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1

Research on tensile strength characteristics of bridge deck pavement bonding layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the development of the traffic in the world, the bridge deck pavement is playing a more and more important role in the whole traffic system. Big span bridge has become more and more especially cement concrete bridge, therefore the bridge deck pavement bonding layers are emphasized as an important part of bridge traffic system, which can mitigate travel impact

Shaopeng Wu; Jun Han

2009-01-01

2

Determination of Critical Loading Position on Tied-Arch Bridge Deck Pavement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The universal finite element software of ANSYS was utilized in the mechanical analysis of pavement system on bridge deck. Firstly, the enveloping surface of the interface stress on bridge deck pavement was determined by means of moving loads. Then loads were arranged across the maximum stress influence surface of all the layers according to the criterion. Finally the variation laws

Han Cunjie

2010-01-01

3

Superplasticized concretes for rehabilitation of bridge decks and highway pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two mixes, one with medium workability and high cement content suitable for bridge deck replacement and another with high workability suitable for structural and pavement concrete were selected for intensive study. For these mixes, properties of the fresh concrete (slump, vebe time, flow table spread, air content, initial and final setting times) are reported. The effects of retempering are described. The influence of three types of cements on the properties of plastic and hardened concrete is explained. Complete results of the following tests are presented: compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, static modulus of elasticity, dynamic modulus of elasticity, pulse velocity and dry unit weight at 1, 3, 28 and 90 days curing. The selected concretes had high durability and satisfactory resistance against deicer scaling.

Ramakrishnan, V.; Coyle, W. V.

1981-01-01

4

Bridge Deck Program Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report identified, classifies and addresses WSDOT's needs and questions regarding concrete bridge deck deterioration. Included is a state-of-the-art assessment regarding any major areas of concern to the statewide bridge deck program. Recommendations ...

K. Babaei

1985-01-01

5

4. View of bridge deck from northeast approach (bridge deck ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. View of bridge deck from northeast approach (bridge deck from southwest approach is virtually identical - Big Cottonwood River Bridge No. 246, Spanning Big Cottonwood River at Cottonwood Street (City Road No. 165), New Ulm, Brown County, MN

6

Bridge Deck Deterioration and Restoration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reflects the results of a comprehensive research program in response to the problem of bridge deck deterioration. This program placed emphasis on protecting newer decks as well as repairing damaged ones. Two basic approaches were applied to pr...

M. G. Hagen

1982-01-01

7

Cracks in Concrete Bridge Decks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of cracks in bridge decks as reported in the literature and observed in NSW shows that certain types of cracks are predominant in particular bridge types. Cracks in composite bridges and in cast-in-place kerbs and cantilever deck slabs are shown t...

D. Campbell-Allen B. Lau

1978-01-01

8

Ground-penetrating radar evaluation of bridge decks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radar has emerged as a valuable non-destructive test method for evaluating the condition of New Hampshire bridge decks. It allows the inspector to 'see' the top surface of the portland cement concrete deck which is typically covered with asphalt pavement. Radar is also very 'customer friendly' in that it allows inspectors to evaluate the bridge decks without closing travel lanes or otherwise impeding traffic flow in any way. This paper discusses the inspection needs of the New Hampshire Department of Transportation which necessitated the use of radar, as well as a history of its selection, development, and incorporation into New Hampshire's bridge management system.

Roberts, Glenn E.

1995-05-01

9

Bridge Deck Deicing using Geothermal Heat Pumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several research projects at Oklahoma State University have investigated bridge deck deicing systems that utilize a ground source heat pump system to provide heating. This paper describes simulation methodology; the design of a system planned for installation on a bridge deck near Weatherford, Oklahoma; and results from system simulations of the proposed bridge deck. System simulations of the bridge deck

JEFFREY D. SPITLER; MAHADEVAN RAMAMOORTHY

10

Bridge Deck Concrete Volume Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concrete structures such as bridge decks, with large surface area relative to volume, shrink and crack, thus reducing service life performance and increasing operation costs. The project evaluated the early, first 24 hours, and long-term, 180 days, shrink...

