sample mounting/counting results using Dow Corning high vacuum grease, Dow Corning 280A adhesive, and Dow Corning 316 silicone release spray for samples collected using mini-Burkard and Allergenco samplers. Count variability among analysts was most pronounced in 5% counts of relatively low mold particle deposition density samples and trended downward with increased count percentage and particle deposition density. No significant differences were observed among means of 5, 10, and 20% counts and among analysts; a significant interaction effect was observed between analysts' counts and particle deposition densities. Significantly higher mini-Burkard and Air-O-Cell total mold spore/particle counts for 600x vs. 400x (1.9 and 2.3 x higher, respectively), 1000x vs. 600x (1.9 and 2.2 x higher, respectively) and 1000x vs. 400x (3.6 and 4.6 x higher, respectively) comparisons indicated that 1000x magnification counts best quantified total airborne mold spore/particles using light microscopy, and that lower magnification counts may result in unacceptable underreporting of airborne mold spore/particle concentrations. Modest but significantly higher (1.2x) total mold spore concentrations were observed with Allergenco vs. mini-Burkard samples collected in co-located, concurrently operated sampler studies; moderate but significantly higher mini-Burkard count values (1.4x) were observed in similar studies with Air-O-Cell samplers. These count differences were relatively small compared with the large differences observed among three count magnifications. PMID:18085480

Godish, Diana; Godish, Thad

2008-02-01

53

Evidence for Cancer Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Review: Cancer cell growth releases molecular biomarkers into blood that can be useful in diagnostic tests, e.g., serum biomarkers. The use of serum biomarkers involves an invasive sample collection procedure. Human exhaled breath is potentially a noninvasive source of cancer biomarker compounds. A few breath analysis studies have reported sensitivities > 90% and specificities > 80% using a suite

Jan E. Szulejko; Michael McCulloch; Jennifer Jackson; Dwight L. McKee; Jim C. Walker; Touradj Solouki

2010-01-01

54

Designing an enhanced groundwater sample collection system  

SciTech Connect

As part of an ongoing technical support mission to achieve excellence and efficiency in environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory for Energy and Health-Related Research (LEHR), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided guidance on the design and construction of monitoring wells and identified the most suitable type of groundwater sampling pump and accessories for monitoring wells. The goal was to utilize a monitoring well design that would allow for hydrologic testing and reduce turbidity to minimize the impact of sampling. The sampling results of the newly designed monitoring wells were clearly superior to those of the previously installed monitoring wells. The new wells exhibited reduced turbidity, in addition to improved access for instrumentation and hydrologic testing. The variable frequency submersible pump was selected as the best choice for obtaining groundwater samples. The literature references are listed at the end of this report. Despite some initial difficulties, the actual performance of the variable frequency, submersible pump and its accessories was effective in reducing sampling time and labor costs, and its ease of use was preferred over the previously used bladder pumps. The surface seals system, called the Dedicator, proved to be useful accessory to prevent surface contamination while providing easy access for water-level measurements and for connecting the pump. Cost savings resulted from the use of the pre-production pumps (beta units) donated by the manufacturer for the demonstration. However, larger savings resulted from shortened field time due to the ease in using the submersible pumps and the surface seal access system. Proper deployment of the monitoring wells also resulted in cost savings and ensured representative samples.

Schalla, R.

1994-10-01

55

Blood Pressure Associated With Sleep-Disordered Breathing in a Population Sample of Children  

PubMed Central

The current criteria for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children are not based on a clinically relevant outcome. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of blood pressure with SDB in a random sample of the local elementary school children (kindergarten through grade 5) using a 2-phased strategy. During phase 1, a brief questionnaire was completed for all of the children (N=5740) with a response rate of 78.5%. During phase 2, 700 randomly selected children from phase 1 with a response rate of 70.0% were assessed with a full polysomnograph and a history/physical, including an ECG; ear, nose, and throat; and pulmonary evaluation. We observed a significantly elevated systolic blood pressure associated with the apnea hypopnea index (AHI): AHI ?1 (2.9 mm Hg); AHI ?3 (7.1 mm Hg); and AHI ?5 (12.9 mm Hg). The SDB and blood pressure association remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index percentile or waist circumference, sleep efficiency, percentage of rapid eye movement sleep, and snoring. In addition, older age, body mass index percentile, waist circumference, and snoring were significantly associated with blood pressure, independent of SDB. Based on these findings, our study suggests that SDB is significantly associated with higher levels of systolic blood pressure in children aged 5 to 12 years even after adjusting for the various confounding factors. Clinically, the data support the threshold of AHI ?5 for the initiation of treatment for SDB. Additional research is indicated to assess the efficacy of SDB treatment on reducing blood pressure.

Bixler, Edward O.; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Lin, Hung-Mo; Liao, Duanping; Calhoun, Susan; Fedok, Fred; Vlasic, Vukmir; Graff, Gavin

2013-01-01

56

SOIL SAMPLE COLLECTION AND HANDLING FOR VOLATILE ORGANICS ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The guidance document will detail the Region I EPA New England requirements for the collection of soil samples for volatile organics analysis by SW-846, Method 5035. The guidance will describe the project planning process for the collection of soil samples for volatile organics ...

57

40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. 761.286...Accordance With ç 761.61(a)(6) § 761.286 Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. At each...

2010-07-01

58

40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment 30 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. 761.286...Accordance With ç 761.61(a)(6) § 761.286 Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. At each...

2009-07-01

59

CHARACTERIZATION OF CORE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

During the month of September 2008, grout core samples were collected from the Saltstone Disposal Facility, Vault 4, cell E. This grout was placed during processing campaigns in December 2007 from Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment Batch 2 salt solution. The 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria sample collected on 11/16/07 represents the salt solution in the core samples. Core samples were retrieved to initiate the historical database of properties of emplaced Saltstone and to demonstrate the correlation between field collected and laboratory prepared samples. Three samples were collected from three different locations. Samples were collected using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit. In April 2009, the core samples were removed from the evacuated sample container, inspected, transferred to PVC containers, and backfilled with nitrogen. Samples furthest from the wall were the most intact cylindrically shaped cored samples. The shade of the core samples darkened as the depth of coring increased. Based on the visual inspection, sample 3-3 was selected for all subsequent analysis. The density and porosity of the Vault 4 core sample, 1.90 g/cm{sup 3} and 59.90% respectively, were comparable to values achieved for laboratory prepared samples. X-ray diffraction analysis identified phases consistent with the expectations for hydrated Saltstone. Microscopic analysis revealed morphology features characteristic of cementitious materials with fly ash and calcium silicate hydrate gel. When taken together, the results of the density, porosity, x-ray diffraction analysis and microscopic analysis support the conclusion that the Vault 4, Cell E core sample is representative of the expected waste form.

Cozzi, A.; Duncan, A.

2010-01-28

60

Matrix isolation apparatus with extended sample collection capability  

DOEpatents

A gas-sample collection device provides for the matrix isolation of increased amounts of a sample material for spectrographic analysis from a gas chromatographic separation. The device includes an evacuated sample collection chamber containing a disc-like specular carousel having a generally circular lateral surface upon which the sample is deposited in an inert gas matrix for infrared (IR) spectral analysis. The evacuated sample chamber is mounted in a fixed manner and is coupled to and supports a rotating cryostatic coupler which, in turn, supports the specular carousel within the collection chamber. A rotational drive system connected to the cryostatic coupler provides for its rotational displacement as well as that of the sample collecting carousel. In addition, rotation of the cryostatic coupler effects vertical displacement of the carousel to permit the collection of an extended sample band in a helical configuration on the entire lateral surface of the carousel. The various components of the carousel's angular/linear displacement drive system are located exterior to the cryostatic coupler for easy access and improved operation. The cryostatic coupler includes a 360.degree. rotary union assembly for permitting the delivery of a high pressure working fluid to the cryostatic coupler in a continuous flow manner for maintaining the specular carousel at a low temperature, e.g., 10.degree.-20.degree. K., for improved uninterrupted gas sample collection and analysis.

Reedy, Gerald T. (Bourbonnais, IL)

1987-01-01

61

SAMPLE COLLECTION AND HANDLING FOR MICROBIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF BIOSOLIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this presentation is to discuss sample collection and handling methods currently in use for detection and enumeration of microorganisms in biosolids and municipal wastewater sludges. Untreated sludges and biosolids are rarely homogeneous and present a challenge ...

62

COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...

63

Characterization of Core Sample Collected from the Saltstone Disposal Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the month of September 2008, grout core samples were collected from the Saltstone Disposal Facility, Vault 4, cell E. This grout was placed during processing campaigns in December 2007 from Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment Batch 2 salt s...

A. D. Cozzi A. J. Duncan

2009-01-01

64

Sample Collection for Investigation of Mars (SCIM): Mars Sample Return Within This Decade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sample Collection for Investigation of Mars (SCIM) mission is designed to (1) make a ~40 km altitude pass through the Martian atmosphere, (2) collect dust and atmospheric gas, and (3) return the samples to Earth for analysis. This Mars Scout mission concept is compelling because it will return a Martian sample to Earth within this decade without assuming the

L. A. Leshin

2002-01-01

65

Breath sounds  

MedlinePLUS

... care provider if you have wheezing or other abnormal breathing sounds. See also: Breathing difficulty Your health care ... did it last? How would you describe your breathing? What makes it ... discovers abnormal breath sounds. You may not even notice them. ...

66

A collection device for capturing a spray sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collection device was constructed to isolate and capture a sample of a dense liquid spray consisting of particles with initial velocities of up to approximately 300 m s-1. The device includes a shutter, and sample size is controlled by the shutter speed and the width of an aperture in the shutter. As the shutter makes its single pass beneath

W. S. Janna; J. E. A. John

1978-01-01

67

Fractionated breath condensate sampling: H2O2 concentrations of the alveolar fraction may be related to asthma control in children  

PubMed Central

Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways but recent studies have shown that alveoli are also subject to pathophysiological changes. This study was undertaken to compare hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations in different parts of the lung using a new technique of fractioned breath condensate sampling. Methods In 52 children (9-17 years, 32 asthmatic patients, 20 controls) measurements of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), lung function, H2O2 in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and the asthma control test (ACT) were performed. Exhaled breath condensate was collected in two different fractions, representing mainly either the airways or the alveoli. H2O2 was analysed in the airway and alveolar fractions and compared to clinical parameters. Results The exhaled H2O2 concentration was significantly higher in the airway fraction than in the alveolar fraction comparing each single pair (p = 0.003, 0.032 and 0.040 for the whole study group, the asthmatic group and the control group, respectively). Asthma control, measured by the asthma control test (ACT), correlated significantly with the H2O2 concentrations in the alveolar fraction (r = 0.606, p = 0.004) but not with those in the airway fraction in the group of children above 12 years. FENO values and lung function parameters did not correlate to the H2O2 concentrations of each fraction. Conclusion The new technique of fractionated H2O2 measurement may differentiate H2O2 concentrations in different parts of the lung in asthmatic and control children. H2O2 concentrations of the alveolar fraction may be related to the asthma control test in children.

2012-01-01

68

Methods for collection and analysis of water samples  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to collect, preserve, and analyze water samples. Throughout, the emphasis is on obtaining analytical results that accurately describe the chemical composition of the water in situ. Among the topics discussed are selection of sampling sites, frequency of sampling, field equipment, preservatives and fixatives, analytical techniques of water analysis, and instruments. Seventy-seven laboratory and field procedures are given for determining fifty-three water properties.

Rainwater, Frank Hays; Thatcher, Leland Lincoln.

1960-01-01

69

The 2011 International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meeting in Parma, Italy: a collection of comments from attendees  

Microsoft Academic Search

ForewordThe 2011 Conference 'Breath Analysis Summit' was hosted by Antonio Mutti and Massimo Corradi, professors from the University of Parma, Italy. It was held at the Centro Congressi di Parma (Conference Center) in Parma. This was our highest attended breath conference to date, and by all measures, extremely successful. For this editorial the authors solicited comments from the attendees and

Joachim D Pleil; Anton Amann

2011-01-01

70

Current Status of Methods and Techniques for Breath Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the great potentials in clinical diagnosis, disease state monitoring, and environmental exposure assessment, the breath test is becoming one of the most desirable noninvasive procedures for clinical diagnostics. This article reviews the technical aspects of breath analysis including sample collection, analyte preconcentration, vapor desorption, and various measurement techniques, as well as some recent developments in the field. Because

Wenqing Cao; Yixiang Duan

2007-01-01

71

Aerosol Sampling System for Collection of Capstone Depleted Uranium Particles in a High-Energy Environment  

SciTech Connect

The Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Study was undertaken to obtain aerosol samples resulting from a kinetic-energy cartridge with a large-caliber depleted uranium (DU) penetrator striking an Abrams or Bradley test vehicle. The sampling strategy was designed to (1) optimize the performance of the samplers and maintain their integrity in the extreme environment created during perforation of an armored vehicle by a DU penetrator, (2) collect aerosols as a function of time post-impact, and (3) obtain size-classified samples for analysis of chemical composition, particle morphology, and solubility in lung fluid. This paper describes the experimental setup and sampling methodologies used to achieve these objectives. Custom-designed arrays of sampling heads were secured to the inside of the target in locations approximating the breathing zones of the vehicle commander, loader, gunner, and driver. Each array was designed to support nine filter cassettes and nine cascade impactors mounted with quick-disconnect fittings. Shielding and sampler placement strategies were used to minimize sampler loss caused by the penetrator impact and the resulting fragments of eroded penetrator and perforated armor. A cyclone train was used to collect larger quantities of DU aerosol for chemical composition and solubility. A moving filter sample was used to obtain semicontinuous samples for depleted uranium concentration determination. Control for the air samplers was provided by five remotely located valve control and pressure monitoring units located inside and around the test vehicle. These units were connected to a computer interface chassis and controlled using a customized LabVIEW engineering computer control program. The aerosol sampling arrays and control systems for the Capstone study provided the needed aerosol samples for physicochemical analysis, and the resultant data were used for risk assessment of exposure to DU aerosol.

Holmes, Thomas D.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Hoover, Mark D.

2009-03-01

72

Chemical analysis of rain samples collected over the Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

During seven research cruises in the Pacific Ocean from 1984 to 1989 we collected rain samples for chemical analyses. The geographical and temporal variations of rain chemistry were studied in relation to natural and anthropogenic sources and transport of the constituents. The pH values of rain samples ranged from 3.9 to 7.2, with a mean of 5.6 (n=104, sigma=0.5). The

C. Nagamoto; F. Parungo; B. Kopcewicz; M. Y. Zhou

1990-01-01

73

Apparatus and process for collection of gas and vapor samples  

DOEpatents

A gas sampling apparatus and process is provided in which a standard crimping tool is modified by an attached collar. The collar permits operation of the crimping tool while also facilitating the introduction of a supply of gas to be introduced into a storage vial. The introduced gas supply is used to purge ambient air from a collection chamber and an interior of the sample vial. Upon completion of the purging operation, the vial is sealed using the crimping tool.

Jackson, Dennis G. (Augusta, GA); Peterson, Kurt D. (Aiken, SC); Riha, Brian D. (Augusta, GA)

2008-04-01

74

Isotopic analysis of eggs: evaluating sample collection and preparation.  

PubMed

Egg traceability/authenticity is a worldwide concern. Stable isotope techniques have been suggested as a tool to address this issue. To further validate the use of these techniques, a research project was undertaken to evaluate what effect sample collection and preparation have on the measured isotopic composition of egg components. The timing of egg collection, the timing of egg preparation after collection, and the use of pasteurisation were investigated. The C, N, O, and S isotopic compositions of egg components from 7 different production systems were measured. Two sets of eggs were collected (4 months apart). It was found that the 'isotopic fingerprint' of a particular production system was maintained over time, and that it may be possible to trace liquid egg products based on isotopic data from fresh eggs. The findings from this study support the integration of stable isotope techniques in egg traceability/authenticity systems. PMID:23194561

Rock, Luc; Rowe, Sylwia; Czerwiec, Agnieszka; Richmond, Harold

2012-03-16

75

Molecular epidemiology biomarkers--sample collection and processing considerations.  

PubMed

Biomarker studies require processing and storage of numerous biological samples with the goals of obtaining a large amount of information and minimizing future research costs. An efficient study design includes provisions for processing of the original samples, such as cryopreservation, DNA isolation, and preparation of specimens for exposure assessment. Use of standard, two-dimensional and nanobarcodes and customized electronic databases assure efficient management of large sample collections and tracking results of data analyses. Standard operating procedures and quality control plans help to protect sample quality and to assure validity of the biomarker data. Specific state, federal and international regulations are in place regarding research with human samples, governing areas including custody, safety of handling, and transport of human samples. Appropriate informed consent must be obtained from the study subjects prior to sample collection and confidentiality of results maintained. Finally, examples of three biorepositories of different scale (European Cancer Study, National Cancer Institute and School of Public Health Biorepository, University of California, Berkeley) are used to illustrate challenges faced by investigators and the ways to overcome them. New software and biorepository technologies are being developed by many companies that will help to bring biological banking to a new level required by molecular epidemiology of the 21st century. PMID:15967217

Holland, Nina T; Pfleger, Laura; Berger, Eileen; Ho, Alan; Bastaki, Maria

2005-08-01

76

Experimental Design for the INL Sample Collection Operational Test  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the test events and numbers of samples comprising the experimental design that was developed for the contamination, decontamination, and sampling of a building at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This study is referred to as the INL Sample Collection Operational Test. Specific objectives were developed to guide the construction of the experimental design. The main objective is to assess the relative abilities of judgmental and probabilistic sampling strategies to detect contamination in individual rooms or on a whole floor of the INL building. A second objective is to assess the use of probabilistic and Bayesian (judgmental + probabilistic) sampling strategies to make clearance statements of the form “X% confidence that at least Y% of a room (or floor of the building) is not contaminated. The experimental design described in this report includes five test events. The test events (i) vary the floor of the building on which the contaminant will be released, (ii) provide for varying or adjusting the concentration of contaminant released to obtain the ideal concentration gradient across a floor of the building, and (iii) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. The ideal contaminant gradient would have high concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations decreasing to zero in rooms at the opposite end of the building floor. For each of the five test events, the specified floor of the INL building will be contaminated with BG, a stand-in for Bacillus anthracis. The BG contaminant will be disseminated from a point-release device located in the room specified in the experimental design for each test event. Then judgmental and probabilistic samples will be collected according to the pre-specified sampling plan. Judgmental samples will be selected based on professional judgment and prior information. Probabilistic samples will be selected in sufficient numbers to provide desired confidence for detecting contamination or clearing uncontaminated (or decontaminated) areas. Following sample collection for a given test event, the INL building will be decontaminated using Cl2O gas. For possibly contaminated areas (individual rooms or the whole floor of a building), the numbers of probabilistic samples were chosen to provide 95% confidence of detecting contaminated areas of specified sizes. The numbers of judgmental samples were chosen based on guidance from experts in judgmental sampling. For rooms that may be uncontaminated following a contamination event, or for whole floors after decontamination, the numbers of judgmental and probabilistic samples were chosen using a Bayesian approach that provides for combining judgmental and probabilistic samples to make a clearance statement of the form “95% confidence that at least 99% of the room (or floor) is not contaminated”. The experimental design also provides for making 95%/Y% clearance statements using only probabilistic samples, where Y < 99. For each test event, the numbers of samples were selected for a minimal plan (containing fewer samples) and a preferred plan (containing more samples). The preferred plan is recommended over the minimal plan. The preferred plan specifies a total of 1452 samples, 912 after contamination and 540 after decontamination. The minimal plan specifies a total of 1119 samples, 744 after contamination and 375 after decontamination. If the advantages of the “after decontamination” portion of the preferred plan are judged to be small compared to the “after decontamination” portion of the minimal plan, it is an option to combine the “after contamination” portion of the preferred plan (912 samples) with the “after decontamination” portion of the minimal plan (375 samples). This hybrid plan would involve a total of 1287 samples.

Amidan, Brett G.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Matzke, Brett D.; Filliben, James J.; Jones, Barbara

2007-12-13

77

Breath-based biomarkers for tuberculosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the potential of breath analysis by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to discriminate between samples collected prospectively from patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB). Samples were obtained in a TB endemic setting in South Africa where 28% of the culture proven TB patients had a Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) negative sputum smear. A training set of breath samples from 50 sputum culture proven TB patients and 50 culture negative non-TB patients was analyzed by GC-MS. A classification model with 7 compounds resulted in a training set with a sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 86% and accuracy of 79% compared with culture. The classification model was validated with an independent set of breath samples from 21 TB and 50 non-TB patients. A sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 84% and accuracy of 77% was found. We conclude that the 7 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that discriminate breath samples from TB and non-TB patients in our study population are probably host-response related VOCs and are not derived from the VOCs secreted by M. tuberculosis. It is concluded that at present GC-MS breath analysis is able to differentiate between TB and non-TB breath samples even among patients with a negative ZN sputum smear but a positive culture for M. tuberculosis. Further research is required to improve the sensitivity and specificity before this method can be used in routine laboratories.

Kolk, Arend H. J.; van Berkel, Joep J. B. N.; Claassens, Mareli M.; Walters, Elisabeth; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Dallinga, Jan W.; van Schooten, Fredrik-Jan

2012-05-01

78

Device for collecting and analyzing matrix-isolated samples  

DOEpatents

A gas-sample collection device is disclosed for matrix isolation of individual gas bands from a gas chromatographic separation and for presenting these distinct samples for spectrometric examination. The device includes a vacuum chamber containing a rotatably supported, specular carrousel having a number of external, reflecting surfaces around its axis of rotation for holding samples. A gas inlet is provided for depositing sample and matrix material on the individual reflecting surfaces maintained at a sufficiently low temperature to cause solidification. Two optical windows or lenses are installed in the vacuum chamber walls for transmitting a beam of electromagnetic radiation, for instance infrared light, through a selected sample. Positioned within the chamber are two concave mirrors, the first aligned to receive the light beam from one of the lenses and focus it to the sample on one of the reflecting surfaces of the carrousel. The second mirror is aligned to receive reflected light from that carrousel surface and to focus it outwardly through the second lens. The light beam transmitted from the sample is received by a spectrometer for determining absorption spectra.

Reedy, Gerald T. (Lemont, IL)

1979-01-01

79

Method for stimulating saliva production during oral sample collection procedure  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method and device are provided for stimulating and increasing the production of saliva during immunoassay tests for drugs or other analytes wherein a scent or odor capable of stimulating saliva production is incorporated into a device for obtaining an oral sample from a test subject. The scent or odor may be impregnated into the oral sample collection device or may be part of an attachment to such a device, and the scent or odor is disposed in such a manner so as to maximize the exposure of the scent to the test subject and thus stimulate the production of saliva. The method and device of the invention are advantageous because the increased production of saliva will facilitate the testing of an oral sample for drugs or other analytes and will increase the likelihood of obtaining a complete and accurate result.

2012-10-16

80

Human papillomavirus DNA in urine samples compared with that in simultaneously collected urethra and cervix samples.  

PubMed Central

A polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the occurrence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in urine samples compared with that in urethra and cervix samples simultaneously collected with brushes. Of 138 presumably healthy military conscripts, 12 (8%) had HPV DNA-positive urethra samples and 8 (5%) had HPV DNA-positive urine samples. Both the urine and urethra cell samples of five men were positive, with identical types found in the paired specimens. Seven had HPV DNA-positive urethra samples only, and three had HPV DNA-positive urine samples only. Five of 7 urethra samples from males and 11 of 12 urethra samples from females, who were among patients consulting a clinic for adolescents, were positive for HPV DNA. Among those patients whose urethras were positive for HPV DNA, the corresponding urine samples of 3 of the 5 men and all the 11 women were also positive, with one or two HPV types being in common within the paired samples. Among female patients referred to a colposcopy clinic, 49% (241 of 489) of the cervical cell samples and 38% (187 of 489) of the urine specimens were found to be HPV DNA positive. Of the patients whose cervixes were positive for HPV DNA, 65% (158 of 241) of the simultaneously collected urine samples were also positive for HPV DNA. On the other hand, 84% (158 of 187) of the patients with HPV DNA in their urine also had HPV DNA in their cervical samples. Although not all individuals with genital HPV infections could be identified as HPV positive by analysis of urine samples, at least in epidemiological surveys in which invasive samples are difficult to obtain, such as from children, analysis of urine could be an alternative means of identifying HPV DNA.

Forslund, O; Hansson, B G; Rymark, P; Bjerre, B

1993-01-01

81

Collection Efficiency Measurements and Development of a Sample Analysis Station for the OMEGA Gas Sampling System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OMEGA Gas Sampling System (OGSS) is a radiochemical diagnostic that can be used to study implosion parameters including shell areal density, mix, and neutron yield in inertial confinement fusion capsules. The OGSS is a prototype for a gas sampling diagnostic which may be installed at the National Ignition Facility. By doping the target capsule with appropriate detector nuclei, nuclear reactions between fusion products and the detector nuclei can produce noble gas isotopes. Following a capsule implosion, these gases are pumped out of the OMEGA chamber and are collected on a cryopump head. Upon regeneration of the cryopump, the OGSS turbopump pumps the gases into up to four 0.5 liter sample collection bottles. The composition of the sample collection bottles is analyzed using either mass spectroscopy or gamma ray spectroscopy. The results of preliminary measurements of the target chamber background and gas sample collection efficiency will be presented. The development of an auxiliary sample bottle analysis station using a residual gas analyzer will also be described. This work was funded in part by the US Department of Energy, the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Freeman, Charles; Stoyer, Mark; Sangster, T. Craig

2005-10-01

82

Problems with counting air-filter samples and radioiodine-collection cartridges together as composite samples  

SciTech Connect

Several readers working in nuclear reactor or related environmental laboratories have recently asked, if it was possible to save counting time on their gamma-ray detector systems by counting an airborne particulate (filter) sample and a gaseous iodine collection cartridge (charcoal or silver zeolite) together as a composite sample. Whereas this technique can be easily applied as a screening technique for qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis is more difficult. This article examines the possible advantages and limitation of gamma-ray counting these two different types of samples as a composite sample. Calibration procedures are also discussed.

McFarland, R.C. [Analytics, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

1996-09-01

83

Effects of sample collection device and filter pore size on concentrations of metals in groundwater samples  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site has conducted a study to statistically quantify differences in metals concentrations as a function of sampling device and filter treatment. Twelve wells screened in unconsolidated coastal plain sediments were sampled for the study. All wells had histories of detectable toxic metals concentrations. Unfiltered and filtered (using 10 and 0.45 micron filters) samples were collected from all wells to evaluate the effects of filtering. To compare the effects of sampling device, the wells were sampled twice, once with a bladder pump and once with a centrifugal pump. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) method was used to assess the effects of sampling device and filtration on metals concentrations considering the variation in pH, conductivity, and turbidity among samples. This study demonstrates that when controlled sampling techniques are employed, differences in toxic metals concentrations between filtered and unfiltered samples are not statistically significant. However, variations in sampling devices yield samples with statistically different metals concentrations. The centrifugal pumps, which cause more agitation of the sample and the screened zone than bladder pumps, yield samples with statistically higher metals concentrations.

Clark, S.B.; Park, N.M.; Tuckfield, R.C.

1990-12-31

84

Effects of sample collection device and filter pore size on concentrations of metals in groundwater samples  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site has conducted a study to statistically quantify differences in metals concentrations as a function of sampling device and filter treatment. Twelve wells screened in unconsolidated coastal plain sediments were sampled for the study. All wells had histories of detectable toxic metals concentrations. Unfiltered and filtered (using 10 and 0.45 micron filters) samples were collected from all wells to evaluate the effects of filtering. To compare the effects of sampling device, the wells were sampled twice, once with a bladder pump and once with a centrifugal pump. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) method was used to assess the effects of sampling device and filtration on metals concentrations considering the variation in pH, conductivity, and turbidity among samples. This study demonstrates that when controlled sampling techniques are employed, differences in toxic metals concentrations between filtered and unfiltered samples are not statistically significant. However, variations in sampling devices yield samples with statistically different metals concentrations. The centrifugal pumps, which cause more agitation of the sample and the screened zone than bladder pumps, yield samples with statistically higher metals concentrations.

Clark, S.B.; Park, N.M.; Tuckfield, R.C.

1990-01-01

85

9 CFR 147.12 - Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...either instance, the Plan participant collecting the samples shall wear a fresh...Salmonella. The Plan participant may collect the samples in accordance with...Floor litter: The Plan participants should collect two samples as follows:...

2009-01-01

86

9 CFR 147.12 - Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...either instance, the Plan participant collecting the samples shall wear a fresh...Salmonella. The Plan participant may collect the samples in accordance with...Floor litter: The Plan participants should collect two samples as follows:...

2010-01-01

87

Chemical analysis of rain samples collected over the Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During seven research cruises in the Pacific Ocean from 1984 to 1989 we collected rain samples for chemical analyses. The geographical and temporal variations of rain chemistry were studied in relation to natural and anthropogenic sources and transport of the constituents. The pH values of rain samples ranged from 3.9 to 7.2, with a mean of 5.6 (n = 104, ? = 0.5). The most acidic rain was found near the big ports, where SO4= and NO3- concentrations in rain were also the highest. The data indicated that wet deposition transports anthropogenic pollution from continents to oceans. Enrichments of Ca++ and K+, which are compared to Na+ in seawater, were observed in all rain samples throughout the ocean. However, their enrichment factors (EF) decrease with distance from land, signifying the extent of transport of crustal elements through cloud process and wet deposition. The EFs of Mg++ were close to unity, indicating its common origin with Na+. The EFs of Cl- in most rain samples were less than l, indicating loss of Cl- in aerosols, cloud droplets, or rain drops. High EFs of SO4= were also observed at the equatorial regions, where biogenic production of dimethyl sulfide is well known. During the 1987 El Niño anomaly the sulfate aerosol distribution and rainfall patterns altered with air trajectories. The effects of sulfate aerosol on cloud condensation and rainfall amount in various regions during normal years and the El Niño anomaly are discussed.

Nagamoto, C.; Parungo, F.; Kopcewicz, B.; Zhou, M. Y.

1990-12-01

88

Air Sampling at the Chest and Ear as Representative of the Breathing Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracer gas concentrations were measured on a 60%-sized mannequin holding a pure sulfur hexafluoride source in its hands at waist height while it stood in a wind tunnel. Samplers were placed at the mannequin's mouth, in front of the ear, and at three chest locations at lapel level. Simultaneous 15-min time-weighted average samples were taken by drawing air into different

Steven E. Guffey; Mary E. Flanagan; Gerald van Belle

2001-01-01

89

Can Chest Trauma Patients Provide Breath Sample With Lion SD400 Alcometer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various investigators have addressed the minimum lung function required to activate breathalyzers, and the impact of comorbid respiratory illness. We postulated that subjects with significant chest trauma may have difficulty in providing an adequate breathalyzer sample. A prospective self-controlled study of 20 patients who underwent thoracotomy was conducted between August 2005 and December 2005, using a Lion Alcometer SD-400. The

Sridhar Rathinam; David Luke; Prakash Nanjaiah; Maninder S Kalkat; Richard S Steyn

2009-01-01

90

Collection, storage, and electrophoretic analysis of nanoliter microdialysis samples collected from awake animals in vivo  

PubMed Central

Microdialysis sampling is an important tool for chemical monitoring in living systems. Temporal resolution is an important figure of merit that is determined by sampling frequency, assay sensitivity, and dispersion of chemical zones during transport from sampling device to fraction collector or analytical system. Temporal resolution has recently been improved by segmenting flow into plugs, so that nanoliter fractions are collected at intervals of 0.1–2 s, thus eliminating temporal distortion associated with dispersion in continuous flow. Such systems, however, have yet to be used with behaving subjects. Furthermore, long-term storage of nanoliter samples created by segmented flow has not been reported. In this work, we have addressed these challenges. A microdialysis probe was integrated to a plug generator that could be stably mounted onto behaving animals. Long-term storage of dialysate plugs was achieved by collecting plugs into high-purity perfluoroalkoxy tubes, placing the tube into hexane and then freezing at ?80°C. Slow warming with even temperatures prevented plug coalescence during sample thawing. As a demonstration of the system, plugs were collected from the striatum of behaving rats using a 0.5-mm-long microdialysis probe. Resulting plugs were analyzed 1–4 days later by chip-based electrophoresis. To improve throughput of plug analysis over previous work, the speed of electrophoretic separation was increased by using forced air cooling and 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate as a separation buffer additive, allowing resolution of six neuroactive amino acids in 30 s. Concentration changes induced by K+ microinjections were monitored with 10 s temporal resolution. The improvements reported in this work make it possible to apply segmented flow microdialysis to the study of behaving animals and enable experiments where the analytical system cannot be placed close to the animal.

Wang, Meng; Hershey, Neil D.; Mabrouk, Omar S.

2011-01-01

91

Can chest trauma patients provide breath sample with Lion SD-400 Alcometer?  

PubMed

Various investigators have addressed the minimum lung function required to activate breathalyzers, and the impact of comorbid respiratory illness. We postulated that subjects with significant chest trauma may have difficulty in providing an adequate breathalyzer sample. A prospective self-controlled study of 20 patients who underwent thoracotomy was conducted between August 2005 and December 2005, using a Lion Alcometer SD-400. The mean age of the patients was 69.3 years (range, 37-83 years). Preoperatively, their mean forced expiratory volume was 1.97 L (range, 1.19-2.46 L), and peak expiratory flow rate was 240 L min(-1) (range, 126-520 L min(-1)). Postoperatively, mean forced expiratory volume was 1.14 L (range, 0.34-2.2 L) and peak expiratory flow rate was 179 L min(-1) (range, 36-492 L min(-1)). These decreases were highly significant. All patients activated the breathalyzer device preoperatively, but only 2 (10%) could activate it postoperatively. Extrapolating this to patients with chest injury, most may find it impossible to activate breathalyzers. PMID:19643853

Rathinam, Sridhar; Luke, David; Nanjaiah, Prakash; Kalkat, Maninder S; Steyn, Richard S

2009-06-01

92

Sample Collection for Investigation of Mars (SCIM): An Early Mars Sample Return Mission Through the Mars Scout Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sample Collection for Investigation of Mars (SCIM) mission is designed to (1) make a ~40 km pass through the Martian atmosphere, (2) collect dust and atmospheric gas, and (3) return the samples to Earth for analysis.

L. A. Leshin; A. Yen; J. Bomba; B. Clark; C. Epp; L. Forney; T. Gamber; C. Graves; J. Hupp; S. Jones; A. J. G. Jurewicz; K. Oakman; J. Rea; M. Richardson; K. Romeo; T. Sharp; B. Sutter; M. Thiemens; J. Thornton; D. Vicker; W. Willcockson; M. Zolensky

2002-01-01

93

Bad Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... breath? Maybe you shouldn't have put extra onions on your hamburger at lunch. What's a kid ... bad breath: foods and drinks, such as garlic, onions, cheese, orange juice, and soda poor dental hygiene ( ...

94

75 FR 79033 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Existing Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records (Pertains...extension of the information collection for Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records, 30 CFR...recordkeeping, and reporting provisions for radiation sampling and exposure records....

2010-12-17

95

75 FR 80072 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Existing Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records AGENCY...extension of the information collection for Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records, 30 CFR...recordkeeping, and reporting provisions for radiation sampling and exposure records....

2010-12-21

96

Cost Impact of Residue Sampling and Collection Strategies for Drug and Explosive Residues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Screening operations for illicit drug or explosives residues comprise two basic processes: 1) sampling and collection of the residue on an appropriate matrix, and 2) analysis of the sample or residue by an analytical device. Two basic sampling and collect...

J. J. Fortuna D. Lucero

1998-01-01

97

Lamaze Breathing  

PubMed Central

Lamaze breathing historically is considered the hallmark of Lamaze preparation for childbirth. This column discusses breathing in the larger context of contemporary Lamaze. Controlled breathing enhances relaxation and decreases perception of pain. It is one of many comfort strategies taught in Lamaze classes. In restricted birthing environments, breathing may be the only nonpharmacological comfort strategy available to women. Conscious breathing and relaxation, especially in combination with a wide variety of comfort strategies, can help women avoid unnecessary medical intervention and have a safe, healthy birth.

Lothian, Judith A.

2011-01-01

98

Ethylene and ammonia traces measurements from the patients' breath with renal failure via LPAS method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) for fast and precise measurements of breath biomarkers has opened up new promises for monitoring and diagnostics in recent years, especially because breath test is a non-invasive method, safe, rapid and acceptable to patients. Our study involved assessment of breath ethylene and breath ammonia levels in patients with renal failure receiving haemodialysis (HD) treatment. Breath samples from healthy subjects and from patients with renal failure were collected using chemically inert aluminized bags and were subsequently analyzed using the LPAS technique. We have found out that the composition of exhaled breath in patients with renal failure contains not only ethylene, but also ammonia and gives valuable information for determining efficacy and endpoint of HD. Analysis of ethylene and ammonia traces from the human breath may provide insight into severity of oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances and may ensure optimal therapy and prevention of pathology at patients on continuous HD.

Popa, C.; Dutu, D. C. A.; Cernat, R.; Matei, C.; Bratu, A. M.; Banita, S.; Dumitras, D. C.

2011-11-01

99

Breath-by-breath alveolar gas exchange.  

PubMed

A method is described for breath-by-breath measurement of alveolar gas exchange corrected for changes of lung gas stores. In practice, the subject inspires from a spirometer, and each expired tidal volume is collected into a rubber bag placed inside a rigid box connected to the same spirometer. During the inspiration following any given expiration the bag is emptied by a vacuum pump. A computer monitors inspiratory and expiratory tidal volumes, drives four solenoid valves allowing appropriate operation of the system, and memorizes end-tidal gas fractions as well as mixed expired gas composition analyzed by mass spectrometer. Thus all variables for calculating alveolar gas exchange, based on the theory developed by Auchincloss et al. (J. Appl. Physiol. 21: 810-818, 1966), are obtained on a single-breath basis. Mean resting and steady-state exercise gas exchange data are equal to those obtained by conventional open-circuit measurements. Breathing rates up to 30 X min-1 can be followed. The breath-to-breath variability of O2 uptake at the alveolar level is less (25-35%) than that measured at the mouth as the difference between the inspired and expired volumes, both at rest and during exercise up to 0.7 of maximum O2 consumption. PMID:6618950

Giezendanner, D; Cerretelli, P; Di Prampero, P E

1983-08-01

100

14C-urea breath test in C pylori gastritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

14C-urea breath test was used to detect Campylobacter pylori colonisation in 129 consecutive non-ulcer dyspepsia patients. Fasting patients were given 3 microCi (110 kBq) of 14C-labelled urea after a test meal. Breath samples were collected at 10 minute intervals for 90 minutes and the C-14 activity was counted on a liquid scintillation analyser. Urea derived 14CO2 appears in the exhaled

E A Rauws; E A Royen; W Langenberg; J V Woensel; A A Vrij; G N Tytgat

1989-01-01

101

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF URINE SAMPLES (SOP-2.14)  

EPA Science Inventory

This SOP describes the method for collecting urine samples from the study participants (children and their primary caregivers). Urine samples will be approximate 48-hr collections, collected as spot urine samples accumulated over the 48-hr sampling period. If the household or da...

