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1

Plans: Poop Deck, Boat Deck, Housetop, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Plans: Poop Deck, Boat Deck, Housetop, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge Deck, Navigating Bridge, Forecastle Deck, Upper Deck, Second Deck and Hold - Saugatuck, James River Reserve Fleet, Newport News, Newport News, VA

2

Jointless Bridge Decks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major focus of this research was to validate the concept of connecting two adjacent simple-span girders with a link slab to form a jointless bridge deck so as to eliminate the standard deck joint between the girders. Laboratory tests were conducted on...

P. Zia A. Caner A. K. El-Safty

1995-01-01

3

Cracks in Concrete Bridge Decks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of cracks in bridge decks as reported in the literature and observed in NSW shows that certain types of cracks are predominant in particular bridge types. Cracks in composite bridges and in cast-in-place kerbs and cantilever deck slabs are shown t...

D. Campbell-Allen B. Lau

1978-01-01

4

Bridge and pavement maintenance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deterioration of New York State Highway structures; precast repair of continuously reinforced concrete pavement (abridgment) patching of continuously reinforced concrete pavements, evaluation of several maintenance methods for continuously reinforced concrete pavement, patching jointed concrete pavements, highway pavement repairs by using polymer concrete, pressure grouting of concrete pavements, and choosing cost-effective maintenance are discussed.

Fitzpatrick, M. W.; Law, D. A.; Dixon, W. C.; Elkins, G. E.; Mucullough, B. F.; Darter, M. I.; Yoder, E. J.; Florence, R. H., Jr.; Virkler, S. J.; McGhee, K. H.

1981-03-01

5

Structural behaviour of aluminium bridge deck panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of lightweight bridge decks made of FRP composites or aluminium alloys is particularly effective for replacing deteriorated bridge decks. Therefore a research program has been undertaken to develop and implement an innovative aluminium bridge deck system, which would be applicable and realizable in domestic conditions. Several service load and ultimate load tests have been carried out on the

Tomasz W. Siwowski

2009-01-01

6

Evaluating Concrete Bridge Deck Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the service life of concrete bridge decks designed by traditional procedures is often shorter than desired, their ability to withstand constant and heavy use in a variety of operating environments is of major concern. In this project, the relative p...

E. Cuelho J. Johnson J. Stephens P. Smolenski

2006-01-01

7

Bridge Deck Drainage Guidelines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document presents criteria to determine if bridge drainage scuppers and drains are required. A design nomograph allows a rapid decision to be made. A key variable, design rain intensity, is analyzed: the rational method is reviewed and new methods for...

G. K. Young J. Phillippe S. J. Bellomo J. Normann W. E. Hughes

1986-01-01

8

Construction of Bridge Decks with Precast, Prestressed Concrete Deck Planks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the construction and early performance of two 1999-2000 bridge deck replacement state contracts in Illinois that included precast, prestressed concrete (PPC) deck planks. Metal stay-in-place forms used in one of the...

T. H. Volle

2002-01-01

9

Investigations of a Precast Bridge Deck System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Improved methods of bridge deck construction are greatly needed. Bridge decks are often the first element to require repair or replacement because of its direct exposure to the elements and tire wear. This report presents a new precast overhang system tha...

M. Ghashgesh S. Patil T. Ley

2010-01-01

10

Monitoring fatigue life in concrete bridge deck slabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concrete bridge deck slabs are the most common form of bridge deck construction in short and medium span bridge structures in North America. Understanding and monitoring the condition of these bridge decks is an important component of a bridge management strategy. Progressive deterioration due to fatigue occurs in concrete decks due to the large number of cycles of heavy wheels

J. Newhook; V. Limaye

2007-01-01

11

Dog Bridge, view of the deck of the bridge and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Dog Bridge, view of the deck of the bridge and rails looking from Linden Lane - National Park Seminary, Bounded by Capitol Beltway (I-495), Linden Lane, Woodstove Avenue, & Smith Drive, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

12

Rehabilitation of Precast Deck Panel Bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

USF completed a research study in 2005, which prioritized the replacement of 85 deteriorating composite precast deck panel bridges. This thesis re-evaluates the original recommendations in the wake of failures of two of these bridges in 2007. Since funding will not allow all identified bridges to be replaced, it was necessary to determine the most effective repair methods. To assess

Atiq H. Alvi

2010-01-01

13

Cracking in Bridge Decks: Causes and Mitigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes the findings of a study whose primary objectives are to determine the cause of extensive transverse cracking that has been observed in some existing bridge decks, and to identify the change of material specifications and construction...

P. B. Shing N. Abu-Hejleh

1999-01-01

14

Structural performance of a FRP bridge deck  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present fatigue and strength experimental qualifications performed for an all-composite bridge deck. This bridge deck, made up of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) was installed on the campus at University of Missouri at Rolla on July 29th, 2000. The materials used for the fabrication of this 30 foot (9.144 m) long by 9 foot (2.743

Prakash Kumar; K. Chandrashekhara; Antonio Nanni

2004-01-01

15

18. VIEW OF STEEL ARCH, SHOWING DETAILS OF BRIDGE DECK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. VIEW OF STEEL ARCH, SHOWING DETAILS OF BRIDGE DECK (IRVING DECK), LATERAL BRACING, HANGERS AND STEEL ARCH RIBS OF NORTH CHORD, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Notre Dame Bridge, Spanning Merrimack River on Bridge Street, Manchester, Hillsborough County, NH

16

Imaging radar for bridge deck inspection  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)l is developing a prototype imaging radar for inspecting steel reinforced concrete bridge decks. The system is designed to acquire Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data and provide high-resolution images of internal structure, flaws, and defects enabling bridge inspectors to nondestructively evaluate and characterize bridge deck condition. Concrete delamination resulting from corrosion of steel reinforcing bars (rebars) is an important structural defect that the system is designed to detect. The prototype system uses arrays of compact, low-cost Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR) modules, supported by appropriate data acquisition and storage subsystems, to generate and collect the radar data, and unique imaging codes to reconstruct images of bridge deck internals. In this paper, we provide an overview of the prototype system concept, discuss its expected performance, and present recent experimental results showing the capability of this approach to detect thin delamination simulations embedded in concrete.

Warhus, J.; Mast, J.; Nelson, S.

1995-04-13

17

REPLACING A COMPOSITE RC BRIDGE DECK WITH AN FRP DECK - THE EFFECT ON SUPERSTRUCTURE STRESSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite bridge decks behave differently than comparable reinforced concrete (RC) decks. GFRP decks exhibit reduced composite behaviour (when designed to behave in a composite manner) and exhibit reduced transverse distribution of forces as compared to comparable RC decks. Both of these effects are shown to counteract the beneficial effects of a lighter deck structure and

K. A. Harries; J. Moses

2007-01-01

18

Effects of Temperature on Fiber Composite Bridge Decks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study the fiber composite bridge decks were subjected to thermal gradients to obtain the temperature difference between the top and bottom surface of the decks and to determine the thermal properties of the deck. The fiber composite bridge decks w...

G. Ramirez M. G. Nagabhushanam

2009-01-01

19

RESEARCH ON STEEL FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENT FOR ORTHOTROPIC STEEL DECK AS A COUNTERMEASURE FOR FATIGUE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes ongoing studies about application of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete (SFRC) pavement for existing orthotropic steel deck as a countermeasure for fatigue problems. Public Works Research Institute (PWRI) and several companies are now conducting joint researches on repair\\/reinforcement methods including SFRC pavement. In order to evaluate durability of the pavement, strength tests and fatigue tests under negative bending

Jun Murakoshi; Naoki Yanadori; Hironori Ishii

20

Epoxy coated reinforced steel in bridge decks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fusion-bonded epoxy coatings were applied to rebars in bridge decks. A thin film of epoxy resin is fusion bonded to the reinforcing steel as a prevention against corrosion. A monitoring system was established to measure electrical resistance for several years after installation.

Pourkhosrow, G.

1981-11-01

21

Improved ground-penetrating radar, bridge decks  

SciTech Connect

Inspection of high-value structures, like bridges and buildings, using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an application of a technology that is growing in importance. In a typical inspection application, inspectors use GPR to locate structural components, like embedded reinforcing bars, to avoid weakening the structure while collecting core samples for detailed inspection. Advanced GPR, integrated with imaging technologies for use as an NDE tool, can provide the capability to quickly locate and characterize construction flaws and wear- or age-induced damage in these structures without resorting to destructive methods. In this paper, we discuss an important inspection application, namely, concrete bridge deck inspection. We describe an advanced bridge deck inspection system concept (Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar, GPIR) and present results from experiments designed to simulate the concept.

Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.; Johansson, E.M.; Nelson, S.D.

1993-11-29

22

Acoustic inspection of concrete bridge decks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of concrete integrity, especially in concrete bridge decks, is of extreme importance. Current systems for testing concrete structures are expensive, slow, or tedious. State of the art systems use ground penetrating radar, but they have inherent problems especially with ghosting and signal signature overlap. The older method of locating delaminations in bridge decks involves either tapping on the surface with a hammer or metal rod, or dragging a chain-bar across the bridge deck. Both methods require a `calibrated' ear to determine the difference between good sections and bad sections of concrete. As a consequence, the method is highly subjective, different from person to person and even day to day for a given person. In addition, archival of such data is impractical, or at least improbable, in most situations. The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory has constructed an instrument that implements the chain-drag method of concrete inspection. The system is capable of real-time analysis of recorded signals, archival of processed data, and high-speed data acquisition so that post-processing of the data is possible for either research purposes or for listening to the recorded signals.

Henderson, Mark E.; Dion, Gary N.; Costley, R. D.

1999-02-01

23

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON OUTSIDE FILAMENT WINDING REINFORCED FRP BRIDGE DECKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovated FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) bridge deck system is gradually applied widely in the recent years. Many FRP deck products by varied processes were created and manufactured. In the decks, local delamitation, debonding and buckling are usually the ultimate failure modes that cause the FRP strength not to be utilized fully and result in a sudden or brittle failure. In

P. Feng; L. P. Ye

24

Development of a nondestructive evaluation method for FRP bridge decks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Open steel grids are typically used on bridges to minimize the weight of the bridge deck and wearing surface. These grids, however, require frequent maintenance and exhibit other durability concerns related to fatigue cracking and corrosion. Bridge decks constructed from composite materials, such as a Fiber-reinforced Polymer (FRP), are strong and lightweight; they also offer improved rideability, reduced noise levels, less maintenance, and are relatively easy to install compared to steel grids. This research is aimed at developing an inspection protocol for FRP bridge decks using Infrared thermography. The finite element method was used to simulate the heat transfer process and determine optimal heating and data acquisition parameters that will be used to inspect FRP bridge decks in the field. It was demonstrated that thermal imaging could successfully identify features of the FRP bridge deck to depths of 1.7 cm using a phase analysis process.

Brown, Jeff; Fox, Terra

2010-04-01

25

Sealing of Cracks on Florida Bridge Decks with Steel Girders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the biggest problems affecting bridges is the transverse cracking and deterioration of concrete bridge decks. The causes of early age cracking are primarily attributed to plastic shrinkage, temperature effects, autogenous shrinkage, and drying shri...

A. ElSafty M. Jackson

2012-01-01

26

DETAIL VIEW OF SINGLE PANEL POINTS TAKEN FROM BRIDGE DECK, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF SINGLE PANEL POINTS TAKEN FROM BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING CONNECTION BETWEEN VERTICAL AND UPPER CHORD MEMBER - White Bowstring Arch Truss Bridge, Spanning Yellow Creek at Cemetery Drive (Riverside Drive), Poland, Mahoning County, OH

27

33. DETAIL OF WEST (AMERICAN) APPROACH TO BRIDGE, SHOWING DECK, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. DETAIL OF WEST (AMERICAN) APPROACH TO BRIDGE, SHOWING DECK, SIDEWALK AND GUARDRAIL VIEW TO EAST. - Blue Water Bridge, Spanning St. Clair River at I-69, I-94, & Canadian Route 402, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

28

11. DETAIL OF BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING UPPER CHORDS, VERTICALS, DIAGONALS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. DETAIL OF BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING UPPER CHORDS, VERTICALS, DIAGONALS AND GUARDRAILS. VIEW TO WEST. - Whispering Pines Bridge, Spanning East Verde River at Forest Service Control Road, Payson, Gila County, AZ

29

6. An elevated view of the bridge deck looking east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. An elevated view of the bridge deck looking east toward Battelle Laboratories and the Ohio State University. Picture taken from State Route 315. - King Avenue Bridge, Spanning Olentangy River, Columbus, Franklin County, OH

30

9. VIEW OF LOWER DECK OF FERRY BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF LOWER DECK OF FERRY BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST TOWARDS HUDSON RIVER - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad & Ferry Terminal, Ferry Slips & Bridges, Bounded by Observer, Newark & River Streets, Hudson River, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

31

15. UPPER DECK, VIEW OF FERRY BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST TOWARD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. UPPER DECK, VIEW OF FERRY BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST TOWARD THE HUDSON RIVER - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad & Ferry Terminal, Ferry Slips & Bridges, Bounded by Observer, Newark & River Streets, Hudson River, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

32

8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern end looking toward north-northwest. - Bridge No. 4800, Spanning Minnesota River on Trunk Highway 4 between Brown & Nicollet Counties, Sleepy Eye, Brown County, MN

33

Classification of Longitudinal Welds in an Aluminum Bridge Deck.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An aluminum bridge deck (called ALUMADECK) has been developed by Reynolds Metal Company and is made of extruded sections welded together at the sides to form a bridge deck. The longitudinal welds used to connect the extrusions do not match any of the fati...

T. E. Cousins R. F. Hezel J. P. Gomez

2000-01-01

34

Styrene-Butadiene Latex Modifiers for Bridge Deck Overlay Concrete.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Styrene-butadiene (S/B) latex modified concrete overlays are being used to protect new bridge decks from rapid deicer-borne chloride intrusion and also in bridge deck rehabilitation efforts. The purposes of this research were to evaluate several commercia...

B. H. Chollar K. C. Clear

1978-01-01

35

Development of a Precast Bridge Deck Overhang System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prestressed-precast panels are commonly used at interior beams for bridge decks in Texas. The use of these panels can provide ease of construction, sufficient capacity, and good economy for the construction of bridge decks in Texas. Current practice for t...

D. Trejo J. Mander M. Henley M. H. Head R. Scott S. Patil T. Ley T. Mander

2011-01-01

36

Performance Evaluation of Bridges with Fiber Reinforced Composite Decks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was designed to evaluate the performance of a composite bridge deck by comparing deflections under load with the same measurements made on a conventional reinforced concrete bridge deck subjected to the same loads. This was to be accomplished b...

W. E. Wolfe H. R. Busby S. A. Taliaferro

2003-01-01

37

Fiber optic health monitoring system for composite bridge decks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are over 578,000 bridges on public roads in the United States and more than 112,000 of them are rated as substandard either through deterioration or obsolescence. Recently, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have been investigated for building bridges due to advantages such as: reduced weight, decreased effects from environment, and speed of installation. Luna Innovations has been working closely with researchers at Atlantic Research Corporation (ARC) to develop and implement an embeddable fiber optic health monitoring system to monitor strain in composite bridge decks over time. During this research, Luna Innovations successfully embedded fiber optic strain sensors in three composite bridge decks fabricated by ARC. Strain data was recorded during 3-point bend testing of two of the bridge decks. The third bridge deck was placed at a Beta test site in November of 1999 where the strain sensors have been monitored periodically.

Furrow, A. Paige C.; Brown, Richard T.; Mott, Donald B.

2000-04-01

38

Evaluation of Mechanized Consolidation of Bridge Deck Concrete in Illinois.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mechanized methods of vibratory concrete consolidation were used on all or part of fourteen bridge decks in Illinois from 1996 to 1998. The method used on twelve decks consisted of vertical insertion of vibrators in a grid pattern. A transverse drag-throu...

J. M. South

1999-01-01

39

Analysis on shear stress in interlayer interface of concrete bride deck pavement  

Microsoft Academic Search

For studying the behavior of concrete bride deck pavement, the physiochemical property of interlayer interface was analyzed from microscopic view. Much initial pore and many initial cracks and low strength cement crystals were existed in the interlayer interface because of the cast time difference. A total of 32 samples were tested for studying the shear performance of pre- and post-casting

Hong Luo; Ling Luo; Liang Fan

2011-01-01

40

Bridge Deck Preservation Procedures for the Arizona Department of Transportation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of this project is to identify several common bridge deck maintenance activities that are performed by contract, review the current Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) specifications for those maintenance activities, modify t...

J. E. Bruinsma D. G. Peshkin

2006-01-01

41

Performance Evaluation of FRP Bridge Deck Under Shear Loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shear behavior of glass fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bridge deck components has been experimentally and theoretically studied under in-plane shear, out-of-plane shear, punching shear, shear of web—flange junction, and system racking shear. Experimental data revealed that the shear modulus of FRP bridge decks ranged from 2.66 to 4.14 GPa and the shear stress to failure ranged from 20.7 to 96.6

Woraphot Prachasaree; Hota V. S. Gangarao; Vimala Shekar

2009-01-01

42

10. OVERALL VIEW OF BRIDGE, WITH WEST DECK TRUSS APPROACH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. OVERALL VIEW OF BRIDGE, WITH WEST DECK TRUSS APPROACH SPAN AND PIER NO. 1 IN FOREGROUND, FROM WEST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

43

14. NORTH FORK VIRGIN RIVER BRIDGE DECK UNDER RECONSTRUCTION. REINFORCING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. NORTH FORK VIRGIN RIVER BRIDGE DECK UNDER RECONSTRUCTION. REINFORCING ROD IN PLACE. PHOTO BY CARL E. JEPSON, 29 JANUARY 1960. - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Virgin River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of Virgin River on Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Springdale, Washington County, UT

44

Mechanics Based Durability Modeling of FRP Bridge Deck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites, especially lightweight sandwich structures, are rapidly finding their ways into civil infrastructure application. FRP composite panels are particularly attractive as bridge deck system due to their high strength, low density, and durability, which are of importance to the bridge industry. For civil engineering application, it is essential to determine the durability performance of FRP materials

H. C. Wu; R. F. Gibson

45

Fiberglass Reinforced Polymer Composite Bridge Deck Construction in Illinois.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experiment was conducted using a fiber reinforced polymer composite material for the bridge deck of a low volume bridge. The test location was on South Fayette Street over the Town Brook in Jacksonville, Illinois. This project included removal of the e...

T. J. Winkelman

2002-01-01

46

Field Electrical Measurements for Bridge Deck Membrane Permeability and Reinforcing Steel Corrosion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses the problems associated with electrical resistance testing of bridge deck membranes for permeability and electrical potential testing of bridge decks for reinforcing steel corrosion. Obtaining an adequate electrical connection, or gro...

R. L. Boulware C. F. Stewart

1973-01-01

47

Numerical bridge deck studies using finite elements. Part I: flutter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind-induced bridge motions are numerically investigated using structural and fluid finite elements (FEs). The fluid-structure interaction solutions are based on the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations fully coupled to an elastically suspended rigid body. The unsteady fluid field equations with advection-dominated flow are approximated using the weighted residuals method of Galerkin/least squares. The bridge deck is idealized as a lumped mass, spring-dashpot system. The flow simulation around a stationary bridge deck adopts the Eulerian scheme in the entire fluid domain, whereas the simulations of flow past a moving bridge deck apply the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation. Predicting the flutter limit, aiming at reducing the number of physical model tests currently required, is the first step and main objective in the validation of a numerical method applied to long-span bridge decks. It is shown that the low-frequency flexural-torsional flutter motion is the result of a different aerodynamic effect than vortex-induced bridge vibrations. Despite a laminar flow assumption, the two-dimensional self-excited flow solutions, on an irregular unstructured grid of 1884 nodes, predict a flutter limit in good agreement with wind tunnel experiments. The FE model appears to be a suitable method and could be applied as a supplementary tool to wind tunnel testing for the simulation of flutter instability. It was concluded that the prediction of flutter instability for sharp edge bridge decks does not appear sensitive to turbulence and three-dimensional flow structure modelling.

Frandsen, J. B.

2004-02-01

48

Quantifying reinforced concrete bridge deck deterioration using ground penetrating radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bridge decks are deteriorating at an alarming rate due to corrosion of the reinforcing steel, requiring billions of dollars to repair and replace them. Furthermore, the techniques used to assess the decks don't provide enough quantitative information. In recent years, ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been used to quantify deterioration by comparing the rebar reflection amplitudes to technologies serving as ground truth, because there is not an available amplitude threshold to distinguish healthy from corroded areas using only GPR. The goal of this research is to understand the relationship between GPR and deck deterioration, and develop a model to determine deterioration quantities with GPR alone. The beginning of this research determines that not only is the relationship between GPR and rebar corrosion stronger than the relationship between GPR and delaminations, but that the two are exceptionally correlated (90.2% and 86.6%). Next, multiple bridge decks were assessed with GPR and half-cell potential (HCP). Statistical parameters like the mean and skewness were computed for the GPR amplitudes of each deck, and coupled with actual corrosion quantities based on the HCP measurements to form a future bridge deck model that can be used to assess any deck with GPR alone. Finally, in order to understand exactly which component of rebar corrosion (rust, cracking or chloride) attenuates the GPR data, computational modeling was carried out to isolate each variable. The results indicate that chloride is the major contributor to the rebar reflection attenuation, and that computational modeling can be used to accurately simulate GPR attenuation due to chloride.

Martino, Nicole Marie

49

The Aerodynamics of Bridge Road Decks and the Role of Wind Tunnel Investigations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents a review of aerodynamic bridge deck instability. Wind tunnel section model tests of cable-stayed bridge decks are presented. A degree of streamling of the bridge deck profile is shown to reduce vibrational amplitudes due to critical wi...

R. L. Wardlaw

1973-01-01

50

EARTHQUAKE PERFORMANCE OF A BRIDGE DECK AND ABUTMENT.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the 24 April 1984 Morgan Hill Earthquake (M equals 6. 1), 15 channels of acceleration records were obtained at the site of the I-280-680/US 101 interchange 12 km west of the epicenter. These records include free field measurements as well as the acceleration response at one of the supporting column bases, and at three locations in one of the spans of the three-span continuous post-tensioned box-girder deck. The purpose of this paper is to review the performance of this bridge deck and its abutment through the study of these records. The objective in extensively instrumenting a bridge deck or any structure is to obtain relevant response data to study its behaviour during strong motion events and ultimately extrapolate conclusions for improved design.

Celebi, M.; Brady, G.

1985-01-01

51

Numerical bridge deck studies using finite elements. Part I: flutter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind-induced bridge motions are numerically investigated using structural and fluid finite elements (FEs). The fluid–structure interaction solutions are based on the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations fully coupled to an elastically suspended rigid body. The unsteady fluid field equations with advection-dominated flow are approximated using the weighted residuals method of Galerkin\\/least squares. The bridge deck is idealized as a lumped mass, spring–dashpot

J. B. Frandsen

2004-01-01

52

Modular pedestrian bridge with concrete deck and IPC truss girder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports on the design, by means of analytical and numerical tools, the experimental verification of structural elements and the joining procedure of a 13 m span pedestrian bridge, which is composed of a concrete deck and three truss girders made of Inorganic Phosphate Cement (IPC) sandwich panels. The IPC is a cementitious matrix which does allow reinforcement with

C. De Roover; J. Vantomme; J. Wastiels; K. Croes; L. Taerwe; H. Blontrock

2003-01-01

53

Glued-Laminated Timber Panels for Bridge Deck Replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research was conducted to evaluate the viability of using Oklahoma timber species in glued-laminat ed panel designs for bridge deck replacement. Panels were fabricated from southern pine, red oak, and cottonwood. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties of panels fabricated from the three different species and allowable spans were computed based on test results. Panels were installed

Farrel J. Zwerneman; Raymond L. Huhnke; Steven Anderson

54

Development of Aluminum Bridge Deck System with Reynolds Metals Company  

SciTech Connect

Currently, there are many structurally-deficient and obsolete bridges in the US highway system. The expected cost for repair and replacement is enormous; therefore, more cost-effective materials and construction methodology must be sought. Reynolds Metals Company formed a vertical consortium to develop and market a cost-effective, innovative, lightweight, corrosion resistant aluminum bridge deck system based on hollow aluminum shapes that could be welded together in the shop to form deck panels. Panels would be shipped to the construction sites for final assembly, which uses connections along longitudinal edges. These deck panels would replace conventional steel or concrete panels. An epoxy-gravel wearing surface would be applied to the top side of the deck to provide a durable, skid-resistant surface. However, before this deck system could be widely utilized, the overall structural integrity had to be fully demonstrated. Reynolds Metals Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORN L) entered in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to conduct a number of fundamental investigations into potentially critical technical areas over approximately a four-year period.

Brinkman, C.R.; Hayden, W.H.

1999-04-01

55

Health monitoring of FRP bridge decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistics released in the fall 1989 show that 238,357 (41%) of the nation's 577,710 bridges are either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. New materials are being explored for use in bridge systems to solve this problem. These materials are less affected by corrosive environmental conditions than conventional civil engineering materials and thus, require less maintenance and potentially provide a longer

Marybeth Miceli; Michael R. Horne; John C. Duke

2001-01-01

56

Improved ground-penetrating radar, bridge decks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Inspection of high-value structures, like bridges and buildings, using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an application of a technology that is growing in importance. In a typical inspection application, inspectors use GPR to locate structural components,...

J. P. Warhus J. E. Mast E. M. Johansson S. D. Nelson

1993-01-01

57

Stiffness and strength of fiber reinforced polymer composite bridge deck systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigates two principal characteristics that are of primary importance in Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bridge deck applications: STIFFNESS and STRENGTH. The research was undertaken by investigating the stiffness and strength characteristics of the multi-cellular FRP bridge deck systems consisting of pultruded FRP shapes. A systematic analysis procedure was developed for the stiffness analysis of multi-cellular FRP deck systems.

Aixi Zhou

2002-01-01

58

Design of shear connection in composite steel and concrete bridges with precast decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the design of the shear connection in steel–concrete composite bridges with precast decks, design considerations were discussed, and experimental works on the push tests and the bridge model test were performed. The characteristics of the shear connection in a precast deck system are the filling material in shear pockets and the bedding layer between the precast deck and the

Chang-Su Shim; Pil-Goo Lee; Sung-Pil Chang

2001-01-01

59

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A REINFORCEMENT FREE CONCRETE BRIDGE DECK ON PRECAST BULB TEE GIRDERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation describes the concepts involved in design and construction of a reinforcement-free bridge deck intended to provide cost effective, durable and more rapid construction for highway bridges. The new wide flanged or bulb tee precast prestressed concrete girder sections currently used in bridges allow for a shorter effective span for the bridge deck because of the wide girder flanges.

Michael G. Oliva; Lawrence C. Bank; Jeffrey S. Russell; James W. Carter; Scot Becker

60

Effect of relative amplitude on bridge deck flutter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-excited wind forces on a bridge deck can be non-linear even when the vibration amplitude of the body is small. This phenomenon is evaluated in this paper. Experiments detecting the nonlinearity are performed first, with the concept of “relative amplitude”, i.e. the amplitude of the externally triggered free vibration relative to the envelope of the ambient response of an elastically

Xin Zhang; James Mark William Brownjohn

2004-01-01

61

Polymer concrete overlay on SH-51, bridge deck  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thin resinous overlay was placed on a sound bridge deck in Oklahoma to evaluate its performance over one year using various physical tests. The evaluation shows how well the overlay protects the reinforcing steel from corrosion due to deicing salts. The steps leading to the construction of the overlay are detailed as well as the actual placing of the overlay. The results of various physical tests are reported for both before and after the overlay.

Borg, T. M.

1982-06-01

62

In-service inspection of deck beam bridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Economic and effective evaluation of the actual condition of a bridge is an important issue for bridge maintenance and preservation. The current condition of the bridge is usually far more different from the construction design and also with the bridge being in service for few years, a quantitative evaluation is essential. Assimilating reviews and comparisons of traditional inspection and evaluation methods, this paper promotes the concept of application of wireless sensors developed at the Bridge Research Center for rapid installation and low power requirements for in-service real-time bridge inspection. The concept focuses on obtaining useful data such as strain, displacement, frequency for estimating the actual characteristics of the bridge while in service, thus avoid closing the traffic as compared to traditional load test which needs traffic closure causing inconvenience to public and indirectly affecting economy. Plans and procedures of the field inspection are detailed as well as the data processing and the analysis results are presented. The effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed real-time inspection based on wireless sensors approach are illustrated via the practical inspection of a deck beam bridge.

