Sample records for bridge deck pavement

  1. Plans: Poop Deck, Boat Deck, Housetop, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plans: Poop Deck, Boat Deck, Housetop, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge Deck, Navigating Bridge, Forecastle Deck, Upper Deck, Second Deck and Hold - Saugatuck, James River Reserve Fleet, Newport News, Newport News, VA

  2. Performance evaluation of a high durability asphalt binder and a high durability asphalt mixture for bridge deck pavements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hee Mun Park; Ji Young Choi; Hyun Jong Lee; Eui Yoon Hwang

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the results of laboratory and full-scale performance tests for a high durability asphalt binder (HDAB) and high durability asphalt mixture (HDAM) applicable to the wearing course in a bridge deck system. The HDAB was developed using a styrene–butadiene–styrene (SBS) modifier and hydrocarbon for improving construction workability and resistance to fatigue cracking. Various binder tests were conducted on

  3. Bridge Deck Deicing using Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEFFREY D. SPITLER; MAHADEVAN RAMAMOORTHY

    Several research projects at Oklahoma State University have investigated bridge deck deicing systems that utilize a ground source heat pump system to provide heating. This paper describes simulation methodology; the design of a system planned for installation on a bridge deck near Weatherford, Oklahoma; and results from system simulations of the proposed bridge deck. System simulations of the bridge deck

  4. Alternatives to steel grid bridge decks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Azhar Saleem

    2011-01-01

    Most of the moveable bridges use open grid steel decks, because these are factory assembled, light-weight, and easy to install. Open grid steel decks, however, are not as skid resistant as solid decks. Costly maintenance, high noise levels, poor riding comfort and susceptibility to vibrations are among the other disadvantages of these decks. The major objective of this research was

  5. Alternatives to Steel Grid Bridge Decks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad A Saleem

    2011-01-01

    Most of the moveable bridges use open grid steel decks, because these are factory assembled, light-weight, and easy to install. Open grid steel decks, however, are not as skid resistant as solid decks. Costly maintenance, high noise levels, poor riding comfort and susceptibility to vibrations are among the other disadvantages of these decks. The major objective of this research was

  6. Rapid bridge deck replacement 

    E-print Network

    Osegueda, Roberto Alejandro

    1983-01-01

    , California . . . Maryland State Highway Administration-Federal Highway Administration Summary . Objectives of Study Scope of Study 2 EXPERIMENTAL WORK General 13 13 17 20 22 22 24 Selection of Prototype Bridge Model Design Design of Model... Distribution . . Comparison of Shear Stress Distribution Comparison of Midspan Deflections Comparison of Full Composite Test Results to Prototype . Flexural Strains 156 156 159 159 161 161 166 168 173 173 Deflections Discussion of Slip Di...

  7. Rapid bridge deck replacement

    E-print Network

    Osegueda, Roberto Alejandro

    1983-01-01

    at 24 Hours 93 19 Tensile Strength of Epoxy Mortar of Connections at 24 Hours 94 20 Initial Tangent Moduli of Epoxy Mortar of Connections 21 Theoretical Correlation Factor of Flexural Strain 98 Gages 103 22 Average Percent Error of Shear Strain... replacement time as well as traffic interference. An experimental study consisting of static load tests on a 1/3 scale model of a 60-ft-long steel I-girder bridge with precast concrete panels connected with epoxy mortar and shear connectors to accomplish...

  8. Bridge deck designs for railing impacts 

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Althea Gayle

    1984-01-01

    ) Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges set forth certain structural design requirements for bridge railings and the corresponding bridge decks. Observat1ons of deck failure patterns in recent crash tests and observed deck fa1lures at vehicle... in Texas. Full-scale deck sections with a post, a parapet or an 8 ft section of railing were built and tested. The three types tested were the Texas TIOI, T202, and TS bridge railings. The findings of this testing are reported herein. ACKNOHLEDGEMENT...

  9. Strategic sensor locations of FPR bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hwai-Chung; Warnemuende, Kraig; Yan, An; Mu, Bin

    2003-07-01

    Advanced fiber-reinforced polymer composite (FRP) has been increasingly used in bridge deck to replace concrete or steel. A FRP bridge deck can be designed to meet AASHTO HS-25 load requirements. FRP decks have many advantages over the conventional reinforced concrete or steel decks owing to their lightweight, high strength and corrosion resistance. However, such new deck system requires extensive monitoring to ensure its designed performance before its widespread acceptance by the bridge community. For inspection and evaluation purpose, a proper monitoring system consisting of various kinds of sensors installed in the FRP deck is critical. This paper provides a framework for designing an efficient monitoring system. The strategic sensor locations are identified based on the stress analysis of the FRP deck.

  10. Dog Bridge, view of the deck of the bridge and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Dog Bridge, view of the deck of the bridge and rails looking from Linden Lane - National Park Seminary, Bounded by Capitol Beltway (I-495), Linden Lane, Woodstove Avenue, & Smith Drive, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  11. FATIGUE ANALYSIS OF ORTHOTROPIC HIGHWAY BRIDGE DECKS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kornél Kiss; Ernõ Székely; László Dunai

    1998-01-01

    SUMMARY A FEM-based integrated stress analysis and fatigue design is introduced for ortho- tropic bridge decks. The 3D plate\\/shell model of a large part of the bridge includes the deck plate, cross beams, ribs and part of the main girder webs. This model can consider the local membrane- and bending actions as well as the main girder effect, warping, shear

  12. Renovation techniques for fatigue cracked orthotropic steel bridge decks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. B. P. de Jong

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation presents the research into renovation techniques for orthotropic steel bridge decks. These techniques are needed to solve fatigue problems in the decks of these bridges, as several fatigue cracks have been detected in the deck structure of these bridges the last decade. A well-known example of fatigue cracks are those observed in the deck plate of the Van

  13. Imaging radar for bridge deck inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Warhus, J.; Mast, J.; Nelson, S.

    1995-04-13

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)l is developing a prototype imaging radar for inspecting steel reinforced concrete bridge decks. The system is designed to acquire Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data and provide high-resolution images of internal structure, flaws, and defects enabling bridge inspectors to nondestructively evaluate and characterize bridge deck condition. Concrete delamination resulting from corrosion of steel reinforcing bars (rebars) is an important structural defect that the system is designed to detect. The prototype system uses arrays of compact, low-cost Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR) modules, supported by appropriate data acquisition and storage subsystems, to generate and collect the radar data, and unique imaging codes to reconstruct images of bridge deck internals. In this paper, we provide an overview of the prototype system concept, discuss its expected performance, and present recent experimental results showing the capability of this approach to detect thin delamination simulations embedded in concrete.

  14. 20. VIEW OF STEEL ARCH, SHOWING UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF STEEL ARCH, SHOWING UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE DECK AT EAST END, TYPICAL FLOOR BEAM DETAILS AND IRVING DECKING, X-BRACING AND PENETRATION OF ARCH LOWER CHORD THROUGH DECK, LOOKING NORTHWEST. GAS LINE IS CARRIED ON FLOOR BEAM OUTRIGGERS. NEW BRIDGE IS AT LEFT - Notre Dame Bridge, Spanning Merrimack River on Bridge Street, Manchester, Hillsborough County, NH

  15. Characterisation of surfacing materials for orthotropic steel deck bridges. Part 1: experimental work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. O. Medani; X. Liu; M. Huurman; A. Scarpas; A. A. A. Molenaar

    2010-01-01

    The life span of surfacing materials like mastic asphalt on orthotropic steel deck bridges is quite short when compared with those of ordinary road pavements. Several problems including cracking and rutting of the surfacing materials have been reported in many countries. In order to get an insight into these problems, it is deemed necessary to represent the behaviour of the

  16. Characterisation of surfacing materials for orthotropic steel deck bridges. Part 2: numerical work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Liu; T. O. Medani; A. Scarpas; M. Huurman; A. A. A. Molenaar

    2010-01-01

    The lifespan of surfacing course materials like mastic asphalt on orthotropic steel deck bridges is quite short when compared with that of ordinary road pavements. Several problems including cracking and rutting of the surfacing materials have been reported in many countries. This is the second part of the two papers on characterisation of the behaviour of typical surface course materials

  17. Bending tests of bridge deck planks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej S. Nowak; Pawel R. Stankiewicz; Michael A. Ritter

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents results of timber plank tests, for planks used in highway bridge decks. Tests were carried out to determine the flat-wise use factor, which is represented by the ratio of modulus of rupture (MOR) for flat-wise loading to MOR for edge-wise loading. Four sizes were tested. The tests confirmed that MOR for flat-wise loading is considerably larger than

  18. 11. DETAIL VIEW OF DECK OF ROCK CREEK RAILWAY BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL VIEW OF DECK OF ROCK CREEK RAILWAY BRIDGE, FACING NORTHWEST - Oregon Electric Railway Westside Corridor, Hillsboro Extension, Between 185th Avenue & Hillsboro, Beaverton, Washington County, OR

  19. Load Testing of an FRP Bridge Deck on a Truss Bridge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sreenivas Alampalli; Jonathan Kunin

    2003-01-01

    New York State has constructed a fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bridge deck as an experimental project. The goal of the project was to improve the load rating of a 50-yr old truss bridge located in Wellsburg, New York. The FRP deck weighs approximately 80-percent less than the deteriorated concrete bridge deck it replaced. Reducing the dead load increased the allowable

  20. 6. An elevated view of the bridge deck looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. An elevated view of the bridge deck looking east toward Battelle Laboratories and the Ohio State University. Picture taken from State Route 315. - King Avenue Bridge, Spanning Olentangy River, Columbus, Franklin County, OH

  1. 10. AN IMAGE, LOOKING DUE NORTH OF THE BRIDGE DECK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. AN IMAGE, LOOKING DUE NORTH OF THE BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING LAYERS OF GRAVEL, ASPHALT AND TIMBER. - Wells County Bridge No. 74, Spanning Rock Creek Ditch at County Road 400, Bluffton, Wells County, IN

  2. 12. Deck view of bridge near Alum Cave parking area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Deck view of bridge near Alum Cave parking area looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  3. 11. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING ENDPANEL VERTICAL, ARCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING END-PANEL VERTICAL, ARCH SEGMENT, LOWER CHORD AND FLOOR SYSTEM, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Davis Bridge, Spanning Upper Iowa River at County Road 16, Lime Springs, Howard County, IA

  4. DETAIL VIEW OF SINGLE PANEL POINTS TAKEN FROM BRIDGE DECK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF SINGLE PANEL POINTS TAKEN FROM BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING CONNECTION BETWEEN VERTICAL AND UPPER CHORD MEMBER - White Bowstring Arch Truss Bridge, Spanning Yellow Creek at Cemetery Drive (Riverside Drive), Poland, Mahoning County, OH

  5. Energy Balances of Curing Concrete Bridge Decks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, Gary S.; Fitzjarrald, David R.

    2001-11-01

    Atmospheric conditions for several days after concrete is poured influence the exothermic, temperature-dependent, hydration reactions of concrete's cementitious (binding) components. Because excessively high concrete temperatures or lack of water eventually can lead to cracking, the initial days are critical to determining the concrete's long-term durability. Accurate model forecasts of concrete temperatures and moisture would help engineers to determine an optimal time to pour. Such forecasts require adequate environmental predictions. Existing models of curing concrete bridge decks employed by engineers lack realistic boundary conditions and so cannot handle many atmospheric conditions. Atmospheric energy exchange parameterizations typically are intended for use over areas much larger than bridges and so may not be useful as boundary conditions in curing-concrete models. To determine proper boundary conditions for the curing-concrete model discussed here, energy balances of four curing concrete bridge decks were estimated from observations made in the atmosphere as well as inside the concrete. Common meteorological techniques to estimate energy balance terms were used to bound the estimates. Most (70%-85%) of the concrete heat transfer occurred at the bridge's top. Sensible, latent, net radiative, and runoff water (sprayed on the top surface) heat fluxes, respectively, contributed 6%-24%, 15%-58%, 10%-34%, and 0%-73% of the top surface heat transfer. Bottom heat transfer was less than 30% of the top surface transfer. Laboratory calorimetry and the energy balance results agree to within 20% that the hydration reactions evolved about 190 kJ kg1 by 24 h after mixing. This agreement validates the exchange coefficients proposed for the heat and moisture balances of these small areas both during periods when the concrete generated heat and later when the concrete was more passive in its environment.

  6. Fatigue properties of orthotropic decks on railway bridges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Frýba; L Gajdoš

    1999-01-01

    The fatigue properties of orthotropic decks on steel railway bridges with open ribs were investigated. Being fully welded, the orthotropic decks are sensitive to fatigue. Therefore, fatigue tests were carried out on several series of specimens. The shape of cutouts in the web of the cross-girder, the effect of shear forces and the weld penetration appeared to be very important

  7. Perspective view of 125' Warren deck trusses of Bridge No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of 125' Warren deck trusses of Bridge No. 1413, Sixth Potomac Crossing, looking north from Maryland shore. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  8. Rehabilitation and field testing of an FRP bridge deck on a truss bridge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sreenivas Alampalli; Jonathan Kunin

    2002-01-01

    A light-weight FRP deck was used, on an experimental basis, to replace a heavy deteriorated concrete deck improving the load rating of a 60-year old truss bridge located in Wellsburg, New York. This was the first such application in New York State. Load testing was conducted after installation of the FRP deck to study its behavior. Results indicated the conservative

  9. Fabrication procedure effects on fatigue resistance of rib -to-deck welded joints of steel orthotropic bridge decks

    E-print Network

    Sim, Hyoung-Bo

    2010-01-01

    in orthotropic steel bridge decks. ” Welding in the World ,steel plates and closed ribs joined together by extensive welding,steel decks have experienced a variety of fatigue problems, resulting from high cyclic stresses in conjunction with poor welding

  10. BEHAVIOUR OF BRIDGE DECKS REINFORCED BY GFRP

    E-print Network

    The beams were simply supported on concrete blocks, anchored to the structural floor. Since corrosion, concrete, deck, deflection, GFRP, finite element, shear, slab INTRODUCTION Deterioration of concrete deck slab was supported by four precast prestressed concrete beams spaced at 1.80 m center to center

  11. RAPID CONSTRUCTION OF CONCRETE BRIDGE DECK USING PREFABRICATED FRP REINFORCEMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Matta; Antonio Nanni; Thomas E. Ringelstetter; Lawrence C. Bank

    2006-01-01

    The development of durable structural systems for accelerated bridge construction is key to reducing the economic and social costs associated with replacement operations on a large scale. This paper reports on the field application of stay-in-place reinforcing panels, entirely made of glass fiber reinforced polymer components and specifically developed for the rapid construction of concrete bridge decks. The salient features

  12. BEHAVIOR OF BRIDGE DECKS REINFORCED WITH MMFX STEEL HATEM SELIEM

    E-print Network

    strength consisted of two concrete blocks which served to anchor the two ends of a bent bar stirrup as show 2414 Campus Shore Dr., Raleigh, NC 27695, USA sami_rizkalla@ncsu.edu KEYWORDS Bridge Decks, Concrete of deterioration in concrete bridges. This fact has led to the development of numerous technologies

  13. Bridge deck condition assessment using destructive and nondestructive methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Brandon Tyler

    This study investigates two bridge decks in the state of Missouri using both nondestructive and destructive testing methods. The Missouri Department of Transportation (MoDOT) is responsible for the monitoring and maintenance of over 10,000 bridges. Currently monitoring of these bridges includes a comprehensive visual inspection. In this study, ground-coupled ground penetrating radar (GPR) is used to estimate deterioration, along with other traditional methods, including visual inspection, and core evaluation. Extracted core samples were carefully examined, and the volume of permeable pore space was determined for each core. After the initial investigation, the two bridges underwent rehabilitation using hydrodemolition as a method to remove loose or deteriorated concrete. Depths and locations of material removal were determined using light detection and ranging (lidar). Data sets were compared to determine the accuracy of GPR to predict deterioration for condition monitoring and rehabilitation planning of bridge decks. As shown by the lidar survey of the material removed during rehabilitation, the GPR top reinforcement reflection amplitude accurately predicted regions of deterioration within the bridge decks. In general, regions with lower reflection amplitudes, indicating more evidence of deterioration, corresponded to regions with greater depths of material removal during the rehabilitation. Also, the GPR top reinforcement reflection amplitude indicated deterioration in areas where visual deterioration was noticed from the top surface of the deck. The majority of cores with delaminations were extracted from sections where the GPR top reinforcement reflection amplitude indicated greater evidence of deterioration based on lower amplitude values.

  14. Quantifying reinforced concrete bridge deck deterioration using ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martino, Nicole Marie

    Bridge decks are deteriorating at an alarming rate due to corrosion of the reinforcing steel, requiring billions of dollars to repair and replace them. Furthermore, the techniques used to assess the decks don't provide enough quantitative information. In recent years, ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been used to quantify deterioration by comparing the rebar reflection amplitudes to technologies serving as ground truth, because there is not an available amplitude threshold to distinguish healthy from corroded areas using only GPR. The goal of this research is to understand the relationship between GPR and deck deterioration, and develop a model to determine deterioration quantities with GPR alone. The beginning of this research determines that not only is the relationship between GPR and rebar corrosion stronger than the relationship between GPR and delaminations, but that the two are exceptionally correlated (90.2% and 86.6%). Next, multiple bridge decks were assessed with GPR and half-cell potential (HCP). Statistical parameters like the mean and skewness were computed for the GPR amplitudes of each deck, and coupled with actual corrosion quantities based on the HCP measurements to form a future bridge deck model that can be used to assess any deck with GPR alone. Finally, in order to understand exactly which component of rebar corrosion (rust, cracking or chloride) attenuates the GPR data, computational modeling was carried out to isolate each variable. The results indicate that chloride is the major contributor to the rebar reflection attenuation, and that computational modeling can be used to accurately simulate GPR attenuation due to chloride.

  15. Structural Assessment of Externally Strengthened Bridge Deck Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Jongsung; Oh, Hongseob; Meyer, Christian

    2006-03-01

    Deteriorated concrete bridge decks are strengthened with external bonding technique using either steel plate or various FRPs to enhance the decreased load carrying capacity and serviceability. But the failure characteristics of bridge decks strengthened with various materials can be changed according to mechanical properties of strengthening materials or strengthening scheme as well as the strengthening amount. In this paper, strengthening effect of deck strengthened with carbon fiber sheets, glass fiber sheets or steel plates is compared. And the theoretical load carrying capacity are evaluated using yield line theory and punching shear model properly modified for the strengthened RC member. The panels strengthened with sheet type FRP materials failed more often in a ductile mode, indicating that the failure developed after the rebar yielded.

  16. Henry Hudson Bridge upper deck and pedestrian walkway showing parapets ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Henry Hudson Bridge upper deck and pedestrian walkway showing parapets with pipe rails. View of Inwood Hill Park in background, with a faint view of the Empire State Building amidst distant highrises at left, looking south. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York, New York County, NY

  17. Western deck plate girder span of Bridge No. 1413, Sixth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Western deck plate girder span of Bridge No. 1413, Sixth Potomac Crossing, passing over MD 51, with "WESTERN MARYLAND RAILWAY" painted on the girder panels, looking northwest. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  18. Galvanic cathodic protection for reinforced concrete bridge decks: Field evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Whiting; D. Stark

    1981-01-01

    The application of four sacrificial zinc anode cathodic protection systems to a reinforced concrete highway bridge deck is described. Two system designs were found to be the most promising in terms of polarized potentials and protective current densities achieved during the 3 year monitoring program. One design uses commercially available zinc ribbon anodes spaced at 5 in (127 mm) centers;

  19. Deck plate girder spans and steel piers of Bridge No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Deck plate girder spans and steel piers of Bridge No. 1396, Fourth Potomac and Second B&O Crossing, over original B&O right of way (right) and flood plain (left), looking west. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  20. Development of Aluminum Bridge Deck System with Reynolds Metals Company

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, C.R.; Hayden, W.H.

    1999-04-01

    Currently, there are many structurally-deficient and obsolete bridges in the US highway system. The expected cost for repair and replacement is enormous; therefore, more cost-effective materials and construction methodology must be sought. Reynolds Metals Company formed a vertical consortium to develop and market a cost-effective, innovative, lightweight, corrosion resistant aluminum bridge deck system based on hollow aluminum shapes that could be welded together in the shop to form deck panels. Panels would be shipped to the construction sites for final assembly, which uses connections along longitudinal edges. These deck panels would replace conventional steel or concrete panels. An epoxy-gravel wearing surface would be applied to the top side of the deck to provide a durable, skid-resistant surface. However, before this deck system could be widely utilized, the overall structural integrity had to be fully demonstrated. Reynolds Metals Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORN L) entered in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to conduct a number of fundamental investigations into potentially critical technical areas over approximately a four-year period.

  1. Behavior of Three-Dimensionally Woven Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Bridge Deck

    E-print Network

    a lightweight, corrosion resistant alternative to steel and concrete bridge deck. GFRP decks are espe- cially polymer (GFRP) bridge decks have been considered os an alternative to conventional steel and concrete woven material eliminates the delamination failure observed for some of the current commercially

  2. Dual-band infrared imaging for concrete bridge deck inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, P.; Del Grande, N.

    1994-02-01

    Dual-band infrared (DBIR) imaging methods and unique image-correction algorithms used successfully for underground and obscured object imaging and detection (of buried mines, archaeological structures, geothermal aquifers and airframe defects) are adapted for inspection of concrete highways and bridge decks to provide early warnings of subsurface defects. To this end, we prepared small concrete test slabs with defects (embedded plastic layers). We used selective DBIR (3--5 {mu}m and 8--12 {mu}m) image ratios to depict the defect sites and remove the effects of surface clutter. We distinguish true temperature-difference signals (at surrogate delamination sites) from emissivity noise (at sites with oil stains, sand, gravel, metal parts and roughness differences) towards improved concrete bridge deck inspections.

  3. Understanding the impulse response method applied to concrete bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clem, D. J.; Popovics, J. S.; Schumacher, T.; Oh, T.; Ham, S.; Wu, D.

    2013-01-01

    The Impulse Response (IR) method is a well-established form of non-destructive testing (NDT) where the dynamic response of an element resulting from an impact event (hammer blow) is measured with a geophone to make conclusions about the element's integrity, stiffness, and/or support conditions. The existing ASTM Standard C1740-10 prescribes a set of parameters that can be used to evaluate the conditions above. These parameters are computed from the so-called `mobility' spectrum which is obtained by dividing the measured bridge deck response by the measured impact force in the frequency domain. While applying the test method in the laboratory as well as on an actual in-service concrete bridge deck, the authors of this paper observed several limitations that are presented and discussed in this paper. In order to better understand the underlying physics of the IR method, a Finite Element (FE) model was created. Parameters prescribed in the Standard were then computed from the FE data and are discussed. One main limitation appears to be the use of a fixed upper frequency of 800 Hz. Test data from the real bridge deck as well as the FE model both show that most energy is found above that limit. This paper presents and discusses limitations of the ASTM Standard found by the authors and suggests ways for improving it.

  4. Dynamic and fatigue response of a truss bridge with fiber reinforced polymer deck

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Methee Chiewanichakorn; Amjad J. Aref; Sreenivas Alampalli

    2007-01-01

    Lighter fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) decks are gaining popularity among bridge owners as an alternative to replace old deteriorated heavy concrete bridge decks to increase the live load capacity of old steel superstructures requiring minimal repairs. This is more attractive in case of old truss bridges, which are relatively in good condition, but are not designed to current live loads

  5. Surfacing of concrete bridges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vibeke Wegan

    The estimated life for concrete bridges in Denmark is 100 years. One condition to en- sure this long lifetime is waterproofing of the bridge deck together with a high quality asphalt pavement. The surfacing of the concrete bridge deck is important because the concrete should be protected against water and de-icing salts since these factors can lead to reduction of

  6. Galvanic cathodic protection for reinforced concrete bridge decks: Field evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiting, D.; Stark, D.

    1981-06-01

    The application of four sacrificial zinc anode cathodic protection systems to a reinforced concrete highway bridge deck is described. Two system designs were found to be the most promising in terms of polarized potentials and protective current densities achieved during the 3 year monitoring program. One design uses commercially available zinc ribbon anodes spaced at 5 in (127 mm) centers; the other, custom-fabricated perforated zinc sheets. Both systems are overlaid with an open-graded asphalt friction course. The systems yield maximum current density and polarized potentials under warm and moist environment conditions.

  7. 10. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING TYPICAL VERTICAL/OUTRIDER, ARCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING TYPICAL VERTICAL/OUTRIDER, ARCH SEGMENT AND DIAGONALS, LOOKING NORTH - Davis Bridge, Spanning Upper Iowa River at County Road 16, Lime Springs, Howard County, IA

  8. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Open-Channel Flows Over Bridge-Decks Under Various Flooding Conditions

    E-print Network

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    realistic boundary conditions and more optimized simulation parameters. Key-Words:-Bridge deck, CFDComputational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Open-Channel Flows Over Bridge-Decks Under Various Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software and powerful parallel computing resources. The objective

  9. Modular 3-D FRP Reinforcing System for a Bridge Deck in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin

    E-print Network

    Bank, Lawrence C.

    Modular 3-D FRP Reinforcing System for a Bridge Deck in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin by Mack J. Conachen Engineering) at the UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-MADISON 2005 #12;Modular 3-D FRP Reinforcing System for a Bridge Deck in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin APPROVED BY: ________________________________ _______________ Dr

  10. BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE BRIDGE DECKS REINFORCED WITH HIGH-STRENGTH AND HIGH CORROSION-RESISTANT STEEL

    E-print Network

    of bending of MMFX steel on its tensile strength consisted of two concrete blocks to anchor the two endsBEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE BRIDGE DECKS REINFORCED WITH HIGH- STRENGTH AND HIGH CORROSION-RESISTANT STEEL of bending of MMFX steel bars on its tensile strength. KEYWORDS Bridge decks, Concrete, Corrosion, High

  11. Data Fusion Techniques of Multiple Sensors Nondestructive Evaluation of a Concrete Bridge Deck

    E-print Network

    Huston, Dryver R.

    detects metals, dielectric properties and is contactless and fast. The accuracy, reliability bridge deck. Several NDE methods are applied periodically on the slab while an accelerated corrosion are presented. Key word: Data fusion, NDE, Bridge deck, GPR, corrosion 1.0 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

  12. Linear and Non-linear Analysis of Fibre Reinforced Plastic Bridge Deck due to Vehicle Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Chaitali; Mandal, Bibekananda

    2015-06-01

    The present work deals with linear and nonlinear static analysis of fibre reinforced plastics composite bridge deck structures using the finite element method. The nonlinear static analysis has been carried out considering geometric nonlinearity. The analysis of bridge deck has been carried out under vehicle load as specified by IRC Class B wheel load classification. The formulation has been carried out using the finite element software package ANSYS 14.0 and the SHELL281 element is used to model the bridge deck. The bridge deck has also been modeled as a plate stiffened with closely spaced hollow box sections and a computer code is developed based on this formulation. The results obtained from the present formulation are compared with those available in the published literature. A parametric study on the stiffened bridge deck has also been carried out with varying dimensions of the stiffeners under vehicle loads.

  13. Mohamed, Tarek Said. Fabrication and Behavior of Three-Dimensionally Woven Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Bridge Deck. (Under the direction

    E-print Network

    decks due to corrosion of steel triggered civil engineering researchers to consider other alternatives as an alternative to the current conventional concrete and steel bridge decks. This research explored to the current conventional reinforced concrete and steel bridge decks. During the past two decades, researchers

  14. Repair and prevention of damage due to transverse shrinkage cracks in bridge decks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn M. Dry

    1999-01-01

    Transverse shrinkage cracking of bridge decks occurs during and shortly after construction. It allows cracks to form and later allows water and other elements to enter the concrete matrix of the deck and most importantly to fall onto the supporting structure below. This leads to significantly damage of that support structure. This paper describes a field application of the design

  15. HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE OVERLAY FOR REHABILITATION AND STRENGTHENING OF ORTHO- TROPIC STEEL BRIDGE DECKS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Buitelaar; René Braam; Niek Kaptijn; Henk Sliedrecht

    Heavily and intensely loaded orthotropic steel bridges suffer from fatigue cracks in the deck plate. Periodical repair is a costly measure that doesn't solve the basic structural problems. A heavily reinforced ultra high strength concrete overlay bonded to the deck plate might reduce steel stresses because it increases the \\

  16. ANALYSIS OF A BRIDGE DECK BUILT ON INTERSTATE HIGHWAY 39/90 WITH FULL-DEPTH, PRECAST, PRESTRESSED CONCRETE DECK PANELS

    E-print Network

    Russell, Jeffrey S.

    This thesis describes research activities evaluating the construction of a bridge deck on I-39/90 over Door or functionally obsolete while, at the same time, traffic volumes continue to increase. Accelerated construction, a constructability study was performed by tracking the labor and equipment required throughout the bridge deck

  17. Reflected DeckFraming Plan; Reflected RoofFraming Plan Powerscourt Bridge, Spanning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Reflected Deck-Framing Plan; Reflected Roof-Framing Plan - Powerscourt Bridge, Spanning Chateauguay River, First Concession Road, Elgin/Hichinbrooke, Huntingdon County, Quebec, Canada, Chateaugay, Franklin County, NY

  18. Structural Performance of a Full-Depth Precast Concrete Bridge Deck System

    E-print Network

    Mander, Thomas

    2010-10-12

    in longitudinal direction N applied horizontal axial load on bridge deck P f flexural component of failure load of SIP panels P u ultimate failure load of slab p shape parameter based on the slope of the strain-hardening curve vii V c punching....3; surface cracks and critical failure mode for precast prestressed overhang with tandem axle load ............................... 98 50 Shear-flexural failure and punching-shear failure of CIP-SIP bridge deck specimen...

  19. Crack mitigation in concrete bridge decks through experimental analysis and computer modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Douglas M.

    Bridge deck cracking can cause deterioration of bridge decks, leading to a shorter life span and poor performance. Throughout the US, cracking has been identified as a problem, with transverse cracking along the deck at regular spacings being the most prominent type. This problem is usually caused by drying shrinkage within the concrete. The material properties, restraint, and distances without expansion joints all affect the crack pattern within the deck. This study will delve into the reasons that bridge decks crack, the strains that are associated with drying shrinkage, and possible methods for abating its effects. The research is divided into two parts, the first being laboratory experimentation, which was conducted through the use of two 7 ft. x 10 ft. experimental concrete bridge bays. Each bay was instrumented with strain and temperature gages throughout the deck and girders, which collected data for six months. The first deck was poured with a control concrete mix used currently in Illinois. The second deck was poured with a type K expansive concrete, which could battle the effects of shrinkage. For both decks, the results suggest a compressive strain throughout the rebar and along the top surface of the concrete, except for the locations where cracks are found (at these locations the strain slopes upward into tension). The strain in the type K deck, though, was notably less than that in the control deck and the onset of cracking was delayed by three weeks, giving the indication of an improvement over the current mix design. The second portion of the research was focused on using a finite element model to replicate the bridge bay and study the results. Equivalent temperature loading was used to apply the shrinkage loads recorded during the experimental portion of the research. The model was then expanded to encompass a full-scale bridge and in order to provide some insight into shrinkage strain in the real world. The end goal is to help alleviate cracking in current bridge decks, as well as create suggestions for future bridge construction.

  20. Structural Performance Evaluation of Tsing MA Bridge Deck Using Long-Term Monitoring Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Y. Q.; Xia, H. W.; Ko, J. M.