A. Ramniceanu D. W. Mokarem R. E. Weyers

2010-01-01

11

Galvanized Steel Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project was initiated in 1969 as a cooperative study with the Federal Highway Administration. It includes construction of laboratory specimens and experimental bridge decks for evaluation of galvanized reinforcement as a deterrent to bridge deck dete...

C. J. Arnold

1976-01-01

12

Nondestructive Evaluation of FRP Bridge Deck Panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to investigate Infrared Thermography (IRT) as a Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) method for glass fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite bridge deck panels. FRP bridge decks are currently being evaluated as a potential replacement for traditional steel-grate or concrete bridge decking. A potential problem with these decks, however, is that structural damage that can occur due to

Phillip Hallam

2012-01-01

13

Bridge Deck Drainage Guidelines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document presents criteria to determine if bridge drainage scuppers and drains are required. A design nomograph allows a rapid decision to be made. A key variable, design rain intensity, is analyzed: the rational method is reviewed and new methods for...

G. K. Young J. Phillippe S. J. Bellomo J. Normann W. E. Hughes

1986-01-01

14

Construction of Bridge Decks with Precast, Prestressed Concrete Deck Planks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the construction and early performance of two 1999-2000 bridge deck replacement state contracts in Illinois that included precast, prestressed concrete (PPC) deck planks. Metal stay-in-place forms used in one of the...

T. H. Volle

2002-01-01

15

Investigations of a Precast Bridge Deck System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Improved methods of bridge deck construction are greatly needed. Bridge decks are often the first element to require repair or replacement because of its direct exposure to the elements and tire wear. This report presents a new precast overhang system tha...

M. Ghashgesh S. Patil T. Ley

2010-01-01

16

Hydrodemolition and Repair of Bridge Decks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of modern hydrodemolition equipment for removal of deteriorated concrete and preparation of bridge decks for concrete repair. Comparison of hydrodemolition to conventional sawing and jackhammer removal concerning cost and harm to remaining concret...

J. D. Wenzlick

2002-01-01

17

Structural performance of a FRP bridge deck  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present fatigue and strength experimental qualifications performed for an all-composite bridge deck. This bridge deck, made up of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) was installed on the campus at University of Missouri at Rolla on July 29th, 2000. The materials used for the fabrication of this 30 foot (9.144 m) long by 9 foot (2.743

Prakash Kumar; K. Chandrashekhara; Antonio Nanni

2004-01-01

18

Durability of Bridge Deck Concrete. Part Two: Moisture Content of Bridge Decks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report compares the moisture content that exists in bridge decks when removable or metal stay-in-place forms are used, the objective being to see if there is a correlation between moisture content and the rate of deterioration of bridge decks. (Author...

P. D. Cady R. E. Carrier

1971-01-01

19

Hydraulic Performance of Small Scale Bridge Deck Drains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Efficient removal of stormwater runoff from bridge deck surfaces is an important safety issue. This study investigates hydraulic performance characteristics of a new type of rectangular bridge deck drain. A physical modeling study was conducted to evaluat...

M. Barrett Q. Qian R. Charbeneau X. Liu

2013-01-01

20

Application of computer simulation to bridge deck construction: Case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bridge deck construction is performed in a cyclic manner and it involves different types of interacted resources. This paper presents a case study that discusses how computer simulation is used to aid bridges' contractors in planning of bridges' decks, taking into consideration the interaction amongst involved resources. As such, total duration of deck execution and the associated total costs, including