102

Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

JSC curation is digitizing pictures of lunar samples taken during initial sample return and subsequent processing. These images will be available via a searchable database on the Curation website as they are produced; 69% are currently available.

G. E. Lofgren; N. S. Todd; S. K. Runco; W. L. Stefanov

2011-01-01

103

COLLECTION EFFICIENCY OF FIELD SAMPLING CASSETTES: INTERAGENCY ENERGY/ENVIRONMENT R AND D PROGRAM REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Industrial hygiene particulate samples are often collected under anisokinetic sampling conditions and in crosswinds. Experiments were conducted to quantitate errors associated with sampling under these non-ideal conditions. Three types of field sampling cassetts were tested to de...

104

9 CFR 147.12 - Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples, cloacal...collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples, cloacal...including delayed secondary enrichment. All salmonellae recovered shall be serogrouped or...

2012-01-01

105

24 CFR 35.1315 - Collection and laboratory analysis of samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. 35.1315 Section...and Standards for Lead-Paint Hazard Evaluation and Hazard Reduction Activities § 35.1315 Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. All paint...

2013-04-01

106

Atmospheric CO sub 2 concentrations derived from flask samples collected at USSR-operated sampling sites  

SciTech Connect

This document presents daily atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations from four USSR-operated sampling sites (Teriberka Station, Ocean Station Charlie, Bering Island, and Kotelny Island). The period of record varies by station with the earliest measurements dating back to 1983 and recent estimates from early 1991. These CO{sub 2} concentrations are derived from air samples collected in 1.5-L stainless steel electropolished flasks and later analyzed at the Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg, USSR) using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer. Measurements not meeting wind direction, wind speed, inter-flask agreement, and climate condition criteria were either discarded or flagged. All measurements have been corrected for drift biases introduced during flask storage. These atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are considered indicative of regional background air conditions and are directly traceable to the World Meteorological Organization's primary CO{sub 2} standards. These measurements support the rising trend in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations measured at other monitoring sites around the world and may be compared with similar measurements made by various monitoring programs at other northern latitude sites. The document presents the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations in graphical and tabular form, describes the sampling methods, defines limitations and restrictions of the data, and describes the information on the magnetic media.

Boden, T.A. (comp.) (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center); Brounshtein, A.M.; Faber, E.V.; Shashkov, A.A. (Glavnaya Geofizicheskaya Observatoriya, St. Petersburg (USSR))

1991-12-01

107

[From project-based sample collection to biobank].  

PubMed

The research group takes samples for molecular genetical examinations from tumors removed during operations within ischemic time interval. Samples are stored in liquid nitrogen. Clinical data of these patients are recorded in an informatics system developed by the group. Patients are followed in an out-patient clinic set up for this purpose not financed by the National Health Insurance Fund. Tissue samples and follow up data are used to cooperate with molecular genetical laboratories. PMID:21436025

Baranyai, Zsolt; Mersich, Tamás; Dede, Kristóf; Besznyák, István; Zaránd, Attila; Teknos, Dániel; Nagy, Péter; Salamon, Ferenc; Nagy, Pál; Nagy, Zsolt; Kótai, Zsuzsanna; Szász, Marcell; Lukács, Lilla; Szállási, Zoltán; Jósa, Valéria; Jakab, Ferenc

2011-04-10

108

MEASUREMENTS OF AIR POLLUTANT BIOMARKERS WITH EXHALED BREATH TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Use of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has appeal as a noninvasive surrogate sample for lung-derived fluid. Additionally, EBC can be collected multiple times over the course of a study, unlike many other lung sampling techniques which can be performed fewer times. However validat...

109

True real-time cardiac MRI in free breathing without ECG synchronization using a novel sequence with radial k-space sampling and balanced SSFP contrast mode.  

PubMed

We investigated a novel sequence with radial k-space sampling, gridding and sliding window reconstruction with bSSFP contrast that allows for true real-time functional cardiac evaluation independent from respiration and ECG triggering. 12 healthy volunteers underwent 1.5 T cardiac MRI. Single-shot short axis views were acquired with a) standard retrospectively ECG-gated segmented breath-hold (bh) bSSFP and with the real-time radial bSSFP sequence with a nominal temporal resolution of b) 16 fps (frames per second) and c) 40 fps. Radial bSSFP were acquired during free breathing without ECG synchronization. Left ventricular functional parameters (EDV, ESV, SV and EF) were compared and quality of wall motion depiction was assessed. Contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) of myocardium/blood pool in the left ventricle was calculated. EF showed excellent correlation (Bland-Altman r = 0.99; Lin rho = 0.91) between bh-bSSFP (65%) and 40 fps radial (64%) and moderate correlation (r = 0.84, rho = 0.20) with 16 fps radial bSSFP (56%). While EDV was in good agreement for all three sequences, ESV was significantly overestimated with 16 fps radial bSSFP. Despite lower CNR, image quality for wall motion assessment was rated significantly better for 40 fps compared to 16 fps radial bSSFP due to the faster temporal resolution. Left ventricular functional analysis with fast true real-time radial bSSFP is in good agreement with standard ECG-gated bh-bSSFP. The independency from ECG synchronization and breathing promises a robust method for patients with impaired cardiopulmonary status in whom breath-hold and good quality ECG cannot be achieved. PMID:23334191

Bauer, Ralf W; Radtke, Isabel; Block, Kai T; Larson, Maya C; Kerl, J Matthias; Hammerstingl, Renate; Graf, Thomas G; Vogl, Thomas J; Zhang, Shuo

2013-01-19

110

40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sampled. Orient the grid axes on a magnetic north-south line centered in the area...east-west axis perpendicular to the magnetic north-south axis also centered in...one meter in the direction of magnetic north and one meter in the...

2009-07-01

111

40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sampled. Orient the grid axes on a magnetic north-south line centered in the area...east-west axis perpendicular to the magnetic north-south axis also centered in...one meter in the direction of magnetic north and one meter in the...

2010-07-01

112

40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...sampled. Orient the grid axes on a magnetic north-south line centered in the area...east-west axis perpendicular to the magnetic north-south axis also centered in...one meter in the direction of magnetic north and one meter in the...

2013-07-01

113

Protocols for surveys, sampling, post-collection handling, and analysis of grain samples involved in mycotoxin problems.  

PubMed

This report examines and summarizes current knowledge regarding mycotoxin surveys, sampling techniques, conditions conducive to post-collection production of mycotoxins in grain samples, and analytical methods for mycotoxin analysis. Priority attention is given to samples of corn suspected of containing aflatoxin. The report includes recommendations where deems appropriate by the Ad Hoc Work Group. PMID:7380799

Davis, N D; Dickens, J W; Freie, R L; Hamilton, P B; Shotwell, O L; Wyllie, T D; Fulkerson, J F

1980-01-01

114

Breathing Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this demonstration of chemical change, the presenter blows breath into a methylene blue solution releasing carbon dioxide which acidifies the water and changes it from a bright blue color to green.

Wosu

2009-08-20

115

Collection of tissue and culture samples from the canine reproductive tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Definitive diagnosis of reproductive tract infection or other disease often requires sampling of tissue, either for culture or histopathology. Indications, sample collection technique, possible side-effects and interpretation of results are reviewed. Pertinent facts include: (1) collection of uterine biopsy specimens via laparotomy was associated with higher yield of diagnostic samples and fewer side-effects than other less invasive techniques; (2) vaginal

Margaret V. Root Kustritz

2006-01-01

116

21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a...

2010-04-01

117

21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a...

2013-04-01

118

21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a...

2009-04-01

119

Quality of DNA extracted from saliva samples collected with the Oragene(TM) DNA self-collection kit  

PubMed Central

Background Large epidemiological studies in DNA biobanks have increasingly used less invasive methods for obtaining DNA samples, such as saliva collection. Although lower amounts of DNA are obtained as compared with blood collection, this method has been widely used because of its more simple logistics and increased response rate. The present study aimed to verify whether a storage time of 8?months decreases the quality of DNA from collected samples. Methods Saliva samples were collected with an OrageneTM DNA Self-Collection Kit from 4,110 subjects aged 14–15?years. The samples were processed in two aliquots with an 8-month interval between them. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations were carried out in 20% of the samples by spectrophotometry and genotyping. Descriptive analyses and paired t-tests were performed. Results The mean volume of saliva collected was 2.2?mL per subject, yielding on average 184.8??g DNA per kit. Most samples showed a Ratio of OD differences (RAT) between 1.6 and 1.8 in the qualitative evaluation. The evaluation of DNA quality by TaqMan®, High Resolution Melting (HRM), and restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR (RFLP-PCR) showed a rate of success of up to 98% of the samples. The sample store time did not reduce either the quantity or quality of DNA extracted with the Oragene kit. Conclusion The study results showed that a storage period of 8?months at room temperature did not reduce the quality of the DNA obtained. In addition, the use of the Oragene kit during fieldwork in large population-based studies allows for DNA of high quantity and high quality.

2012-01-01

120

Field testing of collection cards for Cannabis sativa samples with a single hexanucleotide DNA marker.  

PubMed

The validity and feasibility of using DNA collection cards in the field for preservation and analysis of Cannabis sativa genotypes were investigated using a highly specific hexanucleotide marker. Collection cards were submitted to the National Marijuana Initiative, which selectively trained and managed the collection of specific types of samples from a variety of participating agencies. Samples collected at seizure sites included fresh marijuana leaf samples, dried "dispensary" samples, U.S. border seizures, and hashish. Using a standardized PCR kit with custom-labeled oligonucleotide primers specific to marijuana, collection cards produced eight genotypes and 13 different alleles, extremely low baselines, and no cross-reactivity with control plant species. Results were produced from all sample types with the exception of hashish. Plant DNA collection cards represent an easily implementable method for the genetic identification and relatedness of C. sativa street and grow site-seized samples with applications for databasing and market disruption. PMID:21644990

Allgeier, Lindsay; Hemenway, John; Shirley, Nicholas; LaNier, Tommy; Coyle, Heather Miller

2011-06-03

121

SampLink: a new system for the collection of donor blood samples.  

PubMed

Increasing demands for screening tests on blood donors, which require a large number of undiluted samples, and the rising concern for the safety of the phlebotomists have led to the development of a new blood sampling system. The new device was evaluated during the collection of 60 blood units, and compared with 50 control units collected using the "cut and drip' method. The time required for both blood donation and donor samples collection, blood component quality, coagulation factors activation and haemolysis were studied. In addition, reports and recommendations of Magen David Adom phlebotomists were evaluated after collecting 75000 units using the new device. Donor sample collection with the new device was comparable and somewhat shorter than with the "cut and drip' method, while the blood unit collection time remained unchanged. There were no differences in plasma haemoglobin, factor VIII and platelet yields and morphology scores in blood units and donor samples collected by the two methods. There were no reported instances of needle-sticks among phlebotomists using either method. The new device was simple to operate, improved blood donor samples collection practice and enabled the collection of as many undiluted donor samples as required for routine testing. In addition, the use of vacuum tubes ensured sterility, safety and standardization of samples. The components provided were comparable in quality to those prepared from units collected by other methods. PMID:8809964

Shinar, E; Michlin, H

1996-06-01

122

ANALYSIS OF ACID PRECIPITATION SAMPLES COLLECTED BY STATE AGENCIES SAMPLING PERIOD: JANUARY 1992 - DECEMBER 1992  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents analytical data from 30 acid precipitation collection sites in the State-Operated Network. amples are collected weekly in plastic bag bucket liners and shipped in 500 mL polyethylene bottled to Global Geochemistry Corporation, the central laboratory for the n...

123

Post-Cerro Grande Fire Environmental Sampling Data: Upper Los Alamos Canyon Alluvial Groundwater Samples Collected in June 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Los Alamos National Laboratory's (the Laboratory's) Environmental Restoration (ER) Project collected alluvial groundwater samples in upper Los Alamos Canyon from June 21 to June 27, 2000 (after the Cerro Grande fire). This report summarizes the analyt...

2000-01-01

124

Breathing and Holding Your Breath  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students begin with interactive activities to develop a basic understanding of why cells need oxygen and need to get rid of carbon dioxide, how the circulatory and respiratory systems cooperate to bring oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from cells all over the body, and how the nervous system regulates breathing. Then, students carry out an experiment to test whether changing levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide influence how long they can hold their breath.

Waldron, Ingrid; Doherty, Jennifer

125

Breathing difficulty - lying down  

MedlinePLUS

... breath; Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; PND; Difficulty breathing while lying down; Orthopnea ... Obesity (does not directly cause difficulty breathing while lying down but often aggravates other conditions that lead ...

126

Discussion of challenges encountered during the collection and submission of wipe\\/leak test samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Collection and submission challenges are encountered during analysis of samples taken on devices containing radioactive materials. The sample analysis is for either gross alpha-counting by gas-flow proportional counting or low-level beta-counting by liquid scintillation counting. Technical manuals, safety and maintenance messages, provide established policies for the collection and submission of the samples. The analytical challenges range from incorrect sampling media

G. W. Wright

2005-01-01

127

Data for periphyton and water samples collected from the south Florida ecosystem, 1995 and 1996  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents data for samples of periphyton and water collected in 1995 and 1996 from Water Conservation Areas, the Big Cypress National Preserve, and the Everglades National Park in south Florida. Periphyton samples were analyzed for concentrations of total mercury, methyl mercury, nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, and inorganic carbon . Water-column samples collected on the same dates as the periphyton samples were analyzed for concentrations of major ions.

Simon, N. S.; Cox, T.; Spencer, R.

1998-01-01

128

Breathing: Rhythmicity, Plasticity, Chemosensitivity  

PubMed Central

Breathing is a vital behavior that is particularly amenable to experimental investigation. We review recent progress on three problems of broad interest. (i) Where and how is respiratory rhythm generated? The preBötzinger Complex is a critical site, whereas pacemaker neurons may not be essential. The possibility that coupled oscillators are involved is considered. (ii) What are the mechanisms that underlie the plasticity necessary for adaptive changes in breathing? Serotonin-dependent long-term facilitation following intermittent hypoxia is an important example of such plasticity, and a model that can account for this adaptive behavior is discussed. (iii) Where and how are the regulated variables CO2 and pH sensed? These sensors are essential if breathing is to be appropriate for metabolism. Neurons with appropriate chemosensitivity are spread throughout the brainstem; their individual properties and collective role are just beginning to be understood.

Feldman, Jack L.; Mitchell, Gordon S.; Nattie, Eugene E.

2010-01-01

129

Impact of blood sample collection and processing methods on glucose levels in community outreach studies.  

PubMed

Glucose obtained from unprocessed blood samples can decrease by 5%-7% per hour due to glycolysis. This study compared the impact of glucose degradation on measured glucose values by examining two different collection methods. For the first method, blood samples were collected in tubes containing sodium fluoride (NaF), a glycolysis inhibitor. For the second method, blood samples were collected in tubes containing a clot activator and serum gel separator and were centrifuged to separate the serum and plasma 20 minutes after sample collection. The samples used in the two methods were collected during the same blood draw and were assayed by the clinical laboratory 2-4 hours after the samples were obtained. A total of 256 pairs of samples were analyzed. The average glucose reading for the centrifuged tubes was significantly higher than the NaF tubes by 0.196 ± 0.159?mmol/L (P < 0.01) or 4.2%. This study demonstrates the important role collection methods play in accurately assessing glucose levels of blood samples collected in the field, where working environment may be suboptimal. Therefore, blood samples collected in the field should be promptly centrifuged before being transported to clinical labs to ensure accurate glucose level measurements. PMID:23365588

Turchiano, Michael; Nguyen, Cuong; Fierman, Arthur; Lifshitz, Mark; Convit, Antonio

2013-01-10

130

50 CFR 23.50 - What are the requirements for a sample collection covered by an ATA carnet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...border crossing. (5) You must return the sample collection to the United States prior to...Authority. (7) If you no longer own the sample collection, or no longer plan to travel with the sample collection, you must immediately...

2012-10-01

131

50 CFR 23.50 - What are the requirements for a sample collection covered by an ATA carnet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...border crossing. (5) You must return the sample collection to the United States prior to...Authority. (7) If you no longer own the sample collection, or no longer plan to travel with the sample collection, you must immediately...

2011-10-01

132

Exhaled breath condensate: methodological recommendations and unresolved questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a noninvasive method for obtaining samples from the lungs. EBC contains large number of mediators including adenosine, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, isoprostanes, leukotrienes, nitrogen oxides, peptides and cytokines. Concentrations of these mediators are influenced by lung diseases and modulated by therapeutic interventions. Similarly EBC pH also changes in respiratory diseases. The aim of the

I. Horvath; J. Hunt; P. J. Barnes; K. Alving; A. Antczak; E. Baraldi; G. Becher; W. J. C van Beurden; M. Corradi; P. N. R. Dekhuijzen; R. A. Dweik; T. Dwyer; R. Effros; S. Erzurum; B. Gaston; C. Gessner; A. Greening; L. P. Ho; J. Hohlfeld; Q. Jobsis; D. Laskowski; S. Loukides; D. Marlin; P. Montuschi; A. C. Olin; A. E. Redington; P. Reinhold; E. L. van Rensen; I. Rubinstein; P. Silkoff; K. Toren; G. Vass; C. Vogelberg; H. Wirtz

2005-01-01

133

Relationship between Exhaled Breath Condensate Volume and Measurements of Lung Volumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is proving to be a technique which can sample markers of lung inflammation; however, many factors affect the collection process. Objectives: We hypothesised that lung volumes – tidal volume, minute volume and total lung capacity (TLC) – would dictate the volume of the EBC sample that could be collected. Methods: First, the volume of EBC

Jia Liu; Paul S. Thomas

2007-01-01

134

A Novel Approach to Prediction of Mild Obstructive Sleep Disordered Breathing in a Population-Based Sample: The Sleep Heart Health Study  

PubMed Central

This manuscript considers a data-mining approach for the prediction of mild obstructive sleep disordered breathing, defined as an elevated respiratory disturbance index (RDI), in 5,530 participants in a community-based study, the Sleep Heart Health Study. The prediction algorithm was built using modern ensemble learning algorithms, boosting in specific, which allowed for assessing potential high-dimensional interactions between predictor variables or classifiers. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, the data were split into training and validation sets for varying thresholds for predicting the probability of a high RDI (? 7 events per hour in the given results). Based on a moderate classification threshold from the boosting algorithm, the estimated post-test odds of a high RDI were 2.20 times higher than the pre-test odds given a positive test, while the corresponding post-test odds were decreased by 52% given a negative test (sensitivity and specificity of 0.66 and 0.70, respectively). In rank order, the following variables had the largest impact on prediction performance: neck circumference, body mass index, age, snoring frequency, waist circumference, and snoring loudness. Citation: Caffo B; Diener-West M; Punjabi NM; Samet J. A novel approach to prediction of mild obstructive sleep disordered breathing in a population-based sample: the Sleep Heart Health Study. SLEEP 2010;33(12):1641-1648.

Caffo, Brian; Diener-West, Marie; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Samet, Jonathan

2010-01-01

135

Human basic tear fluid osmolality. I. Importance of sample collection strategy.  

PubMed

Osmolalities of 200 human tear prism fluid samples collected from two subjects were determined from their melting-point temperatures with the Clifton Nanoliter Osmometer by calibration with 200 standard solution samples (290 mOsm/kg). Comparisons were made between tear fluid osmolalities obtained using a single-sample simultaneous-recalibration method: 1) for tear samples collected using finely-drawn microcapillaries without biomicroscopy, vs secondly with biomicroscopic observation by illumination of only the sampling area on the inferior tear prism, the two collections separated by an interval of 10 min; and 2) for samples collected without biomicroscopy before, vs after a 10-min interval. Tear fluid collection using a biomicroscope resulted in values that were significantly lower than those collected without (overall mean = 299.5 and 306.6 mOsm/kg, respectively; p < 0.0001). The difference (7.1 mOsm/kg) may have resulted from mechanical, photic, and/or psychogenic reflex stimulation due to biomicroscopy, as the 10-min interval had no osmotic effect on samples collected without biomicroscopy. Based on these results from two subjects, we suggest that relatively rapid, repetitive collections of human tear prism fluid can be made without significantly disturbing the osmotic outcome. However, physiological representation of basic human tear fluid is more accurate by avoidance of reflex-inducing collection methods that were formerly considered unobtrusive. Basic human tear prism fluid is more hypertonic, by at least 7 mOsm/kg, than generally realized. PMID:8249586

White, K M; Benjamin, W J; Hill, R M

1993-08-01

136

Guidelines for collection and field analysis of ground-water samples for selected unstable constituents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The unstable nature of many chemical and physical constituents in ground water requires special collection procedures and field analysis immediately after collection. This report describes the techniques and equipment commonly used m the collection and field analysis of samples for pH, temperature, carbonate, bicarbonate, specific conductance, Eh, and dissolved oxygen.

Wood, Warren W.

1976-01-01

137

Combining Probability and Non-Probability Sampling Methods: Model-Aided Sampling and the O*NET Data Collection Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a brief synopsis of the historical development of hybrid sampling designs that combine traditional probability based sampling techniques with non-probability based quota designs to create model-aided sampling (MAS) designs. The MAS approach is illustrated for an application to a national business establishment survey called the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) Data Collection Program. Through simulation, we provide evidence

Marcus Berzofsky; Paul Biemer

2009-01-01

138

A DATA COLLECTION MODEL FOR INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM BASED ON SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data collection mechanism is the crucial factor that affects the performance of intrusion detection system (IDS). Simple random\\u000a sampling technique of statistics is introduced to the procedure of data collection of IDS, and a new data collection model\\u000a for IDS is provided. Formulas used to calculate the sample size of packets under both normal conditions and special conditions\\u000a where there

Liang Hu; Kuo Zhao; Bo Li

139

Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site in support of DOE`s environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE`s General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives.

Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

1991-12-01

140

Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives.

Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

1991-12-01

141

Breathing Yeasties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Does yeast breathe? Find out by watching how plastic bags filled with yeast, warm water and different amounts of sugar change over time. Demonstrate the interaction of microorganisms and the carbon cycle with yeast, sugar and water, and discover how organisms are dependent on water and energy flow.

Columbia River Exhibition of History, Science and Technology (CREHST)

1999-01-01

142

Breathing Difficulties  

MedlinePLUS

... stiffness may depress the breathing centers in the brain. It is important to let your physician know the names of all the medications you are taking (both prescription and over-the-counter drugs). Also, let him/her know that you are ...

143

Prototype Device for Computerized Blood Sampling and Data Collection in Freely Moving Swine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Collecting biofluid samples or physiological and behavioral data from animals presents challenges from excessive human intervention, and the stress of manual sampling. Our objective was to construct a device capable of protecting external leads and tubing used to facilitate automated sampling, dosin...

144

Assembly for collecting samples for purposes of identification or analysis and method of use  

SciTech Connect

An assembly and an associated method for collecting a sample of material desired to be characterized with diagnostic equipment includes or utilizes an elongated member having a proximal end with which the assembly is manipulated by a user and a distal end. In addition, a collection tip which is capable of being placed into contact with the material to be characterized is supported upon the distal end. The collection tip includes a body of chemically-inert porous material for binding a sample of material when the tip is placed into contact with the material and thereby holds the sample of material for subsequent introduction to the diagnostic equipment.

Thompson, Cyril V. (Knoxville, TN); Smith, Rob R. (Knoxville, TN)

2010-02-02

145

Ion-trap detection of volatile organic compounds in alveolar breath  

SciTech Connect

We describe a method for the collection and microanalysis of the volatile organic compounds in human breath. A transportable apparatus supplies subjects with purified air and samples their alveolar breath; the volatile organic compounds are captured in an adsorptive trap containing activated carbon and molecular sieve. The sample is thermally desorbed from the trap in an automated microprocessor-controlled device, concentrated by two-stage cryofocusing, and assayed by gas chromatography with ion-trap detection. Compounds are identified by reference to a computer-based library of mass spectra with subtraction of the background components present in the inspired air. We used this device to study 10 normal subjects and determined the relative abundance of the volatile organic compounds in their alveolar breath. The breath-collecting apparatus was convenient to operate and was well tolerated by human volunteers.

Phillips, M.; Greenberg, J. (Department of Medicine, St. Vincent's Medical Center of Richmond, Staten Island, NY (United States))

1992-01-01

146

Collection of solid and gaseous samples to diagnose inertial confinement fusion implosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collection of representative samples of debris following inertial confinement fusion implosions in order to diagnose implosion conditions and efficacy is a challenging endeavor because of the unique conditions within the target chamber such as unconverted laser light, intense pulse of x-rays, physical chunks of debris, and other ablative effects. We present collection of gas samples following an implosion for the first time. High collection fractions for noble gases were achieved. We also present collection of solid debris samples on flat plate collectors. Geometrical collection efficiencies for Au hohlraum material were achieved and collection of capsule debris (Be and Cu) was also observed. Asymmetric debris distributions were observed for Au and Be samples. Collection of Be capsule debris was higher for solid collectors viewing the capsule through the laser entrance hole in the hohlraum than for solid collectors viewing the capsule around the waist of the hohlraum. Collection of Au hohlraum material showed the opposite pattern: more Au debris was collected around the waist than through the laser entrance hole. The solid debris collectors were not optimized for minimal Cu backgrounds, which limited the conclusions about the symmetry of the Cu debris. The quality of the data limited conclusions on chemical fractionation effects within the burning, expanding, and then cooling plasma.

Stoyer, M. A.; Velsko, C. A.; Spears, B. K.; Hicks, D. G.; Hudson, G. B.; Sangster, T. C.; Freeman, C. G.

2012-02-01

147

Collection of solid and gaseous samples to diagnose inertial confinement fusion implosions  

SciTech Connect

Collection of representative samples of debris following inertial confinement fusion implosions in order to diagnose implosion conditions and efficacy is a challenging endeavor because of the unique conditions within the target chamber such as unconverted laser light, intense pulse of x-rays, physical chunks of debris, and other ablative effects. We present collection of gas samples following an implosion for the first time. High collection fractions for noble gases were achieved. We also present collection of solid debris samples on flat plate collectors. Geometrical collection efficiencies for Au hohlraum material were achieved and collection of capsule debris (Be and Cu) was also observed. Asymmetric debris distributions were observed for Au and Be samples. Collection of Be capsule debris was higher for solid collectors viewing the capsule through the laser entrance hole in the hohlraum than for solid collectors viewing the capsule around the waist of the hohlraum. Collection of Au hohlraum material showed the opposite pattern: more Au debris was collected around the waist than through the laser entrance hole. The solid debris collectors were not optimized for minimal Cu backgrounds, which limited the conclusions about the symmetry of the Cu debris. The quality of the data limited conclusions on chemical fractionation effects within the burning, expanding, and then cooling plasma.

Stoyer, M. A.; Velsko, C. A.; Spears, B. K.; Hicks, D. G.; Hudson, G. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Freeman, C. G. [State University of New York at Geneseo, Geneseo, New York 14454 (United States)

2012-02-15

148

The representativeness of pore water samples collected from the unsaturated zone using pressure-vacuum lysimeters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies have indicated that the chemistry of water samples may be altered by the collection technique, creating concern about the representativeness of the pore water samples obtained. A study using soil water pressure-vacuum lysimeters in outwash sand and glacial till deposits demonstrates that for non-dilute-solution samples the effect of pH of sampling with lysimeters is minimal, and that measured major cation and anion concentrations are representative of the natural pore water; trace-metal concentrations can be significantly altered by collection procedures at low concentrations. -from Authors

Peters, C. A.; Healy, R. W.

1988-01-01

149

How accurately do parents collect urine samples from their children? A pilot study in general practice.  

PubMed Central

Childhood urinary tract infections (UTIs) are of great importance, but few data exist on how accurately parents collect urine samples. By instituting three simple, practical changes we reduced the contamination rate from 27.5% to 13.2%.

Giddens, J; Robinson, G

1998-01-01

150

Breathing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classification of apparatus used to deliver inhalational anaesthetic agents to a patient has undergone numerous revisions over the years. The classical terms, open, semi-open, semi-closed and closed, were applicable to the use of ether and are now outdated. Small changes in geometry and gas flow rates can lead to conversion from one type to another, causing confusion.The term breathing

Timothy Lovell

2004-01-01

151

Collection of tissue and culture samples from the canine reproductive tract.  

PubMed

Definitive diagnosis of reproductive tract infection or other disease often requires sampling of tissue, either for culture or histopathology. Indications, sample collection technique, possible side-effects and interpretation of results are reviewed. Pertinent facts include: (1) collection of uterine biopsy specimens via laparotomy was associated with higher yield of diagnostic samples and fewer side-effects than other less invasive techniques; (2) vaginal culture samples should be collected from the anterior vagina to minimize number of contaminants in the sample; (3) collection of culture samples from the anterior vagina during proestrus or estrus, in the presence of discharge originating in the uterus, was a non-invasive technique for assessment for uterine infection; (4) samples for bacterial culture from mucosal surfaces, including the vagina and penis, must be quantitated to allow interpretation, with moderate to heavy growth of any single aerobic bacterial organism relevant; (5) mycoplasma and ureaplasma are part of the normal flora of the genitourinary tract in dogs and bitches and, because most laboratories cannot give reliable quantitative results, interpretation of positive results often is difficult; (6) collection of prostatic tissue samples for cytology or culture was more likely to yield a correct diagnosis than submission of ejaculated prostatic fluid. PMID:16750845

Root Kustritz, Margaret V

2006-06-05

152

One-year time series of investigations of analytes within human breath using ion mobility spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion mobility Spectrometry is used to detect volatile analytes within human breath directly. Many volatile organic compounds\\u000a (VOC) show significant day-to-day variation in the signal height related to the concentration of the analyte, although the\\u000a breath collection had been performed under the same conditions with respect to similar sampling procedure, similar dead volume,\\u000a similar measurement time, and measurement conditions. Variations

Alexander Bunkowski; Sasidhar Maddula; Antony N. Davies; Michael Westhoff; Patrick Litterst; Bertram Bödeker; Jorg Ingo Baumbach

2010-01-01

153

FIELD COLLECTION OF FUEL LOAD AND VEGETATION CHARACTERISTICS WILDFIRE RISK ASSESSMENT MODELING: 2002 FIELD SAMPLING REPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel load and vegetation characteristics were collected at 370 sample points across sagebrush-steppe regions in southeast Idaho. We collected visual estimations of fuel load (tons\\/acre), percent cover of major ground cover types (shrub, grass, litter\\/duff, bare ground, and cheatgrass), and basal stem measurements of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp.). These data were collected to validate fuel load and wildfire risk

Keith T. Weber; J. Ben McMahan

154

A novel approach for collecting samples from fruit bats for isolation of infectious agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis involving pigs and humans in peninsular Malaysia in 1998\\/1999, a conventional approach was initially undertaken to collect specimens from fruit bats by mist-netting and shooting, as an integral part of wildlife surveillance of the natural reservoir host of Nipah virus. This study describes a novel method of collecting fruit bats’ urine samples using

Kaw Bing Chua

2003-01-01

155

A simple and novel method for retrieval of Pasteurellaceae from swab samples collected in the field.  

PubMed

Traditionally it has been difficult or impossible to collect and preserve bacterial samples of especially fastidious bacteria in mixed primary cultures, unless the samples could be transported to a laboratory within approximately 24 h. Therefore, a simple novel method for preserving swab samples until bacterial isolation can be completed in the laboratory was developed and evaluated. Pasteurellaceae bacteria were used as a representative for fastidious bacteria. A 7.5% glucose serum medium was used as freeze medium. Swab samples were soaked in the medium a maximum of 2 h after collection and stored at -20°C. As a control study, 15 samples were collected from the oral cavity of a captive brown bear. One was immediately plated, while the remaining 12 swabs were stored at -20°C for 7 days and multiples of 30 days up to 330 days prior to plating. Two samples were stored without the medium for 7 and 30 days prior to plating. From a field setting in Greenland, eight polar bear samples were collected and subsequently stored for 240 to 259 days at -20°C before incubation. Pasteurellaceae bacteria were isolated and genotyped from all samples stored in the freeze medium, indicating that the medium enabled the bacteria to survive for at least 330 days at -20°C. The 100% recovery of target organisms in the polar bear samples even following lengthy storage and transport demonstrates that the method is very useful under remote field conditions. PMID:23897719

Hansen, Mie J; Bertelsen, Mads F; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Bojesen, Anders M

2013-07-30

156

Radioactivity measurements in soil samples collected in the Republic of Srpska  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 2005 and 2006, soil samples were collected from different regions in the Republic of Srpska, in order to evaluate their radioactivity. During the war that lasted from 1994 to 1995, it is known that some locations in the Republic of Srpska were imposed upon by NATO forces. Sampled locations were chosen far away from the bombed places in order

Marija Jankovi?; Dragana Todorovi?; Milovan Savanovi?

2008-01-01

157

Fast egg collection method greatly improves randomness of egg sampling in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column and diminishes environmental variance. This method was compared with a traditional egg collection method where eggs are collected directly from the medium. Within each method the observed and expected standard deviations of egg-to-adult viability were compared, whereby the difference in the randomness of the samples between the two methods was assessed. The method presented here was superior to the traditional method. Only 14% of the samples had a standard deviation higher than expected, as compared with 58% in the traditional method. To reduce bias in the estimation of the variance and the mean of a trait and to obtain a representative collection of genotypes, the method presented here is strongly recommended when collecting eggs from Drosophila. PMID:23247611

Schou, Mads Fristrup

2012-12-17

158

Evaluation of a standardized micro-vacuum sampling method for collection of surface dust.  

PubMed

A standardized procedure for collecting dust samples from surfaces using a micro-vacuum sampling technique was evaluated. Experiments were carried out to investigate the collection efficiency of the vacuum sampling method described in ASTM Standard D7144, "Standard Practice for Collection of Surface Dust by Micro-Vacuum Sampling for Subsequent Metals Determination." Weighed masses ( approximately 5, approximately 10 and approximately 25 mg) of three NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were spiked onto surfaces of various substrates. The SRMs used were: (1) Powdered Lead-Based Paint; (2) Urban Particulate Matter; and (3) Trace Elements in Indoor Dust. Twelve different substrate materials were chosen to be representative of surfaces commonly encountered in occupational and/or indoor settings: (1) wood, (2) tile, (3) linoleum, (4) vinyl, (5) industrial carpet, (6) plush carpet, (7,8) concrete block (painted and unpainted), (9) car seat material, (10) denim, (11) steel, and (12) glass. Samples of SRMs originally spiked onto these surfaces were collected using the standardized micro-vacuum sampling procedure. Gravimetric analysis of material collected within preweighed Accucapinserts (housed within the samplers) was used to measure SRM recoveries. Recoveries ranged from 21.6% (+/- 10.4%, 95% confidence limit [CL]) for SRM 1579 from industrial carpet to 59.2% (+/- 11.0%, 95% CL) for SRM 1579 from glass. For most SRM/substrate combinations, recoveries ranged from approximately 25% to approximately 50%; variabilities differed appreciably. In general, SRM recoveries were higher from smooth and hard surfaces and lower from rough and porous surfaces. Material captured within collection nozzles attached to the sampler inlets was also weighed. A significant fraction of SRM originally spiked onto substrate surfaces was captured within collection nozzles. Percentages of SRMs captured within collection nozzles ranged from approximately 13% (+/- 4 - +/- 5%, 95% CLs) for SRMs 1579 and 2583 from industrial carpet to approximately 45% (+/- 7 - +/- 26%, 95% CLs) for SRM 1648 from glass, tile and steel. For some substrates, loose material from the substrate itself (i.e., substrate particles and fibers) was sometimes collected along with the SRM, both within Accucaps as well as collection nozzles. Co-collection of substrate material can bias results and contribute to sampling variability. The results of this work have provided performance data on the standardized micro-vacuum sampling procedure. PMID:17237027

Ashley, Kevin; Applegate, Gregory T; Wise, Tamara J; Fernback, Joseph E; Goldcamp, Michael J

2007-03-01

159

Fetal cells in a transcervical cell sample collected at 5 weeks of gestation.  

PubMed

Transcervical cell (TCC) sampling is being investigated as a promising method for obtaining fetal cells for prenatal genetic diagnosis. The present case report describes the identification of fetal cells by both fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) and quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) analyses in a TCC sample collected by intrauterine lavage at 5 + 0 weeks. This finding underscores the possible relevance of TCC sampling for extremely early prenatal genetic diagnosis. PMID:16318979

Cioni, Riccardo; Bussani, Cecilia; Bucciantini, Sandra; Scarselli, Gianfranco

2005-10-01

160

Methods for collecting algal samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Benthic algae (periphyton) and phytoplankton communities are characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. This multidisciplinary approach provides multiple lines of evidence for evaluating water-quality status and trends, and for refining an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. Water quality can be characterized by evaluating the results of qualitative and quantitative measurements of the algal community. Qualitative periphyton samples are collected to develop of list of taxa present in the sampling reach. Quantitative periphyton samples are collected to measure algal community structure within selected habitats. These samples of benthic algal communities are collected from natural substrates, using the sampling methods that are most appropriate for the habitat conditions. Phytoplankton samples may be collected in large nonwadeable streams and rivers to meet specific program objectives. Estimates of algal biomass (chlorophyll content and ash-free dry mass) also are optional measures that may be useful for interpreting water-quality conditions. A nationally consistent approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection, as well as information on methods and equipment for qualitative and quantitative sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data locally, regionally, and nationally.

Porter, Stephen D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

1993-01-01

161

Sample collection of virulent and non-virulent B. anthracis and Y. pestis for bioforensics analysis  

SciTech Connect

Validated sample collection methods are needed for recovery of microbial evidence in the event of accidental or intentional release of biological agents into the environment. To address this need, we evaluated the sample recovery efficiencies of two collection methods -- swabs and wipes -- for both non-virulent and virulent strains of B. anthracis and Y. pestis from four types of non-porous surfaces: two hydrophilic surfaces, stainless steel and glass, and two hydrophobic surfaces, vinyl and plastic. Sample recovery was quantified using Real-time qPCR to assay for intact DNA signatures. We found no consistent difference in collection efficiency between swabs or wipes. Furthermore, collection efficiency was more surface-dependent for virulent strains than non-virulent strains. For the two non-virulent strains, B. anthracis Sterne and Y. pestis A1122, collection efficiency was approximately 100% and 1 %, respectively, from all four surfaces. In contrast, recovery of B. anthracis Ames spores and Y. pestis C092 from vinyl and plastic was generally lower compared to collection from glass or stainless steel, suggesting that surface hydrophobicity may playa role in the strength of pathogen adhesion. The surface-dependent collection efficiencies observed with the virulent strains may arise from strain-specific expression of capsular material or other cell surface receptors that alter cell adhesion to specific surfaces. These findings contribute to validation of standard bioforensics procedures and emphasize the importance of specific strain and surface interactions in pathogen detection.