    The Tsing Ma Bridge in Hong Kong is suspension bridge with a main span of 1377 m carrying both highway and railway traffic. After completing its construction in 1997, the bridge was instrumented by the Hong Kong SAR Government Highways Department with a long-term structural health monitoring system comprising about 300 sensors permanently installed on the bridge. As part of this monitoring system, a total of 110 strain gauges have been installed to measure strain at the deck cross-sections and bearings. In this study, a method for real-time structural performance evaluation of the stiffening deck system making use of long-term strain measurement data is proposed and verified using the strain monitoring data from a typical deck cross-section of the Tsing Ma Bridge.

  1. Bridge Prioritization for Installation of Automatic Anti-icing Systems in Nebraska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aemal Khattak; Geza Pesti

    During severe winter conditions bridges freeze before the surrounding roadways, often catching unsuspecting drivers off guard. Depending on weather and pavement conditions, automatic bridge deck anti-icing systems spray chemicals that prevent or minimize ice bonding to the pavement. The Nebraska Department of Roads (NDOR) is interested in installing such systems on various bridges statewide. However, the presence of 2,193 bridges

  2. Stiffness and strength of fiber reinforced polymer composite bridge deck systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Aixi

    This research investigates two principal characteristics that are of primary importance in Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bridge deck applications: STIFFNESS and STRENGTH. The research was undertaken by investigating the stiffness and strength characteristics of the multi-cellular FRP bridge deck systems consisting of pultruded FRP shapes. A systematic analysis procedure was developed for the stiffness analysis of multi-cellular FRP deck systems. This procedure uses the Method of Elastic Equivalence to model the cellular deck as an equivalent orthotropic plate. The procedure provides a practical method to predict the equivalent orthotropic plate properties of cellular FRP decks. Analytical solutions for the bending analysis of single span decks were developed using classical laminated plate theory. The analysis procedures can be extended to analyze continuous FRP decks. It can also be further developed using higher order plate theories. Several failure modes of the cellular FRP deck systems were recorded and analyzed through laboratory and field tests and Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Two schemes of loading patches were used in the laboratory test: a steel patch made according to the ASSHTO's bridge testing specifications; and a tire patch made from a real truck tire reinforced with silicon rubber. The tire patch was specially designed to simulate service loading conditions by modifying real contact loading from a tire. Our research shows that the effects of the stiffness and contact conditions of loading patches are significant in the stiffness and strength testing of FRP decks. Due to the localization of load, a simulated tire patch yields larger deflection than the steel patch under the same loading level. The tire patch produces significantly different failure compared to the steel patch: a local bending mode with less damage for the tire patch; and a local punching-shear mode for the steel patch. A deck failure function method is proposed for predicting the failure of FRP decks. Using developed laminated composite theories and FEA techniques, a strength analysis procedure containing ply-level information was proposed and detailed for FRP deck systems. The behavior of the deck's unsupported (free) edges was also investigated using ply-level FEA.

  3. Development and Construction of Low-Cracking High-Performance Concrete (LC-HPC) Bridge Decks: Construction Methods, Specifications, and Resistance to Chloride Ion Penetration

    E-print Network

    McLeod, Heather Anne Kirkvold

    2009-08-22

    The development, construction, and evaluation of Low-Cracking High-Performance Concrete (LC-HPC) bridge decks are described based on laboratory test results and experiences gained through the construction of 14 LC-HPC bridge decks. The study...

  4. A Mode ling Approach To Design Of A Ground-Source Heat Pump Bridge Deck Heating System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Chiasson; Jeffrey D. Spitler

    This paper describes the approach taken to design a hydronic snow melting system for a bridge deck on an interstate highway in Oklahoma where a vertical borehole, closed-loop ground-source heat pump system is to be used as an energy efficient means to provide the heating requirement. It is proposed to use the bridge deck as a solar collector in the

  5. Development of early age shrinkage stresses in reinforced concrete bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    William, Gergis W.; Shoukry, Samir N.; Riad, Mourad Y.

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes the instrumentation and data analysis of a reinforced concrete bridge deck constructed on 3-span continuous steel girders in Evansville, West Virginia. An instrumentation system consisting of 232 sensors is developed and implemented specifically to measure strains and temperature in concrete deck, strains in longitudinal and transverse rebars, the overall contraction and expansion of concrete deck, and crack openings. Data from all sensors are automatically collected every 30 minutes starting at the time of placing the concrete deck. Measured strain and temperature time-histories were used to calculate the stresses, which were processed to attenuate the thermal effects due to daily temperature changes and isolate the drying shrinkage component. The results indicated that most of concrete shrinkage occurs during the first three days. Under the constraining effects from stay-in-place forms and reinforcement, early age shrinkage leads to elevated longitudinal stress, which is the main factor responsible for crack initiation.

  6. Using emissivity-corrected thermal maps to locate deep structural defects in concrete bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DelGrande, Nancy; Durbin, Philip F.

    1995-05-01

    Dual-band infrared (DBIR) thermal imaging is a promising, noncontact, nondestructive evaluation tool to evaluate the amount of deteriorated concrete on asphalt-covered bridge decks. We conducted proof-of-principle demonstrations to characterize defects in concrete structures which could be detected with DBIR thermal imaging. We constructed two identical concrete slabs with synthetic delaminations, e.g., 1.8-in. thick styrofoam squares, implanted just above the 2-in. deep steel reinforcement bars. We covered one of the slabs with a 2-in. layer of asphalt. We mounted the DBIR cameras on a tower platform, to simulate the optics needed to conduct bridge-deck inspections from a moving vehicle. We detected 4-in. implants embedded in concrete and 9-in. implants embedded in asphalt-cevered concrete. The midday (above ambient) and predawn (below ambient) delamination-site temperatures correlated with the implant sizes. Using DBIR image ratios, we enhanced thermal-constrast and removed emissivity-noise, e.g., from concrete compositional variations and clutter. Using the LLNL/VIEW code, we removed the asphalt thermal-gradient mask to depict the 4-in. deep, 9- in. square, concrete implant site. We plan to image bridge deck defects from a moving vehicle for accurate estimations of the amount of deteriorated concrete impairing the deck integrity. Potential longterm benefits are affordable and reliable rehabilitation for asphalt-covered decks.

  7. HURRICANE INDUCED WAVE AND SURGE FORCES ON BRIDGE DECKS

    E-print Network

    McPherson, Ronald L.

    2010-01-16

    The damaging effects of hurricane landfall on US coastal bridges have been studied using physical model testing. Hurricane bridge damage and failure susceptibility has become very evident, especially during hurricane seasons 2004 and 2005...

  8. Characterization of stormwater runoff from bridges in North Carolina and the effects of bridge deck runoff on receiving streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Chad R.; Fitzgerald, Sharon A.; Sherrell, Roy D.; Harned, Douglas A.; Staub, Erik L.; Pointer, Brian H.; Wehmeyer, Loren L.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the North Carolina General Assembly passed House Bill 2436 that required the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) to study the water-quality effects of bridges on receiving streams. In response, the NCDOT and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated on a study to provide information necessary to address the requirements of the Bill. To better understand the effects of stormwater runoff from bridges on receiving streams, the following tasks were performed: (1) characterize stormwater runoff quality and quantity from a representative selection of bridges in North Carolina; (2) measure stream water quality upstream from selected bridges to compare bridge deck stormwater concentrations and loads to stream constituent concentrations and loads; and (3) determine if the chemistry of bed sediments upstream and downstream from selected bridges differs substantially based on presence or absence of a best management practice for bridge runoff.

  9. Consideration of material variability in reliability analysis of FRP strengthened bridge decks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca Atadero; Luke Lee; Vistasp M. Karbhari

    2005-01-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are increasingly being used in the rehabilitation of deteriorating and under-strength concrete bridge decks and girders in the form of externally bonded reinforcement. The wet layup process is often used due to its inherent flexibility and ease of use in the field. However, this process, especially in uncontrolled field conditions, can result in significant variability

  10. Evaluation of applicability of ternary OPC\\/FA\\/SF binder systems for bridge deck concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mateusz Radlinski

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the applicability of ternary binder systems containing ordinary portland cement (OPC), class C fly ash (FA) and silica fume (SF) for bridge deck concrete. To accomplish this, a series of laboratory and field experiments has been performed. The first part of the work was aimed at examination of the magnitude and source

  11. Concrete mix pouring sequence for uniform setting and curing of bridge decks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mourad Y. Riad; Samir N. Shoukry; Eduardo M. Sosa; Gergis W. William

    2011-01-01

    Concrete bridge decks are cast in segments using multiple mix batches in a process that can extend up to an entire working day. Construction codes state that the initial concrete must stay plastic over the entire casting operation, however this requirement is practically impossible to achieve with regular casting and curing procedures. This paper reports the experimental evaluation of the

  12. FULL SCALE TESTING OF A BRIDGE DECK SLAB REINFORCED WITH CFRP K. Charieson1

    E-print Network

    by exposure to chloride environments is considered to be one ofthe main factors ofdeterioration of concrete and prestressing material for several concrete highway bridges in Canada, Europe and Japan (Rizkalla and Tadros in Canada to incorporate carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) reinforcement into part ofthe concrete deck

  13. Smart Control of a Geothermally Heated Bridge Deck Stephen C. Jenks (o) 580-767-4374

    E-print Network

    Jenks 1 Smart Control of a Geothermally Heated Bridge Deck Stephen C. Jenks (o) 580-767-4374 Conoco Inc. (f) 580-767-6316 P.O. Box 1267 Stephen.C.Jenks@conoco.com Ponca City, OK 74602-1267 James R-ROM Paper revised from original submittal. #12;Jenks 2 Abstract. This manuscript describes the "smart

  14. Aerodynamic performance of improved shallow ? shape bridge deck

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshinobu Kubo; Kichiro Kimura; Kensuke Sadashima; Yuzo Okamoto; Eiki Yamaguchi; Kusuo Kato

    2002-01-01

    Aerodynamic stability of ? section, which is structurally economical, was studied. By locating the main girders at inward location, so that the ratio of the floor deck overhang C to the girder height D?, C\\/D?, to be 2.0, and also setting solid barriers at inward location, the wind-induced responses were much suppressed even under various angles of attack. Although, some

  15. Analysis and Load-carrying Capacity Estimation of Existing Railway Filler-beam Deck Bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vi?an, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobi?ák, Jaroslav; Hlinka, Richard

    2012-11-01

    In the paper, the actual condition of several existing concrete railway bridges with encased steel beams is discussed. This structural type represents relatively often solution for small span railway bridges in Slovakia. The main conclusions from inspections and in-situ diagnostics are published together with the results of the loadcarrying capacity calculation on the basis of new European codes. Despite of well-known disadvantages, the bridges with filler-beam decks are still demanded by railway authorities because of their big stiffness and small construction depth.

  16. Applications of ground penetrating radar (GPR) in bridge deck monitoring and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alani, Amir M.; Aboutalebi, Morteza; Kilic, Gokhan

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents the essence of two case studies by the authors on two major bridges in the UK. The first case study reports on the applications of GPR and associated work carried out on the Forth Road Bridge near Edinburgh, Scotland, with the main objective of identifying possible structural defects including damaged rebar and moisture ingress at specific locations of the bridge deck. The second case study focuses on a full assessment of the Pentagon Road Bridge, in Chatham, Kent, England with particular emphasis on the identification of possible defects including structural cracks within the deck structure and establishing the layout of the upper and lower rebar positions throughout the bridge. These studies present interesting results in terms of locations of rebar and an accurate estimate of concrete cover condition as well as reporting on a remarkable similarity in the processed data concerning areas affected by ingress of moisture within the deck structures of the two bridges under investigation. It is believed that this paper will be of particular interest to bridge engineers and structural engineering practitioners with enthusiasm for adopting non-destructive testing methods such as GPR in the health monitoring and assessment of bridge structures. The observed similarities in the processed data between the two reported case studies present an interesting concept within the general context of the interpretation of GPR data, with the potential for use in many other forthcoming cases. The paper also reports on the adopted method for the GPR survey with emphasis on difficulties and challenges encountered during the actual survey. The presented results benefit from advanced processing and presentation techniques.

  17. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements of steel and ice impacts on concrete for acoustic interrogation of delaminations in bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzeo, Brian A.; Patil, Anjali N.; Klis, Jeffrey M.; Hurd, Randy C.; Truscott, Tadd T.; Guthrie, W. Spencer

    2014-02-01

    Delaminations in bridge decks typically result from corrosion of the top mat of reinforcing steel, which leads to a localized separation of the concrete cover from the underlying concrete. Because delaminations cannot be detected using visual inspection, rapid, large-area interrogation methods are desired to characterize bridge decks without disruption to traffic, without the subjectivity inherent in existing methods, and with increased inspector safety. To this end, disposable impactors such as water droplets or ice chips can be dropped using automatic dispensers onto concrete surfaces to excite mechanical vibrations while acoustic responses can be recorded using air-coupled microphones. In this work, numerical simulations are used to characterize the flexural response of a model concrete bridge deck subject to both steel and ice impactors, and the results are compared with similar experiments performed in the laboratory on a partially delaminated concrete bridge deck slab. The simulations offer greater understanding of the kinetics of impacts and the responses of materials.

  18. Impedance spectroscopy of concrete cover on bridge decks with reinforcing steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomew, Paul; Blankenagel, Bryan; Guthrie, Spencer; Mazzeo, Brian

    2011-10-01

    Chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcing steel is a major problem for aging bridge structures near marine environments or in cold regions where deicing salts are applied as part of winter maintenance. Corrosion is the result of the interaction of diffused chloride ions with the embedded steel. One property of affected decks that facilitates detection of chloride ions is their ability to conduct electricity. Impedance spectroscopy can be used to measure concrete conductivity and thereby identify areas of increased chloride concentration characterized by elevated risks of corrosion. A new probe and measurement apparatus has been engineered to measure large areas of concrete on bridge decks. Comparison between measurements obtained in the laboratory and in the field will be presented.

  19. BEHAVIOR OF BRIDGE DECKS REINFORCED WITH MMFX Hatem Seliem

    E-print Network

    action by three precast post-tensioned concrete girders having cross-sectional dimensions of 24x10 in mm) with a span-to-depth ratio of 12.5. The supporting girders were post-tensioned using deformed reinforcement has been identified as one of the leading causes of deterioration of concrete bridges. This fact

  20. Semi-analytical determination of natural frequencies and mode shapes of multi-span bridge decks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rezaiguia; D. F. Laefer

    2009-01-01

    The determination of the natural frequencies and mode shapes of structures requires an analytical, semi-analytical or numerical method. This paper presents a new semi-analytical approach to determine natural frequencies and mode shapes of a multi-span, continuous, orthotropic bridge deck. The suggested approach is based on the modal method, which differs from other approaches in its decomposition of the admissible functions

  1. High-Performance Concrete Bridge Decks: A Fast-Track Implementation Study Volume 2: Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mateusz Radlinski; Jan Olek

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the applicability of ternary binder systems containing ordinary portland cement (OPC), class C fly ash (FA) and silica fume (SF) for bridge deck concrete. This was accomplished in two parts, the laboratory part and a field application part.\\u000aDuring the laboratory studies, four ternary mixtures, each containing either 20% or 30% FA

  2. Performance of Bridge Decks and Girders with Lightweight Aggregate Concrete, v. 2 of 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Ramirez; J. Olek; Eric Joseph Rolle; Brian Joseph Malone

    2000-01-01

    Structural lightweight concrete is a very versatile material and Haydite and Minergy lightweight aggregates can be utilized in the mixture development of concrete for use in girders and decks in bridges. More widespread use of lightweight aggregates (LWA) would result in savings in construction cost due to considerable dead load reduction.\\u000aThe materials phase of this research study evaluated the

  3. Bridge deck repairs with polymer concrete patching materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgecomb, W. C., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The FHWA polymer concrete as formulated at Brookhaven National laboratory (BNL) was mixed, placed into spalls and finished on grade with steel trowels on more than a dozen bridges. This polymer concrete was a two-component system consisting of a liquid monomer component comprised of methyl methacrylate base, which contained a cross linking agent with promoters and an inhibitor, and a powder component which contained reactive polymers, blend of silica sands, initiator, and color pigments. These formed an impregnable material of approximately 8000 psi. Cure time for this project's cold weather formulation to obtain this strength was approximately 2 hours at 40 F.

  4. Biaxial Behavior of Ultra-High Performance Concrete and Untreated UHPC Waffle Slab Bridge Deck Design and Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, Kacie Caple

    Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) was evaluated as a potential material for future bridge deck designs. Material characterization tests took place to identify potential challenges in mixing, placing, and curing UHPC. Biaxial testing was performed to evaluate behavior of UHPC in combined tension and compression stress states. A UHPC bridge deck was designed to perform similarly to a conventional concrete bridge deck, and a single unit bridge deck section was tested to evaluate the design methods used for untreated UHPC. Material tests identified challenges with placing UHPC. A specified compressive strength was determined for structural design using untreated UHPC, which was identified as a cost-effective alternative to steam treated UHPC. UHPC was tested in biaxial tension-compression stress states. A biaxial test method was developed for UHPC to directly apply tension and compression. The influence of both curing method and fiber orientation were evaluated. The failure envelope developed for untreated UHPC with random fiber orientation was suggested as a conservative estimate for future analysis of UHPC. Digital image correlation was also evaluated as a means to estimate surface strains of UHPC, and recommendations are provided to improve consistency in future tests using DIC methods. A preliminary bridge deck design was completed for untreated UHPC and using established material models. Prestressing steel was used as primary reinforcement in the transverse direction. Preliminary testing was used to evaluate three different placement scenarios, and results showed that fiber settling was a potential placement problem resulting in reduced tensile strength. The UHPC bridge deck was redesigned to incorporate preliminary test results, and two single unit bridge deck sections were tested to evaluate the incorporated design methods for both upside down and right-side up placement techniques. Test results showed that the applied design methods would be conservative for either placement method.

  5. Structural Performance of a Full-Depth Precast Concrete Bridge Deck System 

    E-print Network

    Mander, Thomas

    2010-10-12

    Rosowsky August 2009 Major Subject: Civil Engineering iii ABSTRACT Structural Performance of a Full-Depth Precast Concrete Bridge Deck System. (August 2009) Thomas John Mander, B.E. (Hons), University of Canterbury Chair of Advisory... reinforcing steel lifting bar in precast panels Z-BAR reinforcing steel bar cast in precast panels to prevent overturning w/p water-to-powder ratio A b area of individual reinforcing bar b 1 short side of reaction area b 2 long side of reaction area...

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION OF LOW-CRACKING HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE (LC-HPC) BRIDGE DECKS: FREE SHRINKAGE TESTS, RESTRAINED RING TESTS, CONSTRUCTION EXPERIENCE, AND CRACK SURVEY RESULTS

    E-print Network

    Yuan, Jiqiu

    2011-12-31

    The development, construction, and evaluation of low-cracking high-performance concrete (LC-HPC) bridge decks are described based on laboratory test results and experiences gained during the construction of 13 LC-HPC bridge decks in Kansas, along...

  7. An integrated system for bridge management using probabilistic and mechanistic deterioration models: Application to bridge decks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Morcous; Z. Lounis; Yong Cho

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a system for the maintenance management of aging highway bridges that integrates two different approaches\\u000a for deterioration modeling. Probabilistic state-based\\/time-based models are used to predict the macro-response of bridge components\\u000a for network level analysis, while reliability-based mechanistic models are used to predict the micro-response of bridge components\\u000a for project level analysis. Probabilistic state-based\\/time-based models are developed using

  8. Liu, Rees and Spitler. 1 Simulation of a Geothermal Bridge Deck Anti-icing System and Experimental Validation

    E-print Network

    Liu, Rees and Spitler. 1 Simulation of a Geothermal Bridge Deck Anti-icing System and Experimental Validation Xiaobing Liu Simon J. Rees* Jeffrey D. Spitler Oklahoma State University, School of Mechanical/04/02 Word Count: 5030 TRB 2003 Annual Meeting CD-ROM Paper revised from original submittal. #12;Liu, Rees

  9. Behavior of Concrete Bridge Decks Reinforced with MMFX Steel Hatem Seliem, Doctoral Student, Civil Engineering Dept., NCSU, USA

    E-print Network

    action by three pre-cast post-tensioned concrete girders having cross-sectional dimensions of 24x10 in mm). The supporting girders were post-tensioned using deformed prestressing bars of 1 in. (25 mmBehavior of Concrete Bridge Decks Reinforced with MMFX Steel Hatem Seliem, Doctoral Student, Civil

  10. Title: Bridge Deck Condition Assessment with Electromagnetic, Acoustic and Automated Methods for Proceedings of the 6th

    E-print Network

    Huston, Dryver R.

    are embedded in the document before making the final PDF. #12;ABSTRACT Reinforced concrete bridge decks paper is consistent with the format of the book. Final book will print in Black ink only, please submit-photo blue pencil at the bottom. Electronic file submission: When making your final PDF for submission make

  11. Plans: Aft Gun Platform, Quarters for 16 Gunmen, Poop Deck, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plans: Aft Gun Platform, Quarters for 16 Gunmen, Poop Deck, Boat Deck, House Top, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge Deck, Navigating Bridge, Forecastle Deck, Gun Platform, Upper Deck, Second Deck and Hold Plan - Mission Santa Ynez, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  12. Structural Aspects of Railway Truss Bridges Affecting Transverse Shear Forces in Steel-Concrete Composite Decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siekierski, Wojciech

    2015-03-01

    At the steel-concrete interface, the horizontal shear forces that are transverse to cross beams occur due to joint action of the steel-concrete composite deck and the truss girders. Numerical analysis showed that values of the forces are big in comparison to the longitudinal shear forces. In both cases extreme force values occur near side edges of a slab. The paper studies possibilities of reduction of these shear forces by structural alterations of the following: rigidity of a concrete slab, arrangement of a wind bracing, arrangement of concrete slab expansion joints. An existing railway truss bridge span has been analysed. Numerical analysis shows that it is possible to reduce the values of shear forces transverse to cross beams. It may reach 20% near the side edges of slabs and 23% in the centre of slab width.

  13. Epoxy-coated-rebar performance in the deck of the Perley Bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Dahlin, Cheryl L.; Tinnea, John S.

    2001-01-01

    The Perley Bridge spans the Ottawa River between the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. During a 1979 rehabilitation project, epoxy-coated rebar (ECR) was installed in an effort to extend the service life of span 17. External signs of corrosion were observed in the west lane of span 17 as early as 1985, but none were observed in the east lane. The cover concrete on the east lane was almost twice that of the west lane. A wide variety of techniques were used to evaluate the difference between slabs cut from the east and west lanes. The most useful techniques were potential mapping, chloride profiling, petrographic analyses, adhesion testing, epoxy damage, analyses of reinforcing bar-concrete crosssections, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements of epoxy properties. Cover depth and chloride contamination were the most significant factors affecting damage to the rebar. Based on these techniques, results showed that the epoxy coating used on the west lane of the Perley Bridge deck in span 17 provided only 1 to 4 years of additional corrosion protection over bare rebar.

  14. Development and Construction of Low-Cracking High-Performance Concrete (LC-HPC) Bridge Decks: Free Shrinkage, Mixture Optimization, and Concrete Production

    E-print Network

    Lindquist, Will David

    2008-01-01

    parts covering (1) the development of an aggregate optimization and concrete mixture design program entitled KU Mix, (2) free-shrinkage tests to evaluate potential LC-HPC mixtures developed for use in bridge decks, and (3) the construction...

  15. Low-Cracking High-Performance Concrete (LC-HPC) Bridge Decks: Shrinkage-Reducing Admixtures, Internal Curing, and Cracking Performance

    E-print Network

    Pendergrass, Ben Andrew

    2014-05-31

    ABSTRACT The development, construction, and evaluation of low-cracking high-performance concrete (LC-HPC) bridge decks is described based on laboratory tests of mixtures containing shrinkage-reducing admixtures and mineral admixtures in conjunction...

  16. Application of Noise Cancelling and Damage Detection Algorithms in NDE of Concrete Bridge Decks Using Impact Signals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Gang; Harichandran, Ronald S.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2011-09-13

    Delamination is a commonly observed distress in concrete bridge decks. Among all the delamination detection methods, acoustic methods have the advantages of being fast and inexpensive. In traditional acoustic inspection methods, the inspector drags a chain along or hammers on the bridge deck and detects delamination from the 'hollowness' of the sounds. The signals are often contaminated by ambient traffic noise and the detection of delamination is highly subjective. This paper describes the performance of an impact-bases acoustic NDE method where the traffic noise was filtered by employing a noise cancelling algorithm and where subjectivity was eliminated by introducing feature extraction and pattern recognition algorithms. Different algorithms were compared and the best one was selected in each category. The comparison showed that the modified independent component analysis (ICA) algorithm was most effective in cancelling the traffic noise and features consisting of mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) had the best performance in terms of repeatability and separabillty. The condition of the bridge deck was then detected by a radial basis function (RBF) neural network. The performance of the system was evaluated using both experimental and field data. The results show that the selected algorithms increase the noise robustness of acoustic methods and perform satisfactorily if the training data is representative.

  17. State of the Art in the Utilization of Deck Bridges with Encased Filler-Beams in the Standard Construction Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvo?ák, Vincent; Kožlejová, Viktória; Chupayeva, Katerina

    2013-06-01

    Deck bridges with encased filler-beams have been used in construction for a long time. Nowadays they are employed mainly in the refurbishment of railways and in road construction. Regarding the method of construction, they can be divided into monolithic/cast-in-place (constructed fully in its final location) or prefabricated/precast structures (built at another location and then transported to their final location for placement in the full structure). Both methods of construction have certain advantages and disadvantages. Decision-making and selecting a better alternative depends on the building conditions and a means of transport (whether a road or railway) running on the bridge.

  18. Performance of epoxy-coated reinforced steel in the deck of the Perley Bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Dahlin, Cheryl L.; Tinnea, J.S. (JS Tinnea & Associates)

    2001-01-01

    The Perley Bridge spanned the Ottawa River between the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec from 1931 to 1999. Epoxy-coated steel reinforcing bar (ECR) was used in 1979 in an effort to extend the service life of span 17. Patches were needed to repair corrosion of the west lane as little as 7 to 11 years later. No patches were needed for the east lane which had twice the cover concrete of the west lane. Examinations showed that the original concrete in both lanes and the patch concrete in the west lane were of good quality. Epoxy adhesion to the steel reinforcing bar was good to fair over much of the reinforcing bar, but poor to failed in isolated areas. Analytical scanning electron microscopy (ASEM) identified voids, rust, cracked epoxy, and cracked concrete at some ECR locations. Chloride profiling of the concrete in both lanes, coupled with the corrosion threshold level of chloride, indicated that the time required for corrosion to cause visible damage of the deck was 6.2 years for the west lane and 18.9 years for the east lane.

  19. Ground penetrating radar and microwave tomography 3D applications for the deck evaluation of the Musmeci bridge in Potenza, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavusi, Massimo; Soldovieri, Francesco; Di Napoli, Rosario; Loperte, Antonio; Di Cesare, Antonio; Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Lapenna, Vincenzo

    2011-09-01

    An extensive experimental and numerical investigation has been carried out to assess the status of the 'Ponte sul Basento' (1967-1976), in the town of Potenza (Basilicata region, southern Italy), better known as the Musmeci bridge. Architecturally, the bridge is a considerable reinforced 20th century concrete structure that was designed and built by the Italian architect Sergio Musmeci (1926-1981). Moreover, the bridge represents an important element of the infrastructural network, linking the city centre to the Potenza-Sicignano highway, crossing the Basento river and the railway close to the main train station of the city. Recently, due to ageing and continuous and significant traffic, the bridge started to be affected by several problems such as water infiltration. Within the presented study, a widespread ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey has been designed to investigate the geometrical characteristics of the bridge deck (Gerber saddles, internal stiffening walls, pillar supports) and detect the presence of defects or damage due to water infiltration and traffic fatigue. Concerning this, a 900 MHz 3D GPR survey has been performed along a zone of one of the lanes on the road surface. Moreover, a second 1500 MHz 3D survey has been carried out at the bottom of the bridge deck in order to gain detailed information about an important structural element of the bridge, the Gerber saddle. Both results have been processed following two approaches: the first a classical time-domain processing session based on commercial software and the use of migration; the second in microwave tomography, an advanced frequency domain automatic PC-based inversion algorithm. In this paper, we present a comparative interpretation of both kinds of processed results, and provide considerations about the investigated structures.

  20. Development and construction of low-cracking high-performance concrete (LC-HPC) bridge decks: Free shrinkage tests, restrained ring tests, construction experience, and crack survey results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jiqiu

    2011-12-01

    The development, construction, and evaluation of low-cracking high-performance concrete (LC-HPC) bridge decks are described based on laboratory test results and experiences gained during the construction of 13 LC-HPC bridge decks in Kansas, along with another deck bid under the LC-HPC specifications but for which the owner did not enforce the specification. This study is divided into four parts covering (1) an evaluation of the free shrinkage properties of LC-HPC candidate mixtures, (2) an investigation of the relationship between the evaporable water content in the cement paste and the free shrinkage of concrete, (3) a study of the restrained shrinkage performance of concrete using restrained ring tests, and (4) a description of the construction and preliminary evaluation of LC-HPC and control bridge decks constructed in Kansas. The first portion of the study involves evaluating the effects of the duration of curing, fly ash, and a shrinkage reducing admixture (SRA) on the free-shrinkage characteristics of concrete mixtures. The results indicate that an increase of curing period reduces free shrinkage. With 7 days of curing, concretes containing fly ash as a partial replacement for cement exhibit higher free shrinkage than concretes with 100% portland cement. When the curing period is increased to 14, 28, and 56 days, the adverse effect of adding fly ash on free shrinkage is minimized and finally reversed. The addition of an SRA significantly reduces free shrinkage for both the 100% portland cement mixture and the mixture containing fly ash. The second portion of the study investigates the relationship between the evaporable water content in the cement paste and the free shrinkage of concrete. A linear relationship between free shrinkage and evaporable water content in the cement paste is observed. For a given mixture, specimens cured for a longer period contain less evaporable water and exhibit lower free shrinkage and less weight loss in the free shrinkage specimens than those cured for a shorter period. The third portion of the study evaluates the cracking tendency of concrete mixtures using the restrained ring tests. Different concrete ring thicknesses and drying conditions have been tested. The results indicate that specimens with thinner concrete rings crack earlier than those with thicker concrete rings. Exposing specimens to severe drying conditions results in the earlier formation of cracks, although it does not result in increased crack width. Mixtures with a lower water-cement (w/c) ratio crack earlier than mixtures with a higher w/c ratio. Concretes with a higher paste content crack earlier than concretes with a lower paste content. The final portion of the study details the development, construction, and preliminary performance (with most bridges at three years of age) of LC-HPC and control bridge decks in Kansas. The results indicate that the techniques embodied in the LC-HPC bridge deck specifications are easy to learn. Contractor personnel can be trained in a relatively short time. The techniques used for LC-HPC bridge decks are effective in reducing bridge deck cracking. The crack surveys indicate that LC-HPC bridge decks are performing much better than the control decks, with average crack densities reduced by about seventy five percent at three years of age. The factors that may affect bridge deck cracking are analyzed. The analyses indicate that an increase in paste content, slump, compressive strength, maximum daily air temperature, and daily air temperature range causes increased crack densities. Contractor techniques influence cracking. Keywords: bridge construction, bridge deck, contractor, concrete mix design, compressive strength, cracking, curing, evaporable water, fly ash, free shrinkage, high-performance concrete, non-evaporable water, paste content, restrained shrinkage, restrained ring tests, shrinkage reducing admixture, slump

  1. Reflected Deck Plan, Reflected Roof Plan, Deck Plan Bridgeport ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Reflected Deck Plan, Reflected Roof Plan, Deck Plan - Bridgeport Covered Bridge, Spanning South Fork of Yuba River at bypassed section of Pleasant Valley Road (originally Virginia Turnpike) in South Yuba River State Park , Bridgeport, Nevada County, CA

  2. BEHAVIOR OF 3-D WOVEN GLASS FIBER REINFORCED POLYMERIC BRIDGE DECK SLABS

    E-print Network

    and maintenance of structures damaged by corrosion and heavy use. In recent years there has been a marked increase fibers in both the top and bottom skins as well as between the outer skin and the inner core. The primary components to the outer composite deck skins and demonstrated resistance of delamination of the core

  3. Stopper-Bearing System – A Solution to Displacement Control of Bridge Decks 

    E-print Network

    Tsai, Yi-Te

    2010-10-12

    Figure 60 Locations of the SBS in the bridge model ......................................... 62 Figure 61 Shear force in the left abutment in the bridge without SBS under a 1.01g ground motion... ......................................................................... 62 Figure 62 Shear force in the left abutment in the bridge equipped with SBS (type1, 5.08 cm (2 in) gap) under a 1.01g ground motion ................ 63 Figure 63 Shear force in the left abutment in the bridge equipped with SBS (type1, 10...