H. Said; M. Marzouk; M. El-Said

2009-01-01

21

Health monitoring of FRP bridge decks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistics released in the fall 1989 show that 238,357 (41%) of the nation's 577,710 bridges are either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. New materials are being explored for use in bridge systems to solve this problem. These materials are less affected by corrosive environmental conditions than conventional civil engineering materials and thus, require less maintenance and potentially provide a longer life span. A material being considered for these applications is glass fiber reinforced vinyl ester matrix composites. Fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) composite deck systems made of this material are favorable potential replacements for deteriorating conventional bridge decks. The decreased specific weight of the FRP greatly reduces the dead load of the superstructure helping avoid load posting of bridges. However there is a lack of long-term durability data concerning this material system in typical bridge environments. Thus, an efficient and effective method must be devised to monitor the health of an FRP structure in-situ. This paper will discuss the use of Infrared Thermography as a means of detecting structural imperfections -- delaminations, disbonds, voids -- caused by conditions encountered both in fabrication and in the field. As forced convection hot air is circulated through the bridge deck, delaminations and disbonds in the top of the deck appear cold while defects in the bottom of the deck give rise to areas with higher temperatures. The discontinuities in thermal propagation patterns are detected with a thermal imaging system and indicate present and possible future structural deficiencies. Laboratory results revealing fabrication/installation problems and those from field tests will be presented.

Miceli, Marybeth; Horne, Michael R.; Duke, John C.

2001-07-01

22

Epoxy coated reinforced steel in bridge decks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fusion-bonded epoxy coatings were applied to rebars in bridge decks. A thin film of epoxy resin is fusion bonded to the reinforcing steel as a prevention against corrosion. A monitoring system was established to measure electrical resistance for several years after installation.

Pourkhosrow, G.

1981-11-01

23

Bridge Deck Rehabilitation. Part 3. Cathodic Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this project were to study the factors involved in bridge deck deterioration and to formulate and evaluate techniques to prevent or halt such deterioration. Part III of this study addressed the use of cathodic protection to prevent NaCl ...

P. M. Ward

1977-01-01

24

Sonic inspection of concrete bridge decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

One technique for determining the integrity of concrete structures, such as bridge decks, involves dragging a chain across it and listening to the audible response. A distinctive, hollow sound is produced when a chain is dragged over a section of concrete containing a delamination. This technique has been automated by recording the sound produced by a dragging chain with a

R. Daniel Costley; Gary Boudreaux; William Gene Ramsey

2003-01-01

25

Embedded fiber optic sensors for bridge deck chloride penetration measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of chloride-based deicing agents to help clear U.S. highways of roadway hazards leads to associated chemical related problems. Fouling of local rivers and streams due to runoff of the waterborne chlorides is significant and has contributed to local ordinances that are attempting to force state agencies to reduce, if not eliminate, the use of these chlorides (typically at the cost of increased driving hazards). With respect to the corrosion aspects of chloride application, cracks that occur in the roadway/bridge pavement allow water to seep into the pavement carrying the chloride to the rebar with the resultant increase in corrosion. The costs of this corrosion are considerable and have led to the wide- spread use of chloride/water impermeable membranes on roadways and especially within bridges. Fiber optics sensors have repeatedly been shown to provide measurement capabilities of parameters within such reinforced concrete structures. Development of fiber optic chloride sensors capable of being embedded within a roadway or bridge deck is reported.

Fuhr, Peter L.; Huston, Dryver R.; MacCraith, Brian D.

1998-04-01

26

Improved ground-penetrating radar, bridge decks  

SciTech Connect

Inspection of high-value structures, like bridges and buildings, using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an application of a technology that is growing in importance. In a typical inspection application, inspectors use GPR to locate structural components, like embedded reinforcing bars, to avoid weakening the structure while collecting core samples for detailed inspection. Advanced GPR, integrated with imaging technologies for use as an NDE tool, can provide the capability to quickly locate and characterize construction flaws and wear- or age-induced damage in these structures without resorting to destructive methods. In this paper, we discuss an important inspection application, namely, concrete bridge deck inspection. We describe an advanced bridge deck inspection system concept (Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar, GPIR) and present results from experiments designed to simulate the concept.

Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.; Johansson, E.M.; Nelson, S.D.