Hong-geller, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdez, Yolanda E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shou, Yulin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yoshida, Thomas M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marrone, Babetta L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dunbar, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

162

Deep breathing after surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... take an active role is by doing deep breathing exercises. Deep breathing keeps your lungs healthy while you ... or as your doctor prescribes. Do these deep-breathing exercises as directed by your doctor or nurse.

163

Breath-Holding Spells  

MedlinePLUS

... only a few seconds before a child regains consciousness and resumes breathing normally. In most cases, breath- ... spells cause kids to stop breathing and lose consciousness for up to a minute. In the most ...

164

Breath holding spell  

MedlinePLUS

... then no breathing Fainting or loss of alertness (consciousness) Jerky movements (short, seizure-like movements) Normal breathing ... 8. Cildren who have a seizure after losing consciousness during a breath holding spell do not appear ...

165

Extraction and selection of parameters for evaluation of breath alcohol measurement with an electronic nose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanol concentration in realistic breath samples was analyzed using an electronic nose. Conditions were selected so that the samples would reflect those collected in a real drunk driver situation. Hence, parameters such as intake of food and beverage, tobacco habits, as well as the order of participating volunteers were allowed to be variable. The setup was unexpectedly robust towards

Nils Paulsson; Elisabeth Larsson; Fredrik Winquist

2000-01-01

166

Non-Invasive Sample Collection for Respiratory Virus Testing by Multiplex PCR  

PubMed Central

Background Identifying respiratory pathogens within populations is difficult because invasive sample collection, such as with nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA), is generally required. PCR technology could allow for non-invasive sampling methods. Objectives Evaluate the utility of non-invasive sample collection using anterior nare swabs and facial tissues for respiratory virus detection by multiplex PCR. Study Design Children aged 1 month – 17 years evaluated in a pediatric emergency department for respiratory symptoms had a swab, facial tissue, and NPA sample collected. All samples were tested for respiratory viruses by multiplex PCR. Viral detection rates were calculated for each collection method. Sensitivity and specificity of swabs and facial tissues were calculated using NPA as the gold standard. Results 285 samples from 95 children were evaluated (92 swab-NPA pairs, 91 facial tissue-NPA pairs). 91% of NPA, 82% of swab, and 77% of tissue samples were positive for ? 1 virus. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (HRV) were most common. Overall, swabs were positive for 74% of virus infections, and facial tissues were positive for 58%. Sensitivity ranged from 17–94% for swabs and 33–84% for tissues. Sensitivity was highest for RSV (94% swabs and 84% tissues). Specificity was ? 95% for all viruses except HRV for both collection methods. Conclusions Sensitivity of anterior nare swabs and facial tissues in the detection of respiratory viruses by multiplex PCR varied by virus type. Given its simplicity and specificity, non-invasive sampling for PCR testing may be useful for conducting epidemiologic or surveillance studies in settings where invasive testing is impractical or not feasible.

Blaschke, Anne J.; Allison, Mandy A.; Meyers, Lindsay; Rogatcheva, Margarita; Heyrend, Caroline; Mallin, Brittany; Carter, Marjorie; LaFleur, Bonnie; Barney, Trenda; Poritz, Mark A.; Daly, Judy A.; Byington, Carrie L.

2011-01-01

167

Sample Collection of Ash and Burned Soils from the October 2007 Southern California Wildfires  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between November 2 through 9, 2007 scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected samples of ash and burned soils from 28 sites in six areas burned as a result of the Southern California wildfires of October 2007, including the Harris, Witch, Santiago, Ammo, Canyon, and Grass Valley Fires. The primary goal of this sampling and analysis effort was to understand how differences in ash and burned soil composition relate to vegetation type, underlying bedrock geology, burn intensity, and residential versus wildland. Sampling sites were chosen with the input of local experts from the USGS Water Resources and Biological Resources Disciplines to help understand possible effects of the fires on water supplies, ecosystems, and endangered species. The sampling was also carried out in conjunction with detailed field analysis of the spectral reflectance characteristics of the ash, so that chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the field samples could be used to help interpret data collected as part of an airborne, hyperspectral remote-sensing survey of several of the burned areas in mid-late November, 2007. This report presents an overview of the field sampling methodologies used to collect the samples, includes representative photos of the sites sampled, and summarizes important characteristics of each of the collection sites. In this report we use the term 'ash' to refer collectively to white mineral ash, which results from full combustion of vegetation and black charred organic matter from partial combustion of vegetation or other materials. These materials were found to be intermingled as a deposited residue on the soil surface following the Southern California fires of 2007.

Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Martin, Deborah A.; Rochester, Carlton; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Mendez, Greg; Reichard, Eric G.; Fisher, Robert N.

2009-01-01

168

Recommendations for Preserving the Integrity of Samples Collected on Mars and Returned to Earth for Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an integrated approach to planetary exploration, samples will ultimately be returned from Mars to Earth for analysis. This will be the next logical step in our exploration of the red planet as we strive to learn more about its evolution and investigate the possible occurrence of life on Mars. NASA's Curation and Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials (CAPTEM) has been studying the preservation issues for returning geological samples from Mars. The overriding goal of these studies has been the preservation of pristine Martian signatures in the returned samples, thus maximizing the scientific value of such missions. Preventing contamination/alteration is particularly critical for chemical, biological, and morphological signatures that are indicative of life, either extinct of extant. Such prevention is required for the short term during collection, transport, and re-entry and impact on Earth, as well as for long term curation. In this presentation, we discuss contamination issues within the framework of an Athena-like sampling mission; however, the concepts may be extrapolated to other plausible sampling scenarios. Issues encompassing preservation from the successful collection, to return to Earth, and curation of martian samples are discussed within this framework. We build upon earlier reports, and complement the recent Mars Sample Handling and Requirements Panel (MSHARP) report by concentrating on the samples themselves. Below is a summary of recommendations made by CAPTEM that will maximize the scientific value of any returned Martian samples. These recommendations are made, for the most part, with consideration of the stringent budgetary constraints that will be part of any sample return mission to Mars. The governing principle behind this study is that any procedure or piece of equipment that can impact (contaminate) the Mars samples during collection, transportation, or curation needs to be fully evaluated through analysis and experimentation prior to implementation by a scientific committee, that has expertise in extraterrestrial sample analysis, curation, and preservation.

Neal, C. R.; Jolliff, B. L.; Papike, J. J.; MacPherson, G.

2000-07-01

169

Detection of Torque teno virus DNA in exhaled breath by polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

To determine whether exhaled breath contains Torque teno virus (TTV) or not, we tested exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples by semi-nested PCR assay. We detected TTV DNA in 35% (7/20) of EBC samples collected from the mouth of one of the authors, demonstrating that TTV DNA is excreted in exhaled breath with moderate frequency. TTV DNA was detected also in oral EBC samples from 4 of 6 other authors, indicating that TTV DNA excretion in exhaled breath is not an exception but rather a common phenomenon. Furthermore, the same assay could amplify TTV DNA from room air condensate (RAC) samples collected at distances of 20 and 40cm from a human face with 40 (8/20) and 35% (7/20) positive rates, respectively. TTV transmission has been reported to occur during infancy. These distances seem equivalent to that between an infant and its household members while caring for the infant. Taken together, it seems that exhaled breath is one of the possible transmission routes of TTV. We also detected TTV DNA in 25% (10/40) of RAC samples collected at a distance of more than 180cm from any human face, suggesting the risk of airborne infection with TTV in a room. PMID:23093057

Chikasue, Kumiko; Kimura, Miyuki; Ikeda, Kazuyuki; Ohnishi, Takuma; Kawanishi, Satoshi; Iio, Tomoe; Kataoka, Mikio; Arao, Yujiro

2012-01-01

170

Markers of Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Metabolic Syndrome in a Multiethnic Sample of US Adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have documented an association between markers of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and metabolic syndrome. However, it is not clear if there are gender or ethnic differences in this association. We examined 6,122 participants aged ?20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–08. Metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of ?3 of the following components: (1) abdominal obesity, (2) elevated blood triglycerides, (3) low HDL cholesterol, (4) high BP, and (5) hyperglycemia. SDB severity was defined based on an additive summary score including sleep duration, snoring, snorting, and daytime sleepiness. We found that short sleep duration, snoring, snorting, daytime sleepiness and the summary SDB score were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome independent of potential confounders. Compared to those without any sleep disturbance, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of metabolic syndrome among those with three or more sleep disturbances was 3.92 (2.98–5.16). In subgroup analyses, this association was consistently present among men and women and all race-ethnic groups. In summary, SDB was independently associated with metabolic syndrome in a nationally representative sample of US adults.

Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Zhang, Ruoxin; Shankar, Anoop

2012-01-01

171

21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing (§...

2010-04-01

172

21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing (§...

2009-04-01

173

21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing (§...

2013-04-01

174

Breathing Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visual simulation and representation programs and applications have been popping up online in greater numbers, and this recent find is one that will pique the interest of scientists, policy makers, and others who are concerned about carbon dioxide emission rates across the Earth. The Breathing Earth site was created by David Bleja, and he draws on a number of resources (such as the World Factbook and the United Nations) for the data that is utilized to create this site. Visitors can scroll over different countries to learn about their population, their emissions, and their birth and death rate. This interactive map and educational resource also contains a legend in the right-hand corner which explains the various symbols in use here.

Bleja, David

175

Perforated dried blood spot accurate microsampling: the concept and its applications in toxicokinetic sample collection.  

PubMed

Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling has gained considerable interest as a microsampling technique to support drug discovery and development owing to its enormous ethical and practical benefits. Quantitative determinations of drugs and/or their metabolites collected in DBS matrix in its current format, however, have encountered technical challenges and regulatory uncertainty. The challenges of DBS bioanalysis are largely ascribed to the way how samples are collected and analyzed. Currently, an uncontrolled amount of a blood sample, e.g. 20 µl, is collected per time point per sample and spotted onto cellulose paper. Quantitation is based on removal of a fixed area of the DBS sample, resulting in sample waste, a need for mechanical punching and concomitant potential punching carryover, uncertainty in recovery assessment and the adverse impact of hematocrit on accurate quantitation. Here, we describe the concept and applications of a novel concept, namely perforated dried blood spot (PDBS), for accurate microsampling that addresses previous challenges. Advantages of PDBS are enumerated and compared with conventional DBS in the context of microsampling and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry bioanalysis. Two approaches for accurate microsampling of a small volume of blood (5 µl) are proposed and demonstrated, i.e. Microsafe® pipettes and the Drummond incremental pipette. Two online sample enrichment techniques to enhance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry sensitivity for microsampling bioanalysis are discussed. The PDBS concept was successfully applied for accurate sample collection (5 µl) in a toxicokinetic study in rats given a single oral gavage dose of acetaminophen. Perspectives on bioanalytical method validation for regulated DBS/PDBS microsampling are also presented. PMID:22576879

Li, Fumin; Ploch, Stephen; Fast, Douglas; Michael, Steve

2012-05-01

176

Sources of variability in collection and preparation of paint and lead-coating samples.  

PubMed

Chronic exposure of children to lead (Pb) can result in permanent physiological impairment. Since surfaces coated with lead-containing paints and varnishes are potential sources of exposure, it is extremely important that reliable methods for sampling and analysis be available. The sources of variability in the collection and preparation of samples were investigated to improve the performance and comparability of methods and to ensure that data generated will be adequate for its intended use. Paint samples of varying sizes (areas and masses) were collected at different locations across a variety of surfaces including metal, plaster, concrete, and wood. A variety of grinding techniques were compared. Manual mortar and pestle grinding for at least 1.5 min and mechanized grinding techniques were found to generate similar homogenous particle size distributions required for aliquots as small as 0.10 g. When 342 samples were evaluated for sample weight loss during mortar and pestle grinding, 4% had 20% or greater loss with a high of 41%. Homogenization and sub-sampling steps were found to be the principal sources of variability related to the size of the sample collected. Analysis of samples from different locations on apparently identical surfaces were found to vary by more than a factor of two both in Pb concentration (mg cm-2 or %) and areal coating density (g cm-2). Analyses of substrates were performed to determine the Pb remaining after coating removal. Levels as high as 1% Pb were found in some substrate samples, corresponding to more than 35 mg cm-2 Pb. In conclusion, these sources of variability must be considered in development and/or application of any sampling and analysis methodologies. PMID:11432274

Harper, S L; Gutknecht, W F

2001-06-01

177

Field guidelines for collection, treatment, and analysis of water samples, Montana district  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual provides a set of standardized guidelines and quality-control procedures for the collection and preservation of water samples and defines procedures for field analyses of unstable constituents or properties. Seldom is the water being samples of such uniformity that a single grab sample is representative of the whole. For this reason a variety of sampler types and sampling methods have been devised. Descriptions and procedures for field use are given for a number of sampler types. Several methods of sampling are described for which these samplers can be used. Sample-processing devices such as sample splitters and filtration apparatus are discussed along with methods of cleaning. Depending on the type of analysis to be performed in the laboratory, samples may need to be preserved shortly after collection. Various types of preservation are described in detail. Analyses for unstable constituents or properties are of necessity accomplished in the field. This manual addresses analytical techniques and quality assurance for: (1) Water temperature, (2) specific conductance, (3) pH, (4) alkalinity, (5) dissolved oxygen, and (6) bacteria. Examples of field report forms are given as attachments. Information pertinent to certain field calculations is also presented. (USGS)

Knapton, J. R.

1985-01-01

178

COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN USING COTTON GAUZE FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

To estimate pesticide exposure, urine samples are often needed to analyze pesticide metabolites. However, this is difficult for children wearing diapers because simple and feasible techniques suitable for field collection are not available. The objectives of this study were to t...

179

COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN USING GAUZE FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

To estimate pesticide exposure, urine samples are often needed to analyze pesticide metabolites. However, this is difficult for children wearing diapers because simple and feasible techniques suitable for field collection are not available. The objectives of this study were to te...

180

RADIOCARBON AGES AND ISOTOPE FRACTIONATIONS OF BEACHROCK SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM THE NANSEI ISLANDS, SOUTHWESTERN JAPAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 294 beachrock samples were collected from 116 sites on 15 islands in the Nansei Islands chain, southwestern Japan, and were radiocarbon dated. The beachrocks began to form at about 6900 BP and some are still under development in the islands. Values of isotope fractionations of different materials making up the beachrocks ranged between +9.4‰ and -5.7‰. Isotope

Kunio Omoto

181

College Students' Perceptions of Collective Efficacy: Results from a Nonurban Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and collective efficacy is well established in urban populations with community samples, it is unclear if this relationship holds in rural areas. The current study fills this gap by assessing the perceptions of adolescents from nonurban areas to examine the relationships between…

Domoff, Sarah E.; Hayman, Jennifer; Tompsett, Carolyn J.

2012-01-01

182

Obtaining Language Models of Web Collections Using Query-Based Sampling Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of information retrieval, traditional collec- tion selection algorithms have been widely studied. These algorithms utilize language models, a representation of the contents of each text collection over which selection is to be performed, but these language models cannot always be easily acquired. Query-based sampling is a technique by which these language models are discovered by inter- acting

Gary A. Monroe; James C. French; Allison L. Powell

2002-01-01

183

EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that...

184

Diagnostic Necropsy and Selected Tissue and Sample Collection in Rats and Mice  

PubMed Central

There are multiple sample types that may be collected from a euthanized animal in order to help diagnose or discover infectious agents in an animal colony. Proper collection of tissues for further histological processing can impact the quality of testing results. This article describes the conduct of a basic gross examination including identification of heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, and spleen, as well as how to collect those organs. Additionally four of the more difficult tissue/sample collection techniques are demonstrated. Lung collection and perfusion can be particularly challenging as the tissue needs to be properly inflated with a fixative in order for inside of the tissue to fix properly and to enable thorough histologic evaluation. This article demonstrates the step by step technique to remove the lung and inflate it with fixative in order to achieve optimal fixation of the tissue within 24 hours. Brain collection can be similarly challenging as the tissue is soft and easily damaged. This article demonstrates the step by step technique to expose and remove the brain from the skull with minimal damage to the tissue. The mesenteric lymph node is a good sample type in which to detect many common infectious agents as enteric viruses persist longer in the lymph node than they are shed in feces. This article demonstrates the step by step procedure for locating and aseptically removing the mesenteric lymph node. Finally, identification of infectious agents of the respiratory tract may be performed by bacterial culture or PCR testing of nasal and/or bronchial fluid aspirates taken at necropsy. This procedure describes obtaining and preparing the respiratory aspirate sample for bacterial culture and PCR testing.

Parkinson, Christina M.; O'Brien, Alexandra; Albers, Theresa M.; Simon, Meredith A.; Clifford, Charles B.; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R.

2011-01-01

185

Prospective Collection of Tissue Samples at Autopsy in Children with Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Brain tissue obtained at autopsy has been used in research for non-oncological disorders. However, this tool has never been systematically used in large investigational studies for cancer. We conducted a prospective, multicenter study to assess the feasibility of tissue collection at autopsy and its suitability for molecular analyses in children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. METHODS Tumor tissue was collected at diagnosis, if clinically indicated, or at autopsy. Normal brain tissue was also collected at autopsy. The integrity of DNA and RNA was evaluated in all samples. Logistical data about autopsies were recorded. The feasibility of tissue collection at autopsy was assessed for patients treated at a single institution over a 43-month period. RESULTS Tumor samples were collected at diagnosis (n=3) or at autopsy (n=38) at 29 centers across the US; samples were obtained at diagnosis and autopsy in two cases. The median interval from death to autopsy was 7.7 hours. DNA and RNA with minimal or partial degradation, which were suitable for genome-wide analysis, were obtained from 100% and 63% of tumor samples, respectively. At the coordinating institution, approximately 40% of parents consented to autopsy and 40% declined. During the study period, 12 autopsies were obtained from patients who did not receive therapy at the coordinating center. CONCLUSIONS Multicenter, biological studies based on tissue obtained at autopsy are feasible in children with brain cancer. Our experience established a new paradigm for brain tissue collection which may increase the potential for research studies in patients with cancer.

Broniscer, Alberto; Baker, Justin N.; Baker, Suzanne J.; Chi, Susan N.; Geyer, J. Russell; Morris, E. Brannon; Gajjar, Amar

2010-01-01

186

Personal exposure to volatile organic compounds *1I. Direct measurements in breathing-zone air, drinking water, food, and exhaled breath  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot study to test methods of estimating personal exposures to toxic substances and corresponding body burdens was carried out between July and December 1980. Individual exposures to about a dozen volatile organic compounds in air and drinking water were measured for volunteers in New Jersey and North Carolina. Breath samples were also collected from all subjects. About 230 personal

L. A. Wallace; E. Pellizzari; T. Hartwell; M. Rosenzweig; M. Erickson; C. Sparacino; H. Zelon

1984-01-01

187

Breathing difficulties - first aid  

MedlinePLUS

Breathing difficulties can range from being short of breath, unable to take a deep breath, gasping for air, or feeling like you are not getting enough air. This article discusses first aid for someone who is having breathing problems. See also: Choking

188

Analyses of human milk samples collected in Hawaii for residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls  

SciTech Connect

This work has revealed that the chlorinated hydrocarbon residues found in human milk samples collected from residents in the State of Hawaii were statistically the same residues found in mainland human milk samples. Moreover, the levels at which these residues were detected in Hawaiian samples were comparable to those detected in mainland samples, and differences between the two groups of samples were not apparent. The close correlation between residue analyses was unexpected considering Hawaii's geographic isolation and the distinct ethnic diets of its populations. They do indicate, however, that the uptake of chlorinated hdyrocarbon contaminants by the population of this state is not specific and is most likely due to some physiological means of entry which is common to the populations of the mainland states.

Takei, G.H.; Kauahikaua, S.M.; Leong, G.H.

1983-01-01

189

Crystallography of Powdered Samples at High Pressure: Practical Aspects of Diffraction Data Collection and Analysis.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation we will give an overview of some typical techniques used to collect, and to analyse, angle- dispersive x-ray diffraction data from powdered samples under high-pressure (and temperature) conditions. The presentation will have a practical basis, using data collected from samples at high-pressure and temperature conditions using large-volume presses and diamond-anvil cells that have been either resistively or laser-heated. We will show how these experiments have been optimised to obtain a variety of different experimental results (phase identification and phase diagram mapping, EoS measurement, structure solution, etc). We will demonstrate different analysis procedures, explain their methodology and, as often as possible, present these analyses with software that is freely available. Demonstration of the techniques will take the audience though basic elements of diffraction data collection and methods of phase identification to indexing and unit-cell refinement, though some common structure solution methods and Rietveld refinement strategies. We will also discuss methods for collecting better data and maximising the information that can be gleaned from powdered samples (of minerals, ceramics, element, glasses, liquids and other materials) at high pressure.

Crichton, W. A.

2006-12-01

190

Curatorial statistics on apollo regolith fragments applicable to sample collection by raking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technological and science risk for robotic sample return missions to the Moon is lowered because of lessons learned from the effectiveness of Apollo sampling devices in recovering the specimens desired. Apollo lunar sample curatorial statistics of the specimens collected by the astronauts, and the sub-samples allocated for scientific research, have useful information applicable to future lunar robotic sample return missions. Because regolith processes are global, the best broad-based predictors of numbers of fragments to be expected from sieving lunar regolith are the results of sieving 144 Apollo soil samples from 4 sites comprising 46 kg of material.Weight percents are: 1-2 mm (4%), 2-4 mm (3%), 4-10 mm (3%). We assume that future sample return missions will focus on recovery of igneous crystalline material or crystalline melt sheet material, untainted by regolith processing. Therefore we assigned 474 rocks, 665 rake samples and 3376 fragments (4-10 mm) as either "crystalline" or "regolith-derived", based on existing lithologic characterizations developed by the Preliminary Examination Teams. For rocks statistically gathered with 1-cm -spaced tines (the rake samples), an increase in relative abundance of regolith-derived specimens occurs among lower weight rocks.The weight at which the number of regolith-derived samples exceed crystalline samples occurs at 18g for Apollo 16, 10 g for Apollo 17 and 6 g for Apollo 15. When the crystalline fraction for rocks, rakes and 4-10 rum fragments is compared for each sampling station, the relative abundance of crystalline material is consistent in all sizes, but differences between sampling stations within a landing site are distinct.

Allton, J. H.; Bevill, T. J.

2003-06-01

191

Optimizing the soil sample collection strategy to identify maximum volatile organic compound concentrations in soil borings  

SciTech Connect

The primary focus of the initial stages of a remedial investigation is to collect useful data for source identification and determination of the extent of soil contamination. To achieve this goal, soil samples should be collected at locations where the maximum concentration of contaminants exist. This study was conducted to determine the optimum strategy for selecting soil sample locations within a boring. Analytical results from soil samples collected during the remedial investigation of a Department of Defense Superfund site were used for the analysis. Trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethene (PCE) results were compared with organic vapor monitor (OVM) readings, lithologies, and organic carbon content to determine if these parameters can be used to choose soil sample locations in the field that contain the maximum concentration of these analytes within a soil boring or interval. The OVM was a handheld photoionization detector (PID) for screening the soil core to indicate areas of VOC contamination. The TCE and PCE concentrations were compared across lithologic contacts and within each lithologic interval. The organic content used for this analysis was visually estimated by the geologist during soil logging.

Siebenmann, K. (Radian Corp., Sacramento, CA (United States))

1993-10-01

192

Responses measured in the exhaled breath of human volunteers acutely exposed to ozone and diesel exhaust.  

PubMed

Exhaled breath collection is used to identify and monitor inflammatory or oxidative components in breath. Exhaled breath sample collection is noninvasive and would greatly benefit human pollutant exposure research. We demonstrate the efficacy of exhaled breath collection and analysis in two human exposure studies to ozone (O(3)) and diesel exhaust, respectively. O(3) study: we collected exhaled breath (gas phase) from healthy human volunteers (age 18-35 years, 12 subjects) immediately before and after exposure to filtered air or 0.4 ppm O(3) for 2 h with and without intermittent exercise. Six subjects received antioxidant supplementation for 2 weeks before their O(3) exposure, while the remaining six subjects received placebo treatments. We demonstrate increased amounts of non-polar carbonyls exhaled immediately post O(3) exposure. The O(3)-induced increase in exhaled carbonyl concentrations was attenuated in the group receiving antioxidants. Our data demonstrate that exhaled exposure biomarkers can be measured in the breath gas phase in humans exposed to O(3). Diesel study: we collected exhaled breath condensate (EBC; liquid phase) from healthy human volunteers (age 18-40 years; 10 subjects) immediately before, immediately after and 20 h post filtered air or diesel exhaust (106 ± 9 µg m(-3)) exposure. Clean air and diesel exposures were separated by 3 weeks to 6 months. We obtained reproducible intra-subject EBC volumes and total protein concentrations across our six collection time points. Diesel exposure did not affect either EBC volume or total protein concentrations. Our data demonstrated EBC volume and total protein reproducibility over several months. Volume and total protein concentration may serve as normalizing factors for other EBC constituents. PMID:21386180

Sawyer, K; Samet, J M; Ghio, A J; Pleil, J D; Madden, M C

2008-09-08

193

Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations derived from flask samples collected at USSR-operated sampling sites  

SciTech Connect

This document presents daily atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations from four USSR-operated sampling sites (Teriberka Station, Ocean Station Charlie, Bering Island, and Kotelny Island). The period of record varies by station with the earliest measurements dating back to 1983 and recent estimates from early 1991. These CO{sub 2} concentrations are derived from air samples collected in 1.5-L stainless steel electropolished flasks and later analyzed at the Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg, USSR) using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer. Measurements not meeting wind direction, wind speed, inter-flask agreement, and climate condition criteria were either discarded or flagged. All measurements have been corrected for drift biases introduced during flask storage. These atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are considered indicative of regional background air conditions and are directly traceable to the World Meteorological Organization`s primary CO{sub 2} standards. These measurements support the rising trend in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations measured at other monitoring sites around the world and may be compared with similar measurements made by various monitoring programs at other northern latitude sites. The document presents the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations in graphical and tabular form, describes the sampling methods, defines limitations and restrictions of the data, and describes the information on the magnetic media.

Boden, T.A. [comp.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Brounshtein, A.M.; Faber, E.V.; Shashkov, A.A. [Glavnaya Geofizicheskaya Observatoriya, St. Petersburg (USSR)

1991-12-01

194

Feasibility of emotion recognition from breath gas information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a smart gas sensing system to achieve emotion recognition using breath gas information. A breath gas sensing system is designed by using a quartz crystal resonator with a plasma-polymer film as a sensor. To collect breath gas data under emotional state, psychological experiments are carried out using a dental rise to excite emotions. In computational experiment of

Kazuhiko Takahashi; Iwao Sugimoto

2008-01-01

195

Simultaneous NO and CO2 measurement in human breath with a single IV-VI mid-infrared laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) system equipped with a IV-VI mid-IR laser operating near 5.2 ?m was used to measure exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) simultaneously in human breath over a single exhalation. Breath was sampled in real time, and eNO levels were measured from seven volunteers, two steroid-naive asthmatics and five nonasthmatics. Measured CO2 levels were used as an internal standard to verify correct breath collection and calculate eNO values. Calculated eNO concentrations agreed well with reported values for asthmatic and nonasthmatic individuals.

Roller, C.; Namjou, K.; Jeffers, J.; Potter, W.; McCann, P. J.; Grego, J.

2002-01-01

196

Detection of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath from users following recovery from intoxication.  

PubMed

It has recently been demonstrated that amphetamine, methadone and tetrahydrocannabinol are detectable in exhaled breath following intake. Exhaled breath, therefore, constitutes a new possible matrix for drugs-of-abuse testing. The present work aims to further explore this possibility by a study on patients treated for acute intoxication with abused drugs. Fifty-nine patients (44 males, age range 24-74) were included in the study, and breath, plasma and urine samples were collected following recovery, together with interview data. Analyses of breath and plasma samples were conducted with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. Urine was screened using immunochemical reagents and positive findings confirmed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The following analytes were investigated: methadone, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, codeine, 6-acetylmorphine, diazepam, oxazepam, morphine, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, buprenorphine and tetrahydrocannabinol. In 53 of the studied cases, recent intake of an abused substance prior to admission was reported. In 35 of these (66%), the breath analysis gave a positive finding. Identifications were based on correct chromatographic retention time and product ion ratios obtained in selected reaction monitoring mode. Generally, data from breath, plasma, urine and self-report were in agreement. Detected substances in breath included amphetamine, methamphetamine, buprenorphine, 6-acetylmorphine, morphine, codeine, methadone, tetrahydrocannabinol, diazepam, oxazepam and cocaine. Problem analytes with low detection rates were benzodiazepines and tetrahydrocannabinol. This study gives further support to the possibility of developing exhaled breath into a new matrix for drugs-of-abuse testing by extending the number of analytes that are documented to be detectable in breath. PMID:23045289

Beck, Olof; Stephanson, Niclas; Sandqvist, Sören; Franck, Johan

2012-10-07

197

How Long Can You Hold Your Breath?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on page 142 of the PDF), learners will compare breathing rates before and after hyperventilation to explore how reduced carbon dioxide levels in the blood lower the need to breathe. This activity also includes information about how microgravity conditions in space affect sleep and breathing rates of astronauts. This activity can be enhanced by sharing the "Astronaut's Sleep" Podcast with learners (see related resource link). This resource guide includes background information and sample evaluation questions. Note: learners with respiratory ailments, such as asthma or allergies, should not participate in the breath-holding part of this activity.

Macleish, Marlene Y.; Mclean, Bernice R.

2013-05-15

198

Comparison of blood ethanol concentrations in samples simultaneously collected into expired and unexpired venipuncture tubes.  

PubMed

Blood sample collection kits manufactured for the Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension contain venipuncture tubes with an expiration date that the tube manufacturer utilizes to ensure sufficient vacuum to fill the tubes. Legal challenges to blood ethanol analyses that involved the use of expired venipuncture tubes prompted a study comparing ethanol analysis results in expired venipuncture tubes (up to 74 months beyond the expiration date) and in unexpired venipuncture tubes. Blood samples were collected during controlled drinking sessions using 10-mL venipuncture tubes containing 100 mg of sodium fluoride and 20 mg of potassium oxalate and were analyzed by headspace gas chromatography. The data obtained indicate that the ethanol concentrations in the expired and unexpired venipuncture tubes were statistically identical. PMID:16839468

Zittel, Donna B; Hardin, Glenn G

2006-06-01

199

Sample collection guidelines for trace elements in blood and urine. IUPAC Commission of Toxicology.  

PubMed

This paper presents an organized system for element-specific sample collection and handling of human blood (whole blood, serum or plasma, packed cells or erythrocytes) and urine also indicating a proper definition of the subject and sample. Harmonized procedures for collection, preparation, analysis and quality control are suggested. The aim is to assist scientists worldwide to produce comparable data which will be useful on a regional, national and international scale. The guidelines are directed to the elements aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium and zinc. These include the most important elements measured for their occupational or clinical significance, and serve as examples of principles that will guide development of methods for other elements in the future. PMID:8829133

Cornelis, R; Heinzow, B; Herber, R F; Christensen, J M; Poulsen, O M; Sabbioni, E; Templeton, D M; Thomassen, Y; Vahter, M; Vesterberg, O

1996-06-01

200

Potential contamination of forensic entomology samples collected in the mortuary: a case report.  

PubMed

Carrion insects originating from infested bodies may establish small mortuary populations. Two Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine cases are presented to illustrate how these insects can potentially contaminate forensic entomology samples collected in the mortuary. The first case proves that bodies can be colonised in the mortuary: when a decomposed body in freezer storage was thawed for a procedure in the main mortuary, it was colonised within five minutes of exposure by the beetle Necrobia rufipes De Geer (Cleridae, Coleoptera). The second case illustrates that immobile juvenile insects can be transferred between bodies, and describes the transfer of an Eristalis sp. (Syrphidae, Diptera) pupa from a decomposed to a fresh body. While the contamination risk is slight, it can be further minimised by checking mortuary-collected samples against those taken from the body discovery site, by mortuary pest control, and by checking previous mortuary admittance records for possible contamination sources. PMID:15745280

Archer, M S; Ranson, D L

2005-01-01

201

Occurrence and determination of organic pollutants in aerosol, precipitation, and sediment samples collected at Lake Balaton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the determination of different organic pollutants [organic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes, volatile hydrocarbons] in aerosols, precipitation, atmosphere, and sediment samples collected at Lake Balaton are presented. Different chromatographic methods were used: capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) for organic acids, GC–MS for n-alkanes, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and HPLC for PAHs and thermal desorption–GC for BTEX (benzene, toluene,

Gyula Kiss; András Gelencsér; Zoltán Krivácsy; József Hlavay

1997-01-01

202

Pain and faulty breathing: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this pilot study was to observe both relaxed and deep breathing patterns in a convenience sample to determine the incidence of normal versus faulty patterns of respiration. These observations were then combined with respondent answers to a survey on pain history to determine if there is any correlation between faulty breathing and musculo-skeletal pain patterns. If such

Maria A. Perri; Elizabeth Halford

2004-01-01

203

Measuring Your Breathing Frequency at Rest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about the brain and sleep (on page 138 of the PDF), learners measure their resting breathing rates. Learners will discover that breathing frequencies vary amongst individuals. This activity can be enhanced by sharing the "Astronaut's Sleep" Podcast with learners (see related resource link). This resource guide includes background information and sample evaluation questions.

Macleish, Marlene Y.; Mclean, Bernice R.

2013-05-15

204

Experimental study of the sampling artifact of chloride depletion from collected sea salt aerosols.  

PubMed

Sampling artifact of chloride depletion from collected sea salt particles was studied, based on simultaneous measurements of size distribution measurements by a 10-stage Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) and of PM2.5 measurements by a Compact Porous Metal Denuder Sampler (PMDS) at a coastal site in Hong Kong on May 7, 8, 9, 11, and 29, 1998. The ambient concentrations of SO2, HNO3, HNO2, and NH3 were also measured by the PMDS. PM2.5 measurements by the PMDS, which is equipped with denuders and nylon back filters, are compared with the PM1.8 and PM3.1 measurements by the MOUDI. The percentages of chloride depletion from sea salt aerosols in PM1.8 and PM3.1 were 4-45% higher than that in PM2.5. This suggests that chloride evaporation in PM1.8 and PM3.1 collected on Teflon filters of the MOUDI during sampling was present. From the sum of the contributions of particles on the Teflon and nylon filters of the PMDS, nitrate formation almost completely accounts for chloride depletion in PM2.5 prior to collection since the equivalent ratio of [Na+] to ([NO3-] + [Cl-]) is close to the seawater ratio of 0.85. However, it was found that 22-74% of nitrate and 45-86% of chloride in the collected particles on the Teflon filter of the PMDS evaporated during sampling. Excess chloride depletion unexplained by NO3- and nss-SO4(2-) was found in the collected particles on the Teflon filter of the PMDS. Similarly, an amount of 3.7-27.2 nequiv m-3 of excess depleted chloride (equivalent to 8-55% of total chloride depletion) was found in supermicron particles collected by the MOUDI. In the 1.8-3.1 microns particles, the excess depleted chloride is positively correlated to the chloride evaporated from the deposited particles. Particle--particle interactions are proposed to explain the evaporation of nitrates and chlorides in the PMDS and MOUDI measurements. The observed chloride depletion from seasalt aerosols was partially attributed to sampling artifact due to particle--particle interactions. PMID:11351735

Yao, X; Fang, M; Chan, C K

2001-02-01

205

Effect of temperature on stability of sulfur dioxide samples collected by the federal reference method. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes an evaluation of the effect of temperature on the stability of samples collected according to the Environmental Protection Agency procedure for measurement of ambient sulfur dioxide. This evaluation was carried out over the range 35 to 278 micrograms per cubic meter of air sampled. Collected samples were found to decay at a critical temperature-dependent rate. The rate

R. G. Fuerst; F. P. Scaringelli; J. H. Margeson

1976-01-01

206

Breathing and temporomandibular joint disease.  

PubMed

Temporomandibular joint disease (TMD) refers to a collection of pain related conditions in the masticatory muscles and temporomandibular joint. Occlusal factors have been implicated in TMD pathogenesis, yet despite decades of research no causal relationship between occlusion and TMD has been found. The significance of psychosocial factors in both the assessment and the long-term management of patients with TMD is receiving increased recognition. The teaching of relaxation skills and coping strategies are effective, proven TMD therapies. The role of breathing re-education in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders is rarely mentioned. A focus on breathing patterns and their disorders potentially explains how biomechanical factors associated with psychosocial influences might lead to pathophysiological changes within the TMJ as well as in the associated muscles. Attention to factors such as breathing and postural rehabilitation provides health professionals valuable, additional tools to help care for patients with TMD. PMID:21665104

Bartley, Jim

2010-06-25

207

Strategies for the simultaneous collection of vapours and aerosols with emphasis on isocyanate sampling.  

PubMed

Workplace air frequently contains hazardous substances that may be present as vapours or as aerosols with a wide range of particle sizes. Depending upon a chemical species' volatility and use, it may be present in significant amounts in both the vapour and particulate phases. Unfortunately, the mechanisms by which vapours and particles are removed from an air stream during pumped sampling are substantially different. Collection of vapour molecules relies on their diffusion to a surface during their residence time in a sampler. Once in contact with a surface, vapour molecules are trapped either by adsorption onto a solid surface, absorption by a liquid, or by reaction with the medium or chemicals in the medium. Aerosol particles are most frequently collected by filtration or inertial impaction. However, if it is necessary to collect both phases simultaneously, a sampler with two stages is generally required. The exact nature of the sampler depends upon the size of the aerosol particles and the physical and chemical characteristics of the species of interest. A number of recent projects undertaken by researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health have dealt with development of sampling and analytical methods for compounds present in workplace air as both vapour and aerosol particles. One strategy invoked in several instances consisted of a filter for particle collection followed by an appropriate second stage for vapour collection. For organophosphorus pesticides, the second stage was a sorbent tube. For gaseous hydrogen fluoride, it was an alkaline-impregnated back-up pad. For formaldehyde, the second stage was an impinger containing an aqueous solution of sodium hydrogensulfite.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8154600

Streicher, R P; Kennedy, E R; Lorberau, C D

1994-01-01

208

Pesticide residues in beeswax samples collected from honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera L.) in France.  