  4. Laboratory testing of Ultra High Performance Concrete deck joints for use in accelerated bridge construction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas Robert Hartwell

    2011-01-01

    Accelerated bridge construction is one rapid renewal technique being investigated to address the needs of the United States' aging infrastructure under the Second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2). SHRP 2 Project R04 aimed to develop standards and codes for accelerated bridge construction through the construction of a demonstration bridge. Several design details were important the rapid renewal aspect of

  5. A Methodology to Assess the Degradation in the Structural Response of the Deck of a Reinforced Concrete Road Bridge due to Corrosion of Reinforcing Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Soumendra; Sengupta, Amlan K.

    2012-02-01

    The present paper provides a methodology to analyse the effect of corrosion on the strength and stiffness of the slab-and-girder deck of a road bridge. A linear finite element model of a typical medium span deck of an existing bridge was developed as per the as-built drawings. The vehicular loadings were as per the recommendations of the Indian Roads Congress specifications and the design rating of the bridge. Based on the phenomenon of corrosion, a time-dependent reduction in the area of flexural reinforcement near the soffits of the girders, was considered in the model. The effects of flexural cracking, creep and spalling of concrete were incorporated in the model with non-prismatic section properties and their stage-wise variations. From the analyses of a girder section and the computational model, it was observed that due to corrosion, the allowable moment capacity of a girder falls below the demand under dead load plus the rated live load, within the target service life of the bridge. However, the effect of corrosion on the stiffness of the deck is not substantial to be accurately measured by a conventional sensor. It is recommended that the procedure adopted in the paper can be used by the practicing professionals for numerically assessing longer span decks, to have a'priori estimates of the quantities that can be measured in a field test.

  6. PREFABRICATED MODULAR GFRP REINFORCEMENT FOR ACCELERATED CONSTRUCTION OF BRIDGE DECK AND RAIL SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Matta; Antonio Nanni; Nestore Galati; Thomas E. Ringelstetter; Lawrence C. Bank; Michael G. Oliva; Jeffrey S. Russell; Brian M. Orr; Spencer N. Jones

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing interest by Departments of Transportation in the development and implementation of durable structural systems for accelerated bridge construction. The main objective is to minimize construction costs, and the impact of the economic and social costs associated with rehabilitation or replacement of a significant portion of the US bridge inventory. This paper reports on the development of

  7. Bridge deck surface temperature monitoring by infrared thermography and inner structure identification using PPT and PCT analysis methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumoulin, Jean

    2013-04-01

    One of the objectives of ISTIMES project was to evaluate the potentialities offered by the integration of different electromagnetic techniques able to perform non-invasive diagnostics for surveillance and monitoring of transport infrastructures. Among the EM methods investigated, we focused our research and development efforts on uncooled infrared camera techniques due to their promising potential level of dissemination linked to their relative low cost on the market. On the other hand, works were also carried out to identify well adapted implementation protocols and key limits of Pulse Phase Thermography (PPT) and Principal Component Thermography (PCT) processing methods to analyse thermal image sequence and retrieve information about the inner structure. So the first part of this research works addresses infrared thermography measurement when it is used in quantitative mode (not in laboratory conditions) and not in qualitative mode (vision applied to survey). In such context, it requires to process in real time thermal radiative corrections on raw data acquired to take into account influences of natural environment evolution with time, thanks to additional measurements. But, camera sensor has to be enough smart to apply in real time calibration law and radiometric corrections in a varying atmosphere. So, a complete measurement system was studied and developed [1] with low cost infrared cameras available on the market. In the system developed, infrared camera is coupled with other sensors to feed simplified radiative models running, in real time, on GPU available on small PC. The whole measurement system was implemented on the "Musmeci" bridge located in Potenza (Italy). No traffic interruption was required during the mounting of our measurement system. The infrared camera was fixed on top of a mast at 6 m elevation from the surface of the bridge deck. A small weather station was added on the same mast at 1 m under the camera. A GPS antenna was also fixed at the basis of the mast and at a same elevation than the bridge deck surface. This trial took place during 4 days, but our system was leaved in stand alone acquisition mode only during 3 days. Thanks to the software developed and the small computer hardware used, thermal image were acquired at a frame rate of 0.1 Hz by averaging 50 thermal images leaving the original camera frame rate fixed at 5 Hz. Each hour, a thermal image sequence was stored on the internal hard drive and data were also retrieved, on demand, by using a wireless connection and a tablet PC. In the second part of this work, thermal image sequences analysis was carried out. Two analysis approaches were studied: one based on the use of the Fast Fourier Transform [2] and the second one based on the Principal Component Analysis [3-4]. Results obtained show that the inner structure of the deck was identified though thermal images were affected by the fact that the bridge was open to traffic during the whole experiments duration. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT - The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement n° 225663. References [1] Dumoulin J. and Averty R., « Development of an infrared system coupled with a weather station for real time atmospheric corrections using GPU computing: Application to bridge monitoring", QIRT 2012, Naples, Italy, June 2012. [2] Cooley J.W., Tukey J.W., "An algorithm for the machine calculation of complex Fourier series", Mathematics of Computation, vol. 19, n° 90, 1965, p. 297-301. [3] Rajic N., "Principal component thermography for flaw contrast enhancement and flaw depth characterization in composite structures", Composite Structures, vol 58, pp 521-528, 2002. [4] Marinetti S., Grinzato E., Bison P. G., Bozzi E., Chimenti M., Pieri G. and Salvetti O. "Statistical analysis of IR thermographic sequences by PCA," Infrared Physics & Technology vol 46 pp 85-91, 2004.

  8. 7. DETAIL OF DECK TRUSS SPANNING CANAL. THIS DECK TRUSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF DECK TRUSS SPANNING CANAL. THIS DECK TRUSS WA ALSO ERECTED IN 1893 AS PART OF AN EXTENSIVE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE BRIDGE. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH SIDE OF CANAL. - Illinois Central Railroad, Illinois River Bridge, Spanning Illinois River, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  9. Determining bridge deck deterioration through the use of three-dimensional photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Darrin C.

    The bridge inspection industry has yet to utilize a rapidly growing technology that shows promise to help improve the inspection process. This thesis investigates the abilities that 3D photogrammetry is capable of providing to the bridge inspector for a number of deterioration mechanisms. The technology can provide information about the surface condition of some bridge components, primarily focusing on the surface defects of a concrete bridge which include cracking, spalling and scaling. Testing was completed using a Canon EOS 7D camera which then processed photos using AgiSoft PhotoScan to align the photos and develop models. Further processing of the models was done using ArcMap in the ArcGIS 10 program to view the digital elevation models of the concrete surface. Several experiments were completed to determine the ability of the technique for the detection of the different defects. The cracks that were able to be resolved in this study were a 1/8 inch crack at a distance of two feet above the surface. 3D photogrammetry was able to be detect a depression of 1 inch wide with 3/16 inch depth which would be sufficient to measure any scaling or spalling that would be required be the inspector. The percentage scaled or spalled was also able to be calculated from the digital elevation models in ArcMap. Different camera factors including the distance from the defects, number of photos and angle, were also investigated to see how each factor affected the capabilities. 3D photogrammetry showed great promise in the detection of scaling or spalling of the concrete bridge surface.

  10. Seismic Integrity of a Long Span Bridge with Tower-Deck Buffers

    SciTech Connect

    Casciati, Fabio [University of Pavia, Department of Structural Mechanics, Via Ferrata 1, Pavia (Italy); Giuliano, Fabio [Univerity of Rome 'La Sapienza' (Italy)

    2008-07-08

    The wind action is acknowledged to be the primary environmental load in the design of suspension bridges. It affects both the performance of safety and serviceability. Nevertheless, the impact of earthquakes cannot be neglected especially when the construction site is located in a high seismicity region. The evaluation of the vulnerability of a suspension bridge requires a hazard analysis on the site, the definition of the seismic intensity related to the desired return periods, the generation of artificial signals for the reference site and the collection of critical records for integrity analyses,. The signals will then be used in the structural analyses for the verification of structural safety and structural robustness. This paper is focused on the generation of these critical signals, with their own a-synchronicity, and the associated numerical nonlinear analyses, which must be conducted in the time domain.

  11. NORTON, TAYLOR MONTGOMERY. 3D Orthogonal Woven Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Bridge Deck: Fabrication and Experimental Investigation. (Under the

    E-print Network

    block of Balsa core; each deck was infused with an epoxy resin; and concrete was cast atop. Each. Amir Mirmiran.) Rapid deterioration of civil infrastructure has created one of the major challenges reinforcement through the connection of the truss core components with the outer composite deck skins. The loom

  12. Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2009; Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2009; Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2010 - Gilpin's Falls Covered Bridge, Spanning North East Creek at Former (Bypassed) Section of North East Road (SR 272), North East, Cecil County, MD

  13. Effects of submersion depth on wave uplift force acting on Biloxi Bay Bridge decks during Hurricane Katrina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Xiao; Wenrui Huang; Qin Chen

    2010-01-01

    A large portion of the Biloxi Bay Bridge was submerged and destroyed by surface waves and storm surge associated with Hurricane Katrina in 2005. In this paper, the time history of wave forces exerted on the Biloxi Bay Bridge during Hurricane Katrina was investigated by a wave-loading model. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method was adopted in the model to

  14. Experimental Investigation of the Role of Entrapped Air on Solitary Wave Forces on a Coastal Bridge Deck

    E-print Network

    Frandsen, Jannette B.

    Experimental Investigation of the Role of Entrapped Air on Solitary Wave Forces on a Coastal Bridge surface, making them particularly vulnerable to wave forces and effects of trapped air during a tsunami trapped air has on forces on a bridge structure compared with a structure where air is allowed to escape

  15. 10. OBLIQUE VIEW, PORTION OF EAST TRUSS AND TIMBER DECK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. OBLIQUE VIEW, PORTION OF EAST TRUSS AND TIMBER DECK, FROM SOUTHWEST, SHOWING TOP CHORD, VERTICALS, METAL RAILING, AND TRANSVERSE DECK PLANKS - River Road Bridge, Crossing Casselman River on Casselman River Road, Grantsville, Garrett County, MD

  16. 9. OBLIQUE VIEW, NORTH PORTAL AND TIMBER DECK, FROM NORTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. OBLIQUE VIEW, NORTH PORTAL AND TIMBER DECK, FROM NORTHWEST, SHOWING INCLINED ENDPOSTS, OVERHEAD BRACING, VERTICALS OF EASTTRUSS PANELS, EAST RAILING, AND TRANSVERSE DECK PLANKS - River Road Bridge, Crossing Casselman River on Casselman River Road, Grantsville, Garrett County, MD

  17. 7. Underside of deck and substructure, showing proximity of main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Underside of deck and substructure, showing proximity of main street bridge from between both bridge, looking east - Claremont Railway Bridge, Spanning Sugar River at Claremont Railroad Company Line, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  18. Use of fibre reinforced polymer reinforcement integrated with fibre optic sensors for concrete bridge deck slab construction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brahim Benmokrane; Habib Rahman; Phalguni Mukhopadhyaya; Radhouane Masmoudi; Mohammed Chekired; Jean-François Nicole; Adel El-Safty

    2000-01-01

    The use of corrosion free fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites as reinforcement to concrete is cur- rently being seen as a promising option to generate durable concrete structures. However, there exists very little credi - ble information about its field application and performance. This paper describes the Joffre Bridge project, in Sherbrooke (Québec, Canada), over the St-François River, where Carbon

  19. Fatigue Life of Damaged Bridge Deck Panels Strengthened With Carbon Fiber Hongseob Oh, Jongsung Sim, and Christian Meyer

    E-print Network

    Meyer, Christian

    , such as specific mix design parameters and environmental conditions (e.g. humidity), which complicate the fatigue, such as aircraft structures and railroad bridges are routinely designed on the basis of this theory. #12;2 In the case of reinforced concrete structures, the situation is more complicated because of the complex nature

  20. North Elevation; Reflected Ceiling Plan; Reflected Deck Plan Contoocook ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North Elevation; Reflected Ceiling Plan; Reflected Deck Plan - Contoocook Railroad Bridge, Spanning Contoocook River at former Boston & Maine Railroad (originally Concord & Claremont Railroad), Hopkinton, Merrimack County, NH

  1. Long-Term Performance of Epoxy Filled Steel Grate Decking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cathbert Akaro

    2006-01-01

    In the Florida State highway system there are 11,100 bridges (6,300 State bridges and 4,800 local bridges). The highway system includes 98 movable bridges, which are located within seven geographic districts. These bridge decks are constructed with steel open metal grate decking to reduce the weight of the superstructure and load carried by the substructure. When traffic traverses on the

  2. SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN vSHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN - Snake River Bridge at Lyons' Ferry, State Route 261 spanning Snake River, Starbuck, Columbia County, WA

  3. Structural improvement of strengthened deck panels with externally bonded plates

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, Jongsung [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa1-dong, Ansan 425-791 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Hongseob [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa1-dong, Ansan 425-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: opera69@chollian.net

    2005-07-01

    Concrete bridge decks require eventual replacement and rehabilitation due to decreasing load-carrying capacity. This paper compares different strengthening design procedures that improve the usability and structural performance of bridge decks. The failure characteristics of bridge decks strengthened with various materials such as carbon fiber sheet, glass fiber sheet, steel plate, and grid CFRP and GFRP are analyzed, and the theoretical load-carrying capacities are evaluated using traditional beam and yield line theory, and punching shear analysis. The strengthening materials increase the punching shear strength of the deck and change the failure mode of the strengthened panel.

  4. Bridges

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Bridges from top to bottom: Expressway Bridge, Liberty Memorial Bridge, Burlington Northern SantaFe Railway Bridge, and Interstate 94 Grant Marsh Bridge. Photo taken by USGS personnel on a Civil Air Patrol flight....

  5. Elimination of deck joints using a corrosion resistant FRP approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleti, Ashok Reddy

    The research presented herein describes the development of durable link slabs for jointless bridge decks based on using FRP grid for reinforcement. Specifically, the ductility of the FRP material was utilized to accommodate bridge deck deformations imposed by girder deflection, temperature variations, and concrete shrinkage. It would also provide a solution to a number of deterioration problems associated with bridge deck joints. The design concept of the link slabs was then examined to form the basis of design for FRP grid link slabs. Improved design of FRP grid link slab/concrete deck slab interface was confirmed in the numerical analysis. The mechanical properties between the FRP grid and concrete were evaluated. The behavior of the link slab was investigated and confirmed for durability. The results indicated that the technique would allow simultaneous achievement of structural need (lower flexural stiffness of the link slab approaching the behavior of a hinge) and durability need of the link slab. Also, the development length results confirm that the bond between the FRP grid and the concrete was highly improved. The overall investigation supports the contention that durable jointless concrete bridge decks may be designed and constructed with FRP grid link slabs. It is recommended that the link slab technique be used during new construction of the bridge decks and in repair and retrofit of the bridge decks.

  6. 51. View below deck superstructure of Manhattan side span showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. View below deck superstructure of Manhattan side span showing connection between main center cable and deck superstructure. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York, New York County, NY

  7. East Deck 1 Cone Deck 2

    E-print Network

    Xie,Jiang (Linda)

    . (US 49) Craver Rd. CameronBlvd. Chan Toby Creek Rd. Lan Cam eron Blvd. Cameron Blvd. Lot 25 PhillipsEast Deck 1 West Deck Cone Deck 2 Lot 8 Lot 9 Lot 8A Lot 5 Lot 6 Lot 5A LotMSU Lot 22 Lot 24 Lot 20 Lot 21 Lot 13 Lot 4A Lot 4 Lot 23 Lot 16 Lot16A Lot 7 Lot 14 Van Landingham Glen University City Blvd

  8. East Deck 1 Cone Deck 2

    E-print Network

    Xie,Jiang (Linda)

    . (US 49) Craver Rd. CameronBlvd. Chan Toby Creek Rd. Lan Cam eron Blvd. Cameron Blvd. Lot 25 Phillips Craver Rd. CameronBlvd. Chan Toby Creek Rd. Lan Cam eron Blvd. Cameron Blvd. Lot 25 Phillips Rd. MaryEast Deck 1 West Deck Cone Deck 2 Lot 8 Lot 9 Lot 8A Lot 5 Lot 6 Lot 5A LotMSU Lot 22 Lot 24 Lot 20

  9. Investigation of the effects of overloads on highway bridges 

    E-print Network

    Zimmerman, Richard A

    1988-01-01

    , reinforced concrete bridge decks supported by noncomposite steel I-beams. Bridge damage was evaluated by analyzing bridge deck crack density, location, and orientation. An analysis of traffic at the study sites attempted to determine the relationship... between overload traffic and observed bridge damage. Greater bridge deck crack damage and more uniform crack distribution were observed in the bridges experiencing higher levels of heavy traffic. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author is indebted to Dr. Ray W...

  10. BELOW DECK DETAIL FROM EAST BANK. NOTE WROUGHT IRON LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BELOW DECK DETAIL FROM EAST BANK. NOTE WROUGHT IRON LOWER CHORD TENSION MEMBERS - Honey Run Bridge, Spanning Butte Creek, bypassed section of Honey Run Road (originally Carr Hill Road), Paradise, Butte County, CA

  11. 20. DETAIL VIEW OF DECK SOFFIT AND EXPANSION JOINT, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL VIEW OF DECK SOFFIT AND EXPANSION JOINT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM NORTH ABUTMENT - Chili Bar Bridge, Spanning South Fork of American River at State Highway 193, Placerville, El Dorado County, CA

  12. 6. DETAIL OF STEEL GUARDRAIL, CONCRETE CURB AND DECK EXPANSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF STEEL GUARDRAIL, CONCRETE CURB AND DECK EXPANSION JOINT, WITH DRY BED OF RIO PUERCO IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO EAST. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  13. Deck view, west approach; former Western Pacific (now Union Pacific) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Deck view, west approach; former Western Pacific (now Union Pacific) Railroad at left; wind turbine generators atop hill in background; view to northeast; 90mm lens - Carroll Overhead Bridge, Altamont Pass Road, Livermore, Alameda County, CA

  14. 56. View below deck of Manhattan side span showing ramps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. View below deck of Manhattan side span showing ramps to East Side Expressway. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York, New York County, NY

  15. 11. DETAIL LOOKING THROUGH ARCH, SHOWING ROADWAY DECK, VERTICALS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL LOOKING THROUGH ARCH, SHOWING ROADWAY DECK, VERTICALS AND LATERAL BRACES. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  16. Longitudinal Section AA; Reflected Deck Plan; Reflected Ceiling Plan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Longitudinal Section A-A; Reflected Deck Plan; Reflected Ceiling Plan - Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, Addison Branch), spanning Lemon Fair River above Richville Pond, west of East Shoreham Road, Shoreham, Addison County, VT

  17. VIEW TO THE SOUTHWEST. FRETWORK RAILINGS ON THE DECK REFLECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO THE SOUTHWEST. FRETWORK RAILINGS ON THE DECK REFLECT THE DECORATIVE AND UTILITARIAN ASPECTS OF THE ARCHITECTURE. - Keller Memorial Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River at U.S. Highway 31, Decatur, Morgan County, AL

  18. Assessment of reliable fatigue life of orthotropic steel deck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luka?evi?, Ivan; Androi?, Boris; Dujmovi?, Darko

    2011-09-01

    The fatigue life assessment of orthotropic steel decks of highway bridges still hasn't been sufficiently investigated. The inspection results of orthotropic steel decks have shown that their working life can be shorter than other members of steel highway bridges due to fatigue. This means that particular details of orthotropic decks can be critical regarding the service life of a bridge. The fatigue life of typical details of orthotropic steel decks for the real load models in Croatia and for the standardized load model of highway bridges in Eurocode has been analysed. The reliability indices have also been calculated for these details and they have been used to determine reliable fatigue life. The paper proposed the introduction of the reliable fatigue life concept which is not explicitly specified in the modern standards for structures. This concept has been offered as well as the guidelines for further probabilistic research on reliable fatigue life.

  19. STATEN ISLAND ANCHORAGE AND DETAIL OF ROADWAY DECK STEELWORK ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STATEN ISLAND ANCHORAGE AND DETAIL OF ROADWAY DECK STEELWORK ON VERRAZANO-NARROWS - Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, Spanning Narrows between Fort Hamilton (Brooklyn) & Staten Island, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  20. 20. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN MACHINERY UNDER GRID DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN MACHINERY UNDER GRID DECK AT CENTRAL CONCRETE SUPPORT PEDESTAL, SHOWING DRIVE GEARS, ELECTRIC MOTOR AND STEEL BEAMS (taken in January 1984) - Sharptown Bridge, Spanning Nanticoke River, State Route 313, Sharptown, Wicomico County, MD

  1. 29. DECK / WEB / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF CANTILEVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. DECK / WEB / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF CANTILEVER ARM OF THROUGH TRUSS. VIEW TO WEST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  2. 4. VIEW FROM EAST ABUTMENT SHOWING BASCULE LEAFS AND DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW FROM EAST ABUTMENT SHOWING BASCULE LEAFS AND DECK SUBSTRUCTURE. - Chicago River Bascule Bridge, Monroe Street, Spanning South Branch of Chicago River at Monroe Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  3. 20. WEB / DECK / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. WEB / DECK / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF THROUGH TRUSSES. VIEW TO WEST. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

  4. 22. INCLINED END POST / DECK / GUARDRAIL DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. INCLINED END POST / DECK / GUARDRAIL DETAIL OF THROUGH TRUSSES. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

  5. 27. NORTH SIDE OF DECK TRUSS AT EAST END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. NORTH SIDE OF DECK TRUSS AT EAST END OF COOPER RIVER SPAN, FACUBG SOUTHEAST FROM WATER - Grace Memorial Bridge, U.S. Highway 17 spanning Cooper River & Town Creek , Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  6. 21. J Ceronie, photographer. DECK, FLOOR, BEAM, STRINGER & CROSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. J Ceronie, photographer. DECK, FLOOR, BEAM, STRINGER & CROSS BRACING SYSTEM (SPAN 1), LOOKING W TOWARD PIER - Sutliff's Ferry Bridge, Spanning Cedar River (Cedar Township), Solon, Johnson County, IA

  7. 15. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING TYPICAL TIMBER PILE BENT AND DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING TYPICAL TIMBER PILE BENT AND DECK OF TIMBER STRINGER WEST APPROACH, LOOKING SOUTH - Waverly Junction Bridge, Spanning Shell Rock River at Country Road, Waverly, Bremer County, IA

  8. Weather network computer to control deck-heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, A.

    1997-04-07

    A ground-source heating system for bridge deicing is briefly described in this article. The deck heating system will be controlled by the Oklahoma state weather network. Warm ground air will be pumped from more than 100 boreholes at least 200 feet deep. The heat transfer fluid, possibly propylene glycol, will be circulated through a sealed tube system in the bridge deck. Costs are estimated at $200,000 for the heating system and $840,000 for the total redecking project.

  9. Bridges

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Leske, Cavin.

    Bridges have been drawing plenty of attention lately, with numerous construction projects around the world and the controversy over the deteriorating bridge infrastructure in the US. They have been an essential part of transportation for hundreds of years, and it is the job of civil engineers to design the safest, most durable bridges possible.Bridge Basics (1) has a large list of different types of bridges with brief explanations. This is a good place for beginners to learn about various bridge designs and parts. The Web site of a nationwide engineering design contest (2) offers free West Point Bridge Designer software. This educational tool allows the user to create a custom virtual bridge model. Although this year's contest is over, another one is planned for next year. Rice University is the home of the Bridges Project (3), a comprehensive database of "all 74 1,000 ft. span bridges in the United States." For each of these, a short description and construction history are given, and some include photos and other interesting facts. The Gibraltar Bridge, a proposed nine mile bridge that connects Europe and Africa, was recently featured on the Discovery Channel's Engineering the Impossible (4). This Web site discusses its specifications, as well as the many challenges that must be overcome for it to be a reality. The Innovative Bridge Research and Construction Program (5) investigates new technologies that can be used in the "repair, rehabilitation, replacement and new construction of bridges" in the US. This is particularly important now, since a large portion of the countries bridges are badly in need of maintenance. A more specific area of research being conducted to protect bridge infrastructure involves the corrosion of steel reinforcements in concrete bridges (6). The material on this site provides an in-depth report on the findings of the Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center. Technical reports and papers are published in the bimonthly Journal of Bridge Engineering (7). It covers almost any topic related to bridges, and is offered free online by the American Society of Civil Engineers. Fun activities for grade school students are given on this page (8). Separated into three levels of difficulty, the projects give students freedom to learn about and design any kind of bridge structure that interests them. A list of materials and criteria are given, but there are few explicit instructions, allowing for maximum creativity.

  10. Bridges

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Through a five-lesson series that includes numerous hands-on activities, students are introduced to the importance and pervasiveness of bridges for connecting people to resources, places and other people, with references to many historical and current-day examples. In learning about bridge types—arch, beam, truss and suspension—students explore the effect of tensile and compressive forces. Students investigate the calculations that go into designing bridges; they learn about loads and cross-sectional areas by designing and testing the strength of model piers. Geology and soils are explored as they discover the importance of foundations, bearing pressure and settlement considerations in the creation of dependable bridges and structures. Students learn about brittle and ductile material properties. Students also learn about the many cost factors that comprise the economic considerations of bridge building. Bridges are unique challenges that take advantage of the creative nature of engineering.

  11. 10. View west from the deck of the Kenyon School ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View west from the deck of the Kenyon School Road Bridge (Rhode Island Bridge No. 489) showing water tower of Kenyon Industries mill complex in background. - Kenyon Village, Kenyon School Road, Sherman Avenue, & Lewiston Avenue, Richmond (historical), Providence County, RI

  12. CONCRETE PAVEMENT Reference Manual

    E-print Network

    CONCRETE PAVEMENT Reference Manual Prepared for Federal Highway Administration Office of Pavement by National Concrete Pavement Technology Center at Iowa State University 2711 South Loop Drive, Suite 4700 No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No. 4. Title and Subtitle 5. Report Date February 2008 Concrete Pavement

  13. An analytical approach for dynamic response of timber railroad bridges A. S. UPPAL

    E-print Network

    of timber bridge spans under railway vehicles travelling at a constant speed. The model comprises a multi response of open-deck and ballast-deck bridges. Key words: analytical approach, timber railway bridge952 An analytical approach for dynamic response of timber railroad bridges A. S. UPPAL Bridges

  14. Small-format fly-over photography for highway bridge monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shen-En; Rice, Corey; Boyle, Chuck; Hauser, Edd; Philbrick, Brian

    2010-04-01

    Current bridge visual inspections are time-consuming, subjective, and rely heavily on personal experiences. The resulting ratings may be inconsistent. This paper discusses using remote-sensing technologies for bridge assessment, specifically, the use of high-resolution aerial imagery. The Small-Format Aerial Photography (SFAP) is a low-cost solution for bridge surface imaging. Providing top-down views, the airplanes flying at 1000 ft, can allow visualization of sub-inch (< 0.5 inch) cracks and joint openings on bridge decks or highway pavements. However, the site lighting may influence the quality of the images; surrounding tree shades and the highway wear surface reflectivity. Several examples of bridge evaluation using SFAP aerial photography are presented to demonstrate the capability of remote sensing as an effective tool for bridge construction monitoring and condition assessment. Several imaging issues are raised about analytical techniques that are necessary to ensure proper quantification of bridge problems, which include crack detection, movement determination, heavy trucking assessment, debris detection, channel width determination and environment assessment.

  15. ForPeerReview REINFORCEMENT-FREE DECKS USING A MODIFIED STRUT-

    E-print Network

    Russell, Jeffrey S.

    Keywords: strut-and-tie model, reinforcement-free deck, punching shear, precast prestressed girder, bridge and it is capable of capturing punching and flexural failure.6 Comparisons to FEM analysis were made to verify in the accompanying paper (Part 2).8 9 Keywords: strut-and-tie model; reinforcement-free deck; punching shear; precast

  16. INNOVATIVE DESIGN AND TESTING OF A SEISMIC RETROFITTED STEEL DECK TRUSS

    E-print Network

    Bruneau, Michel

    at Buffalo. He is a lead investigator of various research projects in the area of earthquake-resistant designINNOVATIVE DESIGN AND TESTING OF A SEISMIC RETROFITTED STEEL DECK TRUSS BRIDGE Dr. Majid Sarraf, P designer of a number of major bridge projects, including a section of a very complex detour bridge

  17. Longitudinal Section, Reflected DeckFraming Plan, Reflected RoofFraming Plan CornishWindsor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Longitudinal Section, Reflected Deck-Framing Plan, Reflected Roof-Framing Plan - Cornish-Windsor Covered Bridge, Spanning Connecticut River between Cornish, NH, & Windsor, VT, Cornish City, Sullivan County, NH

  18. 31. DECK / VERTICAL / UPPER CHORD DETAIL OF THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. DECK / VERTICAL / UPPER CHORD DETAIL OF THROUGH TRUSS AT PIN-CONNECTED EXPANSION JOINT BETWEEN CANTILEVER ARM AND SUSPENDED SPAN. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  19. 7. View showing placement of timber deck placement on chord ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View showing placement of timber deck placement on chord and built up construction of top chord and continuous construction through top panel points, eye bar construction on bottom chord - Bridge No. 2.4, Spanning Boiling Fork Creek at Railroad Milepost JC-2.4, Decherd, Franklin County, TN

  20. CLOSEUP OF TYPICAL BUILTUP, RIVETED AND PIN CONNECTED DECK TRUSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSE-UP OF TYPICAL BUILT-UP, RIVETED AND PIN CONNECTED DECK TRUSS LOOKING UP AND NORTHEAST. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  1. 26. SOUTH SIDE OF DECK TRUSS AT WEST END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. SOUTH SIDE OF DECK TRUSS AT WEST END OF COOPER RIVER SPAN SHOWING ALTERED PIER 6 FROM WATER, FACING NORTHWEST TOWARDS DRUM ISLAND - Grace Memorial Bridge, U.S. Highway 17 spanning Cooper River & Town Creek , Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  2. OKEANOS EXPLORER Deck Equipment

    E-print Network

    systems using hydrographic winch and traction winch. ROV Crane HydraPro Knuckle-boom type craneOKEANOS EXPLORER Deck Equipment Dynamic Positioning (DP-1) Equipped with a Kongsberg DP-1 system for holding station. System capitalizes on a new 500 hp retractible azimuthing bow thruster and 2 - 250 hp

  3. Energy Balances of Curing Concrete Bridge Decks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary S. Wojcik; David R. Fitzjarrald

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric conditions for several days after concrete is poured influence the exothermic, temperature-dependent, hydration reactions of concrete's cementitious (binding) components. Because excessively high concrete temperatures or lack of water eventually can lead to cracking, the initial days are critical to determining the concrete's long-term durability. Accurate model forecasts of concrete temperatures and moisture would help engineers to determine an optimal

  4. STATUS OF POROUS PAVEMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's porous pavement research program along with the economics, advantages, potential applications, and status and future research needs of porous pavements. Porous pavements are an available stormwater management techniq...