1993-11-29

27

Sonic inspection of concrete bridge decks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One technique for determining the integrity of concrete structures, such as bridge decks, involves dragging a chain across it and listening to the audible response. A distinctive, hollow sound is produced when a chain is dragged over a section of concrete containing a delamination. This technique has been automated by recording the sound produced by a dragging chain with a suitable microphone and processing these signals with a minicomputer to distinguish between ``good'' and ``bad'' sections of concrete. The equipment is mounted on a hand-pushed cart with chains attached so that they drag along the surface of the deck. In addition, the microphone is mounted in such a way, using standard noise control techniques, so that external noise is minimized. Traffic noise is filtered electronically. These improvements make the technique operator independent and allow inspections to be made in noisy environments. Another advantage is that this approach produces an objective record of the inspection, available both electronically and in hardcopy. These records can be compared to past and future inspections, allowing the inspectors to monitor the health of the structure. Results from bridge deck inspections will be presented, along with a description of the device and the signal processing techniques.

Costley, R. Daniel; Boudreaux, Gary; Ramsey, William Gene

2003-10-01

28

Response of a continuous, skewed, steel bridge during deck placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was conducted to study environmental, material and deck placement effects on the behavior of a continuous, skewed, High Performance Steel (HPS), integral abutment bridge during construction using field data and three-dimensional finite element models. The finite element models were calibrated against girder strain measurements recorded during deck placement. During calibration, the effects of temperature changes during deck placement

Tze-Wei Choo; Daniel G. Linzell; Je Il Lee; James A. Swanson

2005-01-01

29

Load Testing of an FRP Bridge Deck on a Truss Bridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

New York State has constructed a fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bridge deck as an experimental project. The goal of the project was to improve the load rating of a 50-yr old truss bridge located in Wellsburg, New York. The FRP deck weighs approximately 80-percent less than the deteriorated concrete bridge deck it replaced. Reducing the dead load increased the allowable

Sreenivas Alampalli; Jonathan Kunin

2003-01-01

30

Automated Bridge Deck Anti- and Deicing System. Report of Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project developed and tested a bridge mounted automated deicing system for melting snow and ice on bridge decks. The system uses accepted deicing liquids and conventional spraying techniques coupled with modem roadway weather information system (RWIS...

R. Decker

1998-01-01

31

51. Bridge nearing completion, note formwork for deck cantilever, south ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. Bridge nearing completion, note formwork for deck cantilever, south abutment; view to east. Note lack of connection to roadway at right. - Parks Bar Bridge, Spanning Yuba River at State Highway 20, Smartville, Yuba County, CA

32

8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern end looking toward north-northwest. - Bridge No. 4800, Spanning Minnesota River on Trunk Highway 4 between Brown & Nicollet Counties, Sleepy Eye, Brown County, MN

33

12. Deck view of bridge near Alum Cave parking area ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Deck view of bridge near Alum Cave parking area looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

34

12. View underside of bridge, showing concrete tee beam deck ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. View underside of bridge, showing concrete tee beam deck spans supported by concrete piles, looking southwest - Colonel Alexander Scammell Memorial Bridge, Spanning Bellamy River at U.S. Route 4, Dover, Strafford County, NH

35

12. View of bridge underside showing deck beams, stringers and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. View of bridge underside showing deck beams, stringers and center pier. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1983 - Neshanic Station Lenticular Truss Bridge, State Route 567, spanning South Branch of Raritan River, Neshanic Station, Somerset County, NJ

36

Classification of Longitudinal Welds in an Aluminum Bridge Deck.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An aluminum bridge deck (called ALUMADECK) has been developed by Reynolds Metal Company and is made of extruded sections welded together at the sides to form a bridge deck. The longitudinal welds used to connect the extrusions do not match any of the fati...

T. E. Cousins R. F. Hezel J. P. Gomez

2000-01-01

37

Assessment of the Uretek Process on Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement, Jointed Concrete Pavement, and Bridge Approach Slabs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study evaluates the rehabilitation method utilizing the injection of Uretek (polyurethane) into the pavement structures on continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP), jointed concrete pavement (JCP), and bridge approach slabs. The polyurethane ...