PubMed

In 2002 a field survey was initiated in French apiaries in order to monitor the health of honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera L.). Studied apiaries were evenly distributed across five sites located in continental France. Beeswax samples were collected once a year over 2 years from a total of 125 honey bee colonies. Multiresidue analyses were performed on these samples in order to identify residues of 16 insecticides and acaricides and two fungicides. Residues of 14 of the searched-for compounds were found in samples. Tau-fluvalinate, coumaphos and endosulfan residues were the most frequently occurring residues (61.9, 52.2 and 23.4% of samples respectively). Coumaphos was found in the highest average quantities (792.6 microg kg(-1)). Residues of cypermethrin, lindane and deltamethrin were found in 21.9, 4.3 and 2.4% of samples respectively. Statistical tests showed no difference between years of sampling, with the exception of the frequency of pyrethroid residues. Beeswax contamination was the result of both in-hive acaricide treatments and, to a much lesser extent, environmental pollution. PMID:17879980

Chauzat, Marie-Pierre; Faucon, Jean-Paul

2007-11-01

209

Analysis of tipple and delivered samples of coal collected during Fiscal Year 1980. Report of investigations. [Approximately 2200 coal samples analyzed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Department of Energy (DOE) publication updates a series of Reports of Investigation on the quality of coal purchases under specifications for Government use. Listed in alphabetical order by state, county, town, and mine are analytical data on the composition and quality of tipple and delivered samples of coal collected during fiscal year 1980. Tipple samples were collected by a

Welsh

1981-01-01

210

Ion chromatographic measurement of fluoride and sulfur dioxide in samples collected at aluminum smelters  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of airborne fluoride and sulfur dioxide in aluminum smelting plants is important for both industrial hygiene and environmental reasons. The traditional analytical techniques employed have been ion-selective electrodes (ISE) for fluoride and barium/thorin titration for SO2. In this study, ion chromatography (IC) was evaluated as a substitute for these two techniques. Dust for particulate fluoride was collected on membrane filters with carbonate-treated backup pads to collect HF and SO2. Gaseous fluoride and SO2 were ultrasonically extracted from the treated pad, but particulate fluoride required a borate/carbonate fusion. Collection efficiency and recovery of the analytes, along with the acceptable working ranges and instrument conditions used with IC, are discussed. IC is a desirable substitute for the electrode and titration methods because it is easily automated and the two determinations may be performed simultaneously. Organic compounds may cause interference in low-level fluoride measurement. Comparison of the techniques for field samples indicates that IC is an adequate substitute for the traditional measurement methods for full-shift samples of fluoride.

Balya, D.R. (Aluminum Company of America, Alcoa Technical Center, PA (United States))

1991-08-01

211

Estimation of actinide skeletal content in humans based on bone samples collected at autopsy.  

PubMed

The USTUR has developed simple linear and multiple regression models for estimating skeletal actinide concentrations on the basis of bone samples collected at autopsies of non-whole body tissue donors. Bone samples usually collected include a clavicle, the patella(e), one or more ribs, the sternum, and a vertebral wedge cut from within the abdominal cavity. The described models were derived by regression analyses with the analytical results from those bones and the entire skeletons of eight whole body donations to the USTUR. With the model, skeletal concentrations of 238Pu, (239+240)Pu, and 241Am can be estimated from wet or ashed actinide concentrations in one to five of the bones usually collected at autopsy and analyzed. Application of the models to a selected USTUR non-whole body donation (Case 0240) indicated that the skeletal actinide concentration estimates were reasonably precise and that there was good agreement between the results from individual bones with wet or ashed actinide concentrations. The USTUR will apply the model that is based on wet concentrations of bones to estimate skeletal concentrations of actinides in all non-whole body autopsy cases for the sake of consistency because of the large number of early cases for which ashed weights of bones were not recorded. PMID:12498516

Filipy, R E; Alldredge, J R; Hall, C A; McInroy, J F; Glover, S E; Qualls, S

2003-01-01

212

[Breath-analysis tests in gastroenetrological diagnosis].  

PubMed

The introduction of a simple method for analysis of 14CO2 in breath allowed a more widely application of breath-tests in the diagnosis of gastroenterological diseases. During a breath-test a 14C-labelled compound is administered orally and 14CO2 is subsequently measured in breath by discontinuous samplings of 14CO2 by virtue of a trapping solution (hyamine hydroxide). Most helpful tests in gastroenterology are the 14C-glycyl-cholate breath test for detecting increased deconjugation of bile acids due to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth or bile acid malabsorption in ileal resection or Crohn's disease of the ileum, the 14C-lactose breath test in lactase deficiency, whereas the 14C-tripalmitin test seems less helpful in the diagnosis of fat malabsorption. A 14C-aminopyrine breath test may turn out to be a simple and valuable liver function test. Oral loading tests with breath analysis of H2 have shown to be helpful in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, determination of intestinal transit time and intestinal gas production. Due to technical reasons (gas-chromatographie analysis) H2-breath analysis is still limited to research centers. Despite low radiation doses after oral administration of 14C-labelled compounds oral loading tests with H2- or 13C-analysis might be preferable in the future. PMID:773014

Caspary, W F

1975-12-01

213

Correlations between blood glucose and breath components from portable gas sensors and PTR-TOF-MS.  

PubMed

Acetone is one of the most abundant volatile compounds in the human breath and might be important for monitoring diabetic patients. Here, a portable acetone sensor consisting of flame-made, nanostructured, Si-doped WO3 sensing films was used to analyse the end tidal fraction of the breath (collected in Tedlar bags) from eight healthy volunteers after overnight fasting (morning) and after lunch (afternoon). After breath sampling, the gaseous components were also analysed by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS), and each person's blood glucose level was measured. The portable sensor accurately detected the presence of acetone with fast response/recovery times (<12 s) and a high signal-to-noise ratio. Statistical analysis of the relationship between the PTR-TOF-MS measurements of breath gases (e.g., acetone, isoprene, ethanol and methanol), sensor response and the blood glucose level was performed for both sampling periods. The best correlations were found after overnight fasting (morning): in particular, between blood glucose level and breath acetone (Pearson's 0.98 and Spearman's 0.93). Whereas the portable sensor response correlated best with the blood glucose (Pearson's 0.96 and Spearman's 0.81) and breath acetone (Pearson's 0.92 and Spearman's 0.69). PMID:23959908

Righettoni, M; Schmid, A; Amann, A; Pratsinis, S E

2013-08-20

214

Determination of boron contents in water samples collected from the Neelum valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Intake of boron from food and drinking water may pose a risk to the public health above a certain concentration level. Therefore, knowledge of boron concentration in drinking water and food items is essential. In this context, samples of drinking water were collected from natural springs of the Neelum valley, Azad Kashmir, hit by devastating earthquake in 2005. In these samples, boron concentration was determined using neutron-induced radiography technique. To do so, unknown water samples, along with standard of known boron dried on CR-39 detectors, were irradiated with thermal neutrons. After exposure, CR-39 detectors were etched in 6 M NaOH at 70°C. The tracks produced due to the alpha particles and (7)Li ions as a result of (10)B(n,?)(7)Li reaction were counted under an optical microscope. The tracks produced in theses samples were then related to the boron contents. The measured boron concentration in water samples was found to vary from 0.105?±?0.005 to 0.247?±?0.013 mg/l with an average value of 0.17?±?0.04 mg/l, which are within the acceptable limits. PMID:20306233

Akram, Muhammad; Matiullah; Iqbal, Arshid; Husaini, S N; Malik, Fariha

2010-03-20

215

Miniature CVD-diamond corning drills for robotic sample collection and analysis.  

SciTech Connect

Coring tools have been used etlectivelv on the Moon, but to date no such tools have been used on any other extraterrestrial surface. The lunar experience includes both manual (Apollo) and robotic (Luna) systems . These coring systems were concerned primarily with acquiring samples from depth for return to Earth or for the creation of instrument emplacement holes (e .g ., heat probes). Current designs for planetary drills differ from the lunar tools primarily in that they are integrated with robotic instrumentation for remote analysis, but the role of the drilling or coring system remains one of acquiring samples that must be extracted from the core barrel for analysis . Missing from current sample collection systems is a tool that can double as both a conng device and a sample holder. This dual utility can minimize the number of motions, the mass, and the power required for several classes of instruments in planetary surface exploration. To be effective, such a system must be durable and simple in operation. Hollow CVD diamond drills possess the hardness, excellent cutting properties, and heat resistance required for drilling into a wide variety of rocks and minerals. Because CVD diamond is also unreactive and transparent to infrared radiation and to X-rays of moderate to high energry, it can be used as a sample holder in various instruments for X-ray diffraction (XRD), Xray fluorescence (XRF), infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermal analysis.

Vaniman, D. T. (David T.); Trava-Airoldi, V.J.; Bish, D. L. (David L.); Chipera, S. J. (Steve J.)

2003-01-01

216

Pesticide-sampling equipment, sample-collection and processing procedures, and water-quality data at Chicod Creek, North Carolina, 1992  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-quality samples were collected from Chicod Creek in the Coastal Plain Province of North Carolina during the summer of 1992 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Chicod Creek is in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage area, one of four study units designated to test equipment and procedures for collecting and processing samples for the solid-phase extraction of selected pesticides, The equipment and procedures were used to isolate 47 pesticides, including organonitrogen, carbamate, organochlorine, organophosphate, and other compounds, targeted to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sample-collection and processing equipment equipment cleaning and set-up procedures, methods pertaining to collecting, splitting, and solid-phase extraction of samples, and water-quality data resulting from the field test are presented in this report Most problems encountered during this intensive sampling exercise were operational difficulties relating to equipment used to process samples.

Manning, T. K.; Smith, K. E.; Wood, C. D.; Williams, J. B.

1994-01-01

217

Rapid shallow breathing  

MedlinePLUS

Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... your oxygen level is too low and nebulized respiratory treatments if you are having an asthma attack.

218

Guidance on Choosing a Sampling Design for Environmental Data Collection for Use in Developing a Quality Assurance Project Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides guidance on how to create sampling designs to collect environmental measurement data. This guidance describes several relevant basic and innovative sampling designs, and describes the process for deciding which design is right for a...

2002-01-01

219

Elemental analysis of Ginkgo biloba leaf samples collected during one vegetation period.  

PubMed

The object of our work was the identification and quantification of inorganic elements in Ginkgo biloba L. leaves (Ginkgonis folium, Ginkgoaceae) by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The plant material was obtained from a 50-years-old female tree at the Comenius University Botanical Garden (Bratislava, Slovakia). Leaves were collected from early May to late September, with the last sample consisting of fallen leaves. The elements analyzed were: phosphorus, sulfur, potassium, calcium, scandium, iron, zinc, yttrium, molybdenum, tellurium, samarium, gadolinium, dysprosium, iridium, thallium and lead. The amounts of the monitored heavy metals were below the limits specified in Ph. Eur. 7 and PhS 1. PMID:24079191

Czigle, Szilvia; Háznagy-Radnai, Erzsébet; Pintye-Hódi, Klára; Tóth, Jaroslav; Tekel'ová, Daniela; Máthé, Imre

2013-08-01

220

Isotopic composition and origin of uranium and plutonium in selected soil samples collected in Kosovo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil samples collected from locations in Kosovo where depleted uranium (DU) ammunition was expended during the 1999 Balkan conflict were analysed for uranium and plutonium isotopes content (234U,235U,236U,238U,238Pu,239+240Pu). The analyses were conducted using gamma spectrometry (235U,238U), alpha spectrometry (238Pu,239+240Pu), inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP—MS) (234U,235U,236U,238U) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) (236U). The results indicated that whenever the U concentration exceeded

P. R. Danesi; A. Bleise; W. Burkart; T. Cabianca; M. J. Campbell; M. Makarewicz; J. Moreno; C. Tuniz; M. Hotchkis

2003-01-01

221

Biobanks for research. Ethical and legal aspects in human biological samples collections in France.  

PubMed

Because they gather huge quantities of human biological samples and information allowing for better understanding of diseases, biobanks appear as a very powerful tool for boosting both medical research and public health as a whole. Although France does not really appear as a leader in biobanking compared to China or UK, biobanks and other samples collections abound in our country and have then been regulated, even though french law does not use the term biobank as such. The present article gives an overview of the current legal framework and explores the remaining ethical and legal issues, concerning particularly the protection of donors, the sharing of biobanks content and the sharing of biobanks benefits. The article explains how these universal questions arise in this country and what answers (sometimes specific) they get or could get in the following years. PMID:22924200

Noiville, Christine

2012-06-01

222

Methods for collecting benthic invertebrate samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Benthic invertebrate communities are evaluated as part of the ecological survey component of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These biological data are collected along with physical and chemical data to assess water-quality conditions and to develop an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. The objectives of benthic invertebrate community characterizations are to (1) develop for each site a list of tax a within the associated stream reach and (2) determine the structure of benthic invertebrate communities within selected habitats of that reach. A nationally consistent approach is used to achieve these objectives. This approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection and methods and equipment for qualitative multihabitat sampling and semi-quantitative single habitat sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data within and among study units.

Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

1993-01-01

223

Development and validation of on-farm sampling methods for the collection of marketing (quality) samples at harvest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the accuracy of different grain sampling methods by sampling on farms at harvest during 2002 and 2003. A number of different methods of sampling are compared along with the consequences of using composite samples. Results showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the sampling methods used for any of the parameters measured (moisture content, dry

J. D. Knight; D. R. Wilkin

2010-01-01

224

Combined-sewer overflow data and methods of sample collection for selected sites, Detroit, Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From October 1, 1994 through December 31, 1995, four combined-sewer discharging to the Detroit River in Detroit, Michigan were monitored to characterize storm-related water quantity and quality. Water velocity, stage, discharge, and precipitation were measured continuously and recorded at 5-minute intervals. Water-quality samples were collected at discrete times during each storm and analyzed for inorganic and organic pollutants. This report includes the sampling approach, field collection and processing techniques, and methods of chemical analysis, as well as a compilation of combined sewer discharge volumes, chemical data, and quality control data. These data may be used by resource managers and scientists (1) to describe temporal variation for pollutant concentrations in combined-sewage for various overflow events; (2) to describe spatial distribution of selected pollutants in the four combined-sewer overflows discharging to the Detroit River; (3) to calculate pollutant loads to the Detroit River from the four overflow sites for the monitored storm events; (4) to estimate pollutant loadings form other overflow sites; and, (5) to provide data and information which can be used to define appropriate management methods to reduce or eliminate untreated combined-sewer overflows. Selected combined-sewers were sampled between 30 and 82 times for inorganic pollutants, and between 14 and 22 times for organic pollutants, depending on the site. These samples represented between 8 and 17 storms during which one or more combined-sewers overflowed. The monitored pollutants included fecal coliform, fecal streptococci, and Escherichia coli; antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, total chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, silver, thallium and zinc; and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, volatile organic compounds, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. In general, metal and non-metal inorganic pollutants were detected at all sites. Many organic pollutants were not detected at all.

Sweat, M. J.; Wolf, J. R.

1997-01-01

225

Comparison of self-collected vaginal, vulvar and urine samples with physician-collected cervical samples for human papillomavirus testing to detect high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical samples are strongly associated with squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and invasive cer- vical carcinoma. We determined and compared the test characteristics of testing for HPV with samples obtained by patients and with samples obtained by their physicians. Methods: In a consecutive series of women referred to a colposcopy clinic at a

Father Sean O'Sullivan; John W. Sellors; Attila T. Lorincz; James B. Mahony; Iwona Mielzynska; Alice Lytwyn; Paula Roth; Michelle Howard; Sylvia Chong; Dean Daya; William Chapman; Max Chernesky

226

Activity concentrations of environmental samples collected in Fukushima Prefecture immediately after the Fukushima nuclear accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radionuclide concentrations in environmental samples such as surface soils, plants and water were evaluated by high purity germanium detector measurements. The contribution rate of short half-life radionuclides such as 132I to the exposure dose to residents was discussed from the measured values. The highest values of the 131I/137Cs activity ratio ranged from 49 to 70 in the environmental samples collected at Iwaki City which is located to the south of the F1-NPS. On the other hand, the 132I/131I activity ratio in the same environmental samples had the lowest values, ranging from 0.01 to 0.02. By assuming that the 132I/131I activity ratio in the atmosphere was equal to the ratio in the environmental samples, the percent contribution to the thyroid equivalent dose by 132I was estimated to be less than 2%. Moreover, the contribution to the thyroid exposure by 132I might be negligible if 132I contamination was restricted to Iwaki City.

Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Monzen, Satoru; Osanai, Minoru; Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sahoo, Sarata K.; Kovács, Tibor; Yamada, Masatoshi; Nakata, Akifumi; Yoshida, Mitsuaki; Yoshino, Hironori; Mariya, Yasushi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

2013-07-01

227

Complex aromatic hydrocarbons in Stardust samples collected from comet 81P/Wild 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The successful return of the Stardust spacecraft provides a unique opportunity to investigate the nature and distribution of organic matter in cometary dust particles collected from comet 81P/Wild 2. Analysis of individual cometary impact tracks in silica aerogel using the technique of two-step laser mass spectrometry demonstrates the presence of complex aromatic organic matter. While concerns remain as to the organic purity of the aerogel collection medium and the thermal effects associated with hypervelocity capture, the majority of the observed organic species appear indigenous to the impacting particles and are hence of cometary origin. While the aromatic fraction of the total organic matter present is believed to be small, it is notable in that it appears to be N rich. Spectral analysis in combination with instrumental detection sensitivies suggest that N is incorporated predominantly in the form of aromatic nitriles (R-C?N). While organic species in the Stardust samples do share some similarities with those present in the matrices of carbonaceous chondrites, the closest match is found with stratospherically collected interplanetary dust particles. These findings are consistent with the notion that a fraction of interplanetary dust is of cometary origin. The presence of complex organic N containing species in comets has astrobiological implications as comets are likely to have contributed to the prebiotic chemical inventory of both the Earth and Mars.

Clemett, Simon J.; Sandford, Scott A.; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Hörz, Friedrich; McKay, David S.

2010-05-01

228

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF SOIL SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.20)  

EPA Science Inventory

This SOP describes the method for collecting soil samples from the child's outdoor play area to measure for persistent organic pollutants. Soil samples are collected by scraping up the top 0.5 cm of soil in a 0.095 m2 (1 ft2) area in the middle of the child's play area....

229

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FLOOR DUST SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.19)  

EPA Science Inventory

This SOP describes the method for collecting a floor dust sample from carpet. Dust samples will be collected in the room that the child uses most at home and/or at day care using a High Volume Small Surface Sampler (HVS3). In addition, participants will also be asked to donate a ...

230

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF DISLODGEABLE RESIDUES -- PUF ROLLER SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.18)  

EPA Science Inventory

This SOP describes the method to collect transferable residues from indoor floor surfaces. The sampling procedures described are applicable to bare floors or covered floor surfaces, e.g., carpeting and vinyl flooring. The samples will be collected only in the day care centers o...

231

Classification of breast cancer precursors through exhaled breath.  

PubMed

Certain benign breast diseases are considered to be precursors of invasive breast cancer. Currently available techniques for diagnosing benign breast conditions lack accuracy. The purpose of this study was to deliver a proof-of-concept for a novel method that is based on breath testing to identify breast cancer precursors. Within this context, the authors explored the possibility of using exhaled alveolar breath to identify and distinguish between benign breast conditions, malignant lesions, and healthy states, using a small-scale, case-controlled, cross-sectional clinical trial. Breath samples were collected from 36 volunteers and were analyzed using a tailor-made nanoscale artificial NOSE (NA-NOSE). The NA-NOSE signals were analyzed using two independent methods: (i) principal component analysis, ANOVA and Student's t-test and (ii) support vector machine analysis to detect statistically significant differences between the sub-populations. The NA-NOSE could distinguish between all studied test populations. Breath testing with a NA-NOSE holds future potential as a cost-effective, fast, and reliable diagnostic test for breast cancer risk factors and precursors, with possible future potential as screening method. PMID:21190078

Shuster, Gregory; Gallimidi, Zahava; Reiss, Asnat Heyman; Dovgolevsky, Ekaterina; Billan, Salem; Abdah-Bortnyak, Roxolyana; Kuten, Abraham; Engel, Ahuva; Shiban, Ala; Tisch, Ulrike; Haick, Hossam

2010-12-29

232

Hydrogen cyanide concentrations in the breath of adult cystic fibrosis patients with and without Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.  

PubMed

Elevated concentrations of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) have been detected in the headspace of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) cultures and in the breath of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and PA infection. The use of mouth-exhaled breath HCN as a marker of PA infection in adults is more difficult to assess as some without PA infection generate HCN in their mouths. The analysis of breath exhaled via the nose, thereby avoiding volatile compounds produced in the mouth, will demonstrate elevated concentrations of HCN in adult CF patients chronically infected with PA. Using selected ion flow mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS), the mouth and the nose-exhaled breaths of 20 adult CF patients; 10 with chronic PA infection and 10 free from PA infection, were analysed for HCN. Acetone and ethanol were also measured as controls. SIFT-MS allows direct sampling and analysis of single breath exhalations, obviating the need to collect samples into bags or onto traps, which can compromise samples. HCN was detected in the mouth-exhaled breath of patients in both groups and in the nose-exhaled breath of patients with chronic PA infection. The difference in median (IQR) nose-exhaled HCN between the groups is statistically significant (11 (0.8-18) ppbv versus 0 (0-3.2) ppbv, p = 0.03). The concentrations of acetone and ethanol in nose-exhaled and mouth-exhaled breath are in keeping with previous studies. HCN in nose-exhaled breath is a biomarker of chronic airway infection with PA in adults with CF. Its application as a non-invasive diagnostic test for early PA infection warrants further investigation. PMID:23680696

Gilchrist, Francis J; Bright-Thomas, Rowland J; Jones, Andrew M; Smith, David; Span?l, Patrik; Webb, A Kevin; Lenney, Warren

2013-05-17

233

Comparison of drug concentrations in blood and oral fluid collected with the Intercept sampling device.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine drug concentration ratios between oral fluid collected with the Intercept device and whole blood. Samples of blood and oral fluid were obtained from patients admitted to acute psychiatric treatment and drivers suspected of drugged driving. Samples were analyzed for illegal drugs, benzodiazepines, opioids, carisoprodol, and meprobamate. Drugs were detected in samples of both blood and oral fluid from 59 subjects; altogether, 17 different drugs were found. Concentration ratios between oral fluid and blood were determined for all cases. The distributions of drug concentration ratios were wide for most drugs and do not allow reliable estimations of drug concentrations in blood using concentrations in oral fluid. The median oral fluid/blood drug concentration ratios for the most prevalent drugs were 0.036 diazepam, 0.027 nordiazepam, 7.1 amphetamine, 2.9 methamphetamine, 5.4 codeine, 1.9 morphine, and 4.7 tetrahydrocannabinol. The correlation coefficients between drug concentrations in oral fluid and blood ranged from 0.15 to 0.96 for the six most prevalent drugs. PMID:20465866

Gjerde, Hallvard; Mordal, Jon; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Bramness, Jørgen G; Mørland, Jørg

2010-05-01

234

Preparation of polyethylene sacks for collection of precipitation samples for chemical analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Polyethylene sacks are used to collect precipitation samples. Washing polyethylene with acetone, hexane, methanol, or nitric acid can change the adsorptive characteristics of the polyethylene. In this study, simulated precipitation at pH 4.5 was in contact with the polyethylene sacks for 21 days; subsamples were removed for chemical analysis at 7, 14, and 21 days after intitial contact. Sacks washed with acetone adsorbed iron and lithium; sacks washed with hexane adsorbed barium, iron , and lithium; sacks washed with methanol adsorbed calcium and iron; and sacks washed with 0.30 N nitric acid adsorbed iron. Leaching the plastic sacks with 0.15 N nitric acid did not result in 100-percent recovery of any of the adsorbed metals. Washing polyethylene sacks with dilute nitric acid caused the pH of the simulated precipitation to be decreased by 0.2 pH unit after 1 week of contact with the polyethylene. The specific conductance increased by 10 microsiemens per centimeter. Contamination of precipitation samples by lead was determined to be about 0.1 microgram per liter from contact with precleaned polyethylene sacks. No measurable contamination of precipitation samples by zinc occurred. (USGS)

Schroder, L. J.; Bricker, A. W.

1985-01-01

235

New method for determination of trihalomethanes in exhaled breath: applications to swimming pool and bath environments.  

PubMed

A method for the estimation of the human intake of trihalomethanes (THMs), namely chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform, during showering and bathing is reported. The method is based on the determination of these compounds in exhaled breath that is collected by solid adsorption on Tenax using a device specifically designed for this purpose. Instrumental measurements were performed by automatic thermal desorption coupled to gas chromatography with electron capture detection. THMs in exhaled breath samples were determined during showering and swimming pool attendance. The levels of these compounds in indoor air and water were also determined as reference for interpretation of the exhaled breath results. The THM concentrations in exhaled breath of the volunteers measured before the exposure experiments showed a close correspondence with the THMs levels in indoor air where the sampler was located. Limits of detection in exhaled breath were dependent on THM analytes and experimental sites. They ranged between 170 and 710 ng m(-3) in the swimming pool studies and between 97 and 460 ng m(-3) in the showering studies. Application of this method to THMs determination during showering and swimming pool activities revealed statistically significant increases in THMs concentrations when comparing exhaled breath before and after exposure. PMID:20152261

Lourencetti, Carolina; Ballester, Clara; Fernández, Pilar; Marco, Esther; Prado, Celia; Periago, Juan F; Grimalt, Joan O

2010-01-11

236

sup 14 C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori  

SciTech Connect

The high urease activity of Helicobacter pylori can be used to detect this bacterium by noninvasive breath tests. We have developed a {sup 14}C-urea breath test which uses 5 microCi {sup 14}C with 50 mg nonradioactive urea. Breath samples are collected at baseline and every 30 min for 2 h. Our study compared the outcome of the breath test to the results of histology and culture of endoscopically obtained gastric biopsies in 84 patients. The breath test discriminated well between the 50 positive patients and the 34 patients negative for Helicobacter pylori: the calculated sensitivity was 100%, specificity 88%, positive predictive value 93%, and negative predictive value 100%. Treatment with bismuth subsalicylate and/or ampicillin resulted in lower counts of exhaled {sup 14}CO{sub 2} which correlated with histological improvement in gastritis. The {sup 14}C-urea breath test is a better gold standard for the detection of Helicobacter pylori than histology and/or culture.

Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S.J.; Tytgat, K.M.; Hollingsworth, J.; Jalali, S.; Rshid, F.A.; Bowen, B.M.; Goldie, J.; Goodacre, R.L.; Riddell, R.H.; Hunt, R.H. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada))

1990-04-01

237

Mobile on-site sample collection, preparation, and analysis in Iraq. Final report, January-April 1995  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center has developed mobile on-site sample collection, preparation, and analysis equipment to collect environmental samples in highly contaminated areas. This equipment is being used by the United Nations Special Commission at the Baghdad Monitoring and Verification Center (BMVC), which provides long-term monitoring of dual-purpose chemical sites in Iraq, especially those with potential for chemical warfare (CW) production. A mobile laboratory was set-up in the BMVC to prepare and analyze samples collected throughout Iraq. Automatic air samplers were installed at various sites to collect vapor samples on absorption tubes that were analyzed using a gas chromatographic (GC) flame photometric detector (FPD). Mobile sample collection kits were used to collect solid, liquid, air, and wipe samples during challenge inspections. These samples were prepared using a sample preparation kit, which concentrates CW agent, breakdown products, and their precursors in complex matrices down to sub part per million levels for chemical analysis by a GC mass selective detector (MSD). This report describes the problems and solutions encountered with setting up a self-sufficient mobile analytical laboratory. Details of the various components associated with the laboratory and the collection kits are included.

Swahn, I.D.; Brzezinski, J.H.

1996-11-01

238

Sampling methods used for the collection of particle-phase organic and elemental carbon during ACE-Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semi-volatile nature of carbonaceous aerosols complicates their collection, and for this reason special air sampling configurations must be utilized. ACE-Asia provided a unique opportunity to compare different sampling techniques for collecting carbonaceous aerosols. In this paper detailed comparisons between filter-based carbonaceous aerosol sampling methods are made. The majority of organic carbon (OC) present on a backup quartz fiber filter

B. t. Mader; J. j. Schauer; J. h. Seinfeld; R. c. Flagan; J. z. Yu; H. Yang; Ho-Jin Lim; B. j. Turpin; J. t. Deminter; G. Heidemann; M. s. Bae; P. Quinn; T. Bates; D. j. Eatough; B. j. Huebert; T. Bertram; S. Howell

2003-01-01

239

Examination of microbial proteome preservation techniques applicable to autonomous environmental sample collection.  

PubMed

Improvements in temporal and spatial sampling frequency have the potential to open new windows into the understanding of marine microbial dynamics. In recent years, efforts have been made to allow automated samplers to collect microbial biomass for DNA/RNA analyses from moored observatories and autonomous underwater vehicles. Measurements of microbial proteins are also of significant interest given their biogeochemical importance as enzymes that catalyze reactions and transporters that interface with the environment. We examined the influence of five preservatives solutions (SDS-extraction buffer, ethanol, trichloroacetic acid, B-PER, and RNAlater) on the proteome integrity of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus WH8102 after 4?weeks of storage at room temperature. Four approaches were used to assess degradation: total protein recovery, band integrity on an SDS detergent polyacrylamide electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gel, and number of protein identifications and relative abundances by 1-dimensional LC-MS/MS proteomic analyses. Total protein recoveries from the preserved samples were lower than the frozen control due to processing losses, which could be corrected for with internal standardization. The trichloroacetic acid preserved sample showed significant loss of protein band integrity on the SDS-PAGE gel. The RNAlater preserved sample showed the highest number of protein identifications (103% relative to the control; 520?±?31 identifications in RNAlater versus 504?±?4 in the control), equivalent to the frozen control. Relative abundances of individual proteins in the RNAlater treatment were quite similar to that of the frozen control (average ratio of 1.01?±?0.27 for the 50 most abundant proteins), while the SDS-extraction buffer, ethanol, and B-PER all showed significant decreases in both number of identifications and relative abundances of individual proteins. Based on these findings, RNAlater was an effective proteome preservative, although further study is warranted on additional marine microbes. PMID:22069397

Saito, Mak A; Bulygin, Vladimir V; Moran, Dawn M; Taylor, Craig; Scholin, Chris

2011-11-07

240

Examination of Microbial Proteome Preservation Techniques Applicable to Autonomous Environmental Sample Collection  

PubMed Central

Improvements in temporal and spatial sampling frequency have the potential to open new windows into the understanding of marine microbial dynamics. In recent years, efforts have been made to allow automated samplers to collect microbial biomass for DNA/RNA analyses from moored observatories and autonomous underwater vehicles. Measurements of microbial proteins are also of significant interest given their biogeochemical importance as enzymes that catalyze reactions and transporters that interface with the environment. We examined the influence of five preservatives solutions (SDS-extraction buffer, ethanol, trichloroacetic acid, B-PER, and RNAlater) on the proteome integrity of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus WH8102 after 4?weeks of storage at room temperature. Four approaches were used to assess degradation: total protein recovery, band integrity on an SDS detergent polyacrylamide electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gel, and number of protein identifications and relative abundances by 1-dimensional LC–MS/MS proteomic analyses. Total protein recoveries from the preserved samples were lower than the frozen control due to processing losses, which could be corrected for with internal standardization. The trichloroacetic acid preserved sample showed significant loss of protein band integrity on the SDS-PAGE gel. The RNAlater preserved sample showed the highest number of protein identifications (103% relative to the control; 520?±?31 identifications in RNAlater versus 504?±?4 in the control), equivalent to the frozen control. Relative abundances of individual proteins in the RNAlater treatment were quite similar to that of the frozen control (average ratio of 1.01?±?0.27 for the 50 most abundant proteins), while the SDS-extraction buffer, ethanol, and B-PER all showed significant decreases in both number of identifications and relative abundances of individual proteins. Based on these findings, RNAlater was an effective proteome preservative, although further study is warranted on additional marine microbes.

Saito, Mak A.; Bulygin, Vladimir V.; Moran, Dawn M.; Taylor, Craig; Scholin, Chris

2011-01-01

241

DEVELOPMENT OF A TAMPER RESISTANT/INDICATING AEROSOL COLLECTION SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AT BULK HANDLING FACILITIES  

SciTech Connect

Environmental sampling has become a key component of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards approaches since its approval for use in 1996. Environmental sampling supports the IAEA's mission of drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear material or nuclear activities in a Nation State. Swipe sampling is the most commonly used method for the collection of environmental samples from bulk handling facilities. However, augmenting swipe samples with an air monitoring system, which could continuously draw samples from the environment of bulk handling facilities, could improve the possibility of the detection of undeclared activities. Continuous sampling offers the opportunity to collect airborne materials before they settle onto surfaces which can be decontaminated, taken into existing duct work, filtered by plant ventilation, or escape via alternate pathways (i.e. drains, doors). Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been working to further develop an aerosol collection technology that could be installed at IAEA safeguarded bulk handling facilities. The addition of this technology may reduce the number of IAEA inspector visits required to effectively collect samples. The principal sample collection device is a patented Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) which utilizes electrostatic precipitation principles to deposit particulates onto selected substrates. Recent work has focused on comparing traditional swipe sampling to samples collected via an ACE system, and incorporating tamper resistant and tamper indicating (TRI) technologies into the ACE system. Development of a TRI-ACE system would allow collection of samples at uranium/plutonium bulk handling facilities in a manner that ensures sample integrity and could be an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. This work was supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA).

Sexton, L.

2012-06-06

242

Validation of Marek's disease diagnosis and monitoring of Marek's disease vaccines from samples collected in FTA cards.  

PubMed

The use of Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) filter cards to quantify Marek's disease virus (MDV) DNA for the diagnosis of Marek's disease (MD) and to monitor MD vaccines was evaluated. Samples of blood (43), solid tumors (14), and feather pulp (FP; 36) collected fresh and in FTA cards were analyzed. MDV DNA load was quantified by real-time PCR. Threshold cycle (Ct) ratios were calculated for each sample by dividing the Ct value of the internal control gene (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) by the Ct value of the MDV gene. Statistically significant correlation (P < 0.05) within Ct ratios was detected between samples collected fresh and in FTA cards by using Pearson's correlation test. Load of serotype 1 MDV DNA was quantified in 24 FP, 14 solid tumor, and 43 blood samples. There was a statistically significant correlation between FP (r = 0.95), solid tumor (r = 0.94), and blood (r = 0.9) samples collected fresh and in FTA cards. Load of serotype 2 MDV DNA was quantified in 17 FP samples, and the correlation between samples collected fresh and in FTA cards was also statistically significant (Pearson's coefficient, r = 0.96); load of serotype 3 MDV DNA was quantified in 36 FP samples, and correlation between samples taken fresh and in FTA cards was also statistically significant (r = 0.84). MDV DNA samples extracted 3 days (t0) and 8 months after collection (t1) were used to evaluate the stability of MDV DNA in archived samples collected in FTA cards. A statistically significant correlation was found for serotype 1 (r = 0.96), serotype 2 (r = 1), and serotype 3 (r = 0.9). The results show that FTA cards are an excellent media to collect, transport, and archive samples for MD diagnosis and to monitor MD vaccines. In addition, FTA cards are widely available, inexpensive, and adequate for the shipment of samples nationally and internationally. PMID:20095150

Cortes, Aneg L; Montiel, Enrique R; Gimeno, Isabel M

2009-12-01

243

Floating sample-collection platform with stage-activated automatic water sampler for streams with large variation in stage  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A floating sample-collection platform is described for stream sites where the vertical or horizontal distance between the stream-sampling point and a safe location for the sampler exceed the suction head of the sampler. The platform allows continuous water sampling over the entire storm-runoff hydrogrpah. The platform was developed for a site in southern Illinois.

Tarte, Stephen R.; Schmidt, A. R.; Sullivan, Daniel J.

1992-01-01

244

Individual-particle analysis of airborne dust samples collected over Morocco in 2006 during SAMUM 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the course of SAMUM 1 in May and June 2006, airborne samples were collected in southern Morocco at altitudes between 830 and 3340 m above ground. We analysed approximately 22 500 particles of 1-30 ?m by automated individual-particle analysis with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyser. The major difference between samples is due to the presence and amount of chlorine- and sulphur-bearing particles, pointing to a varying maritime influence and to different degrees of aging. In contrast, the desert dust component is very homogeneous independent of altitude, activated local source area, and dust storm intensity, implying very fast mixing of the entrained dust with a persistent regional background aerosol. Nevertheless, our study reinforces the usefulness of carbonates and palygorskite as 'compositional fingerprints' for mineral dust from source areas in northwestern Africa. The average median aspect ratio of most particle groups is in the range between 1.5 and 1.6. Higher values are found for S- and Cl-dominated particles (except sodium chloride), and internal mixtures of alumosilicates with carbonates or sulphates. Taken together with other studies, a tendency of increasing aspect ratios with longer transport distances can be observed for Saharan dust.

Scheuvens, D.; Kandler, K.; Küpper, M.; Lieke, K.; Zorn, S. R.; Ebert, M.; Schütz, L.; Weinbruch, S.

2011-09-01

245

Prevalence of clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes in surface water samples collected from Germany and Australia.  