  5. Development of Hybrid Bridges: State of Arts and Conceptual Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suhaib Yahya Kasim Al-Darzi; Airong Chen

    2006-01-01

    A state of the art of developments of the Hybrid bridges is presented focusing on steel-concrete composite bridges, considering the steel beam, concrete deck and connections developments. The analysis and design methods of composite bridge structures, connections, the reliability and life cycle of bridges, new bridge system forms and the use of alternative materials are reviewed with some possible applications.

  6. The Bump at the End of the Railway Bridge

    E-print Network

    Nicks, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2011-02-22

    direction, train speed, bump/dip size, approach embankment soil modulus, approach tie material, bridge tie material, bridge deck type, ballast thickness and approach tie length on the magnitude of impact forces, track deflection, ballast and subgrade...

  7. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF SINGLE PANEL POINTS TAKEN FROM BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF SINGLE PANEL POINTS TAKEN FROM BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING CONNECTION BETWEEN VERTICAL AND UPPER CHORD MEMBER. - White Bowstring Arch Truss Bridge, Spanning Yellow Creek at Cemetery Drive (Riverside Drive), Poland, Mahoning County, OH

  8. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF MYSTIC RIVER BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF MYSTIC RIVER BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM NEW (U/C) RAILROAD BRIDGE DECK - Mystic River Drawbridge No. 7, Spanning Mystic River at Boston & Maine Railroad Eastern Route, Somerville, Middlesex County, MA

  9. 24. Detail view north under bridge showing arched bascule girder, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Detail view north under bridge showing arched bascule girder, deck girders and cross beams, and bracing of east bascule leaf. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  10. 14. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING GIRDERS, BEARING SHOES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING GIRDERS, BEARING SHOES, FLOOR BEAMS, STRINGERS, LATERAL BRACING AND CONCRETE DECK. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  11. 12. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING LOWER CHORDS, FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING LOWER CHORDS, FLOOR BEAMS, STRINGERS AND UNDERSIDE OF STEEL DECKING. VIEW TO WEST. - Whispering Pines Bridge, Spanning East Verde River at Forest Service Control Road, Payson, Gila County, AZ

  12. Soil on Phoenix Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) of NASA's Phoenix Lander, shows Martian soil piled on top of the spacecraft's deck and some of its instruments. Visible in the upper-left portion of the image are several wet chemistry cells of the lander's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The instrument on the lower right of the image is the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer. The excess sample delivered to the MECA's sample stage can be seen on the deck in the lower left portion of the image.

    This image was taken on Martian day, or sol, 142, on Saturday, Oct. 19, 2008. Phoenix landed on Mars' northern plains on May 25, 2008.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. TweetDeck

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    For those people who like to tweet, the TweetDeck application is quite a find. With this application, users can truly "tweet like a pro", as they will be able to customize their Twitter experience by creating groups, saved searches, and automatic updates. It is billed as "air traffic for Twitter", and that's a fairly apt description of this powerful tool. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

  14. Loose Canons on Deck

    E-print Network

    2012-12-24

    Posted originally on the Archive of Our Own at http://archiveofourown.org/works/592681. Rating: General Audiences Archive Warning: No Archive Warnings Apply Category: Gen Fandom: Mina de Malfois Character: Mina de Malfois - Character, Josh Amos... Additional Tags: Fandom Stats: Published: 2012-12-14 Words: 4215 Loose Canons on Deck by Kadorienne Summary Josh has been flooding fandom with old paper 'zine fics, and Mina is suspected of pseuicide. Notes Thank you to Grey Bard, invaluable humor consultant...

  15. Loose Canons on Deck 

    E-print Network

    2012-12-24

    Posted originally on the Archive of Our Own at http://archiveofourown.org/works/592681. Rating: General Audiences Archive Warning: No Archive Warnings Apply Category: Gen Fandom: Mina de Malfois Character: Mina de Malfois - Character, Josh Amos... Additional Tags: Fandom Stats: Published: 2012-12-14 Words: 4215 Loose Canons on Deck by Kadorienne Summary Josh has been flooding fandom with old paper 'zine fics, and Mina is suspected of pseuicide. Notes Thank you to Grey Bard, invaluable humor consultant...

  16. Designing Flight Deck Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl

    2005-01-01

    Three reports address the design of flight-deck procedures and various aspects of human interaction with cockpit systems that have direct impact on flight safety. One report, On the Typography of Flight- Deck Documentation, discusses basic research about typography and the kind of information needed by designers of flight deck documentation. Flight crews reading poorly designed documentation may easily overlook a crucial item on the checklist. The report surveys and summarizes the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed material. It focuses on typographical factors such as proper typefaces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are discussed; and several cockpit conditions such as lighting levels and glare are addressed, as well as usage factors such as angular alignment, paper quality, and colors. Most of the insights and recommendations discussed in this report are transferable to paperless cockpit systems of the future and computer-based procedure displays (e.g., "electronic flight bag") in aerospace systems and similar systems that are used in other industries such as medical, nuclear systems, maritime operations, and military systems.

  17. Precast Concrete Pavement for Intermittent Concrete Pavement Repair Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiraz Tayabji; Neeraj Buch; Erwin Kohler

    Precast pavement technology is a recently improved construction method that can be used to meet the need for rapid pavement repair and construction. Precast pavement systems are fabricated or assembled off-site, transported to the project site, and installed on a prepared foundation (existing pavement or re-graded foundation). The system components require minimal field curing time to achieve strength before opening

  18. Concrete Pavement Surface Characteristics

    E-print Network

    Improving Concrete Pavement Surface Characteristics Pooled Fund TPF-5(139) National Concrete, Broom, Belt, Carpet) Shot Peened Exposed Aggregate Porous (Pervious) Concrete Milled HMA and Surface do with this knowledge? #12;Better Design and Construction Practices for Texturing Concrete Pavement

  19. Shaking table tests of a self-centering designed bridge substructure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chin-Tung Cheng; Wei-Hong Lu

    2008-01-01

    A self-centering designed bridge model that can eliminate residual deformations after earthquakes was constructed and tested by a shaking table. The bridge model consists of two precast RC bridge columns post-tensioned to the concrete deck and foundations by high strength rods. The concrete deck moves horizontally and columns rock on the foundation surface under the excitation of earthquakes. Research parameters

  20. 10. DECK VIEW FORWARD FROM MAIN DECK TO FORECASTLE. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DECK VIEW FORWARD FROM MAIN DECK TO FORECASTLE. NOTE PIPE FITTING FOR OIL PUMPING SYSTEM (DISCHARGE). THE HATCH OPENINGS TO RIGHT ARE ABOVE THE SHIP'S BOILER ROOM. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, grade...

  2. 14. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING DAMAGE TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING DAMAGE TO FLOOR BEAMS AND DECK OF WEST APPROACH SPAN, CAUSED WHEN CONTRACTOR'S FORCES, WORKING ON ADJACENT ABUTMENT FOR REPLACEMENT BRIDGE, DYNAMITED GRANITE BOULDERS INTO UPSTREAM SIDE OF HISTORIC BRIDGE - Middle Fork Stanislaus River Bridge, Spans Middle Fork Stanislaus River at State Highway 108, Dardanelle, Tuolumne County, CA

  3. Automated pavement crack detection 

    E-print Network

    Rao, Ashok Madhava

    1991-01-01

    AUTOMATED PAVEMENT CRACK DETECTION A Thesis by ASHOK MADHAVA RAO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject...: Electrical Engineering AUTOMATED PAVEMENT CRACK DETECTION A Thesis by ASHOK MADHAVA RAO Approved as to style and content by . c Norman C. Grisw d (Chair of Committ ) Nasser Kehtarnavaz (Member) g, J~, Karan Watson Robert L. Lytt (Member) Jo W...

  4. Bridge afflux analysis through arched bridge constrictions using artificial intelligence methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa Mamak; Galip Seckin; Murat Cobaner; Ozgur Kisi

    2009-01-01

    Although many studies have been carried out for estimating the afflux through modern straight deck bridge constrictions, little attention has been given to medieval arched bridge constrictions. Hydraulic Research Wallingford in the UK (Brown, P.M., 1988. Afflux at arch bridges. Report SR 182. Wallingford, UK: HR Wallingford) recently published a major coverage of both experimental and field afflux data obtained

  5. Nondestructive evaluation inspection of the Arlington Memorial Bridge using a robotic assisted bridge inspection tool (RABIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gucunski, Nenad; Boone, Shane D.; Zobel, Rob; Ghasemi, Hamid; Parvardeh, Hooman; Kee, Seong-Hoon

    2014-04-01

    The information presented in this report provides a detailed assessment of the condition of the Arlington Memorial Bridge (AMB) deck. The field-data collection was obtained by both the RABIT™ Bridge Inspection Tool and a number of semi-automated non-destructive evaluation (NDE) tools. The deployment of the semi-automated NDE tools was performed to inspect the AMB deck condition and also to validate data obtained by the RABIT™ Bridge Inspection Tool. Data mining and analysis were accomplished through enhanced data interpretation and visualization capabilities using advanced data integration, fusion, and 2D rendering. One of the major challenges that the research team had to overcome in assessing the condition of the AMB deck was the presence of an asphalt overlay on the entire bridge deck.

  6. 4/28/2010 1Porous Pavements Porous Pavements

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Aichinger Ramsey-Washington Metro Watershed District #12;4/28/2010 2Porous Pavements Porous Pavements Why am I talking about this topic: · I am not an engineer. · I am a water resources planner and watershed by many City and Watershed rules and may become a requirement of state rules Benefits of Porous Pavement

  7. Cone Deck 2 Lot 20 Lot 21

    E-print Network

    Howitt, Ivan

    Cam eron Blvd. Cameron Blvd. Lot 25 MaryAlex Rd. East Deck 2 East Deck 3 John Kirk Dr Mary AlexanderM V M M V M M M M M M M V M V V M M Cone Deck 2 Lot 8A Lot 20 Lot 21 Lot 13 Lot16 Cone Deck 1 Lot 15 Lot 11A Parking Services Office University Police Headquarters Lot 11 Lot16 Lot 12 East Deck 1 H I

  8. FRP Dowels for Concrete Pavements

    E-print Network

    to the expansion of steel during the corrosion process. A corrosion-free alternative, such as Fiber Reinforced currently used for highway pavement could cause severe deterioration of concrete highway pavements due

  9. Modal indices for identifying damage location in cable-stayed Kap Shui Mun Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zong G.; Ko, Jan Ming; Ni, Yi-Qing

    2001-08-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of using the modal curvature index and the modal flexibility index for damage localization in the cable-stayed Kap Shui Mun Bridge from the bridge global modal data before and after damage. Based on a precise and validated 3D finite element model of the bridge, a series of damage cases associated with the deck are introduced in the simulation study. They are the damage occurring at the members within deck segments and the damage occurring at the support and bearing system of the deck. The damage indices are applied to determine the specific deck segment that contains damaged member(s).

  10. Probability of flooding upstream from a bridge as a function of its construction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek Sowi?ski

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to compare the probability of flooding areas upstream from a bridge without piers (with a deck supported only by abutments), with a bridge of the same width with piers (which deck is supported additionally by piers). However, the problem was treated broadly and an analysis contained an influential investigation of different factors affecting

  11. 17. LOOKING FROM DECK ABOVE MESS UP AT DECK ABOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. LOOKING FROM DECK ABOVE MESS UP AT DECK ABOVE CO'S STATEROOM. RECTANGULAR WINDOWS IS AT REAR OF PILOT HOUSE. TO RIGHT OF WINDOW IS TOP OF STAIRS TO STARBOARD WING OF FLYBRIDGE. AT EXTREME RIGHT IS ENGINE CONTROLS AND IN BACKGROUND IS COMPASS WITH COVER OVER IT. RIGHT EDGE OF THIS IMAGE IS SAME AS IMAGE 14, JUST OBSTRUCTED IN IMAGE 14 BY LIFE PRESERVER AND SEAT. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  12. Sustainable Concrete Pavements: A Manual of Practice

    E-print Network

    #12;#12;#12;Sustainable Concrete Pavements: A Manual of Practice January 2012 TECHNICAL EDITORS Dr. Peter Taylor, Associate Director National Concrete Pavement Technology Center, Iowa State Taylor, Associate Director National Concrete Pavement Technology Center, Iowa State University Mr. Gary

  13. POROUS PAVEMENT: RESEARCH; DEVELOPMENT; AND DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's porous pavement research program along with the economics, advantages, potential applications, and status and future research needs of porous pavements. Porous pavements are an available stormwater management techniq...

  14. Cone Deck 2 Lot 20 Lot 21

    E-print Network

    Howitt, Ivan

    . CameronBlvd. Alumni Way Cam eron Blvd. Cameron Blvd. Lot 25 MaryAlex Rd. East Deck 2 East Deck 3 John KirkCone Deck 2 Lot 8A Lot 20 Lot 21 Lot 13 Lot16 Cone Deck 1 Lot 15 Lot 11A Lot 11 Lot16 Lot 12 East. Field 14 Rec. Field 14a Hammer Throw Venture Course HTC Venture Course TC Lot 8 Lot MSU Resident & F

  15. Cone Deck 2 Lot 20 Lot 21

    E-print Network

    Howitt, Ivan

    Rd. CameronBlvd. Alumni Way Cam eron Blvd. Cameron Blvd. Lot 25 MaryAlex Rd. East Deck 2 East Deck 3Cone Deck 2 Lot 8A Lot 20 Lot 21 Lot 13 Lot16 Cone Deck 1 Lot 15 Lot 11A Lot 11 Lot16 Lot 12 East. Field 14 Rec. Field 14a Hammer Throw Venture Course HTC Venture Course TC Lot 8 Lot MSU Resident & F

  16. Wave Forces on Decks of Offshore Platforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Bea; T. Xu; J. Stear; R. Ramos

    1999-01-01

    The wave crest height according to RP 2A of the American Petroleum Institute (API) is higher than the lower deck elevations of many existing platforms. The API guidelines to determine wave forces acting on the decks of these platforms indicate that most platforms cannot survive such loadings. The decks must either be removed or raised to clear the specified wave

  17. 1. General view of bridge looking north. This is the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of bridge looking north. This is the only suspension bridge in Cleveland. It was designed by Wilbur J. Watson and Associates, Consulting Engineers. Sections of the Wooden deck are missing, and the bridge is no longer used. - Sidaway Avenue Footbridge, Jackowo & Garden Valley neighborhood Vicinity, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  18. 23. General views of Moody Bridge, in descending order: 1) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. General views of Moody Bridge, in descending order: 1) the northern approach with a partial 'barrel shot', 2) partial view of southern approach detailing bridge decking, railing and portal bracing, and 3) an elevation view to the northeast showing timber piers and abutment of southern approach. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  19. TOWARD DEVELOPMENT OF BRIDGES IN THE NEXT CENTURY

    E-print Network

    . This bridge is the fIrst prestressed concrete highway bridge built in Canada pre-tensioned by carbon fibre) diameter steel strands to resist these loads. The two simple spans made continuous with post-tension duct cast-in-place concrete deck in each span as shown in Fig.l. The bridge acts as a simply supported span

  20. 61. MISSISSIPPI, NOXUBEE CO. MACON MAHORNER'S BRIDGE Ms. 14, 6 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. MISSISSIPPI, NOXUBEE CO. MACON MAHORNER'S BRIDGE Ms. 14, 6 miles E to McLeod, 4.5 miles S on McLeod-Shuqualak road. Overall view of bridge, looking E along N side, from below deck level. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  1. A three dimensional approach for tracking cracks in bridges using GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, Andrea

    2013-10-01

    Corrosion associated with reinforcing bars is the most significant contributor to bridge deficiencies. The corrosion is usually caused by moisture and chloride ion exposure. The reinforcing bars are attacked by corrosion and yield expansive corrosion products. These oxidation products occupy a larger volume than the original intact steel and internal expansive stresses lead to cracking and debonding. There are some conventional inspection methods for the detection of the reinforcing bar's corrosion but they can be invasive and destructive, often laborious, and lane closure is required and it is difficult or unreliable for any quantification of corrosion. For these reasons, bridge engineers always prefer more to use the ground penetrating radar (GPR) technique. In this work a novel numerical approach for three dimensional tracking and mapping of cracks in the bridge is proposed. The work starts from some interesting results based on the use of the 3D imaging technique in order to improve the potentiality of the GPR to detect voids, cracks or buried objects. The numerical approach has been tested on data acquired on a bridge by using a pulse GPR system specifically designed for bridge deck and pavement inspection. The equipment integrates two arrays of Ultra Wide Band ground coupled antennas, having a main working frequency of 2 GHz. The two arrays are using antennas arranged with a different polarization. The cracks, associated often to moisture increase and higher values of the dielectric constant, produce a not negligible increase of the signal amplitude. Following this, the algorithm, organized in preprocessing, processing and postprocessing stages, analyzes the signal by comparing the value of the amplitude all over the domain of the radar scan.

  2. ForPeerReview REINFORCEMENT-FREE DECKS USING A MODIFIED STRUT-

    E-print Network

    Russell, Jeffrey S.

    include highway bridges,14 reinforced-precast-prestressed concrete design and earthquake resistance.15 ACI. A required design resistance capacity for wheel loads was also defined5 considering failure caused by movingForPeerReview Only REINFORCEMENT-FREE DECKS USING A MODIFIED STRUT- AND-TIE MODEL: PART 2 ­ DESIGN

  3. Experimental study of waterproof membranes on concrete deck: Interface adhesion under influences of critical factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qinghua Zhou; Qinwu Xu

    2009-01-01

    Waterproof membrane (WM) has been used as an interlayer between asphalt concrete (AC) overlay and concrete deck of bridges for the purpose of waterproof and interface adhesion. The interface adhesion of WM is affected by a myriad of complicated factors, and thus it is essential to study these influence factors in order to design more reliable materials and structures. Accordingly,

  4. Binzhou Perpetual Pavement Test Road

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongshun Yang; Jincheng Wei; Wang Lin; David Timm; Gerald Huber

    2009-01-01

    Expressway construction has been carried out on a large-scale in China. Vigorous economical development has caused rapid growth in traffic volume and truck axle loads creating a severe challenge for the pavement structure design. Therefore, the high-performance and low- maintenance cost of a long-life perpetual pavement structure is gaining attention. This paper discusses the first perpetual asphalt pavement test road

  5. Development of a numerical model for bridge–vehicle interaction and human response to traffic-induced vibration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hassan Moghimi; Hamid R. Ronagh

    2008-01-01

    The perceptible vibration of composite steel girder bridges under live loads is an important design consideration in today’s bridges, which have longer spans and lighter decks than older bridges, and have with limited damping. Although, in accordance with the bridge design codes, the strength design and the deflection control of these bridges are covered fairly well, vehicle movement on the

  6. Pavement Design TTP Orientation Seminar

    E-print Network

    Handy, Susan L.

    Cycle · Infrastructure Life Cycle ­ Deployment ­ Maintenance ­ Rehabilitation ­ Reconstruction? and will this change? · Most pavements are made of engineered soils and processed rock · Asphalt concrete is 85

  7. Pavement Design TTP Orientation Seminar

    E-print Network

    Handy, Susan L.

    Cycle · Infrastructure Life Cycle ­Deployment ­Maintenance ­Rehabilitation ­Reconstruction (Abandonment? and will this change? · Most pavements are made of engineered soils and processed rock · Asphalt concrete is 85

  8. General outlook of pavement and vehicle dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Mamlouk, M.S. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1997-11-01

    The interaction between vehicle and pavement is complex since pavement roughness excites the dynamic forces generated by vehicles, while these dynamic forces simultaneously increase the pavement roughness. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the results of recent research related to pavement and vehicle dynamics and their interaction and to evaluate their potential use in the design and management of pavements. Pavement dynamic models are capable of determining stresses, strains, and deflections in various directions when harmonic, pulse, or transient loads are applied. Vehicle dynamic models simulate the effect of pavement roughness on the inertia of various vehicle components. These models can predict the dynamic forces produced by different axles and wheels of traveling vehicles at different locations along the pavement. Pavement response computed using dynamic models matches field measurements closer than those computed using static models. The concept of vehicle-pavement interaction can be applied to weigh-in-motion, pavement design and performance, and vehicle regulations.

  9. SOURCE: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PAVEMENT RESEARCH CENTER PAVEMENT TECHNOLOGY UPDATE

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    , and technologies through partnership between academia, Caltrans, and industry. Introduction The Asphalt Pavement-life pavements are low life-cycle cost, low user-delay costs, reduced environmental impact, and greater worker: design, materials and testing, communication, construction, and performance. Design The design of long

  10. CRACKING OF THE ASPHALT SURFACING OF THE LONGEST SUSPENSION STEEL BRIDGE IN CHINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WANG XIAO; CHEN XIAN-HUA; CHENG GANG; HUANG WEI

    Due to its good flexibility, crack resistance and imperviousness to water, mastic asphalt is believed to be a suitable surfacing material for orthotropic steel deck plates of long-spanned steel bridges. It is widely and successfully used as an asphalt surfacing for long-spanned steel bridges in Europe and Japan. Jiangyin Bridge in China, one of the longest suspension orthotropic steel bridges

  11. European Scanning Tour of PCC Pavements

    E-print Network

    Findings: Construction and Materials · Recycled concrete and recycled asphalt pavement used (or mandatedEuropean Scanning Tour of PCC Pavements June 27, 2007 E. Tom Cackler, P.E. National Concrete, and implementable in the US, for achieving longer concrete pavement service lives #12;7 of 33 Findings: Pavement

  12. Advances in the design of pavement surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Aage Johnsen

    1998-01-01

    The objective is to advance the design of pavement surfaces. The goal is to design a pavement with low wear and high friction for tires. The objective is accomplished by relating the pavement texture to its performance and finishing technique. Pavement texture is represented by characterization parameters calculated from topographic data sets. Data sets are acquired using a Scanning Laser

  13. Geotextiles in Flexible Pavement Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alungbe, Gabriel D.

    2004-01-01

    People everywhere in the developed world regularly drive on paved roads. Learning about the construction techniques and materials used in paving benefits technology and construction students. This article discusses the use of geosynthetic textiles in pavement construction. It presents background on pavements and describes geotextiles and drainage…

  14. 46 CFR 69.109 - Under-deck tonnage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (1) If the tonnage deck runs in a continuous line from stem to stern, the line of the tonnage deck is the longitudinal line...deck. (2) If the tonnage deck runs at different levels from stem to stern, the line of the tonnage deck is the...

  15. 46 CFR 69.109 - Under-deck tonnage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (1) If the tonnage deck runs in a continuous line from stem to stern, the line of the tonnage deck is the longitudinal line...deck. (2) If the tonnage deck runs at different levels from stem to stern, the line of the tonnage deck is the...

  16. Forensic investigation of failed airfield test pavements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    Field and laboratory forensic studies were conducted to investigate the failure mechanisms of four different flexible test\\u000a pavement sections at the Federal Aviation Administration's National Airport Pavement Test Facility (NAPTF), a state-of-the-art\\u000a full scale pavement test facility dedicated solely to airport pavement research. The first set of test pavements constructed\\u000a at the NAPTF included a total of nine test sections

  17. Toward an Improved Model of Asphalt Binder Oxidation in Pavements

    E-print Network

    Prapaitrakul, Nikornpon

    2011-02-22

    Asphalt binder oxidation in pavements has been proven to be an ongoing process throughout a pavement's service life. Understanding the nature of the oxidation process is a critical step toward better pavement design to achieve greater pavement...

  18. 17. Baltimore through truss steel bridge (1905), built by the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Baltimore through truss steel bridge (1905), built by the American Bridge Company. The bridge is 15 to 20 feet wide, with a wooden deck, and connects the Sullivan Machine Co. with the Foundry. The enclosed bridge in the background was constructed ca. 1920, and connects the Chain Machine Building with its power plant, foundry, and pattern shop. - Sullivan Machinery Company, Main Street between Pearl & Water Streets, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  19. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, SHOWING SPRING LINE OF SPANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, SHOWING SPRING LINE OF SPANS FROM CROWN OF MID-CHANNEL PIER, PAIRED COLUMNS SUPPORTING DECK, ARCHED WINDOW RAILING, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST FROM EUREKA SOUTHERN RAILROAD BRIDGE. CABLES VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND ARE EARTHQUAKE RESTRAINERS RETROFITTED TO 1952 HIGHWAY BRIDGE, WHICH FUNCTIONED AS DESIGNED IN APRIL 1992 TEMBLOR - Van Duzen River Bridge, Spanning Van Duzen River at CA State Highway 101, Alton, Humboldt County, CA

  20. 58. MISSISSIPPI, NOXUBEE CO. MACON MAHORNER'S BRIDGE, 1884, Ms. 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. MISSISSIPPI, NOXUBEE CO. MACON MAHORNER'S BRIDGE, 1884, Ms. 14, E 6.5 mi. to McLeod, 4.5 miles S on McLeod-Shuqualak road. Mahorner's bridge (1884). Lower panel point, west span. View is at right-angles to the bridge and from below deck level. show pin connection, floor beams, and stringers. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  1. 33 CFR 142.87 - Guarding of deck openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guarding of deck openings. 142.87 Section 142.87 Navigation and...Workplace Conditions § 142.87 Guarding of deck openings. Openings in decks accessible to personnel must be...

  2. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation- Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, gra...

  3. Adaptive prediction of pavement performance 

    E-print Network

    Zulyaminayn, Mohammed

    2002-01-01

    A Visual Basic 6.0[TM] computer program for adjusting family performance curves in making reasonable predictions of individual pavement section performance has been developed under this study. The methodology formulated ...

  4. THE 2005 FHWA CONFERENCE Integral Abutment and Jointless Bridges

    E-print Network

    Horvath, John S.

    Case Study ­ Jointless Bridge Beltrami County State Aid Highway 33 Over Mississippi River in Ten Lake the Coal River J. Perkun, K. Michael 97 Integral Abutment Bridges with FRP Decks ­ Case Studies V. Shekar, S. Aluri, H. GangaRao 113 #12;iv New Mexico's Practice and Experience in Using Continuous Spans

  5. 15. BRIDGE TENDER ALBERT REEVES OF MAURICETOWN AND HELPER WALLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BRIDGE TENDER ALBERT REEVES OF MAURICETOWN AND HELPER WALLY HALES HOLDING HUGE KEY ABOVE HOLE IN DECK OF CENTER SWING SPAN TO REVEAL KEY BASETHE KEY IS SET UPON A MALE FITTING USED TO OPEN THE SPAN - Maurice River Pratt Through-Truss Swing Bridge, Spanning Maurice River, Mauricetown, Cumberland County, NJ

  6. DIAGNOSTIC AND IN-SERVICE TESTING OF TRANSIT RAILWAY BRIDGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Chajes; Harry Shenton; William Finch

    2001-01-01

    Results of a diagnostic load test and in-service monitoring of a steel through-girder bridge are presented. The bridge currently has a low load rating that is controlled by the flexural capacity of the steel deck trough. The diagnostic load test was conducted using the regularly scheduled transit trains, with no interruption to the daily service. A total of 16 strain

  7. 13. VIEW OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING TENSION RODS, SWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING TENSION RODS, SWAY BRACING TIMBER STRINGERS CARRYING CORRUGATED METAL DECK. LOOKING NORTH-NORTHWEST. 65mm lens - Tule River Hydroelectric Complex, Tule River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of Middle Fork of Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

  8. Suppression of flutter and gust response of bridges using actively controlled edge surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soon-Duck Kwon; Sung-Pil Chang

    2000-01-01

    Control surfaces at the edge of a bridge deck are proposed for flutter suppression and gust alleviation. The state-space equation of motion is derived considering the aerodynamic and dynamic interaction between the deck and the control surfaces. Unsteady aerodynamic forces are included in the equation of motion using the rational function approximation. The derived equation combined with the output feedback

  9. Introduction to Concepts of Two-Dimensional Strain and Their Application With the Use of Card-Deck Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragan, Donal M.

    1969-01-01

    Describes the introduction of some fundamental concepts of strain in beginning structural geology courses through the use of "card-deck models. Suggests this technique as a bridge between the visual, but qualitative, and the mathematical aspects of these fundamental concepts. (BC)

  10. Asphalt Oxidation Kinetics and Pavement Oxidation Modeling 

    E-print Network

    Jin, Xin

    2012-07-16

    Most paved roads in the United States are surfaced with asphalt. These asphalt pavements suffer from fatigue cracking and thermal cracking, aggravated by the oxidation and hardening of asphalt. This negative impact of asphalt oxidation on pavement...

  11. Demonstration of Technologies for Concrete Pavement Quality

    E-print Network

    the National CP Tech Center The mission of the National Concrete Pavement Technology Center is to unite key transportation stakeholders around the central goal of advancing concrete pavement technology through research

  12. Summit Panorama with Rover Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Summit Panorama with Rover (QTVR)

    The panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took the hundreds of images combined into this 360-degree view, the 'Husband Hill Summit' panorama. The images were acquired on Spirit's sols 583 to 586 (Aug. 24 to 27, 2005), shortly after the rover reached the crest of 'Husband Hill' inside Mars' Gusev Crater. This is the largest panorama yet acquired from either Spirit or Opportunity. The panoramic camera shot 653 separate images in 6 different filters, encompassing the rover's deck and the full 360 degrees of surface rocks and soils visible to the camera from this position. This is the first time the camera has been used to image the entire rover deck and visible surface from the same position. Stitching together of all the images took significant effort because of the large changes in resolution and parallax across the scene.

    The image is an approximately true-color rendering using the 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 480-nanometer filters for the surface, and the 600-nanometer and 480-nanometer filters for the rover deck. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

    This panorama provided the team's first view of the 'Inner Basin' region (center of the image), including the enigmatic 'Home Plate' feature seen from orbital data. After investigating the summit area, Spirit drove downhill to get to the Inner Basin region. Spirit arrived at the summit from the west, along the direction of the rover tracks seen in the middle right of the panorama. The peaks of 'McCool Hill' and 'Ramon Hill' can be seen on the horizon near the center of the panorama. The summit region itself is a broad, windswept plateau. Spirit spent more than a month exploring the summit region, measuring the chemistry and mineralogy of soils and rocky outcrops at the peak of Husband Hill for comparison with similar measurements obtained during the ascent.