Wang, Ruolin; Singh, Varsha; Wang, Ming L.

2005-05-01

63

Durability of glass fiber\\/vinyl ester composites as bridge deck subject to weathering conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deterioration and functional deficiency of existing bridge infrastructure represent one of most significant challenges currently facing civil engineering community. Due to the unique combinations of high specific strength and stiffness, ease of construction, corrosive resistance and reduced maintenance costs, the FRP bridge deck systems are considered to be favorable substitutes for the deteriorating bridge decks. Since the applications of

An Yan

2005-01-01

64

Vertical impedance measurements on concrete bridge decks for assessing susceptibility of reinforcing steel to corrosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion is a pressing problem for aging concrete infrastructure, especially bridge decks. Because of its sensitivity to factors that affect corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete, resistivity is an important structural health indicator for reinforced concrete structures. In this research, an instrument was developed to measure vertical impedance on concrete bridge decks. Measurements of vertical impedance on slabs prepared in the laboratory, on slabs removed from decommissioned bridge decks, and on an in-service bridge deck in the field demonstrate the utility of the new apparatus.

Bartholomew, Paul D.; Guthrie, W. Spencer; Mazzeo, Brian A.

2012-08-01

65

Vertical impedance measurements on concrete bridge decks for assessing susceptibility of reinforcing steel to corrosion.  

PubMed

Corrosion is a pressing problem for aging concrete infrastructure, especially bridge decks. Because of its sensitivity to factors that affect corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete, resistivity is an important structural health indicator for reinforced concrete structures. In this research, an instrument was developed to measure vertical impedance on concrete bridge decks. Measurements of vertical impedance on slabs prepared in the laboratory, on slabs removed from decommissioned bridge decks, and on an in-service bridge deck in the field demonstrate the utility of the new apparatus. PMID:22938329

Bartholomew, Paul D; Guthrie, W Spencer; Mazzeo, Brian A

2012-08-01

66

Sealing of Cracks on Florida Bridge Decks with Steel Girders, Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the biggest problems affecting bridges is the transverse cracking and deterioration of concrete bridge decks. The causes of early age cracking are primarily attributed to plastic shrinkage, temperature effects, autogenous shrinkage, and drying shri...

A. ElSafty

2012-01-01

67

Behavior of Ontario-Type Bridge Decks on Steel Girders. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental and analytical investigation was conducted regarding the behavior of reinforced concrete skew bridge decks with Ontario-type reinforcement. A series of parametric studies was also conducted to investigate the effect on bridge performance o...

K. H. Kim J. M. Dominguez R. E. Klingner N. H. Burns

1988-01-01

68

Static and fatigue load performance of a gfrp honeycomb bridge deck  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the performance of a glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bridge deck under static and fatigue load cycles. The bridge deck has a sandwich panel configuration, consisting of two stiff face shells separated by a light-weight honeycomb core. The deck was manufactured using a hand lay-up technique. In this study, a full-size panel that had the same design as

Guido Camata; P. Benson Shing

2010-01-01

69

Assessment of the Cracking Problem in Newly Constructed Bridge Decks in Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Early age cracking on concrete bridge decks has been experienced by many DOTs. In Colorado the cracking problem on newly constructed bridge decks has not been completely solved. In this study, the extent and causes of the cracking problem were investigate...

Y. Xi B. Shing N. Abu-Hejleh A. Asiz A. Suwito Z. Xie A. Ababneh

2003-01-01

70

Impact of specification changes on chloride-induced corrosion service life of bridge decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model was developed to determine the time to first repair and to subsequently rehabilitate concrete bridge decks exposed to chloride deicer salts. Said model incorporates the statistical nature of factors affecting the corrosion process. The time to first repair and rehabilitate was predicted for 10 bridge decks built in Virginia between 1981 and 1994.The model was validated using historical

Trevor J Kirkpatrick; Richard E Weyers; Michael M Sprinkel; Christine M Anderson-Cook

2002-01-01

71

An experimental study on static behavior of a GFRP bridge deck filled with a polyurethane foam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The static behavior of an orthotropic bridge deck made of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and polyurethane foam was investigated experimentally. The bridge deck consisted of GFRP unit modules with rectangular holes filled with foam to improve the structural behavior in the transverse direction. It was found that, although the elastic modulus of the foam compared to the homogenized modulus

Goangseup Zi; Byeong Min Kim; Yoon Koog Hwang; Young Ho Lee

2008-01-01

72

Simple model of cable-stayed bridge deck subjected to static wind loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cable-stayed bridges have been known since 18th century with aesthetics design. The structural system and the structural behavior are significantly different from those of continuous bridges. Compared to continuous bridge, cable- stayed bridges have more flexure bridge deck than those of continuous bridges.On the other hand, cable-stayed bridges have less stiffness to resist wind loading especially for lateral loads. The

Yi-Lung Kang; Yang-Cheng Wang

1997-01-01

73

Double-Layer Prefabricated FRP Grids for Rapid Bridge Deck Construction: Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study of prefabricated double-layer pultruded fiber-reinforced polymer FRP grids for bridge deck construction. These grids were used to reinforce a 39.6 m long by 13.7 m wide 130 by 45 ft bridge deck on US Highway 151 over the De Neveu Creek in Wisconsin. The Federal Highway Administration Innovative Bridge Research and Construction Program invested

Lawrence C. Bank; Michael G. Oliva; Jeffrey S. Russell; David A. Jacobson; Mack Conachen; Bruce Nelson; Dennis McMonigal

2006-01-01

74

Through-thickness performance of adhesive joints between FRP bridge decks and steel girders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The through-thickness performance of adhesive joints between pultruded FRP bridge decks and steel girders was investigated experimentally and numerically. Through-thickness tensile stresses occur due to uplift forces caused by the load-bearing behavior of the bridge deck transverse to the bridge axis. The tensile stress distribution in the adhesive joint is non-uniform with high stress concentrations below the FRP webs of

Thomas Keller; Martin Schollmayer

2009-01-01

75

Multisensor data fusion and visualization for impact echo testing of bridge decks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effective multisensor data fusion and visualization framework is proposed for accurate localization and effective visualization of delamination in concrete bridge decks based on impact echo (IE) nondestructive evaluation method. The fusion rules are developed by analyzing the spatial distribution of surface motion resulting from mechanical impacts applied at different locations based on numerical simulation. The proposed approach can process, integrate and interpret the data from a series IE source-receiver arrays to improve the accuracy and reliability of delamination characterization for bridge decks. The visualization approach provides an intuitive way for users to visualize the internal defects of concrete bridge decks.

Wei, Xiangmin; Xie, Zhenhua; Zhang, Ying

2012-03-01

76

Concrete Bridge Deck Overlays in Illinois: Mix Design Experimentation and Investigation of Construction Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of a bridge deck overlay is to extend the life of a structure by providing a durable wearing surface and a barrier against chloride intrusion. The majority of the deck overlays in Illinois' recent past have contained microsilica. Problems asso...

B. A. Pfeifer

1999-01-01

77

Time-dependent deterioration of FRP bridge deck under freeze\\/thaw conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A FRP bridge deck is composed of several constituent materials with different characteristics. Under weathering conditions, individual constituents can degrade at different rates. As described in this paper, a mechanics model has been formulated to simulate the changes in load capacity and structural stiffness of FRP decks over time. A key element in these simulations is to include the quantitative

Hwai-Chung Wu; An Yan

2011-01-01

78

Structural condition assessment and service load performance of deteriorated prestressed concrete deck beam bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precast pretensioned deck beam bridges are a generic bridge type widely used by IDOT for new construction through the end of the 1970's and still widely used on county roads throughout Illinois. While these bridges were economical to build, IDOT discontinued their use because reflective cracks developed along the length of the longitudinal joints between beams. Three 30 years old

Juan Bolivar Fuentes

2002-01-01

79

Procedure for Design of Glued-Laminated Ortho-Tropic Bridge Decks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The most recent improvement in timber bridge design is the vertically glued-laminated panel deck, with the panels placed in a transverse direction to the stringers. Experimental evaluations showed its performance to be superior to that of the conventional...

W. J. McCutcheon R. L. Tuomi

1973-01-01

80

Bond Characteristics of Overlays Placed over Bridge Decks Sealed with HMWM or Epoxy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reported research examines the bond strength between overlays placed over bridge decks which are sealed with epoxy resin or high molecular weight methacrylate (HMWM) sealers. The study involved field and laboraotry experimental testing of cores under ...

B. M. Shahrooz A. J. Gillum J. Cole A. Turer

1998-01-01

81

Tool for Analysis of Early Age Transverse Cracking of Composite Bridge Decks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computational methods and associated software were developed to compute stresses in HP concrete composite bridge decks due to temperature, shrinkage, and vehicle loading. The structural analysis program uses a layered finite element model. Before running ...

K. D. Janoyan L. Minnetyan

2011-01-01

82

Tentative Design Rules for Innovative Bridge Decks Comprising Sandwich Plate System Panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bridge decks in Canada, a vulnerable part of our transportation infrastructure, have required rehabilitation that is costly and disrupts traffic. To increase the life of concrete decks concrete quality has been improved and various schemes used to reduce or eliminate cracking insofar as possible. The Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code, CAN\\/CSA-S6-00, a Limit States Design document gives the basic requirements

D. J. L. Kennedy; A. Ferro; R. A. Dorton

83

Glass fiber-reinforced polymer\\/steel hybrid honeycomb sandwich concept for bridge deck applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bridge decks possess inherently high strength-to-weight ratios, but relatively low effective elastic moduli. As a result, serviceability issues govern GFRP bridge deck design. Therefore, the objective of this study was to increase the stiffness of a commercial GFRP honeycomb sandwich panel through the inclusion of steel within the cross section.GFRP-steel hybrid parametric studies were conducted to

Nicolas J. Lombardi; Judy Liu

2011-01-01

84

Dynamic Load on Continuous Multi-Lane Bridge Deck from Moving Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic loading on a multi-lane continuous bridge deck due to vehicles moving on top at a constant velocity is investigated. The bridge is modelled as a multi-span continuous orthotropic rectangular plate with line rigid intermediate supports. The vehicle is simulated as a two-axle three-dimensional vehicle model with seven degrees of freedom according to the H20-44 vehicle design loading (AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications 1998 American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials [1]). The dynamic behavior of the bridge deck under single and several vehicles moving in different lanes is analyzed using the orthotropic plate theory and modal superposition technique. The dynamic loading is studied in terms of the dynamic impact factor of the bridge deck. The impact factor is found varying in an opposite trend as the dynamic responses for the different loading cases under study.

ZHU, X. Q.; LAW, S. S.

2002-04-01

85

Characterization by Proper-Orthogonal-Decomposition of Flow Field around Bridge Slotted Decks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the limitations of the research methods, emphasis has always been put on the dynamics of the bridge sections with no concern about the flow structure around the decks, when carrying the research of the mechanism of wind-induced vibrations. The emergence of PIV (particle image velocimetry) makes it possible to analyze the flow structures. In order to inspect the relationship between the dynamics of decks and the flow structures around the decks, the static force coefficients of the bridge slotted decks and the velocity maps are marked and analyzed using numerical wind tunnel tests. Snapshot POD method is carried out to analyze the flow structures around the decks to find the dominant vortices in the flow filed. The fluctuating velocity maps are reconstructed using the first several modes with most of the energy contained. The research shows that in the flow field around the decks there are some periodic moving vortices. Relationship is found between the rule of the kinemics of the vortices and the static force coefficients of the decks. The research in this paper will guarantee the theoretical basis for investigating the micro mechanism of wind induced vibrations of bridges using the method of PIV.

Zhang, W.; Ge, Y. J.; Liu, T. C.

86

Experimental and numerical characterization of a membrane material for orthotropic steel deck bridges: Part 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary analyses have shown that membrane materials, connecting mastic asphalt surfacings to plates of orthotropic steel deck bridges, play an extremely important role in determining the structural response of these types of bridges. This necessitates search for a realistic representation of the behaviour of membrane materials. For this purpose, an extensive experimental program was carried out, and a non-linear constitutive

T. O. Medani; X. Liu; M. Huurman; A. Scarpas; A. A. A. Molenaar

2008-01-01

87

Time domain formulation of self-excited forces on bridge deck for wind tunnel experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time domain formulation of the self-excited wind forces on bridge decks employs indicial functions. In bridge aeroelasticity, these functions are obtained by transforming the flutter derivative model to time domain. Studies have suggested, however, that the relative amplitude effect, i.e. the effect of structural oscillation amplitude relative to the amplitude of response to ambient wind, on flutter derivatives needs to

Xin Zhang; James Mark William Brownjohn; Piotr Omenzetter

2003-01-01

88

First application of second-generation steel-free deck slabs for bridge rehabilitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The arching action in concrete deck slabs for girder bridges is utilized fully in steel-free deck slabs. These concrete slabs, requiring no tensile reinforcement, are confined longitudinally by making them composite with the girders, and transversely by external steel straps connecting the top flanges of external girders. Between 1995 and 1999, five steel-free deck slabs without any tensile reinforcement were cast on Canadian bridges. All these slabs developed fairly wide full-depth cracks roughly midway between the girders. While extensive fatigue testing done in the past three years has confirmed that the presence of even wide cracks does not pose any danger to the safety of the structures, wide cracks are generally not acceptable to bridge engineers. The developers of the steel-free deck slabs have now conceded that these slabs should be reinforced with a crack-control mesh of nominal glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars. Steel-free deck slabs with crack-control meshes are being referred as the second generation slabs. With the help of testing on full-scale models, it has been found that deck slabs with GFRP bars have the best fatigue resistance and those with steel bars the worst.

Eden, Ruth; Klowak, Chad; Mufti, Aftab A.; Tadros, Gamil; Bakht, Baidar; Loewen, Eric

2004-07-01

89

On the aeroelastic transient behaviour of a streamlined bridge deck section in a wind tunnel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study deals with the transient behaviour of a two degrees of freedom bridge deck section in a wind tunnel under the effect of an initial excitation. Response of the bridge deck section subjected to an initial mechanical excitation and excitation by an upstream gust is investigated separately. Experiments are conducted with three different frequency ratios between the plunge and pitch degrees of freedom. This experimental study shows that transient growth of energy occurs for wind velocities below the onset of flutter, reaching a level higher than 5 times the level of the initial excitation. In high wind conditions, this means that statistical or spectral computation techniques might underestimate the motion amplitude reached by a flexible bridge deck. This emphasises the importance of using temporal techniques under such circumstances.

Manzoor, S.; Hémon, P.; Amandolese, X.

2011-11-01

90

Current bridge deck rehabilitation practices : use and effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately thirty to forty percent of all bridges across North America have some form of deterioration on them. Many organizations\\/agencies across North America are investing significant amounts of money on repairing and rehabilitating their bridges. The reason being, these bridges are deteriorating due to heavy use (overloading from today's oversized trucks), old age (many built in late 1950s and 1960s)

Melvin Ramcharitar

2004-01-01

91

1. View,looking east,of the deck of the bridge taken from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. View,looking east,of the deck of the bridge taken from the intersection of w. 25th Street and Detroit Avenue. The bridge connects the city's east and west side over the Cuyahoga River Valley. Photograph illustrates the flared approaches designed to accommodate an, open well, through which streetcars could enter the bridge's lower level. This plan was later abandoned after construction had already begun, in favor of short subways that would carry the streetcars west beneath Detroit Avenue for a distance of 725 feet and south beneath W. 25th St. for a distance of 560 feet. - Detroit Superior High Level Bridge, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

92

Modelling of pavement materials on steel decks using the five-point bending test: Thermo mechanical evolution and fatigue damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the modelling of wearing courses on steel orthotropic decks such as the Millau viaduct in France. This is of great importance when dealing with durability: due to the softness of such a support, the pavement is subjected to considerable strains that may generate top-down cracks in the layer at right angles of the orthotropic plate stiffeners and shear cracks at the interface between pavement and steel. Therefore, a five-point bending fatigue test was developed and improved since 2003 at the ENTPE laboratory, to test different asphalt concrete mixes. This study aims at modelling the mechanical behavior of the wearing course throughout the fatigue test by a finite element method (Comsol Multiphysics software). Each material - steel, sealing sheet, asphalt concrete layer - is considered and modelled. The modelling of asphalt concrete is complex since it is a heterogeneous material, a viscoelastic medium and it thermosensitive. The actual characteristics of the asphalt concrete (thermo physical parameter and viscoelastic complex modulus) are determined experimentally on cylindrical cores. Moreover, a damage law based on Miner's damage is included in the model. The modelling of the fatigue test leads to encouraging results. Finally, results from the model are compared to the experimental data obtained from the five-point bending fatigue test device. The experimental data are very consistent with the numerical simulation.

Arnaud, L.; Houel, A.

2010-06-01

93

Characterization of stormwater runoff from bridges in North Carolina and the effects of bridge deck runoff on receiving streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2008, the North Carolina General Assembly passed House Bill 2436 that required the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) to study the water-quality effects of bridges on receiving streams. In response, the NCDOT and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated on a study to provide information necessary to address the requirements of the Bill. To better understand the effects of stormwater runoff from bridges on receiving streams, the following tasks were performed: (1) characterize stormwater runoff quality and quantity from a representative selection of bridges in North Carolina; (2) measure stream water quality upstream from selected bridges to compare bridge deck stormwater concentrations and loads to stream constituent concentrations and loads; and (3) determine if the chemistry of bed sediments upstream and downstream from selected bridges differs substantially based on presence or absence of a best management practice for bridge runoff.

Wagner, Chad R.; Fitzgerald, Sharon A.; Sherrell, Roy D.; Harned, Douglas A.; Staub, Erik L.; Pointer, Brian H.; Wehmeyer, Loren L.

2011-01-01

94

Performance study of a bridge involving sliding decks and pounded abutment during a violent earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study on the sliding of bridge decks and pounding at abutment-backfill. It involves a multi-span concrete bridge supported on simple rubber bearings, subjected to longitudinal as well as vertical ground motions from the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. To account for soil–structure interaction, the stiffness and strength constants of backfill soils are determined by relating the tilting

Ching-Jong Wang; Ming-Hsiang Shih

2007-01-01

95

Weighting ensemble least-square method for flutter derivatives of bridge decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a reliable but simple identification method, here called the weighting ensemble least-square method (WELS), has been developed to extract all eight flutter derivatives of bridge deck from free vibration records. For every wind speed, free vibration test of section model is generally repeated several times in order to obtain more reliable parameter estimates. In the WELS method,

Yongle Li; Haili Liao; Shizhong Qiang

2003-01-01

96

Effects of Various Piping Configurations on the Capacity of a Bridge Deck Drain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the effects of the downspout piping on the capacity of a bridge deck drain. Full-scale hydraulic modeling of the drain was performed using two separate physical models to observe the hydraulic behavior of the drain and the influence ...

S. Smith E. R. Holley

1995-01-01

97

Probabilistic model for the chloride-induced corrosion service life of bridge decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical model to determine the time to first repair and subsequent rehabilitation of concrete bridge decks exposed to chloride deicer salts that incorporates the statistical nature of factors affecting the corrosion process is developed. The model expands on an existing deterministic model using statistical resampling techniques. Emphasis was placed on the diffusion portion of the diffusion-cracking model. Data collected

Trevor J Kirkpatrick; Richard E Weyers; Christine M Anderson-Cook; Michael M Sprinkel

2002-01-01

98

Numerical Simulation of Composite Plates to be used for Optimization of Mobile Bridge Deck  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, for optimization and decreasing of the weight of Military Mobile Bridges (MMB), numerical simulations of laminated composite plate, which is more applicable in manufacturing of deck of MMB were done. The maximum deflection and stress are of the major parameters that are taken in to account in the plates design. Final purpose of this paper is to

M. Naghipour; H. M. Daniali; Hashemi Kachapi

2008-01-01

99

Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Bars as Top Mat Reinforcement for Bridge Decks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of GFRP bars as reinforcement for concrete is still a relatively new technology, and more information about the behavior of GFRP is needed to safely design a bridge deck with GFRP bars. This project is the first in a series of three projects spons...

J. M. DeFreese C. L. Roberts-Wollman

2002-01-01

100

Evaluation of Non-Metallic Fiber Reinforced Concrete in PCC Pavements and Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This interim report presents the construction and performance evaluation of four structures, namely a full-depth pavement, a thin bridge-deck overlay, a jersey barrier, and white topping on scarified asphalt pavement, constructed with a new type non-metal...

S. Kakodkar V. Ramakrishnan

1995-01-01

101

Bridge Deck Repairs with Polymer Concrete Patching Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The FHWA polymer concrete as formulated at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was mixed, placed into spalls and finished on grade with steel trowels on more than a dozen bridges. This polymer concrete was a two-component system consisting of a liquid mo...

W. C. Edgecomb

1983-01-01

102

Numerical simulations and experimental measurements of steel and ice impacts on concrete for acoustic interrogation of delaminations in bridge decks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Delaminations in bridge decks typically result from corrosion of the top mat of reinforcing steel, which leads to a localized separation of the concrete cover from the underlying concrete. Because delaminations cannot be detected using visual inspection, rapid, large-area interrogation methods are desired to characterize bridge decks without disruption to traffic, without the subjectivity inherent in existing methods, and with increased inspector safety. To this end, disposable impactors such as water droplets or ice chips can be dropped using automatic dispensers onto concrete surfaces to excite mechanical vibrations while acoustic responses can be recorded using air-coupled microphones. In this work, numerical simulations are used to characterize the flexural response of a model concrete bridge deck subject to both steel and ice impactors, and the results are compared with similar experiments performed in the laboratory on a partially delaminated concrete bridge deck slab. The simulations offer greater understanding of the kinetics of impacts and the responses of materials.

Mazzeo, Brian A.; Patil, Anjali N.; Klis, Jeffrey M.; Hurd, Randy C.; Truscott, Tadd T.; Guthrie, W. Spencer

2014-02-01

103

Estimation of static force coefficients of bridge deck from acceleration responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of estimating the static force coefficients of a median span box-section bridge deck from the acceleration response of a structure under the wind load action is studied. The fluctuating wind field is simulated with the Auto-Regressive (AR) model including the spatial coherence of the independent Gaussian stochastic processes with uncertainties in the fluctuating components of wind velocities. The proposed method is illustrated with a three-span continuous concrete box-girder bridge deck located in open terrain. The static force coefficients are identified from a few noisy acceleration measurements with different combinations of sensors. The effects of model error in the structure and uncertainties in the fluctuating components of wind velocities are studied. The proposed method may be possibly generalized in future into an alternative to conventional wind tunnel test including all the on-site conditions in the analysis.

Law, S. S.; Zhang, K.; Duan, Z. D.

2012-02-01

104

An Automatic Impact-based Delamination Detection System for Concrete Bridge Decks  

SciTech Connect

Delamination of concrete bridge decks is a commonly observed distress in corrosive environments. In traditional acoustic inspection methods, delamination is assessed by the "hollowness" of the sound created by impacting the bridge deck with a hammer or bar or by dragging a chain where the signals are often contaminated by ambient traffic noise and the detection is highly subjective. In the proposed method, a modified version of independent component analysis (ICA) is used to filter the traffic noise. To eliminate subjectivity, Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) are used as features for detection and the delamination is detected by a radial basis function (RBF) neural network. Results from both experimental and field data suggest that the proposed methods id noise robust and has satisfactory performance. The methods can also detect the delamination of repair patches and concrete below the repair patches. The algorithms were incorporated into an automatic impact-bases delamination detection (AIDD) system for field application.

Zhang, Gang; Harichandran, Ronald S.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

2012-01-02

105

Structural condition assessment and service load performance of deteriorated prestressed concrete deck beam bridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precast pretensioned deck beam bridges are a generic bridge type widely used by IDOT for new construction through the end of the 1970's and still widely used on county roads throughout Illinois. While these bridges were economical to build, IDOT discontinued their use because reflective cracks developed along the length of the longitudinal joints between beams. Three 30 years old deteriorated beams were removed from an existing bridge over Spoon River in Fulton County, IL and delivered to Newmark Civil Engineering Laboratory. The program consisted of a series of comprehensive, destructive and non-destructive, tests and evaluations of the three beams with emphasis on three major areas; (1) The Condition Assessment of the as-delivered beams. (2) The service load performance of the bridge sub-assemblage constructed from those beams. After a comprehensive inspection of the beams was completed, the beams were integrated together into a bridge subassembly that simulated a bridge lane. (3) Following the service load tests, the three beams were separated and tested individually to failure. The critical signs to be observed in existing structures that will lead the inspectors to conclude that a deck beam is being overloaded were are also studied. Several conclusions were found. Cracking of the longitudinal joint has little effect on the stiffness of the bridge if the transverse rod is snug. The presence of a snug transverse tie rod increases the strength of the longitudinal joint. After a longitudinal joint has fractured, reincorporating a snug transverse rod can significantly reestablish the stiffness of the longitudinal joint and reduce overloading of a deteriorated beam. Participation factors must be based on relative bending moments of one beam with respect to the total amount of bending moment produced by the applied load and not to the amount of total vertical displacement. The participation factors will vary along the span of the bridge deck and will depend on the longitudinal position of the load. The amount of load taken by a loaded beam of the deck is not directly related to the beam that will experience the maximum bending moment under a given load combination. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Fuentes, Juan Bolivar

106

Flexural fatigue analysis of a CFRP form reinforced concrete bridge deck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concrete bridge decks reinforced with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite panels have recently been used where the FRP panels also serve as the permanent formwork for concrete. Comparing to their short-term behavior, their long-term performance especially under repeated traffic loads (fatigue) has not yet been widely known. This paper presents a fatigue analysis tool developed for a new steel-free concrete

Lijuan Cheng

107

Implementation of civionics in a second generation steel-free bridge deck  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the design and construction of civil structures continue to evolve, it is becoming imperative that these structures be monitored for their health. In order to meet this need, the discipline of Civionics has emerged. Civionics is a new term coined from Civil-Electronics, which is derived from the application of electronics to civil structures. It is similar to the term Avionics, which is used in the aerospace industry. If structural health monitoring is to become part of civil structural engineering, it should include Civionics. It involves the application of electronics to civil structures and aims to assist engineers in realizing the full benefits of structural health monitoring (SHM). In past SHM field applications, the main reason for the failure of a sensor was not the installation of the sensor itself but the egress of the sensor cables. Often, the cables were not handled and protected correctly. For SHM to be successful, specifications must be written on the entire process, beginning with system design and concluding with data collection, interpretation, and management. Civionics specifications include the technical requirements for a SHM system which encompasses fibre optic sensors, cables, conduits, junction boxes and the control room. A specification for data collection and storage is currently being developed as well. In the spring of 2004 research engineers at the University of Manitoba constructed a full-scale second generation steel free bridge deck. The bridge deck is the first of its kind to fully incorporate a complete civionics structural health monitoring system to monitor the deck's behaviour during destructive testing. Throughout the construction of the bridge deck, the entire installation of the civionics system was carried out by research engineers simulating an actual implementation of such a system in a large scale construction environment. One major concern that consulting engineers have raised is the impact that a civionics system that uses conduit, junction boxes, and other electrical ancillary protection, will have when embedded and installed externally on full-scale infrastructure. The full-scale destructive testing of a second generation steel-free bridge deck using a civionics system designed and implemented following guidelines in a civioncs specification manual at the University of Manitoba will provide engineers with the information necessary to address the constructability and structural integrity issues. Civioncs combined with structural health monitoring will provide engineers with feedback necessary to aid in optimizing design techniques and understanding our infrastructures performance, behaviour and state of condition.