PubMed

The prevalence and proliferation of antibiotic resistant bacteria is profoundly important to human health, but the extent to which aquatic environments contribute toward the dissemination of antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) is poorly understood. The prevalence of 24 ARGs active against eight antibiotic classes (?-lactams, aminoglycosides, glycopeptides, chloramphenicols, tetracycline, macrolides, trimethoprim, and sulfonamides) was evaluated in surface water samples collected from Germany and Australia with culture independent methods. The ARGs most frequently detected both in Germany and Australia were sulI, sulII (77-100%), and dfrA1 (43-55%) which code for resistance to sulfonamide and trimethoprim. Macrolides resistance gene ermB was relatively more prevalent in the surface water from Germany (68%) than Australia (18%). In contrast, the chloramphenicol resistance gene catII was more frequently detected in Australia (64%) than Germany (9%). Similarly, ?-lactams resistance gene ampC was more prevalent in the samples from Australia (36%) than Germany (19%). This study highlights wide distribution of ARGs for sulfonamide, trimethoprim, macroline, ?-lactams and chloramphenicol in the aquatic ecosystems. Aquatic ecosystems can therefore be reservoirs of ARGs genes which could potentially be transferred from commensal microorganisms to human pathogens. PMID:22846103

Stoll, C; Sidhu, J P S; Tiehm, A; Toze, S

2012-08-16

246

Conducting Internet Research With the Transgender Population: Reaching Broad Samples and Collecting Valid Data  

PubMed Central

Health research on transgender people has been hampered by the challenges inherent in studying a hard-to-reach, relatively small, and geographically dispersed population. The Internet has the potential to facilitate access to transgender samples large enough to permit examination of the diversity and syndemic health disparities found among this population. In this article, we describe the experiences of a team of investigators using the Internet to study HIV risk behaviors of transgender people in the United States. We developed an online instrument, recruited participants exclusively via websites frequented by members of the target population, and collected data using online quantitative survey and qualitative synchronous and asynchronous interview methods. Our experiences indicate that the Internet environment presents the investigator with some unique challenges and that commonly expressed criticisms about Internet research (e.g., lack of generalizable samples, invalid study participants, and multiple participation by the same subject) can be overcome with careful method design, usability testing, and pilot testing. The importance of both usability and pilot testing are described with respect to participant engagement and retention and the quality of data obtained online.

Miner, Michael H.; Bockting, Walter O.; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Raman, Sivakumaran

2013-01-01

247

Novel extraction of volatile biomarkers from canine breath for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Here we describe an effective, reproducible, non-invasive volatile organic compound collection and analysis method for exhaled breath gas samples designed specifically for use with dogs. Conditions of the method were optimized, using a range of standard chemicals. This method utilizes a canine mask, two-way non-re-breathing valve, teflon connector, tubing and bag for sample collection. Collection is followed by condensation and headspace solid phase microextraction for sample concentration and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for analysis. Custom-made glassware, designed to hold the SPME fiber assembly, was cooled to -10 °C and used for the collection of the condensate followed by 2 h of headspace extraction at 37 °C. Standards show LOD of 0.6-16.8 ppbv, LOQ between 2.1-55.8 ppbv, and good linearity with R(2) between 0.996-0.999 (RSD% 10-19). The method was verified with preliminary results from three dogs demonstrating that this technique is capable of collecting, identifying and quantifying volatile organic chemical constituents in different breath samples. PMID:22989995

Dissanayake, Shamitha; Lathan, Patty; Mlsna, Todd

2012-09-18

248

Insights into explosion dynamics at Stromboli in 2009 from ash samples collected in real-time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid characterization of tephra during explosive eruptions can provide valuable insights into eruptive mechanisms, also integrating other monitoring systems. Here we reveal a perspective on Stromboli's conduit processes by linking ash textures to geophysical estimates of eruption parameters of observed explosions. A three day campaign at Stromboli was undertaken by Italy's Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) in October 2009. At this time activity was moderately intense, with an average 4 to 5, both ash-rich and ash-poor, explosions per hour at each the SW and NE vents. A total of fifteen ash samples were collected in real time. We used binocular and scanning electron microscopes to analyze the components, grain size and morphology distributions, and surface chemistry of ash particles within eight selected samples. In addition, the INGV monitoring network provided visual, thermal, and seismic information on the explosions that generated the sampled ash. In each sample, the proportion of fluidal, glassy sideromelane (as opposed to blocky, microcrystalline tachylite plus lithics), the degree of "chemical freshness" (as opposed to chemical alteration), and the average size of particles appear to correlate directly with the maximum height and the seismic amplitude of the corresponding explosion, and inversely correlate with the amount of ash erupted, as estimated by monitoring videos. These observations suggest that more violent explosions (i.e., those driven by the release of larger and more pressurized gas volumes) produce ash via the fragmentation of hotter, more fluid magma, while weaker ones mostly erupt ash-sized particles derived by the fragmentation of colder magma and incorporation of conduit wall debris. The formation of fluidal ash particles (up to Pele's hairs) requires aerodynamic deformation of a relatively low-viscosity magma, in agreement with the strong acceleration imposed upon fragmented magma clots by the rapid expansion of pressurized gas, as directly observed in high-speed videos of the sampled explosions. Our findings show that ash monitoring of mafic explosions permits characterization of the eruptive style, and can provide indirect information on the intensity of the eruption.

Taddeucci, J.; Lautze, N.; Andronico, D.; D'Auria, L.; Niemeijer, A.; Houghton, B.; Scarlato, P.

2012-04-01

249

Field guide for collecting and processing stream-water samples for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program includes extensive data- collection efforts to assess the quality of the Nations's streams. These studies require analyses of stream samples for major ions, nutrients, sediments, and organic contaminants. For the information to be comparable among studies in different parts of the Nation, consistent procedures specifically designed to produce uncontaminated samples for trace analysis in the laboratory are critical. This field guide describes the standard procedures for collecting and processing samples for major ions, nutrients, organic contaminants, sediment, and field analyses of conductivity, pH, alkalinity, and dissolved oxygen. Samples are collected and processed using modified and newly designed equipment made of Teflon to avoid contamination, including nonmetallic samplers (D-77 and DH-81) and a Teflon sample splitter. Field solid-phase extraction procedures developed to process samples for organic constituent analyses produce an extracted sample with stabilized compounds for more accurate results. Improvements to standard operational procedures include the use of processing chambers and capsule filtering systems. A modified collecting and processing procedure for organic carbon is designed to avoid contamination from equipment cleaned with methanol. Quality assurance is maintained by strict collecting and processing procedures, replicate sampling, equipment blank samples, and a rigid cleaning procedure using detergent, hydrochloric acid, and methanol.

Shelton, Larry R.

1994-01-01

250

21 CFR 111.80 - What representative samples must you collect?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (b) Representative samples of in-process materials... (c) Representative samples of a subset of finished batches...sound statistical sampling plan (or otherwise every finished... (d) Representative samples of each unique...

2013-04-01

251

Personal exposures, indoor-outdoor relationships, and breath levels of toxic air pollutants measured for 355 persons in New Jersey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EPA's TEAM Study has measured exposures to 20 volatile organic compounds in personal air, outdoor air, drinking water and the breath of 355 persons in NJ, in the fall of 1981. The NJ residents were selected by a probability sampling scheme to represent 128,000 inhabitants of Elizabeth and Bayonne. Participants carried a personal monitor to collect two 12-h air samples and gave a breath sample at the end of the day. Two consecutive 12-h outdoor air samples were also collected on identical Tenax cartridges in the back yards of 90 of the participants. About 3000 samples were collected, of which 1000 were quality control samples. Eleven compounds were often present in air. Personal exposures were consistently higher than outdoor concentrations for these chemicals, and were sometimes ten times the outdoor concentrations. Indoor sources appeared responsible for much of the difference. Breath concentrations also usually exceed outdoor concentrations, and correlated more strongly with personal exposures than with outdoor concentrations. Some activities (smoking, driving, visiting dry cleaners or service stations) and occupations (chemical, paint and plastics plants) were associated with significantly elevated exposures and breath levels for certain toxic chemicals.

Wallace, Lance A.; Pellizzari, Edo D.; Hartwell, Ty D.; Sparacino, Charles M.; Sheldon, Linda S.; Zelon, Harvey

252

Protocols for vaginal inoculation and sample collection in the experimental mouse model of Candida vaginitis.  

PubMed

Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), caused by Candida species, is a fungal infection of the lower female genital tract that affects approximately 75% of otherwise healthy women during their reproductive years. Predisposing factors include antibiotic usage, uncontrolled diabetes and disturbance in reproductive hormone levels due to pregnancy, oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapies. Recurrent VVC (RVVC), defined as three or more episodes per year, affects a separate 5 to 8% of women with no predisposing factors. An experimental mouse model of VVC has been established and used to study the pathogenesis and mucosal host response to Candida. This model has also been employed to test potential antifungal therapies in vivo. The model requires that the animals be maintained in a state of pseudoestrus for optimal Candida colonization/infection. Under such conditions, inoculated animals will have detectable vaginal fungal burden for weeks to months. Past studies show an extremely high parallel between the animal model and human infection relative to immunological and physiological properties. Differences, however, include a lack of Candida as normal vaginal flora and a neutral vaginal pH in the mice. Here, we demonstrate a series of key methods in the mouse vaginitis model that include vaginal inoculation, rapid collection of vaginal specimens, assessment of vaginal fungal burden, and tissue preparations for cellular extraction/isolation. This is followed by representative results for constituents of vaginal lavage fluid, fungal burden, and draining lymph node leukocyte yields. With the use of anesthetics, lavage samples can be collected at multiple time points on the same mice for longitudinal evaluation of infection/colonization. Furthermore, this model requires no immunosuppressive agents to initiate infection, allowing immunological studies under defined host conditions. Finally, the model and each technique introduced here could potentially give rise to use of the methodologies to examine other infectious diseases of the lower female genital tract (bacterial, parasitic, viral) and respective local or systemic host defenses. PMID:22215135

Yano, Junko; Fidel, Paul L

2011-12-08

253

Geochemical results from stream-water and stream-sediment samples collected in Colorado and New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey are studying the relationship between watershed lithology and stream-water chemistry. As part of this effort, 60 stream-water samples and 43 corresponding stream-sediment samples were collected in 2010 and 2011 from locations in Colorado and New Mexico. Sample sites were selected from small to midsize watersheds composed of a high percentage of one rock type or geologic unit. Stream-water and stream-sediment samples were collected, processed, preserved, and analyzed in a consistent manner. This report releases geochemical data for this phase of the study.

Hageman, Philip L.; Todd, Andrew S.; Smith, Kathleen S.; DeWitt, Ed; Zeigler, Mathew P.

2013-01-01

254

Recoleccion de Muestras para Diagnostico de Enfermedades de los Animales (Collection and Delivery of Samples for Diagnosis of Animal Diseases).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The manual provides instructions for collecting and handling samples for diagnosis of 65 animal diseases. Livestock reviewed included sheep, beef cattle, horses, swine, dogs, poultry, alpacas. Also reviews analysis for parasites.

C. L. Ortecho M. Vasquez C. Marchinares

1967-01-01

255

An Assessment of the Chemical Composition of Rain and Surface Water Samples Collected at Deep Creek Lake, Garrett County, Maryland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of chemical analyses performed on rain and surface water samples collected at Deep Creek Lake, Maryland. Acidity and chemical composition of precipitation and surface waters were monitored to determine if acid rain and aci...

H. Scott S. Campbell M. Guiliano

1982-01-01

256

Suitability of self-collected vaginal samples for cervical cancer screening in peri-urban villages in Andhra Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Our aim was to determine if (1) Hybrid Capture 2 and a PCR-based method were comparable for detection of high-risk HPVs, (2) clinician-collected and self-collected samples were equally efficient to detect HPV and cervical cancer precursor lesions and (3) if participation rates improved with home-based vs. clinic-based self collection. Methods: Samples were selected from women participating in a cervical cancer screening study according to human papillomavirus (HPV), visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), or Pap smear screening results. From 432 of 892 selected women, split sample aliquots were tested for HPV DNA using both the Hybrid Capture 2 assay and the Roche prototype line blot assay. Women from a subset of villages were recruited at two separate time points for clinic-based self-collection and home-based self-collection, and participation rates were compared. Results: Pairwise agreement between self- and clinician-collected samples was high by both hc2 (90.8% agreement, kappa=0.7) and PCR (92.6% agreement, kappa=0.8), with significantly increased high-risk HPV detection in clinician-collected specimens (McNemar's p<0.01). Ability to detect precursor lesions was highest by PCR testing of clinician-collected samples and lowest by Hybrid Capture 2 testing of self-collected samples (11/11 and 9/11 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 and cancer detected, respectively). Participation in home-based screening was significantly higher than clinic-based screening (71.5% and 53.8%, respectively; p<0.001) among women 30-45 years old. Conclusion: The combination of improved screening coverage and a high single test sensitivity afforded by HPV DNA testing of home-based self-collected swabs may have a greater programmatic impact on cervical cancer mortality reduction compared to programs requiring a pelvic exam.

Sowjanya, A Pavani; Paul, Proma; Vedantham, Haripriya; Ramakrishna, Gayatri; Vidyadhari, D; Vijayaraghavan, K; Laksmi, Shantha; Sudula, Mrudula; Ronnett, Brigitte M.; Das, Manik; Shah, Keerti V.; Gravitt, Patti E; Gravitt, Patti E.; Shah, Keerti V.; Paul, Proma; Ramakrishna, Gayatri; Sowjanya, Pavani; Lakshmi, Shanta; Vijayaraghavan, K.; Reddy, P.S.; Desai, Nitin; Mamatha, D.; Deepa, K.; Vasantha, P.; SriLaxmi, K.; Venkatlaxmi, P.; Bujji, K.; Narendernath, B.; Reddy, R. Purushotham; Chandana, K.; Vedantham, Haripriya; Anuradha, M.; Srinivas, A.; Karuna, Bhawani P.; Kalpana, B.; Rekha, C.; Meenakshi, Jain; Lalitha, J.; Vidyadhari, K.; Malathi, M.R.; Anitha; Mrudula, S.; Rajani, Kameshwari; Ratnakar, C.; Goud, Srilatha J.; Kishore, L.; Yesu, Ratnam B.; Kauser, Tahseem; Das, Manik S.; Anand, Kumar R.; Goparani, Bala

2009-01-01

257

Atmospheric CO(sub 2) concentrations derived from flask samples collected at USSR-operated sampling sites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents daily atmospheric CO(sub 2) concentrations from four USSR-operated sampling sites (Teriberka Station, Ocean Station Charlie, Bering Island, and Kotelny Island). The period of record varies by station with the earliest measurements d...

T. A. Boden A. M. Brounshtein E. V. Faber A. A. Shashkov

1991-01-01

258

Detection of manipulation in doping control urine sample collection: a multidisciplinary approach to determine identical urine samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manipulation of urine sampling in sports drug testing is considered a violation of anti-doping rules and is consequently sanctioned\\u000a by regulatory authorities. In 2003, three identical urine specimens were provided by three different athletes, and the identity\\u000a of all urine samples was detected and substantiated using numerous analytical strategies including gas chromatography–mass\\u000a spectrometry with steroid and metabolite profiling, gas chromatography–nitrogen\\/phosphorus

Mario Thevis; Hans Geyer; Ute Mareck; Gerd Sigmund; Jürgen Henke; Lotte Henke; Wilhelm Schänzer

2007-01-01

259

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FOOD PREPARATION SURFACE WIPE SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.17)  

EPA Science Inventory

This SOP describes the method for collection of the food preparation surface wipe samples for the measurement of persistent organic pollutants (POP). This method uses a wipe to collect POP residues from a surface where a study participant prepares food the most often (i.e., kitch...

260

Measurement of distribution coefficient of inorganic (sup 14)C on soil samples collected at Rokkasho-mura.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To collect fundamental data on the migration behavior of (sup 14)C through a natural barrier, the distribution coefficients of inorganic (sup 14)C (H(sup 14)CO(sub 3)(sup -)) were determined for soil samples (sand, loam and clay) collected at Rokkasho-mur...

H. Ogawa S. Nagao M. Senoo

1996-01-01

261

Design of a light-oil piezomanometer for measurement of hydraulic head differences and collection of groundwater samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a device (“piezomanometer”) that combines three components (an oil-water manometer, a pushable screened PVC probe, and a system for groundwater sample collection) into a single inexpensive ($130), easily built, reliable tool for rapid collection of shallow groundwater from a streambed or lake bed and accurate measurement of even very small head differences between this groundwater and overlying

Casey D. Kennedy; David P. Genereux; D. Reide Corbett; Helena Mitasova

2007-01-01

262

Intercomparison of elemental concentrations in total and size-fractionated aerosol samples collected during the mace head experiment, April 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

During an intercomparison field experiment, organized at the Atlantic coast station of Mace Head, Ireland, in April 1991, aerosol samples were collected by four research groups. A variety of samplers was used, combining both high- and low-volume devices, with different types of collection substrates: Hi-Vol Whatman 41 filter holders, single Nuclepore filters and stacked filter units, as well as PIXE

Lucinda Spokes; Timothy Jickells

1995-01-01

263

Isotopic composition and origin of uranium and plutonium in selected soil samples collected in Kosovo.  

PubMed

Soil samples collected from locations in Kosovo where depleted uranium (DU) ammunition was expended during the 1999 Balkan conflict were analysed for uranium and plutonium isotopes content (234U, 235U, 236U, 238U, 238Pu, (239 + 240)Pu). The analyses were conducted using gamma spectrometry (235U, 238U), alpha spectrometry (238Pu, (239 + 240)Pu), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) (234U, 235U, 236U, 238U) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) (236U)). The results indicated that whenever the U concentration exceeded the normal environmental values (approximately 2 to 3 mg/kg) the increase was due to DU contamination. 236U was also present in the released DU at a constant ratio of 236U (mg/kg)/238U (mg/kg) = 2.6 x 10(-5), indicating that the DU used in the ammunition was from a batch that had been irradiated and then reprocessed. The plutonium concentration in the soil (undisturbed) was about 1 Bq/kg and, on the basis of the measured 238Pu/(239 + 240)Pu, could be entirely attributed to the fallout of the nuclear weapon tests of the 1960s (no appreciable contribution from DU). PMID:12500799

Danesi, P R; Bleise, A; Burkart, W; Cabianca, T; Campbell, M J; Makarewicz, M; Moreno, J; Tuniz, C; Hotchkis, M

2003-01-01

264

Radiometric assessment of natural radioactivity levels of agricultural soil samples collected in Dakahlia, Egypt.  

PubMed

Determination of the natural radioactivity has been carried out, by using a gamma-ray spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3? × 3?] system, in surface soil samples collected from various locations in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. These locations form the agriculturally important regions of Egypt. The study area has many industries such as chemical, paper, organic fertilisers and construction materials, and the soils of the study region are used as a construction material. Therefore, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil ranged from 5.7 ± 0.3 to 140 ± 7, from 9.0 ± 0.4 to 139 ± 7 and from 22 ± 1 to 319 ± 16 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, radium equivalent (Req), excess lifetime cancer risk, hazard indices (Hex and Hin) and annual gonadal dose equivalent, which resulted from the natural radionuclides in the soil were calculated. PMID:23509393

Issa, Shams A M

2013-03-17

265

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-102: Results from samples collected on January 26, 1996. Tank Vapor Characterization Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of vapor samples obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) with and without particulate prefiltration. Samples were collected f...

J. C. Evans B. L. Thomas K. H. Pool

1996-01-01

266

Variation in aluminum, iron, and particle concentrations in oxic ground-water samples collected by use of tangential-flow ultrafiltration with low-flow sampling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Particulates that move with ground water and those that are artificially mobilized during well purging could be incorporated into water samples during collection and could cause trace-element concentrations to vary in unfiltered samples, and possibly in filtered samples (typically 0.45-um (micron) pore size) as well, depending on the particle-size fractions present. Therefore, measured concentrations may not be representative of those in the aquifer. Ground water may contain particles of various sizes and shapes that are broadly classified as colloids, which do not settle from water, and particulates, which do. In order to investigate variations in trace-element concentrations in ground-water samples as a function of particle concentrations and particle-size fractions, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, collected samples from five wells completed in the unconfined, oxic Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system of the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Samples were collected by purging with a portable pump at low flow (0.2-0.5 liters per minute and minimal drawdown, ideally less than 0.5 foot). Unfiltered samples were collected in the following sequence: (1) within the first few minutes of pumping, (2) after initial turbidity declined and about one to two casing volumes of water had been purged, and (3) after turbidity values had stabilized at less than 1 to 5 Nephelometric Turbidity Units. Filtered samples were split concurrently through (1) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter, (2) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter and a 0.0029-um pore size tangential-flow filter in sequence, and (3), in selected cases, a 0.45-um and a 0.05-um pore size capsule filter in sequence. Filtered samples were collected concurrently with the unfiltered sample that was collected when turbidity values stabilized. Quality-assurance samples consisted of sequential duplicates (about 25 percent) and equipment blanks. Concentrations of particles were determined by light scattering. Variations in concentrations aluminum and iron (1 -74 and 1-199 ug/L (micrograms per liter), respectively), common indicators of the presence of particulate-borne trace elements, were greatest in sample sets from individual wells with the greatest variations in turbidity and particle concentration. Differences in trace-element concentrations in sequentially collected unfiltered samples with variable turbidity were 5 to 10 times as great as those in concurrently collected samples that were passed through various filters. These results indicate that turbidity must be both reduced and stabilized even when low-flow sample-collection techniques are used in order to obtain water samples that do not contain considerable particulate artifacts. Currently (2001) available techniques need to be refined to ensure that the measured trace-element concentrations are representative of those that are mobile in the aquifer water.

Szabo, Z.; Oden, J. H.; Gibs, J.; Rice, D. E.; Ding, Y.

2001-01-01

267

Variability of Organophosphorous Pesticide Metabolite Levels in Spot and 24-hr Urine Samples Collected from Young Children during 1 Week  

PubMed Central

Background: Dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites in spot urine samples are frequently used to characterize children’s exposures to organophosphorous (OP) pesticides. However, variable exposure and short biological half-lives of OP pesticides could result in highly variable measurements, leading to exposure misclassification. Objective: We examined within- and between-child variability in DAP metabolites in urine samples collected during 1 week. Methods: We collected spot urine samples over 7 consecutive days from 25 children (3–6 years of age). On two of the days, we collected 24-hr voids. We assessed the reproducibility of urinary DAP metabolite concentrations and evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of spot urine samples as predictors of high (top 20%) or elevated (top 40%) weekly average DAP metabolite concentrations. Results: Within-child variance exceeded between-child variance by a factor of two to eight, depending on metabolite grouping. Although total DAP concentrations in single spot urine samples were moderately to strongly associated with concentrations in same-day 24-hr samples (r ? 0.6–0.8, p < 0.01), concentrations in spot samples collected > 1 day apart and in 24-hr samples collected 3 days apart were weakly correlated (r ? –0.21 to 0.38). Single spot samples predicted high (top 20%) and elevated (top 40%) full-week average total DAP excretion with only moderate sensitivity (? 0.52 and ? 0.67, respectively) but relatively high specificity (? 0.88 and ? 0.78, respectively). Conclusions: The high variability we observed in children’s DAP metabolite concentrations suggests that single-day urine samples provide only a brief snapshot of exposure. Sensitivity analyses suggest that classification of cumulative OP exposure based on spot samples is prone to type 2 classification errors.

Kogut, Katherine; Eisen, Ellen A.; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Quiros-Alcala, Lesliam; Castorina, Rosemary; Chevrier, Jonathan; Holland, Nina T.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Kavanagh-Baird, Geri; Eskenazi, Brenda

2012-01-01

268

The legal, social and ethical controversy of the collection and storage of fingerprint profiles and DNA samples in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collection and storage of fingerprint profiles and DNA samples in the field of forensic science for nonviolent crimes is highly controversial. While biometric techniques such as fingerprinting have been used in law enforcement since the early 1900s, DNA presents a more invasive and contentious technique as most sampling is of an intimate nature (e.g. buccal swab). A fingerprint is

Katina Michael

2010-01-01

269

Variation in aluminum, iron, and particle concentrations in oxic groundwater samples collected by use of tangential-flow ultrafiltration with low-flow sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulates that move with ground water and those that are artificially mobilized during well purging could be incorporated into water samples during collection and could cause trace-element concentrations to vary in unfiltered samples, and possibly in filtered samples (typically 0.45-um (micron) pore size) as well, depending on the particle-size fractions present. Therefore, measured concentrations may not be representative of those in the aquifer. Ground water may contain particles of various sizes and shapes that are broadly classified as colloids, which do not settle from water, and particulates, which do. In order to investigate variations in trace-element concentrations in ground-water samples as a function of particle concentrations and particle-size fractions, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, collected samples from five wells completed in the unconfined, oxic Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system of the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Samples were collected by purging with a portable pump at low flow (0.2-0.5 liters per minute and minimal drawdown, ideally less than 0.5 foot). Unfiltered samples were collected in the following sequence: (1) within the first few minutes of pumping, (2) after initial turbidity declined and about one to two casing volumes of water had been purged, and (3) after turbidity values had stabilized at less than 1 to 5 Nephelometric Turbidity Units. Filtered samples were split concurrently through (1) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter, (2) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter and a 0.0029-um pore size tangential-flow filter in sequence, and (3), in selected cases, a 0.45-um and a 0.05-um pore size capsule filter in sequence. Filtered samples were collected concurrently with the unfiltered sample that was collected when turbidity values stabilized. Quality-assurance samples consisted of sequential duplicates (about 25 percent) and equipment blanks. Concentrations of particles were determined by light scattering.

Szabo, Zoltan; Oden, Jeannette H.; Gibs, Jacob; Rice, Donald E.; Ding, Yuan

2002-02-01

270

Results of chemical and stable isotopic analyses of water samples collected in the Patagonia Mountains, southern Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water samples were collected in the Patagonia Mountains in February, 1997. Most of the samples were collected from portals of abandoned mines, or from stream drainages immediately downstream from abandoned mines. Most of the samples have low pH ( 1000 mg/L). Anion composition of the water samples is dominated by sulfate, while cation compositions range from calcium-dominated to mixed calcium-magnesium or calcium-sodium-dominated waters. Metals such as iron, manganese, copper, zinc, and aluminum contribute a significant portion (>10%) of the cation content to the water samples. Because of the low pH?s, protons contribute up to several percent of the cation character of the waters in some of the samples. The data are presented in tabular and graphical formats, with descriptions of data quality and brief descriptions of results.

Wanty, Richard B.; Shanks, Wayne C., III; Lamothe, Paul; Meier, Al; Lichte, Fred; Briggs, Paul H.; Berger, Byron R.

2001-01-01

271

A 20-minute breath test for helicobacter pylori  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we evaluated a simplified rapid {sup 14}C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. Fasting patients undergoing initial assessment for H. pylori drank 5 microCi of {sup 14}C-urea in 20 ml of water. Breath was collected at intervals for 30 min. Samples were counted in a beta-counter, and the results were expressed as counts per minute (cpm). In the same week, patients underwent endoscopy, and a blinded investigator examined biopsy samples of gastric mucosa by culture and histology for H. pylori. There were 49 H. pylori-negative (HP-) and 104 H. pylori-positive (HP+) patients in the study. HP+ patients expired a mean of 4398 cpm (SD 2468) per mmol CO{sub 2} in a sample taken 20 min after ingestion of the isotope. In contrast, HP--patients expired only 340 cpm (SD 196). If the mean +3 SD of HP- patients was used as a cutoff value, the 20-minute sample gave a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 100% for detecting H. pylori. The radiation exposure from this test is less than 1% of that received from an upper gastrointestinal series, and the short collection time makes it both convenient and cost effective.

Marshall, B.J.; Plankey, M.W.; Hoffman, S.R.; Boyd, C.L.; Dye, K.R.; Frierson, H.F. Jr.; Guerrant, R.L.; McCallum, R.W. (Univ. of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville (USA))

1991-04-01

272

Influence of sample collection and preanalytical sample processing on the analyses of biological markers in the European multicentre study IDEFICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To evaluate the influence of a standardised sampling protocol and process quality across the different IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) centres on the results of the biochemical measurements.Design:Baseline survey within the community-based intervention study.Subjects:A total of 16 224 children, aged 2–8 years, enrolled in the IDEFICS baseline survey in 8 European

J Peplies; K Günther; K Bammann; A Fraterman; P Russo; T Veidebaum; M Tornaritis; B Vanaelst; S Mårild; D Molnár; L A Moreno; W Ahrens

2011-01-01

273

Sketch Guided Sampling - Using On-Line Estimates of Flow Size for Adaptive Data Collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

ó Monitoring the trafc in high-speed networks is a data intensive problem. Uniform packet sampling is the most popular technique for reducing the amount of data the network monitoring hardware\\/software has to process. However, uniform sampling captures far less information than can be potentially obtained with the same overall sampling rate. This is because uniform sampling (unnec- essarily) draws the

Abhishek Kumar; Jun Xu

2006-01-01

274

Optimal sampling strategy and core collection size of Andean tetraploid potato based on isozyme data - a simulation study.  

PubMed

Selection of an appropriate sampling strategy is an important prerequisite to establish core collections of appropriate size in order to adequately represent the genetic spectrum and maximally capture the genetic diversity in available crop collections. We developed a simulation approach to identify an optimal sampling strategy and core-collection size, using isozyme data from a CIP germplasm collection on an Andean tetraploid potato. Five sampling strategies, constant (C), proportional (P), logarithmic (L), square-root (S) and random (R), were tested on isozyme data from 9,396 Andean tetraploid potato accessions characterized for nine isozyme loci having a total of 38 alleles. The 9,396 accessions, though comprising 2,379 morphologically distinct accessions, were found to represent 1,910 genetically distinct groups of accessions for the nine isozyme loci using a sort-and-duplicate-search algorithm. From each group, one accession was randomly selected to form a genetically refined entire collection (GREC) of size 1,910. The GREC was used to test the five sampling strategies. To assess the behavior of the results in repeated sampling, k = 1,500 and 5,000 independent random samples (without replacement) of admissible sizes n = 50(50)1,000 for each strategy were drawn from GREC. Allele frequencies (AF) for the 38 alleles and locus heterozygosity (LH) for the nine loci were estimated for each sample. The goodness of fit of samples AF and LH with those from GREC was tested using the chi(2) test. A core collection of size n = 600, selected using either the P or the R sampling strategy, was found adequately to represent the GREC for both AF and LH. As similar results were obtained at k = 1,500 and 5,000, it seems adequate to draw 1,500 independent random samples of different sizes to test the behavior of different sampling strategies in order to identify an appropriate sampling approach, as well as to determine an optimal core collection size. PMID:12582588

Chandra, S.; Huaman, Z.; Hari Krishna, S.; Ortiz, R.

2002-04-26

275

Influence of condensation temperature on selected exhaled breath parameters  

PubMed Central

Background The effects of changes in cooling temperature on biomarker levels in exhaled breath condensate have been little investigated. The aim of the study was to test the effect of condensation temperature on the parameters of exhaled breath condensate and the levels of selected biomarkers. Methods Exhaled breath condensate was collected from 24 healthy subjects at temperatures of -10, -5, 0 and +5 C degrees. Selected parameters (condensed volume and conductivity) and biomarkers (hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde) were measured. Results There was a progressive increase in hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde concentrations, and condensate conductivity as the cooling temperature increased; total condensate volume increased as the cooling temperature decreased. Conclusion The cooling temperature of exhaled breath condensate collection influenced selected biomarkers and potential normalizing factors (particularly conductivity) in different ways ex vivo. The temperature of exhaled breath condensate collection should be controlled and reported.

Goldoni, Matteo; Caglieri, Andrea; Andreoli, Roberta; Poli, Diana; Manini, Paola; Vettori, Maria Vittoria; Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

2005-01-01

276

77 FR 51818 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Application and Approval To Manipulate, Examine, Sample...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Approval to Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods. This is...Approval to Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods. OMB Number...Approval to Manipulate, Examine, Sample or Transfer Goods'', is used...approval by the port director. The data requested on the form...

2012-08-27

277

77 FR 36567 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application and Approval To Manipulate, Examine, Sample...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Approval to Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods. This request...Approval to Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods. OMB Number...Approval to Manipulate, Examine, Sample or Transfer Goods'', is used...approval by the port director. The data requested on the form...

2012-06-19

278

MACRO- MICRO-PURGE SOIL GAS SAMPLING METHODS FOR THE COLLECTION OF CONTAMINANT VAPORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Purging influence on soil gas concentrations for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as affected by sampling tube inner diameter and sampling depth (i.e., dead-space purge volume), was evaluated at different field sites. A macro-purge sampling system consisted of a standard hollo...

279

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS AND HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that u...

280

Analytical results for 544 water samples collected in the Attean Quartz Monzonite in the vicinity of Jackman, Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water samples were collected in the vicinity of Jackman, Maine as a part of the study of the relationship of dissolved constituents in water to the sediments subjacent to the water. Each sample was analyzed for specific conductance, alkalinity, acidity, pH, fluoride, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and silica. Trace elements determined were copper, zinc, molybdenum, lead, iron, manganese, arsenic, cobalt, nickel, and strontium. The longitude and latitude of each sample location and a sample site map are included in the report as well as a table of the analytical results.

Ficklin, W. H.; Nowlan, G. A.; Preston, D. J.

1983-01-01

281

Collection of Aerosolized Human Cytokines Using Teflon(R) Filters  

PubMed Central

Background Collection of exhaled breath samples for the analysis of inflammatory biomarkers is an important area of research aimed at improving our ability to diagnose, treat and understand the mechanisms of chronic pulmonary disease. Current collection methods based on condensation of water vapor from exhaled breath yield biomarker levels at or near the detection limits of immunoassays contributing to problems with reproducibility and validity of biomarker measurements. In this study, we compare the collection efficiency of two aerosol-to-liquid sampling devices to a filter-based collection method for recovery of dilute laboratory generated aerosols of human cytokines so as to identify potential alternatives to exhaled breath condensate collection. Methodology/Principal Findings Two aerosol-to-liquid sampling devices, the SKC® Biosampler and Omni 3000™, as well as Teflon® filters were used to collect aerosols of human cytokines generated using a HEART nebulizer and single-pass aerosol chamber setup in order to compare the collection efficiencies of these sampling methods. Additionally, methods for the use of Teflon® filters to collect and measure cytokines recovered from aerosols were developed and evaluated through use of a high-sensitivity multiplex immunoassay. Our results show successful collection of cytokines from pg/m3 aerosol concentrations using Teflon® filters and measurement of cytokine levels in the sub-picogram/mL concentration range using a multiplex immunoassay with sampling times less than 30 minutes. Significant degradation of cytokines was observed due to storage of cytokines in concentrated filter extract solutions as compared to storage of dry filters. Conclusions Use of filter collection methods resulted in significantly higher efficiency of collection than the two aerosol-to-liquid samplers evaluated in our study. The results of this study provide the foundation for a potential new technique to evaluate biomarkers of inflammation in exhaled breath samples.

McKenzie, Jennifer H.; McDevitt, James J.; Fabian, M. Patricia; Hwang, Grace M.; Milton, Donald K.

2012-01-01

282

Monitoring real-time aerosol distribution in the breathing zone.  

PubMed

A prototype air sampling, data recording, and data retrieval system was developed for monitoring aerosol concentrations in a worker's breathing zone. Three continuous-reading, light-scattering aerosol monitors and a tape recorder were incorporated into a specially designed and fabricated backpack for detailed field monitoring of both temporal and spatial variability in aerosol concentrations within the breathing zone. The backpack was worn by workers in a beryllium refinery. The aerosol which passed through each monitor was collected on a back-up filter for later chemical analysis for Be and Cu. The aerosol concentrations were recorded on magnetic tape as a function of time. The recorded signals were subsequently transcribed onto a strip chart recorder, then evaluated using a microcomputer with graphics capability. Field measurements made of the aerosol concentration at the forehead, nose, and lapel of operators during the melting and casting of beryllium-copper alloy demonstrated that there is considerable variability in concentration at different locations within the breathing zone. They also showed that operations resulting in worker exposure can be identified, and the precise time and duration of exposure can be determined. PMID:6858855

Martinelli, C A; Harley, N H; Lippmann, M; Cohen, B S

1983-04-01

283

Dosimetry and reproducibility of a capsule-based C-14 urea breath test  

SciTech Connect

The aims of this study were (1) to determine the excretion of the C-14 and associated radiation dose and (2) to examine the reproducibility of a commercial C-14 urea breath test for H.pylori diagnosis. Tests were performed on twenty consenting volunteers (13M, 7F, 24-48 yr). Breath samples containing 1 mmol CO{sub 2} were obtained at 0,5,10,15,20,25,30 min. and 1,2,3,4,5,6,12, 24 hrs following administration of the 37kBq C-14 urea test capsule. A 24 hr urine collection was performed with each voiding collected separately. A repeat breath test was performed 24 hr after the first. H. pylori positive (HP+) was defined as a 15 minute breath sample >=50 dpm. Total urine excretion was obtained directly. Breath excretion was modeled by estimating the area under the excretion curve and using a constant factor of 884 mmol CO{sub 2}/ hr. Urine and breath excretion data in HP+ and H. pylori-negative (HP-) volunteers were pooled and fit to a monoexponential function thus estimating the cumulative urinary excretion of unmetabolized urea. Previously reported biokinetic models of C-14 urea and bicarbonate were used to estimate radiation doses form each compound. Weighted sums were calculated for each dose estimate using each group`s excretion fraction distribution. Both HP+ and HP- volunteers excreted an average of 73% of the C-14 over the first 24 hr. HP+ excretion was evenly divided between breath (34%) and urine (38%). HP-excretion is almost solely by the urinary pathway. The maximum dose for HP= was to the red marrow (0.0033 mGy) and a maximum of 0.0054 mGy to the urinary bladder wall for HP-. There was no difference between 15 inch breath samples on the two days (t-test, p>0.6). The minimum HP+ result at 15 inch was 270 dpm and the maximum HP- result at 15 inch was 18 dpm, indicating great separation between HP+ and HP- results. This study verifies previous dose estimates using C-14 excretion data. The test is sensitive and reproducible with a low radiation dose.

Combs, M.J.; Stubbs, J.B.; Buck, D.A. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)]|[Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)] [and others

1995-05-01

284

Automatic breath-to-breath analysis of nocturnal polysomnographic recordings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnosis of sleep-disordered breathing is based on the presence of an abnormal breathing pattern during sleep. In this study,\\u000a an algorithm was developed for the offline breath-to-breath analysis of the nocturnal respiratory recordings. For that purpose,\\u000a respiratory signals (nasal airway pressure, thoracic and abdominal movements) were divided into half waves using period amplitude\\u000a analysis. Individual breaths were characterized by the

P. J. van HoudtP; P. P. W. Ossenblok; M. G. van Erp; K. E. Schreuder; R. J. J. Krijn; P. A. J. M. Boon; P. J. M. Cluitmans

2011-01-01

285

A large, consistent plasma proteomics data set from prospectively collected breast cancer patient and healthy volunteer samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Variability of plasma sample collection and of proteomics technology platforms has been detrimental to generation of large\\u000a proteomic profile datasets from human biospecimens.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We carried out a clinical trial-like protocol to standardize collection of plasma from 204 healthy and 216 breast cancer patient\\u000a volunteers. The breast cancer patients provided follow up samples at 3 month intervals. We generated proteomics profiles

Catherine P Riley; Xiang Zhang; Harikrishna Nakshatri; Bryan Schneider; Fred E Regnier; Jiri Adamec; Charles Buck

2011-01-01

286

Analytical Methods for Breath Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breath analysis is a non-invasive, painless and attractive diagnostic method without risk to the patients. It has been recommended as a convenient and complementary method for blood and urine analysis. Despite the advantages, breath analysis has not been introduced to medical diagnosis. Only few specific breath tests are available: ethanol in breath after alcohol ingestion, detection of CO2 for diagnosis

Tomasz Ligor

2009-01-01

287

Detection of Vibrio cholerae and Acanthamoeba species from same natural water samples collected from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Vibrio cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 infect humans, causing the diarrheal and waterborne disease cholera, which is a worldwide health problem. V. cholerae and the free-living amoebae Acanthamoeba species are present in aquatic environments, including drinking water and it has shown that Acanthamoebae support bacterial growth and survival. Recently it has shown that Acanthamoeba species enhanced growth and survival of V. cholerae O1 and O139. Water samples from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan were collected with the aim to detect both V. cholerae and Acanthamoeba species from same natural water samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Findings For the first time both V. cholerae and Acanthamoeba species were detected in same natural water samples collected from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan. 89% of detected V. cholerae was found with Acanthamoeba in same water samples. Conclusions The current findings disclose Acanthamoedae as a biological factor enhancing survival of V. cholerae in nature.