K. Gaspard M. Morvant

2004-01-01

38

Steel–concrete composite bridge deck slab with profiled sheeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental study of a steel–concrete composite bridge deck slab with profiled sheeting and perfobond shear connectors. Two full-scale deck slab specimens cast onto three concrete blocks were fabricated and tested under static loading to examine the ultimate load-carrying capacity of the proposed deck slab system under sagging and hogging bending actions. The ultimate behaviour of the

Hyeong-Yeol Kim; Youn-Ju Jeong

2009-01-01

39

Comprehensive condition assessment of bridge decks by multimodal NDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion induced bridge deck delamination is a common problem in reinforced concrete decks. While condition assessment can be done using a number of traditional and NDE methods, the presented study concentrates on a complementary use of five NDE techniques: impact echo (IE), ground penetrating radar (GPR), half-cell potential (H-C), ultrasonic surface waves (USW) and electrical resistivity (ER). Each of the

Nenad Gucunski; Ruediger Feldmann; Francisco Romero; Sabine Kruschwitz; Hooman Parvardeh

2010-01-01

40

Evaluation of Mechanized Consolidation of Bridge Deck Concrete in Illinois.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mechanized methods of vibratory concrete consolidation were used on all or part of fourteen bridge decks in Illinois from 1996 to 1998. The method used on twelve decks consisted of vertical insertion of vibrators in a grid pattern. A transverse drag-throu...

J. M. South

1999-01-01

41

Monitoring fatigue life in concrete bridge deck slabs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concrete bridge deck slabs are the most common form of bridge deck construction in short and medium span bridge structures in North America. Understanding and monitoring the condition of these bridge decks is an important component of a bridge management strategy. Progressive deterioration due to fatigue occurs in concrete decks due to the large number of cycles of heavy wheels loads and normally manifests itself as the progressive growth of cracks in the top and underside of the deck slab. While some laboratory fatigue testing programs have been reported in the literature, there is very little information on proposed techniques to monitor this phenomenon. This paper discusses the issue of how fatigue monitoring may be included as part of a structural health monitoring system for bridges. The paper draws upon previously published experimental results to identify the main characteristics of fatigue damage and structural response for concrete bridge deck slabs. Several means of monitoring this response are then evaluated and monitoring methods are proposed. A specific field structure monitoring program is used to illustrate the application of the concept. The cases study examines several sensor systems and discusses the various limitations and needs in this area. The results are of interest to both the general area of structural health monitoring as well as fatigue monitoring specifically.

Newhook, J.; Limaye, V.

2007-05-01

42

Effectiveness of Concrete Bridge Deck Asphalt-Membrane Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study field tests and evaluates conditions of five bridge decks in Washington rehabilitated and waterproofed by WSDOT System 'C' membrane and paved with asphalt concrete overlay. The study also reviews and evaluates the WSDOT's membrane selection crit...

K. Babaei

1986-01-01

43

3. VAL PROJECTILE LOADING DECK, SUPPORT CARRIAGE AND LAUNCHING BRIDGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VAL PROJECTILE LOADING DECK, SUPPORT CARRIAGE AND LAUNCHING BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

44

Bridge Deck Reinforcement and PCP Cracking: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bridge decks composed of precast, prestressed panels (PCPs) overlain by cast-in-place (CIP) are popular in many states, including Texas. Optimization of top-mat reinforcement and reduction of collinear panel cracking were addressed in this project. Longit...

A. Woods J. Foreman J. O. Jirsa K. Y. Kwon N. Karki O. Bayrak R. E. Klingner S. Foster S. H. Chao U. Azimov

2013-01-01

45

Evaluation of Bridge Deck Repair and Protective Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes efforts to control bridge deck deterioration in Colorado. A follow up testing program to determine the degree of continued effectiveness of waterproofing membranes has been underway since 1974. Results to date show that the most impo...