Klowak, Chad; Rivera, Evangeline; Mufti, Aftab

2005-05-01

108

Suppression of wind-induced instabilities of a long span bridge by a passive deck–flaps control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A passive aerodynamic control method for suppression of the wind-induced instabilities of a very long-span bridge is presented. The control system consists of additional control flaps attached to the edges of the bridge deck. Rotational motion of the control flaps is governed by prestressed springs and additional cables connecting the flaps to an auxiliary transverse beam supported by the main

P. Omenzetter; K. Wilde; Y. Fujino

2000-01-01

109

Field Performance Evaluation of Multiple Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Bridge Deck Systems over Existing Girders: Phase 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research work presented in this report is focused on the experimental evaluation of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) deck systems, which have been used on two side-by-side bridges on Route 49 in Dayton, Ohio (MOT-49-10). The long spans of the bridges al...

B. Shahrooz I. Harik P. Dutta R. Lopez-Anido

2001-01-01

110

The detection and thermal characterization of the inner structure of the ‘Musmeci’ bridge deck by infrared thermography monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the thermal monitoring of a bridge deck is carried out over several days thanks to an adapted infrared measurement system. This system does not just operate a single uncooled infrared camera but also other sensors (i.e., a weather station and a global positioning system (GPS). The detection of the inner structure of the deck is achieved by pulse phase thermography and principal component thermography approaches. A first characterization of the inner structure of the deck is proposed thanks to an original thermal modelling approach. The results obtained are discussed and analysed.

Dumoulin, Jean; Crinière, Antoine; Averty, Rodolphe

2013-12-01

111

Ground-penetrating imaging radar development for bridge deck and road bed inspection  

SciTech Connect

Ground-penetrating imaging radar (GPIR) is proposed for large-area inspection of concrete and concrete/asphalt composite bridge decks and roadways. This technique combines ground-penetrating radar (GPR) with unique image reconstruction algorithms developed for identification and characterization of subsurface flaws and structural features. New data acquisition hardware and image reconstruction techniques, under development at LLNL, offer the possibility for reliable and efficient, high-resolution subsurface imaging through the use of improved ultra-wideband transmitters, antennas, and arrays, and enhanced image- and signal-processing software. A field test of a limited-capability prototype system is planned for FY-93, as is completion of a conceptual design for a practical inspection system. A follow-on program for FY-94 would focus on development and demonstration of an advanced bridge inspection system prototype based on the conceptual design completed during FY-93.

Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.; Nelson, S.D.; Johansson, E.M.

1993-05-01

112

Detection of Delamination in Concrete Bridge Decks Using Mfcc of Acoustic Impact Signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Delamination of the concrete cover is a commonly observed damage in concrete bridge decks. The delamination is typically initiated by corrosion of the upper reinforcing bars and promoted by freeze-thaw cycling and traffic loading. The detection of delamination is important for bridge maintenance and acoustic non-destructive evaluation (NDE) is widely used due to its low cost, speed, and easy implementation. In traditional acoustic approaches, the inspector sounds the surface of the deck by impacting it with a hammer or bar, or by dragging a chain, and assesses delamination by the ``hollowness'' of the sound. The detection of the delamination is subjective and requires extensive training. To improve performance, this paper proposes an objective method for delamination detection. In this method, mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) of the signal are extracted. Some MFCC are then selected as features for detection purposes using a mutual information criterion. Finally, the selected features are used to train a classifier which is subsequently used for detection. In this work, a simple quadratic Bayesian classifier is used. Different numbers of features are used to compare the performance of the detection method. The results show that the performance first increases with the number of features, but then decreases after an optimal value. The optimal number of features based on the recorded signals is four, and the mean error rate is only 3.3% when four features are used. Therefore, the proposed algorithm has sufficient accuracy to be used in field detection.

Zhang, G.; Harichandran, R. S.; Ramuhalli, P.

2010-02-01

113

Polypropylene Fiber-Reinforced Microsilica Concrete Bridge Deck Overlay at Link River Bridge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1997 ODOT overlaid the Link River Bridge with microsilica concrete, reinforced with polypropylene fibers (FMC). The manufacturer claimed the fibers would reduce plastic shrinkage cracks and settlement cracking during the early life of the concrete, as ...

E. W. Brooks

2000-01-01

114

Repair of Hollow or Softened Areas in Bridge Decks by Rebonding with Injected Epoxy Resin of Other Polymers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to develop a repair technique for bridge deck delaminations which could be used by highway maintenance personnel. The technique was to consist of injection of epoxy resin into the deteriorated areas to bond them back into...

F. W. Stratton B. F. McCollom

1974-01-01

115

Plans: Aft Gun Platform, Quarters for 16 Gunmen, Poop Deck, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Plans: Aft Gun Platform, Quarters for 16 Gunmen, Poop Deck, Boat Deck, House Top, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge Deck, Navigating Bridge, Forecastle Deck, Gun Platform, Upper Deck, Second Deck and Hold Plan - Mission Santa Ynez, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

116

State of the Art in the Utilization of Deck Bridges with Encased Filler-Beams in the Standard Construction Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deck bridges with encased filler-beams have been used in construction for a long time. Nowadays they are employed mainly in the refurbishment of railways and in road construction. Regarding the method of construction, they can be divided into monolithic/cast-in-place (constructed fully in its final location) or prefabricated/precast structures (built at another location and then transported to their final location for placement in the full structure). Both methods of construction have certain advantages and disadvantages. Decision-making and selecting a better alternative depends on the building conditions and a means of transport (whether a road or railway) running on the bridge.

Kvo?ák, Vincent; Kožlejová, Viktória; Chupayeva, Katerina

2013-06-01

117

Laboratory and field performance of FOS sensors in static and dynamic strain monitoring in concrete bridge decks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing need for designing and constructing innovative concrete bridges using FRP reinforcing bars as internal reinforcement to avoid the corrosion problems and high costs of maintenance and repair. For efficient use and to increase the lifetime of these bridges, it is important to develop efficient monitoring systems for such innovative structures. Fabry-Perot and Bragg fibre optic sensors (FOS) that can measure the strains and temperature are promising candidates for life-long health monitoring of these structures. This article reports laboratory and field performance of Fabry-Perot and Bragg FOS sensors as well as electrical strain gauges in static and dynamic strain monitoring in concrete bridge decks. The laboratory tests include tensile testing of glass FRP bars and testing of full-scale concrete bridge deck slabs reinforced with glass and carbon FRP bars under static and cyclic concentrated loads. The field tests include static and dynamic testing of two bridges reinforced with steel and glass FRP bars. The obtained strain results showed satisfactory agreement between the different gauges.

Benmokrane, B.; Debaiky, A.; El-Ragaby, A.; Roy, R.; El-Gamal, S.; El-Salakawy, E.

2006-04-01

118

Plans: 3'/50 Cal. Gun Platform, Boat Deck House Top & ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Plans: 3'/50 Cal. Gun Platform, Boat Deck House Top & Fidley Top, Boat Deck, Radar Platform Lower, Pilot House Top, Navigation Bridge, Upper Bridge Deck, Poop Deck, Cargo Deck, Motor Boat Platform, Bridge Deck, Forecastle Deck, Upper Deck - Taluga, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

119

Estimation of Structure-Borne Noise Reduction Effect of Steel Railway Bridge Equipped with Floating Ladder Track and Floating Reinforced-Concrete Deck  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of steel railway bridges have been constructed in Japan. Thin steel members used for the bridges easily tend to vibrate and generate structure-borne noise. Accordingly, the number of constructions of steel railway bridges tends to decrease in the urban areas from a viewpoint of environmental preservation. Then, as a countermeasure against structure-borne noise generated from steel railway bridges, we have developed a new type of the steel railway bridge equipped with a floating-ladder track and a floating reinforced-concrete (RC) deck. As a result of train-running experiment, it became apparent that the new steel railway bridge installed by double floating system has reduced a vibration velocity level by 10.5 dB(A) at main girder web as compared with a steel railway bridge installed by directly fastened track. This reduction effect was achieved by the ladder track and RC deck supported by resilient materials.

Watanabe, Tsutomu; Sogabe, Masamichi; Asanuma, Kiyoshi; Wakui, Hajime

120

Determination of initial cable forces in prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridges for given design deck profiles using the force equilibrium method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of initial cable forces in a prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridge for a given vertical profile of deck under its dead load is an important but difficult task that affects the overall design of the bridge. A new method utilizing the idea of force equilibrium is presented in this paper for their determination. The method can easily account for

D. W. Chen; F. T. K. Au; L. G. Tham; P. K. K. Lee

2000-01-01

121

Detection of Air and Water-Filled Subsurface Defects in GFRP Composite Bridge Decks Using Infrared Thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Any discontinuity within a structural component influences the transmission of thermal energy through its thickness, which leads to differences in surface temperatures just above the defective and defect-free areas. The variation in the surface temperatures are recorded using a digital infrared camera and the thermal images (thermograms) are analyzed to locate the presence of subsurface defects such as debonds and delaminations within the structure. While past studies focused on detection of air-filled subsurface defects (debonds and delaminations) in fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite bridge decks using infrared thermography, this paper includes the detection of fully and partially water-filled defects as well. Simulated water-filled defects were embedded within the flange-to-flange junction of adjacent GFRP bridge deck modules to create delaminations. The deck specimens were then tested before and after the application of a 3/8'' (9.5 mm) thick polymer concrete wearing surface. It was found that water-filled delaminations as small as 2'' × 2'' × 1/16'' (51 mm × 51 mm × 1.6 mm) could be detected in case of specimens without wearing surface, but this was not possible after application of the wearing surface. The heating source considered included heater and solar radiation. Use of cooling sources such as cold water and liquid carbon dioxide were also explored. These results helped establish the limits of detection for fully and partially water-filled delaminations using Infrared Thermograpy. Additional studies included the detection of debond between 2'' (51mm) thick asphalt overlay and the underlying composite deck and it was found that air-filled debonds as small as 4'' × 4'' × 1/16'' (102 mm × 102 mm × 1.6 mm) could be detected using heater as well as solar radiation as heat sources.

Halabe, Udaya B.; Roy, M.; Klinkhachorn, P.; Gangarao, Hota V. S.

2006-03-01

122

Analytical and Experimental Evaluation of an Aluminum Bridge Deck Panel. Part 1. Service Load Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reynolds Metals Company has developed an aluminum deck system. Once developed, Reynolds approached several state departments of transportation in hopes of securing projects to showcase their new system. Interested in the potential for long-term savings, t...

J. M. Dobmeier J. P. Gomez F. W. Barton P. J. Massarelli W. T. McKeel

1999-01-01

123

Design and Field Demonstration of ECC Link Slabs for Jointless Bridge Decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poor durability of concrete bridges throughout the US is an increasingly large concern for highway transportation authorities. With decreasing budget allocations for infrastructure maintenance, rehabilitation, and replacement, the need for greater durability is apparent. A main source of this poor durability is leaking mechanical expansion joints between adjacent simple spans of multi-span bridges. These joints typically require a large

Michael Lepech; Victor C. Li

124

In-Service Performance Monitoring of a CFRP Reinforced HPC Bridge Deck.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Rollins Road Bridge in Rollinsford, New Hampshire was constructed in part with funding from the FHWA's Innovative Bridge Research and Construction (IBRC) program and opened to traffic in December, 2000. A requirement of the IBRC program is the use of ...

E. S. Bell J. Sipple

2010-01-01

125

Bridge deck surface temperature monitoring by infrared thermography and inner structure identification using PPT and PCT analysis methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the objectives of ISTIMES project was to evaluate the potentialities offered by the integration of different electromagnetic techniques able to perform non-invasive diagnostics for surveillance and monitoring of transport infrastructures. Among the EM methods investigated, we focused our research and development efforts on uncooled infrared camera techniques due to their promising potential level of dissemination linked to their relative low cost on the market. On the other hand, works were also carried out to identify well adapted implementation protocols and key limits of Pulse Phase Thermography (PPT) and Principal Component Thermography (PCT) processing methods to analyse thermal image sequence and retrieve information about the inner structure. So the first part of this research works addresses infrared thermography measurement when it is used in quantitative mode (not in laboratory conditions) and not in qualitative mode (vision applied to survey). In such context, it requires to process in real time thermal radiative corrections on raw data acquired to take into account influences of natural environment evolution with time, thanks to additional measurements. But, camera sensor has to be enough smart to apply in real time calibration law and radiometric corrections in a varying atmosphere. So, a complete measurement system was studied and developed [1] with low cost infrared cameras available on the market. In the system developed, infrared camera is coupled with other sensors to feed simplified radiative models running, in real time, on GPU available on small PC. The whole measurement system was implemented on the "Musmeci" bridge located in Potenza (Italy). No traffic interruption was required during the mounting of our measurement system. The infrared camera was fixed on top of a mast at 6 m elevation from the surface of the bridge deck. A small weather station was added on the same mast at 1 m under the camera. A GPS antenna was also fixed at the basis of the mast and at a same elevation than the bridge deck surface. This trial took place during 4 days, but our system was leaved in stand alone acquisition mode only during 3 days. Thanks to the software developed and the small computer hardware used, thermal image were acquired at a frame rate of 0.1 Hz by averaging 50 thermal images leaving the original camera frame rate fixed at 5 Hz. Each hour, a thermal image sequence was stored on the internal hard drive and data were also retrieved, on demand, by using a wireless connection and a tablet PC. In the second part of this work, thermal image sequences analysis was carried out. Two analysis approaches were studied: one based on the use of the Fast Fourier Transform [2] and the second one based on the Principal Component Analysis [3-4]. Results obtained show that the inner structure of the deck was identified though thermal images were affected by the fact that the bridge was open to traffic during the whole experiments duration. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT - The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement n° 225663. References [1] Dumoulin J. and Averty R., « Development of an infrared system coupled with a weather station for real time atmospheric corrections using GPU computing: Application to bridge monitoring", QIRT 2012, Naples, Italy, June 2012. [2] Cooley J.W., Tukey J.W., "An algorithm for the machine calculation of complex Fourier series", Mathematics of Computation, vol. 19, n° 90, 1965, p. 297-301. [3] Rajic N., "Principal component thermography for flaw contrast enhancement and flaw depth characterization in composite structures", Composite Structures, vol 58, pp 521-528, 2002. [4] Marinetti S., Grinzato E., Bison P. G., Bozzi E., Chimenti M., Pieri G. and Salvetti O. "Statistical analysis of IR thermographic sequences by PCA," Infrared Physics & Technology vol 46 pp 85-91, 2004.

Dumoulin, Jean

2013-04-01

126

Laboratory Tests of Prestressed Concrete Deck Planks and Deck Assemblies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the past decade prestressed concrete deck plank forms have been used to a limited extent with a cast-in-place topping for bridge deck construction. These planks become an integral part of the deck through composite action with the topping. Normally th...

R. M. Barnoff D. E. Rainey

1974-01-01

127

Lightweight composite truss section decking  

Microsoft Academic Search

An all fiberglass decking panel has been designed to the requirements of the trilateral code for military bridging and the circular of requirements for new construction strategic sealift ships. The truss structure provides a lightweight fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) module that can be rapidly installed as decking for floating structures or military causeways. The edge supported composite deck can span

Richard T. Brown; Abdul-Hamid Zureick

2001-01-01

128

Wind tunnel test of an active mass damper for bridge decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An active mass damper is implemented to a bridge section model test in a wind tunnel to enhance the flutter stability. Servo motors controlling the rotational motion of control masses serve as actuators. The torque generated by rotational acceleration is used to control the angular motion of the section model. The mechanical parameters of the uncontrolled and the controlled structures

Rüdiger Körlin; Uwe Starossek

2007-01-01

129

Development of a pedestrian bridge with GFRP profiles and fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete deck  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the number of pedestrian bridges built from composites materials has notably increased. The combination of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) profiles with fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) elements is being adopted in this type of structures, since the ductility, high post-cracking tensile strength, compressive stiffness and strength of FRC can be combined with the benefits derived from the use

Pedro J. D. Mendes; Joaquim A. O. Barros; José M. Sena-Cruz; Mahsa Taheri

130

Testing, Evaluation, and Installation of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Honeycomb Composite Panels in Bridge Deck Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the progress of a project to design, fabricate, and install a fiber-reinforced polymer honeycomb sandwich panel system for use as a superstructure on new or existing vehicular bridge structures; the basic premise being to develop a v...

S. R. Gill J. D. Plunkett

2000-01-01

131

Thermo-hygro-mechanical behavior of early-age concrete deck in composite bridge under environmental loadings. Part 2: strain and stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restraint of volume change in concrete accompanies the development of stress in concrete structures. When concrete is placed\\u000a in the field, the stress development becomes very complicated at early ages due to the hydration and environmental interaction.\\u000a This study investigates quantitatively the effects of various factors on the stress variation of early-age concrete decks\\u000a in composite bridges under environmental loading.

Seongcheol ChoiSoo; Soo Won Cha; Byung Hwan Oh

2011-01-01

132

Glass fiber-reinforced polymer\\/steel hybrid honeycomb sandwich concept for bridge deck applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) materials possess inherently high strength-to-weight ratios, but their elastic moduli are low relative to civil engineering (CE) construction materials. As a result, serviceability issues are what govern GFRP material design in the CE bridge industry. Therefore, the study objective was to increase the stiffness of a commercial GFRP honeycomb sandwich panel through the inclusion of steel

Nicolas J Lombardi

2008-01-01

133

HERMES: a high-speed radar imaging system for inspection of bridge decks  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion of rebar in concrete bridges causes subsurface cracks and is a major cause of structural degradation that necessitates repair or replacement. Early detection of corrosion effects can limit the location and extent of necessary repairs, while providing long-term information about the infrastructure status. Most current detection methods, however, are destructive of the road surface and require closing or restricting traffic while the tests are performed. A ground-penetrating radar imaging system has been designed and developed that will perform the nondestructive evaluation of road-bed cracking at traffic speeds; i.e., without the need to restrict traffic flow. The first-generation system (called the HERMES bridge inspector), consists of an offset-linear array of 64 impulse radar transceivers and associated electronics housed in a trailer. Computers in the trailer and in the towing vehicle control the data acquisition, processing, and display. Cross-road resolution is three centimeters at up to 30 cm in depth, while down-road resolution depends on speed; 3 cm below 20 mph up to 8 cm at 50 mph. A two-meter- wide path is inspected on each pass over the roadway. This paper, describes the design of this system, shows preliminary results, and lays out its deployment schedule.

Azevedo, S.G.

1996-10-26

134

Direct observations of non-stationary bridge deck aeroelastic vibration in wind tunnel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is useful to study the ambient non-stationary response of a cable-supported bridge to monitor the "aeroelastic status" of the structure. In the absence of effective non-stationary analyzing tools, it is suitable to have signal processing techniques to pre-examine the measured ambient responses for the time scale at which the aeroelastic system varies to know if the recording can be treated as a quasi-stationary process or must be treated as non-stationary one. Among the factors contributing to the non-stationarity, the effect of signature turbulence is studied in this paper by joint time-frequency analysis on wind tunnel experiments with a partially streamlined box girder sectional model. Hilbert transform combined with empirical mode decomposition method is used. Instantaneous frequency domain properties of the aeroelastic vibration are obtained. Time-dependant features of the interactive system are partially revealed.

Zhang, Xin; Brownjohn, James M. W.; Wang, Yi; Pan, Tso-Chien

2006-03-01

135

SouthWest Elevation, Plan Showing Deck Framing, Deck Plan, Plan of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

South-West Elevation, Plan Showing Deck Framing, Deck Plan, Plan of Collar Beams, Etc., Typical Framing Details, End Elevations, Elevation of Scarf Top Chord, Joint Details - Perrine's Bridge, Spanning Wallkill River, Rifton, Ulster County, NY

136

Reflected Deck Plan and Deck Plan from Pre2004 Fire and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Reflected Deck Plan and Deck Plan from Pre-2004 Fire and Existing Condition, 2009 - Boston & Maine Railroad, Berlin Branch Bridge #148.81, Formerly spanning Moose Brook at former Boston & Maine Railroad, Gorham, Coos County, NH

137

Design and Response of Lower-Level Beam-Column Joints in Ductile Reinforced Concrete Double-Deck Bridge Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A research program of field and laboratory tests to study the seismic response of reinforced concrete double-deck freeway structures has been concluded at the University of California, Berkeley. The third phase of testing focused on the design criteria fo...

J. P. Moehle S. Mazzoni S. A. Mahin

1997-01-01

138

MASH Test 3-11 of the TxDOT Single Slope Bridge Rail (Type SSTR) on Pan-Formed Bridge Deck.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this crash test was to determine whether the TxDOT Single Slope Traffic Rail (Type SSTR) would perform acceptably on a pan-formed deck when tested according to the guidelines set forth in Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH). The c...

R. P. Bligh W. F. Williams W. L. Menges

2011-01-01

139

Pavement management  

SciTech Connect

The 11 papers in this report deal with the following areas: effect of pavement roughness on vehicle fuel consumption; rational seasonal load restrictions and overload permits; state-level pavement monitoring program; data requirements for long-term monitoring of pavements as a basis for development of multiple regression relations; simplified pavement management at the network level; combined priority programming of maintenance and rehabilitation for pavement networks; Arizona pavement management system: Phase 2-verification of performance prediction models and development of data base; overview of paver pavement management system; economic analysis of field implementation of paver pavement management system; development of a statewide pavement maintenance management system; and, prediction of pavement maintenance expenditure by using a statistical cost function.

Ross, F.R.; Connor, B.; Lytton, R.L.; Darter, M.I.; Shahin, M.Y.

1982-01-01

140

Viaducts: S.F. Vaiduct, Single Deck Spans; S.F. Viaduct, Double Deck ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Viaducts: S.F. Vaiduct, Single Deck Spans; S.F. Viaduct, Double Deck Spans; Yerba Buena Viaduct, Double Deck Spans; East Bay Approach, Girder Spans - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

141

Trial Use of a Stainless Steel-Clad Steel Bar in a New Concrete Bridge Deck in Virginia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the Virginia Transportation Research Council's effort to identify cost-effective, corrosion-resistant reinforcing bars that can be used in concrete bridges exposed to heaving salting, a 316L stainless steel-clad bar was tested in a new bridge d...

G. G. Clemena D. N. Kukreja C. S. Napier

2003-01-01

142

Pressure Relief Joints for Rigid Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report was prepared to focus attention on damage occurring to some highway bridges as a result of pressure exerted by adjacent rigid pavement slabs. The report illustrates some of the conditions preceding serious bridge damage, and describes several t...

D. E. Gordinier W. P. Chamberlin

1969-01-01

143

17. DRAWING NO. 14 TITLED 'WIND BRACING FOR LOWER DECK,' ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. DRAWING NO. 14 TITLED 'WIND BRACING FOR LOWER DECK,' DATED APRIL 15, 1903 - Mahoning Avenue Pratt Double-Deck Bridge, Spanning Mill Creek at Mahoning Avenue (C.R. 319), Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

144

Detail of roadway deck, showing truss vertical and diagonals, guardrails ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of roadway deck, showing truss vertical and diagonals, guardrails and concrete deck and curb, view to south - Gillespie Dam Bridge, Spanning Gila River on Old US 80 Highway, south of Gillespie Dam, Arlington, Maricopa County, AZ

145

37. HANGAR FROM RAILROAD DECK TELESCOPED IN COLUMN & SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. HANGAR FROM RAILROAD DECK TELESCOPED IN COLUMN & SHOWING PIN WHICH TRANSFERS LOAD FROM RAILROAD DECK TO TRUSS WHEN IN DOWN POSITION - Armour, Swift, Burlington Bridge, Kansas City, Jackson County, MO

146

1. EAST PORTAL. NOTE STEEL GRID DECKING THAT REPLACED ORIGINAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EAST PORTAL. NOTE STEEL GRID DECKING THAT REPLACED ORIGINAL TIMBER DECKING. - Peevy Road Bridge, Peevy Road spanning Perkiomen Creek in Upper Hanover Township, East Greenville, Montgomery County, PA

147

Bridge Needs, Design, and Performance,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 14 papers in the report deal with the following areas: bridge strengthening needs in the United States; a bridge automated design and drafting system; bridge deck expansion joints; nonlinear analysis of highway bridges; prestressed waffle slab bridges...

K. F. Dunker F. W. Klaiber W. W. Sanders T. J. Tiberio J. C. Hayward

1987-01-01

148

Laboratory and Field testing of FRP Composite Bridge Decks and FRP-Reinforced Concrete Bridge for the City of St. James, Phelps County, Missouri.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall objective of this research project was to conduct an extensive study of the behavior and use of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and carbon FRP (CFRP) materials for bridge construction. In particular, GFRP honeycomb sandwich panels were u...

A. Nanni D. K. Stone H. Nyrstrom S. Watkins

2002-01-01

149

SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN vSHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN - Snake River Bridge at Lyons' Ferry, State Route 261 spanning Snake River, Starbuck, Columbia County, WA

150

5. DETAIL OF TRUSS MEMBERS, GUARDRAIL AND DECK TO Georgia ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. DETAIL OF TRUSS MEMBERS, GUARDRAIL AND DECK TO Georgia DOT BRIDGE No. 105-00168X-00203E - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 105-00168X-00203E, Spanning Beaverdam Creek at County Road 168, Elberton, Elbert County, GA

151

11. Standing on westerly fender at edge of bridge looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Standing on westerly fender at edge of bridge looking easterly, showing horizontal beams for deck and cross beams (reflection of steel grating on deck). Also shows bridge guardrail. - Colusa Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River, Colusa, Colusa County, CA

152

Cracking of continuous composite beams with precast decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical and experimental studies were performed to suggest the design basis for longitudinal prestress of continuous composite bridges with full-depth precast decks. In case of continuous bridges with precast decks, combination of two kinds of prestress should be used to introduce the compression at the joints in negative moment regions, especially the joint area behind shear pockets. Two continuous composite

C.-S Shim; S.-P Chang

2003-01-01

153

Permeable Pavement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate how different riparian ground covers, such as grass or pavement, affect river flooding. They learn about permeable and impermeable materials through the measurement how much water is absorbed by several different household materials in a model river. Students use what they learn to make recommendations for engineers developing permeable pavement. Also, they consider several different limitations for design in the context of a small community.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

154

Bridges  

MedlinePLUS

... This type of bridge is also called a resin-bonded bridge or an acid-etched bridge. Bonded bridges usually ... are only as strong as the bonding material. Resin-bonded bridges tend not to stay cemented in place as ...

155

Bridges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bridges come in a wide variety of sizes, shapes, and lengths and are found all over the world. It is important that bridges are strong so they are safe to cross. Design and build a your own model bridge. Test your bridge for strength using a force sensor that measures how hard you pull on your bridge. By observing a graph of the force, determine the amount of force needed to make your bridge collapse.

Consortium, The C.

2012-05-21

156

Pavement Monitoring and Evaluation Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Use of Seismic Pavement Analyzer in Pavement Evaluation; Nature and Detection of Void-Induced Pavement Failures; Evaluation of New Ground-Penetrating Radar Technology to Quantify Pavement Structures; Algorithms for Pavement Distress Classificati...

1995-01-01

157

51. View below deck superstructure of Manhattan side span showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. View below deck superstructure of Manhattan side span showing connection between main center cable and deck superstructure. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York, New York County, NY

158

Bridges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bridges have been drawing plenty of attention lately, with numerous construction projects around the world and the controversy over the deteriorating bridge infrastructure in the US. They have been an essential part of transportation for hundreds of years, and it is the job of civil engineers to design the safest, most durable bridges possible.Bridge Basics (1) has a large list of different types of bridges with brief explanations. This is a good place for beginners to learn about various bridge designs and parts. The Web site of a nationwide engineering design contest (2) offers free West Point Bridge Designer software. This educational tool allows the user to create a custom virtual bridge model. Although this year's contest is over, another one is planned for next year. Rice University is the home of the Bridges Project (3), a comprehensive database of "all 74 1,000 ft. span bridges in the United States." For each of these, a short description and construction history are given, and some include photos and other interesting facts. The Gibraltar Bridge, a proposed nine mile bridge that connects Europe and Africa, was recently featured on the Discovery Channel's Engineering the Impossible (4). This Web site discusses its specifications, as well as the many challenges that must be overcome for it to be a reality. The Innovative Bridge Research and Construction Program (5) investigates new technologies that can be used in the "repair, rehabilitation, replacement and new construction of bridges" in the US. This is particularly important now, since a large portion of the countries bridges are badly in need of maintenance. A more specific area of research being conducted to protect bridge infrastructure involves the corrosion of steel reinforcements in concrete bridges (6). The material on this site provides an in-depth report on the findings of the Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center. Technical reports and papers are published in the bimonthly Journal of Bridge Engineering (7). It covers almost any topic related to bridges, and is offered free online by the American Society of Civil Engineers. Fun activities for grade school students are given on this page (8). Separated into three levels of difficulty, the projects give students freedom to learn about and design any kind of bridge structure that interests them. A list of materials and criteria are given, but there are few explicit instructions, allowing for maximum creativity.