2011-01-01

288

Evidence for microorganisms in stratosphere air samples collected at a height of 41km  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples of air removed from the stratosphere, at an altitude of 41km, were previously found to contain viable, but non-cultureable bacteria (cocci and rods). Here, we describe experiments aimed at growing these organisms, together with any others, present in the samples. Two bacteria (Bacillus simplex and Staphylococcus pasteuri) and a single fungus, Engyodontium albus (limber)de Hoog were isolated from the samples. Contamination can never be ruled out when space-derived samples are studied on earth, however, we are confident that the organisms isolated here originated from the stratosphere.

Wainwright, Milton; Wickramasinghe, Nalin C.; Narlikar, J. V.; Rajaratnam, P.

2003-02-01

289

Variability of Urinary Concentrations of Bisphenol A in Spot Samples, First Morning Voids, and 24-Hour Collections  

PubMed Central

Background: Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is widespread. After exposure, BPA is rapidly metabolized and eliminated in urine. Therefore, there is considerable within-person and between-person variability of BPA concentrations in spot urine samples. However, no information exists on the within-day variability of urinary BPA concentrations. Objectives: We examined the between-person and within-person and between-day and within-day variability in the urinary BPA concentrations of eight adults who collected all voids for 1 week to investigate the impact of sampling strategy in the exposure assessment of BPA using spot, first morning, or 24-hr urine collections. Methods: We determined the urinary concentrations of BPA using on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Results: The between-day and within-person variability was the primary contributor to the total variance both for first morning voids (77%) and 24-hr urine collections (88%). For the spot collections, we observed considerable within-day variance (70%), which outweighed the between-person (9%) and between-day and within-person (21%) variances. Conclusions: Regardless of the type of void (spot, first morning, 24-hr collection), urinary BPA concentrations for a given adult changed considerably—both within a day and for the 7 days of the study period. Single 24-hr urine collections accurately reflect daily exposure but can misrepresent variability in daily exposures over time. Of interest, when the population investigated is sufficiently large and samples are randomly collected relative to meal ingestion times and bladder emptying times, the single spot–sampling approach may adequately reflect the average exposure of the population to BPA.

Wong, Lee-Yang; Bishop, Amber M.; Calafat, Antonia M.

2011-01-01

290

Detection of Human Bocaviruses 1 to 4 from Nasopharyngeal Swab Samples Collected from Patients with Respiratory Tract Infections  

PubMed Central

Human bocaviruses (HBoV) 1, 2, 3, and 4 (HBoV1-4) were detected in 132 (15.5%), 5 (0.6%), 3 (0.4%), and 5 (0.6%) of 850 nasopharyngeal swab samples collected from children with respiratory tract infections, respectively. Out of the 145 HBoV1-4-positive samples, 62 (42.8%) were codetected with other respiratory viruses.

Koseki, Naoko; Teramoto, Shinobu; Kaiho, Miki; Gomi-Endo, Rika; Yoshioka, Mikio; Takahashi, Yutaka; Nakayama, Tsuguyo; Sawada, Hiroyuki; Konno, Mutsuko; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Kikuta, Hideaki; Ariga, Tadashi

2012-01-01

291

Detection of human bocaviruses 1 to 4 from nasopharyngeal swab samples collected from patients with respiratory tract infections.  

PubMed

Human bocaviruses (HBoV) 1, 2, 3, and 4 (HBoV1-4) were detected in 132 (15.5%), 5 (0.6%), 3 (0.4%), and 5 (0.6%) of 850 nasopharyngeal swab samples collected from children with respiratory tract infections, respectively. Out of the 145 HBoV1-4-positive samples, 62 (42.8%) were codetected with other respiratory viruses. PMID:22442328

Koseki, Naoko; Teramoto, Shinobu; Kaiho, Miki; Gomi-Endo, Rika; Yoshioka, Mikio; Takahashi, Yutaka; Nakayama, Tsuguyo; Sawada, Hiroyuki; Konno, Mutsuko; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Kikuta, Hideaki; Ariga, Tadashi; Ishiguro, Nobuhisa

2012-03-21

292

PCDD\\/Fs in Soil Samples Collected in the Vicinity of a Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator: Human Health Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) were determined in soil samples taken from 24 sites in the vicinity\\u000a of a municipal solid waste incinerator (Montcada, Barcelona, Spain). Samples were collected within a radius of 3 km in each\\u000a of the three main directions of the wind rose in that area. Hepta- and octa-CDDs were the

M. Schuhmacher; A. Xifró; J. M. Llobet; H. A. M. de Kok; J. L. Domingo

1997-01-01

293

Exhaled breath analysis for lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Early diagnosis of lung cancer results in improved survival compared to diagnosis with more advanced disease. Early disease is not reliably indicated by symptoms. Because investigations such as bronchoscopy and needle biopsy have associated risks and substantial costs, they are not suitable for population screening. Hence new easily applicable tests, which can be used to screen individuals at risk, are required. Biomarker testing in exhaled breath samples is a simple, relatively inexpensive, non-invasive approach. Exhaled breath contains volatile and non-volatile organic compounds produced as end-products of metabolic processes and the composition of such compounds varies between healthy subjects and subjects with lung cancer. Many studies have analysed the patterns of these compounds in exhaled breath. In addition studies have also reported that the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) can reveal gene mutations or DNA abnormalities in patients with lung cancer. This review has summarised the scientific evidence demonstrating that lung cancer has distinct chemical profiles in exhaled breath and characteristic genetic changes in EBC. It is not yet possible to accurately identify individuals with lung cancer in at risk populations by any of these techniques. However, analysis of both volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and of EBC have great potential to become clinically useful diagnostic and screening tools for early stage lung cancer detection.

Sutedja, Tom G.; Zimmerman, Paul V.

2013-01-01

294

Carbon14 urea breath test for the diagnosis of Campylobacter pylori associated gastritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urease in the human gastric mucosa is a marker for infection with Campylobacter pylori (CP), an organism suspected of causing chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. To detect gastric urease, we examined 32 patients who were being evaluated for possible peptic ulcer disease. Fasting patients were given 10 microCi (370 kBq) of ¹⁴C-labeled urea. Breath samples were collected in hyamine at

B. J. Marshall; I Surveyor

1988-01-01

295

Detection of ethylene in smokers breath by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the experiments reported in this paper small traces of ethylene down to ppb level have been detected by means of photoacoustic spectroscopy in the breath exhaled from humans. The method has been applied in studying how the concentration of the ethylene coming out from human lungs is modified after smoking. We followed up the evolution of ethylene concentration in the case of several people by monitoring the ethylene before and after smoking. In each case the first exhaled air sample was collected prior smoking the cigarette and compared with the samples collected after 30 minutes following the inhalation of cigarette smoke. In all the experiments a high value of ethylene concentration was found immediately after smoking. The experimental laser based photoacoustic system has been realized in ENEA Laboratories in Frascati, Italy.

Giubileo, Gianfranco; Puiu, Adriana P.; Dumitras, Dan C.

2004-07-01

296

EFFECTS OF SAMPLING NOZZLES ON THE PARTICLE COLLECTION CHARACTERISTICS OF INERTIAL SIZING DEVICES  

EPA Science Inventory

In several particle-sizing samplers, the sample extraction nozzle is necessarily closely coupled to the first inertial sizing stage. Devices of this type include small sampling cyclones, right angle impactor precollectors for in-stack impactors, and the first impaction stage of s...

297

A Review of Metal Concentrations Measured in Surface Soil Samples Collected on and Around the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The data used in this report was collected by two separate projects. The Surface Environmental Surveillance Project collected routine samples in 2008 at 41 locations on and around the Hanford Site, and had them analyzed for metals in addition to the normal radiological constituents. In 2004 and 2005, soil samples were collected at 117 locations on the Hanford Reach National Monument (HRNM) in support of the radiological release of that property. In 2008, archived HRNM soil samples were analyzed for metals to supplement the radiological analyses. Concentration results for 30 individual metals were generated by the analytical methods. Selenium and antimony were not measured at detectable concentrations in most of the samples. Mercury was detected in about half of the samples analyzed. All other constituents were measured at detectable concentrations in nearly all samples analyzed. The average concentrations measured in this study were well below the soil cleanup levels for unrestricted land use established by the Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA). In addition to the average concentration being less than the benchmark, the 90th percentile concentration was also lower than the benchmark for the metals included in the MTCA. The results indicate that the measured concentrations of metals in surface soil were within the expected natural range of concentrations.

Fritz, Brad G.

2009-07-27

298

A case of frog breathing.  

PubMed

Frog breathing (glossopharyngeal breathing) is a useful technique employed to increase ventilation when respiratory muscles are paralysed. It is a technique used by many patients with chronic poliomyelitis, yet many chest physicians and physiotherapists are unfamiliar with this breathing maneuver. Glossopharyngeal breathing coordinates movements of the tongue, cheeks and pharynx to force air from the mouth into the lungs. We report a case of glossopharyngeal breathing, demonstrating a 3 fold increase in vital capacity in a subject with chronic poliomyelitis. PMID:12049135

Moloney, Ed; Doyle, S; Kinahan, J; Burke, C M

2002-03-01

299

Analysis of breathing air flow patterns in thermal imaging.  

PubMed

We introduce a novel methodology to characterize breathing patterns based on thermal infrared imaging. We have retrofitted a Mid-Wave Infra-Red (MWIR) imaging system with a narrow band-pass filter in the CO(2) absorption band (4130 - 4427 nm). We use this system to record the radiation information from within the breathing flow region. Based on this information we compute the mean dynamic thermal signal of breath. The breath signal is quasi-periodic due to the interleaving of high and low intensities corresponding to expirations and inspirations respectively. We sample the signal at a constant rate and then filter the high frequency noise due to tracking instability. We detect the breathing cycles through zero cross thresholding, which is insensitive to noise around the zero line. We normalize the breathing cycles and align them at the transition point from inhalation to exhalation. Then, we compute the mean breathing cycle. We use the first eight (8) harmonic components of the mean cycle to characterize the breathing pattern. The harmonic analysis highlights the intra-individual similarity of breathing patterns. Our method opens the way for desktop, unobtrusive monitoring of human respiration and may find widespread applications in clinical studies of chronic ailments. It also brings up the intriguing possibility of using breathing patterns as a novel biometric. PMID:17945610

Fei, Jin; Pavlidis, Ioannis

2006-01-01

300

Analysis of dimorphic structures of the human pelvis: its implications for sex estimation in samples without reference collections  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work deals with the analysis of pelvic sexual dimorphism in skeletal samples of human prehistoric populations for which adequate reference collections of known sex are not available. We use geometric morphometric techniques based on semilandmarks in order to quantify shape variation of the greater sciatic notch and ischiopubic region. Firstly, intra- and interobserver error associated with the placement of

Paula N. González; Valeria Bernal; S. Ivan Perez; Gustavo Barrientos

2007-01-01

301

RECOMMENDED OPERATING PROCEDURE NO. 56: COLLECTION OF GASEOUS GRAB SAMPLES FROM COMBUSTION SOURCES FOR NITROUS OXIDE MEASUREMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The document is a recommended operating procedure, prepare or use in research activities conducted by EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL). The procedure applies to the collection of gaseous grab samples from fossil fuel combustion sources for subsequent a...

302

RECOMMENDED OPERATING PROCEDURE NO. 56: COLLECTION OF GASEOUS GRAB SAMPLES FROM COMBUSTION SOURCES FOR NITROUS OXIDE MEASUREMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A The document is a recommended operating procedure, prepare or use in research activities conducted by EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL). he procedure applies to the collection of gaseous grab samples from fossil fuel combustion sources for subsequent ...

303

EVALUATING COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DERMAL WIPES, COTTON SUITES, AND ALTERNATIVE URINARY COLLECTION MATERIALS FOR PESTICIDE SAMPLING FROM INFANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

As the Human Exposure Program focuses on the exposure of children to pesticides, there are concerns about the effect, or perceived effect, of components of the sampling procedure on the health and well-being of the infant and the ability to collect pesticide residues. One...

304

Metal distribution in road dust samples collected in an urban area close to a petrochemical plant at Gela, Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight samples of road dust were collected from three different localities (industrial, urban, peripheral) of the town of Gela (Italy) to characterize their chemical composition and to assess (a) the influence of the petrochemical plant and the urban traffic on the trace element content in different grain-size fractions of street dust and (b) the solid-phase speciation of the analysed metal

Emanuela Manno; Daniela Varrica; Gaetano Dongarrà

2006-01-01

305

The cross-sectional GRAS sample: A comprehensive phenotypical data collection of schizophrenic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is the collective term for an exclusively clinically diagnosed, heterogeneous group of mental disorders with still obscure biological roots. Based on the assumption that valuable information about relevant genetic and environmental disease mechanisms can be obtained by association studies on patient cohorts of ? 1000 patients, if performed on detailed clinical datasets and quantifiable biological readouts, we generated

Katja Ribbe; Heidi Friedrichs; Martin Begemann; Sabrina Grube; Sergi Papiol; Anne Kästner; Martin F Gerchen; Verena Ackermann; Asieh Tarami; Annika Treitz; Marlene Flögel; Lothar Adler; Josef B Aldenhoff; Marianne Becker-Emner; Thomas Becker; Adelheid Czernik; Matthias Dose; Here Folkerts; Roland Freese; Rolf Günther; Sabine Herpertz; Dirk Hesse; Gunther Kruse; Heinrich Kunze; Michael Franz; Frank Löhrer; Wolfgang Maier; Andreas Mielke; Rüdiger Müller-Isberner; Cornelia Oestereich; Frank-Gerald Pajonk; Thomas Pollmächer; Udo Schneider; Hans-Joachim Schwarz; Birgit Kröner-Herwig; Ursula Havemann-Reinecke; Jens Frahm; Walter Stühmer; Peter Falkai; Nils Brose; Klaus-Armin Nave; Hannelore Ehrenreich

2010-01-01

306

Elemental Compositions of Comet 81P\\/Wild 2 Samples Collected by Stardust  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the elemental compositions of material from 23 particles in aerogel and from residue in seven craters in aluminum foil that was collected during passage of the Stardust spacecraft through the coma of comet 81P\\/Wild 2. These particles are chemically heterogeneous at the largest size scale analyzed (~180 ng). The mean elemental composition of this Wild 2 material is

George J. Flynn; Pierre Bleuet; Janet Borg; John P. Bradley; Frank E. Brenker; Sean Brennan; John Bridges; Don E. Brownlee; Emma S. Bullock; Manfred Burghammer; Benton C. Clark; Zu Rong Dai; Charles P. Daghlian; Zahia Djouadi; Sirine Fakra; Tristan Ferroir; Christine Floss; Ian A. Franchi; Zack Gainsforth; Jean-Paul Gallien; Philippe Gillet; Patrick G. Grant; Giles A. Graham; Simon F. Green; Faustine Grossemy; Philipp R. Heck; Gregory F. Herzog; Peter Hoppe; Friedrich Hörz; Joachim Huth; Konstantin Ignatyev; Hope A. Ishii; Koen Janssens; David Joswiak; Anton T. Kearsley; Hicham Khodja; Antonio Lanzirotti; Jan Leitner; Laurence Lemelle; Hugues Leroux; Katharina Luening; Glenn J. MacPherson; Kuljeet K. Marhas; Matthew A. Marcus; Graciela Matrajt; Tomoki Nakamura; Keiko Nakamura-Messenger; Tsukasa Nakano; Matthew Newville; Dimitri A. Papanastassiou; Piero Pianetta; William Rao; Christian Riekel; Frans J. M. Rietmeijer; Detlef Rost; Craig S. Schwandt; Thomas H. See; Julie Sheffield-Parker; Alexandre Simionovici; Ilona Sitnitsky; Christopher J. Snead; Frank J. Stadermann; Thomas Stephan; Rhonda M. Stroud; Jean Susini; Yoshio Suzuki; Stephen R. Sutton; Susan Taylor; Nick Teslich; D. Troadec; Peter Tsou; Akira Tsuchiyama; Kentaro Uesugi; Bart Vekemans; Edward P. Vicenzi; Laszlo Vincze; Andrew J. Westphal; Penelope Wozniakiewicz; Ernst Zinner; Michael E. Zolensky

2006-01-01

307

CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 01: RECRUITMENT SURVEY FOR DAY CARE CENTER SAMPLE SUBJECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This data collection form is used to identify eligible preschool children who attend day care during the day and recruit them into the study. The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Pollutant (CTEPP) study was one of the largest aggregate ex...

308

CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 01_RDD: RECRUITMENT SURVEY FOR HOME SAMPLE SUBJECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This data collection form is used to identify eligible preschool children who stay home during the day with their primary adult care giver and recruit them into the study. The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Pollutant (CTEPP) study was o...

309

The role of variations in growth rate and sample collection on interpreting results of segmental analyses of hair.  

PubMed

Segmental analysis of hair for drugs, metabolites, and poisons has been widely reported in the scientific literature over the past two decades. Two fundamental assumptions in interpreting results of such analyses are (1) an average linear growth rate of head hair of 1cm/month and (2) that sample collections occur with the hair being cut directly next to the scalp. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variability associated with growth rate of human head hair, as well as the ability to uniformly collect hair next to the scalp. The results were used to determine how these factors affect the interpretation of results generated in segmental analysis of hair. A thorough literature review was conducted to assess the range of linear growth of human head hair from the vertex posterior and occipital regions. The results were compiled to establish the average (1.06cm/month), as well as the range of possible growth rates of head hair. The range was remarkable and suggests that conclusions based on the 1-cm/month growth rate could be significantly skewed. A separate study was undertaken to evaluate collection of hair next to the scalp. Fourteen individuals were provided oral instructions, as well as a written standard collection procedure for head hair. The experience levels among the collectors varied from novice to expert. Each individual collected hair from dolls with short- and long-hair. Immediately following each collection, the sampling area was evaluated to determine how close to the scalp the cuts were made, as well as the variability in the lengths of hair remaining at the sampled area. From our collection study, we determined that 0.8±0.1cm of hair was left on the scalp after cutting. When taking into account the amount of hair left on the scalp after collecting, the use of a growth rate of 1.06cm/month, and the assumption that it takes two weeks for newly formed hair in the follicle to reach the scalp, we find that the first 1-cm segment of hair typically corresponds to hair formed 1.3±0.2 to 2.2±0.4 months (95% confidence) earlier. The impact of these findings as it relates to the corresponding time for each additional segment is demonstrated. As a result, we recommend that hair collection be delayed 8 weeks after a suspected ingestion to ensure that the sample fully represents the exposure period. The results of this study suggest that the variability in the growth rate of human head hair, as well as the inconsistent collection of hair, significantly affect the interpretation of results from segmental analysis of hair. PMID:21382678

LeBeau, Marc A; Montgomery, Madeline A; Brewer, Jason D

2011-03-06

310

Evaluation of some pollutant levels in environmental samples collected from the area of the new campus of Taif University.  

PubMed

The levels of radioactivity and heavy metals in soil, plant and groundwater samples collected from the area of the new campus of Taif University, Saudi Arabia, and its neighbouring areas have been determined. High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy was used for radioactivity measurements, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of heavy metals. The means of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K concentrations in water samples collected from four wells were found to be 0.13 ± 0.03, 0.05 ± 0.03 and 1.3 ± 0.5 Bq l(-1), respectively. The means of (238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Ra ((232)Th for soil samples) and (40)K concentrations in wild plant and soil samples were found to be 3.7 ± 4.1, 8.8 ± 11.6, 3.8 ± 2.9 and 1025 ± 685, and 8.6 ± 3.4, 12.8 ± 3.4, 16.6 ± 7.1 and 618 ± 82 Bq kg(-1) dry weight (DW), respectively. The (137)Cs of artificial origin was also detected in soil samples with a mean concentration of 3.8 ± 2.2 Bq kg(-1) DW. Evaluating the results, it can be concluded that the concentrations of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soil samples fall within the world average. Furthermore, 19 trace and major elements in groundwater samples and 22 elements in soil and plant samples were determined. The sampling locations of soil can be classified into three groups (relatively high, medium and low polluted) according to their calculated metal pollution index using the contents of trace and major elements. A cluster analysis of the contents of radioactivity and trace element contents in soil samples shows the presence of two main distinct clusters of sampling locations. PMID:22568514

Sharshar, Taher; Hassan, H Ebrahim; Arida, Hassan A; Aydarous, Abdulkadir; Bazaid, Salih A; Ahmed, Mamdouh A

2012-05-08

311

ION CHROMATOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENT OF FLUORIDE AND SULFUR DIOXIDE IN SAMPLES COLLECTED AT ALUMINUM SMELTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of airborne fluoride and sulfur dioxide in aluminum smelting plants is important for both industrial hygiene and environmental reasons. The traditional analytical techniques employed have been ion-selective electrodes (ISE) for fluoride and barium\\/thorin titration for SO2. In this study, ion chromatography (IC) was evaluated as a substitute for these two techniques. Dust for particulate fluoride was collected on membrane

D. R. Balya

1991-01-01

312

Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples  

SciTech Connect

Chapter A4 contains methods used by the US Geological Survey to collect, preserve, and analyze waters to determine their biological and microbiological properties. Part 1 consists of detailed descriptions of more than 45 individual methods, including those for bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, seston, periphyton, macrophytes, benthic invertebrates, fish and other vertebrates, cellular contents, productivity, and bioassays; Part 2 consists of a glossary; and Part 3 is a list of taxonomic references.

Britton, L.J.; Greeson P.E. (eds.)

1989-01-01

313

Effect of Sampling Time on the Collection Efficiency of All-Glass Impingers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in the physical collection efficiencies of all-glass impingers were studied experimentally with an aerodynamic particle sizer by dynamically measuring the particle concentrations upstream and downstream of AGI-4 and AGI-30 impingers. Monodisperse PSL particles of aerodynamic sizes ranging from 0.3 to 2.0 ?m were used in the tests. The inner diameter of the impingement nozzle was found to be

Xuejun Lin; Klaus Willeke; Vidmantas Ulevicius; Sergey A. Grinshpun

1997-01-01

314

The cross-sectional GRAS sample: A comprehensive phenotypical data collection of schizophrenic patients  

PubMed Central

Background Schizophrenia is the collective term for an exclusively clinically diagnosed, heterogeneous group of mental disorders with still obscure biological roots. Based on the assumption that valuable information about relevant genetic and environmental disease mechanisms can be obtained by association studies on patient cohorts of ? 1000 patients, if performed on detailed clinical datasets and quantifiable biological readouts, we generated a new schizophrenia data base, the GRAS (Göttingen Research Association for Schizophrenia) data collection. GRAS is the necessary ground to study genetic causes of the schizophrenic phenotype in a 'phenotype-based genetic association study' (PGAS). This approach is different from and complementary to the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on schizophrenia. Methods For this purpose, 1085 patients were recruited between 2005 and 2010 by an invariable team of traveling investigators in a cross-sectional field study that comprised 23 German psychiatric hospitals. Additionally, chart records and discharge letters of all patients were collected. Results The corresponding dataset extracted and presented in form of an overview here, comprises biographic information, disease history, medication including side effects, and results of comprehensive cross-sectional psychopathological, neuropsychological, and neurological examinations. With >3000 data points per schizophrenic subject, this data base of living patients, who are also accessible for follow-up studies, provides a wide-ranging and standardized phenotype characterization of as yet unprecedented detail. Conclusions The GRAS data base will serve as prerequisite for PGAS, a novel approach to better understanding 'the schizophrenias' through exploring the contribution of genetic variation to the schizophrenic phenotypes.

2010-01-01

315

Liver function assessment with three C breath tests by two-point measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we performed three breath tests – l-[1-C ]phenylalanine breath test (PBT), l-[1-C ] methionine breath test, and [C]methacetin breath test (MethaBT) – in patients with chronic liver disease to determine the optimal timing of expired air collection for diagnosing chronic liver disease and evaluating the grade of fibrosis. The subjects were 61 adults with normal livers, 98

Yukimoto Ishii; Shigeru Suzuki; Satoshi Asai; Ichirou Murai

2012-01-01

316

Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-107: Results from samples collected on 10/26/94  

SciTech Connect

This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from the Hanford waste Tank 241-BY-107 (referred to as Tank BY-107). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and to analyze inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The organic analytes for TO-14 compounds were extended to include 15 analytes identified by the Toxicological Review Panel for Tank C-103 and reported in Toxicological Evaluation of Analytes from Tank 241-C-103 PAE-10189. While these analytes are only of toxicological concern for Tank C-103, program management included these analytes for future tank analyses as identified in the fiscal year work plan. This plan is attached to a letter dated 9/30/94 and addressed to Mr. T. J. Kelly of WHC. The plan also requires PNL to analyze for the permanent gases as shown in Table 3.5. The sample job was designated S4077, and samples were collected by WHC on October 26, 1994, using the vapor sampling system (VSS). Sampling devices, including six sorbent trains (for inorganic analyses), and six SUMMA{trademark} canisters (for organic analyses) were supplied to the WHC sampling staff on October 24. Samples were taken (by WHC) from the tank headspace on October 26 and were returned to PNL from the field on November 8. Inorganic (sorbent trap) samples were delivered to PNL on chain of custody (COC) 008071. The SUMMA{trademark} canisters were delivered on COC 008070. Three SUMMA{trademark} canister samples were stored at the PNL 326/23B laboratory pending further instruction from WHC to send them to the Oregon Graduate Institute (OGI) for analysis.

Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H. [and others

1995-10-01

317

Dietary fiber effects on passage rate and breath hydrogen13  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRAC1' Fermentation of fiber and passage to the large intestine were monitored by measuring hydrogen gas (H2) concentration in expired breath. Five subjects consumed meals containing no added fiber or 40 g of wheat bran (WB), corn bran (CB), oat bran (OB), or citrus flour (CF) replacing white flour. Breath samples were obtained at 30 mm intervals for 9 h

Christa F Hanson

318

Pyrolysis-GC-MS analysis of samples collected during AMASE11  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA/ESA-lead Mars rover ExoMars (launch in 2018) will carry a suite of instruments, one of the instruments is the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer MOMA. Organic material in the Martian soil will be either pyrolyzed at temperatures of up to 1000°C and separated by gas chromatography (GC) or volatilized by a UV-laser. A mass spectrometer (MS) will be the detector for both methods. The high temperatures during pyrolysis alters the organic molecules in the sample and creates smaller molecules suitable for the anylsis with the GC-MS. The analysis of terrestrial samples with pyrolysis-GC-MS is necessary to improve the ability to interprete the data from Martian samples. Extreme environments are a favored place to search for life forms similar to those expected on other planets. During the Arctic Mars Analog Svalbard Expedition 2011 gave access to several sample sites one was the Coletthödga.[1] Pyrolysis-GC-MS Analysis: The pyrolysis was conducted with a Pyrola 2000 connected to a Varian 3800 GC and a Varian 4000 ion trap MS. The sample was heated to 900°C within 15 ms and staid at that temperature for 2 s. The generated volatile compounds were directly injected into the GC. The GC-MS plots showed organic material strongly depending on the sample location. On top a layer of bioherm showed a evenly distributed patern of long chain hydrocarbon. In the sediment layer below only four long chain hydrocarbons are present. The hydrocarbon with 11 carbons is nearly absent, while the hydrocarbons with 10 and 12 carbons show large peaks in the GC-MS-plot.

Steininger, H.; Goetz, W.

2012-04-01

319

Determination of iodine-129 and iodine-127 in environmental samples collected in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical method for the determination of129I and127I in environmental samples has been developed by using radiochemical neutron activation analysis. The129I levels in the samples such as soil (0.9–41 mBq\\/kg), precipitation (0.002–0.11 mBq\\/kg), pine needles (1.2–32 mBq\\/kg) and seaweed (129I concentration was found in surface soil (0–5 cm), and the highest129I\\/127I ratios were found in pine needles and precipitation. The129I\\/127I ratio

Y. Muramatsu; Y. Ohmomo; M. Sumiya

1988-01-01

320

Escherichia coli in Settled-Dust and Air Samples Collected in Residential Environments in Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli, an important indicator of the presence of fecal material, was isolated from indoor and out- door environments in Mexico City. The heterogeneity of E. coli was represented by 89 serotypes, most of them coming from settled-dust indoor samples; 21% of them presented antibiotic multiresistance. The numbers of plasmids were higher among the antibiotic-resistant strains. The results of this

IRMA ROSAS; EVA SALINAS; ALMA YELA; EDMUNDO CALVA; CARLOS ESLAVA; ALEJANDRO CRAVIOTO

1997-01-01

321

Tank 241-C-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1994  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-28

322

Survey of trace elements in household and bottled drinking water samples collected in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total dissolved beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) were measured in the drinking water of 101 households and 21 samples of retail bottled waters purchased in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to ascertain the water quality for human consumption. The Inductively

I Al-Saleh; I Al-Doush

1998-01-01

323

Tank 241-T-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in January 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

J. L. Huckaby; D. R. Bratzel

1995-01-01

324

Tank 241-T-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in January 1995  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-01

325

Tank 241-U-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-01

326

Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in environmental samples collected on commercial Dutch dairy farms.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the causative agent of Johne's disease in cattle, was identified in settled-dust samples of Dutch commercial dairy farms, both in the dairy barn and in the young stock housing. Bioaerosols may play a role in within-farm M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis transmission. PMID:20656861

Eisenberg, Susanne W F; Koets, Ad P; Hoeboer, Jeroen; Bouman, Marina; Heederik, Dick; Nielen, Mirjam

2010-07-23

327

Tank 241-A-101 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in June 1995  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-01

328

Tank 241-C-102 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1994  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Therapy

1995-09-01

329

Tank 241-T-107 Headspace Gas and Vapor Characterization Results for Samples Collected in January 1995  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-26

330

Tank 241-C-107 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in September 1994  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-28

331

Tank 241-C-101 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in September 1994  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-01

332

Tank 241-C-110 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1994  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-01

333

SAMPLE COLLECTION AND PREPARATION METHODS AFFECTING MUTAGENICITY AND CYTOTOXICITY OF COAL FLY ASH  

EPA Science Inventory

Reports by several investigators describing the biological activity of coal fly ash have presented a variety of results which in some cases are conflicting. The biological activity of coal fly ash may differ because of one or more of the following factors: (1) the samples studied...

334

Field geologic observation and sample collection strategies for planetary surface exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS geologist crewmembers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic fieldwork, the Desert RATS (Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crewmembers who participated in the 2010 field test. We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies related to duplication of samples and observations; logistical constraints on the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to "flexibly execute" their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

Hurtado, José M.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W.

2013-10-01

335

A miniature optical breathing sensor  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate a novel miniature optical breathing sensor based on an Agarose infiltrated photonic crystal fiber interferometer. The sensor detects the variation in relative humidity that occurs between inhaled and exhaled breath. The sensor interrogation system can determine the breathing pattern in real time and can also predict the breathing rate and the breathing status during respiration. The sensor is suitable for monitoring patients during a magnetic resonance imaging scan where use of sedatives and anesthetics necessitates breathing monitoring; electronic sensors are not suitable in such an environment and a visual observation of the patient's respiratory efforts is often difficult.

Mathew, Jinesh; Semenova, Yuliya; Farrell, Gerald

2012-01-01

336

A miniature optical breathing sensor.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a novel miniature optical breathing sensor based on an Agarose infiltrated photonic crystal fiber interferometer. The sensor detects the variation in relative humidity that occurs between inhaled and exhaled breath. The sensor interrogation system can determine the breathing pattern in real time and can also predict the breathing rate and the breathing status during respiration. The sensor is suitable for monitoring patients during a magnetic resonance imaging scan where use of sedatives and anesthetics necessitates breathing monitoring; electronic sensors are not suitable in such an environment and a visual observation of the patient's respiratory efforts is often difficult. PMID:23243581

Mathew, Jinesh; Semenova, Yuliya; Farrell, Gerald

2012-11-26

337

Calculation of Collective Variable-based PMF by Combining WHAM with Umbrella Sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential of mean force (PMF) with respect to localized reaction coordinates (RCs) such as distance is often applied to evaluate the free energy profile along the reaction pathway for complex molecular systems. However, calculation of PMF as a function of global RCs is still a challenging and important problem in computational biology. We examine the combined use of the weighted histogram analysis method and the umbrella sampling method for the calculation of PMF as a function of a global RC from the coarse-grained Langevin dynamics simulations for a model protein. The method yields the folding free energy profile projected onto a global RC, which is in accord with benchmark results. With this method rare global events would be sufficiently sampled because the biased potential can be used for restricting the global conformation to specific regions during free energy calculations. The strategy presented can also be utilized in calculating the global intra- and intermolecular PMF at more detailed levels.

Xu, Wei-Xin; Li, Yang; Zhang, John Z. H.

2012-06-01

338

Evaluation of surface sampling techniques for collection of Bacillus spores on common drinking water pipe materials.  

PubMed

Drinking water utilities may face biological contamination of the distribution system from a natural incident or deliberate contamination. Determining the extent of contamination or the efficacy of decontamination is a challenge, because it may require sampling of the wetted surfaces of distribution infrastructure. This study evaluated two sampling techniques that utilities might use to sample exhumed pipe sections. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), cement-lined ductile iron, and ductile iron pipe coupons (3 cm x 14 cm) cut from new water main piping were conditioned for three months in dechlorinated Cincinnati, Ohio tap water. Coupons were spiked with Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii, a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis. Brushing and scraping were used to recover the inoculated spores from the coupons. Mean recoveries for all materials ranged from 37 +/- 30% to 43 +/- 20% for brushing vs. 24 +/- 10% to 51 +/- 29% for scraping. On cement-lined pipe, brushing yielded a significantly different recovery than scraping. No differences were seen between brushing and scraping the PVC and iron pipe coupons. Mean brushing and scraping recoveries from PVC coupons were more variable than mean recoveries from cement-lined and iron coupons. Spore retention differed between pipe materials and the presence of established biofilms also had an impact. Conditioned PVC coupons (with established biofilms) had significantly lower spore retention (31 +/- 11%) than conditioned cement-lined coupons (61 +/- 14%) and conditioned iron coupons (71 +/- 8%). PMID:20082033

Packard, Benjamin H; Kupferle, Margaret J

2009-12-10

339

Elemental Compositions of Comet 81P/Wild 2 Samples Collected by Stardust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the elemental compositions of material from 23 particles in aerogel and from residue in seven craters in aluminum foil that was collected during passage of the Stardust spacecraft through the coma of comet 81P/Wild 2. These particles are chemically heterogeneous at the largest size scale analyzed (~180 ng). The mean elemental composition of this Wild 2 material is consistent with the CI meteorite composition, which is thought to represent the bulk composition of the solar system, for the elements Mg, Si, Mn, Fe, and Ni to 35%, and for Ca and Ti to 60%. The elements Cu, Zn, and Ga appear enriched in this Wild 2 material, which suggests that the CI meteorites may not represent the solar system composition for these moderately volatile minor elements.

Flynn, George J.; Bleuet, Pierre; Borg, Janet; Bradley, John P.; Brenker, Frank E.; Brennan, Sean; Bridges, John; Brownlee, Don E.; Bullock, Emma S.; Burghammer, Manfred; Clark, Benton C.; Dai, Zu Rong; Daghlian, Charles P.; Djouadi, Zahia; Fakra, Sirine; Ferroir, Tristan; Floss, Christine; Franchi, Ian A.; Gainsforth, Zack; Gallien, Jean-Paul; Gillet, Philippe; Grant, Patrick G.; Graham, Giles A.; Green, Simon F.; Grossemy, Faustine; Heck, Philipp R.; Herzog, Gregory F.; Hoppe, Peter; Hörz, Friedrich; Huth, Joachim; Ignatyev, Konstantin; Ishii, Hope A.; Janssens, Koen; Joswiak, David; Kearsley, Anton T.; Khodja, Hicham; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Leitner, Jan; Lemelle, Laurence; Leroux, Hugues; Luening, Katharina; MacPherson, Glenn J.; Marhas, Kuljeet K.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Matrajt, Graciela; Nakamura, Tomoki; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Nakano, Tsukasa; Newville, Matthew; Papanastassiou, Dimitri A.; Pianetta, Piero; Rao, William; Riekel, Christian; Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.; Rost, Detlef; Schwandt, Craig S.; See, Thomas H.; Sheffield-Parker, Julie; Simionovici, Alexandre; Sitnitsky, Ilona; Snead, Christopher J.; Stadermann, Frank J.; Stephan, Thomas; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Susini, Jean; Suzuki, Yoshio; Sutton, Stephen R.; Taylor, Susan; Teslich, Nick; Troadec, D.; Tsou, Peter; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Uesugi, Kentaro; Vekemans, Bart; Vicenzi, Edward P.; Vincze, Laszlo; Westphal, Andrew J.; Wozniakiewicz, Penelope; Zinner, Ernst; Zolensky, Michael E.

2006-12-01

340

Elemental Compositions of Comet 81P/Wild 2 Samples Collected by Stardust  

SciTech Connect

We measured the elemental compositions of material from 23 particles in aerogel and from residue in seven craters in aluminum foil that was collected during passage of the Stardust spacecraft through the coma of comet 81P/Wild 2. These particles are chemically heterogeneous at the largest size scale analyzed ({approx}180 ng). The mean elemental composition of this Wild 2 material is consistent with the CI meteorite composition, which is thought to represent the bulk composition of the solar system, for the elements Mg, Si, Mn, Fe, and Ni to 35%, and for Ca and Ti to 60%. The elements Cu, Zn, and Ga appear enriched in this Wild 2 material, which suggests that the CI meteorites may not represent the solar system composition for these moderately volatile minor elements.