  13. Analysis of Flexible Pavements Reinforced with Geogrids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hema Siriwardane; Raj Gondle; Bora Kutuk

    2010-01-01

    Effectiveness of glass fiber grids as a reinforcement of the asphalt layer in a flexible pavement system was investigated.\\u000a The study involved both laboratory experimental work and computer analysis of pavement sections. Twenty flexible pavement\\u000a sections (with and without glass fiber grids) were constructed and tested in the laboratory as a part of the experimental\\u000a study. The laboratory-scale pavement sections

  14. The Effectiveness of Hot-deck Procedures in Small Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Javaid

    A simulation study was conducted to identify the best hot-deck variation to impute missing values. The three variations included in the study were the hot-deck random, the hot-deck sequential, and the hot-deck distance. The properties of these methods were investigated under three levels of the proportion of incomplete records and four levels…

  15. Undergraduate Work Study Experience in Pavement Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subhi M. Bazlamit; Farhad Reza

    Pavement management systems are used by many agencies as a tool for making informed decisions about pavements in the area of construction, design and maintenance. Since funds are limited, it is only possible, in many instances, to rehabilitate a limited number of pavement projects. Hence, the need for priority allocation of funds to projects and the appropriate timing of such

  16. of Concrete Pavements Joint PerformanCe

    E-print Network

    practitioners under- stand how to optimize concrete pavement joint perfor- mance through the identificationof Concrete Pavements Joint PerformanCe interim Guide for optimum JUNE 2012 #12;#12;Interim Guide for Optimum Joint Performance of Concrete Pavements i Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No. 2

  17. Capturing Solar Energy from Asphalt Pavements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajib B. Mallick; Bao-Liang Chen; Sankha Bhowmick; Michael S. Hulen

    The concept of extracting heat energy from asphalt pavements has been investigated in this study. The scope of work consisted of finite element modeling and testing with small and large scale asphalt pavement samples. Water flowing through copper tubes inserted within asphalt pavements samples were used as heat exchangers in the experiments. The rise in temperature of water as a

  18. Summary of Concrete Overlays Existing concrete pavement

    E-print Network

    Summary of Concrete Overlays Existing concrete pavement with surface distresses Prepared surface Monolithic pavement with new concrete surface Existing asphalt pavement with surface distresses Milled and cleaned surface New 2­5 in. (5.1­12.7 cm) bonded concrete overlay with square panels Existing composite

  19. Making "Magic" Sidewalks of Pervious Pavement

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Water Awareness Research and Education (WARE) Research Experience for Teachers (RET),

    Students use everyday building materials—sand, pea gravel, cement and water—to create and test pervious pavement. They learn what materials make up a traditional, impervious concrete mix and how pervious pavement mixes differ. Groups are challenged to create their own pervious pavement mixes, experimenting with material ratios to evaluate how infiltration rates change with different mix combinations.

  20. HURRICANE INDUCED WAVE AND SURGE FORCES ON BRIDGE DECKS 

    E-print Network

    McPherson, Ronald L.

    2010-01-16

    ............................................................................................. 35 Force Profile ................................................................................... 38 Solitary Wave Results .................................................................... 41 Air Entrapment... such as buoyancy caused by air-entrapment and quantifiable horizontal and vertical forces are still in debate. To better understand these mechanisms, a physical model was constructed in the Haynes Coastal Engineering Laboratory at Texas A&M to test forces...

  1. Outdoor Math 2000: Pricing a Deck

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students Read a diagram and determine the minimum cost of each of the three deck designs, using prices and information about lumber from a chart. Then they apply the Pythagoreum theorum to calculate nonstandard shapes.

  2. Resource management on the flight deck. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, G. E. (editor); White, M. D. (editor); Lauber, J. K. (editor)

    1980-01-01

    Several approaches to the training and selection of aircrew are presented including both industry and nonindustry perspectives. Human factor aspects of the problem are also examined with specific emphasis on the psychology of the flight deck situation.

  3. Definition of the 2005 flight deck environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, K. W.; Regal, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    A detailed description of the functional requirements necessary to complete any normal commercial flight or to handle any plausible abnormal situation is provided. This analysis is enhanced with an examination of possible future developments and constraints in the areas of air traffic organization and flight deck technologies (including new devices and procedures) which may influence the design of 2005 flight decks. This study includes a discussion on the importance of a systematic approach to identifying and solving flight deck information management issues, and a description of how the present work can be utilized as part of this approach. While the intent of this study was to investigate issues surrounding information management in 2005-era supersonic commercial transports, this document may be applicable to any research endeavor related to future flight deck system design in either supersonic or subsonic airplane development.

  4. Functional categories for future flight deck designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.

    1993-01-01

    With the addition of each new system on the flight deck, the danger of increasing overall operator workload while reducing crew understanding of critical mission information exists. The introduction of more powerful onboard computers, larger databases, and the increased use of electronic display media may lead to a situation of flight deck 'sophistication' at the expense of losses in flight crew capabilities and situational awareness. To counter this potentially negative impact of new technology, research activities are underway to reassess the flight deck design process. The fundamental premise of these activities is that a human-centered, systems-oriented approach to the development of advanced civil aircraft flight decks will be required for future designs to remain ergonomically sound and economically competitive. One of the initial steps in an integrated flight deck process is to define the primary flight deck functions needed to support the mission goals of the vehicle. This would allow the design team to evaluate candidate concepts in relation to their effectiveness in meeting the functional requirements. In addition, this would provide a framework to aid in categorizing and bookkeeping all of the activities that are required to be performed on the flight deck, not just activities of the crew or of a specific system. This could then allow for a better understanding and allocation of activities in the design, an understanding of the impact of a specific system on overall system performance, and an awareness of the total crew performance requirements for the design. One candidate set of functional categories that could be used to guide an advanced flight deck design are described.

  5. Hot-mix recycling of asphalt concrete airfield pavements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tere A. DeMoss

    2005-01-01

    The hot-mix recycling of existing airfield pavements is cost effective and can produce asphalt concrete mixtures with material properties equivalent to those of new materials for airfield pavements. Recycled pavement mixes from four different airfields were investigated for performance and current material properties compared to the original or “as constructed” properties. Pavement samples were obtained from each recycled pavement. Properties

  6. Development of Pavement Temperature Contours for India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nivitha, M. R.; Krishnan, J. M.

    2014-06-01

    The stress-strain response of the bituminous pavements is highly sensitive to temperature. To systematically analyze the pavement performance, it is necessary that one understands the variation of pavement temperature spatially and temporally during the life time of a pavement. In this investigation, historic air temperature data for 37 locations across India was collected. Using this database, pavement temperature data was predicted by an appropriate air temperature-pavement temperature model. High and low temperature pavement temperature contours were generated for the first time for India. It was seen that the locations spanning from Srinagar to Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan to Orissa were extremely critical. The minimum temperature in these locations was 10 C and the maximum temperature was around 68 C. Clearly such information is necessary when making choice of binder grade and bituminous layer thickness.

  7. The evaluation of airfield pavements 

    E-print Network

    Poor, Arthur Reginald

    1960-01-01

    future needs may be determined, c. Determine the existing strength of a pavement complex and whether reinforcement is required. d. . provide an economic tool in planning for future oonstruc- tion to avoid "crash" replacement programs. e, Serve as a... and actual life of airfield pavements, some theoretical and some practical. However, 9 Tersaghi, Karl and Peck, HgQ. ph B. , ~o . cit. , p. 107. 10 Glidden, H. K?Law, H. F?and Cowles, J. E, , ~rr&overt, McGraw- Hill Book Co? New York, 19l+6, p . 111...

  8. Pavement Smoothness for Illinois DOT -Doug Dirks 1. Briefly summarize your current pavement smoothness requirements. See below.

    E-print Network

    Pavement Smoothness for Illinois DOT - Doug Dirks 1. Briefly summarize your current pavement? N/A Illinois has both standard specifications and a special provision for pavement smoothness-Depth HMA Pavement 407.09 PCC Pavement 420.10 The following is a link to Division 400 of the Illinois

  9. Work on Phoenix Science Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Space Systems technicians Jim Young (left) and Jack Farmerie (right) work on the science deck of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    The spacecraft was built in a 100,000-class clean room near Denver under NASA's planetary protection practices to keep organics from being taken to Mars. The lander's robotic arm, built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, is seen at the top of the picture. The color and grey dots will be used to calibrate the spacecraft's Surface Stereoscopic Imager camera once the spacecraft has landed on the red planet.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Bituminous pavement recycling Aravind K. and Animesh Das

    E-print Network

    Das, Animesh

    Bituminous pavement recycling Aravind K. and Animesh Das Department of Civil Engineering IIT Kanpur Introduction The bituminous pavement rehabilitation alternatives are mainly overlaying, recycling and reconstruction. In the recycling process the material from deteriorated pavement, known as reclaimed asphalt

  11. Toward an Improved Model of Asphalt Binder Oxidation in Pavements 

    E-print Network

    Prapaitrakul, Nikornpon

    2011-02-22

    the percentage of accessible air voids in the pavement is considerably lower (2 percent or less), the hardening rate of binders in pavements is reduced significantly. Field evidence is mounting that asphalt binder oxidization in pavements produces a binder...

  12. Concrete Pavement Surface Characteristics Program

    E-print Network

    Concrete Pavement Surface Characteristics Program Site Evaluation Report Site 211-1 (Pre- and Post- Grinding/Grooving, Pre-Traffic) Site 211-2 (Post-Traffic, 1 week) Two-Lift Concrete Paving Demonstration, near Solomon, Kansas Two-Lift Concrete Paving Demonstration Project Surface A, Longitudinal Tining

  13. Pavement Design TTP Orientation Seminar

    E-print Network

    Handy, Susan L.

    · Builder · Society ­Internal ­External #12;Pavement Life Cycle · Infrastructure Life Cycle ­Deployment soils and processed rock · Asphalt concrete is 85% aggregate by volume; 10% asphalt; some plastic on product life cycle and waste ­ Pneumatic tire loads and inflation pressures ­ Operating speeds

  14. Effects of the diaphragm at midspan on static and dynamic behaviour of composite railway bridge: A case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yannick Sieffert; Gérard Michel; Philippe Ramondenc; Jean-François Jullien

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on composite multi-girder railway bridges of moderate span for high-speed trains. In this type of bridge the concrete deck is the primary element of transverse rigidity, so the real impact of cross beams is unknown. These cross beams increase the cost of this type of bridge, because they require handling and welding on site. This research studies

  15. PAVEMENT RESPONSES AT ASPHALT SURFACE UNDER MEASURED 3-D TIRE-PAVEMENT CONTACT STRESSES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong Luo; Jorge A. Prozzi

    Pavement design methods assume that the tire-pavement contact stress is equal to the tire inflation pressure and is uniformly distributed in the vertical direction over the contact area. However, because of these assumptions, this uniform stress model does not correctly estimate pavement surface strains, which are used to determine the top-down fatigue cracking. To precisely account for the actual contact

  16. Effect of vehicle–pavement interaction on dynamic response of rigid pavements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Sawant; V. A. Patil; Kousik Deb

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, dynamic response of rigid pavements subjected to moving vehicular loads is presented using an analytical procedure based on the finite element method. The vehicle–pavement interaction effects are taken into account while developing the solution algorithm. The concrete pavement is discretized by finite and infinite beam elements. Infinite elements are helpful in appropriate modeling of end conditions.

  17. ANALYSIS OF SHEAR STRESS IN ASPHALT PAVEMENTS UNDER ACTUAL MEASURED TIRE-PAVEMENT CONTACT PRESSURE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai SU; Lijun SUN; Yoshitaka HACHIYA; Ryota MAEKAWA

    Rutting is one of the most important load-induced distresses found in asphalt pavements. The primary mechanism of rutting is associated with shear deformation rather than densification. Recently, top-down cracking probably attributed to shear failure has also been a frequent occurrence in asphalt pavements. Clearly, shear stress is one of the critical factors affecting pavements performance, and there is a great

  18. AUTOMATED PAVEMENT IMAGING PROGRAM (APIP) FOR PAVEMENT CRACKS CLASSIFICATION AND QUANTIFICATION - A PHOTOGRAMMETRIC APPROACH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mustaffar; T. C. Ling

    1998-01-01

    The evaluation of pavement conditions is an important part of pavement management. Traditionally, pavement condition data are gathered by human inspectors who walk or drive along the road to assess the distresses and subsequently produce report sheets. This visual survey method is not only time consuming and costly but more importantly it compromises the safety of the field personnel. With

  19. PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT FOR FLEXIBLE OVER RIGID COMPOSITE PAVEMENTS (Tollway)

    E-print Network

    . Developing concrete mix design(s) that meets the performance requirements for the intended pavement; 4 Special Provision for Ternary Concrete Mix Designs for Composite Pavement. EQUIPMENT Equipment shall of no more than 50% of the total cementitious material in any mix design. Composite pavement refers

  20. Standard plans for southern pine bridges. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hilbrich Lee, P.D.; Ritter, M.A.; Triche, M.

    1995-09-01

    This publication contains standardized designs and details for three timber bridge superstructure types, including stress-laminated sawn lumber bridges, stress laminated glued laminated timber (glulam) bridges, and longitudinal sawn lumber stringer bridges with transverse plank decks. Each set of plans encompasses numerous span length and width combinations, design loadings for AASHTO HS 20-44 and HS 25-44 vehicles, and two options for live-load deflection criteria.

  1. 46 CFR 11.910 - Subjects for deck officer endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Subjects for deck officer endorsements. 11.910...SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Subjects of Examinations § 11.910 Subjects for deck officer endorsements. Table...

  2. 14 CFR 125.315 - Admission to flight deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...any person to the flight deck of an airplane...National Transportation Safety Board who is performing...any person to the flight deck unless there is...National Transportation Safety Board who is checking or observing flight operations; or...

  3. 14 CFR 125.315 - Admission to flight deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...any person to the flight deck of an airplane...National Transportation Safety Board who is performing...any person to the flight deck unless there is...National Transportation Safety Board who is checking or observing flight operations; or...

  4. 14 CFR 125.315 - Admission to flight deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...any person to the flight deck of an airplane...National Transportation Safety Board who is performing...any person to the flight deck unless there is...National Transportation Safety Board who is checking or observing flight operations; or...

  5. 14 CFR 125.315 - Admission to flight deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...any person to the flight deck of an airplane...National Transportation Safety Board who is performing...any person to the flight deck unless there is...National Transportation Safety Board who is checking or observing flight operations; or...

  6. 14 CFR 125.315 - Admission to flight deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...any person to the flight deck of an airplane...National Transportation Safety Board who is performing...any person to the flight deck unless there is...National Transportation Safety Board who is checking or observing flight operations; or...

  7. Rapid-to-deploy wireless monitoring systems for static and dynamic load testing of bridges: validation on the Grove Street Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Tsung-Chin; Lynch, Jerome P.

    2006-03-01

    Bridge management officials have expressed a keen interest in the use of low-cost and easy-to-install wireless sensors to record bridge responses during short-term load testing. To illustrate the suitability of wireless sensors for short-term monitoring of highway bridges, a wireless monitoring system is installed upon the Grove Street Bridge to monitor structural responses during static and dynamic load testing. Specifically, load testing of the Grove Street Bridge is conducted after its construction to validate the behavior of a novel jointless bridge deck constructed from a high-performance fiber reinforced cementitious composite (HPFRCC) material. A heterogeneous array of sensing transducers are installed in the bridge including metal foil strain gages, accelerometers and linear variable differential transducers (LVDTs). First, the acceleration response of the bridge is monitored by the wireless system during routine traffic loading. Modal parameters (modal frequencies and mode shapes) are calculated by the wireless sensors so that an analytical model of the bridge constructed in a standard commercial finite element package can be updated off-line. Next, the bridge is closed to traffic and trucks of known weight are parked on the bridge to induce static deformations. The installation strategy of the wireless monitoring system during static load testing is optimized to monitor the strain and rotation response of the HPFRCC deck. The measured static response of the deck is compared to that predicted by the updated analytical model.

  8. Generation mechanisms of tire-pavement noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dare, Tyler P.

    Tire-pavement noise is the dominant source of traffic noise at highway speeds. It is the result of a combination of several noise generation mechanisms, including tire carcass vibration and tread block vibration. Because multiple mechanisms are involved, it is difficult to predict the effects of changes in pavement parameters on tire-pavement noise. In this research, a set of experimental techniques were developed to decompose a measured tire-pavement noise spectrum into a set of constituent spectra relating to each generation mechanism. Three principal mechanisms were identified: treadband vibration, sidewall vibration, and tangential tread block vibration. By combining the constituent spectra associated with these mechanisms, it was possible to accurately predict the total tire-pavement noise spectrum. The constituent spectra were fit to tire-pavement noise data measured on asphalt and concrete pavements at highway speeds. It was found that the constituent spectra fit the measured data well, and a two-parameter model was developed to predict tire-pavement noise levels from pavement texture data.

  9. Strength and deformation characteristics of pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shook, J. F.; Kallas, B. F.; McCullough, B. F.; Taute, A.; Rada, G.; Witczak, M. W.; Heisey, J. S.; Stokoe, K. H.; Meyer, A. H.; Huffman, M. S.

    The Colorado experimental base project was a full-scale field experment constructed with various thicknesses of two full depth hot mix sand asphalt beans, one full depth asphalt concrete base, and one thickness of a standard design with untreated base and subbase layers. Relative thicknesses of one asphalt concrete base, two hot mix sand asphalt bases, and one standard design with untreated base and subbase required to give an equal level of pavement performance were determined. Certain measured properties of the pavement and the pavement components were related to observed levels of performance by using both empirical and theoretical models for pavement behavior.

  10. 46 CFR 12.15-13 - Deck engine mechanic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Deck engine mechanic. 12.15-13 Section 12.15-13...Department § 12.15-13 Deck engine mechanic. (a) An applicant for an endorsement as deck engine mechanic shall be a person holding an MMC...

  11. 46 CFR 12.15-13 - Deck engine mechanic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Deck engine mechanic. 12.15-13 Section 12.15-13...Department § 12.15-13 Deck engine mechanic. (a) An applicant for an endorsement as deck engine mechanic shall be a person holding an MMC...

  12. 46 CFR 12.15-13 - Deck engine mechanic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Deck engine mechanic. 12.15-13 Section 12.15-13...Department § 12.15-13 Deck engine mechanic. (a) An applicant for an endorsement as deck engine mechanic shall be a person holding an MMC...

  13. 46 CFR 12.15-13 - Deck engine mechanic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Deck engine mechanic. 12.15-13 Section 12.15-13...Department § 12.15-13 Deck engine mechanic. (a) An applicant for an endorsement as deck engine mechanic shall be a person holding an MMC...

  14. Cone Deck 2 Lot 20 Lot 21

    E-print Network

    Howitt, Ivan

    Mary Alexander Rd ander 51 41 8 546 502501 503 504 46 31 538 545 5 4a 4b 49 17 48 63 52 56 544 55a 23 Village North Deck Lot 20 Lot 19 32 Colvard 51 Robinson Hall 55a Facilities Management 546 Lynch Hall Lot

  15. Cone Deck 2 Lot 20 Lot 21

    E-print Network

    Howitt, Ivan

    Dr Mary Alexander Rd ander 51 41 8 546 502501 503 504 46 31 538 545 5 4a 4b 49 17 48 63 52 56 544 55a. Village Deck Lot 20 Lot 18 & 19 32 Colvard 80 PORTAL 55a Facilities Management 563 Hunt Hall Lot 21 Lot 23

  16. Aviation Safety Program Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck

    E-print Network

    Aviation Safety Program Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck Technical Plan Summary Principal several months by NASA to define the rationale, scope and detailed content of a comprehensive Aviation........................................................................................................ C-1 FORWARD A dichotomy exists for new safety technologies developed for civil aviation. Few

  17. Bridge permeameter

    DOEpatents

    Graf, Darin C. (Edgewood, NM); Warpinski, Norman R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A system for single-phase, steady-state permeability measurements of porous rock utilizes a fluid bridge arrangement analogous to a Wheatstone bridge. The arms of the bridge contain the sample and calibrated flow resistors.

  18. Cognitive representations of flight-deck information attributes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Wendell R.; Jonsson, Jon E.; Rogers, William H.

    1994-01-01

    A large number of aviation issues are generically being called fligh-deck information management issues, underscoring the need for an organization or classification structure. One objective of this study was to empirically determine how pilots organize flight-deck information attributes and -- based upon that data -- develop a useful taxonomy (in terms of better understanding the problems and directing solutions) for classifying flight-deck information management issues. This study also empirically determined how pilots model the importance of flight-deck information attributes for managing information. The results of this analysis suggest areas in which flight-deck researchers and designers may wish to consider focusing their efforts.

  19. PROGRESSIVE COLLAPSE OF STEEL TRUSS BRIDGES, THE CASE OF I-35W COLLAPSE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abolhassan Astaneh-Asla

    Steel deck truss bridges, being determinate systems and not having redundancy, can progressively collapse over the entire span, if a single primary member or gusset plate connection of the main trusses fails. One of the recent tragic examples of such progressive collapse of the entire bridge due to loss of a single gusset plate is the case of I-35W steel

  20. Advances in Modeling of Aerodynamic Forces on Bridge Xinzhong Chen1

    E-print Network

    Chen, Xinzhong

    Advances in Modeling of Aerodynamic Forces on Bridge Decks Xinzhong Chen1 and Ahsan Kareem2 Abstract: Aerodynamic forces on bridges are commonly separated into static, self-excited, and buffeting in modeling aerodynamic forces. Formulations for airfoil sections and those based on quasi- steady theory

  1. CFRP strengthening of a railway concrete trough bridge – a case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Bennitz; Björn Täljsten; Georg Danielsson

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an upgrading and monitoring of a Swedish concrete railway bridge. The methods used for the upgrading as well as for the monitoring are innovative and new. Carbon fibre tubes are inserted in holes in the bridge deck, drilled in the transverse direction of the slab at a location ca. 40 mm from the top. Carbon fibre NSMR bars

  2. Anatomy of Bridge Flutter: Some New Insights Xinzhong Chen, Ahsan Kareem

    E-print Network

    Kareem, Ahsan

    force to the negative damping at the higher wind velocity range (Miyata et al. 1994). Since then and aerodynamics on bridge flutter, which helps in better tailoring of the bridge structural systems and deck of modes and the role of different aerodynamic force components in multimode coupled flutter are offered

  3. I-5/Gilman advanced technology bridge project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Karbhari, Vistasp M.; Seible, Frieder

    2000-04-01

    The UCSD led I-5/Gilman Advanced Technology Bridge Project will design and construct a fully functional traffic bridge of advanced composite materials across Interstate 5 in La Jolla, California. Its objective is to demonstrate the use of advanced composite technologies developed by the aerospace industry in commercial applications to increase the life expectancy of new structures and for the rehabilitation of aging infrastructure components. The structure will be a 450 ft long, 60 ft wide cable-stayed bridge supported by a 150 ft A-frame pylon with two vehicular lanes, two bicycle lanes, pedestrian walkways and utility tunnels. The longitudinal girders and pylon will be carbon fiber shells filled with concrete. The transverse deck system will consist of hollow glass/carbon hybrid tubes and a polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete deck with an arch action. Selected cables will be composite. The bridge's structural behavior will be monitored to determine how advanced composite materials perform in civil infrastructure applications. The bridge will be instrumented to obtain performance and structural health data in real time and, where possible, in a remote fashion. The sensors applied to the bridge will include electrical resistance strain gages, fiberoptic Bragg gratings and accelerometers.

  4. Development of a fiber optic pavement subgrade strain measurement system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig Emerson Miller

    2000-01-01

    This dissertation describes the development of a fiber optic sensing system to measure strains within the soil subgrade of highway pavements resulting from traffic loads. The motivation to develop such a device include improvements to: (1)all phases of pavement design, (2)theoretical models used to predict pavement performance, and (3)pavement rehabilitation. The design of the sensing system encompasses selecting an appropriate

  5. TECHNOLOGY FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE OF NEW PAVEMENT THICKNESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth R. Maser; Joseph Holland; Roger Roberts

    Accurate measurement of pavement thickness is an essential aspect of the quality assurance of new pavement construction. Current methods involving the use of cores are time consuming and provide a very limited representation of the overall pavement structure. The overall objective of the work described in this paper was to rapidly determine the average pavement thickness on a newly constructed

  6. Pavement performance modelling with an auto-regression approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Luo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an auto-regression method is applied to pavement performance modelling to improve the predictive accuracy of predictions when there are only limited or incomplete data available. Using age and past measured conditions as independent variables, the average trend within a pavement group is captured by a ‘global’ function shared by all pavements, while any pavement-specific effects are reflected

  7. Highway pavement distress evaluation: Modeling measurement error

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frannie Humplick

    1992-01-01

    There has been a proliferation of inspection technologies to quantify distresses on highway pavement systems. These technologies employ varying measurement principles and are subject to measurement errors. Estimates of measurement errors are therefore required in order to select among these techniques, and to get accurate assessments of pavement condition. There is abundant literature concerning techniques available for the numerical study

  8. Reducing traffic noise with quieter pavements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Donavan

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, interest has increased in the use of pavement type to reduce traffic noise. This has been driven by public concern over noise from freeways and state transportation agencies' interest in using pavement instead of sound walls to mitigate traffic noise. Beginnings of the recent interest go back to 1998 with the formation of the Institute for Safe,

  9. Simulation of Flexible Pavement Design in Kansas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustaque Hossain; Stefan A. Romanoschi; Andrew J. Gisi

    The Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) is currently adopting the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) to replace the 1993 American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) design method. It would be valuable for the designer to know whether the MEPDG design simulation analysis would predict the actual distresses observed in Kansas. Thus, five newly built Superpave pavements, designed

  10. Research on cracking control for FRAC pavement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yazhen Sun; Jiemin Liu; Tianqing Yu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, relax moduli for FRAC(FRAC) is studied. Using Sidoroff damage model for concrete, viscoelastic damage parameters are determined in order to evaluate the cracking control of FRAC pavement. The results obtained from the coupling analysis of using linear elastic damage mechanics and elastic fracture mechanics simultaneously show that the relaxation damage factor of FRAC pavement is reduced by

  11. Improving Rutting Resistance of Pavement Structures Using Geosynthetics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Khodaii, Ali; Almasi, Mohammad Hadi

    2014-01-01

    A pavement structure consists of several layers for the primary purpose of transmitting and distributing traffic loads to the subgrade. Rutting is one form of pavement distresses that may influence the performance of road pavements. Geosynthetics is one type of synthetic materials utilized for improving the performance of pavements against rutting. Various studies have been conducted on using different geosynthetic materials in pavement structures by different researchers. One of the practices is a reinforcing material in asphalt pavements. This paper intends to present and discuss the discoveries from some of the studies on utilizing geosynthetics in flexible pavements as reinforcement against permanent deformation (rutting). PMID:24526919

  12. Improving rutting resistance of pavement structures using geosynthetics: an overview.

    PubMed

    Mirzapour Mounes, Sina; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Khodaii, Ali; Almasi, Mohammad Hadi

    2014-01-01

    A pavement structure consists of several layers for the primary purpose of transmitting and distributing traffic loads to the subgrade. Rutting is one form of pavement distresses that may influence the performance of road pavements. Geosynthetics is one type of synthetic materials utilized for improving the performance of pavements against rutting. Various studies have been conducted on using different geosynthetic materials in pavement structures by different researchers. One of the practices is a reinforcing material in asphalt pavements. This paper intends to present and discuss the discoveries from some of the studies on utilizing geosynthetics in flexible pavements as reinforcement against permanent deformation (rutting). PMID:24526919

  13. Three Bridge Fryer's Ford Bridge, Nimrod Bridge, and Ward's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Three Bridge - Fryer's Ford Bridge, Nimrod Bridge, and Ward's Crossing Bridge - Fryer's Ford Bridge, Spanning East Fork of Point Remove Creek at Fryer Bridge Road (CR 67), Solgohachia, Conway County, AR

  14. Straw Bridges

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-03-20

    Learners design, build and test a model bridge out of straws. The bridge must span 25 cm across a gap between two tables or two chairs. To measure the load, the bridge must securely hold a small cup. Learners test the load by placing as many pennies in the cup as possible and counting how many the bridge can hold.

  15. Effective flow resistivity of highway pavements.

    PubMed

    Rochat, Judith L; Read, David R

    2013-12-01

    In the case of highway traffic noise, propagating sound is influenced by the ground over which it travels, whether it is the pavement itself or the ground between the highway and nearby communities. Properly accounting for ground type in modeling can increase accuracy in noise impact determinations and noise abatement design. Pavement-specific effective flow resistivity values are being investigated for inclusion in the Federal Highway Administration Traffic Noise Model, which uses these values in the sound propagation algorithms and currently applies a single effective flow resistivity value to all pavement. Pavement-specific effective flow resistivity values were obtained by applying a modified version of the American National Standards Institute S1.18 standard. The data analysis process was tailored to allow for increased sensitivity and extraction of effective flow resistivity values for a broad range of pavements (sound absorptive to reflective). For porous pavements (sound absorptive), it was determined that examination of the measured data can reveal influence from an underlying structure. Use of such techniques can aid in the design of quieter pavements. PMID:25669283

  16. Improvements to a Transport Model of Asphalt Binder Oxidation in Pavements: Pavement Temperature Modeling, Oxygen Diffusivity in Asphalt Binders and Mastics, and Pavement Air Void Characterization

    E-print Network

    Han, Rongbin

    2012-07-16

    Although evidence is mounting that asphalt binder oxidizes in pavements, and that oxidation and subsequent hardening of asphalt binder has a profound effect on pavement durability, important implementation issues remain to be better understood...

  17. Assessment of highway pavements using GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plati, Christina; Loizos, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Highway infrastructure is a prerequisite for a functioning economy and social life. Highways, often prone to congestion and disruption, are one of the aspects of a modern transport network that require maximum efficiency if an integrated transport network, and sustainable mobility, is to be achieved. Assessing the condition of highway structures, to plan subsequent maintenance, is essential to allow the long-term functioning of a road network. Optimizing the methods used for such assessment will lead to better information being obtained about the road and underlying ground conditions. The condition of highway structures will be affected by a number of factors, including the properties of the highway pavement, the supporting sub-base and the subgrade (natural ground), and the ability to obtain good information about the entire road structure, from pavement to subgrade, allows appropriate maintenance programs to be planned. The maintenance of highway pavements causes considerable cost and in many cases obstruction to traffic flow. In this situation, methods that provide information on the present condition of pavement structure non-destructively and economically are of great interest. It has been shown that Ground-Penetrating-Radar (GPR), which is a Non Destructive Technique (NDT), can deliver information that is useful for the planning of pavement maintenance activities. More specifically GPR is used by pavement engineers in order to determine physical properties and characteristics of the pavement structure, information that is valuable for the assessment of pavement condition. This work gives an overview on the practical application of GPR using examples from highway asphalt pavements monitoring. The presented individual applications of GPR pavement diagnostics concern structure homogeneity, thickness of pavement layers, dielectric properties of asphalt materials etc. It is worthwhile mentioning that a number of applications are standard procedures, either separately or in combination with other NDT methods, but even for them there is still a room for improvement and there is still need to set stricter regulations Comparisons between radar results and ground truth data produce evidence in support of the statement that the accuracy and reliability of radar results is sufficient for facing many issues related to the evaluation of asphalt pavements. Thus, benefits and limits of this method are shown and recommendations for GPR inspections are presented. Acknowledgments: This work benefited from networking activities carried out within the EU funded COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar."

  18. 26. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. S of MS. 50 Proposed 218-foot deck, plate-girder turn span, submitted by the Wisconsin Bridge and Iron Co., Milwaukee, Wisc. May 15 1914. Act size: approx. 23x34 in. Credit: columbus and Greenville RR, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  19. Substantial Maintenance Practices for Bridges on the Kansas State Highway System

    E-print Network

    Hurt, Mark Anthony

    2013-05-31

    ..................................................................................... 20 Figure 3.3—Strip seal expansion device on Br. 10-46-176 ........................................................................ 20 Figure 3.4—Example section of KDOT Bridge Inspection A... have been examined by applying procedures for calculating delay from the 2010 Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) (11) to the FY 2003 projects with the most common scope of Bridge Substantial Maintenance work- bridge deck repair and overlay- in order...