Leske, Cavin.

2002-01-01

159

55. Detail view of underside of deck showing connection between ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

55. Detail view of underside of deck showing connection between diagonal cable and superstructure. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York, New York County, NY

160

53. View looking NW showing underside of deck of Brooklyn ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. View looking NW showing underside of deck of Brooklyn side span. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York, New York County, NY

161

47. View looking NE showing end of deck superstructure truss. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. View looking NE showing end of deck superstructure truss. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York, New York County, NY

162

56. View below deck of Manhattan side span showing ramps ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. View below deck of Manhattan side span showing ramps to East Side Expressway. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York, New York County, NY

163

15. View to northeast. View along centerline from below deck; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. View to northeast. View along centerline from below deck; detail of bent and floor beams. (65mm lens) - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

164

Deck view, east approach; intersection of Carroll Road at left; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Deck view, east approach; intersection of Carroll Road at left; Interstate Highway 5 viaduct in background; view to southwest; 90mm lens - Carroll Overhead Bridge, Altamont Pass Road, Livermore, Alameda County, CA

165

6. DETAIL OF STEEL GUARDRAIL, CONCRETE CURB AND DECK EXPANSION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DETAIL OF STEEL GUARDRAIL, CONCRETE CURB AND DECK EXPANSION JOINT, WITH DRY BED OF RIO PUERCO IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO EAST. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

166

6. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT LOWER CHORD, PINNED CONNECTIONS, DECK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT LOWER CHORD, PINNED CONNECTIONS, DECK EDGE, LATTICE WORK, EYEBARS AND LATTICE GUARDRAIL - David H. Remley Road Bridge, Spanning Sugar Creek at County Road 225 West, Crawfordsville, Montgomery County, IN

167

Detail of portal of Span No. 9, showing roadway deck, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of portal of Span No. 9, showing roadway deck, guardrails and truss, view to east - Gillespie Dam Bridge, Spanning Gila River on Old US 80 Highway, south of Gillespie Dam, Arlington, Maricopa County, AZ

168

4. LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT LATTICED GUARDRAIL, DIAGONALS, ASPHALT DECK AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT LATTICED GUARDRAIL, DIAGONALS, ASPHALT DECK AND LACED ANGLES ON VERTICALS - Wayne County Bridge No. 122, Spanning West Fork Whitewater River at Main Street, Milton, Wayne County, IN

169

16. DETAIL OF EAST DECK GIRDER APPROACH SPANS AND STEEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. DETAIL OF EAST DECK GIRDER APPROACH SPANS AND STEEL CYLINDER PIERS, FROM EAST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO WEST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

170

45. UPPER CHORD / END POST DETAIL OF WEST DECK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. UPPER CHORD / END POST DETAIL OF WEST DECK TRUSS APPROACH SPAN, SHOWING FLOOR STRUCTURE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

171

29. DECK / WEB / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF CANTILEVER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. DECK / WEB / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF CANTILEVER ARM OF THROUGH TRUSS. VIEW TO WEST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

172

25. DETAIL OF PIER NO. 2, SHOWING THROUGH AND DECK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. DETAIL OF PIER NO. 2, SHOWING THROUGH AND DECK TRUSS BEARING SHOES. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

173

18. WEST DECK TRUSS APPROACH SPAN AND PIERS NO. 1 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. WEST DECK TRUSS APPROACH SPAN AND PIERS NO. 1 AND 2, FROM WEST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

174

15. DETAIL OF EAST DECK GIRDER APPROACH SPANS AND STEEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. DETAIL OF EAST DECK GIRDER APPROACH SPANS AND STEEL CYLINDER PIERS, FROM EAST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

175

7. VIEW ACROSS DECK FACING SOUTHWEST; GREAT ARCH IN DISTANCE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. VIEW ACROSS DECK FACING SOUTHWEST; GREAT ARCH IN DISTANCE - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Virgin River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of Virgin River on Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Springdale, Washington County, UT

176

19. VIEW ACROSS DECK FACING SOUTHWEST, GREAT ARCH IN DISTANCE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. VIEW ACROSS DECK FACING SOUTHWEST, GREAT ARCH IN DISTANCE - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Virgin River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of Virgin River on Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Springdale, Washington County, UT

177

Deck view, west approach; former Western Pacific (now Union Pacific) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Deck view, west approach; former Western Pacific (now Union Pacific) Railroad at left; wind turbine generators atop hill in background; view to northeast; 90mm lens - Carroll Overhead Bridge, Altamont Pass Road, Livermore, Alameda County, CA

178

6. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING OPEN STEEL GRID DECK, TOP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING OPEN STEEL GRID DECK, TOP CHORD OF TRUSS, AND PIN CONNECTIONS - College Avenue Bridge, Pennsylvania Route 58/ Legislative Route 82 spanning Little Shenango River, Greenville, Mercer County, PA

179

20. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN MACHINERY UNDER GRID DECK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN MACHINERY UNDER GRID DECK AT CENTRAL CONCRETE SUPPORT PEDESTAL, SHOWING DRIVE GEARS, ELECTRIC MOTOR AND STEEL BEAMS (taken in January 1984) - Sharptown Bridge, Spanning Nanticoke River, State Route 313, Sharptown, Wicomico County, MD

180

20. WEB / DECK / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF THROUGH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. WEB / DECK / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF THROUGH TRUSSES. VIEW TO WEST. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

181

22. INCLINED END POST / DECK / GUARDRAIL DETAIL OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. INCLINED END POST / DECK / GUARDRAIL DETAIL OF THROUGH TRUSSES. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

182

7. VIEW TO EAST ALONG DECK, DETAIL OF NICHE AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. VIEW TO EAST ALONG DECK, DETAIL OF NICHE AT TOP OF PIER. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Delaware River Viaduct, Spanning Delaware River, north of Portland-Columbia Bridge, Portland, Northampton County, PA

183

Reflected Deck Plan (Span A), Longitudinal Section XX (Span A) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Reflected Deck Plan (Span A), Longitudinal Section X-X (Span A) - Sulphite Railroad Bridge, Former Boston & Maine Railroad (originally Tilton & Franklin Railroad) spanning Winnipesautee River, Franklin, Merrimack County, NH

184

17. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING METAL DECK PLATES COVERING DAMAGED AREA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING METAL DECK PLATES COVERING DAMAGED AREA OF WEST APPROACH SPAN - Middle Fork Stanislaus River Bridge, Spans Middle Fork Stanislaus River at State Highway 108, Dardanelle, Tuolumne County, CA

185

VIEW TO THE SOUTHWEST. FRETWORK RAILINGS ON THE DECK REFLECT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW TO THE SOUTHWEST. FRETWORK RAILINGS ON THE DECK REFLECT THE DECORATIVE AND UTILITARIAN ASPECTS OF THE ARCHITECTURE. - Keller Memorial Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River at U.S. Highway 31, Decatur, Morgan County, AL

186

28. VIEW EAST FROM DECKING ON SOUTHWEST CORNER OF PIVOT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. VIEW EAST FROM DECKING ON SOUTHWEST CORNER OF PIVOT PIER, DRIVE SYSTEM FOR SWING-SPAN INCLUDES: (from left to right) ELECTRIC LINE FROM SHORE (bottom left), TRACK AND RAIL ON CONCRETE PIER, ELECTRIC MOTOR, GASOLINE MOTOR, SHAFTS TO WEDGE DRIVE CRANKS, WEDGE DRIVE DRIVE SHAFT, WEDGE DRIVE GEAR BOX, AND (on right) GEARING FOR MANUAL WEDGE DRIVE ACCESSED THROUGH BRIDGE DECK - Tipers Bridge, Spanning Great Wicomico River at State Route 200, Kilmarnock, Lancaster County, VA

187

Concrete Pavement Overlays over Existing Asphalt Pavement Structures, Project Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Whitetopping is a pavement system of portland cement concrete (PCC) placed on hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) pavement. Whitetopping is used to address distresses in asphalt pavement such as rutting and shoving. Three types of whitetopping pavements are c...

2007-01-01

188

Inelastic behavior of orthotropic steel deck stiffened by U-shaped stiffeners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to its high strength and stiffness, the orthotropic steel deck system has been widely used in the construction of long-span steel bridges. However, due to esthetic and economic considerations, slender types of orthotropic bridge have become very popular in recent years. Consequently, the stability of the orthotropic steel deck system under traffic load becomes more critical. Although the instability

Sheng-Jin Chen; Kuo-Chen Yang

2002-01-01

189

11. Short subways led to the lower deck of the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Short subways led to the lower deck of the Detroit-Superior Bridge. Street cars entered the subways through open wells located in the center of the roadways. This undated photograph shows the Superior Avenue entrance. The view is looking west. Photograph courtesy Office of the Cuyahoga County Engineer in Cleveland, Ohio. - Detroit Superior High Level Bridge, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

190

Tolerable Movement of Bridge Foundations, Sand Drains, K-Test, Slopes, and Culverts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 11 papers in this report deal with the following areas: tolerable movements of bridge foundations; survey of bridge movements in the western United States; movements of bridge abutments and settlements of approach pavements in Ohio; bridge foundations...

P. Keene J. L. Walinshaw J. H. Emanuel R. A. Grover M. Bozozuk

1978-01-01

191

Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide Calibration for Pavement Rehabilitation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) is in the process of implementing the recently introduced AASHTO Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) for new pavement sections. The majority of pavement work conducted by ODOT involves rehabil...

R. Shaidur R. C. Williams

2013-01-01

192

Small-format fly-over photography for highway bridge monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current bridge visual inspections are time-consuming, subjective, and rely heavily on personal experiences. The resulting ratings may be inconsistent. This paper discusses using remote-sensing technologies for bridge assessment, specifically, the use of high-resolution aerial imagery. The Small-Format Aerial Photography (SFAP) is a low-cost solution for bridge surface imaging. Providing top-down views, the airplanes flying at 1000 ft, can allow visualization of sub-inch (< 0.5 inch) cracks and joint openings on bridge decks or highway pavements. However, the site lighting may influence the quality of the images; surrounding tree shades and the highway wear surface reflectivity. Several examples of bridge evaluation using SFAP aerial photography are presented to demonstrate the capability of remote sensing as an effective tool for bridge construction monitoring and condition assessment. Several imaging issues are raised about analytical techniques that are necessary to ensure proper quantification of bridge problems, which include crack detection, movement determination, heavy trucking assessment, debris detection, channel width determination and environment assessment.

Chen, Shen-En; Rice, Corey; Boyle, Chuck; Hauser, Edd; Philbrick, Brian

2010-03-01

193

STATUS OF POROUS PAVEMENT RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper discusses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's porous pavement research program along with the economics, advantages, potential applications, and status and future research needs of porous pavements. Porous pavements are an available stormwater management techniq...

194

Precast Concrete Pavement for Intermittent Concrete Pavement Repair Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precast pavement technology is a recently improved construction method that can be used to meet the need for rapid pavement repair and construction. Precast pavement systems are fabricated or assembled off-site, transported to the project site, and installed on a prepared foundation (existing pavement or re-graded foundation). The system components require minimal field curing time to achieve strength before opening

Shiraz Tayabji; Neeraj Buch; Erwin Kohler

195

75 FR 4584 - Wire Decking From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...wire rack decking,'' ``wire mesh decking,'' ``bulk storage shelving...decking.'' Wire decking consists of wire mesh that is reinforced with structural supports...structural supports, that reinforce the wire mesh and that are welded or otherwise...

2010-01-28

196

Asphalt in Pavement Maintenance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintenance methods that can be used equally well in all regions of the country have been developed for the use of asphalt in pavement maintenance. Specific information covering methods, equipment and terminology that applies to the use of asphalt in the maintenance of all types of pavement structures, including shoulders, is provided. In many…

Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

197

Pavement Evaluation System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the current (1976) Air Force method for load evaluation of airfield pavements. The technique makes use of wave-propagation data and finite-element computer codes to determine the load capacity of pavements. The computer code also pro...

J. P. Nielsen G. T. Baird

1976-01-01

198

Bituminous Pavement Polishing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eleven test strips containing replicate sections of bituminous pavements used in Pennsylvania were placed at the behest of a Joint Industry-PennDOT Task Force to investigate field performance of the aggregates. Fifty-two aggregate samples and 223 pavement...

S. H. Dahir W. E. Meyer

1974-01-01

199

Boeing flight deck design philosophy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information relative to Boeing flight deck design philosophy is given in viewgraph form. Flight deck design rules, design considerations, functions allocated to the crew, redundancy and automation concerns, and examples of accident data that were reviewed are listed.

Stoll, Harty

1990-01-01

200

Precast concrete pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report reviewed published literature on precast concrete pavements and found that precast concrete pavements have had some limited application in airfields, roads, and storage areas. This review of past experience and an analytical study of precast slabs concluded that existing design and construction techniques can be adapted for use with precast concrete pavements, but more work is needed to develop effective and easily constructed load transfer designs for slab joints. Precast concrete does not offer any advantage for conventional pavements due to its high cost and surface roughness, but it may find applications for special problems such as construction in adverse weather, subgrade settlement, temporary pavements that need to be relocated, and military operations.

Rollings, R. S.; Chou, Y. T.

1981-11-01

201

Bridge Deck Evaluation with Ground Penetrating Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) uses electromagnetic (EM) waves to identify underlying features in solid structures. The typical technique uses a source antenna to generate EM waves that then interact with and reflect from subsurface features. A receiving antenna measures the reflected waves. The return signals are then analyzed to identify underlying features. This paper describes a study in which the

Dryver Huston; Jing Hu; Noel Pelczarski; Brian Esser

202

THE CONCEPTUAL CARD DECK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual card deck is a game for the collaborative construction of concept maps. It was developed at the Conéctate al Conocimiento Project of Panama as an easy way to introduce novice mappers to concept maps and propositional structure, with very little prior explanation of these notions. Though it has been used by some of the Project's facilitators in teacher

Rita Marissa Giovani; María Carballeda; Norma Miller; Gerardo Lezcano; Carmen Ramos; Adrián Chang

2008-01-01

203

45. Formwork for decks in place, except on arch ribs ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. Formwork for decks in place, except on arch ribs between piers 2 and 3, concrete being poured on south arch, view to north-northeast from near south abutment. - Parks Bar Bridge, Spanning Yuba River at State Highway 20, Smartville, Yuba County, CA

204

31. DECK / VERTICAL / UPPER CHORD DETAIL OF THROUGH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. DECK / VERTICAL / UPPER CHORD DETAIL OF THROUGH TRUSS AT PIN-CONNECTED EXPANSION JOINT BETWEEN CANTILEVER ARM AND SUSPENDED SPAN. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

205

19. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN MACHINERY UNDER GRID DECK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN MACHINERY UNDER GRID DECK AT CENTRAL PEDESTAL AREA, SHOWING CENTER RING, RADIALS TO EDGE ROLLERS, GEARS, AND ELECTRICAL BOXES (taken in January 1984) - Sharptown Bridge, Spanning Nanticoke River, State Route 313, Sharptown, Wicomico County, MD

206

18. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN UNDER GRID DECK, ONE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN UNDER GRID DECK, ONE OF TWO DRIVE GEARS ON NORTH SIDE OF PEDESTAL THAT MESHES INTO FIXED GEAR RING, SET INTO TOP OF CENTER CONCRETE PEDESTAL, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (taken in March 1984) - Sharptown Bridge, Spanning Nanticoke River, State Route 313, Sharptown, Wicomico County, MD

207

Fatigue Failure of Welded Connections at Orthotropic Bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthotropic decks were applied to the long span bridges after World War II due to several advantages, such as light weight, high strength, few deck joints, durability, rapid construction, life-cycle economy. The fatigue problem of orthotropic decks was realized twenty years ago since fatigue failure was found. In the past two decades large amount of studies and investigations were carried

Z. H. Qian; D. Abruzzese

208

Pavement Base Drain Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Portions of the Department's highway drainage system design have recently been revised. Essentially, the longitudinal drainage trench was moved closer to the pavement/shoulder joint, and the fine concrete sand layer was eliminated as a trench backfill mat...

G. L. Hoffman

1981-01-01

209

Pervious Pavement System Evaluation  

EPA Science Inventory

Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, grade...

210

Designing Flight Deck Procedures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three reports address the design of flight-deck procedures and various aspects of human interaction with cockpit systems that have direct impact on flight safety. One report, On the Typography of Flight- Deck Documentation, discusses basic research about typography and the kind of information needed by designers of flight deck documentation. Flight crews reading poorly designed documentation may easily overlook a crucial item on the checklist. The report surveys and summarizes the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed material. It focuses on typographical factors such as proper typefaces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are discussed; and several cockpit conditions such as lighting levels and glare are addressed, as well as usage factors such as angular alignment, paper quality, and colors. Most of the insights and recommendations discussed in this report are transferable to paperless cockpit systems of the future and computer-based procedure displays (e.g., "electronic flight bag") in aerospace systems and similar systems that are used in other industries such as medical, nuclear systems, maritime operations, and military systems.

Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl

2005-01-01

211

52. Bridge 5600004P (foreground) and 5600005P (background) are complete showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. Bridge 5600-004P (foreground) and 5600-005P (background) are complete showing deck, balustrades, and decorative guardrail. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

212

50. View at center of bridge showing connection between main ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. View at center of bridge showing connection between main cable and deck superstructure. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York, New York County, NY

213

6. DETAIL VIEW OF SINGLE PANEL POINTS TAKEN FROM BRIDGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DETAIL VIEW OF SINGLE PANEL POINTS TAKEN FROM BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING CONNECTION BETWEEN VERTICAL AND UPPER CHORD MEMBER. - White Bowstring Arch Truss Bridge, Spanning Yellow Creek at Cemetery Drive (Riverside Drive), Poland, Mahoning County, OH

214

3. VIEW NORTH OF GILBERT BRIDGE, TRUSS SEATINGS, BOTTOM MEMBERS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW NORTH OF GILBERT BRIDGE, TRUSS SEATINGS, BOTTOM MEMBERS, TRAFFIC DECK SUPPORT SYSTEM - Gilbert Bridge, U.S. Route 52, spanning Guyandotte River near confluence of Gilbert Creek, Gilbert, Mingo County, WV

215

1. VIEW NORTH OF GILBERT BRIDGE, PORTAL AND PORTAL CONNECTIONS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW NORTH OF GILBERT BRIDGE, PORTAL AND PORTAL CONNECTIONS AND BRACING, TRAFFIC DECK - Gilbert Bridge, U.S. Route 52, spanning Guyandotte River near confluence of Gilbert Creek, Gilbert, Mingo County, WV

216

54. Photocopy from George S. Morison's The Nebraska City Bridge, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

54. Photocopy from George S. Morison's The Nebraska City Bridge, 1892. END POST/BEARING SHOE DETAIL OF DECK TRUSS - Nebraska City Bridge, Spanning Missouri River near Highway 2 between Nebraska & Iowa, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

217

Design and Analysis of Thermoplastic Composite Bridge Superstructures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is primarily focused on addressing the application of fiber reinforced composites (thermoplastics) in the design of bridge decks. Bridges are vital components of the nation's infrastructure, many of which are deteriorated. The replacement of su...

A. M. Abro N. Uddin U. Vaidya

2007-01-01

218

Study of a Proposed Precast-Prestressed Composite Bridge System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A particular type of precast-prestressed composite box bridge deck system is proposed for use in highway bridge construction on primary and secondary roadways. The basic concept and design procedure, as well as an evaluation of the structural performance ...

J. R. Salmons

1970-01-01

219

Density Profiling of Asphalt Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Asphalt pavement density measurements were made using a conventional nuclear density gauge and a new electrical resistivity device called the Pavement Quality Indicator. Five sets of density tests were made at each of nine sites during, or immediately fol...

S. Shuler

2005-01-01

220

Development of Reliable Pavement Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current report proposes a framework for estimating the reliability of a given pavement structure as analyzed by the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). The methodology proposes using a previously fit response surface, in place of the ...

J. Prozzi J. P. Aguiar-Moya

2011-01-01

221

A Pavement Feedback Data System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The complex character of highway pavements coupled with ever-increasing traffic volumes and variability of climatic conditions have made it imperative that service life data be collected and analyzed to guide the design of new and reconstructed pavements....

O. G. Strom W. R. Hudson J. L. Brown

1972-01-01

222

Pavement Management Roadmap, Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) sponsored the development of a Pavement Management Roadmap to help identify the steps needed to address current gaps in pavement management and to establish research and development initiatives and priorities. Thi...

J. Krstulovich K. A. Zimmerman L. M. Pierce

2010-01-01

223

Fatigue analysis and life prediction of bridges with structural health monitoring data — Part I: methodology and strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is aimed at developing a methodology and strategy for fatigue damage assessment and life prediction of bridge-deck sections of existing bridges with online structural health monitoring data. A fatigue damage model based on the continuum damage mechanics (CDM) is developed for evaluating accumulative fatigue damage of existing bridges. A structural model for the fatigue stress analysis of bridge-deck

Z. X. Li; T. H. T. Chan; J. M. Ko

2001-01-01

224

Ultra Thin White Topping to re-strengthen infrastructural structures and pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 7 years a large research project was initiated in The Netherlands to develop a new revolutionary concrete overlay system to re-strengthen orthotropic steel bridge decks. In the last 3 years this heavily reinforced ultra thin white topping (HRUTWT) was not only used in several large applications to re-strengthen orthotropic steel bridge decks but also to re-strengthen several

P. Buitelaar; C. R. Braam

225

Pavement performance equations. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WSDOT PMS data base was used to develop regression equations for three pavement surface types: bituminous surface treatments, asphalt concrete, and portland-cement concrete. The primary regression equations developed were to predict Pavement Condition Rating (PCR) which is a measure of the pavement surface distress (ranges from 100 (no distress) to below 0 (extensive distress)). Overall, the equations fit the

J. P. Mahoney; R. K. Kay; N. C. Jackson

1988-01-01

226

Support vector machine based aerodynamic analysis of cable stayed bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flutter, a self-excited vibration resulting from the interaction between structural motion and aerodynamic force, is the major aspect in wind resistant design of cable stayed bridges. The critical speed for flutter of a deck section can be evaluated using the flutter derivatives obtained by sectional model testing of the bridge deck in a wind tunnel. Since it is very expensive,

Venkat Lute; Akhil Upadhyay; K. K. Singh

2009-01-01

227

10. DECK VIEW FORWARD FROM MAIN DECK TO FORECASTLE. NOTE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. DECK VIEW FORWARD FROM MAIN DECK TO FORECASTLE. NOTE PIPE FITTING FOR OIL PUMPING SYSTEM (DISCHARGE). THE HATCH OPENINGS TO RIGHT ARE ABOVE THE SHIP'S BOILER ROOM. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

228

Flexural Strength and Fatigue of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete (2004 Hale Boggs Deck).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Through its history, a variety of wearing surface systems for the orthotropic steel deck of the Luling Bridge (aka Hale Boggs Bridge) have been built and studied. The main problem with these systems was they did not last the expected service life (20 + ye...

J. Eggers T. D. Rupnow

2008-01-01

229

Pavement Marking Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a final report for a study to review and evaluate the performance of pavement marking in Colorado. The report covers the performance of materials installed transverse to the road and panel review of several long-line striping projects with higher-...

R. G. Griffin

1990-01-01

230

Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide Implementation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recently introduced Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) and associated computer software provides a state-of-practice mechanistic-empirical highway pavement design methodology. The MEPDG methodology is based on pavement responses compu...

N. R. Stires R. L. Baus

2010-01-01

231

POROUS PAVEMENT: RESEARCH; DEVELOPMENT; AND DEMONSTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper discusses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's porous pavement research program along with the economics, advantages, potential applications, and status and future research needs of porous pavements. Porous pavements are an available stormwater management techniq...

232

Longterm sensor-based monitoring of an LRFD designed steel girder bridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new AASHTO LRFD bridge design specifications allow the use of the arching action mechanism in concrete slabs to design lightweight bridge decks. The Star City Bridge in Morgantown, WV is designed according to the LRFD code and measures 306 m over 4 spans. In an effort to demonstrate the long-term performance of in-service light-weight bridge decks, the bridge was heavily

Samir N. Shoukry; Mourad Y. Riad; Gergis W. William

2009-01-01

233

Influence of Turbulence and Deck Section Geometry on the Aeroelastic Behaviour of a Cable-Stayed Bridge Model (Les Effects de la Geometrie de Sections de Tablier sur le Comportement Aerolastique d'une Maquette de Pont a Haubans).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research on bridge aerodynamics has made substantial progress behaviour based on various scale model tests performed in wind tunnels. In spite of these efforts, there still remain important effects that are not completely understood; one of which is the e...

S. J. Zan H. Yamada H. Tanaka

1986-01-01

234

27. VIEW NORTHWEST FROM DECKING ON SOUTHEAST CORNER OF PIVOT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. VIEW NORTHWEST FROM DECKING ON SOUTHEAST CORNER OF PIVOT PIER, DRIVE SYSTEM FOR SWING-SPAN INCLUDES: (from left to right) WEDGE DRIVE GEAR BOX, SHAFTS TO WEDGE DRIVE DRIVE, WEDGE DRIVE CRANK SHAFTS, ELECTRIC MOTOR, INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER GASOLINE ENGINE, CONTROL RODS FOR STARTING AND CHOKING ENGINE, PIVOT (bottom center), AND TRACK ON CONCRETE PIER - Tipers Bridge, Spanning Great Wicomico River at State Route 200, Kilmarnock, Lancaster County, VA

235

View to southwest along bridge alignment, showing reverse curve from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View to southwest along bridge alignment, showing reverse curve from near deck level; Southern Pacific Railroad track passing beneath bridge; Western Pacific Railroad track out of sight behind bridge; photographer unknown; 1933 photo from collection of Office of Structures Maintenance, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento - Carroll Overhead Bridge, Altamont Pass Road, Livermore, Alameda County, CA

236

Experimental investigation of double composite twin-girder railway bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

A railway bridge with a double composite section has been proposed to enhance the structural performance of existing twin-girder bridges, because the governing design parameter of railway bridges is flexural stiffness. The concrete deck in negative moment regions is neglected in the design of continuous composite bridges assuming the concrete slab has no resistance to tension. Therefore, the flexural stiffness

Hyun-Ho Kim; Chang-Su Shim

2009-01-01

237

Timber Bridges in Central Europe, yesterday, today, tomorrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, limber bridges have played an important role. The decline of timber bridge building was triggered by the development of competing materials: steel and concrete. Governing factors for the revival of limber bridge building in the eighties has been the development of timber engineering, of glued laminated timber (treated and untreated), as well as of the laminated bridge deck.

Ulrich A. Meierhofer

238

14. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING DAMAGE TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING DAMAGE TO FLOOR BEAMS AND DECK OF WEST APPROACH SPAN, CAUSED WHEN CONTRACTOR'S FORCES, WORKING ON ADJACENT ABUTMENT FOR REPLACEMENT BRIDGE, DYNAMITED GRANITE BOULDERS INTO UPSTREAM SIDE OF HISTORIC BRIDGE - Middle Fork Stanislaus River Bridge, Spans Middle Fork Stanislaus River at State Highway 108, Dardanelle, Tuolumne County, CA

239

Concrete bridge inspection with a mobile GPR system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed knowledge of the present condition of bridges is essential for the planning of maintenance and rehabilitation. Mobile ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems are efficient tools for obtaining information such as depth of rebar, asphalt pavement thickness and concrete damage beneath the pavement. Non-destructive testing, quasi-continuous results and efficient data acquisition are the main advantages of mobile GPR systems.