Flynn,G.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Bradley, J.; Brenker, F.; Brennan, S.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D.; Bullock, E.; et al.

2006-01-01

341

Elemental composition of Comet 81P/Wild2 samples collected byStardust  

SciTech Connect

We measured the elemental compositions of material from 23 particles in aerogel and from residue in seven craters in aluminum foil that was collected during passage of the Stardust spacecraft through the coma of comet 81P/Wild 2. These particles are chemically heterogeneous at the largest size scale analyzed ({approx}180 ng). The mean elemental composition of this Wild 2 material is consistent with the CI meteorite composition, which is thought to represent the bulk composition of the solar system, for the elements Mg, Si, Mn, Fe, and Ni to 35%, and for Ca and Ti to 60%. The elements Cu, Zn, and Ga appear enriched in this Wild 2 material, which suggests that the CI meteorites may not represent the solar system composition for these moderately volatile minor elements.

Flynn, G.J.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Bradley, J.P.; Brenker, F.E.; Brennan, S.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D.E.; Bullock, E.S.; Burghammer,Manfred; Clark, B.C.; Dai, Zu Rong; Daghlian, C.P.; Djouadi, Z.; Fakra,S; Ferroir, T.; Floss, C.; Franchi, I.A.; Gainsforth, Z.; Gallien, J.P.; Gillet, P.; Grant, P.G.; Graham, G.A.; Green, S.F.; Grossemy, F.; Heck,P.R.; Herzog, G.F.; Hoppe, P.; Horz, F.; Huth, J.; Ignatyev, K.; Ishii,H.A.; Janssens, K.; Joswiak, D.; Kearsley, A.T.; Khodja, H.; Lanzirotti,A.; Leitner, J.; Lemelle, L.; Leroux, H.; Luening, K.; MacPherson, G.J.; Marhas, K.K.; Marcus, M.A.; Matrajt, G.; Nakamura, T.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Nakano, T.; Newville, M.; Papanastassiou, D.A.; Pianette, P.; Rao, William; Riekel, C.; Rietmeijer, F.J.M.; Rost, D.; Schwandt, C.S.; See, T.H.; Sheffield-Parker, J.; Simionovici, A.; Sitnitsky, Ilona; Snead, C.J.; Stadermann, F.J.; Stephan, T.; Stroud,R.M.; Susini, J.; Suzuki, Y.; Sutton, S.R.; Taylor, S.; Teslich, N.; Troadec, D.; Tsou, P.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Uesugi, K.; Vekemans, B.; Vicenzi,E.P.; Vincze, L.; Westphal, A.J.; Wozniakiewicz, P.; Zinner, E.; Zolensky, M.E.

2006-01-01

342

Elemental compositions of comet 81P/Wild 2 samples collected by Stardust.  

PubMed

We measured the elemental compositions of material from 23 particles in aerogel and from residue in seven craters in aluminum foil that was collected during passage of the Stardust spacecraft through the coma of comet 81P/Wild 2. These particles are chemically heterogeneous at the largest size scale analyzed ( approximately 180 ng). The mean elemental composition of this Wild 2 material is consistent with the CI meteorite composition, which is thought to represent the bulk composition of the solar system, for the elements Mg, Si, Mn, Fe, and Ni to 35%, and for Ca and Ti to 60%. The elements Cu, Zn, and Ga appear enriched in this Wild 2 material, which suggests that the CI meteorites may not represent the solar system composition for these moderately volatile minor elements. PMID:17170294

Flynn, George J; Bleuet, Pierre; Borg, Janet; Bradley, John P; Brenker, Frank E; Brennan, Sean; Bridges, John; Brownlee, Don E; Bullock, Emma S; Burghammer, Manfred; Clark, Benton C; Dai, Zu Rong; Daghlian, Charles P; Djouadi, Zahia; Fakra, Sirine; Ferroir, Tristan; Floss, Christine; Franchi, Ian A; Gainsforth, Zack; Gallien, Jean-Paul; Gillet, Philippe; Grant, Patrick G; Graham, Giles A; Green, Simon F; Grossemy, Faustine; Heck, Philipp R; Herzog, Gregory F; Hoppe, Peter; Hörz, Friedrich; Huth, Joachim; Ignatyev, Konstantin; Ishii, Hope A; Janssens, Koen; Joswiak, David; Kearsley, Anton T; Khodja, Hicham; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Leitner, Jan; Lemelle, Laurence; Leroux, Hugues; Luening, Katharina; Macpherson, Glenn J; Marhas, Kuljeet K; Marcus, Matthew A; Matrajt, Graciela; Nakamura, Tomoki; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Nakano, Tsukasa; Newville, Matthew; Papanastassiou, Dimitri A; Pianetta, Piero; Rao, William; Riekel, Christian; Rietmeijer, Frans J M; Rost, Detlef; Schwandt, Craig S; See, Thomas H; Sheffield-Parker, Julie; Simionovici, Alexandre; Sitnitsky, Ilona; Snead, Christopher J; Stadermann, Frank J; Stephan, Thomas; Stroud, Rhonda M; Susini, Jean; Suzuki, Yoshio; Sutton, Stephen R; Taylor, Susan; Teslich, Nick; Troadec, D; Tsou, Peter; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Uesugi, Kentaro; Vekemans, Bart; Vicenzi, Edward P; Vincze, Laszlo; Westphal, Andrew J; Wozniakiewicz, Penelope; Zinner, Ernst; Zolensky, Michael E

2006-12-15

343

Survey of trace elements in household and bottled drinking water samples collected in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Total dissolved beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) were measured in the drinking water of 101 households and 21 samples of retail bottled waters purchased in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to ascertain the water quality for human consumption. The Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometer (ICP) was used for analysis. First-draw Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn concentrations decreased significantly after 10 min of flushing in the morning. Cd, Fe, Hg, Ni and Zn in some cases exceeded the guideline limits recommended by the EEC and WHO. PMID:9646527

al-Saleh, I; al-Doush, I

1998-05-27

344

Strategies and techniques for sample collection and analysis: experience from the Swedish PCB accidents.  

PubMed Central

A series of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) fires and explosion in PCB-filled capacitors and transformers is discussed. A sampling program followed by isomer specific determination of trace levels of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) is described. Data from a series of Swedish PCB accidents are given. In addition to PCDFs and PCDDs, we have also found a series of polychlorinated biphenylenes (PCBPs). Cleaning of contaminated areas was done by vacuum cleaning followed by high pressure washing. Images FIGURE 14.

Rappe, C; Marklund, S; Kjeller, L O; Bergqvist, P A; Hansson, M

1985-01-01

345

The effect of a paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT) intervention on the profile of volatile organic compounds in human breath: a pilot study.  

PubMed

This study sought to identify if detectable changes in human breath profiles may be observed following a psychological intervention designed to induce stress, a paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT). Breath samples were collected from 22 participants (10 male and 12 female) following a double cross-over randomized design with two experimental interventions. One intervention required participants to listen to classical music chosen to be neutral. The other intervention required participants to undertake a PASAT that induced cardiovascular responses consistent with acute stress. Both interventions also involved two sequences of cognitive function tests. Blood-pressure and heart-rate were recorded throughout each intervention and distal breath samples were collected onto Tenax® TA/Carbograph 1 thermal desorption tubes, using an adaptive breath sampler. Samples were collected before and after the PASAT. Breath samples were analysed by thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data registration using retention indexing and peak deconvolution followed by partial least-squares discriminant analysis identified six stress sensitive compounds. A principal components analysis model based on these components generated a model that predicted post-PASAT versus post-neutral intervention samples with a sensitivity of 83.3% and a selectivity of 91.6% for females, compared to 100% sensitivity and 90% selectivity for males. Of the six compounds indole, 2-hydroxy-1-phenylethanone, benzaldehyde, and 2-ethylhexan-1-ol were identified on the basis of mass spectral, retention indexing and confirmation against pure standards. 2-methylpentadecane was tentatively identified from mass spectral and retention indexing, whilst one component has yet to be assigned, although the mass spectrum is indicative of a terpene. Indole and 2-methylpentadecane concentrations increased in response to the PASAT intervention, while the other compounds reduced in their abundance in human breath, possibly as a result of ventilation effects. PMID:23445666

Turner, M A; Bandelow, S; Edwards, L; Patel, P; Martin, H J; Wilson, I D; Thomas, C L P

2013-02-27

346

Human Breath Gas Analysis in the Screening of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background We present a pilot study on the feasibility of the application and advantages of online, noninvasive breath gas analysis (BGA) by proton transfer reaction quadrupole mass spectrometry for the screening of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in 52 pregnant women by means of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Subjects and Methods We collected and identified samples of end-tidal breath gas from patients during OGTT. Time evolution parameters of challenge-responsive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human breath gas were estimated. Multivariate analysis of variance and permutation analysis were used to assess feasibility of BGA as a diagnostic tool for GDM. Results Standard OGTT diagnosis identified pregnant women as having GDM (n=8), impaired glucose tolerance (n=12), and normal glucose tolerance (n=32); a part of this latter group was further subdivided into a “marginal” group (n=9) because of a marginal high 1-h or 2-h OGTT value. We observed that OGTT diagnosis (four metabolic groups) could be mapped into breath gas data. The time evolution of oxidation products of glucose and lipids, acetone metabolites, and thiols in breath gas after a glucose challenge was correlated with GDM diagnosis (P=0.035). Furthermore, basal (fasting) values of dimethyl sulfide and values of methanol in breath gas were inversely correlated with phenotype characteristics such as homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (R=?0.538; P=0.0002, Pcorrected=0.0034) and pregestational body mass index (R=?0.433; P=0.0013, Pcorrected=0.022). Conclusions Noninvasive BGA in challenge response studies was successfully applied to GDM diagnosis and offered an insight into metabolic pathways involved. We propose a new approach to the identification of diagnosis thresholds for GDM screening.

Halbritter, Susanne; Fedrigo, Mattia; Hollriegl, Vera; Szymczak, Wilfried; Maier, Joerg M.; Hummel, Michael

2012-01-01

347

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE AND SHIPMENT OF BLOOD SAMPLES FOR SELECTED METALS AND VOCS (UA-F-19.1)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to guide the collection, storage, and shipment of blood samples collected for the NHEXAS Arizona project. This SOP provides a brief description of sample collection, preservation, storage, and custody procedures. This procedure was followed to ensure c...

348

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE AND SHIPMENT OF URINE SAMPLES FOR SELECTED METALS AND PESTICIDES (UA-F-20.1)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to guide the collection, storage, and shipment of urine samples collected for the NHEXAS Arizona project. This SOP provides a brief description of sample, collection, preservation, storage, shipping, and custody procedures. This procedure was followed ...

349

Complete mineralisation of dimethylformamide by Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1 isolated from the soil samples collected from the coalmine leftovers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacterial strain DGVK1 capable of using N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as sole source of carbon and nitrogen was isolated from the soil samples collected from the coalmine leftovers. The molecular phylogram generated using the complete sequence of 16S rDNA of the strain DGVK1 showed close links to the bacteria grouped under Brucellaceae family that belongs to alphaproteobacteria class. Specifically, the 16S

Y. Veeranagouda; P. V. Emmanuel Paul; P. Gorla; D. Siddavattam; T. B. Karegoudar

2006-01-01

350

Occurrence of fragile particles inferred from optical plankton counters used in situ and to analyze net samples collected simultaneously  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We hypothesized that the optical plankton counter (OPC) senses particles in situ that are not collected by nets and analyzed in the laboratory. An OPC was deployed in situ between 1998 and 2004 in the mouth of a bongo net with 505-?m-mesh nets in the upper 210 m at stations in the California Current Region. Here we compare paired data sets from the OPC in situ and the OPC analysis in the laboratory of the simultaneously collected net samples for four seasons of 2 years. We restricted our analysis to particle sizes 1.26-6.35 mm equivalent spherical diameter (ESD), a size class shown from the lab OPC data to be retained efficiently by the net. On average, 4 (3) times more particles by number (volume) were sensed in situ by the OPC than sensed in net collections by the OPC in the lab. These values varied an order of magnitude among the eight cruises examined. Time of day, distance offshore, season, year, chlorophyll a concentration, and Brunt-Väisälä frequency each explained significant variation in these differences. The excess of particles sensed in situ over that measured in the net samples was due primarily to smaller particles in the 1.26-6.35 mm ESD range. We infer that the particles measured by the OPC in situ but not in the lab were fragile and thus not collected by the net. We hypothesize that these fragile particles are primarily aggregates and abandoned houses of larvaceans.

GonzáLez-Quirós, R.; Checkley, D. M.

2006-05-01

351

Breathing, voice, and movement therapy: Applications to breathing disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elsa Gindler (1885–1961) developed a holistic approach to the human body and psyche via the movement of breath. Gindler experimented with movements to strengthen the deeper layers of the muscular system and improve the circulation of oxygen, movements that reduced tensions that had been preventing the breathing muscles from functioning properly. Subsequently, she founded a school for breathing and body

Imke Buchholz

1994-01-01

352

Improved Scanning Geometry to Collect 3D-Geometry Data in Flat Samples  

SciTech Connect

3D integration through silicon technology of integrated circuits challenges non-destructive testing methods. 3D x-ray methods are the techniques of choice to localize defects in interconnects. The development of high-power x-ray sources enabled the use of x-ray microscopy in laboratory tools. Those devices are able to resolve features down to 40 nm in an acceptable measurement time. However, the field of view is very limited to 16 {mu}m in high-resolution mode and to 65 {mu}m in large-field-of-view mode. To record tomography data, the size of the samples must not exceed the field of view to circumvent specific artifacts. Semiconductor samples usually do not fulfill the condition mentioned above since they have the shape of flat sheets. Therefore limited-angle tomography is typically used. The missing angles cause typical capping artifacts and poor signal-to-noise ratio. We present a modified scanning geometry that overcomes some of the artifacts and yields a better image quality. The geometry and potential applications are presented in comparison to the traditional limited-angle tomography.

Krueger, P.; Niese, S.; Zschech, E. [Fraunhofer IZFP-D, Maria-Reiche-Str. 2, 01109 Dresden (Germany); Gelb, J.; Feser, M. [Xradia Inc., 5052 Commercial Circle, Concord, CA 94520 (United States)

2011-09-09

353

Metal-organic frameworks for analytical chemistry: from sample collection to chromatographic separation.  

PubMed

In modern analytical chemistry researchers pursue novel materials to meet analytical challenges such as improvements in sensitivity, selectivity, and detection limit. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are an emerging class of microporous materials, and their unusual properties such as high surface area, good thermal stability, uniform structured nanoscale cavities, and the availability of in-pore functionality and outer-surface modification are attractive for diverse analytical applications. This Account summarizes our research on the analytical applications of MOFs ranging from sampling to chromatographic separation. MOFs have been either directly used or engineered to meet the demands of various analytical applications. Bulk MOFs with microsized crystals are convenient sorbents for direct application to in-field sampling and solid-phase extraction. Quartz tubes packed with MOF-5 have shown excellent stability, adsorption efficiency, and reproducibility for in-field sampling and trapping of atmospheric formaldehyde. The 2D copper(II) isonicotinate packed microcolumn has demonstrated large enhancement factors and good shape- and size-selectivity when applied to on-line solid-phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples. We have explored the molecular sieving effect of MOFs for the efficient enrichment of peptides with simultaneous exclusion of proteins from biological fluids. These results show promise for the future of MOFs in peptidomics research. Moreover, nanosized MOFs and engineered thin films of MOFs are promising materials as novel coatings for solid-phase microextraction. We have developed an in situ hydrothermal growth approach to fabricate thin films of MOF-199 on etched stainless steel wire for solid-phase microextraction of volatile benzene homologues with large enhancement factors and wide linearity. Their high thermal stability and easy-to-engineer nanocrystals make MOFs attractive as new stationary phases to fabricate MOF-coated capillaries for high-resolution gas chromatography (GC). We have explored a dynamic coating approach to fabricate a MOF-coated capillary for the GC separation of important raw chemicals and persistent organic pollutants with high resolution and excellent selectivity. We have combined a MOF-coated fiber for solid-phase microextraction with a MOF-coated capillary for GC separation, which provides an effective MOF-based tandem molecular sieve platform for selective microextraction and high-resolution GC separation of target analytes in complex samples. Microsized MOFs with good solvent stability are attractive stationary phases for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These materials have shown high resolution and good selectivity and reproducibility in both the normal-phase HPLC separation of fullerenes and substituted aromatics on MIL-101 packed columns and position isomers on a MIL-53(Al) packed column and the reversed-phase HPLC separation of a wide range of analytes from nonpolar to polar and acidic to basic solutes. Despite the above achievements, further exploration of MOFs in analytical chemistry is needed. Especially, analytical application-oriented engineering of MOFs is imperative for specific applications. PMID:22404189

Gu, Zhi-Yuan; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Chang, Na; Yan, Xiu-Ping

2012-03-12

354

Does Breath Carbon Monoxide Measure Nicotine Dependence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the current study was the examination of exhaled breath carbon monoxide levels as a predictor for heaviness of smoking. In this regard, nicotine dependence was assessed among a representative sample of 1,870 Austrian male military conscripts in a cross-sectional setting. Participants completed the Heaviness of Smoking Index (a brief questionnaire for assessment of nicotine dependence), and their

Nestor D. Kapusta; Jakob Pietschnig; Paul L. Plener; Victor Blüml; Otto M. Lesch; Henriette Walter

2010-01-01

355

Onchocerca volvulus: comparison of field collection methods for the preservation of parasite and vector samples for PCR analysis.  

PubMed Central

In recent years, methods for the identification of the filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus and its vector, blackflies of the Simulium damnosum complex (S. damnosum sensu lato (s.l.)), based on the amplification of parasite and vector DNA sequences with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), have been developed. Routine application of these methods requires techniques for sample collection and preservation that are compatible with the limitations of field collection, yet preserve DNA in a form suitable for PCR. Two different methods for sample preservation were evaluated by the field collection teams and the DNA probe laboratory of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa. The most successful involved the preservation of material from O. volvulus and its associated vectors in a dried state on microscope slides. Of over 1200 parasite samples preserved in this manner, more than 93% retained DNA yielding positive results in PCR analysis (1208/1291). Vector material (malpighian tubules and ovaries) preserved in the same manner on the same microscope slides also yielded DNA that was suitable for PCR. Images Fig. 2

Toe, L.; Back, C.; Adjami, A. G.; Tang, J. M.; Unnasch, T. R.

1997-01-01

356

Quality Sample Collection, Handling, and Preservation for an Effective Microbial Forensics Program.  

SciTech Connect

Science can be part of an effective investigative response to a bioterrorism event or a biocrime by providing capabilities to analyze biological and associated signatures in collected evidence. Microbial forensics, a discipline comprised of several scientific fields, is dedicated to the analysis of evidence from such criminal acts to help determine the responsible party and to exonerate the innocent. A partnership has been formed amount a number of government agencies, academia, and the private sector to better respond and deter potential perpetrators of bioterrorism or biocrimes. This partnership leverages our national scientific and analytical capabilities to support activities of law enforcement agencies. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), whose mission is, in part, to respond to and to prevent acts of terrorism against the United States, has established the national Bioforensics Analysis Center (NBFAC). The NBFAC, in partnership with the FBI, (1) provides a state-of-the-art central laboratory for the analysis of microbial forensic evidence; and (2) serves as a nexus for integrating the national resources to increase the effectiveness of law enforcement in obtaining the highest level of attribution possible in criminal cases where the weapon is a biological agent.

Budowle, Bruce; Schutzer, Steven E.; Burans, James P.; Beecher, Douglas J.; Cebulla, Thomas; Chakraborty, Ranjit; Cobb, William T.; Fletcher, Jacqueline; Hale, Martha L.; Harris, Robert B.; Heitkamp, Michael; Keller, Frederick P.; Kuske, Cheryl; LeClerc, Joseph E.; Marrone, Babetta L.; McKenna, Thomas S.; Morse, Stephen A.; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Yadev, Jagjit

2006-10-01

357

Susceptibility to tigecycline of isolates from samples collected in hospitalized patients with secondary peritonitis undergoing surgery.  

PubMed

Activity of tigecycline against nosocomial secondary peritonitis isolates collected along 18 months in 29 Spanish hospitals was tested by Etest in a central laboratory, considering Food and Drug Administration (FDA)/British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC)/European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints. A total of 600 facultative/aerobic isolates (392 Gram negative, 208 Gram positive) and 100 anaerobes were tested. None of the 220 Escherichia coli isolates was resistant to tigecycline (MIC(50)/MIC(90) = 0.25/0.5 microg/mL), with 0.5% (FDA breakpoint) and 3.6% (BSAC/EUCAST breakpoint) intermediate strains. All Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli isolates (15 strains), all Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Klebsiella oxytoca isolates (42 strains) were susceptible to tigecycline. No isolates resistant to tigecycline were found among Streptococcus viridans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecium, but 18.9% of Enterococcus faecalis strains were intermediate following BSAC/EUCAST breakpoints. All (but 1) isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group (n = 45) were tigecycline susceptible, as well as Gram-positive anaerobes. Tigecycline offers an adequate activity profile against isolates from secondary peritonitis when tested by Etest regardless of the breakpoints used for categorization. PMID:20022193

Tubau, Fe; Liñares, Josefina; Rodríguez, Maria-Dolores; Cercenado, Emilia; Aldea, Maria-Jose; González-Romo, Fernando; Torroba, Luis; Berdonces, Pilar; Plazas, Joaquin; Aguilar, Lorenzo; Delgado, Alberto; García-Escribano, Nuria

2010-03-01

358

Baseline assessment of prevalence and geographical distribution of HPV types in Chile using self-collected vaginal samples  

PubMed Central

Background Chile has broad variations in weather, economics and population from the far desert north (Region 1) to the cold, icy south (Region 12). A home-based self-collected vaginal sampling was nested in the 2003 Chilean population-based health survey in order to explore the possibility of a type-specific geographical variation for human papillomavirus Methods The population was a national probability sample of people 17 years of age and over. Consenting women provided self-collected cervicovaginal swabs in universal collection media (UCM). DNA was extracted and typed to 37 HPV genotypes using PGMY consensus PCR and line blot assay. Weighted prevalence rates and adjusted OR were calculated. Results Of the 1,883 women participating in the health survey, 1,219 (64.7%) provided a cervicovaginal sample and in 1,110 (56.2% of participants and 66.5% of those eligible) the samples were adequate for analysis. Refusal rate was 16.9%. HPV prevalence was 29.2% (15.1% high-risk HPV and 14.1% low-risk HPV). Predominant high-risk types were HPV 16, 52, 51, 56 and 58. Predominant low-risk HPVs were HPV 84, CP6108, 62, 53 and 61. High-risk and low-risk HPV rates were inversely correlated between the regions. High-risk HPV prevalence was highest among the youngest women, whereas low-risk HPV increased slightly with age. Conclusion Self-obtained vaginal sampling is adequate for monitoring HPV in the community, for identifying high-risk areas, and for surveying the long term impact of interventions.

Ferreccio, Catterina; Corvalan, Alejandro; Margozzini, Paula; Viviani, Paola; Gonzalez, Claudia; Aguilera, Ximena; Gravitt, Patti E

2008-01-01

359

Metabonomic analysis of exhaled breath condensate in adults by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a noninvasive method for the study of airway lining fluid. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can provide biochemical profiles of metabolites in biological samples. The aim of the present study was to validate the NMR metabonomic analysis of EBC in adults, assessing the role of pre-analytical variables (saliva and disinfectant contamination) and the potential clinical feasibility. In total, 36 paired EBC and saliva samples, obtained from healthy subjects, laryngectomised patients and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, were analysed by means of (1)H-NMR spectroscopy followed by principal component analysis. The effect on EBC of disinfectant, used for reusable parts of the condenser, was assessed after different washing procedures. To evaluate intra-day repeatability, eight subjects were asked to collect EBC and saliva twice within the same day. All NMR saliva spectra were significantly different from corresponding EBC samples. EBC taken from condensers washed with recommended procedures invariably showed spectra perturbed by disinfectant. Each EBC sample clustered with corresponding samples of the same group, while presenting intergroup qualitative and quantitative signal differences (94% of the total variance within the data). In conclusion, the nuclear magnetic resonance metabonomic approach could identify the metabolic fingerprint of exhaled breath condensate in different clinical sets of data. Moreover, metabonomics of exhaled breath condensate in adults can discriminate potential perturbations induced by pre-analytical variables. PMID:18653649

de Laurentiis, G; Paris, D; Melck, D; Maniscalco, M; Marsico, S; Corso, G; Motta, A; Sofia, M

2008-07-24

360

NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE, AND SHIPMENT OF URINE SAMPLES FOR METAL, PESTICIDE, AND CREATININE ANALYSIS (F10)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures for collection, storage, and shipment of urine samples for metal, pesticides, and creatinine analysis. Samples were collected on Days 2 and 8 of each Cycle. The Day 2 sample was analyzed for metals and creatinine. The Day 8...

361

LC-ESI-MS determination of diethylene glycol pollution in sea water samples collected around gas extraction platform plants.  

PubMed

Produced formation waters (PFWs) represent the largest aqueous wastes that are normally discharged into the marine environment during the offshore gas production processes. The chemical additive diethylene glycol (DEG) is widely used in the gas production line and therefore can be found in the PFW, becoming of environmental concern. In this study, a new method has been developed for trace determination of DEG in sea water samples collected around offshore gas platforms. The method is based on liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). Prior to analysis, water samples were derivatized using the Schotten-Baumann method for the benzoylation of glycols. The derivatization procedure allowed us to maximize the ESI-MS response of DEG and minimize the influence of interfering compounds. The method was validated and allowed a quantification of DEG in sea water samples with a method LOD of 0.4 ng/mL. The applicability of the procedure was demonstrated by analyzing sea water samples collected around eight gas platforms located in the Adriatic Sea (Italy). PMID:19782224

Cappiello, A; Famiglini, G; Palma, P; Termopoli, V; Trufelli, H; Di Mento, R; Mannozzi, M

2009-07-04

362

Trends in the levels of metals in soils and vegetation samples collected near a hazardous waste incinerator.  

PubMed

In 1998 and 2001, the levels of a number of elements (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Tl, and V) were determined in 40 soil and 40 herbage samples collected near a new hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) (Constantí, Catalonia, Spain). In 2003, soil and herbage samples were again collected at the same sampling points in which samples had been taken in the previous surveys. During the period 1998-2003, As, Be, Cr, Ni, and V levels showed significant increases in soils. In contrast, the levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn significantly decreased. With respect to herbage, while Cr, Mn, and V concentrations significantly increased, those of As levels diminished. On the other hand, human health risks derived from metal ingestion and inhalation of soils were also assessed. In relation to noncarcinogenic risks, all elements presented a value inside the safe interval. In turn, Cd and Cr were also in the safe interval of carcinogenic risks, whereas in contrast As levels clearly exceeded the regulatory limits concerning carcinogenic risks. According to the results of the previous (2001) and current (2003) surveys, the fluctuations in the metal concentrations suggest that the influence of the HWI is minimal in relation to other metal pollution sources in the area. PMID:16132416

Nadal, M; Bocio, A; Schuhmacher, M; Domingo, J L

2005-08-12

363

PCDD/F and metal concentrations in soil and herbage samples collected in the vicinity of a cement plant.  

PubMed

In May 2000, the levels of a number of metals (As, Cd, Pb, Hg, Zn, Co, Cu, Mn, Sn, Tl, Cr, Ni and V) were determined in 16 soil and herbage samples collected in the vicinity of a cement plant from Sta. Margarida i els Monjos (Catalonia, Spain). Metal concentrations were also analyzed in air filters from three sampling stations placed nearthe facility. For most metals, concentrations were similar or even lower than previously reported values for other areas from Catalonia. On the other hand, the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) were also determined in four soil and 16 herbage samples. Mean values were 0.37 and 0.16 ng I-TEQ/kg for soils and herbage, respectively, values which in comparison with data from other surveys are rather low. No significant differences between metal and PCDD/F concentrations in samples collected at distances lower or greater than 3.5 km of the facility were noted. The current results show that the cement plant has a low impact on the metal and PCDD/F levels in the environment under direct influence of the facility. These results should be of interest to assess future temporal variations in the levels of metals and PCDD/Fs in this area. PMID:12117056

Schuhmacher, M; Bocio, A; Agramunt, M C; Domingo, J L; de Kok, H A M

2002-07-01

364

Experimental setup and analytical methods for the non-invasive determination of volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and NO x in exhaled human breath  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different analytical devices were tested and evaluated for their suitability of breath gas analysis by examining the physiological parameters and chemical substances in the exhaled breath of ten healthy probands during light cycling in dependence of methanol-rich nutrition. The probands exercised under normal breathing conditions on a bicycle ergometer. Breath air was exhaled into a glass cylinder and collected under

Ulrich Riess; Uwe Tegtbur; Christian Fauck; Frank Fuhrmann; Doreen Markewitz; Tunga Salthammer

2010-01-01

365

Donât Breathe the Moondust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA site describes how an Apollo caught "lunar dust hay feverâ and how breathing lunar dust poses a serious health risk. The site contains several images of lunar dust. In addition, the even more serious hazard of dust on Mars is presented.

2008-04-25

366

What Causes Bad Breath?  

MedlinePLUS

... Some sugar-free gums and mints can temporarily mask odors, too. If you brush and floss properly and visit your dentist for regular cleanings, but your bad breath persists, you may have a medical problem like sinusitis or gum disease . Call your ...

367

Breathing Like a Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive…

Katsioloudis, Petros J.

2010-01-01

368

The Breath of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

All animal life in Chesapeake Bay, from the worms that inhabit its muddy bottom, to the fish and crabs found in its rivers, to the people that live on its land, need oxygen to survive. We breathe oxygen, which lets us extract energy from the food we eat. Our bodies use this energy to function. This process is essentially the

CHESAPEAKE BAY

1916-01-01

369

Antagonistic and antimicrobial activities of some bacterial isolates collected from soil samples.  

PubMed

Thirty seven bacterial cultures isolated from soil samples obtained from different locations were tested for their antagonistic activity against some fungal pathogens, viz., Sclerotium rolfsii, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani, causal agents of collar rot of sunflower, wilts and root rots, respectively. Among them, 5 bacterial strains, viz., A1 6 (Bacillus sphaericus), K1 24 (Pseudomonas fluorescens), M1 42 (Bacillus circulans), M1 66 (Bacillus brevis) and T1 22 (Bacillus brevis) showed positive antagonistic activity. M1 66 was the most effective in inhibiting mycelial growth of S. rolfsii in vitro followed by M1 42, T1 22, K1 24 and A1 6. Only one bacterial strain i.e. M1 42 exhibited antagonistic activity against F. oxysporum, and none of the bacterial strains gave positive activity against R. solani. Furthermore, antimicrobial activities of all the 5 strains were checked against different test organisms. These strains showed their extensive inhibition effect particularly against gram-positive test bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and the test fungal strain (Candida albicans). On the other hand, B. brevis M1 66 and B. brevis T1 22 strains had an inhibitory effect against gram positive and gram-negative test bacteria (Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris) as well as the test fungal strain. PMID:23100644

Ghai, S; Sood, S S; Jain, R K

2007-06-14

370

Total potential source contribution function analysis of trace elements determined in aerosol samples collected near Lake Huron.  

PubMed

Aerosol samples were collected at the rural Burnt Island Ontario Integrated Air Deposition Network air sampling station on the northern shore of Lake Huron from 1992 through 1994. The samples were analyzed for trace elements by neutron activation analysis, and the air concentrations of over 30 elements were determined. Total potential source contribution function analysis (TPSCF) was used to determine the most probable geographical location of these aerosols' origin. The TPSCF results for As, In, Sb, Se, Sn, and Zn are highlighted in this paper. Source regions for these elements ranged from Alma, Quebec, Canada to Carrollton, GA. Because of large seasonal variations in the concentrations of the atmospheric concentrations of these elements, TPSCFvalues were calculated for the summer and winter halves of the year as well as the entire year. PMID:15382853

Biegalski, S R; Hopke, P K

2004-08-15

371

Monitoring of pesticide residues in human milk, soil, water, and food samples collected from Kafr El-Zayat Governorate.  

PubMed

Pesticide residues in human milk and environmental samples from Kafr El-Zayat Governorate in Egypt were analyzed. This governorate is located near one of the biggest pesticide factories in Egypt. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides were monitored, including those that have been prohibited from use in Egypt. Human milk samples (31 samples) from Kafr El-Zayat were compared with 11 samples collected from Cairo. Data were compared with results from studies performed in 1987 and 1990. The present study showed that aldrin and dieldrin, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide, and endrin residues have been eliminated from human milk. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of DDT complex and gamma-HCH by breast-fed infants in Kafr El-Zayat were 85.96 and 3.1% of the respective acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). beta-HCH residues showed an increasing pattern, especially in human milk samples from Cairo. DDT complex and HCH isomers in orange, spinach, lettuce, potatoes, and clover samples ranged from undetectable to very low concentrations. Higher levels of DDT and HCH were detected, but aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, and the heptachlors were not detected in food of animal origin. Residues in fish samples were below maximum residue limits established by some developed countries. Those in animal milk samples approached the extraneous residue limits of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues. HCH residues in soil were negligible, but DDT residues in soil were somewhat higher. Among water samples, groundwater samples had the highest residues of HCHs and DDTs, followed by Nile River water and then tap water. However, the organochlorine pesticide residues were found at concentrations below the maximum allowable limits set by the World Health Organization for drinking water. Among 12 organophosphorus pesticides monitored as parent compounds, dimethoate, malathion, methamidophos, and chlorpyrifos residues were detected in low concentrations in soil samples from a pesticide factory. No organophosphorus pesticide residues were found in plant samples, except for very low residues of dimethoate in an orange sample. Water samples were devoid of organophosphorus residues as parent compounds. PMID:8620102

Dogheim, S M; Mohamed el-Z; Gad Alla, S A; el-Saied, S; Emel, S Y; Mohsen, A M; Fahmy, S M

372

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-102: Results from samples collected on January 26, 1996. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of vapor samples obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) with and without particulate prefiltration. Samples were collected from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

J. C. Evans; B. L. Thomas; K. H. Pool

1996-01-01

373

Sample handling and contamination encountered when coupling offline normal phase high performance liquid chromatography fraction collection of petroleum samples to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used to separate a gas oil petroleum sample, and the fractions are collected offline and analyzed on a high resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FT-ICR MS). The separation prior to MS analysis dilutes the sample significantly; therefore the fractions need to be prepared properly to achieve the best signal possible. The methods used to prepare the HPLC fractions for MS analysis are described, with emphasis placed on increasing the concentration of analyte species. The dilution effect also means that contamination in the MS spectra needs to be minimized. The contamination from molecular sieves, plastics, soap, etc. and interferences encountered during the offline fraction collection process are described and eliminated. A previously unreported MS contamination of iron formate clusters with a 0.8 mass defect in positive mode electrospray is also described. This interference resulted from the stainless steel tubing in the HPLC system. Contamination resulting from what has tentatively been assigned as palmitoylglycerol and stearoylglycerol was also observed; these compounds have not previously been reported as contaminant peaks. PMID:22840706

Oro, Nicole E; Whittal, Randy M; Lucy, Charles A

2012-07-04

374

A New Blood Collection Device Minimizes Cellular DNA Release During Sample Storage and Shipping When Compared to a Standard Device  

PubMed Central

Background Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) circulating in blood is currently used for noninvasive diagnostic and prognostic tests. Minimizing background DNA is vital for detection of low abundance cfDNA. We investigated whether a new blood collection device could reduce background levels of genomic DNA (gDNA) in plasma compared to K3EDTA tubes, when subjected to conditions that may occur during sample storage and shipping. Methods Blood samples were drawn from healthy donors into K3EDTA and Cell-Free DNA™ BCT (BCT). To simulate shipping, samples were shaken or left unshaken. In a shipping study, samples were shipped or not shipped. To assess temperature variations, samples were incubated at 6°C, 22°C, and 37°C. In all cases, plasma was harvested by centrifugation and total plasma DNA (pDNA) assayed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results Shaking and shipping blood in K3EDTA tubes showed significant increases in pDNA, whereas no change was seen in BCTs. Blood in K3EDTA tubes incubated at 6°C, 22°C, and 37°C showed increases in pDNA while pDNA from BCTs remained stable. Conclusions BCTs prevent increases in gDNA levels that can occur during sample storage and shipping. This new device permits low abundance DNA target detection and allows accurate cfDNA concentrations.

Norton, Sheila E; Luna, Kristin K; Lechner, Joel M; Qin, Jianbing; Fernando, M Rohan

2013-01-01

375

Laboratory evaluation of sample collection methods (organs vs swabs) for Tasmanian salmon reovirus detection in farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.  