  20. Improvements to a Transport Model of Asphalt Binder Oxidation in Pavements: Pavement Temperature Modeling, Oxygen Diffusivity in Asphalt Binders and Mastics, and Pavement Air Void Characterization 

    E-print Network

    Han, Rongbin

    2012-07-16

    in pavements. In this model, oxygen transport and reaction were described mathematically as two interlinked steps: 1) diffusion and/or flow of oxygen from the atmosphere above the pavement into the interconnected air voids in the pavement; and 2) diffusion...

  1. 3. Elevation, tram deck, bonanza "A" frame and crushers level ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Elevation, tram deck, bonanza "A" frame and crushers level 11. - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  2. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation- Abstract 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, gra...

  3. Concrete Pavement Sustainability Sustainability Track Leadership

    E-print Network

    #12;What Else is Happening? · FHWA advocating "Green Paving" technologies ­ Recycled concrete, twoTrack 13: Concrete Pavement Sustainability #12;Sustainability Track Leadership Committee Members: Preservation/Rehabilitation/Recycling Strategies · S.5: Improved Economic Life Cycle Cost Analysis · S.6

  4. Advances in the design of pavement surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsen, William Aage

    The objective is to advance the design of pavement surfaces. The goal is to design a pavement with low wear and high friction for tires. The objective is accomplished by relating the pavement texture to its performance and finishing technique. Pavement texture is represented by characterization parameters calculated from topographic data sets. Data sets are acquired using a Scanning Laser Position Sensor (SLPS, Johnsen 1995) capable of measuring over a 150 x 150 x 50 mm (x, y, z) volume, at a resolution of 25 mum on each axis. Standard and scale-sensitive fractal analysis methods are used and a computer model is developed to calculate characterization parameters from the topographic data sets. The fractal parameters complexity (ASFC) and smooth-rough crossover (SRC) are able to differentiate certain pavement textures. The computer model, when constrained to various settings, correlates with the ASTM E965 sand-patch volumetric technique with a slope of 1.156 ± 0.247 and a correlation coefficient (rsp2) of 0.961 ± 0.016. Neural networks are used to relate pavement texture to in-situ performance. Nearly 75% of the neural network input arrays can predict the friction coefficient with a correlation coefficient of greater than 0.90. The parameters ASFC and SRC increase, and mean texture depth measurements made by a van or the beam method (MTDVB) decrease, this statistical significance. A new device is developed to measure 2500 coefficients of friction per second to investigate friction and wear of tires over a 60 millisecond impact on varying pavement specimens. The mean and standard deviation of the measured coefficient of friction curves differentiate the direction of the pavement brush finish. It is shown that low wear rates are possible with high coefficients of friction.

  5. 33 CFR 149.696 - What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net? 149.696 Section...149.696 What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net? A helicopter landing deck safety net must comply...

  6. 33 CFR 149.696 - What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net? 149.696 Section...149.696 What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net? A helicopter landing deck safety net must comply...

  7. 33 CFR 149.696 - What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net? 149.696 Section...149.696 What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net? A helicopter landing deck safety net must comply...

  8. 33 CFR 149.696 - What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net? 149.696 Section...149.696 What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net? A helicopter landing deck safety net must comply...

  9. 46 CFR 42.15-40 - Miscellaneous openings in freeboard and superstructure decks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Miscellaneous openings in freeboard and superstructure decks...Freeboard § 42.15-40 Miscellaneous openings in freeboard and superstructure decks...shall be permanently attached. (b) Openings in freeboard decks other than...

  10. Advanced ground-penetrating, imaging radar for bridge inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.; Johansson, E.M.; Nelson, S.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lee, Hua [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1993-08-01

    Inspecting high-value structures, like bridges and buildings using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an application of the technology that is growing in importance. In a typical inspection application, inspectors use GPR to locate structural components, like reinforcing bars embedded in concrete, to avoid weakening the structure while collecting core samples for detailed inspection. Advanced GPR, integrated with imaging technologies for use as an NDE tool, can provide the capability to locate and characterize construction flaws and wear- or age-induced damage in these structures without the need for destructive techniques like coring. In the following sections, we discuss an important inspection application, namely, concrete bridge deck inspection. We describe an advanced bridge deck inspection system concept and provide an overview of a program aimed at developing such a system. Examples of modeling, image reconstruction, and experimental results are presented.

  11. Dynamic performance of existing high-speed railway bridges under resonant conditions retrofitted with fluid viscous dampers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Martínez-Rodrigo; J. Lavado; P. Museros

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of Passive Control techniques to mitigate the excessive vibrations that short simply supported railway bridges may undergo under the circulation of High-Speed trains. A possible solution to reduce inadmissible levels of deck vertical acceleration, based on retrofitting the bridge with fluid viscous dampers connected to the slab and to an auxiliary structure, is proposed

  12. Reducing traffic noise with quieter pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donavan, Paul

    2005-09-01

    In recent years, interest has increased in the use of pavement type to reduce traffic noise. This has been driven by public concern over noise from freeways and state transportation agencies' interest in using pavement instead of sound walls to mitigate traffic noise. Beginnings of the recent interest go back to 1998 with the formation of the Institute for Safe, Quiet & Durable Highways at Purdue University and the initiation long-term research by the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) on the effectiveness of quieter pavements. In 2002, the State of Arizona announced plans to overlay 115 miles of concrete freeway in the greater Phoenix area with a quieter asphalt rubber surface. This turned into the first Quiet Pavement Pilot Program in partnership between Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the Arizona Department of Transportation. Since that time, the FHWA in cooperation with the American Association of State Highway Transportation Agencies conducted a fact finding ``Scan'' tour in Europe to evaluate their quiet pavement technology and policy. This was followed by the first comparative tire/pavement noise testing in the US and Europe using the same procedures and test tires. The results, issues, and future directions surrounding these activities will be discussed.

  13. Fusing complementary images for pavement cracking measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Ming; Zhao, Zuyun; Yao, Xun; Xu, Bugao

    2015-02-01

    Cracking is a major pavement distress that jeopardizes road serviceability and traffic safety. Automated pavement distress survey (APDS) systems have been developed using digital imaging technology to replace human surveys for more timely and accurate inspections. Most APDS systems require special lighting devices to illuminate pavements and prevent shadows of roadside objects that distort cracks in the image. Most artificial lighting devices are laser based, and are either hazardous to unprotected people or require dedicated power supplies on the vehicle. This study was aimed to develop a new imaging system that can scan pavement surface at highway speed and determine the level of severity of pavement cracking without using any artificial lighting. The new system consists of dual line-scan cameras that are installed side by side to scan the same pavement area as the vehicle moves. Cameras are controlled with different exposure settings so that both sunlit and shadowed areas can be visible in two separate images. The paired images contain complementary details useful for reconstructing an image in which the shadows are eliminated. This paper intends to present (1) the design of the dual line-scan camera system, (2) a new calibration method for line-scan cameras to rectify and register paired images, (3) a customized image-fusion algorithm that merges the multi-exposure images into one shadow-free image for crack detection, and (4) the results of the field tests on a selected road over a long period.

  14. Thermal stability analysis under embankment with asphalt pavement and cement pavement in permafrost regions.

    PubMed

    Junwei, Zhang; Jinping, Li; Xiaojuan, Quan

    2013-01-01

    The permafrost degradation is the fundamental cause generating embankment diseases and pavement diseases in permafrost region while the permafrost degradation is related with temperature. Based on the field monitoring results of ground temperature along G214 Highway in high temperature permafrost regions, both the ground temperatures in superficial layer and the annual average temperatures under the embankment were discussed, respectively, for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements. The maximum depth of temperature field under the embankment for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements was also studied by using the finite element method. The results of numerical analysis indicate that there were remarkable seasonal differences of the ground temperatures in superficial layer between asphalt pavement and concrete pavement. The maximum influencing depth of temperature field under the permafrost embankment for every pavement was under the depth of 8?m. The thawed cores under both embankments have close relation with the maximum thawed depth, the embankment height, and the service time. The effective measurements will be proposed to keep the thermal stabilities of highway embankment by the results. PMID:24027444

  15. QUANTIFYING THE IMPACT OF JOINTED CONCRETE PAVEMENT CURLING AND WARPING ON PAVEMENT UNEVENNESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George K. Chang; Steven M. Karamihas; Robert Otto Rasmussen; David Merritt; Mark Swanlund

    Curling and warping of jointed concrete pavement (JCP) are well-known phenomena. It is a common belief that this behavior may impact pavement unevenness, and thus driver comfort. This relationship has been difficult to quantify in the past due to lack of adequate field measurements and appropriate analysis techniques. To address this issue, the United States Department of Transportation Federal Highway

  16. PAVEMENT EVALUATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SEASONAL AND TEMPERATURE ADJUSTMENT MODELS USING SEISMIC PAVEMENT ANALYZER (SPA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nenad Gucunski; Sameh Zaghloul; Rambod Hadidi; Ali Maher; Tony Chmiel

    Changes in material properties of pavement layers with temperature and seasonal climate variations significantly affect the pavement response. The AASHTO design guide requires that seasonal and temperature corrections be taken into consideration. Since the AASHTO adjustment models were developed based on data collected in Illinois, most of the states initiated studies that would take in consideration state specific conditions. New

  17. Impact of Traffic Data on the Pavement Distress Predictions using the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sue Ahn; Srivatsav Kandala; J. Uzan; Mohamed El-Basyouny

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the adequacy of using conventional traffic data and national default values in the absence of weigh-in-motion (WIM) data for pavement design. A comparative study was conducted on 14 unique sections in Arizona (AZ), where WIM data are available through the Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program. The study consists of two parts: 1) comparisons of input traffic

  18. Popsicle Bridge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    IEEE

    2013-08-30

    In this activity, learners explore how engineering has impacted the development of bridges over time, including innovative designs and the challenge of creating bridges that become landmarks for a city. Learners work in teams of "engineers" to design and build their own bridge out of glue and popsicle sticks. Learners test their bridges using weights, evaluate their results, and present their findings to the group.

  19. Spaghetti Bridge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COSI

    2009-01-01

    In this engineering activity, learners investigate the differences between the strength of bridges made from flat and round building materials. They construct simple bridges out of linguine, which has a rectangular shape, and spaghetti, which has a circular shape. They then test and compare the weight capacity of the bridges.

  20. Bridge permeameter

    DOEpatents

    Graf, D.C.; Warpinski, N.R.

    1996-08-13

    A system is described for single-phase, steady-state permeability measurements of porous rock which utilizes a fluid bridge arrangement analogous to a Wheatstone bridge. The arms of the bridge contain the sample and calibrated flow resistors. 8 figs.

  1. Spaghetti Bridge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    K-12 Outreach Office,

    Civil engineers design structures such as buildings, dams, highways and bridges. Student teams explore the field of engineering by making bridges using spaghetti as their primary building material. Then they test their bridges to see how much weight they can carry before breaking.

  2. Designing Bridges

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program and Laboratory,

    Students learn about the types of possible loads, how to calculate ultimate load combinations, and investigate the different sizes for the beams (girders) and columns (piers) of simple bridge design. Students learn the steps that engineers use to design bridges: understanding the problem, determining the potential bridge loads, calculating the highest possible load, and calculating the amount of material needed to resist the loads.

  3. RESEARCH Open Access Pavement crack characteristic detection based

    E-print Network

    Joensuu, University of

    are not caused by pavement distress such as tire marks, oil spills and shadows. In the field of 3D pavement crack distress such as tire marks, oil spills, shadows, and recent fillings [11]. Moreover, the shadows and poor

  4. POROUS PAVEMENT. PHASE I. DESIGN AND OPERATIONAL CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Design and operational criteria, utilization concepts, benefits and disadvantages, as well as other characteristics of porous pavements are presented in this report. Particular emphasis is placed on porous asphalt pavements, but the criteria and design approach are applicable to ...

  5. Analysis of creep effects for a cable-stayed bridge with composite girder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Buyu; Yan, Quansheng

    2010-03-01

    For steel-concrete composite beams, the stress's re-distribution between steel girder and concrete deck caused by the concrete creep may seriously affect the safety of the bridge, especially for a cable-stayed bridge with composite girder. Based on the effective elastic modular method, an approach for the analysis of the creep effects in the composite girder of a cable-stayed bridge was presented. The particularity of the proposed model relies on its ability to capture the redistribution of internal force and stress caused by creep in composite beam of some complex bridges such as cablestayed bridge, while considering the effect of the loading age of the precast concrete deck.

  6. Analysis of creep effects for a cable-stayed bridge with composite girder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Buyu; Yan, Quansheng

    2009-12-01

    For steel-concrete composite beams, the stress's re-distribution between steel girder and concrete deck caused by the concrete creep may seriously affect the safety of the bridge, especially for a cable-stayed bridge with composite girder. Based on the effective elastic modular method, an approach for the analysis of the creep effects in the composite girder of a cable-stayed bridge was presented. The particularity of the proposed model relies on its ability to capture the redistribution of internal force and stress caused by creep in composite beam of some complex bridges such as cablestayed bridge, while considering the effect of the loading age of the precast concrete deck.

  7. 46 CFR 28.565 - Water on deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    (b) Except for a vessel that operates on protected waters, the residual righting energy, “b” in Figure 28.565, must not be less than the water on deck heeling energy, “a” in Figure 28.565. (c) The water on deck heeling energy must be determined assuming the...

  8. Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    1 Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and Multi-Car Elevator Systems using Genetic Network Programming YU, Lu 7 #12;2 Genetic Algorithm GA Genetic Programming GP Elevator Group Supervisory Control Systems EGSCS 1970 Artificial Intelligence AI) Double-Deck Elevator Systems DDES Multi

  9. 22. VIEW OF DEBARKER FROM LOG INFEED DECK. NOTE ROOF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW OF DEBARKER FROM LOG IN-FEED DECK. NOTE ROOF SUPPORT OVER CARRIAGE AND LOG IN-FEED DECK IN UPPER RIGHT. (SEE OR-89-18 AND OR-89-23 FOR RELATED ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS.) - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  10. VIEW OF DEBARKER FROM LOG INFEED DECK. NOTE ROOF SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF DEBARKER FROM LOG IN-FEED DECK. NOTE ROOF SUPPORT OVER CARRIAGE AND LOG IN-FEED DECK IN UPPER RIGHT. (SEE OR-89-18 AND OR-89-23 FOR RELATED ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS.) - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  11. 27. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK WITH TENDER ANNIE RUTH ALONGSIDE. COVER OF FORWARD COMPANIONWAY HAS BEEN PLACED ON MAIN DECK; SUN AWNING A TYPICAL FEATURE IN TROPICAL CLIMATES. CREW MEMBERS UNKNOWN Original 4-3/4'x6-3/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  12. Astronaut Ellen Ochoa at RMS controls on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Ellen Ochoa, payload commander, on the Space Shuttle Atlantis' aft flight deck, has just completed an operations at the controls for the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm while working in chorus with astronaut Donald R. McMonagle. McMonagle, mission commander, is seen here at his station on the forward flight deck. An RMS operations checklist floats in front of Ochoa.

  13. Molecular mechanisms controlling pavement cell shape in Arabidopsis leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pingping Qian; Suiwen Hou; Guangqin Guo

    2009-01-01

    Pavement cells have an interlocking jigsaw puzzle-shaped leaf surface pattern. Twenty-three genes involved in the pavement\\u000a cell morphogenesis were discovered until now. The mutations of these genes through various means lead to pavement cell shape\\u000a defects, such as loss or lack of interdigitation, the reduction of lobing, gaps between lobe and neck regions in pavement\\u000a cells, and distorted trichomes. These

  14. Rehabilitation of continuously reinforced concrete pavements using overlays 

    E-print Network

    Sriraman, Soumya

    1993-01-01

    overlay using CRC was laid on a 6 inch thick 28 jointed plain concrete pavement and which had previously been overlaid with 3. 5 inches of asphalt concrete. The primary purpose of the overlay was to strengthen the existing pavement and improve... in the design and performance of CRC overlays or overlays on CRC pavements. Climate and fatigue are other factors identified in literature as causative for the development of failures like rutting (predominant in AC overlays of CRC pavements), and reflective...

  15. Surface Distresses Detection of Pavement Based on Digital Image Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aiguo Ouyang; Chagen Luo; Chao Zhou

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Pavement crack is the main form of early diseases of pavement. The use of digital photography to record pavement images and\\u000a subsequent crack detection and classification has undergone continuous improvements over the past decade. Digital image processing\\u000a has been applied to detect the pavement crack for its advantages of large amount of information and automatic detection. The\\u000a applications of digital

  16. Thermoelectric Generators using Solar Thermal Energy in Heated Road Pavement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hasebe; Y. Kamikawa; S. Meiarashi

    2006-01-01

    The temperature of road pavement rises up to 70degC in summer due to the effect of the solar radiation. The authors have developed a pavement-cooling system using thermoelectric generator. Heat in the pavement is collected as heated water in a heat collection tube installed in the pavement. River water near the road is used as a coolant. Electric power is

  17. Relationship Between Highway Pavement Condition, Crash Frequency, and Crash Type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun Yip Chan; Baoshan Huang; Xuedong Yan; Stephen Richards

    2009-01-01

    Research has been conducted to relate highway pavement conditions with vehicle accidents. Utilizing the Tennessee Pavement Management System (PMS) and Accident History Database (AHD), this study developed 20 negative binomial regression models to examine the relationships between pavement condition parameters, crash frequency, and crash types. The modeling results indicated that either Present Serviceability Index (PSI) or International Roughness Index (IRI)

  18. STRUCTURAL AND DESIGN ASPECTS OF POROUS AND PERMEABLE BLOCK PAVEMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Beecham; B. Myers

    Pavements are an intrinsic, seldom-thought-about part of life, particularly in urban areas. However, for developers, industrial facilities, and local authorities addressing stormwater and associated water quality guidelines and regulations, pavements stay very much at the forefront of planning issues. This is because impervious surfaces such as pavements have a major impact on water quality and on the health of natural

  19. Engineering properties of resin modified pavement (RMP) for mechanistic design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Lee Anderton

    1997-01-01

    The research study described in this report focuses on determining the engineering properties of the resin modified pavement (RMP) material relating to pavement performance, and then developing a rational mechanistic design procedure to replace the current empirical design procedure. A detailed description of RMP is provided, including a review of the available literature on this relatively new pavement technology. Field

  20. EVOLUTIONAL PROCESS OF PAVEMENT ROUGHNESS EVALUATION BENEFITING FROM SENSOR TECHNOLOGY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Loizos; Christina Plati

    2008-01-01

    The present paper deals with a view of the availability of high-speed sensor profilers, which has given dramatically increased possibilities to analyze imperfections in pavement surfaces such as roughness. Technical parameters of such profilers, for sensing and analyzing pavement surface profile are described. In addition, the main investigation concentrates on the evolutional process of pavement roughness evaluation. For this purpose

  1. Performance of pavements designed with low-cost materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau, R. W.; Yrjanson, W. A.; Packard, R. G.; Barksdale, R. D.; Potts, C. F.; Ruth, B. E.; Smith, L. L.; Huddleston, I. J.; Vinson, T. S.; Hicks, R. G.

    1980-04-01

    The following areas are discussed. Utilization of marginal aggregate materials for secondary road surface layers; econocrete pavements; current practices; construction and performance of sand-asphalt bases and performance of sand-asphalt and limerock pavements in Florida. Cement stabilization of degrading aggregates use of crushed stone screenings in highway construction (abridgement); and sulfur-asphalt pavement technology are also reviewed.

  2. THREE DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT MODELING OF PAVEMENT SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yinhui Liu

    2005-01-01

    Pavement subsurface drainage systems (PSDS) are designed to drain the entrapped water out of pavement. To investigate the effects of various factors on the performance of PSDS, three dimensional models were developed using the finite element method to simulate the unsaturated drainage process in pavement. The finite element models were calibrated using the field information on outflow, peak flow, layer

  3. Development on preventive maintenance management system for expressway asphalt pavements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hu Guoxiang; Li Jie

    2010-01-01

    In view of the status that there was no expressway pavement preventive maintenance management system at home and abroad at present, based on the technology theory obtained by the author and the demands and process of expressway asphalt pavement preventive maintenance management, preventive maintenance management system for expressway asphalt pavement (EPMMS (V1.0)) was developed. The work or functions of expressway

  4. Performance of continuously reinforced concrete pavements: Volume 6 -- CRC pavement design, construction, and performance. Final report, August 1990--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, D.G.; Buch, N.; Xin, D.; Soares, J.

    1999-02-01

    This report is one of a series of reports prepared as part of a recent study sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) aimed at updating the state-of-the-art of the design, construction, maintenance, and rehabilitation of continuous reinforced concrete (CRC) pavements. The scope of work of the FHWA study included the following: (1) Conduct of a literature review and preparation of an annotated bibliography on CRC pavements and CRC overlays. (2) Conduct of a field investigation and laboratory testing related to 23 existing in-service pavement sections. This was done to evaluate the effect of various design features on CRC pavement performance, to identify any design or construction related problems, and to recommend procedures to improve CRC pavement technology. (3) Evaluation of the effectiveness of various maintenance and rehabilitation strategies for CRC pavements. (4) Preparation of a Summary Report on the current state of the practice for CRC pavements. Each of the above four items is addressed in a separate report. The following reports have been prepared under this study: Performance of CRC Pavements. Volume 1: Summary of Practice and Annotated Bibliography. Volume 2: Field Investigation of CRC Pavements. Volume 3: Analysis and Evaluation of Field Test Data. Volume 4: Resurfacing for CRC Pavements. Volume 5: Maintenance and Repair of CRC Pavements. Volume 6: CRC Pavement Design, Construction, and Performance. Volume 7: Summary. This report is Volume 6 in the series.

  5. APPLICATION OF EMPIRICAL AND MECHANISTIC-EMPIRICAL PAVEMENT DESIGN PROCEDURES TO Mn\\/ROAD CONCRETE PAVEMENT TEST SECTIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Burnham

    Current pavement design procedures are based principally on empirical approaches. The introduction of new materials and the significant increase in traffic volumes have brought uncertainty to their prediction of pavement behavior. The current trend toward developing more mechanistic-empirical type pavement design methods led Minnesota to develop the Minnesota Road Research Project (Mn\\/ROAD). The project consists of 40 heavily instrumented test

  6. Pavement Sealcoat, PAHs, and the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Metre, P. C.; Mahler, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    Recent research by the USGS has identified coal-tar-based pavement sealants as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the environment. Coal-tar-based sealcoat is commonly used to coat parking lots and driveways and is typically is 20-35 percent coal tar pitch, a known human carcinogen. Several PAHs are suspected mutagens, carcinogens, and (or) teratogens. In the central and eastern U.S. where the coal-tar-based sealants dominate use, sum-PAH concentration in dust particles from sealcoated pavement is about 1,000 times higher than in the western U.S. where the asphalt-based formulation is prevalent. Source apportionment modeling indicates that particles from sealcoated pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs to recent lake sediment in 35 U.S. urban lakes and are the primary cause of upward trends in PAHs in many of these lakes. Mobile particles from parking lots with coal-tar-based sealcoat are tracked indoors, resulting in elevated PAH concentrations in house dust. In a recently completed study, volatilization fluxes of PAHs from sealcoated pavement were estimated to be about 60 times fluxes from unsealed pavement. Using a wide variety of methods, the author and colleagues have shown that coal-tar-based sealcoat is a major source of PAHs to the urban environment and might pose risks to aquatic life and human health.

  7. Chip Seals for Asphalt Concrete Pavements: A Proposed Emulsion Residue Specification and Existing Pavement Texture Evaluation 

    E-print Network

    Hoyt, Denise

    2012-07-16

    for evaluating macrotexture of pavements. The paper was published in the 2011 Transportation Research Record (8). The authors of the paper are Arash Rezaei, Denise Hoyt, and Amy Epps Martin. While the use of pavement cores to evaluate pavement macrotexture... (with nitrogen purge) The hot oven method is similar to the recovery method described in ASTM D244-97C (19) with the modification that nitrogen flows over the sample to prevent oxidation and consequent aging of the material. A beaker containing 50 g...

  8. Forced motion and free motion aeroelastic tests on a new concept dynamometric section model of the Messina suspension bridge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Diana; F. Resta; A. Zasso; M. Belloli; D. Rocchi

    2004-01-01

    The work presents a new original experimental rig to more deeply investigate the aerodynamic behaviour of long span suspension bridges. Set-up and model are designed to grant an accurate study on main aeroelastic phenomena in bridge engineering. More in details, experimental set-up and a 1:60 scale sectional model of Messina bridge deck are presented. The complete rig—composed by dynamometric model,

  9. Spills on Flat Inclined Pavements

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Carver S.; Keller, Jason M.; Hylden, Jeff L.

    2004-03-01

    This report describes the general spill phenomenology for liquid spills occurring on relatively impermeable surfaces such as concrete or asphalt pavement and the development and application of a model to describe the time evolution of such spills. The discussion assumes evaporation and degradation are negligible and a homogeneous surface. In such an instance, the inherent interfacial properties determine the spatial extent of liquid spreading with the initial flow being controlled by the release rate of the spill and by the liquids resistance to flow as characterized by its viscosity. A variety of spill scenarios were simulated and successful implementation of the model was achieved. A linear relationship between spill area and spill volume was confirmed. The simulations showed spill rate had little effect on the final spill area. Slope had an insignificant effect on the final spill area, but did modify spill shape considerably. However, a fluid sink on the edge of the simulation domain, representing a storm drain, resulted in a substantial decrease in spill area. A bona fide effort to determine the accuracy of the model and its calculations remain, but comparison against observations from a simple experiment showed the model to correctly determine the spill area and general shape under the conditions considered. Further model verification in the form of comparison against small scale spill experiments are needed to confirm the models validity.

  10. Orbiter Flight Deck Redesign (A Physical Layout for a Futuristic Flight Deck)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorsandi, Mehrzad

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this summer project was to develop a set of schematic drawings for redesign of the Space Shuttle flight deck from which three dimensional computer drawings can be built and viewed in a virtual environment. In order to achieve this goal, first recommendations for overall redesign of Space Shuttle previously made by experts in the field were reviewed and relevant information was extracted and delineated. Original drawings of the Space Shuttle made by Rockwell were obtained and carefully examined. In order to implement and assess any modifications in terms of space saving parameters, it was determined that the drawings alone could not achieve this objective. As a complement, physical measurements of the mockup of Space Shuttle flight deck were made and the information was categorized and properly labeled on the original drawings. Then, spacesaving redesign ideas, as motivated by expert recommendations on such things as information display panel upgrade by technologically advanced flat display units, were implemented. Next, the redesign ideas were executed on the Forward flight deck, Overhead Console, Right and Left Console, and Center Console. A new 3-D computer drawing of this was developed by modifying the existing drawing on the in-house developed software (PLAID). Finally, the drawing was transported to a Virtual Environment and observed.

  11. Quantitative analysis of microtubule orientation in interdigitated leaf pavement cells.

    PubMed

    Akita, Kae; Higaki, Takumi; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2015-05-01

    Leaf pavement cells are shaped like a jigsaw puzzle in most dicotyledon species. Molecular genetic studies have identified several genes required for pavement cells morphogenesis and proposed that microtubules play crucial roles in the interdigitation of pavement cells. In this study, we performed quantitative analysis of cortical microtubule orientation in leaf pavement cells in Arabidopsis thaliana. We captured confocal images of cortical microtubules in cotyledon leaf epidermis expressing GFP-tubulin? and quantitatively evaluated the microtubule orientations relative to the pavement cell growth axis using original image processing techniques. Our results showed that microtubules kept parallel orientations to the growth axis during pavement cell growth. In addition, we showed that immersion treatment of seed cotyledons in solutions containing tubulin polymerization and depolymerization inhibitors decreased pavement cell complexity. Treatment with oryzalin and colchicine inhibited the symmetric division of guard mother cells. PMID:26039484

  12. Smart bridge and building materials in which cyclic motion is controlled by internally released adhesives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn M. Dry

    1996-01-01

    The object of this research is to assess the feasibility of using the concept of self-healing concretes for structural highway elements such as bridges, and roadway pavements. Our research has concentrated on the material behavior of self-healing cements which internally release adhesive when crack damage occurs. The focus of this research is on the use of self- healing concretes in

  13. Interior view of the Flight Deck looking forward, the Commander's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of the Flight Deck looking forward, the Commander's seat and controls are on the left and the pilot's seat and controls are on the right of the view. Note that the flight deck windows have protective covers over them in this view. This images can be digitally stitched with image HAER No. TX-116-A-20 to expand the view to include the overhead control panels of the flight deck. This view was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  14. An evaluation of pavement markings and raised pavement markers at left exit lane drops

    E-print Network

    Lance, Marty Tina

    1994-01-01

    components; more drivers are affected, interactions in the traffic stream are more turbulent, and the potential for confusion and accidents is substantially greater. Exit-only signs and pavement markings are two methods used to communicate an exit lane drop...

  15. Aggregate and disaggregate statistical evaluation of the performance-based effectiveness of long-term pavement performance specific pavement study-5 (LTPP SPS-5) flexible pavement rehabilitation treatments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anwaar Ahmed; Samuel Labi; Zongzhi Li; Todd Shields

    2010-01-01

    Engineers continually seek effective techniques for preserving highway infrastructure. Using data from the specific pavement study#5 of the long-term pavement performance (LTPP) programme's western region, this article evaluated the performance of eight flexible pavement rehabilitation treatments. Aggregate and disaggregate post-treatment performance models were developed for each treatment. Effectiveness was measured in the short term (roughness reduction) and long term (estimated

  16. Studies of the effect of aging of ``quiet'' pavements on tire/pavement noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyff, James A.; Donavan, Paul

    2005-09-01

    One of the issues with using quieter pavements to abate traffic noise is their continued acoustic performance over the life cycle of the surface. Aging effects can be assessed in two manners: (1) long term monitoring of the noise performance of an individual section of roadway; (2) measurement of multiple sections of pavement of the same construction, but different ages. Long term monitoring of Interstate 80 near Davis (I-80 Davis) began in 1998, just prior to the placement of a dense graded leveling course and open graded asphalt overlay. The pavement surface is now approaching 7 years old and continues to show a traffic noise reduction of about 5 dBA over the existing condition. As support of the Arizona Quiet Pavement Program (QPPP), similarly constructed sections of asphalt rubber friction course (ARFC) on Arizona's interstate highways were measured for tire/pavement performance using the close proximity (CPX) method and the on-board sound intensity method. The construction dates for the pavements ranged from 1988 to 1999. The total range in noise level was 7 dB with some indication of degrading performance with age.

  17. 77. VIEW OF PIER DECK, TAKEN FROM LIFEGUARD TOWER, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. VIEW OF PIER DECK, TAKEN FROM LIFEGUARD TOWER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING REFUGE BAY AND 3RD TEE BUILDINGS IN BACKGROUND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  18. 14. Car deck, looking forward, 1915 Mack Truck on left ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Car deck, looking forward, 1915 Mack Truck on left with 1926 Dodge behind, 1937 Diamond Pickup Truck on right with 1931 Ford Model A Mail Truck behind. - Ferry EUREKA, Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 8. Working decks for buoy maintenance. White Sage on left, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Working decks for buoy maintenance. White Sage on left, White Holly on right. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HOLLY, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, 4640 Urquhart Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  20. Astronaut John Fabian show off signs on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut John Fabian, payload specialist, show off a series of signs on the aft flight deck of Discovery, from whose payload bay three communications satellites were deployed. The sign reads 'We deliver and deliver and deliver...'