J. Hugenschmidt

2002-01-01

240

Binzhou Perpetual Pavement Test Road  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressway construction has been carried out on a large-scale in China. Vigorous economical development has caused rapid growth in traffic volume and truck axle loads creating a severe challenge for the pavement structure design. Therefore, the high-performance and low- maintenance cost of a long-life perpetual pavement structure is gaining attention. This paper discusses the first perpetual asphalt pavement test road

Yongshun Yang; Jincheng Wei; Wang Lin; David Timm; Gerald Huber

2009-01-01

241

Demonstration of dual-band infrared thermal imaging at Grass Valley Creek bridges  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrated dual-band infrared (DBIR) thermal imaging at the Grass Valley Creek Bridges near Redding CA. DBIR thermal imaging is an enabling technology for rapid, reliable, bridge deck inspections while minimizing lane closures. bridge-deck inspections were conducted from a mobile DBIR bridge inspection laboratory during November 2-3, 1995. We drove this self-contained unit at limited highway speeds over 0.4 lane miles of bridge deck. Using two thermal IR bands, we distinguished delaminations from clutter. Clutter, or unwanted thermal detail, occurs from foreign materials or uneven shade on the bridge deck surface. By mapping the DBIR spectral- response differences at 3-5 {mu}m and 8-12 {mu}m, we removed foreign material clutter. By mapping the deck diurnal thermal inertia variations, we removed clutter from uneven shade. Thermal inertia is a bulk deck property, the square root of thermal conductivity x density x heat capacity. Delaminated decks have below-average thermal inertias, or above-average day-night temperature excursions. Compared to normal decks areas, delaminated deck areas were typically 2 or 3 {degrees}C warmer at noon, and 0.5{degrees}C cooler at night. The mobile DBIR bridge inspection laboratory is currently undergoing extensive testing to examine bridges by the Federal Highway Administration.

Del Grande, N. K.; Durbin, P.F.; Logan, C.M.; Perkins, D.E.; Schich, P.C.

1996-11-01

242

Nondestructive evaluation inspection of the Arlington Memorial Bridge using a robotic assisted bridge inspection tool (RABIT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The information presented in this report provides a detailed assessment of the condition of the Arlington Memorial Bridge (AMB) deck. The field-data collection was obtained by both the RABIT™ Bridge Inspection Tool and a number of semi-automated non-destructive evaluation (NDE) tools. The deployment of the semi-automated NDE tools was performed to inspect the AMB deck condition and also to validate data obtained by the RABIT™ Bridge Inspection Tool. Data mining and analysis were accomplished through enhanced data interpretation and visualization capabilities using advanced data integration, fusion, and 2D rendering. One of the major challenges that the research team had to overcome in assessing the condition of the AMB deck was the presence of an asphalt overlay on the entire bridge deck.

Gucunski, Nenad; Boone, Shane D.; Zobel, Rob; Ghasemi, Hamid; Parvardeh, Hooman; Kee, Seong-Hoon

2014-04-01

243

Seismic fragility curves for greek bridges: methodology and case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focusses on the estimation of seismic fragility curves for all common bridge types found in modern greek motorways.\\u000a At first a classification scheme is developed in order to classify the existing bridges into a sufficient number of classes.\\u000a A total of 11 representative bridge classes resulted, based on the type of piers, deck, and pier-to-deck connection. Then\\u000a an

Ioannis F. Moschonas; Andreas J. Kappos; Panagiotis Panetsos; Vissarion Papadopoulos; Triantafyllos Makarios; Pavlos Thanopoulos

2009-01-01

244

Development of Improved Pavement Performance Prediction Models for the Indiana Pavement Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) is increasingly committed to the Pavement Management System. For this reason, updated simple pavement performance prediction models with the least number of explanatory (independent) variables are required to predict the performance of various pavement types for future planning of rehabilitation or replacement. In Indiana, the two main pavement types are jointed concrete pavement (JCP)

Sedat Gulen; Karen Zhu; John Weaver; Jie Shan; William F. Flora

2001-01-01

245

Rehabilitation Strategies for Highway Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NCHRP Project 1-38 was conducted to develop a process for selection of appropriate rehabilitation strategies for the ranges of pavement types and conditions found in the United States. A review of the pavement rehabilitation practices of State DOTs, and t...

C. E. Correa K. T. Hall R. P. Elliot S. H. Carpenter

2001-01-01

246

Pavement roughness and skid properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Road roughness and roadway safety as it relates to both surface and air transportation are discussed. The role of road roughness in vehicle ride, the measurement of roughness, the evaluation of riding confort, and the effect of grooving pavements are discussed. The effects of differential pavement friction on the response of cars in skidding maneuvers is discussed.

247

Automatic Pavement Distress Setection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistics published by the Federal Highway Administration indicates that maintenance and rehabilitation of highway pavements in the United States requires over $17 billion a year. Conventional visual and manual pavement distress analysis approaches that the inspectors traverse the roads, stop and measure the distress objects when they are found, are very costly, time-consuming, dangerous, labor-intensive, tedious, subjective, having high degree

Heng-da Cheng; Mario Miyojim

1998-01-01

248

Geotextiles in Flexible Pavement Construction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People everywhere in the developed world regularly drive on paved roads. Learning about the construction techniques and materials used in paving benefits technology and construction students. This article discusses the use of geosynthetic textiles in pavement construction. It presents background on pavements and describes geotextiles and drainage…

Alungbe, Gabriel D.

2004-01-01

249

46 CFR 178.430 - Drainage of well deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.430 Drainage of well deck vessels. (a) The weather deck on a well deck vessel must be watertight. (b) The area required on...

2013-10-01

250

46 CFR 178.430 - Drainage of well deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.430 Drainage of well deck vessels. (a) The weather deck on a well deck...

2009-10-01

251

Innovations in Glulam Timber Bridge Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 , Non-Member Abstract Structural glued laminated timber has been successfully used as a bridge material in the United States for more than 50 years. Until the late 1980s, the majority of these bridges were conventional girder or deck superstructures manufactured from softwood lumber species. Recently, applications employing glued laminated timber have been expanded to include alternative wood species and

Michael A. Ritter; Thomas G. Williamson; Russell C. Moody

252

Mormon Creek Bridge: Performance After Three Years.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Mormon Creek Bridge is an experimental parallel-chord, stress-laminated deck design. It is the first of its kind and has been in service for more than 3 years. The structural performance and experimental features of the bridge have been monitored cont...

W. J. McCutcheon

1992-01-01

253

A three dimensional approach for tracking cracks in bridges using GPR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion associated with reinforcing bars is the most significant contributor to bridge deficiencies. The corrosion is usually caused by moisture and chloride ion exposure. The reinforcing bars are attacked by corrosion and yield expansive corrosion products. These oxidation products occupy a larger volume than the original intact steel and internal expansive stresses lead to cracking and debonding. There are some conventional inspection methods for the detection of the reinforcing bar's corrosion but they can be invasive and destructive, often laborious, and lane closure is required and it is difficult or unreliable for any quantification of corrosion. For these reasons, bridge engineers always prefer more to use the ground penetrating radar (GPR) technique. In this work a novel numerical approach for three dimensional tracking and mapping of cracks in the bridge is proposed. The work starts from some interesting results based on the use of the 3D imaging technique in order to improve the potentiality of the GPR to detect voids, cracks or buried objects. The numerical approach has been tested on data acquired on a bridge by using a pulse GPR system specifically designed for bridge deck and pavement inspection. The equipment integrates two arrays of Ultra Wide Band ground coupled antennas, having a main working frequency of 2 GHz. The two arrays are using antennas arranged with a different polarization. The cracks, associated often to moisture increase and higher values of the dielectric constant, produce a not negligible increase of the signal amplitude. Following this, the algorithm, organized in preprocessing, processing and postprocessing stages, analyzes the signal by comparing the value of the amplitude all over the domain of the radar scan.

Benedetto, Andrea

2013-10-01

254

Probabilistic and Adaptive Approach to Modeling Performance of Pavement Infrastructure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accurate prediction of pavement performance is critical to pavement management agencies. Reliable and accurate predictions of pavement infrastructure performance can save significant amounts of money for pavement infrastructure management agencies through...

Z. Li Z. Zhang

2007-01-01

255

Surface Preparation of Pavements Prior to Application of Pavement Markings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project was undertaken to demonstrate that surface preparation of pavements by wire brushing prior to application of traffic marking paint would result in extended service life of traffic marking paint. A brush assembly was designed, fabricated and i...

J. M. Dale

1980-01-01

256

61. MISSISSIPPI, NOXUBEE CO. MACON MAHORNER'S BRIDGE Ms. 14, 6 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

61. MISSISSIPPI, NOXUBEE CO. MACON MAHORNER'S BRIDGE Ms. 14, 6 miles E to McLeod, 4.5 miles S on McLeod-Shuqualak road. Overall view of bridge, looking E along N side, from below deck level. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

257

PCC Pavement Texturing in Illinois.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seven textures were formed in the plastic surface of a CRC pavement during construction. They were formed using transverse tines, transverse broom, artificial turf, transverse roller, artificial turf-transverse tine combination, longitudinal broom, and lo...

J. N. Davidson

1977-01-01

258

Evaluation of Profiled Pavement Markings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study evaluated flat thermoplastic markings (FTM) and profiled pavement markings (PPM) installed on highways maintained by the Alabama Department of Transportation. The primary objectives of this evaluation were to compare service life, life-cycle co...

J. K. Lindly R. K. Wijesundera

2003-01-01

259

Pavement Management Surveillance Systems Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study evaluates available pavement distress surveillance equipment and recommends a system of proven value to the Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department. The requirements of the system are that it be able to provide summary data for pave...

M. Bradley

1988-01-01

260

Permanent deformation of flexible pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven pairs of pavements with granular bases were tested under controlled conditions. One pavement in each pair contained fabric inclusions. An improved testing facility was developed, including: (1) servo-hydraulic system for the loading carriage; (2) amplification and read-out system for pressure cells; (3) linearizing unit for strain coils; (4) transducers for measuring vertical and resilient deflection; (5) techniques for measuring in situ strain on fabric inclusions; (6) extensive use of nuclear density meter to monitor pavement and foundation materials. The following conclusions are drawn: (1) No improvement in performance resulted from fabric inclusions. (2) No consistent reduction in in-situ stresses, resilient strains, or permanent strains was observed as a result of fabric inclusion. (3) No consistent improvement in densities resulted from fabric inclusions. (4) Some slip apparently occurred between fabric and soil on those pavements which involved large deformations. The slip occurred between fabric and crushed limestone base rather than between fabric and silty-clay subgrade.

Brown, S. F.; Broderick, B. V.; Pappin, J. W.

1980-06-01

261

Pervious Pavement System Evaluation- Abstract  

EPA Science Inventory

Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, gra...

262

Cumberland Gap Tunnel Pavement Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Kentucky Transportation Center was contacted by the Cumberland Gap Tunnel Authority in 2001 to conduct a Falling Weight Deflectormeter (FWD) test on the concrete pavement structure at two locations in the southbound tunnel that appeared to be settling...

B. Rister

2005-01-01

263

Development of a numerical model for bridge–vehicle interaction and human response to traffic-induced vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perceptible vibration of composite steel girder bridges under live loads is an important design consideration in today’s bridges, which have longer spans and lighter decks than older bridges, and have with limited damping. Although, in accordance with the bridge design codes, the strength design and the deflection control of these bridges are covered fairly well, vehicle movement on the

Hassan Moghimi; Hamid R. Ronagh

2008-01-01

264

Design of Structures 2001. Bridges, Other Structures, and Hydraulics and Hydrology. Journal of the Transportation Research Board No. 1770.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Foreword; Design of Route 895 Bridge over James River in Virginia; Field Investigation of High-Performance Concrete Bridge Decks in South Carolina; Repair and Strengthening of Concrete Structures Through Application of Corrective Posttensioning ...

2001-01-01

265

Analysis of Two-Layered Pavement Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents in detail the method of analysis used to interpret plate bearing test data using the Burmister layered pavement theory. The method is applicable to the analysis of any two-layered pavement system. (Author)

J. Nielsen

1964-01-01

266

Laser Measurement of Pavement Surface Textures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A laboratory investigation was conducted into the feasibility of employing laser light depolarization as a measure of pavement surface textures. Pavement cores representing different conditions of wear were employed in the investigation, as were newly for...

S. Gee W. L. King

1974-01-01

267

Marginal Aggregates in Flexible Pavements: Field Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utilization of substandard or marginal aggregates in flexible pavement construction of airport pavements. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effects of using lower quality aggregates such as rou...

R. C. Ahlrich

1998-01-01

268

Design, Evaluation, and Performance of Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 12 papers in this report deal with the following areas: The resilient modulus of subgrade reaction; finite-element model with stress-dependent support; structural model for concrete block pavement; effect of concrete shoulders on concrete pavement per...

J. A. Fischer M. R. Thompson A. M. Ioannides E. J. Barenberg A. A. A. Molenaar

1984-01-01

269

Pavement Quality Indicators Study Five Year Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Nebraska Department of Roads (NDOR) conducts annual examinations of the Nebraska's interstate and federal highway pavements. During these examinations, numerous indicators of pavement quality are measured directly or are compiled from parameters recor...

C. Kluver W. Jensen

2008-01-01

270

State of Nebraska Pavement Management Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Pavement Management System described in the following pages basically fulfills the requirements outlined in the Federal register, Vol. 58, No. 229, Paragraph 500.207. This was accomplished with the 2004 completion of the Pavement Optimization Program ...

2005-01-01

271

Pervious Pavement System Evaluation-Poster  

EPA Science Inventory

Pervious pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Environmental Protection Agency's Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavingstone pervious pavement systems. The pavingstones themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between...

272

Pavement Condition Evaluation Utilizing Dynamic Deflection Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study, the research efforts were directed toward the development of pavement condition evaluation techniques and analysis procedures for flexible and rigid overlay pavement design. This investigation also included a detailed field evaluation of an...

K. Majidzadeh

1977-01-01

273

Investigation of Development of Pavement Roughness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program was designed as a 20-year study of pavement performance. The LTPP program consists of two programs: (1) General Pavement Studies (GPS) that use in-service test sections in either their original design phas...

C. Byrum R. W. Perera S. D. Kohn

1998-01-01

274

Impact of pavement conditions on crash severity.  

PubMed

Pavement condition has been known as a key factor related to ride quality, but it is less clear how exactly pavement conditions are related to traffic crashes. The researchers used Geographic Information System (GIS) to link Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Crash Record Information System (CRIS) data and Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) data, which provided an opportunity to examine the impact of pavement conditions on traffic crashes in depth. The study analyzed the correlation between several key pavement condition ratings or scores and crash severity based on a large number of crashes in Texas between 2008 and 2009. The results in general suggested that poor pavement condition scores and ratings were associated with proportionally more severe crashes, but very poor pavement conditions were actually associated with less severe crashes. Very good pavement conditions might induce speeding behaviors and therefore could have caused more severe crashes, especially on non-freeway arterials and during favorable driving conditions. In addition, the results showed that the effects of pavement conditions on crash severity were more evident for passenger vehicles than for commercial vehicles. These results provide insights on how pavement conditions may have contributed to crashes, which may be valuable for safety improvement during pavement design and maintenance. Readers should notice that, although the study found statistically significant effects of pavement variables on crash severity, the effects were rather minor in reality as suggested by frequency analyses. PMID:23892046

Li, Yingfeng; Liu, Chunxiao; Ding, Liang

2013-10-01

275

Environmental policy for long-life pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses life-cycle assessment to evaluate the role of long-life pavements in achieving environmental goals. The success of such pavements in reducing environmental impacts over their life cycle hinges on their ability to serve their intended purpose for their design life. Those pavements that do serve for their entire design life offer extreme longevity at only a marginal environmental

Nicholas J. Santero; John Harvey; Arpad Horvath

2011-01-01

276

Capturing Solar Energy from Asphalt Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of extracting heat energy from asphalt pavements has been investigated in this study. The scope of work consisted of finite element modeling and testing with small and large scale asphalt pavement samples. Water flowing through copper tubes inserted within asphalt pavements samples were used as heat exchangers in the experiments. The rise in temperature of water as a

Rajib B. Mallick; Bao-Liang Chen; Sankha Bhowmick; Michael S. Hulen

277

Making "Magic" Sidewalks of Pervious Pavement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use everyday building materialsâsand, pea gravel, cement and waterâto create and test pervious pavement. They learn what materials make up a traditional, impervious concrete mix and how pervious pavement mixes differ. Groups are challenged to create their own pervious pavement mixes, experimenting with material ratios to evaluate how infiltration rates change with different mix combinations.

Water Awareness Research and Education (WARE) Research Experience for Teachers (RET),

278

Field Performance of Stress-Laminated Highway Bridges Constructed with Glued Laminated Timber  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the field performance of three stress-laminated deck timber bridges located in Wisconsin, New York, and Arizona. The deck superstructures of these single-span highway bridges is comprised of full-span glued laminated timber (glulam) beam laminations manufactured with southern pine, hem fir\\/red maple combination, and\\/or Douglas fir lumber species. These bridge structures were evaluated as part of a National

J. P. Wacker

279

CONSIDERATIONS ON DIMENSIONING OF GARAGE DECKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This work deals with the optimization of ro-ro\\/pax deck structures, focusing on the primary supporting beams in absence of pillars, as these decks have to be free, as far as possible, in order to facilitate the ship loading and unloading. Some typical ro-ro\\/pax grillage type decks have been analyzed, aiming at a numerical comparison between the primary supporting beam

Antonio Campanile; Masino Mandarino; Vincenzo Piscopo

280

46 CFR 132.320 - Helicopter-landing decks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Helicopter-landing decks. 132.320 Section...EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.320 Helicopter-landing decks. Each vessel with a helicopter-landing deck must meet the fire...

2013-10-01

281

58. MISSISSIPPI, NOXUBEE CO. MACON MAHORNER'S BRIDGE, 1884, Ms. 14, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

58. MISSISSIPPI, NOXUBEE CO. MACON MAHORNER'S BRIDGE, 1884, Ms. 14, E 6.5 mi. to McLeod, 4.5 miles S on McLeod-Shuqualak road. Mahorner's bridge (1884). Lower panel point, west span. View is at right-angles to the bridge and from below deck level. show pin connection, floor beams, and stringers. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

282

T-Section Glulam Timber Bridge Modules: Modeling and Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design, modeling, and testing of two portable timber bridges, each consisting of two non- interconnected longitudinal glued-laminated timber (glulam) deck panel modules 1.8 m (6 ft) wide. One bridge is 12.2 m (40 ft) long while the other bridge is 10.7 m (35 ft) long. The modules are fabricated in a double-tee cross section. The bridge

Paul A. Morgan; Steven E. Taylor; Michael A. Ritter; John M. Franklin

283

Development of Pavement Temperature Contours for India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stress-strain response of the bituminous pavements is highly sensitive to temperature. To systematically analyze the pavement performance, it is necessary that one understands the variation of pavement temperature spatially and temporally during the life time of a pavement. In this investigation, historic air temperature data for 37 locations across India was collected. Using this database, pavement temperature data was predicted by an appropriate air temperature-pavement temperature model. High and low temperature pavement temperature contours were generated for the first time for India. It was seen that the locations spanning from Srinagar to Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan to Orissa were extremely critical. The minimum temperature in these locations was - 10° C and the maximum temperature was around 68° C. Clearly such information is necessary when making choice of binder grade and bituminous layer thickness.

Nivitha, M. R.; Krishnan, J. M.

2014-06-01

284

Porous pavement. Phase 1: Design and operational criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization concepts, benefits and disadvantages, as well as other characteristics of porous pavements are presented with emphasis on porous asphalt pavements, but the criteria and design approach are applicable to all other porous pavement types. Design considerations include siting problems, load bearing design and hydrologic design. The history of porous pavement development and previous experience with porous pavement by several

E. V. Diniz

1980-01-01

285

LSD 36 Well Deck Fire Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Large scale fire tests were conducted to evaluate proposed systems for protection of the well deck area on LSD 36 Class ships. The fire threat involves the crash of a helicopter on the flight deck spilling burning JP-5 fuel onto the landing craft and vehi...

G. G. Back J. T. Leonard R. C. Beller R. E. Burns R. L. Darwin

1991-01-01

286

A Guide to the Structural Design of Pavements for New Roads.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Selection of the type of pavement; Estimation of traffic for design purposes; Design life of pavements; Design of flexible pavements; Design of concrete pavements; Design of pavements with a continuously reinforced concrete base and bituminous s...

1970-01-01

287

Pavement Management 2009, Volume 1. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2093.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report includes 15 papers that explore the quality of automated pavement distress data collection, pavement maintenance prioritization, long-term pavement performance profile data for flexible pavements, user-oriented model for pavement funding decis...

2009-01-01

288

The Concrete and Pavement Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The modern world is characterized by the extensive use of concrete and asphalt pavement. Periodically, these materials are replaced and the old materials disposed of. In this challenge, students will be asked to develop ways to reuse the old materials. It is important for students to understand how concrete and asphalt are made and applied, as…

Roman, Harry T.

2012-01-01

289

A simplified fragility analysis of fan type cable stayed bridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simplified fragility analysis of fan type cable stayed bridges using Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) procedure is presented for determining their failure probability under random ground motion. Seismic input to the bridge support is considered to be a risk consistent response spectrum which is obtained from a separate analysis. For the response analysis, the bridge deck is modeles as a beam supported on spring at different points. The stiffnesses of the springs are determined by a separate 2D static analysis of cable-tower-deck system. The analysis provides a coupled stiffness matrix for the spring system. A continuum method of analysis using dynamic stiffness is used to determine the dynamic properties of the bridges. The response of the bridge deck is obtained by the response spectrum method of analysis as applied to multidegree of freedom system which duly takes into account the quasi-static component of bridge deck vibration. The fragility analysis includes uncertainties arising due to the variation in ground motion, material property, modeling, method of analysis, ductility factor and damage concentration effect. Probability of failure of the bridge deck is determined by the First Order Second Moment (FOSM) method of reliability. A three span double plane symmetrical fan type cable stayed bridge of total span 689 m, is used as an illustrative example. The fragility curves for the bridge deck failure are obtained under a number of parametric variations. Some of the important conclusions of the study indicate that (i) not only vertical component but also the horizontal component of ground motion has considerable effect on the probability of failure; (ii) ground motion with no time lag between support excitations provides a smaller probability of failure as compared to ground motion with very large time lag between support excitation; and (iii) probability of failure may considerably increase soft soil condition.

Khan, R. A.; Datta, T. K.; Ahmad, S.

2005-06-01

290

Evaluation of MDOT's Distress Thresholds for Maintained Pavement Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As an alternative to traditional contracting, pavement warranty has been adopted in Mississippi since 2000, aimed to enhance pavement performance and protect the investment in pavement construction. Currently, a manual distress survey method and the assoc...

A. El Gendy F. Wang Y. Qi

2012-01-01

291

Perpetual Pavement Instrumentation for the Marquette Interchange Project Phase 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides details on the design, installation and monitoring of a pavement instrumentation system for the analysis of load-induced stresses and strains within a perpetual hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavement system. The HMA pavement was constructed a...

D. E. Newman J. A. Crovetti J. P. Schabelski N. J. Hornyak

2007-01-01

292

Effective Pavement Marking Practices for Sealcoat and Hot-Mix Asphalt Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the tasks of research conducted to identify effective pavement marking practices for seal coat and hot-mix asphalt (HMAC) pavements in Texas. The researchers reviewed literature, determined current Texas Department of Transportation ...

T. J. Gates H. G. Hawkins E. R. Rose

2003-01-01

293

15. BRIDGE TENDER ALBERT REEVES OF MAURICETOWN AND HELPER WALLY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. BRIDGE TENDER ALBERT REEVES OF MAURICETOWN AND HELPER WALLY HALES HOLDING HUGE KEY ABOVE HOLE IN DECK OF CENTER SWING SPAN TO REVEAL KEY BASETHE KEY IS SET UPON A MALE FITTING USED TO OPEN THE SPAN - Maurice River Pratt Through-Truss Swing Bridge, Spanning Maurice River, Mauricetown, Cumberland County, NJ

294

15. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING LONGITUDINAL STRINGERS SUPPORTING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING LONGITUDINAL STRINGERS SUPPORTING WOODEN DECK AND RESTING ON TRANSVERSE FLOOR BEAMS. DIAGONAL EYE BARS FOR REINFORCEMENT ARE SEEN AT CENTER; VIEW FROM SOUTH BANK. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

295

CLEAR FORK OF THE BRAZOS SUSPENSION BRIDGE, CIRCA 1896, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CLEAR FORK OF THE BRAZOS SUSPENSION BRIDGE, CIRCA 1896, SHOWING INCLINED STAY CABLES EXTENDING FROM TOP OF TOWER TO DECK. 3/4 VIEW FROM BELOW. - Clear Fork of Brazos River Suspension Bridge, Spanning Clear Fork of Brazos River at County Route 179, Albany, Shackelford County, TX

296

Nondestructive evaluation of FRP composite bridge components using infrared thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the findings of an experimental study on the use of Infrared Thermography for nondestructive evaluation of subsurface delaminations in Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composite bridge decks and concrete columns wrapped with FRP jackets. Composite bridge deck specimens were constructed in the laboratory with varying delamination sizes. The infrared images from the delaminated specimens were compared with undamaged specimens to study the effect of subsurface delaminations on the infrared images. In addition, field tests were conducted using infrared thermography on composite structural members of three bridges located in West Virginia. .

Halabe, U. B.; Alqennah, H.; Gangarao, H. V. S.; Klinkhachorn, P.; Sazonov, E. S.

2002-05-01

297

RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF BRIDGE MODELS WITH ELASTOMERIC BEARINGS AND SEISMIC STOPPERS UNDER STOCHASTIC EARTHQUAKE EXCITATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates the dynamics and reliability of bridge systems with decks supported on columns through elastomeric bearings, while seismic stoppers are used to re- strain the motion of the deck during moderate to strong earthquakes. The dynamics of these systems during earthquake shaking can be simulated using models with piecewise linear elas- tic stiffness elements arising from the motion

Kyriakos Perros; Costas Papadimitriou

298

GIMA ground penetrating radar system for monitoring concrete bridge decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been investigated as a non-destructive method for evaluating damage in concrete structures. However, the commercially available techniques are limited to detection of gross quantities of deterioration, due to the limited resolution of the system. The objective of this research is to evaluate a ground penetrating radar system with a novel Good Impedance Match Antenna (GIMA)

Dryver Huston; Jing Qiong Hu; Kenneth Maser; William Weedon; Chris Adam

2000-01-01

299

Structural reinforcement of bridge decks using pultruded GFRP grating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) products are being currently used in construction. Compared with steel, FRP products have the following advantages: non-corrosive, non-magnetic, high ratio of strength to weight, high durability, inherent resistance to weather and the corrosive effect of caustics and salts as well as aggressive chemicals. However, in case of structural applications, deflection control is usually expected to be the

Ashraf Biddah

2006-01-01

300

Development Length of GFRP Reinformcement in Concrete Bridge Decks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes an experimental program that investigated the development length and variability in bond of glass-fiber-reinforced-polymer (GFRP) reinforcement in concrete. The study variables included manufacturer (Marshall Industries Composites, ...

C. Shield C. W. French J. Hanus

2000-01-01

301

Field Testing of an Orthotropic Bridge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Field measurements of static live-load strains and deflections of an 88-ft 4-in simple-span orthotropic-plate-deck bridge are compared with a theoretical analysis that represents the structure as a planar grid. Design values based upon the AISC design man...

R. J. Kissane

1975-01-01

302

Manganese pavements on the blake plateau.  

PubMed

Dredge samples and photographs from the Blake Plateau, off the southeast coast of the United States, indicate that a layer of manganese oxide forms pavement that may be continuous over an area af about 5000 square kilometers. The manganese pavement grades into round manganese nodules to the south and east and into phosphate nodules to the west. The Gulf Stream probably maintains a very unusual environment that prohibits deposition of clastic sediment and permits accretion of manganese pavements. PMID:17739590

Pratt, R M; McFarlin, P F

1966-03-01

303

The Effectiveness of Hot-deck Procedures in Small Samples.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simulation study was conducted to identify the best hot-deck variation to impute missing values. The three variations included in the study were the hot-deck random, the hot-deck sequential, and the hot-deck distance. The properties of these methods were investigated under three levels of the proportion of incomplete records and four levels…

Kaiser, Javaid

304

46 CFR 178.410 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.410 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must be watertight and have...