PubMed

The use of swabs relative to organs as a sample collection method for the detection of Tasmanian salmon reovirus (TSRV) in farmed Tasmanian Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., was evaluated by RT-qPCR. Evaluation of individual and pooled sample collection (organs vs swabs) was carried out to determine the sensitivity of the collection methods and the effect of pooling of samples for the detection of TSRV. Detection of TSRV in individual samples was as sensitive when organs were sampled compared to swabs, and in pooled samples, organs demonstrated a sensitivity of one 10-fold dilution higher than sampling of pooled swabs. Storage of swabs at 4 °C for t = 24 h demonstrated results similar to those at t = 0. Advantages of using swabs as a preferred sample collection method for the detection of TSRV compared to organ samples are evident from these experimental trials. PMID:23121165

Zainathan, S C; Carson, J; Crane, M St J; Nowak, B F

2012-11-05

376

Comparison of flagging, walking, trapping, and collecting from hosts as sampling methods for northern deer ticks, Ixodes dammini , and lone-star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ticks were sampled by flagging, collecting from the investigator's clothing (walking samples), trapping with dry-ice bait, and collecting from mammal hosts on Fire Island, NY, U.S.A. The habitat distribution of adult deer ticks,Ixodes dammini, was the same in simultaneous collections from the investigator's clothing and from muslin flags. Walking and flagging samples can both be biased by differences between investigators,

Howard S. Ginsberg; Curtis P. Ewing

1989-01-01

377

Differences in seawater particulate organic carbon concentration in samples collected using small- and large-volume methods: the importance of DOC adsorption to the filter blank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate organic carbon (POC) data collected by small-volume (?1–2 l) bottle filtration and large-volume (?100–600 l) methods are compared for samples from the central Arctic, Equatorial Pacific, Equatorial and South Atlantic, Gulf of Maine, and Narragansett Bay. Small-volume samples were collected using Niskin® and Go-Flo® bottles and large-volume samples were collected using in situ pumps and large-volume bottle filtration. Results

S. B. Moran; M. A. Charette; S. M. Pike; C. A. Wicklund

1999-01-01

378

Association of Nocturnal Arrhythmias with Sleep-disordered Breathing  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Sleep-disordered breathing recurrent intermittent hypoxia and sympathetic nervous system activity surges provide the milieu for cardiac arrhythmia development. Objective: We postulate that the prevalence of nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias is higher among subjects with than without sleep-disordered breathing. Methods: The prevalence of arrhythmias was compared in two samples of participants from the Sleep Heart Health Study frequency-matched on age, sex, race/ethnicity, and body mass index: (1) 228 subjects with sleep-disordered breathing (respiratory disturbance index ? 30) and (2) 338 subjects without sleep-disordered breathing (respiratory disturbance index < 5). Results: Atrial fibrillation, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, and complex ventricular ectopy (nonsustained ventricular tachycardia or bigeminy or trigeminy or quadrigeminy) were more common in subjects with sleep-disordered breathing compared with those without sleep-disordered breathing: 4.8 versus 0.9% (p = 0.003) for atrial fibrillation; 5.3 versus 1.2% (p = 0.004) for nonsustained ventricular tachycardia; 25.0 versus 14.5% (p = 0.002) for complex ventricular ectopy. Compared with those without sleep-disordered breathing and adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and prevalent coronary heart disease, individuals with sleep-disordered breathing had four times the odds of atrial fibrillation (odds ratio [OR], 4.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–15.74), three times the odds of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (OR, 3.40; 95% CI, 1.03–11.20), and almost twice the odds of complex ventricular ectopy (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.11–2.74). A significant relation was also observed between sleep-disordered breathing and ventricular ectopic beats/h (p < 0.0003) considered as a continuous outcome. Conclusions: Individuals with severe sleep-disordered breathing have two- to fourfold higher odds of complex arrhythmias than those without sleep-disordered breathing even after adjustment for potential confounders.

Mehra, Reena; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Shahar, Eyal; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Nawabit, Rawan; Kirchner, H. Lester; Sahadevan, Jayakumar; Redline, Susan

2006-01-01

379

Chemical Composition of Samples Collected from Waste Rock Dumps and Other Mining-Related Features at Selected Phosphate Mines in Southeastern Idaho, Western Wyoming, and Northern Utah.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides chemical analyses for 31 samples collected from various phosphate mine sites in southeastern Idaho (25), northern Utah (2), and western Wyoming (4). The sampling effort was undertaken as a reconnaissance and does not constitute a char...

P. R. Moyle J. D. Causey

2001-01-01

380

Sample collection, preservation and submittal procedures for 10 CFR 50 and 10 CFR 50 and 10 CFR 61 nuclear power plant matrices  

SciTech Connect

Sample collection, preservation and submittal procedures are described here for nuclear power plant 10 CFR 50 and 10 CFR 61 samples. While sample collection procedures should ensure that a sample reflects the true media type from a homogeneity standpoint, sample preservation is absolutely necessary to prevent the adsorption of analytes occurring on the walls of the container. After sample collection and preservation, the samples should be shipped to the radioanalytical laboratory as soon as possible to reduce the magnitude of analyte adsorption on the walls of the container. When samples are shipped for analysis, sample transmittal forms should be properly filled out to ensure that instructions are clear as to the isotopic analysis requested and the weight/volume of sample shipped, minimum detectable concentration (MDC) required, station code, etc.

Banavali, A.D.; Moreno, E.M.; McCurdy, D.E. [Yankee Atomic Environmental Lab., Boston, MA (United States)

1994-12-31

381

Sleep Disordered Breathing and Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and insulin resistance. This article examines the association between SDB and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in a community-based sample. Methods A subset of participants in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study (N=546) participated in an ancillary study to measure vascular and metabolic function. SDB was characterized using the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) obtained in the polysomnography study closest to the collection of the metabolic measures. MS was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program definition, and the homeostasis model assessment method (HOMA) was used to characterize insulin resistance. Results SDB was significantly correlated with insulin resistance (Spearman r correlation between AHI and HOMA=0.30, P<0.0001). Compared with those without SDB (AHI <5), the age-sex-adjusted odds ratios of MS associated with mild (AHA 5-14.9) and moderate/severe SDB (AHI >15 or CPAP) were 4.0 (95% CI 2.6, 6.3) and 5.3 (95% CI 3.2, 8.8), respectively. Additional adjustment for markers of sympathetic or neuroendocrine activation (urinary norepinephrine, cortisol, heart rate variability) did not materially alter these estimates. These associations were weaker but remained statistically significant after adjusting for body mass index. Conclusion SDB might be considered an integral component of MS.

Nieto, F. Javier; Peppard, Paul E.; Young, Terry B.

2010-01-01

382

Ambient air sampling for tritium--determination of breakthrough volumes and collection efficiencies for silica gel adsorbent  

SciTech Connect

Ambient air samples for tritium (as HTO) can be collected using the solid adsorbent silica gel. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum practical sampling volume and overall collection efficiency for water vapor collected on silica gel columns and to demonstrate the use of an impinger-based system to load water vapor onto silica gel columns. Breakthrough volumes (V{sub b}) were measured and chromatographic efficiencies (expressed as the number of theoretical plates, N) were calculated for a 20{degrees}C to 50{degrees}C temperature range, with the relative humidity at approximately 30%. The tests yielded relative breakthrough volumes (air volume/adsorbent depth, m{sup 3} cm{sup -1}) of 0.36 for 20{degrees}C, 0.20 for 30{degrees}C, 0.15 for 40{degrees}C, and 0.077 for 50{degrees}C. For 18-cm columns, the average tritium tracer recoveries at 20{degrees}C were 71% with no observed breakthrough for air volumes up to 5 m{sup 3}, while at 40{degrees}C mean tritium tracer recoveries dropped from 75% for volumes {le}3.0 m{sup 3}, to 0% for a volume of 5.0 m{sup 3}. Frontal chromatographic profiles were measured for water vapor migrating through silica gel columns that were divided into 5 segments. The chromatographic efficiency of the silica gel columns was determined by graphical evaluation of the chromatography profiles. At a sampling rate of 0.25 L min{sup -1} and 30% relative humidity, the number of theoretical plates per adsorbent depth were 0.55 N cm{sup -1} at 20{degrees}C, 0.68 N cm{sup -1} at 30{degrees}C, 0.51 N cm{sup -1} at 40{degrees}C, and 0.30 N cm{sup -1} at 50{degrees}C. Chromatographic theory was used to estimate the overall collection efficiency of the silica gel columns as a function of the ratio of the sampling volume to breakthrough volume and the chromatographic efficiency. 16 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

Patton, G.W.; Cooper, A.T. Jr.; Tinker, M.R. [Pacific Northeast Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1997-03-01

383

BIOAEROSOL SAMPLE COLLECTION METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioaerosols are generally defined as those airborne particles that are living or originate from living organisms. Bioaerosol inhalation may result in a variety of lung diseases. Bioaerosols are recognized inhalation threats associated with waste management processes such as waste...

384

Anomaly detection with varied ground sample distance utilizing spectropolarimetric imagery collected using a liquid crystal tunable filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid crystal tunable filters (LCTFs) are a technology that can act as both a spectral and linear polarization filter for an imaging device. Paired with the appropriate hardware, a LCTF can be configured to collect hyperspectral Stokes imagery which contains both spectral as well as polarimetric information on a per-pixel level basis. This data is used to investigate the utility of spectro-polarimetric data with standard spectral analysis algorithms, in this case anomaly detection. A method to simulate different ground sample distances (GSDs) is used to illustrate the effect on algorithm performance. In this paper, a spectro-polarimetric imager is presented that can collect spectro-polarimetric image cubes in units of calibrated sensor reaching radiance. The system is used to collect imagery of two scenes, each containing die-cast scale vehicles and different background types. An anomaly detector is applied to the intensity and polarized image cubes to find those pixels that are different from the background spectrally and/or polarimetrically. The effect of changing the apparent GSD on the anomaly detection performance is explored. This shows that applying anomaly detection to spectro-polarimetric data can improve the false alarm rate over standard spectral data for finding certain types of man-made objects in complex backgrounds.

Bartlett, Brent D.; Schlamm, Ariel

2011-08-01

385

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR FIELD COLLECTION OF RESIDENTIAL FOUNDATION SOIL SAMPLES (UA-F-6.1)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to establish a uniform procedure for the collection of residential foundation soil samples in the field. This procedure was followed to ensure consistent and reliable collection of outdoor soil samples during the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border"...

386

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR FIELD COLLECTION OF YARD COMPOSITE SOIL SAMPLES (UA-F-5.1)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to establish a uniform procedure for the collection of yard composite soil samples in the field. This procedure was followed to ensure consistent and reliable collection of outdoor soil samples during the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border" study. ...

387

NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE, AND SHIPMENT OF HOUSE DUST SAMPLES FOR METAL, PESTICIDE, AND PAH ANALYSIS (F04)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures for collecting house dust samples. Dust from the floor was collected using a high-volume, small surface sampler (HVS3). Half of the sample was analyzed for metal content, and half was analyzed for pesticides and PAHs. Keywo...

388

NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE, AND SHIPMENT OF PERSONAL AIR SAMPLES FOR METAL ANALYSIS (F03)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedure for collecting, storing, and shipping personal air samples. Samples were collected on cellulose ester membrane filters using a Personal Exposure Monitor. The targeted individual in the household used the sampler for a 24-hour...

389

NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--FIELD USE OF THE SAMPLE COLLECTION AND CUSTODY SOFTWARE (RTI/ACS-AP-209-086)  

EPA Science Inventory

This procedure describes field use of the sample collection and custody software developed for this pilot study. This is an easy-to-use, spreadsheet-based, two-part sample collection and custody software package. The software is for use on laptop computers and defines the kinds a...

390

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-A-103: Results from samples collected on November 9, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-A-103 (Tank A-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5073. Samples were collected by WHC on November 9, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B. [and others

1996-06-01

391

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-BX-107: Results from samples collected on November 17, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-107 (Tank BX-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5080. Samples were collected by WHC on November 17, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H. [and others

1996-06-01

392

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-109: Results from samples collected on August 1, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-109 (Tank SX-109) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5048. Samples were collected by WHC on August 1, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1996-05-01

393

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-105: Results from samples collected on July 26, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-105 (Tank SX-105) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5047. Samples were collected by WHC on July 26, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1996-05-01

394

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-104: Results from samples collected on July 25, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-104 (Tank SX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5049. Samples were collected by WHC on July 25, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

Thomas, B.L.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1996-05-01

395

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank AX-103: Results from samples collected on June 21, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-AX-103 (Tank AX-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5029. Samples were collected by WHC on June 21, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W. [and others

1996-05-01

396

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-112: Results from samples collected on July 11, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage Tank 241-S-112 (Tank S-112) at the Hanford. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5044. Samples were collected by WHC on July 11, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1996-05-01

397

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank SX-102: Results from samples collected on July 19, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-102 (Tank SX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed under the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5046. Samples were collected by WHC on July 19, 1995, using the vapor sampling system (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

McVeety, B.D.; Evans, J.C.; Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H. [and others

1996-05-01

398

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-T-110: Results from samples collected on August 31, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-T-110 (Tank T-110) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5056. Samples were collected by WHC on August 31, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

McVeety, B.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1996-05-01

399

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-TX-111: Results from samples collected on October 12, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-TX-111 (Tank TX-111) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5069. Samples were collected by WHC on October 12, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1996-06-01

400

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank AX-101: Results from samples collected on June 15, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-AX-101 (Tank AX-101) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) under the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5028. Samples were collected by WHC on June 15, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D. [and others

1996-05-01

401

Further investigations on why POC concentrations differ in samples collected by Niskin bottle and in situ pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate organic carbon (POC) concentrations measured in bottles are often higher than those measured by in situ pumps when samples are taken concurrently. In previous work, we suggested that differential collection of zooplankton might explain this systematic discrepancy in POC between these small volume (bottle) and large volume ( in situ pump) techniques. We have now further quantified the carbon contributed by zooplankton collected in the >70-?m particulate fractions from both bottles and pumps at sites in the Mediterranean Sea and Long Island Sound. Our results show that zooplankton abundance and lipid concentrations from zooplankton are ˜one order of magnitude higher in the bottles than in the pumps, supporting the idea that part of the pump-bottle difference is due to collection of more zooplankton by the bottles. Particle washout off the 70-?m mesh used in the in situ pump may cause loss of some particles as well. However, zooplankton in the >70-?m fraction from the bottles contributed only about 1-2 ?M POC, which cannot explain the up to 20 ?M POC differences observed in this study. Thus, the mechanisms leading to such a large POC difference are still unclear and need to be further investigated. POC concentrations measured using microquartz filters were similar to those using glass fiber filters, suggesting that filter types cannot explain the higher POC observed in bottles, where glass fiber filters are normally used. Furthermore, we investigated several different pump inlet designs to determine how these might affect the ability of pumps to collect and retain large (>70 ?m) particles, including zooplankton. The comparison among different pump inlets suggests that inlet design affects the efficiency and retention of large particles and that a sealed filter holder with a narrow right-angle tubular opening is the most efficient at catching/retaining zooplankton.

Liu, Zhanfei; Cochran, J. Kirk; Lee, Cindy; Gasser, Beat; Miquel, Juan Carlos; Wakeham, Stuart G.

2009-08-01

402

Waste tank vapor project: Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103: Data report for OVS samples collected from Sample Job 7b, Parts I and II, received 5/18/94 and 5/24/94  

SciTech Connect

On 5/18/94, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) delivered samples to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) that were collected from waste Tank 241-C-103 on 5/16/94. These samples were from Sample Job (SJ) 7b, Part 1. On 5/24/94, WHC delivered samples to PNL that were collected from waste Tank 241-C-103 on 5/18/94. These samples were from SJ7b, Part 2. A summary of data derived from the sampling of waste Tank 241-C-103 for gravimetric (H{sub 2}O) and normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) concentrations are shown for SJ7b. Gravimetric analysis was performed on the samples within 24 hours of receipt by PNL. The NPH concentration of 10 samples collected for Part 1 was slightly higher than the average concentration for 15 samples collected in Part 2, 812 ({+-} 133) mg/m{sup 3} and 659 ({+-} 88) mg/m{sup 3}, respectively. The higher concentrations measured in Part 1 samples may be because the samples in Part 1 were collected at a single level, 0.79 meters above the air-liquid interface. Part 2 samples were collected at three different tank levels, 0.79, 2.92, and 5.05 m above the air-liquid interface. In Part 2, the average NPH concentrations for 5 samples collected at each of three levels was similar: 697 (60) mg/m{sup 3} at the low level, 631 (51) mg/m{sup 3} at the mid level, and 651 (134) mg/m{sup 3} at the high level. It is important to note that the measured tridecane to dodecane concentration remained constant in all samples collected in Parts 1 and 2. That ratio is 1.2 {+-} 0.05. This consistent ratio indicates that there were no random analytical biases towards either compound.

Clauss, T.R.; Edwards, J.A.; Fruchter, J.S.

1994-09-01

403

Results for the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank, Off Gas Condensate Tank, And Recycle Collection Tank Samples  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF, currently generates approximately 1.4 million gallons of recycle water per year during Sludge-Only operations. DWPF has minimized condensate generation to 1.4 million gallons by not operating the Steam Atomized Scrubbers, SASs, for the melter off gas system. By not operating the SASs, DWPF has reduced the total volume by approximately 800,000 gallons of condensate per year. Currently, the recycle stream is sent to back to the Tank Farm and processed through the 2H Evaporator system. To alleviate the load on the 2H Evaporator system, an acid evaporator design is being considered as an alternate processing and/or concentration method for the DWPF recycle stream. In order to support this alternate processing option, the DWPF has requested that the chemical and radionuclide compositions of the Off Gas Condensate Tank, OGCT, Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank, SMECT, Recycle Collection Tank, RCT, and the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank, DWTT, be determined as a part of the process development work for the acid evaporator design. Samples have been retrieved from the OGCT, RCT, and SMECT and have been sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory, SRNL for this characterization. The DWTT samples have been recently shipped to SRNL. The results for the DWTT samples will be issued at later date.

TERRI, FELLINGER

2004-12-21

404

Chemical analyses of soil samples collected from the Sandia National Laboratories, Kauai Test Facility, HI, 1999-2007.  

SciTech Connect

In 1999, 2002, and 2007, the Environmental Programs and Assurance Department of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) at the Kauai Test Facility (KTF), HI, has collected soil samples at numerous locations on-site, on the perimeter, and off-site for determining potential impacts to the environs from operations at KTF. These samples were submitted to an analytical laboratory for metal-in-soil analyses. Intercomparisons of these results were then made to determine if there was any statistical difference between on-site, perimeter, and off-site samples, or if there were increasing or decreasing trends that indicated that further investigation might be warranted. This work provided the SNL Environmental Programs and Assurance Department with a sound baseline data reference against which to compare future operational impacts. In addition, it demonstrates the commitment that the Laboratories have to go beyond mere compliance to achieve excellence in its operations. This data is presented in graphical format with narrative commentaries on particular items of interest.

Miller, Mark Laverne

2007-11-01

405

Chemical analyses of soil samples collected from the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico environs, 1993-2005.  

SciTech Connect

From 1993 through 2005, the Environmental Management Department of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM), has collected soil and sediment samples at numerous locations on-site, on the perimeter, and off-site for the purpose of determining potential impacts to the environs from operations at the Laboratories. These samples were submitted to an analytical laboratory for metal-in-soil analyses. Intercomparisons of these results were then made to determine if there was any statistical difference between on-site, perimeter, and off-site samples, or if there were year-to-year increasing or decreasing trends which indicated that further investigation may be warranted. This work provided the SNL Environmental Management Department with a sound baseline data reference against which to assess potential current operational impacts or to compare future operational impacts. In addition, it demonstrates the commitment that the Laboratories have to go beyond mere compliance to achieve excellence in its operations. This data is presented in graphical format with narrative commentaries on particular items of interest.

Deola, Regina Anne; Oldewage, Hans D.; Herrera, Heidi; Miller, Mark Laverne

2006-03-01

406

Breathing patterns. 1. Normal subjects.  

PubMed

Ventilatory monitoring devices that require mouthpiece breathing produce a rise in tidal volume (VT), a fall in frequency (f) and alterations in periodicity and variability of breathing components. Together with the introduction of the respiratory inductive plethysmograph, a reliable noninvasive monitoring device of ventilation, major advances have taken place in understanding the significance of the components of the breathing pattern. We measured the breathing pattern of normal subjects utilizing respiratory inductive plethysmography and continuously processed these data with a microprocessor system. The mean values of the breathing pattern components in normal subjects were not affected by age, but the rhythmicity was more irregular in the elderly. The values of breathing pattern components obtained noninvasively by respiratory inductive plethysmography in normal subjects are fairly predictable in limits similar to other tests of pulmonary function. PMID:6872603

Tobin, M J; Chadha, T S; Jenouri, G; Birch, S J; Gazeroglu, H B; Sackner, M A

1983-08-01

407

Changes in sample collection and analytical techniques and effects on retrospective comparability of low-level concentrations of trace elements in ground water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water sampling techniques were modified to reduce random low-level contamination during collection of filtered water samples for determination of trace-element concentrations. The modified sampling techniques were first used in New Jersey by the US Geological Survey in 1994 along with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis to determine the concentrations of 18 trace elements at the one microgram-per-liter (??g/L) level in the oxic water of the unconfined sand and gravel Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system. The revised technique tested included a combination of the following: collection of samples (1) with flow rates of about 2L per minute, (2) through acid-washed single-use disposable tubing and (3) a single-use disposable 0.45-??m pore size capsule filter, (4) contained within portable glove boxes, (5) in a dedicated clean sampling van, (6) only after turbidity stabilized at values less than 2 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU), when possible. Quality-assurance data, obtained from equipment blanks and split samples, indicated that trace element concentrations, with the exception of iron, chromium, aluminum, and zinc, measured in the samples collected in 1994 were not subject to random contamination at 1??g/L.Results from samples collected in 1994 were compared to those from samples collected in 1991 from the same 12 PVC-cased observation wells using the available sampling and analytical techniques at that time. Concentrations of copper, lead, manganese and zinc were statistically significantly lower in samples collected in 1994 than in 1991. Sampling techniques used in 1994 likely provided trace-element data that represented concentrations in the aquifer with less bias than data from 1991 when samples were collected without the same degree of attention to sample handling. Copyright ?? 2001 .

Ivahnenko, T.; Szabo, Z.; Gibs, J.

2001-01-01

408

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-102: Results from samples collected on January 26, 1996. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) with and without particulate prefiltration. Samples were collected from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for water, ammonia, permanent gases, total nonmethane hydrocarbons (TNMHCs, also known as TO-12), and organic analytes in samples collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs) from the tank headspace. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sampling and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Sampling and Analysis Plan for Tank Vapor Sampling Comparison Test{close_quote}, and the sample jobs were designated S6007, S6008, and S6009. Samples were collected by WHC on January 26, 1996, using the VSS, a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe; and the ISVS with and without particulate prefiltration.

Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H. [and others

1996-07-01

409

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-BY-108: Results from samples collected January 23, 1996. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) with and without particulate prefiltration. Samples were collected from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for water, ammonia, permanent gases, total nonmethane hydrocarbons (TNMHCs, also known as TO-12), and organic analytes in samples collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs) from the tank headspace. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sampling and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Sampling and Analysis Plan for Tank Vapor Sampling Comparison Test{close_quotes}, and the sample jobs were designated S6004, S6005, and S6006. Samples were collected by WHC on January 23, 1996, using the VSS, a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe; and the ISVS with and without particulate prefiltration.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B. [and others

1996-07-01

410

Exhaled Breath Condensate: A Promising Source for Biomarkers of Lung Disease  

PubMed Central

Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has been increasingly studied as a noninvasive research method for sampling the alveolar and airway space and is recognized as a promising source of biomarkers of lung diseases. Substances measured in EBC include oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators, such as arachidonic acid derivatives, reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, reduced and oxidized glutathione, and inflammatory cytokines. Although EBC has great potential as a source of biomarkers in many lung diseases, the low concentrations of compounds within the EBC present challenges in sample collection and analysis. Although EBC is viewed as a noninvasive method for sampling airway lining fluid (ALF), validation is necessary to confirm that EBC truly represents the ALF. Likewise, a dilution factor for the EBC is needed in order to compare across subjects and determine changes in the ALF. The aims of this paper are to address the characteristics of EBC; strategies to standardize EBC sample collection and review available analytical techniques for EBC analysis.

Liang, Yan; Yeligar, Samantha M.; Brown, Lou Ann S.

2012-01-01

411

Measurement of ethanol in gaseous breath using a miniature gas chromatograph.  

PubMed

We designed and built a novel, miniature gas chromatograph (mGC) to use exhaled breath to estimate blood ethanol concentrations that may offer GC quality sensitivity and specificity, but with portability, reduced size, and decreased cost. We hypothesized that the mGC would accurately estimate the serum ethanol concentration using exhaled breath. Human subjects (n = 8) were dosed with ethanol employing the Widmark criteria, targeting a blood concentration of 0.08 g/dL. Serum and breath samples were collected concurrently over an hour. Ethanol concentrations in serum were measured using a CLIA-approved laboratory. Ethanol concentrations in conventional breath were assayed using a calibrated mGC or Intoxilyzer 400PA. Data were analyzed using Bland-Altman analysis using serum concentrations as a "gold standard". For the mGC, the regression line (correlation coefficient), bias, and 95% limits of agreement were y = 1.013x - 0.009 (r = 0.91), -0.008 g/dL, and -0.031 to 0.016 g/dL, respectively, for 30 specimens. For the Intoxilyzer 400PA, the regression line (correlation coefficient), bias, and 95% limits of agreement were y = 0.599x + 0.008 (r = 0.86), -0.024 g/dL, and -0.049 to 0.002 g/dL, respectively, for 71 specimens with a large magnitude effect. We concluded that the mGC, using exhaled breath, performed well to estimate the serum ethanol concentrations. PMID:21439148

Morey, Timothy E; Booth, Matthew M; Prather, Robert A; Nixon, Sara J; Boissoneault, Jeff; Melker, Richard J; Goldberger, Bruce A; Wohltjen, Hank; Dennis, Donn M

2011-04-01

412

Material Sample Collection with Tritium and Gamma Analyses at the University of Illinois's Nuclear Research Laboratory TRIGA Nuclear Research Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The University of Illinois in Champaign-Urbana has an Advanced TRIGA reactor facility which was built in 1960 and operated until August 1998. The facility was shutdown for a variety of reasons, primarily due to a lack of usage by the host institution. In 1998 the reactor went into SAFSTOR and finally shipped its fuel in 2004. At the present time a site characterization and decommissioning plan are in process and hope to be submitted to the NRC in early 2006. The facility had to be fully characterized and part of this characterization involved the collection and analysis of samples. This included various solid media such as, concrete, graphite, metals, and sub-slab surface soils for immediate analysis of Activation and Tritium contamination well below the easily measured surfaces. This detailed facility investigation provided a case to eliminate historical unknowns, increasing the confidence for the segregation and packaging of high specific activity Low Level Radwaste (LLRW), from which a strategy of 'surgical-demolition' and segregation could be derived thus maximizing the volumes of 'clean material'. Performing quantitative volumetric concrete or metal radio-analyses safer and faster (without lab intervention) was a key objective of this dynamic characterization approach. Currently, concrete core bores are shipped to certified laboratories where the concrete residue is run through a battery of tests to determine the contaminants. The existing core boring operation volatilises or washes out some of the contaminants (like tritium) and oftentimes cross-contaminates the are a around the core bore site. The volatilization of the contaminants can lead to airborne problems in the immediate vicinity of the core bore. Cross-contamination can increase the contamination area and thereby increase the amount of waste generated that needs to be treated and stabilized before disposal. The goal was to avoid those field activities that could cause this type of release. Therefore, TRUPRO{sup R}, a sampling and profiling tool in conjunction with radiometric instrumentation was utilized to produce contamination profiles through the material being studied. All samples (except metals) on-site were analyzed within 10 minutes for tritium using a calibrated portable liquid scintillation counter (LSC) and analyzed for gamma activation products using a calibrated ISOCS. Improved sample collection with near real time analysis along with more historical hazard analysis enhanced significantly over the baseline coring approach the understanding of the depth distribution of contaminants. The water used in traditional coring can result in a radioactive liquid waste that needs to be dealt with. This would have been an issue at University of Illinois. Considerable time, risk reduction and money are saved using this profiling approach. (authors)

Charters, G.; Aggarwal, S. [New Millennium Nuclear Technologies, 575 Union Blvd, Suite 102, Lakewood, CO 80228 (United States)

2006-07-01

413

Bacterial overgrowth affects urinary proteome analysis: recommendation for centrifugation, temperature, duration, and the use of preservatives during sample collection.  

PubMed

Bacterial overgrowth is one of the major concerns in collection and storage of biofluids, particularly 24-h urine. However, there is no previous systematic analysis of effects of bacterial overgrowth on urinary proteome analysis, and necessity, type, and appropriate concentration of preservatives to prevent bacterial overgrowth in the urine remain unclear. We, therefore, performed such systematic evaluation. Pooled normal urine was either centrifuged at 1500 g (to remove cell debris) or uncentrifuged. The samples were then added with either sodium azide (NaN3) or boric acid with various concentrations, and kept at room temperature (RT) or at 4 degrees C. Bacterial overgrowth was determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry (lambda620 nm) and Gram staining. At both temperatures, centrifugation to remove cell debris could effectively delay the bacterial overgrowth. At RT, both centrifuged and uncentrifuged samples without any preservative had the detectable overgrowth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative cocci and bacilli as early as 12 and 8 h, respectively, whereas 0.1-1 mM NaN3 and 2-20 mM boric acid could delay bacterial overgrowth, which started at 16-20 h in the centrifuged urine and 12-16 h in the uncentrifuged urine. Greater delay (for at least 48 h) was achieved with 10 mM NaN3 and 200 mM boric acid. At 4 degrees C, no bacterial overgrowth was detected in all centrifuged samples. However, it was observed at 20 h in the uncentrifuged urine without preservative, and at 48 h for the uncentrifuged urine with 0.1 mM NaN3 or 2 mM boric acid. There was no bacterial overgrowth detectable in the uncentrifuged urine preserved with higher concentrations of NaN3 or boric acid. 2-DE showed obvious changes in the urinary proteome profile of the sample with bacterial contamination, and the bacterial proteins could be identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Our data suggest that the urine should be centrifuged to remove cell debris and kept at 4 degrees C, rather than at RT, during the collection interval prior to long-term storage in the freezer. Moreover, the addition of 200 mM boric acid or 10 mM NaN3 is highly recommended for the prevention of bacterial overgrowth in the urine. PMID:17924682

Thongboonkerd, Visith; Saetun, Putita

2007-10-09

414

In-depth investigation of archival and prospectively collected samples reveals no evidence for XMRV infection in prostate cancer.  

PubMed

XMRV, or xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related virus, is a novel gammaretrovirus originally identified in studies that analyzed tissue from prostate cancer patients in 2006 and blood from patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in 2009. However, a large number of subsequent studies failed to confirm a link between XMRV infection and CFS or prostate cancer. On the contrary, recent evidence indicates that XMRV is a contaminant originating from the recombination of two mouse endogenous retroviruses during passaging of a prostate tumor xenograft (CWR22) in mice, generating laboratory-derived cell lines that are XMRV-infected. To confirm or refute an association between XMRV and prostate cancer, we analyzed prostate cancer tissues and plasma from a prospectively collected cohort of 39 patients as well as archival RNA and prostate tissue from the original 2006 study. Despite comprehensive microarray, PCR, FISH, and serological testing, XMRV was not detected in any of the newly collected samples or in archival tissue, although archival RNA remained XMRV-positive. Notably, archival VP62 prostate tissue, from which the prototype XMRV strain was derived, tested negative for XMRV on re-analysis. Analysis of viral genomic and human mitochondrial sequences revealed that all previously characterized XMRV strains are identical and that the archival RNA had been contaminated by an XMRV-infected laboratory cell line. These findings reveal no association between XMRV and prostate cancer, and underscore the conclusion that XMRV is not a naturally acquired human infection. PMID:23028701

Lee, Deanna; Das Gupta, Jaydip; Gaughan, Christina; Steffen, Imke; Tang, Ning; Luk, Ka-Cheung; Qiu, Xiaoxing; Urisman, Anatoly; Fischer, Nicole; Molinaro, Ross; Broz, Miranda; Schochetman, Gerald; Klein, Eric A; Ganem, Don; Derisi, Joseph L; Simmons, Graham; Hackett, John; Silverman, Robert H; Chiu, Charles Y

2012-09-18

415

In-Depth Investigation of Archival and Prospectively Collected Samples Reveals No Evidence for XMRV Infection in Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

XMRV, or xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related virus, is a novel gammaretrovirus originally identified in studies that analyzed tissue from prostate cancer patients in 2006 and blood from patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in 2009. However, a large number of subsequent studies failed to confirm a link between XMRV infection and CFS or prostate cancer. On the contrary, recent evidence indicates that XMRV is a contaminant originating from the recombination of two mouse endogenous retroviruses during passaging of a prostate tumor xenograft (CWR22) in mice, generating laboratory-derived cell lines that are XMRV-infected. To confirm or refute an association between XMRV and prostate cancer, we analyzed prostate cancer tissues and plasma from a prospectively collected cohort of 39 patients as well as archival RNA and prostate tissue from the original 2006 study. Despite comprehensive microarray, PCR, FISH, and serological testing, XMRV was not detected in any of the newly collected samples or in archival tissue, although archival RNA remained XMRV-positive. Notably, archival VP62 prostate tissue, from which the prototype XMRV strain was derived, tested negative for XMRV on re-analysis. Analysis of viral genomic and human mitochondrial sequences revealed that all previously characterized XMRV strains are identical and that the archival RNA had been contaminated by an XMRV-infected laboratory cell line. These findings reveal no association between XMRV and prostate cancer, and underscore the conclusion that XMRV is not a naturally acquired human infection.

Lee, Deanna; Das Gupta, Jaydip; Gaughan, Christina; Steffen, Imke; Tang, Ning; Luk, Ka-Cheung; Qiu, Xiaoxing; Urisman, Anatoly; Fischer, Nicole; Molinaro, Ross; Broz, Miranda; Schochetman, Gerald; Klein, Eric A.; Ganem, Don; DeRisi, Joseph L.; Simmons, Graham; Hackett, John; Silverman, Robert H.; Chiu, Charles Y.

2012-01-01

416

PM-10 exhaust samples collected during IM-240 dyanamometer tests of in-service vehicles in Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-three vehicles that were recruited by remote sensing and roadside inspection and maintenance (I/M) checks during the 1994 Clark and Washoe Remote Sensing Study (CAWRSS) were tested on the IM240 cycle using a transportable dynamometer. Six of these vehicles emitted visible smoke. Total gas-phase hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) exhaust concentrations were continuously measured in the diluted exhaust stream from the constant volume sampler (CVS) during IM240 testing. Two isokinetic PM-10 samples were collected simultaneously using cyclones and filter holders connected to a dilution tube. Teflon filters were collected for total mass and then extracted for chloride, nitrate, and sulfate ions. Quartz filters were analyzed by the thermal/optical reflectance method for organic and elemental carbon. The quartz filters and backup vapor traps were then extracted and analyzed by GC/MS for 28 separate polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Mass emission rates of PM-10 per vehicle ranged from 5.6 to over 1300 mg/mi, with most of the mass attributable to carbon. Except for one vehicle with high sulfate emissions, the ion emissions were relatively low. Total PAH emissions were in the range of 10-200 mg/mi. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Sagebiel, J.C.; Zielinska, B.; Walsh, P.A.; Chow, J.C. [Desert Research Inst., Reno, NV (United States); Cadle, S.H.; Mulawa, P.A. [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI (United States); Knapp, K.T.; Zweidinger, R.B. [U.S. EPA Mobile Source Emissions Branch, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Snow, R. [ManTech Environmental Technology, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1997-01-01

417

Euromet-A Programme for the Collection of New Extraterrestrial Samples: Progress, Plans, or Pipe-Dreams?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EUROMET came into being in the wake of the Meteoritical Society Conference held in Vienna in 1989. It is now funded by the European Community Science Programme (Contract No. SC1* - CT91- 0618 (SSMA)) until November 1993, to collect and curate new meteorites and cosmic dust and distribute samples of the material on a worldwide basis. Although the progress towards fully operational status may seem slow, a great many people have contributed substantial amounts of time and effort to establishing a many-faceted project. EUROMET has held three very successful field expeditions to the Frontier Mountains (courtesy of the Italian Progetto Antartide), Dumont d'Urville together with Expeditions Polaires Francaises; Terres Australes et Antarctiques Francaises, and to the Nullarbor Plain (in conjunction with Dr. Alex Bevan, Western Australian Museum WAMET). The curatorial responsibilities extend to over 900 meteorite specimens and in excess of 10,000 cosmic dust grains. More information about these collections is provided elsewhere (several abstracts, this volume) with future updates to be published in the Meteoritical Bulletin. An electronic newsletter will be coming on line for rapid dissemination of information concerning sample characterisation and availability. Information regarding submission of sample requests can be found published in Meteoritics 27, 110 (1992). The EUROMET Council is actively pursuing a number of possibilities to ensure a long-term commitment to meteorite and micrometeorite recovery. Although many of the plans are still tentative they are moving towards fruition. Future Antarctic activities will hopefully include a 1992/3 mission to Frontier Mountains and other locations in Victoria Land and a more sophisticated cosmic dust factory (1994/5) with sponsors as before. Additionally we are exploring the possibility of a joint EUROMET/Indian expedition to Wohlthat Massif, which will be followed up via the German Georg Forster base in conjunction with Ganovex in 1995/96. EUROMET forsees an immense potential for expansion in hot deserts with programmes that will be carried out together with organisations and governments in the host countries. We are exploring ways to continue the highly successful collaboration with WAMET and possibly to escalate the effort. One of the areas we would like to consider is North Africa but the political situation in several countries in this region is presently unpredictable. Much more productive have been representations we have made to various Middle Eastern states, so that an expedition to Jiddat al Harasis in Oman seems now almost certain later this year. Contacts made between EUROMET and the Namibian Geological Survey suggest we would be welcome in Namibia, but an agreement on how any samples collected would be shared has to be reached. A reconnaissance to the Atacama (see abstract by Delisle et al., this volume) proved unproductive except for the official contacts made with sympathetic Chilean scientists. Much more speculative have been contacts with Russian and Chinese researchers in sympathy with EUROMET's aims. Although the above is a very extensive portfolio, we as much as anything are endeavouring to encourage countries without a current interest in meteorites to exploit their own meteorite heritage before samples are lost through unofficial or badly conducted efforts. We hope to provide opportunities for a number of volunteers to participate in the field programmes. *Footnote: The EUROMET Council: Colin Pillinger, Ludolf Schultz, Michel Maurette, and Marcello Mellini.

Pillinger, C. T.

1992-07-01

418

Personal exposures, indoor and outdoor air concentrations, and exhaled breath concentrations of selected volatile organic compounds measured for 600 residents of New Jersey, North Dakota, North Carolina and California  

Microsoft Academic Search

EPA's TEAM Study has measured exposures to 20 volatile organic compounds in personal air, outdoor air, drinking water, and breath of 600 residents of New Jersey, North Carolina, North Dakota, and California. All participants were selected by a probability sampling scheme to represent a total of 700,000 inhabitants of seven cities. Participants carried a personal monitor to collect two 12?hour

Lance A. Wallace

1986-01-01

419

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank SX102: Results from samples collected on July 19, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-102 (Tank SX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank.

B. D. McVeety; J. C. Evans; T. W. Clauss; K. H. Pool

1996-01-01

420

Headspace vapor characterization at Hanford Waste Tank 241-A-102: Results from samples collected on November 10, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-A-102 (Tank A-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) (a) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the

J. C. Evans; K. H. Pool; B. L. Thomas; K. B. Olsen; J. S. Fruchter; K. L. Silvers

1996-01-01

421

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241BY102: Results from samples collected on November 21, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-102 (Tank BY-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank.

B. L. Thomas; J. C. Evans; K. H. Pool

1996-01-01

422

NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE, AND SHIPMENT OF DUPLICATE DIET SAMPLES FOR METAL, PESTICIDE, AND PAH ANALYSIS (F08)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to describe techniques for the collection and handling of duplicate diet samples in the field. The duplicate diet sample is a four-day composite sample of all foods and beverages consumed by the target individual, whether prepared and consumed in the h...