  1. Trestle Reflected Framing Plan, Trestle Deck Plan, Trestle Framing Plan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Trestle Reflected Framing Plan, Trestle Deck Plan, Trestle Framing Plan - Denver & Rio Grande Railroad, San Juan Extension, Wolf Creek Trestle, Crossing Wolf Creek at Milepost 339.78, Chama, Rio Arriba County, NM

  2. 35. VIEW LOOKING FORWARD DOWN STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. VIEW LOOKING FORWARD DOWN STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK FROM A POINT NEAR WHEELHOUSE Original 5'x5' photograph taken by Robert S. Douglas, 1966 - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  3. 8. VIEW LOOKING AFT TOWARD STERN ON MAIN DECK, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW LOOKING AFT TOWARD STERN ON MAIN DECK, SHOWING ENGINE CONTROL PANEL, STEERING GEAR BOX, AND CAVEL BITTS - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  4. 69. BUILDING NO. 542A, LOADING & UNLOADING DECKS, LOADING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. BUILDING NO. 542-A, LOADING & UNLOADING DECKS, LOADING AND UNLOADING RAMP LOOKING NORTHEAST. BUILDING NO. 550, GENERAL STOREHOUSE, IN BACKGROUND LEFT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  5. 28. EXTERIOR, VIEW FROM THE DECK OF THE UMBRA TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. EXTERIOR, VIEW FROM THE DECK OF THE UMBRA TO THE EAST PORCH FROM THE SOUTH - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  6. 26. EXTERIOR, EAST ELEVATION, VIEW NORTH FROM PORCH DECK TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. EXTERIOR, EAST ELEVATION, VIEW NORTH FROM PORCH DECK TO THE PORTE-COCHERE FROM THE SOUTH - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  7. 14. VIEW OF SOUTH SERVICE DECK AT GRADE LEVEL WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF SOUTH SERVICE DECK AT GRADE LEVEL WITH COMPRESSED GAS TANK; VIEW TO EAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28417, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  8. Structural loading of cross deck connections for trimaran vessels

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, Jason L

    2004-01-01

    This work investigates the fundamental relationships of wave loading on cross deck structures for trimaran vessels. In contrast with a monohull ship, trimaran vessels experience several possible structural loading cases ...

  9. 48. VIEW OF PIER DECK, TAKEN FROM HALFWAY BETWEEN APPPROACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. VIEW OF PIER DECK, TAKEN FROM HALFWAY BETWEEN APPPROACH AND 1ST TEE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING CAPTAIN'S GALLEY (LEFT) AND NEPTUNE'S LOCKER (RIGHT) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  10. 69. VIEW OF DECK AND PILINGS FROM LIFEGUARD TOWER AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. VIEW OF DECK AND PILINGS FROM LIFEGUARD TOWER AT 2ND TEE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING NEPTUNE'S LOCKER AND CAPTAIN'S GALLEY IN BACKGROUND AT RIGHT - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  11. 47. VIEW OF PIER DECK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM GATE, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. VIEW OF PIER DECK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM GATE, SHOWING CAPTAIN'S GALLEY (LEFT) AND NEPTUNE'S LOCKER (RIGHT) IN CENTER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  12. Facility S 372, replacement dolphins and ramp from upper deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility S 372, replacement dolphins and ramp from upper deck of ferry boat (YFB 87). - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ferry Landing Type, Halawa Landing on Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. 23. STEAM PLANT TURBINE DECK FROM NORTH END OF BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. STEAM PLANT TURBINE DECK FROM NORTH END OF BUILDING, SHOWING FOURTH STEAM UNIT IN PLACE AT FAR SOUTH END. April 6, 1950 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. 35. VIEW OF MAIN DECK ENGINE FLAT, LOOKING AFT AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. VIEW OF MAIN DECK ENGINE FLAT, LOOKING AFT AT STEAM CHEST AND CYLINDER HEADS. ORIGINAL STEAM FIRE PUMP IS ON PORT SIDE - Steam Schooner WAPAMA, Kaiser Shipyard No. 3 (Shoal Point), Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  15. 6. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH OF OPERATOR DECK, SHOWING MOTOR CONTROLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH OF OPERATOR DECK, SHOWING MOTOR CONTROLS AND LEVERS AND HOIST FOR TRASH RAKE - Cabot Station Electric Generating Plant, Gantry Crane, Montague City Road, Turners Falls vicinity, Montague, Franklin County, MA

  16. 8. VIEW, LOOKING EAST OF OPERATOR DECK, SHOWING TRASHRAKE HOIST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW, LOOKING EAST OF OPERATOR DECK, SHOWING TRASH-RAKE HOIST, LEVER CONTROLS, MOTOR CONTROLLER - Cabot Station Electric Generating Plant, Gantry Crane, Montague City Road, Turners Falls vicinity, Montague, Franklin County, MA

  17. Onboard photo: Mission Specialist Ochoa on Flight Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-56) Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Ellen Ochoa handles a 35mm camera on the aft flight deck of the Orbiter. Ochoa is positioned next to the payload station and behind the commander's station.

  18. Anisotropic Characterization and Performance Prediction of Chemically and Hydraulically Bounded Pavement Foundations 

    E-print Network

    Salehi Ashtiani, Reza

    2010-10-12

    The aggregate base layer is a vital part of the flexible pavement system. Unlike rigid pavements, the base layer provides a substantial contribution to the load bearing capacity in flexible pavements, and this contribution is complex: stress...

  19. PAVEMENT TECHNOLOGY UPDATE This Technology Transfer Program

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    reduces worker exposure to asphalt fumes at the plant and during the construction of the asphalt pavement, and industry. Introduction Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) has the potential for being one of the most important break- throughs for the asphalt industry in 50 years [1]. WMA was introduced in Europe in 1995 and debuted

  20. Desert pavement study at Amboy, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S.; Greeley, R.

    1984-01-01

    Desert pavement is a general term describing a surface that typically consists of a thin layer of cm-sized rock fragments set on top of a layer of finer material in which no fragments are found. An understanding of desert pavement is important to planetary geology because they may play a major role in the formation and visibility of various aeolian features such as wind streaks, which are important on Mars and may be important on Venus. A field study was conducted in Amboy, California to determine the formation mechanism of desert pavements. The probable sequence of events for the formation and evolution of a typical desert pavement surface, based on this experiment and the work of others, is as follows. Starting with a layer of surface material consisting of both fine particles and rock fragments, aeolian deflation will rapidly erode the surface until an armored lag is developed, after which aeolian processes become less important. The concentration of fragments then slowly increases as new fragments are brought to the surface from the subsurface and as fragments move downslope by sheet wash. Sheet wash would be responsible for removing very fine particles from the surface and for moving the fragments relative to one another, forming interlocks.

  1. Investigation of the effects of overloads on highway bridges

    E-print Network

    Zimmerman, Richard A

    1988-01-01

    a previously safe route, the small probability of the apprehension of load limit violators, and the relatively mild punishments for violating posted limits. It would be wise to know the effects of higher loads due to the continued interest.... From this work it appears that current bridge deck designs are substantially stronger than necessary. The explanation for punching shear failure caused by high loads may be found in the presence of large in-plane compressive forces which result due...

  2. Rapid hardening concrete for the construction of a small span bridge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Cangiano; Alberto Meda; Giovanni A. Plizzari

    2009-01-01

    The interest in concrete having an early age strength is increased due to the possibility to limit the construction time. A rapid hardening concrete (RHC) can be applied in order to limit the interruption of heavy traffic ways, for the construction of infrastructures such as bridges, viaducts, etc.In this paper, a practical case of using RHC is presented. The deck

  3. Design and Construction Integration of a Continuous Precast Prestressed Concrete Bridge System

    E-print Network

    Roy, Subha Lakshmi 1982-

    2011-04-15

    for the operational vehicular loading as provided by TTI and a number of design alternatives for the various bridge components are provided. This includes: the design of the fully precast deck panels for long continuous spans, design of the shear connectors resisting...

  4. Sudden lateral asymmetry and torsional oscillations of section models of suspension bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaut, R. H.; Davis, F. M.

    2007-11-01

    Cable-supported bridges typically exhibit minimal torsional motion under traffic and wind loads. If symmetry of the bridge about the deck's centerline is suddenly lost, such as by the failure of one or more cables or hangers (suspenders), torsional motion of the deck may grow and angles of twist may become large. The initiation of the disastrous torsional oscillations of the original Tacoma Narrows Bridge involved a sudden lateral asymmetry due to loosening of a cable band at midspan. The effects of these types of events on two-degree-of-freedom and four-degree-of-freedom section models of suspension bridges are analyzed. Vertical and rotational motions of the deck, along with vertical motions of the cables, are considered. A harmonic vertical force and an aerodynamic moment proportional to angular velocity are applied to the deck. Resistance is provided by translational and rotational springs and dashpots. Flutter instability and large oscillations occur under the aerodynamic moment, which provides "negative damping." In order to model the occurrence of limit cycles, nonlinear damping of the van der Pol type is included in one case, and nonlinear stiffness of the hangers in others. The frequencies of the limit cycles are compared to the natural frequencies of the system.

  5. Procedure and Application for Determining the Cold Deck and Hot Deck Airflow in a Dual-Duct System

    E-print Network

    Liu, G.; Mingsheng, L.

    2006-01-01

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency, Vol. IV-11-1 Procedure and Application for Determining the Cold Deck and Hot Deck Airflow in a Dual-Duct System Guopeng Liu Mingsheng Liu, Ph.D., P.E. University...). Continuous Commissioning (CC) has been one of the most prominent energy conservation processes for over a decade. CC has been developed to help building owners achieve energy savings, improve thermal comfort and reduce maintenance costs (Liu et al. 1999...

  6. Tracking of cracks in bridges using GPR: a 3D approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, A.

    2012-04-01

    Corrosion associated with reinforcing bars is the most significant contributor to bridge deficiencies. The corrosion is usually caused by moisture and chloride ion exposure. In particular, corrosion products FeO, Fe2O3, Fe3O4 and other oxides along reinforcement bars. The reinforcing bars are attacked by corrosion and yield expansive corrosion products. These oxidation products occupy a larger volume than the original intact steel and internal expansive stresses lead to cracking and debonding. There are some conventional inspection methods for detection of reinforcing bar corrosion but they can be invasive and destructive, often laborious, lane closures is required and it is difficult or unreliable any quantification of corrosion. For these reasons, bridge engineers are always more preferring to use the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique. In this work a novel numerical approach for three dimensional tracking and mapping of cracks in the bridge is proposed. The work starts from some interesting results based on the use of the 3D imaging technique in order to improve the potentiality of GPR to detect voids, cracks or buried object. The numerical approach has been tested on data acquired on some bridges using a pulse GPR system specifically designed for bridge deck and pavement inspection that is called RIS Hi Bright. The equipment integrates two arrays of Ultra Wide Band ground coupled antennas, having a main working frequency of 2 GHz. The two arrays within the RIS Hi Bright are using antennas arranged with different polarization. One array includes sensors with parallel polarization with respect to the scanning direction (VV array), the other has sensors in orthogonal polarization (HH array). Overall the system collects 16 profiles within a single scan (8 HH + 8 VV). The cracks, associated often to moisture increasing and higher values of the dielectric constant, produce a not negligible increasing of the signal amplitude. Following this, the algorithm processes the signal by comparing the value of the amplitude A(i,j,k) in the position of the 3D domain i,j,k all over the GPR scan with a threshold T(k), that depends on the depth k. The value of the threshold, that is variable in order to compensate attenuation effects, has been calibrated all over the depth of the scan comparing the real truth with the GPR prediction. The algorithm analyzes the signal amplitude all over the domain of the radar scan for i=1,N (longitudinal length of the scan), for j==1,M (transversal length of the scan) and for k=1,L (depth of the scan), where N, M, L are the boundary domain limits. Starting from the generic position of the scan where the algorithm finds a signal amplitude greater than the threshold, A(i,j,k)>T(k), the 6 positions, left (j-1), right (j+1), up (k-1), down (k+1), forward (i+1) and backward (i-1), are checked in order to find the position where the amplitude reaches the maximum value Amax(i*,j*,k*). Of course this value must be over the threshold T(k*) to be accepted as belonging to the crack. At the next step the algorithm restarts the tracking procedure assuming Amax(i*,j*,k*) as the new generic value A(i,j,k). The procedure ends as the entire domain has been numerically scanned.

  7. Thermal cracking of rubber modified pavements, May 1995. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Raad, L.; Yuan, X.; Saboundjian, S.

    1995-05-01

    In accordance with the original ISTEA mandate (1991) to use crumb tire rubber in pavements, Alaska would be required to use about 250 tons of used tire rubber starting in 1994 and increasing to about 1,000 tons of rubber in 1997 and each year thereafter. A number of pavements using crumb rubber modifiers have been built in the state and have been in service for periods of 8 to 15 years. Knowledge of the behavior of these rubber-modified pavements under extreme climate conditions, particularly in relation to their low temperature cracking resistance, is necessary for future design and construction of rubberized pavements in Alaska. This report presents results of a study to determine the low temperature cracking resistance of rubber modified pavements in Alaska in comparison with conventional asphalt concrete pavements.

  8. A New Multiconstraint Method for Determining the Optimal Cable Stresses in Cable-Stayed Bridges

    PubMed Central

    Asgari, B.; Osman, S. A.; Adnan, A.

    2014-01-01

    Cable-stayed bridges are one of the most popular types of long-span bridges. The structural behaviour of cable-stayed bridges is sensitive to the load distribution between the girder, pylons, and cables. The determination of pretensioning cable stresses is critical in the cable-stayed bridge design procedure. By finding the optimum stresses in cables, the load and moment distribution of the bridge can be improved. In recent years, different research works have studied iterative and modern methods to find optimum stresses of cables. However, most of the proposed methods have limitations in optimising the structural performance of cable-stayed bridges. This paper presents a multiconstraint optimisation method to specify the optimum cable forces in cable-stayed bridges. The proposed optimisation method produces less bending moments and stresses in the bridge members and requires shorter simulation time than other proposed methods. The results of comparative study show that the proposed method is more successful in restricting the deck and pylon displacements and providing uniform deck moment distribution than unit load method (ULM). The final design of cable-stayed bridges can be optimised considerably through proposed multiconstraint optimisation method. PMID:25050400

  9. Truck-based mobile wireless sensor networks for the experimental observation of vehicle-bridge interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junhee; Lynch, Jerome P.; Lee, Jong-Jae; Lee, Chang-Geun

    2011-06-01

    Heavy vehicles driving over a bridge create a complex dynamic phenomenon known as vehicle-bridge interaction. In recent years, interest in vehicle-bridge interaction has grown because a deeper understanding of the phenomena can lead to improvements in bridge design methods while enhancing the accuracy of structural health monitoring techniques. The mobility of wireless sensors can be leveraged to directly monitor the dynamic coupling between the moving vehicle and the bridge. In this study, a mobile wireless sensor network is proposed for installation on a heavy truck to capture the vertical acceleration, horizontal acceleration and gyroscopic pitching of the truck as it crosses a bridge. The vehicle-based wireless monitoring system is designed to interact with a static, permanent wireless monitoring system installed on the bridge. Specifically, the mobile wireless sensors time-synchronize with the bridge's wireless sensors before transferring the vehicle response data. Vertical acceleration and gyroscopic pitching measurements of the vehicle are combined with bridge accelerations to create a time-synchronized vehicle-bridge response dataset. In addition to observing the vehicle vibrations, Kalman filtering is adopted to accurately track the vehicle position using the measured horizontal acceleration of the vehicle and positioning information derived from piezoelectric strip sensors installed on the bridge deck as part of the bridge monitoring system. Using the Geumdang Bridge (Korea), extensive field testing of the proposed vehicle-bridge wireless monitoring system is conducted. Experimental results verify the reliability of the wireless system and the accuracy of the vehicle positioning algorithm.

  10. Performance of pavements designed with low-cost materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Grau; W. A. Yrjanson; R. G. Packard; R. D. Barksdale; C. F. Potts; B. E. Ruth; L. L. Smith; I. J. Huddleston; T. S. Vinson; R. G. Hicks

    1980-01-01

    The following areas are discussed. Utilization of marginal aggregate materials for secondary road surface layers; econocrete pavements; current practices; construction and performance of sand-asphalt bases and performance of sand-asphalt and limerock pavements in Florida. Cement stabilization of degrading aggregates use of crushed stone screenings in highway construction (abridgement); and sulfur-asphalt pavement technology are also reviewed. Bibtex entry for this abstract

  11. Comparative Economic-Engineering Evaluation of Concrete Block Pavements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilan Ishai

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative engineering-economical evaluation and analysis of flexible, rigid, and Concrete Block Pavements (CBP) at different structure alternatives. Several key factors were involved in the analysis. They are: three types of traffic categories—Occasional, Medium, and Very Heavy; one subgrade strength (CBR=4%); local pavement design practice (current design curves for flexible, rigid and CBP pavements); consideration of both

  12. Development of Longitudinal Cracks on Pavement over Shrinking Expansive Subgrade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong Luo; Jorge A. Prozzi

    2010-01-01

    The volumetric change of expansive clays in pavement subgrade produces serious pavement distresses. Dry-land longitudinal cracking is one of the most prevalent pavement distresses due to expansive subgrade. However, the mechanism of the dry-land crack development has not been addressed in depth, and the propagation process of dry-land cracks has not yet been clarified. This paper investigates the mechanism of

  13. Monitoring Stress Changes in a Concrete Bridge with Acoustic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stähler, S.; Sens-Schönfelder, C.; Niederleithinger, E.; Pirskawetz, S.

    2009-12-01

    The sensitivity of coda waves for material changes has been demonstrated in various environments ranging form laboratory scale to regional seismology. Here we present a test for monitoring stress induced velocity variations in a concrete construction. The construction is a bridge made of reinforced concrete in Germany that is build in incremental launching method (Taktschiebe-Mode). This means that construction takes place at one end of the bridge from which the bridge is successively pushed over the pillars as the constructions continues. During the movement of the construction over the pillars the stress in the girder and the deck slab undergoes changes between 0 and 14 MPa in horizontal direction. We used seismic equipment to induce elastic waves in the deck slab of the bridge at different position of the array relative to the supporting pillars. Comparing reverberating waves in slab recorded at different stress states we can infer changes in the propagation velocity. The observed velocity change is compared to modeled stress variations in the slab. Comparison is difficult due to imprecise positioning of the array and the spatially periodic stress variations. But we can show that the observed velocity variation is in agreement with the predictions from the stress model. Samples of the concrete used in the bridge are tested under different loads in the laboratory to infer the stress-velocity relation. The experiments show that the acousto-elastic effect in the specific concrete can account for the observed velocity variations.

  14. Hybrid green permeable pave with hexagonal modular pavement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, M. A.; Abustan, I.; Hamzah, M. O.

    2013-06-01

    Modular permeable pavements are alternatives to the traditional impervious asphalt and concrete pavements. Pervious pore spaces in the surface allow for water to infiltrate into the pavement during rainfall events. As of their ability to allow water to quickly infiltrate through the surface, modular permeable pavements allow for reductions in runoff quantity and peak runoff rates. Even in areas where the underlying soil is not ideal for modular permeable pavements, the installation of under drains has still been shown to reflect these reductions. Modular permeable pavements have been regarded as an effective tool in helping with stormwater control. It also affects the water quality of stormwater runoff. Places using modular permeable pavement has been shown to cause a significant decrease in several heavy metal concentrations as well as suspended solids. Removal rates are dependent upon the material used for the pavers and sub-base material, as well as the surface void space. Most heavy metals are captured in the top layers of the void space fill media. Permeable pavements are now considered an effective BMP for reducing stormwater runoff volume and peak flow. This study examines the extent to which such combined pavement systems are capable of handling load from the vehicles. Experimental investigation were undertaken to quantify the compressive characteristics of the modular. Results shows impressive results of achieving high safety factor for daily life vehicles.

  15. Study on Flexible Pavement Failures in Soft Soil Tropical Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakumar, M.; Chee Soon, Lee

    2015-04-01

    Road network system experienced rapid upgrowth since ages ago and it started developing in Malaysia during the colonization of British due to its significant impacts in transportation field. Flexible pavement, the major road network in Malaysia, has been deteriorating by various types of distresses which cause descending serviceability of the pavement structure. This paper discusses the pavement condition assessment carried out in Sarawak and Sabah, Malaysia to have design solutions for flexible pavement failures. Field tests were conducted to examine the subgrade strength of existing roads in Sarawak at various failure locations, to assess the impact of subgrade strength on pavement failures. Research outcomes from field condition assessment and subgrade testing showed that the critical causes of pavement failures are inadequate design and maintenance of drainage system and shoulder cross fall, along with inadequate pavement thickness provided by may be assuming the conservative value of soil strength at optimum moisture content, whereas the exiting and expected subgrade strengths at equilibrium moisture content are far below. Our further research shows that stabilized existing recycled asphalt and base materials to use as a sub-base along with bitumen stabilized open graded base in the pavement composition may be a viable solution for pavement failures.

  16. Effect of Measured Three-Dimensional Tire-Pavement Contact Stress on Pavement Response at Asphalt Surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong Luo; Jorge A. Prozzi

    2007-01-01

    Top-down cracking results from horizontal strains at the pavement surface that are caused by high wheel loads. When horizontal strains are calculated, the tire–pavement contact stress is assumed to be equal to the tire inflation pressure and to be distributed uniformly over a circular area. In reality, tire–pavement contact stress is distributed nonuniformly over a noncircular area. Actual contact stresses

  17. 33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have? Each helicopter landing deck on a manned...

  18. 33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have? Each helicopter landing deck on a manned...

  19. 33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have? Each helicopter landing deck on a manned...

  20. Smart Road Pavement Research HomePage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dubbed "the Smart Road" by Virginia's Department of Transportation, this full-scale facility for pavement research and evaluation of high-tech transportation systems uses computers, electronics, and satellites to create a realistic environment for collecting traffic and environmental data under controlled conditions, "and should advance the general understanding of the engineering behavior of pavement systems." This site, from the Virginia Tech Civil Engineering Materials Program, provides information from the researchers who have designed the Smart Road. The page contains a description of the project's current status, an explanation of objectives, construction photos, a detailed description of the instrumentation used, and data. Note, the research plan and testing links are still under construction. This site introduces an interesting project for highway and transportation engineers.

  1. Airport pavement NDE research at CQEFP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovics, John S.; Achenbach, Jan D.

    1996-11-01

    The Center for Quality Engineering and Failure Prevention (CQEFP) at Northwestern University is actively involved in the development of new stress-wave based non-destructive evaluation techniques for airport pavements. This paper summarizes recent accomplishments and outlines current research directions. The development of a new stress-wave source is detailed first. The stress-wave generating technique allows for a high degree of control of the input stress wave while at the same time enabling the generation of significant wave amplitudes. Experimental results on concrete specimens demonstrate the controllability and penetrating ability of the developed stress wave generation technique. Its performance is compared to that of an impact source. Experimental results from an existing stress-wave based NDE technique, the impact-echo method, are presented and limitations of that approach are demonstrated. Finally, directions of future airport pavement NDE research at CQEFP, which focus upon application of the developed stress wave generation technique to pavement NDE problems, are outlined.

  2. Basswood Bridges

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Abramowitz, Harvey

    The Elementary Engineering Design course for freshmen students at Purdue University Calumet consists of two components: one ME and one EE. Due to the two part structure and in order to expose the students to the faculty, it is also team taught. The course counts as two credits, with the format one hour lecture and three hours lab. The basswood bridge is the major project of the ME half and counts for one quarter of the total course grade. The object, as is usual with bridge projects, is to design, build and test a truss bridge having a high strength to weight ratio. The design process includes statics analysis in combination with the tensile and compressive properties of the basswood. The details of the project from initial design to final testing are provided.

  3. 46 CFR 109.575 - Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. 109.575 Section 109...109.575 Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. The master or person in...liquids are allowed to accumulate on the helicopter...

  4. 46 CFR 109.575 - Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... false Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. 109.575 Section 109...109.575 Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. The master or person in...liquids are allowed to accumulate on the helicopter...

  5. 46 CFR 109.575 - Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. 109.575 Section 109...109.575 Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. The master or person in...liquids are allowed to accumulate on the helicopter...

  6. 46 CFR 109.575 - Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. 109.575 Section 109...109.575 Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. The master or person in...liquids are allowed to accumulate on the helicopter...

  7. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  8. Environmental analysis of new construction and maintenance processes of road pavements in Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian Gschösser; Holger Wallbaum; Bryan T. Adey

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this paper is an environmental analysis of processes needed to construct (material production, pavement construction, transport) and maintain (pavement deconstruction, recycling, material production, pavement construction, transport) representative Swiss asphalt, concrete and composite pavements (including subbase layers). The analysed environmental indicators are the IPCC Global Warming Potential indicator, the Ecological Scarcity Indicator and the Non-renewable Cumulative Energy Demand

  9. Study on pavement technologies to mitigate the heat island effect and their effectiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kubo; H. KIDO

    Recently, the heat island effect in large cities has become a social issue in Japan. Pavements are thought to be one of the main causes of the heat island effect as they cover wide area of cities. Therefore, new pavements, such as water retention pavements or heat shield pavements, have been developed and used as countermeasures by the central and

  10. Long-term stormwater quantity and quality performance of permeable pavement systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin O. Brattebo; Derek B. Booth

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the long-term effectiveness of permeable pavement as an alternative to traditional impervious asphalt pavement in a parking area. Four commercially available permeable pavement systems were evaluated after 6 years of daily parking usage for structural durability, ability to infiltrate precipitation, and impacts on infiltrate water quality. All four permeable pavement systems showed no major signs of wear.

  11. Utilization of Information Technology to Enhance an Asphalt Pavement Condition Evaluation Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yichang Tsai; James L. Lai

    2001-01-01

    Accurate and consistent pavement condition evaluations are essential for developing reliable pavement maintenance management systems. The Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) has developed a Pavement Condition Evaluation System (PACES) to meet this need. PACES has been used to evaluate the pavement conditions on the entire highway system in Georgia annually since 1986, and the results have been used for developing

  12. Significance of bearing capacity of clayey subgrade in flexible pavement design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. N. V. Satyanarayana Reddy; N. V. Rama Moorthy

    2005-01-01

    Clays as subgrades pose serious problems to flexible pavements built over them as they retain moisture for a longer period and possess low strength. Excessive settlements along the wheel tracks on pavement surface and bearing capacity failures in the subgrade soil are often observed in the flexible pavements constructed over such subgrades. So, the present status of flexible pavements in

  13. DEPLETION OF COPPER-BASED PRESERVATIVES FROM PINE DECKING AND IMPACTS ON SOIL-DWELLING INVERTEBRATES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J Kennedy

    Radiata pine decking was treated with CCA or Copper Azole wood preservative to Australian Standard H3 retention using conventional and modified Bethel schedules, and air-dried. Treated and durable hardwood (kwila) control decking boards were subjected to natural leaching in weather- exposed decks in Brisbane, Queensland. Analysis of collected deck runoff water revealed losses up to 700mg Cu, 175mg Cr, 600mg

  14. Permeable pavement demonstration site at Edison Environmental Center (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are few studies of full-scale, outdoor, replicated, working pervious pavement systems. More studies of pervious pavement operating in its intended use (parking lot, roadway, etc.) during a range of climatic events, daily usage conditions, and maintenance regimes are necessa...

  15. Cosmogenic 3 He surface-exposure dating of stone pavements

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    geologic time scales and to test this new model. These exposure ages are stratigraphically consistent, show at the land surface in a time-transgressive manner. A newly proposed model for pavement evolution differs from at the surface and that pavements may provide one of the longest-term records of geologic, hydrologic

  16. Weed occurrence on pavements in five North European towns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Melander; N. Holst; A C GRUNDY; C. Kempenaar; M. M. Riemens; A. Verschwele; D. Hansson

    2009-01-01

    Weeds on pavements in urban areas are unwanted mainly because they cause an untidy appearance or sometimes structural damage. Glyphosate has been the principal weed control method for years, but policies in several European towns have changed to lower dependence on herbicides. Instead, less effective and more species-dependent non-chemical methods are used, but little is known about the pavement flora.

  17. THE EFFECT OF PAVEMENT SPLIT FRICTION PROVISION ON HIGHWAY CURVES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tang-Hsien Chang

    1997-01-01

    From the perspective of sprung vehicle dynamics, the design criteria of superelevation or radius is unsatisfactory for broad requirements. Superelevation design has many limitations. Therefore, in this study, we describe a split layout of pavement friction, designed to counterbalance an insufficiency of superelevation. The layout is to provide different friction pavements between the left and the right sides of a

  18. PRECAST CONCRETE PAVEMENT SLAB SYSTEMS (Tollway) Effective: March 30. 2009

    E-print Network

    braced, and shall be anchored, so as to withstand the forces due to vibratory placement of the concretePRECAST CONCRETE PAVEMENT SLAB SYSTEMS (Tollway) Effective: March 30. 2009 DESCRIPTION This specification covers material and fabrication requirements for precast concrete pavement slab systems

  19. COMPOSITE PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENTS (Tollway) Effective: January 30, 2012

    E-print Network

    Provision; 2. Supplying and installing all specified reinforcement; 3. Developing concrete mix design(s cementitious material in any mix design. This special provision only applies to a concrete composite pavement Special Provision for Ternary Concrete Mix Designs for Composite Pavement. Concrete supplied for the top

  20. Pavement recycling-bituminous concrete and concrete mix designs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Christman

    1979-01-01

    Trial mixes developed from both salvaged bituminous concrete and portland cement concrete pavement materials were tested in the laboratory. Salvaged materials investigated included crushed and cold milled bituminous concrete and crushed 40 x 12 ft concrete pavement slabs with wire mesh reinforcing. Laboratory results indicated the feasibility of full scale bituminous recyling projects using central plant mixing of salvaged and

  1. Fuzzy optimization BP neural network model for pavement performance assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Liu; Min Sun

    2007-01-01

    This paper discussed the use of fuzzy optimization BP neural network as a management tool for the maintenance of expressway pavement. The algorithm was applied to model pavement performance evaluation, successful in accurately and quickly capturing the high nonlinear characteristics between objective practical data and subjective synthetic evaluations, avoided the neural network activation function's defects of unclear physical meanings. A

  2. Field investigation of clogging in a permeable pavement system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry Lucke; Simon Beecham

    2011-01-01

    Permeable pavements are commonly used around commercial and industrial buildings to reduce the environmental impact. Results are presented from a forensic investigation of a permeable interlocking concrete paving (PICP) system that has been in service for over eight years. The aims were to quantify the sediment accumulation processes that occurred in the different pavement layers and to improve understanding of

  3. Permeable Pavement Demonstration at the Edison Environmental Center (Hartford)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In general, there is a lack of full-scale, outdoor, real-world porous pavement studies with system replicates. More studies of porous pavement operating in its intended use (parking lot, roadway, etc.) with climatic events, regular use, and maintenance effects, are necessary. The...

  4. Permeable pavement demonstration at the Edison Environmental Center (Hartford, CT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In general, there is a lack of full-scale, outdoor, real-world porous pavement studies with system replicates. More studies of porous pavement operating in its intended use (parking lot, roadway, etc.) with climatic events, regular use, and maintenance effects, are necessary. The...