2013-10-01

305

46 CFR 116.1110 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Drainage and Watertight Integrity of Weather Decks § 116.1110 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must be watertight and have...

2013-10-01

306

4. VIEW OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 05100025D01986N (JAMES P. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 051-00025D-01986N (JAMES P. HOULIHAN BRIDGE) FACING EAST SHOWING STEEL GRID DECKING. OPERATOR'S HOUSE LOCATED ON UPPER SECTION OF TRUSS. - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 051-00025D-01986N, US 17 & State Route 25 Spanning Savannah River, Port Wentworth, Chatham County, GA

307

Development, Testing, and Evaluation of NDOR's Tl-5 Aestetic Open Concrete Bridge Rail.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new Test Level (TL-5) aesthetic open concrete bridge railing system was developed, crash tested, and evaluated for use with reinforced concrete bridge decks. The 1,067-mm (42-in.) high bridge rail was constructed 37.03-m(121-ft 6-in.) long with fifteen ...

K. A. Polivka R. K. Faller J. C. Holloway J. R. Rohde

2005-01-01

308

Structural health monitoring of Lindquist bridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many forestry bridges in Canada are typically single-lane, single span structures with two steel plate girders and a deck comprising of precast reinforced concrete panels. The concept of arching in deck slabs was utilized in the steel-free precast panels used in the Lindquist Bridge in British Columbia, Canada. The panels were completely devoid of tensile reinforcement and transverse confinement to the panels was provided by external steel straps. After the bridge was constructed in 1998, electrical strain gauges were installed on the girders and straps. Static and dynamic load tests were performed. The cracks on the top and bottom of the deck were mapped in 1999 and 2003. In 2006, a load test and crack mapping were performed on the bridge. The strain readings in the straps were compared with the data obtained 8 years prior. After analysis of the strain gauge readings, conclusions were drawn on the performance of the bridge. The cracks were formed to accommodate arching action and it was concluded that the bridge is still performing as it was designed.

Sargent, D. D.; Murison, E. R.; Bakht, B.; Mufti, A. A.

2007-05-01

309

Outdoor Math 2000: Pricing a Deck  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students Read a diagram and determine the minimum cost of each of the three deck designs, using prices and information about lumber from a chart. Then they apply the Pythagoreum theorum to calculate nonstandard shapes.

2010-01-01

310

Resource management on the flight deck. [conferences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several approaches to the training and selection of aircrew are presented including both industry and nonindustry perspectives. Human factor aspects of the problem are also examined with specific emphasis on the psychology of the flight deck situation.

Cooper, G. E. (editor); White, M. D. (editor); Lauber, J. K. (editor)

1980-01-01

311

The Collapse of the I-35W Bridge in Minneapolis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On Wednesday, Aug. 1, 2007, at 6:05 p.m. (during evening rush hour), the I-35W bridge across the Mississippi River in Minneapolis collapsed, killing 13 people and injuring 145. At the time of the collapse, repair work was in progress on the deck of the bridge, resulting in an additional 287 tons of construction material and equipment being on the bridge deck. This paper will present an analysis of a simple but similar bridge structure, using only Newton's second law. This analysis can give some insights into the cause of the collapse. This paper is the third of a series on bridge collapses, the first two being on the Tacoma Narrows Bridge1 and the Nimitz Freeway.2

Feldman, Bernard J.

2010-11-01

312

Commercial aircraft flight deck noise criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a method for obtaining results that could contribute to the establishment of commercial jet aircraft flight deck noise criteria, fifty persons were exposed to simulations of various flight deck noise exposure conditions. Exposure levels investigated were 75, 80 and 85 dBA for periods of 1, 2, and 4 hours. Noise spectra representing both older narrow-body and newer technology wide-body

J. E. Mabry; B. M. Sullivan; R. A. Shields

1979-01-01

313

Estimation of torsional-flutter probability in flexible bridges considering randomness in flutter derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Torsional-flutter instability is an aeroelastic phenomenon of interest to the bridge engineer, corresponding to a torsionally unstable vibration regime of the deck driven by wind excitation and appearing beyond a certain critical wind velocity. In this study a method for the derivation of the flutter probability for long-span bridges with bluff decks is proposed.In the first part of this study

Dong-Woo Seo; Luca Caracoglia

2011-01-01

314

Predicting Performance of Pavements by Deflection Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The two main objectives of this study are to develop a means for predicting the life of flexible pavements by use of deflection measurements of selected in-service pavements, and to determine which of the three factors of traffic, soil support, or age hav...

W. J. Liddle G. M. Jones D. E. Peterson G. F. Nielson G. Peterson

1969-01-01

315

Reducing traffic noise with quieter pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, interest has increased in the use of pavement type to reduce traffic noise. This has been driven by public concern over noise from freeways and state transportation agencies' interest in using pavement instead of sound walls to mitigate traffic noise. Beginnings of the recent interest go back to 1998 with the formation of the Institute for Safe,

Paul Donavan

2005-01-01

316

Flexible pavement drainage monitoring, performance and stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pavement subsurface drainage is increasingly included in pavement designs. Typically, the subdrainage components consist of a drainage layer, edge collection system and outlet. Questions have developed relative to use of bound and unbound aggregate in the drainage layers as well as drainage layer location within the section. ^ The current study is a continuation of the study HPR-2078, “Locating the

Aiwen Feng

1999-01-01

317

Locating the Drainage Layer for Bituminous Pavements in Indiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pavement subsurface drainage and its effect on pavement performance has been a subject of interest since the 18th and 19th centuries. With no doubt the detrimental effects of heavy wheel loads on pavements with saturated base material is a significant factor. The consequence of subsurface water on pavement performance includes premature rutting, cracking, faulting, and increased roughness, all of which

Hossam Farouk. Hassan; Thomas D. White

1996-01-01

318

Laboratory investigation of portland cement concrete containing recycled asphalt pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) is the removed and\\/or reprocessed pavement material containing asphalt and aggregate. The use of RAP in asphalt pavement has become a common practice in the construction of new, and reconstruction of old, hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements. But little research has been done to examine the potential of incorporating RAP into concrete. Since RAP contains asphalt,

Baoshan Huang; Xiang Shu; Guoqiang Li

2005-01-01

319

QUANTIFICATION OF THE IMPACT OF SUBGRADE SWELLING IN PAVEMENT DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate prediction of the impact of environmental factors on pavement serviceability is important for a pavement design. In this regard, AASHTO Pavement Design Guidelines (1986) provide a rational method of incorporating the effects of roadbed swelling and frost action. According to the AASHTO (1986) procedure, the present serviceability index (PSI) loss of a pavement segment due to environmental factors is

1996-01-01

320

PAVEMENT DAMAGE FROM TRANSIT BUSES AND MOTOR COACHES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the load-associated pavement damage effects of transit and intercity (motor coaches) buses operating on urban and rural interstate highway systems. The paper presents analyses of (i) the effect of pavement surface roughness on pavement damage potential from transit and intercity buses with different lengths, (ii) the effects of changes in the weights of transit buses on pavement

Edward Fekpe

321

Study of image-based pavement cracking measurement techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cracking is one of the most common diseases that happen to the pavement and a field cracking survey and a forensic investigation are important work for preventive maintenance. In order to measure the pavement crackings automatically, this paper uses digital image processing techniques to process the pavement cracking images acquired by the digital camera and classify the pavement cracking types

Sun Zhaoyun; Wang Chaofan; Sha Aimin

2009-01-01

322

Modeling and experimental testing of a smart composite bridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An all composite bridge with integral sensor network has been designed and built at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR). An extensive experimental study and finite element analysis were carried out to obtain and compare properties (stiffness, strength, failure modes) of 76 mm (3 in) square hollow pultruded Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) tubes and their assemblies. Tube assemblies were used in the fabrication of bridge deck designed for H-20 truckloads as specified by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). The bridge is 9.14 m (30 ft) long and is 2.74 m (9 ft) wide. All the coupons were tested under three- or four-point bending. Experimental results show excellent linear elastic behavior up to failure and are in good agreement with finite element solutions. A quarter portion of the full-sized bridge deck was then tested for its structural performance under design and fatigue loading and also for ultimate load capacity to evaluate the bridge response. The characteristics of the full-size bridge deck were determined by analyzing the performed tests. The test sample showed almost no reduction in stiffness or strength after 2 million cycles of fatigue loading in excess of the design load. The bridge was installed at the UMR campus in July 2000. The bridge is equipped with fiber optic sensors, and the response of the bridge will be remotely monitored.

Chandrashekhara, K.; Nanni, Antonio; Watkins, Steve E.; Kumar, Prakash

2003-10-01

323

Improving rutting resistance of pavement structures using geosynthetics: an overview.  

PubMed

A pavement structure consists of several layers for the primary purpose of transmitting and distributing traffic loads to the subgrade. Rutting is one form of pavement distresses that may influence the performance of road pavements. Geosynthetics is one type of synthetic materials utilized for improving the performance of pavements against rutting. Various studies have been conducted on using different geosynthetic materials in pavement structures by different researchers. One of the practices is a reinforcing material in asphalt pavements. This paper intends to present and discuss the discoveries from some of the studies on utilizing geosynthetics in flexible pavements as reinforcement against permanent deformation (rutting). PMID:24526919

Mirzapour Mounes, Sina; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Khodaii, Ali; Almasi, Mohammad Hadi

2014-01-01

324

75 FR 32902 - Wire Decking from the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...wire rack decking,'' ``wire mesh decking,'' ``bulk storage shelving...decking.'' Wire decking consists of wire mesh that is reinforced with structural supports...structural supports, that reinforce the wire mesh and that are welded or otherwise...

2010-06-10

325

Pavement distress detection and severity analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic recognition of road distresses has been an important research area since it reduces economic loses before cracks and potholes become too severe. Existing systems for automated pavement defect detection commonly require special devices such as lights, lasers, etc, which dramatically increase the cost and limit the system to certain applications. Therefore, in this paper, a low cost automatic pavement distress evaluation approach is proposed. This method can provide real-time pavement distress detection as well as evaluation results based on the color images captured from a camera installed on a survey vehicle. The entire process consists of two main parts: pavement surface extraction followed by pavement distress detection and classification. In the first part, a novel color segmentation method based on a feed forward neural network is applied to separate the road surface from the background. In the second part, a thresholding technique based on probabilistic relaxation is utilized to separate distresses from the road surface. Then, by inputting the geometrical parameters obtained from the detected distresses into a neural network based pavement distress classifier, the defects can be classified into different types. Simulation results are given to show that the proposed method is both effective and reliable on a variety of pavement images.

Salari, E.; Bao, G.

2011-02-01

326

Nonwoven Geotextile Interlayers for Separating Cementitious Pavement Layers: German Practice and U.S. Field Trails.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pavement engineering is traditionally a conservative field, but successful pavement engineers will constantly seek out proven innovative concepts with potential to improve pavement performance while reducing costs. Many pavement structures in the United S...

R. O. Rasmussen S. I. Garber

2009-01-01

327

Western States Drainable PCC Pavement Workshop. Held in Sacramento, California on July 21-22, 1993. Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Overview of Pavement Drainage Systems; Performance of Drainable PCC Pavements in Washington State; Arizona Experience With Concrete Pavements; Drainable PCC Pavements in Oregon; A Performance Evaluation of PCC Pavements Constructed on Permeable ...

R. Baumgardner L. Pierce G. Way L. Moore K. Smith S. Bemanian M. Farrar J. Stites G. Wells W. Nokes W. Frank J. Woodstrom

1993-01-01

328

Pavement crack detection based on texture feature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel automatic pavement crack detection approach based on texture feature is proposed. The bidirectional multi-level median filter is applied in pretreatment process to eliminate noise while maintain the details of crack edge. Improved center-symmetric local binary pattern (ICS-LBP) texture feature, local correlation texture feature and relative standard deviation texture feature are combined to detect the pavement cracks. Trained-decision strategy is applied to allocate each weight of features and texture features are extracted to train the weights. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provides better detection result in comparison with various crack extraction algorithms, and can detect the pavement crack quickly and effectively.

Zhang, Xiuhua; Chen, Yanjun; Hong, Hanyu

2011-11-01

329

123. FORWARD PORT VIEW OF THE ISLAND WITH FLIGHT DECK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

123. FORWARD PORT VIEW OF THE ISLAND WITH FLIGHT DECK GUN MOUNTS, TAKEN FROM FORWARD FLIGHT DECK. APRIL 1945, (NATIONAL ARCHIVES NO. 80-G-469299) - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

330

ROAD BRIDGES IN MINAMI-SANRIKU WASHED AWAY IN THE MARCH 11th 2011 GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On March 11th, 2011, Minami-Sanriku, located in the northeastern coast of Japan was severely inundated by the tsunami that followed the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. Road bridges near the coastlines in this area have been extensively damaged with their decks being overturned or carried over long distances. An attempt was made to deduce as rational scenarios as possible before remaining debris was cleaned up. Though the reasons for the washout of bridges can be many and complex, it is to be noted that bridge decks have hollows for the optimum light-weight solution, which fact eventually allowed the bridge decks to be carried over remarkable distances. Poor connection details and cavities, hollows between deck beams, are considered to have facilitated overturning due to uplift forces.

Aglipay, Mary Roxanne I.; Konagai, Kazuo; Kyokawa, Hiroyuki; Keshab, Sharma

331

Standard plans for southern pine bridges. Forest Service general technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication contains standardized designs and details for three timber bridge superstructure types, including stress-laminated sawn lumber bridges, stress laminated glued laminated timber (glulam) bridges, and longitudinal sawn lumber stringer bridges with transverse plank decks. Each set of plans encompasses numerous span length and width combinations, design loadings for AASHTO HS 20-44 and HS 25-44 vehicles, and two options for

P. D. Hilbrich Lee; M. A. Ritter; M. Triche

1995-01-01

332

Standard plans for southern pine bridges. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

This publication contains standardized designs and details for three timber bridge superstructure types, including stress-laminated sawn lumber bridges, stress laminated glued laminated timber (glulam) bridges, and longitudinal sawn lumber stringer bridges with transverse plank decks. Each set of plans encompasses numerous span length and width combinations, design loadings for AASHTO HS 20-44 and HS 25-44 vehicles, and two options for live-load deflection criteria.

Hilbrich Lee, P.D.; Ritter, M.A.; Triche, M.

1995-09-01

333

Riffle shuffles of a deck with repeated cards  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the Gilbert-Shannon-Reeds model for riffle shuffles and ask 'How many times must a deck of cards be shuffled for the deck to be in close to random order?'. In 1992, Bayer and Diaconis gave a solution which gives exact and asymptotic results for all decks of practical interest, e.g. a deck of 52 cards. But what if one

Sami Assaf; Persi Diaconis; K. Soundararajan

2009-01-01

334

Demonstration of dual-band infrared thermal imaging for bridge inspection. Phase II, final report  

SciTech Connect

Developing and implementing methods of effective bridge rehabilitation is a major issue for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). The nation spends $5 billion annually to replace, rehabilitate or construct new bridges. According to the National Bridge Inventory, over 100,000 U.S. bridges are structurally deficient. About 40,000 of these bridges have advanced deck deterioration. The most common causes of serious deck deterioration is delamination. Delaminations result when steel reinforcements within the bridge deck corrode, creating gaps that separate the concrete into layers. A reliable inspection technology, capable of identifying delaminations, would represent a power new tool in bridge maintenance. To date, most bridge inspections rely on human interpretation of surface visual features of chain dragging. These methods are slow, disruptive, unreliable and raise serious safety concerns. Infrared thermal imaging detects subsurface delaminations and surface clutter, which is introduced by foreign material on the roadway. Typically, foreign material which is not always evident on a video tape image, produces a unique IR reflectance background unlike the thermal response of a subsurface delamination. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses dual-band infrared (DBIR) thermal imaging to identify and remove nonthermal IR reflectance backgrounds from foreign material on the roadway. DBIR methods improve the performance of IR thermal imaging by a factor of ten, compared to single-band infrared (SBIR) methods. DBIR thermal imaging allows precise temperature measurement to reliably locate bridge deck delaminations and remove wavelength-dependent emissivity variations due to foreign material on the roadway.

Durbin, P.F.; Del Grande, N.K.; Schaich, P.C.

1996-03-01

335

46 CFR 173.062 - Drainage of weather deck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 173.062 Section 173.062 Shipping...VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.062 Drainage of weather deck. The weather deck of each sailing school vessel must be...

2013-10-01

336

46 CFR 92.10-45 - Weather deck communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 92.10-45...ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical...communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined...

2013-10-01

337

46 CFR 108.167 - Weather deck ladders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weather deck ladders. 108.167 Section 108...Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.167 Weather deck ladders. Each unit must have...permanent, inclined ladder between each weather deck. Classified...

2013-10-01

338

46 CFR 72.10-45 - Weather deck communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 72.10-45...ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 72.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical...communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent...

2013-10-01

339

46 CFR 174.215 - Drainage of weather deck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 174.215 Section 174.215 Shipping...Offshore Supply Vessels § 174.215 Drainage of weather deck. The weather deck must have open rails to allow rapid clearing...

2013-10-01

340

46 CFR 190.10-45 - Weather deck communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 190.10-45... Means of Escape § 190.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical...communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined...

2013-10-01

341

29 CFR 1918.36 - Weather deck rails.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weather deck rails. 1918.36 Section 1918.36...LONGSHORING Working Surfaces § 1918.36 Weather deck rails. Removable weather deck rails shall be kept in place except when...

2013-07-01

342

46 CFR 12.15-13 - Deck engine mechanic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Deck engine mechanic. 12.15-13 Section 12.15-13...Department § 12.15-13 Deck engine mechanic. (a) An applicant for an endorsement as deck engine mechanic shall be a person holding an MMC...

2009-10-01

343

49 CFR 1544.237 - Flight deck privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flight deck privileges. 1544.237 Section...OPERATORS Operations § 1544.237 Flight deck privileges. (a) For each aircraft that has a door to the flight deck, each aircraft operator must...

2013-10-01

344

46 CFR 12.15-13 - Deck engine mechanic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Deck engine mechanic. 12.15-13 Section 12.15-13...Department § 12.15-13 Deck engine mechanic. (a) An applicant for an endorsement as deck engine mechanic shall be a person holding an MMC...

2010-10-01

345

46 CFR 12.15-13 - Deck engine mechanic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Deck engine mechanic. 12.15-13 Section 12.15-13...Department § 12.15-13 Deck engine mechanic. (a) An applicant for an endorsement as deck engine mechanic shall be a person holding an MMC...

2013-10-01

346

Pavement Marking Management System Database, User's Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pavement markings play a critical role in maintaining a safe and efficient driving environment for road users, especially during nighttime conditions. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) spends millions of dollars each year for installation and...

Y. Zhang

2011-01-01

347

Maintenance Methods for Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In late 1974, test maintenance sections were constructed on a section of I-65 south of Indianapolis, Indiana. The road was stratified into 'similar' sections of pavement using deflection, cracking, and breakup as selection criteria. Various types of measu...

S. J. Virkler

1978-01-01

348

Long Term Monitoring of Moisture Under Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Monitoring of the environmental instrumentation installed under select pavement sections constructed by the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) in 1995 on US 23 in Delaware County, Ohio was continued. The measurements made consisted of soil moisture,...

J. Howdyshell T. Butalia W. Wolfe

2010-01-01

349

Degradation Modeling of Polyurea Pavement Markings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Polyurea is a long life pavement marking material used for assets requiring long periods of uninterrupted accessibility. Knowing the performance characteristics of such markings is critical to asset management planning focused on maximizing marking materi...

J. D. Needham

2011-01-01

350

Vibration Spectroscopy for Rigid Pavement Joint Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was conducted on the behavior of joints in concrete pavements, and on developing a non-destructive testing technique based on the frequency response of dynamically loaded joints. One of the objectives was to investigate the relationship between ...

L. Palmieri T. Krauthammer

1990-01-01

351

Evaluation of Concrete Pavement Patching Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of a study undertaken to improve in concrete pavement patching techniques. Activities included an evaluation of the suitability of the impact hammer and maturity calculations for determining when a patch is ready toreceive ...

M. M. Sprinkel K. K. McGhee

1989-01-01

352

Evaluation of Bituminous Pavement with Polypropylene Fiber.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a hot mix asphalt overlay modified with polypropylene fiber. In 1986, a continuously reinforced concrete pavement on Interstate 69 in Meridian, MS, was overlaid with hot mix asphalt binder and surfac...

M. Seshadri

1996-01-01

353

Pavement Thickness Surface Evenness and Construction Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structural performance and the riding quality of a road are strongly influenced by the accurate and uniform laying of the pavement materials to the appropriate design thickness. The report describes an investigation into the effectiveness of level-con...

J. C . McLellan

1982-01-01

354

Pervious Pavement System Evaluation- Abstract 1  

EPA Science Inventory

Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, gra...

355

Pilot Implementation of Concrete Pavement Thickness GPR.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research Project 5-4414 'Pilot Implementation of Concrete Pavement Thickness GPR (CPT-GPR)' has been successfully completed. In this project, two CPT-GPR systems were manufactured, including GPR electronics, thickness and dielectric constant calculation a...

R. Liu J. Li X. Chen H. Xing

2004-01-01

356

Bridge permeameter  

DOEpatents

A system for single-phase, steady-state permeability measurements of porous rock utilizes a fluid bridge arrangement analogous to a Wheatstone bridge. The arms of the bridge contain the sample and calibrated flow resistors.

Graf, Darin C. (Edgewood, NM); Warpinski, Norman R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01

357

The glass cockpit [flight deck automation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The highly automated cockpits designed for the latest generation of new aircraft are making the planes safer and cheaper to fly, but misunderstandings between computers and pilots have been implicated in a number of accidents. The author describes the features and benefits of flight deck automation and then discusses the problems caused by pilot errors when using the computerised systems.

W. Sweet

1995-01-01

358

Categorization and prioritization of flight deck information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes an experiment whose objectives were to: (1) make initial inferences about categories into which pilots place information; and (2) empirically determine how pilots mentally represent flight deck information, and how their cognitive processes of categorization and prioritization act upon those representations.

Jonsson, Jon E.; Ricks, Wendell R.

1993-01-01

359

Flight-deck automation: Promises and problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of the art in human factors in flight-deck automation is presented. A number of critical problem areas are identified and broad design guidelines are offered. Automation-related aircraft accidents and incidents are discussed as examples of human factors problems in automated flight.

Wiener, E. L.; Curry, R. E.

1980-01-01

360

Deck Clearance System for Gun Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is an object of the present invention to provide automatic clearance of obstacles while providing maximum field of fire in a rotating gun system. Another object is to provide said automatic deck clearance in a manner which slows the weapon down as a de...

C. L. Joseph

1981-01-01

361

Flight deck automation: Promises and realities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Issues of flight deck automation are multifaceted and complex. The rapid introduction of advanced computer-based technology onto the flight deck of transport category aircraft has had considerable impact both on aircraft operations and on the flight crew. As part of NASA's responsibility to facilitate an active exchange of ideas and information among members of the aviation community, a NASA/FAA/Industry workshop devoted to flight deck automation, organized by the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division of NASA Ames Research Center. Participants were invited from industry and from government organizations responsible for design, certification, operation, and accident investigation of transport category, automated aircraft. The goal of the workshop was to clarify the implications of automation, both positive and negative. Workshop panels and working groups identified issues regarding the design, training, and procedural aspects of flight deck automation, as well as the crew's ability to interact and perform effectively with the new technology. The proceedings include the invited papers and the panel and working group reports, as well as the summary and conclusions of the conference.

Norman, Susan D. (editor); Orlady, Harry W. (editor)

1989-01-01

362

Flight Deck Development and the Engineering Pilot.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Background information on the procedures followed when a new flight deck has to be developed is presented. The Boeing 747-400 is used as a typical example. Dealings between the manufacturer and the airline company are outlined. The airline input is useful...

H. Benedictus

1989-01-01

363

Flight-deck automation: promises and problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern microprocessor technology and display systems make it entirely feasible to automate many of the flight-deck functions previously performed manually. There are many benefits to be derived from automation; the question today is not whether a function can be automated, but whether it should be, due to various human factors issues. It is highly questionable whether total system safety is

EARL L. WIENER; RENWICK E. CURRY

1980-01-01

364

Reducing traffic noise with quieter pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, interest has increased in the use of pavement type to reduce traffic noise. This has been driven by public concern over noise from freeways and state transportation agencies' interest in using pavement instead of sound walls to mitigate traffic noise. Beginnings of the recent interest go back to 1998 with the formation of the Institute for Safe, Quiet & Durable Highways at Purdue University and the initiation long-term research by the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) on the effectiveness of quieter pavements. In 2002, the State of Arizona announced plans to overlay 115 miles of concrete freeway in the greater Phoenix area with a quieter asphalt rubber surface. This turned into the first Quiet Pavement Pilot Program in partnership between Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the Arizona Department of Transportation. Since that time, the FHWA in cooperation with the American Association of State Highway Transportation Agencies conducted a fact finding ``Scan'' tour in Europe to evaluate their quiet pavement technology and policy. This was followed by the first comparative tire/pavement noise testing in the US and Europe using the same procedures and test tires. The results, issues, and future directions surrounding these activities will be discussed.

Donavan, Paul

2005-09-01

365

Cognitive representations of flight-deck information attributes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large number of aviation issues are generically being called fligh-deck information management issues, underscoring the need for an organization or classification structure. One objective of this study was to empirically determine how pilots organize flight-deck information attributes and -- based upon that data -- develop a useful taxonomy (in terms of better understanding the problems and directing solutions) for classifying flight-deck information management issues. This study also empirically determined how pilots model the importance of flight-deck information attributes for managing information. The results of this analysis suggest areas in which flight-deck researchers and designers may wish to consider focusing their efforts.

Ricks, Wendell R.; Jonsson, Jon E.; Rogers, William H.

1994-01-01

366

PAVEMENT EVALUATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SEASONAL AND TEMPERATURE ADJUSTMENT MODELS USING SEISMIC PAVEMENT ANALYZER (SPA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in material properties of pavement layers with temperature and seasonal climate variations significantly affect the pavement response. The AASHTO design guide requires that seasonal and temperature corrections be taken into consideration. Since the AASHTO adjustment models were developed based on data collected in Illinois, most of the states initiated studies that would take in consideration state specific conditions. New

Nenad Gucunski; Sameh Zaghloul; Rambod Hadidi; Ali Maher; Tony Chmiel

367

Thermal Stability Analysis under Embankment with Asphalt Pavement and Cement Pavement in Permafrost Regions  

PubMed Central

The permafrost degradation is the fundamental cause generating embankment diseases and pavement diseases in permafrost region while the permafrost degradation is related with temperature. Based on the field monitoring results of ground temperature along G214 Highway in high temperature permafrost regions, both the ground temperatures in superficial layer and the annual average temperatures under the embankment were discussed, respectively, for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements. The maximum depth of temperature field under the embankment for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements was also studied by using the finite element method. The results of numerical analysis indicate that there were remarkable seasonal differences of the ground temperatures in superficial layer between asphalt pavement and concrete pavement. The maximum influencing depth of temperature field under the permafrost embankment for every pavement was under the depth of 8?m. The thawed cores under both embankments have close relation with the maximum thawed depth, the embankment height, and the service time. The effective measurements will be proposed to keep the thermal stabilities of highway embankment by the results.

Jinping, Li; Xiaojuan, Quan

2013-01-01

368

Comparative Field Measurements of Tire Pavement Noise of Selected Texas Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of traffic noise are a serious concern in the United States and the world. One significant component of traffic noise is tire\\/pavement interaction. Protecting individual receivers by reducing pavement noise at the source rather than by using traffic noise barriers may result in substantial cost reductions and improved community acceptance of highway projects. This research conducted field testing

Michael T. McNerney; B. J. Landsberger; Tracy Turen; Albert Pandelides

1998-01-01

369

I-5/Gilman advanced technology bridge project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The UCSD led I-5/Gilman Advanced Technology Bridge Project will design and construct a fully functional traffic bridge of advanced composite materials across Interstate 5 in La Jolla, California. Its objective is to demonstrate the use of advanced composite technologies developed by the aerospace industry in commercial applications to increase the life expectancy of new structures and for the rehabilitation of aging infrastructure components. The structure will be a 450 ft long, 60 ft wide cable-stayed bridge supported by a 150 ft A-frame pylon with two vehicular lanes, two bicycle lanes, pedestrian walkways and utility tunnels. The longitudinal girders and pylon will be carbon fiber shells filled with concrete. The transverse deck system will consist of hollow glass/carbon hybrid tubes and a polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete deck with an arch action. Selected cables will be composite. The bridge's structural behavior will be monitored to determine how advanced composite materials perform in civil infrastructure applications. The bridge will be instrumented to obtain performance and structural health data in real time and, where possible, in a remote fashion. The sensors applied to the bridge will include electrical resistance strain gages, fiberoptic Bragg gratings and accelerometers.

Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Karbhari, Vistasp M.; Seible, Frieder

2000-04-01

370

Noise from Aft Deck Exhaust Nozzles Differences in Experimental Embodiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two embodiments of a rectangular nozzle on an aft deck are compared. In one embodiment the lower lip of the nozzle was extended with the sidewalls becoming triangles. In a second embodiment a rectangular nozzle was fitted with a surface that fit flush to the lower lip and extended outward from the sides of the nozzle, approximating a semi-infinite plane. For the purpose of scale-model testing, making the aft deck an integral part of the nozzle is possible for relatively short deck lengths, but a separate plate model is more flexible, accounts for the expanse of deck to the sides of the nozzle, and allows the nozzle to stand off from the deck. Both embodiments were tested and acoustic far-field results were compared. In both embodiments the extended deck introduces a new noise source, but the amplitude of the new source was dependent upon the span (cross-stream dimension) of the aft deck. The noise increased with deck length (streamwise dimension), and in the case of the beveled nozzle it increased with increasing aspect ratio. In previous studies of slot jets in wings it was noted that the increased noise from the extended aft deck appears as a dipole at the aft deck trailing edge, an acoustic source type with different dependence on velocity than jet mixing noise. The extraneous noise produced by the aft deck in the present studies also shows this behavior both in directivity and in velocity scaling.

Bridges, James E.

2014-01-01

371

Remote sensing for bridge health monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the potential applications of commercial remote sensing (CRS) technologies for bridge monitoring. High resolution optical-photonic images can provide bridge damage information including through-deck collision damages, large permanent deformations, overload cracking and surface erosions, as well as surrounding environmental information. This paper summaries bridge issues that can be detected from high resolution remote sensing imageries based on visual interpretation as guidance for remote sensing imagery based bridge inspection, and the development of future automatic detection methods. A LiDAR based automatic bridge evaluation system LiBE (LiDAR Bridge Evaluation) is introduced in this paper with an application example of a test bridge maintained by the Los Angeles County (CA) Department of Public Works. Laser scanning techniques have also been used for bridge load testing in a new bridge near Charlotte, NC and maintained by the North Carolina DOT. The primary results of these preliminary tests are also presented. Remote sensing techniques are introduced as a supplement to the existing, required visual bridge inspections.

Liu, Wanqiu; Chen, She-Een; Hauser, Edd

2009-08-01

372

Proceedings of the National Seminar on Asphalt Pavement Recycling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 19 papers in this report deal with the following areas: economics of recycling; seminar on asphalt pavement recycling overview of project selection; cost and energy considerations in project selection for recycling asphalt pavements; specifications re...

S. P. LaHue F. N. Finn W. J. Halstead R. C. Ingberg D. R. Gallagher

1980-01-01

373

Geotechnical Aspects of Pavements: Reference Manual/Participant Workbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Reference Manual and Participants Workbook for the FHWA NHI's Course No. 132040--Geotechnical Aspects of Pavements. The manual covers the latest methods and procedures to address the geotechnical issues in pavement design, construction and per...

B. R. Christopher C. Schwartz R. Boudreau

2006-01-01

374

Density Measurement Verification for Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete Pavement Construction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) requires a minimum density for the construction of dense-graded hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) pavements to ensure the likelihood that the pavement will not experience distresses that reduce the expected service...

S. Darra T. V. Scholz

2010-01-01

375

Use of Precast Slabs for Pavement Rehabilitation on I-66.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Highway agencies continuously strive to expedite pavement construction and repairs and to evaluate materials and methods to provide long-lasting pavements. As part of this effort, agencies have used precast concrete slabs for more than 10 years with succe...

C. Ozyildirim M. S. Hossain

2012-01-01

376

Recycling of Portland Cement Concrete Pavement, Johnson County.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years there has been increasing interest in recycling construction materials. Surface courses of bituminous pavements are currently being actively recycled all over Kansas. The recycling of portland cement concrete pavements (PCCP) can help alle...

J. B. Wojakowski G. A. Fager M. A. Catron

1995-01-01

377

Effects of Pavement Type on Traffic Noise levels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tire/road levels for Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) pavement types were investigated to provide an additional criterion for pavement selection in noise senstivie areas. Tire/road noise measurments were conducted in accordance with the Internatio...

L. A. Herman M. J. Ambroziak

1999-01-01

378

Porous Pavement. Phase I. Design and Operational Criteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Design and operational criteria, utilization concepts, benefits and disadvantages, as well as other characteristics of porous pavements are presented in this report. Particular emphasis is placed on porous asphalt pavements, but the criteria and design ap...

E. V. Diniz

1980-01-01

379

POROUS PAVEMENT. PHASE I. DESIGN AND OPERATIONAL CRITERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Design and operational criteria, utilization concepts, benefits and disadvantages, as well as other characteristics of porous pavements are presented in this report. Particular emphasis is placed on porous asphalt pavements, but the criteria and design approach are applicable to ...

380

Test Performance of Thermoplastic Markings on New York Concrete Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermoplastic centerline markings were installed at 25 sites on portland cement concrete pavement throughout New York State to evaluate their performance under various pavement and weather conditions, and to identify factors affecting their performance. T...

E. D. McNaught J. T. Capelli G. F. Gurney

1977-01-01

381

Guide for Curing of Portland Cement Concrete Pavements, Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides guidance on details of concrete curing practice as they pertain to construction of portland cement concrete pavements. The guide is organized around the major events in curing pavements: curing immediately after placement (initial c...

2005-01-01

382

Instrumentation, analysis and modeling of flexible pavement subdrainage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pavement subsurface drainage and its effect on pavement performance has been a subject of interest since the 18$\\\\sp{\\\\rm th}$ and 19$\\\\sp{\\\\rm th}$ centuries. With no doubt the detrimental effects of heavy wheel loads on pavements with saturated base material is a significant factor. The consequence of subsurface water on pavement performance includes premature rutting, cracking, faulting, and increased roughness, all

Hossam Farouk Hassan

1996-01-01

383

Thermoelectric Generators using Solar Thermal Energy in Heated Road Pavement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature of road pavement rises up to 70degC in summer due to the effect of the solar radiation. The authors have developed a pavement-cooling system using thermoelectric generator. Heat in the pavement is collected as heated water in a heat collection tube installed in the pavement. River water near the road is used as a coolant. Electric power is

M. Hasebe; Y. Kamikawa; S. Meiarashi

2006-01-01

384

EVALUATION AND FIELD LOAD TESTING OF TIMBER RAILROAD BRIDGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several spans of a 60-year-old open-deck timber railroad bridge on the Southern Pacific Railroad Line (now the Union Pacific) in Southwest Texas were field tested. The tests were conducted with the sponsorship and cooperation of the Association of American Railroads to determine the vertical live load distribution characteristics of the superstructure. The bridge was originally constructed with Douglas-fir larch solid

Terry Wipf; Michael Ritter; Douglas Wood

2000-01-01

385

Composite Action during Construction of Steel Trapezoidal Box Girder Bridges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In steel trapezoidal box girder bridge systems, the U-shaped steel girder is designed to act compositely with the concrete deck to form a closed box for live loading. During the construction stage, however, the behavior is not well understood. The usual p...

C. Topkaya J. A. Yura E. B. Williamson K. H. Frank

2005-01-01

386

OPEN GRID BRIDGE NOISE FROM GRID AND TIRE VIBRATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The noise generated during the passage of vehicles on open grid bridge decks has a strong tonal component, which can be a source of annoyance to nearby residents. Potential sources of noise are the vibrations of the grid and the vibrations of the tire. In this paper, the relative contributions from the grid and the tire are investigated by using

J. M. Cuschieri; S. Gregory; M. Tournour

1996-01-01

387

Modelling the performance of pavement marking in cold weather conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inadequate and poorly maintained pavement markings are considered to be one of the largest contributing factors to fatal motor vehicle crashes. As a result, it is essential to apply the appropriate pavement marking material for all weather conditions in order to increase public safety and reduce motor vehicle crashes. Building a strategic plan to renew and re-stripe pavement marking is

Hussam Fares; Khaled Shahata; Emad Elwakil; Ahmed Eweda; Tarek Zayed; Magdy Abdelrahman; Ismail Basha

2010-01-01

388

Design of green engineered cementitious composites for pavement overlay applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction, repair and rehabilitation of concrete pavements relies on the production and flow of large quantities of concrete and its constituents. Within the US, nearly 43 megatons of cement are used annually for the construction, repair and rehabilitation of concrete pavements, accounting for over 39 megatons of CO2 emissions. To reduce environmental impact and improve the sustainability of pavement

M. D. Lepech; G. A. Keoleian; S. Qian; V. C. Li

389

Physically Meaningful Harmonization of Tire\\/Pavement Friction Measurement Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate characterization and evaluation of tire\\/pavement friction is critical in assuring runway and highway safety. Historically, Pavement Friction Measurement Devices (PFMDs) employing different measuring mechanisms have been used to evaluate tire\\/pavement friction. They yield significantly disparate friction coefficients under the same contact conditions. Currently, an empirically developed data harmonization method based on a reference device (Dynamic Friction Tester (DFT)) is

Madhura Priyanga Nishshanke Rajapakshe

2011-01-01

390

Development on preventive maintenance management system for expressway asphalt pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the status that there was no expressway pavement preventive maintenance management system at home and abroad at present, based on the technology theory obtained by the author and the demands and process of expressway asphalt pavement preventive maintenance management, preventive maintenance management system for expressway asphalt pavement (EPMMS (V1.0)) was developed. The work or functions of expressway

Hu Guoxiang; Li Jie

2010-01-01

391

Design of overlays based on pavement condition, roughness, and deflections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and use of a pavement maintenance rating system and the development of two procedures for designing the thickness of overlays are summarized. It is demonstrated that objective rating systems can be used to prioritize pavements scheduled for resurfacing and that the procedures for overlay design based on the existing pavement structure and on traffic loadings are practical.

McGhee, K. H.

1982-01-01

392

Digital image processing as a tool for pavement distress evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The information obtained through accurate condition assessment of pavement surface distress data is needed as an essential input to any decision making process concerning pavement management policy. At the same time technological advances in automated inspection systems provide the opportunity to automate the collection and evaluation of the pavement surface condition. In this paper a method developed jointly by the

A. Georgopoulos; A. Loizos; A. Flouda

1995-01-01

393

Acoustic Aging of Asphalt Pavements: A Californian/Danish Comparison.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The level of noise generated by tire/pavement interaction of a pavement section changes over time. While the general consensus is that the noise level tends to increase as the pavement ages, more scientific investigation is necessary to better understand ...

E. Kohler H. Bendtsen Q. Lu

2010-01-01

394

Effects of selected pavement surface textures on tire noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern methods of surface texturing to enhance concrete pavement skid-resistance by increasing texture depth resulted in increased tire-pavement noise, as compared to older finishing practices. Measurements of noise associated with textured concrete pavements representing the range of current and past practice in New York State are reported. A high correlation was found between the depth of textures created by brooming

R. J. Mitrey; D. E. Amsler; D. E. Suuronen

1975-01-01

395

Computer Analysis and Design of Cable-Stayed Bridge Structures Having Prestressed Post-Tensioned Concrete Segmental Box-Girders. Volume 1. Theory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volume 1 is a comprehensive document on cable-stayed bridge structures. A discussion of the different configurations including decks, towers, and span arrangements appears with detailed recommendations on segmental construction techniques with emphasis on...

H. J. Farran

1988-01-01

396

Spills on Flat Inclined Pavements  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the general spill phenomenology for liquid spills occurring on relatively impermeable surfaces such as concrete or asphalt pavement and the development and application of a model to describe the time evolution of such spills. The discussion assumes evaporation and degradation are negligible and a homogeneous surface. In such an instance, the inherent interfacial properties determine the spatial extent of liquid spreading with the initial flow being controlled by the release rate of the spill and by the liquids resistance to flow as characterized by its viscosity. A variety of spill scenarios were simulated and successful implementation of the model was achieved. A linear relationship between spill area and spill volume was confirmed. The simulations showed spill rate had little effect on the final spill area. Slope had an insignificant effect on the final spill area, but did modify spill shape considerably. However, a fluid sink on the edge of the simulation domain, representing a storm drain, resulted in a substantial decrease in spill area. A bona fide effort to determine the accuracy of the model and its calculations remain, but comparison against observations from a simple experiment showed the model to correctly determine the spill area and general shape under the conditions considered. Further model verification in the form of comparison against small scale spill experiments are needed to confirm the models validity.

Simmons, Carver S.; Keller, Jason M.; Hylden, Jeff L.

2004-03-01

397

Helicopter deck preferably for use in offshore oil drilling production platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A helicopter deck preferably for use on offshore oil drilling\\/production platforms and provided with a fire extinguishing system. The periphery of the deck is provided with a gutter having one, and preferably several, down pipes distributed around the periphery of the deck. Centrally in the deck, water discharge orifices are provided, supplied with water under pressure for flooding the deck

Birkeland

1984-01-01

398

Porous pavement. Phase 1: Design and operational criteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilization concepts, benefits and disadvantages, as well as other characteristics of porous pavements are presented with emphasis on porous asphalt pavements, but the criteria and design approach are applicable to all other porous pavement types. Design considerations include siting problems, load bearing design and hydrologic design. The history of porous pavement development and previous experience with porous pavement by several designers, contractors and operators are described. A computer model for hydrologic performance evaluation of existing or proposed porous pavement systems is also examined. Load bearing design criteria are based on previous work conducted for porous asphalt pavements. Appendices include a sample set of specifications for porous asphalt construction and a list of soils and their permeability classes as prepared by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service.

Diniz, E. V.

1980-08-01

399

Dynamic analysis of coupled road vehicle and cable-stayed bridge systems under turbulent wind  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a framework for performing dynamic analysis of coupled road vehicle and cable-stayed bridge systems under turbulent winds. Road vehicles are idealized as a combination of a number of rigid bodies connected by a series of springs and dampers. A cable-stayed bridge is modeled using the three-dimensional finite element method. The random roughness of the bridge deck is

Y. L. Xu; W. H. Guo

2003-01-01

400

Vibration reduction for cable-stayed bridges traveled by high-speed trains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vibration reduction of cable-stayed bridges subjected to the passage of high-speed trains is studied. The train is modeled as a series of sprung masses, the bridge deck and towers by nonlinear beam-column elements, and the stay cables by truss elements with Ernst's equivalent modulus. In particular, the previously derived vehicle–bridge interaction element is employed to simulate the dynamic interaction

J. D. Yau; Y. B. Yang

2004-01-01

401

Finite-Element Model Updating for the Kap Shui Mun Cable-Stayed Bridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the implementation of the finite-element model updating for the Kap Shui Mun Bridge, a 430 m main span double-deck cable-stayed bridge in Hong Kong. The dynamic characteristics of the bridge have been studied through both three-dimensional finite-element prediction and field vibration measurement previously. In this paper, the developed finite-element model is updated based on the field measured

Q. W. Zhang; T. Y. P. Chang; C. C. Chang

2001-01-01

402

26. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. S of MS. 50 Proposed 218-foot deck, plate-girder turn span, submitted by the Wisconsin Bridge and Iron Co., Milwaukee, Wisc. May 15 1914. Act size: approx. 23x34 in. Credit: columbus and Greenville RR, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

403

DUCTILE END-DIAPHRAGMS TO SEISMICALLY RETROFIT SHORT AND MEDIUM SPAN STEEL BRIDGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A seismic retrofit strategy using ductile steel bridge end-diaphragms is presented here. By replacing the existing steel diaphragms over abutments and piers with specially designed ductile diaphragms calibrated to yield before the strength of the substructure (and superstructure for deck-truss bridges) is reached, these can be protected. For slab-on-girder bridges, stiffness of the girders must also be considered, as

Michel BRUNEAU; Sayed M. ZAHRAI

404

3. Elevation, tram deck, bonanza "A" frame and crushers level ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Elevation, tram deck, bonanza "A" frame and crushers level 11. - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

405

Using Pavement Performance Data to Develop Mechanistic-Empirical Concepts for Deteriorated and Rehabilitated Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes existing pavement condition indices, and available prediction models for each condition index. This report also identifies existing data bases, where the required variables for the prediction models have been collected. Successive c...

J. S. Rao N. S. Shah G. L. Mueller M. Y. Shahin K. P. George S. M. Carpenter

1994-01-01

406

Temporary Pavement Marking Material Installation Procedure for Wet and Cold Pavement Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report accumulates and consolidates with a single reference source the current state of technology with respect to the materials and application procedures used for temporary pavement markings. The report also contains a cost-comparison of the variou...

R. W. McNees J. S. Noel

1984-01-01

407

Federal Aviation Administration Airport Pavement Management and Airport Pavement Roughness Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides the status of two ongoing nondestructive testing (NDT) programs by the FAA: (1) PAVEAIR a web-based Airport Pavement Management System and (2) research subjective responses of pilots to vibrations induced by airport pavement roughness using a Boeing simulator. By 2011, the FAA is scheduled to complete a three-year effort to create an internet-based computer program for airport

Albert LARKIN; Gordon F. HAYHOE

408

Designing Bridges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the types of possible loads, how to calculate ultimate load combinations, and investigate the different sizes for the beams (girders) and columns (piers) of simple bridge design. Students learn the steps that engineers use to design bridges: understanding the problem, determining the potential bridge loads, calculating the highest possible load, and calculating the amount of material needed to resist the loads.

Integrated Teaching And Leaning Program And Laboratory

409

Spaghetti Bridge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this engineering activity, learners investigate the differences between the strength of bridges made from flat and round building materials. They construct simple bridges out of linguine, which has a rectangular shape, and spaghetti, which has a circular shape. They then test and compare the weight capacity of the bridges.

Cosi

2009-01-01

410

Spaghetti Bridge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Civil engineers design structures such as buildings, dams, highways and bridges. Students explore the field of engineering by making a bridge using spaghetti as their primary building material. Then they test their bridges to see how much weight they can carry before breaking.

K-12 Outreach Office,

411

Bridge permeameter  

DOEpatents

A system is described for single-phase, steady-state permeability measurements of porous rock which utilizes a fluid bridge arrangement analogous to a Wheatstone bridge. The arms of the bridge contain the sample and calibrated flow resistors. 8 figs.

Graf, D.C.; Warpinski, N.R.

1996-08-13

412

Studies of the effect of aging of ``quiet'' pavements on tire/pavement noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the issues with using quieter pavements to abate traffic noise is their continued acoustic performance over the life cycle of the surface. Aging effects can be assessed in two manners: (1) long term monitoring of the noise performance of an individual section of roadway; (2) measurement of multiple sections of pavement of the same construction, but different ages. Long term monitoring of Interstate 80 near Davis (I-80 Davis) began in 1998, just prior to the placement of a dense graded leveling course and open graded asphalt overlay. The pavement surface is now approaching 7 years old and continues to show a traffic noise reduction of about 5 dBA over the existing condition. As support of the Arizona Quiet Pavement Program (QPPP), similarly constructed sections of asphalt rubber friction course (ARFC) on Arizona's interstate highways were measured for tire/pavement performance using the close proximity (CPX) method and the on-board sound intensity method. The construction dates for the pavements ranged from 1988 to 1999. The total range in noise level was 7 dB with some indication of degrading performance with age.

Reyff, James A.; Donavan, Paul

2005-09-01

413

33 CFR 149.696 - What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net? 149.696 Section...149.696 What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net? A helicopter landing deck safety net must comply...

2013-07-01

414

46 CFR 171.150 - Drainage of a vessel with a well deck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks § 171.150 Drainage of a vessel with a well deck. (a) Each well deck on a vessel must be...

2013-10-01

415

46 CFR 178.450 - Calculation of drainage area for cockpit and well deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.450 Calculation of drainage area...4389.12 à [(Recess Volume à Recess Ratio) + (Weather Deck Volume à Weather Deck Ratio)]; or Basic Drainage area in...

2013-10-01

416

Modeling and analysis of the in-plane vibration of a complex cable-stayed bridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The in-plane vibration of a complex cable-stayed bridge that consists of a simply-supported four-cable-stayed deck beam and two rigid towers is studied. The nonlinear and linear partial differential equations that govern transverse and longitudinal vibrations of the cables and transverse vibrations of segments of the deck beam, respectively, are derived, along with their boundary and matching conditions. The undamped natural frequencies and mode shapes of the linearized model of the cable-stayed bridge are determined, and orthogonality relations of the mode shapes are established. Numerical analysis of the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the cable-stayed bridge is conducted for various symmetrical and non-symmetrical bridge cases with regards to the sizes of the components of the bridge and the initial sags of the cables. The results show that there are very close natural frequencies when the bridge model is symmetrical and/or partially symmetrical, and the mode shapes tend to be more localized when the bridge model is less symmetrical. The relationships between the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the cable-stayed bridge and those of a single fixed-fixed cable and the single simply-supported deck beam are analyzed. The results, which are validated by commercial finite element software, demonstrate some complex classical resonance behavior of the cable-stayed bridge.

Cao, D. Q.; Song, M. T.; Zhu, W. D.; Tucker, R. W.; Wang, C. H.-T.

2012-12-01

417

Advanced ground-penetrating, imaging radar for bridge inspection  

SciTech Connect

Inspecting high-value structures, like bridges and buildings using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an application of the technology that is growing in importance. In a typical inspection application, inspectors use GPR to locate structural components, like reinforcing bars embedded in concrete, to avoid weakening the structure while collecting core samples for detailed inspection. Advanced GPR, integrated with imaging technologies for use as an NDE tool, can provide the capability to locate and characterize construction flaws and wear- or age-induced damage in these structures without the need for destructive techniques like coring. In the following sections, we discuss an important inspection application, namely, concrete bridge deck inspection. We describe an advanced bridge deck inspection system concept and provide an overview of a program aimed at developing such a system. Examples of modeling, image reconstruction, and experimental results are presented.

Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.; Johansson, E.M.; Nelson, S.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lee, Hua [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1993-08-01

418

40 CFR Table 28 to Subpart G of... - Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks 28 Table 28 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection...Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD ) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks Deck construction Typical deck seam length...

2010-07-01

419

40 CFR Table 28 to Subpart G of... - Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks 28 Table 28 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection...Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD ) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks Deck construction Typical deck seam length...

2009-07-01

420

Golden Gate Bridge response: a study with low-amplitude data from three earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The dynamic response of the Golden Gate Bridge, located north of San Francisco, CA, has been studied previously using ambient vibration data and finite element models. Since permanent seismic instrumentation was installed in 1993, only small earthquakes that originated at distances varying between ~11 to 122 km have been recorded. Nonetheless, these records prompted this study of the response of the bridge to low amplitude shaking caused by three earthquakes. Compared to previous ambient vibration studies, the earthquake response data reveal a slightly higher fundamental frequency (shorter-period) for vertical vibration of the bridge deck center span (~7.7–8.3 s versus 8.2–10.6 s), and a much higher fundamental frequency (shorter period) for the transverse direction of the deck (~11.24–16.3 s versus ~18.2 s). In this study, it is also shown that these two periods are dominant apparent periods representing interaction between tower, cable, and deck.

Celebi, Mehmet

2012-01-01

421

Digital Bridges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Digital Bridges Web site consists of a collection of thirty representative 19th century American bridge engineering monographs, manuals, and documents from the Lehigh University Libraries' Special Collections." The archive provides an interesting retrospective into the beginnings of major bridge projects; the material is complete with high-resolution photographs and text scanned from original books. In addition to historical literature, Digital Bridges also features brief accounts of notable people and companies that influenced bridge construction across the country. A glossary of terms commonly used in the documents is also provided.

2002-01-01

422

Desert pavement study at Amboy, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desert pavement is a general term describing a surface that typically consists of a thin layer of cm-sized rock fragments set on top of a layer of finer material in which no fragments are found. An understanding of desert pavement is important to planetary geology because they may play a major role in the formation and visibility of various aeolian features such as wind streaks, which are important on Mars and may be important on Venus. A field study was conducted in Amboy, California to determine the formation mechanism of desert pavements. The probable sequence of events for the formation and evolution of a typical desert pavement surface, based on this experiment and the work of others, is as follows. Starting with a layer of surface material consisting of both fine particles and rock fragments, aeolian deflation will rapidly erode the surface until an armored lag is developed, after which aeolian processes become less important. The concentration of fragments then slowly increases as new fragments are brought to the surface from the subsurface and as fragments move downslope by sheet wash. Sheet wash would be responsible for removing very fine particles from the surface and for moving the fragments relative to one another, forming interlocks.

Williams, S.; Greeley, R.

1984-04-01

423

Concrete pavement analysis: the first eighty years  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper traces the evolution of analytical methods for concrete pavements over the period from the publication of Westergaard's early work in the 1920s until today. It is demonstrated that this development was accomplished in parallel with the birth and coming of age of geotechnical engineering, and was likewise pioneered by a number of colorful and distinguished personalities. Westergaard's analysis

Anastasios M. Ioannides

2006-01-01

424

Airfield Pavement Evaluation - Usnaf El Centro, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The evaluation of the pavement at the U. S. Naval Air Facility, El Centro, California, is presented with the allowable gross load capacities of the runways, taxiways, and parking aprons for single, dual, single-tandem, and dual-tandem wheel assembly aircr...

R. J. Lowe W. H. Chamberlin

1966-01-01

425

Desert pavement study at Amboy, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Desert pavement is a general term describing a surface that typically consists of a thin layer of cm-sized rock fragments set on top of a layer of finer material in which no fragments are found. An understanding of desert pavement is important to planetary geology because they may play a major role in the formation and visibility of various aeolian features such as wind streaks, which are important on Mars and may be important on Venus. A field study was conducted in Amboy, California to determine the formation mechanism of desert pavements. The probable sequence of events for the formation and evolution of a typical desert pavement surface, based on this experiment and the work of others, is as follows. Starting with a layer of surface material consisting of both fine particles and rock fragments, aeolian deflation will rapidly erode the surface until an armored lag is developed, after which aeolian processes become less important. The concentration of fragments then slowly increases as new fragments are brought to the surface from the subsurface and as fragments move downslope by sheet wash. Sheet wash would be responsible for removing very fine particles from the surface and for moving the fragments relative to one another, forming interlocks.

Williams, S.; Greeley, R.

1984-01-01

426

Evaluation of Pavement Performance on DEL 23.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1994, a ramp containing two AC and two PCC sections in the SPS-8 experiment was constructed on the Ohio SHRP Test Road. In 1996, 36 more sections in the SPS-1, SPS-2 and SPS-9 experiments were opened to traffic on the mainline pavement. The response an...

S. M. Sargand

2007-01-01

427

Kansas Tire/Pavement Noise Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of noise testing accomplished by the National Center for Asphalt Technology using a close-proximity noise trailer. The paper discusses the nature of tire/pavement noise and the results of testing selecte...

B. Waller D. I. Hanson R. S. James

2005-01-01

428

Experimental study of a highway bridge with shape memory alloy restrainers focusing on the mitigation of unseating and pounding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an experimental study to investigate the performance of shape memory alloy (SMA) restrainers for mitigating the pounding and unseating of highway bridges when subjected to seismic excitations. Mechanical property tests of the SMA wire used in the restrainers are conducted first to understand the pseudo-elastic characteristics of the material. Then, a series of shaking table tests are carried out on a highway bridge model. The structural responses of the highway bridge model equipped with SMA restrainers, installed in the form of deck-deck and deck-pile connections, are analyzed and compared with the uncontrolled structures. The test results of this study indicate that the SMA restrainers are not only effective in preventing unseating but also in suppressing the seismic-induced pounding of the highway bridge model used in this study.

Guo, Anxin; Zhao, Qingjie; Li, Hui

2012-03-01

429

Crewmember working on the mid deck Zeolite Crystal Growth experiment.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

View showing Payload Specialist Bonnie Dunbar, in the mid deck, conducting the Zeolite Crystal Growth (ZCG) Experiment in the mid deck stowage locker work area. View shows assembly of zeolite sample in the metal autoclave cylinders prior to insertion into the furnace.

1992-01-01

430

22. VIEW OF DEBARKER FROM LOG INFEED DECK. NOTE ROOF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. VIEW OF DEBARKER FROM LOG IN-FEED DECK. NOTE ROOF SUPPORT OVER CARRIAGE AND LOG IN-FEED DECK IN UPPER RIGHT. (SEE OR-89-18 AND OR-89-23 FOR RELATED ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS.) - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

431

VIEW OF DEBARKER FROM LOG INFEED DECK. NOTE ROOF SUPPORT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF DEBARKER FROM LOG IN-FEED DECK. NOTE ROOF SUPPORT OVER CARRIAGE AND LOG IN-FEED DECK IN UPPER RIGHT. (SEE OR-89-18 AND OR-89-23 FOR RELATED ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS.) - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

432

30. View of main deck at bow (looking aft from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. View of main deck at bow (looking aft from samson post, upper deck removed), showing anchor windlass (left foreground), head (right foregound), and forward deckhouse; weather canopy overhead not an original or permanent feature - Schooner WAWONA, 1018 Valley Street, Seattle, King County, WA

433

46 CFR 111.30-11 - Deck coverings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-11 Deck coverings. Non-conducting deck coverings, such as non-conducting mats or gratings, suitable for the specific switchboard voltage must be installed for personnel protection at the front and rear of the...

2013-10-01

434

Astronaut Ellen Ochoa at RMS controls on aft flight deck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Ellen Ochoa, payload commander, on the Space Shuttle Atlantis' aft flight deck, has just completed an operations at the controls for the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm while working in chorus with astronaut Donald R. McMonagle. McMonagle, mission commander, is seen here at his station on the forward flight deck. An RMS operations checklist floats in front of Ochoa.

1994-01-01

435

Effect of Bow Shape on Deck Wetness in Head Seas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments to examine the deck wetness process and to determine the effect of above water bow form on deck wetness in head seas were conducted in the 380 ft Towing Tank of the United States Naval Academy. A systematic series of bow forms, which flare and...

A. R. J. M. Lloyd

1984-01-01

436

27. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK WITH TENDER ANNIE RUTH ALONGSIDE. COVER OF FORWARD COMPANIONWAY HAS BEEN PLACED ON MAIN DECK; SUN AWNING A TYPICAL FEATURE IN TROPICAL CLIMATES. CREW MEMBERS UNKNOWN Original 4-3/4'x6-3/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

437

Pavement Recycling Guidelines for State and Local Governments. Participant's Reference Book.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recycling or reuse of existing asphalt pavement materials to produce new pavement materials has the following advantages: (1) reduced costs of construction, (2) conservation of aggregate and binder, (3) preservation of the existing pavement geometrics, (4...

P. S. Kandhal R. B. Mallick

1997-01-01

438

Pavements Recycling Guidelines for State and Local Governments (on CD-ROM).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This participant's reference book was developed to support a 2-day workshop on pavement recycling guidelines for state and local governments. Recycling or reuse of existing asphalt pavement materials to produce new pavement materials has the following adv...

1998-01-01

439

76 FR 67018 - Notice to Manufacturers of Airport In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Airport In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation...Manufacturers of In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems...Passive In- Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems that meet the...

2011-10-28

440

23 CFR 970.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 970.208...Systems § 970.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition... (i) An inventory of the physical pavement features including the number of...

2009-04-01

441

23 CFR 970.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 970.208...Systems § 970.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition... (i) An inventory of the physical pavement features including the number of...

2010-04-01

442

Multiple-Wheel Heavy Gear Load Pavement Tests. Volume I. Basic Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flexible and rigid pavements were constructed and tested to obtain data on pavement and soil behavior under large aircraft loadings for use in developing criteria for evaluating and designing airfield pavements subjected to multiple-wheel heavy gear loads...

A. A. Maxwell J. P. Sale R. G. Ahlvin W. J. Turnbull

1971-01-01

443

Improved Drainage and Frost Action Criteria for New Jersey Pavement Design. Phase II. Data Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of including open-graded drainage layers in their highway pavements was studied. Before constructing actual pavements with open-graded drainage layers, frost penetration depths and moisture content profiles beneath several pavements in New...

R. L. Berg

1979-01-01

444

6. DETAIL VIEW AT ROAD LEVEL, SHOWING STEELDECK GRATING AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DETAIL VIEW AT ROAD LEVEL, SHOWING STEEL-DECK GRATING AND JUNCTURE OF ARCH AND PAVEMENT - Benson Street Concrete Bowstring Bridge, Spanning Mill Creek at Benson Street, Lockland, Hamilton County, OH

445

Analysis of creep effects for a cable-stayed bridge with composite girder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For steel-concrete composite beams, the stress's re-distribution between steel girder and concrete deck caused by the concrete creep may seriously affect the safety of the bridge, especially for a cable-stayed bridge with composite girder. Based on the effective elastic modular method, an approach for the analysis of the creep effects in the composite girder of a cable-stayed bridge was presented. The particularity of the proposed model relies on its ability to capture the redistribution of internal force and stress caused by creep in composite beam of some complex bridges such as cablestayed bridge, while considering the effect of the loading age of the precast concrete deck.

Jia, Buyu; Yan, Quansheng

2009-12-01

446

Aerodynamic admittance functions and buffeting forces for bridges via indicial functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Buffeting forces on bridge decks are commonly modelled by Sears’ function. However, it is well known that Sears’ function is reliable only for very streamlined bridge deck sections and that a complete model would require a suitable formulation of buffeting forces in time domain. In this paper, self-excited and buffeting loads are modelled by means of indicial functions. Corresponding aerodynamic admittance functions are numerically evaluated for rectangular sections and compared with experimental and analytical results. A complete time-domain model for cross-sections including vertical turbulence is presented. Numerical simulations are performed on a sample rectangular section. Comparison with experimental results and relevant flutter analyses are also discussed.

Costa, C.

2007-04-01

447

Experimental testing of a smart FRP-concrete composite bridge superstructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new kind of smart fiber reinforced polymer (FRP)-concrete composite bridge superstructure, which consists of two bridge decks and each bridge deck is comprised of four FRP box sections combined with a thin layer of concrete in the compression zone, was developed by using eight embedded FBG sensors in the top and bottom flanges of the FRP box sections at mid-span section of one bridge deck along longitudinal direction, respectively. The flexural behavior of the proposed smart composite bridge superstructure was experimentally studied in four-point loading. The longitudinal strains of the composite bridge superstructure were recorded using the embedded FBG sensors as well as the surfacebonded electric resistance strain gauges. Test results indicate that the FBG sensors can faithfully record the longitudinal strain of the composite bridge superstructure in tension at bottom flange of the FRP box sections or in compression at top flange over the entire loading range, as compared with the surface-bonded strain gauges. The proposed smart FRPconcrete composite bridge superstructure can monitor its longitudinal strains in serviceability limit state as well as in strength limit state, and will has wide applications for long-term monitoring in civil engineering.

Wang, Yanlei; Hao, Qingduo; Ou, Jinping

2010-03-01

448

Spaghetti Bridge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners explore the field of civil engineering by making a bridge using spaghetti as their primary building material. Then they test their bridges to see how much weight they can carry before breaking. This activity allows learners to engage in the entire engineering process as they design, build, test, then discuss their bridges. Resource includes investigating questions to extend learning. Time estimated for activity can be split across multiple meetings.

Institute, Worcester P.

2005-01-01

449

Porous flame-retarded asphalt pavement for highway tunnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new way to improve the tunnel fire protection by using flame-retarded porous asphalt pavement containing ATH powders was\\u000a introduced. Based on the miniature burning test designed and conducted, the burning time and temperature of porous asphalt\\u000a (PA) and flame-retarded porous asphalt (FRPA) were studied comparing with cement concrete pavement, dense-graded HMA and SMA.\\u000a Results of burning test and pavement

Shuguang Hu; Shaolong Huang; Qingjun Ding

2008-01-01

450

Hybrid green permeable pave with hexagonal modular pavement systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modular permeable pavements are alternatives to the traditional impervious asphalt and concrete pavements. Pervious pore spaces in the surface allow for water to infiltrate into the pavement during rainfall events. As of their ability to allow water to quickly infiltrate through the surface, modular permeable pavements allow for reductions in runoff quantity and peak runoff rates. Even in areas where the underlying soil is not ideal for modular permeable pavements, the installation of under drains has still been shown to reflect these reductions. Modular permeable pavements have been regarded as an effective tool in helping with stormwater control. It also affects the water quality of stormwater runoff. Places using modular permeable pavement has been shown to cause a significant decrease in several heavy metal concentrations as well as suspended solids. Removal rates are dependent upon the material used for the pavers and sub-base material, as well as the surface void space. Most heavy metals are captured in the top layers of the void space fill media. Permeable pavements are now considered an effective BMP for reducing stormwater runoff volume and peak flow. This study examines the extent to which such combined pavement systems are capable of handling load from the vehicles. Experimental investigation were undertaken to quantify the compressive characteristics of the modular. Results shows impressive results of achieving high safety factor for daily life vehicles.

Rashid, M. A.; Abustan, I.; Hamzah, M. O.

2013-06-01

451

Orbiter Flight Deck Redesign (A Physical Layout for a Futuristic Flight Deck)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this summer project was to develop a set of schematic drawings for redesign of the Space Shuttle flight deck from which three dimensional computer drawings can be built and viewed in a virtual environment. In order to achieve this goal, first recommendations for overall redesign of Space Shuttle previously made by experts in the field were reviewed and relevant information was extracted and delineated. Original drawings of the Space Shuttle made by Rockwell were obtained and carefully examined. In order to implement and assess any modifications in terms of space saving parameters, it was determined that the drawings alone could not achieve this objective. As a complement, physical measurements of the mockup of Space Shuttle flight deck were made and the information was categorized and properly labeled on the original drawings. Then, spacesaving redesign ideas, as motivated by expert recommendations on such things as information display panel upgrade by technologically advanced flat display units, were implemented. Next, the redesign ideas were executed on the Forward flight deck, Overhead Console, Right and Left Console, and Center Console. A new 3-D computer drawing of this was developed by modifying the existing drawing on the in-house developed software (PLAID). Finally, the drawing was transported to a Virtual Environment and observed.

Khorsandi, Mehrzad

1996-01-01

452

Managing and Maintaining Highway Structures and Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Part1-Structures: Development and Implementation of Highway Structures Information System for Wisconsin Department of Transportation; Enhanced Bridge Replacement Cost Models for Indiana's Bridge Management System; Photogrammetry Applications in ...

2006-01-01

453

Effectiveness of transverse grooves in rigid pavement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transverse grooves were installed at 11 intersection approaches on worn rigid pavement to reduce a high rate of wet road accidents. In most cases, accident reductions were experienced only at intersections with multiple negative operational characteristics, including higher approach speeds, limited sight distances, and frequent vehicle stopping for turns or stop signs. Intersections with no more than one negative characteristic generally did not benefit from grooving.

Gurney, G. F.; Bryden, J. E.

1982-10-01

454

Straw Bridges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working as engineering teams, students design and create model beam bridges using plastic drinking straws and tape as their construction materials. Their goal is to build the strongest bridge with a truss pattern of their own design, while meeting the design criteria and constraints. They experiment with different geometric shapes and determine how shapes affect the strength of materials. Let the competition begin!

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

455

Active Bridging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active networks accelerate network evolution by permitting the network infrastructure to be programmable, on a per-user, per-packet, or other basis. This programmability must be balanced against the safety and security needs inherent in shared resources.This paper describes the design, implementation, and performance of a new type of network element, an Active Bridge. The active bridge can be reprogrammed \\

D. Scott Alexander; Marianne Shaw; Scott M. Nettles; Jonathan M. Smith

1997-01-01

456

Multimodal approach to seismic pavement testing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A multimodal approach to nondestructive seismic pavement testing is described. The presented approach is based on multichannel analysis of all types of seismic waves propagating along the surface of the pavement. The multichannel data acquisition method is replaced by multichannel simulation with one receiver. This method uses only one accelerometer-receiver and a light hammer-source, to generate a synthetic receiver array. This data acquisition technique is made possible through careful triggering of the source and results in such simplification of the technique that it is made generally available. Multiple dispersion curves are automatically and objectively extracted using the multichannel analysis of surface waves processing scheme, which is described. Resulting dispersion curves in the high frequency range match with theoretical Lamb waves in a free plate. At lower frequencies there are several branches of dispersion curves corresponding to the lower layers of different stiffness in the pavement system. The observed behavior of multimodal dispersion curves is in agreement with theory, which has been validated through both numerical modeling and the transfer matrix method, by solving for complex wave numbers. ?? ASCE / JUNE 2004.

Ryden, N.; Park, C. B.; Ulriksen, P.; Miller, R. D.

2004-01-01

457

46 CFR 171.140 - Drainage of a flush deck vessel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks § 171.140 Drainage of a flush deck vessel. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must be watertight and have...

2013-10-01

458

Safer Bridges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Safer bridges are among a number of spinoff benefits from NASA procedures for testing 'cfracture toughness" of a structural part, meaning its ability to -siscracktsh at might cause failure. The New River Bridge in West Virginia, shown under construction, is the world's largest single span bridge. U.S. Steel fracture toughness requirements for such bridges include NASA-developed test procedures. Bridge materials and other metal structures may develop flaws during their service lifetimes. Such flaws can affect the structural integrity of the part. Thus, it is important to know the "fracture toughness" of a structural part, or its ability to resist cracks. NASA has long experience in developing fracture toughness tests for aerospace hardware. Since 1960, NASA-Lewis has worked closely with the American Society for Testing & Materials. Lewis and NASA-funded industrial contractors have made many important contributions to test procedures, now recommended by ASTM, for measuring fracture toughness.

1977-01-01

459

Implications of seismic pounding on the longitudinal response of multi-span bridges—an analytical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic pounding between adjacent frames in multiple-frame bridges and girder ends in multi-span simply supported bridges\\u000a has been commonly observed in several recent earthquakes. The consequences of pounding include damage to piers, abutments,\\u000a shear keys, bearings and restrainers, and possible collapse of deck spans. This paper investigates pounding in bridges from\\u000a an analytical perspective. A simplified nonlinear model of a

Reginald DesRoches; Susendar Muthukumar

2004-01-01

460

96. VIEW OF DECK OF PIER EXTENSION, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

96. VIEW OF DECK OF PIER EXTENSION, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM END OF PIER. BUILDINGS ON 3RD TEE ARE IN THE BACKGROUND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

461

77. VIEW OF PIER DECK, TAKEN FROM LIFEGUARD TOWER, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

77. VIEW OF PIER DECK, TAKEN FROM LIFEGUARD TOWER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING REFUGE BAY AND 3RD TEE BUILDINGS IN BACKGROUND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

462

15. Detail, view northeast across second floor deck. Scale visible ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Detail, view northeast across second floor deck. Scale visible at right of door opening into 'Fireplace' room. 'Van Gogh' room at left. - Deetjen's Big Sur Inn, Hayloft Building, East Side of State Highway 1, Big Sur, Monterey County, CA

463

10. Detail, second floor employees' deck area, view to northeast. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Detail, second floor employees' deck area, view to northeast. Scale stile visible at right of door. - Deetjen's Big Sur Inn, Big Sur Inn Building, East Side of State Highway 1, Big Sur, Monterey County, CA

464

10. View forward along centerline of main deck from stern; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. View forward along centerline of main deck from stern; steering gear box cover has been removed, revealing gears. - Schooner "Lettie G. Howard", South Street Seaport Museum, New York, New York County, NY

465

19. DECK VIEW LOOKING FORWARD WITH MAST, RIGGING AND BOWSPRIT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. DECK VIEW LOOKING FORWARD WITH MAST, RIGGING AND BOWSPRIT DETAILS - HATCH COVER REMOVED TO SHOW CENTERBOARD TRUNK - KATHRYN-Two-sail Bateau "Skipjack", Dogwood Harbor, Chesapeake Bay, Tilghman, Talbot County, MD

466

13. DETAIL VIEW OF DECK OF 1886 TRUSS, SHOWING HIP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. DETAIL VIEW OF DECK OF 1886 TRUSS, SHOWING HIP VERTICAL, SIDEWALK AND GUARDRAIL, LOOKING EAST - Sixth Street Viaduct, Spanning Burlington Northern Railroad & Valley Street, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

467

14. DETAIL VIEW OF DECK OF 1886 TRUSS, SHOWING TYPICAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. DETAIL VIEW OF DECK OF 1886 TRUSS, SHOWING TYPICAL VERTICAL AND DIAGONALS, SIDEWALK AND GUARDRAIL, LOOKING EAST - Sixth Street Viaduct, Spanning Burlington Northern Railroad & Valley Street, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

468

5. EAST ELEVATION WITH DECK AND ACCESS DOORS TO LOWER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. EAST ELEVATION WITH DECK AND ACCESS DOORS TO LOWER LEVEL (PAINT SHOP), OFFICE ADDITION AT RIGHT. LOWELL'S RESIDENCE CAN BE SEEN IN BACKGROUND AT FAR RIGHT. - Lowell's Boat Shop, 459 Main Street, Amesbury, Essex County, MA

469

42. View from forward end of poop deck, port side, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. View from forward end of poop deck, port side, looking aft toward poop capstan, booby hatch, and mizzenmast. Photograph by Russell Booth, June 1989. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

470

12. CAPSTANS OF FRONT DECK. MIDDLE DOOR IS OPEN. ALL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. CAPSTANS OF FRONT DECK. MIDDLE DOOR IS OPEN. ALL DOORS COULD OPEN, TO GIVE OPERATOR AN UNIMPEDED VIEW. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

471

15. SOUTH SIDE OF LAUNCH DECK SHOWING NEW AUXILIARY FLAME ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. SOUTH SIDE OF LAUNCH DECK SHOWING NEW AUXILIARY FLAME DUCTS UNDER CONSTRUCTION, UMBILICAL MAST AT RIGHT; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28402, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

472

16. NORTH SIDE OF LAUNCH DECK SHOWING NEW AUXILIARY FLAME ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. NORTH SIDE OF LAUNCH DECK SHOWING NEW AUXILIARY FLAME DUCTS UNDER CONSTRUCTION, MOBILE SERVICE STRUCTURE IN REAR; VIEW TO WEST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28402, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

473

5. INTERIOR DETAIL OF 'BATTLESHIP DECK' WALL PARTITION AND CEILING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. INTERIOR DETAIL OF 'BATTLESHIP DECK' WALL PARTITION AND CEILING OF FIRST FLOOR OF 1930 ADDITION TO OFFICE BUILDING - Midwest Steel & Iron Works Company, 25 Larimer Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

474

LST, FROM SUNKEN AFT SECTION TOWARD BOW SHOWING DECK AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

LST, FROM SUNKEN AFT SECTION TOWARD BOW SHOWING DECK AND INTERIOR OF HULL. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch Branch, LST Wreckage, Submerged in waters of West Loch near Waipio Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

475

Astronaut Claude Nicollier at RMS controls on aft flight deck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Swiss Astronaut Claude Nicollier is pictured at the aft flight deck station he occupies. Among Nicollier 's responsibilities were the control of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) during operations with the Hubble Space Telesocpe (HST).

1993-01-01

476

12. CAPTIVE TEST STAND UNDER CONSTRUCTION ON LAUNCH DECK; VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. CAPTIVE TEST STAND UNDER CONSTRUCTION ON LAUNCH DECK; VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28402, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

477

19. Main deck just forward of fish batch, portion of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Main deck just forward of fish batch, portion of fish hatch cover has been opened to show the ventilation grate below. - Schooner "Lettie G. Howard", South Street Seaport Museum, New York, New York County, NY

478

23. STEAM PLANT TURBINE DECK FROM NORTH END OF BUILDING, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. STEAM PLANT TURBINE DECK FROM NORTH END OF BUILDING, SHOWING FOURTH STEAM UNIT IN PLACE AT FAR SOUTH END. April 6, 1950 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

479

8. TURBINE DECK (UPPER FLOOR) INSIDE STEAM PLANT, SHOWING STEAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. TURBINE DECK (UPPER FLOOR) INSIDE STEAM PLANT, SHOWING STEAM TURBINES AND GENERATORS, LOOKING NORTH. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

480

85. photographer unknown 26 June 1937 GENERAL VIEW 55 DECK, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

85. photographer unknown 26 June 1937 GENERAL VIEW 55 DECK, ASSEMBLING GENERATOR ROTOR AND STATOR FOR UNIT NO 2. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

481

91. photographer unknown 18 September 1937 55 DECK, GENERAL VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

91. photographer unknown 18 September 1937 55 DECK, GENERAL VIEW OF UNIT NO 1 AND ROTOR. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

482

6. DECK #4 TOPSIDE FROM NORTHEAST CORNER END PIECE FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DECK #4 TOPSIDE FROM NORTHEAST CORNER END PIECE FOR ROBOTIC ARM FOR ANCHORING ASTRONAUT FOR MECHANICAL WORK. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

483

8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. Edwards ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

484

11. DETAIL SHOWING ROLLING ENGINE DECK AND NORTHEAST TRUSS OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. DETAIL SHOWING ROLLING ENGINE DECK AND NORTHEAST TRUSS OF SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

485

4. TOPSIDE VIEW FROM UPPER DECK LOOKING DOWN INTO TANK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. TOPSIDE VIEW FROM UPPER DECK LOOKING DOWN INTO TANK WITH SHUTTLE CARGO BAY MOCK-UP AT BOTTOM OF 40 FOOT TANK. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

486

5. TOPSIDE VIEW FROM UPPER DECK LOOKING DOWN INTO TANK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. TOPSIDE VIEW FROM UPPER DECK LOOKING DOWN INTO TANK WITH SHUTTLE CARGO BAY MOCK-UP AT BOTTOM OF 40 FOOT TANK. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

487

Effect of induced deformation on NDT pavement evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three nondestructive testing techniques were used in this study to evaluate pavement layer properties. These techniques included deflection and seismic methods. In the deflection methods, measurable surface deformations were induced using falling weight deflectometer and Dynaflect tests. These two tests utilized different schemes of dynamic loading applications to produce deflection basins from which the pavement layer properties were back calculated. Pavement properties from seismic methods were obtained from the analysis of surface waves due to transient load applications. In this study the seismic pavement analyzer (SPA) was used to determine pavement moduli values. Although the same assumptions for linear elastic behavior of pavement properties are usually assumed in all the three methods, obtained moduli values from these techniques did not conform to each other. Commonly, pavement deflection from SPA is not considered when analyzing layer properties. To narrow the gap between the obtained results, however, time-history records and frequency response functions were used to determine surface deflections from the three methods. Deflection measurements correlated with the obtained moduli values. Using these correlations, moduli values at any pavement deflection levels could be evaluated, especially at levels produced by traffic loads.

Tawfiq, Kamal S.; Sobanjo, John O.; Ruiz, R.

1999-02-01

488

Field investigation of clogging in a permeable pavement system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permeable pavements are commonly used around commercial and industrial buildings to reduce the environmental impact. Results are presented from a forensic investigation of a permeable interlocking concrete paving (PICP) system that has been in service for over eight years. The aims were to quantify the sediment accumulation processes that occurred in the different pavement layers and to improve understanding of

Terry Lucke; Simon Beecham

2011-01-01

489

Flexible Layered Pavement Design Procedure for Rhode Island.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the purpose of recommending a flexible pavement design procedure for Rhode Island using the AASHO Interim Guide, a study was made of 13 sites on selected in-service flexible pavements. Data obtained and tests performed include ADT, vehicle classificat...

V. A. Nacci K. Moultrop M. C. Wang M. T. Huston

1977-01-01

490

Full-Depth Asphalt Pavements for Parking Lots and Driveways.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The latest information for designing full-depth asphalt pavements for parking lots and driveways is covered in relationship to the continued increase in vehicle registration. It is based on The Asphalt Institute's Thickness Design Manual, Series No. 1 (MS-1), Seventh Edition, which covers all aspects of asphalt pavement thickness design in detail,…

Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

491

Analytical Study of Probable Peak Vehicle Load on Rigid Pavement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the lack of formulas for evaluating the peak value of dynamic vehicle load on rigid pavement, the need to derive a simple closed-form solution to predict the peak load for pavement design is apparent. Presented herein is a theoretical solution for evaluating the probable peak vehicle load on rigid pave- ment due to the passage of a vehicle

Jeng-Hsiang Lin; Cheng-Chiang Weng

2001-01-01

492

Control of Grasses and Weeds Growing in Asphalt Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbicides offer the engineer a means for controlling vegetation involving asphalt surfaces. The plants may arise from seeds or plant parts in the base material, by encroachment of plants from outside the pavement, or from seeds that become lodged in cracks or seams in the pavement.Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) and many associated plants can be controlled with either pre-surface or

Wayne G. McCully; William J. Bowmer; Allen F. Wiese

1970-01-01

493

Permeable Pavement Research at the Edison Environmental Center  

EPA Science Inventory

There are few detailed studies of full-scale, replicated, actively-used permeable pavement systems. Practitioners need additional studies of permeable pavement systems in its intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) across a range of climatic events, daily usage conditio...

494

Climatic-Materials-Structural Pavement Analysis Program. User's Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication is the User's Manual for the Climatic-Materials-Structural Pavement Analysis Program (CMS program) which is described in detail in the report entitled 'Volume 3. Environmental Effects on Pavements - Theory Manual, FHWA/RD-84-115.' The CMS ...

W. A. Herlache A. J. Patel B. J. Dempsey

1985-01-01

495

Hot-Recycling of Tar-Containing Asphalt Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot recycling in pavement construction leads to the emission of hazardous compounds when tar-containing recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) is used. This is due to the relatively high content of substances such as phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in tar. The latter are of special interest, because some PAHs have carcinogenic and\\/or mutagenic properties. High tar content in combination with

Martin Hugener; Lukas Emmenegger; Peter Mattrel

2010-01-01

496

Fuzzy optimization BP neural network model for pavement performance assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discussed the use of fuzzy optimization BP neural network as a management tool for the maintenance of expressway pavement. The algorithm was applied to model pavement performance evaluation, successful in accurately and quickly capturing the high nonlinear characteristics between objective practical data and subjective synthetic evaluations, avoided the neural network activation function's defects of unclear physical meanings. A

Yan Liu; Min Sun

2007-01-01

497

Application of Graded Finite Elements for Asphalt Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asphalt paving layers, particularly the surface course, exhibit vertically graded material properties. This grading is caused primarily by temperature gradients and aging related stiffness gradients. Most conventional existing analysis models do not directly account for the continuous grading of properties in flexible pavement layers. As a result, conventional analysis methods may lead to inaccurate prediction of pavement responses and distress

William G. Buttlar; Glaucio H. Paulino; Seong Hyeok Song

2009-01-01

498

Microwave methods enable energy savings in restoration of highway pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot in place recycling of asphalt pavement by a method which utilizes microwave energy in combination with hot engine exhaust gases has been demonstrated to be technically and economically feasible. The process saves both energy and materials compared with conventional hot-mix recycling methods involving removal of old paving and reprocessing at hot-mix plants. Applications for microwave pavement heating include repair

M. R. Jeppson; F. J. Smith

1983-01-01

499

Cable Stayed Timber Bridges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A growing market segment open to timber bridges is pedestrian bridges crossing highways, railways and watercourses. These bridges are often calling for a long span and large vertical clearance under the bridge. Suspended and cable stayed bridges are attra...

A. Pousette

2001-01-01

500

Study on pavement technologies to mitigate the heat island effect and their effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the heat island effect in large cities has become a social issue in Japan. Pavements are thought to be one of the main causes of the heat island effect as they cover wide area of cities. Therefore, new pavements, such as water retention pavements or heat shield pavements, have been developed and used as countermeasures by the central and

K. Kubo; H. KIDO