  5. Detail view of the flight deck looking aft. The aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the flight deck looking aft. The aft viewing windows are uncovered in this view and look out towards the payload bay. The overhead viewing windows have exterior covers in place in this view. The aft flight deck contains displays and controls for executing maneuvers for rendezvous, docking, payload deployment and retrieval, payload monitoring and the remote manipulator arm controls. Payload bay doors are also operated from this location. This view was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  6. Detail view of the interior of the flight deck looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the interior of the flight deck looking forward showing the overhead control panels. Note that the flight deck windows have protective covers over them in this view. This images can be digitally stitched with image HAER No. TX-116-A-19 to expand the view to include the Commander and Pilot positions during ascent and reentry and landing. This view was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  7. Pilot Fullerton reviews checklist on Aft Flight Deck Onorbit Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Pilot Fullerton, wearing communication kit assembly (assy) mini headset, reviews checklist and looks at remote manipulator system (RMS) closed circuit television (CCTV) views displayed on CCTV monitors at Aft Flight Deck Onorbit Station. Taken from the aft flight deck starboard side, Fullerton is seen in front of Panels A7 and A8 with remote manipulator syste (RMS) translation hand control (THC) and RMS rotation hand control (RHC) in the foreground and surrounded by University of Michigan (U of M) GO BLUE and United States Air Force - A Great Way of Life Decals.

  8. Bridge Inspector's Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Bureau of Public Roads.

    A guide for the instruction of bridge inspectors is provided in this manual as well as instructions for conducting and reporting on a bridge inspection. The chapters outline the qualifications necessary to become a bridge inspector. The subject areas covered are: The Bridge Inspector, Bridge Structures, Bridge Inspection Reporting System,…

  9. The Belizean Bridge Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murfin, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Describes the famous swing bridge in Belize. Students build bridges from a variety of materials and answer the questions, What are different types of bridges?, How do bridges work?, How can you tell if a bridge design will be safe?, and What is the best way to build a bridge over a river while still allowing boat traffic? (SAH)

  10. 78 FR 2912 - Prohibition on Personal Use of Electronic Devices on the Flight Deck

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ...Personal Use of Electronic Devices on the Flight Deck AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...use while at their duty station on the flight deck while the aircraft is being operated...the challenge of task management on the flight deck or a loss of situational...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.73 - Guarding of deck openings and edges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Guarding of deck openings and edges. 1915.73 Section 1915...Surfaces § 1915.73 Guarding of deck openings and edges. (a) The provisions...vicinity of flush manholes and other small openings of comparable size in the deck and...

  12. Utilization of Advanced Diagnostic Methods for Texture and Rut Depth Analysis on a Testing Pavement Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slabej, Martin; Grin?, Michal; Kotek, Peter; Ková?, Matúš; Decký, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Qualitative characteristics of pavement in wide range reflects the pavement serviceability, which is a summary of the characteristics of the pavement, providing a fast, smooth, economical and especially safe driving of motor-vehicles. The target factor of pavement serviceability and safety of roads represents the quality of their surface properties. In the framework of research activities performed in the Research Centre founded under the auspices of University of Žilina, individual parameters of pavement serviceability were monitored by pavement surface scanning. This paper describes the creation of a 3D - road surface model and its analysis and evaluation from the viewpoint of two pavement serviceability parameters - the rut depth and texture. Measurements were performed on an experimental pavement section used contemporary in an Accelerated Pavement Testing experiment. The long-term goal is to ascertain functions predicting degradation of these two pavement serviceability parameters.

  13. Digital Bridges: Bridges of the Nineteenth Century

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    The collection consists of thirty representative 19th-century American bridge engineering monographs, manuals, and documents from the Lehigh University Libraries' Special Collections. The source documents have been scanned, converted to text, and partially corrected to make all significant terms and personal and proper names retrievable through the site's search engine. Topics include specific bridges (the Brooklyn Bridge, the East River Bridge), bridge types (suspension bridges, wrought iron bridges), bridge components (cabling, foundations), bridge design, bridge disasters, and others. The collection is browseable by title and searchable by keyword. Printable versions of the documents are also available. A glossary is also provided with definitions of terms, short biographies of authors, and descriptions of some of the bridges

  14. Special Fluid Viscous Dampers For The Messina Strait Bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Colato, Gian Paolo; Infanti, Samuele; Castellano, Maria Gabriella [FIP Industriale spa, Via Scapacchio 41, 35030 Selvazzano Dentro (Italy)

    2008-07-08

    The Messina Strait Bridge would be the world's longest suspension bridge, with a design earthquake characterised by a PGA value of 0.58 g and a distance between the ipocenter and the bridge of 15 km. Said critical structure of course would need a suitable restraint system for traffic braking loads, wind and seismic actions. Each type of load requires a specific behaviour of the restraint system, making its design a big challenge.The restraint system comprises special types of fluid viscous dampers, installed both in longitudinal and transverse direction, both at the towers and at the anchorages. In seismic conditions they behave as viscous dampers, to reduce the forces on the structural elements and the movements of the bridge deck. But in service dynamic conditions, e.g. under traffic or wind load, the devices shall behave like shock transmission units, thus preventing the longitudinal and transverse movements of the deck.FIP Industriale cooperated with the selected General Contractor, a consortium lead by Impregilo, in the design of said viscous dampers. This paper describes the main features of said devices.

  15. An analysis of pavement heat flux to optimize the1 water efficiency of a pavement-watering method2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of cooling dense urban areas and reducing the urban heat11 island effect has been studied since the 1990's; pavement heat flux; pavement-watering; urban heat island; climate change25 adaptation; heat wave26 1 [3], this technique is viewed as an efficient means of reducing urban31 heat island (UHI) intensity

  16. New structural systems for zero-maintenance pavements. Volume 3: Anchored pavement system designed for Edens Expressway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Saxena; S. G. Militsopoulos

    1980-01-01

    The response of the Edens Expressway subjected to mechanical and environmental loads using the anchored pavement concept is discussed. The mechanical and thermal properties of materials that could be encountered in future reconstruction of Edens Expressway are presented in a consistent form for computer programming. These properties are viewed as typical design values during investigation of pavement response. The behavior

  17. Influence of Different Rheological Models on Predicted Pavement Responses in Flexible Pavements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger N Nilsson; Piet C. Hopman; Ulf Isacsson

    2002-01-01

    Conventional response models are based on linear elastic theory and stationary loading. Such models are in principle considered inadequate for predicting actual pavement responses. Since bitumnous mixes exhibits viscoelastic properties and the wheel loads are moving, several rheological models have been proposed for describing mechanical properties of bituminous mixes. However, many of these models are capable of representing a material

  18. TYRE-PAVEMENT INTERFACE CONTACT STRESSES ON FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS - QUO VADIS?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. De Beer; C. Fisher; L. Kannemeyer

    Worldwide, road pavement networks are constantly under pressure of an ever increasing demand from economic and other market forces. As a result, road infrastructure needs constant protection and it is therefore necessary to understand the ever-changing operating conditions such as the impact of heavy vehicles (HVs). Since the previous CAPSA 1999 conference further progress has been made with the application

  19. Temperature-dependent performance of polymer concrete wearing surface system on the Poplar Street Bridge. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. S. Gopalaratnam; J. W. Baldwin; W. M. Cao

    1999-01-01

    The report details a five-year study of the performance of the epoxy (polymer) concrete wearing surface placed on the orthotropic steel-plate deck of the Poplar Street Bridge in St. Louis, Missouri. This study involved inspections, field testing and laboratory experiments and analyses. During the first few years, the focus was on the field study components. Later when some cracks were

  20. Proportioning of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Mixes for Pavement Construction and Their Impact on Environment and Cost

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Constantia Achilleos; Diofantos Hadjimitsis; Kyriacos Neocleous; Kypros Pilakoutas; Pavlos O. Neophytou; Stelios Kallis

    2011-01-01

    Steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) is a construction material investigated for more than 40 years including for pavement applications. A number of studies have demonstrated the technical merits of SFRC pavements over conventional concrete pavements; however little work has been carried out on the environmental and economical impact of SFRC during the pavement’s life cycle. Therefore, extended research was undertaken

  1. STS 51-G crew photo on the flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    STS 51-G crew photo on the flight deck. Left to right in the front are John O. Creighton, Shannon W. Lucid, Daniel C. Brandenstein; and in the back row are Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud, Steven R. Nagel, John N. Fabian and Patrick Baudry.

  2. Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and Multi-Car Elevator Systems using and real world problems. GNP was firstly applied to Elevator Group Supervisory Control Syste m (EGSCS such as tile-worlds models. EGSCS is the system, where the elevator group supervisory controller controls

  3. VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR MINING SUBSIDENCE HAZARD DECK Olivier1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR MINING SUBSIDENCE HAZARD DECK Olivier1 , VERDEL Thierry1 , SALMON mining subsidence events, which occurred in the iron-ore field in Lorraine (France) in 1996, 1997 in relation to the subsidence intensity and vulnerable elements. KEYWORDS: Vulnerability, Subsidence, Stakes

  4. 33. VIEW LOOKING FORWARD ON PORT SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW LOOKING FORWARD ON PORT SIDE OF MAIN DECK FROM A POINT NEAR STERRING GEAR BOX; CAVEL BITT IN IMMEDIATE FOREGROUND Original 5'x5' photograph taken by Robert S. Douglas, 1966 - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  5. 29. VIEW LOOKING FORWARD ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW LOOKING FORWARD ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK FROM POINT ALONGSIDE WINDLASS. SUN AWNINGS APPEAR TO HAVE BEEN FASHIONED FROM VESSEL'S SAILS Original 4-3/4'x6-3/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  6. 10. VIEW LOOKING FORWARD ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW LOOKING FORWARD ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK FROM POINT NEAR ENGINE CONTROL PANEL. DECKHOUSES, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT (STERN TO BOW), ARE AFT COMPANIONWAY, PILOTS' CABIN SKYLIGHT, ENGINE ROOM SKYLIGHT, AND GALLEY SKYLIGHT/COMPANIONWAY - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  7. 6. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON PORT SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON PORT SIDE OF MAIN DECK FROM POINT NEAR GALLEY STOVE CHIMNEY. DECKHOUSES ARE (FORE TO AFT) GALLEY COMPANIONWAY, ENGINE ROOM SKYLIGHT, PILOTS' CABIN SKYLIGHT, AFT COMPANIONWAY TO PILOTS' CABIN AND STEERING GEAR BOX - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  8. 28. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK FROM POINT ALONGSIDE WINDLASS. SUN AWNING APPEARS TO HAVE BEEN FASHIONED FROM VESSEL'S SAILS. CREW MEMBERS UNKNOWN Original 4-3/4'x6-3/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  9. 30. VIEW LOOKING FORWARD ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VIEW LOOKING FORWARD ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK FROM ALONGSIDE ENGINE CONTROL PANEL. CONFIGURATION OF SKYLIGHTS AND COMPANIONWAY DIFFERENT FROM WHAT WAS FOUND BY HAER IN 1986. Original 4-3/4'x6-3/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  10. 13. VIEW LOOKING AFT IN PILOTS' CABIN ON 'TWEEN DECK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW LOOKING AFT IN PILOTS' CABIN ON 'TWEEN DECK, SHOWING BUNKS, CABIN SKYLIGHT, WOOD STOVE (WITHOUT CHIMNEY PIPE) LADDERWAY, AND OPEN DOOR IN STERN BULKHEAD, GIVING ACCESS TO INTERIOR OF COUNTER - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  11. 34. VIEW LOOKING AFT DOWN STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VIEW LOOKING AFT DOWN STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK FROM A POINT NEAR PAWL BITT Original 5'x5' photograph taken by Robert S. Douglas, 1966 - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  12. 11. VIEW LOOKING FORWARD ON PORT SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW LOOKING FORWARD ON PORT SIDE OF MAIN DECK FROM POINT NEAR AFT COMPANIONWAY. DECKHOUSES, FROM RIGHT TO LEFT (STERN TO BOW), ARE ENGINE ROOM SKYLIGHT AND GALLEY SKYLIGHT/COMPANIONWAY - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  13. 7. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON PORT SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON PORT SIDE OF MAIN DECK FROM POINT NEAR ENGINE ROOM SKYLIGHT. ENGINE ROOM SKYLIGHT IS AT EXTREME LEFT, FOLLOWED BY PILOTS' CABIN SKYLIGHT, AFT COMPANIONWAY AND STEERING GEAR BOX - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  14. 46. View aft from bow across buoy deck to pilot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. View aft from bow across buoy deck to pilot house. Note single stayed mast and single boom of crane and operating controls left of mast. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE SUMAC, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, 4640 Urquhart Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  15. 28. HULETT NO. 4 SEEN FROM THE DECK OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. HULETT NO. 4 SEEN FROM THE DECK OF THE 'GEORGE M. CARL.' THE END OF UNLOADING, TRACTOR SCRAPERS ARE LOWERED INTO THE HOLD TO 'CLEAN UP.' PRIOR TO ABOUT 1953, MEN WITH SHOVELS DID THE JOB. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  16. 11. Historic drawing, Pier 10. Plan of deck and pilings, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic drawing, Pier 10. Plan of deck and pilings, 1932. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 10, Between Piers 9 & 11 along Mystic River on Charlestown Waterfront at eastern edge of Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  17. 17. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE, DECK LEVEL OF MST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE, DECK LEVEL OF MST. NOTE CANVAS CURTAIN (RIGHT) USED TO COVER SOUTH SIDE OF MST BELOW LOWEST ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. STS-30 Commander Walker on forward flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    On Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, forward flight deck between commanders and pilots seats, STS-30 Commander David M. Walker smiles while having his picture taken. Walker, wearing a mission polo shirt and light blue flight coverall pants, holds onto the commanders seat back. Forward flight control panels are visible above Walker's head and behind him.

  19. 14 CFR 121.547 - Admission to flight deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...any person to the flight deck of an aircraft...National Transportation Safety Board, who is performing...matters relating to safety and employees of...familiarity with flight conditions, may...National Transportation Safety Board who is checking or observing flight operations;...

  20. 14 CFR 121.547 - Admission to flight deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...any person to the flight deck of an aircraft...National Transportation Safety Board, who is performing...matters relating to safety and employees of...familiarity with flight conditions, may...National Transportation Safety Board who is checking or observing flight operations;...

  1. 14 CFR 121.547 - Admission to flight deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...any person to the flight deck of an aircraft...National Transportation Safety Board, who is performing...matters relating to safety and employees of...familiarity with flight conditions, may...National Transportation Safety Board who is checking or observing flight operations;...

  2. 14 CFR 121.547 - Admission to flight deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...any person to the flight deck of an aircraft...National Transportation Safety Board, who is performing...matters relating to safety and employees of...familiarity with flight conditions, may...National Transportation Safety Board who is checking or observing flight operations;...

  3. 14 CFR 121.547 - Admission to flight deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...any person to the flight deck of an aircraft...National Transportation Safety Board, who is performing...matters relating to safety and employees of...familiarity with flight conditions, may...National Transportation Safety Board who is checking or observing flight operations;...

  4. 85. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST OF FUEL PIPELINE TO LAUNCH DECK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    85. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST OF FUEL PIPELINE TO LAUNCH DECK. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF SKID 2 VISIBLE ON LEFT. DOORS OF ROOMS ON SOUTHWEST SIDE OF LSB (BLDG. 770) VISIBLE IN CENTER OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. Electromagnetic environment characterization of below-deck spaces in ships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory B. Tait; Michael B. Slocum

    2008-01-01

    With wireless systems currently being introduced into confined, reflective spaces that were not originally intended for radio frequency emissions, it becomes necessary to assess the resultant electromagnetic environment of these spaces, especially where potential hazards may exist. In this work, we present experimental data to demonstrate that the below-deck compartments aboard Navy ships can be characterized as complex reverberant cavities.

  6. 38. Port side of engine compartment at salon deck level, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Port side of engine compartment at salon deck level, with salon wall panels removed to show engine frame. Main connecting rod from crank to walking beam appears at extreme right of view, top of cylinder and piston rod appear at extreme left. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  7. 22. STEAM PLANT TURBINE DECK FROM SOUTH END OF BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. STEAM PLANT TURBINE DECK FROM SOUTH END OF BUILDING, SHOWING TOPS OF DIESEL ENGINES AT FAR NORTH END, PRIOR TO INSTALLATION OF STEAM UNIT NO. 4. Ca. 1948 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. 51. VIEW OF EAST SIDE OF LAUNCH DECK; MAIN PANEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. VIEW OF EAST SIDE OF LAUNCH DECK; MAIN PANEL CONTAINS UMBILICAL MAST POWER CONNECTORS; RAIL AND FIRE SUPPRESSION NOZZLES IN FOREGROUND; TELEVISION CAMERA AND CAMERA TOWER IN BACKGROUND - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. Building Bridges

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roger Day

    2000-01-01

    In this lesson, students build bridges from arithmetical to algebraic thinking by exploring problems that are not limited to single-solution responses. Values organized into tables and graphs are used to move toward symbolic representations. Problem situations at the middle school level involve linear, quadratic, and exponential models. The site is valuable not only for its problems for students but also for the teaching strategy illustrated here.

  10. Tire Footprint Affects Hydroplaning On Wet Pavement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent investigations of tire hydroplaning at highway speeds reveal, in addition to inflation pressure, tire-footprint aspect ratio (FAR), defined as width divided by length of tire surface in contact with pavement, significantly influences speed at which dynamic hydroplaning begins. Tire speeds and forces developed during tests of up to 65 mi/h (105 km/h) were monitored on flooded test surface to identify development of hydroplaning. Study focused on automotive tires because FAR's of automotive tires vary more than those of aircraft tires.

  11. 40 CFR Table 28 to Subpart G of... - Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks 28 Table 28 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection...Part 63—Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD ) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks Deck construction Typical deck seam length...

  12. Pavement cracking measurements using 3D laser-scan images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, W.; Xu, B.

    2013-10-01

    Pavement condition surveying is vital for pavement maintenance programs that ensure ride quality and traffic safety. This paper first introduces an automated pavement inspection system which uses a three-dimensional (3D) camera and a structured laser light to acquire dense transverse profiles of a pavement lane surface when it carries a moving vehicle. After the calibration, the 3D system can yield a depth resolution of 0.5 mm and a transverse resolution of 1.56 mm pixel-1 at 1.4 m camera height from the ground. The scanning rate of the camera can be set to its maximum at 5000 lines s-1, allowing the density of scanned profiles to vary with the vehicle's speed. The paper then illustrates the algorithms that utilize 3D information to detect pavement distress, such as transverse, longitudinal and alligator cracking, and presents the field tests on the system's repeatability when scanning a sample pavement in multiple runs at the same vehicle speed, at different vehicle speeds and under different weather conditions. The results show that this dedicated 3D system can capture accurate pavement images that detail surface distress, and obtain consistent crack measurements in repeated tests and under different driving and lighting conditions.

  13. Use of lug anchors to related pavement movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakey, S. A.

    1980-04-01

    Minnesota Department of Transporatation's policy is that grades in the 3 to 5 percent and greater range are steep and may require lug anchors. Standard lug anchor spacing varies from 150 feet, center to center, for 3 percent grades to 75 feet, center to center, for 5 percent and greater grades. Conclusions are: (1) that lug anchors do prevent the downhill movement of the concrete pavement; (2) that when lug anchors are used a perforated pipe system also be built to collect the surface water that enters the pavement structure thus eliminating the anticipated base pumping and pavement settlement.

  14. Performance Based Mechanistic-Empirical Approach to Assess Joint Sealant Effectiveness on Sustainability of Concrete Pavement Infrastructure 

    E-print Network

    Neshvadian Bakhsh, Keivan

    2014-08-11

    of governing distress types that eventually deteriorates the pavement structure and decreases the pavement service life. Effectiveness of joint sealants to protect jointed concrete pavement against water related distresses has been a focus of great interest...

  15. PROSES DESAIN STRUKTUR PERKERASAN LENTUR YANG MEMPERHITUNGKAN VARIASI MODULUS PERKERASAN AKIBAT PENGARUH TEMPERATUR Design Procedure of Flexible Pavement Structures by Analyzing Pavement Modulus Variation due to Temperature Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Djunaedi Kosasih

    The effects of pavement temperature on pavement modulus, particularly the asphalt layer modulus, are quite apparent. In the analytical design method, the effects of pavement temperature can be taken into account in term of design temperature factor, as that proposed by the Nottingham method. Alternatively as proposed by the Asphalt Institute method, Miner's theory can also be applied to calculate

  16. Road Materials and Pavements Design. Volume X No X/2013, pages 1 to n Review of glass fiber grid use for pavement

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of glass fiber grids in pavement reinforcement. Then some results of recent full scale tests of the reinforced pavement. They also demonstrate the efficiency of glass grid use under only a thin asphalt overlay structure are described. KEYWORDS: Glass fiber grid, Reinforcement, Asphalt pavement, Reflective cracking

  17. Bridge Builders

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this interactive game, students build bridges using fractional lengths in the form of fraction bars. Gap length may be known or unknown, entirely empty or partially filled. Fractions to fill the gap must be constructed in specific ways, using the four basic operations. After five tries at one level, the game resets. Note that the game sometimes expects particular answers: students may need to multiply 2/5 by 3 rather than multiplying 3/5 by 2, for example, even though both computations would produce the same result.

  18. New structural systems for zero-maintenance pavements. Volume 3: Anchored pavement system designed for Edens Expressway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, S. K.; Militsopoulos, S. G.

    1980-08-01

    The response of the Edens Expressway subjected to mechanical and environmental loads using the anchored pavement concept is discussed. The mechanical and thermal properties of materials that could be encountered in future reconstruction of Edens Expressway are presented in a consistent form for computer programming. These properties are viewed as typical design values during investigation of pavement response. The behavior of the anchored pavement under induced temperature loads and weakening of subgrade (by thawing action) is clearly demonstrated. The example problem provides the input parameters of materials and loads for the analysis, the generation of finite element mesh, and the results of the analysis.

  19. Snap loads and torsional oscillations of the original Tacoma Narrows Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaut, R. H.

    2008-01-01

    In 1940, the original Tacoma Narrows Bridge was completed on June 10 and opened to traffic on July 1. On November 7, the deck collapsed. Before that day, significant vertical oscillations had occurred, but no torsion. The bridge as built was stable with respect to torsional motion under the winds of November 7 and previous winds with higher speeds. However, snap loads in the diagonal ties attached to the north midspan cable band helped to loosen the band, and the frictional resistance between the band and the north suspension cable passing through it was overcome. The cable began to slip through the band. For this new structural system, with longitudinal motion of the north cable, the wind speed was higher than the critical speed for torsional flutter, and torsional motion was initiated. Approximately 700 cycles of torsional oscillations occurred during the hour prior to the collapse. In the present study, the snap loads on the cable band are discussed first. Then a continuum model of the central span (deck, cables, and hangers) is formulated. The longitudinal motions of the cables are included, so that the slippage can be incorporated. Known information from the observed steady-state torsional motion is utilized with assumed forms of the vertical cable displacements, and the governing equations provide the horizontal cable displacements, the dynamic tensions in the cables, the vertical and torsional motions of the deck, and the resultant lift force and pitching moment (including damping) acting on the deck during its final hour.

  20. Pavement texture from high-speed laser for pavement management system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay N. Meegoda; Shengyan Gao; Sim Liu; Nicholas C. Gephart

    2012-01-01

    The locked-wheel skid trailer (ASTM E274) is commonly used to estimate the skid resistance of pavements in the United States. However, this method is very expensive and disturbs the traffic flows during the test. Hence, a correlation was developed between skid resistance or skid number (SN40R) values obtained using skid tester and the texture data or mean profile depth (MPD),

  1. Modeling mechanistic responses in asphalt pavements under three-dimensional tire-pavement contact pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-di Hu; L. F. Walubita

    2011-01-01

    A three dimensional finite element program incorporating actually measured vertical tire-pavement contact pressure (TPCP)\\u000a was utilized for modeling the mechanistic responses in asphalt concrete (AC) layers by simulating various vehicle motions:\\u000a stationary and non-stationary (i.e. in acceleration or deceleration mode). Analysis of the results indicated the following\\u000a items. 1) It is critical to use the vertical TPCP as the design

  2. 3-D Seismic Methods for Shallow Imaging Beneath Pavement

    E-print Network

    Miller, Brian

    2013-05-31

    The research presented in this dissertation focuses on survey design and acquisition of near-surface 3D seismic reflection and surface wave data on pavement. Increased efficiency for mapping simple subsurface interfaces through a combined use...

  3. Combined permeable pavement and ground source heat pump systems 

    E-print Network

    Grabowiecki, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    The PhD thesis focuses on the performance assessment of permeable pavement systems incorporating ground source heat pumps (GSHP). The relatively high variability of temperature in these systems allows for the survival of pathogenic organisms within...

  4. Complex Modulus Prediction of Asphalt Concrete Pavement Cores 

    E-print Network

    Ling, Meng

    2013-12-02

    Complex modulus is one of the key parameters in the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). The purpose of this study is to implement an accurate and high-efficiency mechanical method to measure and calculate the complex modulus...

  5. Deming Municipal Airport (DMN) Pavement Condition and Analysis

    E-print Network

    Cal, Mark P.

    Deming Municipal Airport (DMN) Pavement Condition and Analysis Submitted to: Jane M. Lucero, AICP ...........................................................1. Conditions at Deming Municipal Airport (DMN) 4 ...........................................Figure 1. Geographic Location of Deming Municipal Airport (DMN) 4

  6. Automated crack control analysis for concrete pavement construction 

    E-print Network

    Jang, Se Hoon

    2005-11-01

    The focus of this research is on the control of random cracking in concrete paving by using sawcut notch locations in the early stages of construction. This is a major concern in concrete pavement construction. This research also addresses a...

  7. Incorporating uncertainty in the Life Cycle Cost Analysis of pavements

    E-print Network

    Swei, Omar Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) is an important tool to evaluate the economic performance of alternative investments for a given project. It considers the total cost to construct, maintain, and operate a pavement over its ...

  8. Automated crack control analysis for concrete pavement construction

    E-print Network

    Jang, Se Hoon

    2005-11-01

    The focus of this research is on the control of random cracking in concrete paving by using sawcut notch locations in the early stages of construction. This is a major concern in concrete pavement construction. This research also addresses a...

  9. Nondestructive evaluation of load transfer at rigid airport pavement joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammons, Michael I.

    1995-07-01

    Current design criteria for rigid pavements for commercial and military airfields assume that 25% of the load applied to an edge of a slab is transferred through the joint to an adjacent unloaded slab. A nondestructive testing technique using a falling weight deflectometer (FWD) was used to conduct field testing at a number of sites. A transfer function, developed from an analytical study, was used to estimate load transfer from the measured joint efficiency as a function of the loaded area and the radius of relative stiffness of the pavement. This procedure, although analytically sound, lacks actual field verification at an instrumented pavement site. This procedure was used to estimate load transfer at a number of commercial and military airfields for a variety of joint types, climate conditions, and pavement structures. The results of these tests indicate that the assumption of load transfer as a constant value of 25% appears to be unconservative, especially during the winter months.

  10. Multi-period optimization of pavement management systems 

    E-print Network

    Yoo, Jaewook

    2004-09-30

    The purpose of this research is to develop a model and solution methodology for selecting and scheduling timely and cost-effective maintenance, rehabilitation, and reconstruction activities (M & R) for each pavement section ...

  11. Permeable Pavement Demonstration at the Edison Environmental Center - Poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    Poster for the SAB Review detailing the porous pavement parking lot project. The poster describes the design of the parking lot, the research components that were incorporated into the design, and the monitoring plan....

  12. Durability design of high performance concrete and its application in bridge decks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aiping Lu

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, the investigation of high-performance concrete included optimizing concrete mixtures and identifying their performance characteristics related to durability for the purpose of using these characteristics in performance related specifications. ^ The research effort described in this thesis was divided in two parts. PART ONE of the study focuses on development of concrete mixtures optimized with respect to

  13. Minimum expected cost-oriented optimal maintenance planning for deteriorating structures: application to concrete bridge decks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allen C Estes; Dan M Frangopol

    2001-01-01

    Civil engineering structures are designed to serve the public and often must perform safely for decades. No matter how well they are designed, all civil engineering structures will deteriorate over time and lifetime maintenance expenses represent a substantial portion of the total lifetime cost of most structures. It is difficult to make a reliable prediction of this cost when the

  14. Evaluation of Multiple Corrrosion Protection Systems and Corrosion Inhibitors for Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks

    E-print Network

    Xing, Lihua

    2010-05-10

    The corrosion performance of different corrosion protection systems is evaluated using the mortar-wrapped rapid macrocell test, bench-scale tests (the Southern Exposure, cracked beam, and ASTM G109 tests), and field tests. The results indicate...

  15. Performance of Multiple Corrosion Protection Systems for Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks

    E-print Network

    O'Reilly, Matt

    2011-01-18

    The performance of corrosion protection systems for reinforcing steel in concrete is evaluated. In addition to conventional and conventional epoxy-coated reinforcement, the corrosion protection systems tested include epoxy coatings with improved...

  16. INNOVATIVE 3-D FRP SANDWICH PANELS FOR BRIDGE DECKS TAREK K. HASSAN (1)

    E-print Network

    construction technology made of composite materials. Currently, foam and honeycomb core sandwich composites, crushing and buckling instability are major concerns. This paper presents two innovative alternative and fiber composites. Light weight, High strength and excellent corrosion characteristics made fiber

  17. Application of Composite Structures in Bridge Engineering. Problems of Construction Process and Strength Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaga, Kazimierz; Furtak, Kazimierz

    2015-03-01

    Steel-concrete composite structures have been used in bridge engineering from decades. This is due to rational utilisation of the strength properties of the two materials. At the same time, the reinforced concrete (or prestressed) deck slab is more favourable than the orthotropic steel plate used in steel bridges (higher mass, better vibration damping, longer life). The most commonly found in practice are composite girder bridges, particularly in highway bridges of small and medium spans, but the spans may reach over 200 m. In larger spans steel truss girders are applied. Bridge composite structures are also employed in cable-stayed bridge decks of the main girder spans of the order of 600, 800 m. The aim of the article is to present the cionstruction process and strength analysis problems concerning of this type of structures. Much attention is paid to the design and calculation of the shear connectors characteristic for the discussed objects. The authors focused mainly on the issues of single composite structures. The effect of assembly states on the stresses and strains in composite members are highlighted. A separate part of problems is devoted to the influence of rheological factors, i.e. concrete shrinkage and creep, as well as thermal factors on the stresses and strains and redistribution of internal forces.

  18. Layer equivalency factors and deformation characteristics of flexible pavements 

    E-print Network

    Hung, Jung-Tsann

    1981-01-01

    of Texas Triaxial Test Texas Classification of Subgrade and Flexible Hase Materials Vlasov Model Subjected to a Distributed Load . Vlasov Model Subjected to a Rigid Circular Plate . Testing Layout of Dynaflect, Pressuremeter and Sampling... method for obta1ning layer equ1valency factors. There is also a crit1cal need to update the pavement modeling of the Flex1ble Pavement System (FPS) and to convert it to a layered elastic modeling for 2 reasons: ( I) elastic moduli can be measured...

  19. Asphalt Pavement Surface Penetrate Rejuvenate Restore Technology: Application and Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaohong Guo; Bangyin Liu

    \\u000a This paper discussed the applicability of Asphalt Pavement Surface Penetrate Rejuvenation Restore Technology (SPRR) in preventive\\u000a maintenance, probed into the infiltration mechanism, rejuvenation mechanism, hermetic closure mechanism of micro-cracks, closed\\u000a pavement mechanism and bonding mechanism of discrete aggregate, and put forward the relevant construction technology and requirements\\u000a as well as its acceptance index. The actual case application has proved that

  20. Neural networks based concrete airfield pavement layer moduli backcalculation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Halil Ceylan; Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan; M. Birkan Bayrak

    2008-01-01

    The Heavy Weight Deflectometer (HWD) is a Non-Destructive Test (NDT) equipment used to assess the structural condition of airfield pavement systems. This paper presents an Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) based approach for non-destructively estimating the stiffness properties of rigid airfield pavements subjected to full-scale dynamic traffic testing using simulated new generation aircraft gears. HWD tests were routinely conducted on three