H. N. Swanson D. E. Donnelly

1977-01-01

46

Infrared Thermography As A Nondestructive Evaluation Technique For Fiber Composite Bridge Decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal usage of Infrared Thermography (IRT) as a Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) method on glass fiber composite bridge decks. For various reasons, fiber bridge decks are a potential for replacing traditional steel-grate or concrete bridge decking. However, the main problem with fiber decks is that there is no proven NDE method. Two

Philip Hallam

2012-01-01

47

Rehabilitation and field testing of an FRP bridge deck on a truss bridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A light-weight FRP deck was used, on an experimental basis, to replace a heavy deteriorated concrete deck improving the load rating of a 60-year old truss bridge located in Wellsburg, New York. This was the first such application in New York State. Load testing was conducted after installation of the FRP deck to study its behavior. Results indicated the conservative

Sreenivas Alampalli; Jonathan Kunin

2002-01-01

48

Cathodic Protection for Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks. Yakima River Bridge 24/5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A non-slotted cathodic protection system was installed on the deck of the Yakima River Bridge 24/5, near Yakima, Washington, in the summer of 1985. The project involved repairing the deck, then fastening Raychem pre-manufactured anodes to the deck to impr...

T. H. Roper E. H. Henley

1986-01-01

49

Fatigue classification of welded joints in orthotropic steel bridge decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation presents the research into fatigue classifications of welded joints in orthotropic steel bridge decks. These classifications are needed to calculate the fatigue life of these joints and should be included in the design codes. For years bridge design was mainly based on static loading. Due to the development of modern light weight steel structures and extremely increasing traffic

M. H. Kolstein

2007-01-01

50

With deck removed and critical members severed, the bridge begins ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

With deck removed and critical members severed, the bridge begins to succumb to tractors, pulling cables attached to its downstream side. View is to the southeast from confluence of Trinity and South Fork Trinity Rivers - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

51

144. Camp Creek Bridge. View of the road deck showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

144. Camp Creek Bridge. View of the road deck showing the stone-faced guard rails and the grass shoulders continuing across the bridge. Looking east-southeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

52

Development of a Bridge Deck Management System for the Washington State Department of Transportation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents development of a systematic bridge deck management system for the Washington State Department of Transportation. The system determines present and future bridge deck condition, estimates required reconstruction and its associated cost...

K. Babaei

1988-01-01

53

Cathodic Protection for Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first three cathodic protection systems installed on PennDOT decks are the focus of the report. PennDOT's first cathodic protection system was constructed in 1977 on U.S. Traffic Route 15 near Allenwood. It used high silicon-chromium iron anodes and a...

K. L. Highlands

1991-01-01

54

Structural Assessment of Externally Strengthened Bridge Deck Panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deteriorated concrete bridge decks are strengthened with external bonding technique using either steel plate or various FRPs to enhance the decreased load carrying capacity and serviceability. But the failure characteristics of bridge decks strengthened with various materials can be changed according to mechanical properties of strengthening materials or strengthening scheme as well as the strengthening amount. In this paper, strengthening effect of deck strengthened with carbon fiber sheets, glass fiber sheets or steel plates is compared. And the theoretical load carrying capacity are evaluated using yield line theory and punching shear model properly modified for the strengthened RC member. The panels strengthened with sheet type FRP materials failed more often in a ductile mode, indicating that the failure developed after the rebar yielded.

Sim, Jongsung; Oh, Hongseob; Meyer, Christian

2006-03-01

55

EARTHQUAKE PERFORMANCE OF A BRIDGE DECK AND ABUTMENT.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the 24 April 1984 Morgan Hill Earthquake (M equals 6. 1), 15 channels of acceleration records were obtained at the site of the I-280-680/US 101 interchange 12 km west of the epicenter. These records include free field measurements as well as the acceleration response at one of the supporting column bases, and at three locations in one of the spans of the three-span continuous post-tensioned box-girder deck. The purpose of this paper is to review the performance of this bridge deck and its abutment through the study of these records. The objective in extensively instrumenting a bridge deck or any structure is to obtain relevant response data to study its behaviour during strong motion events and ultimately extrapolate conclusions for improved design.

Celebi, M.; Brady, G.

1985-01-01

56

Evaluation of Thin Epoxy Systems Overlays for Concrete Bridge Decks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four overlay systems were applied to concrete bridge decks in north Louisiana in May 1985 to evaluate their performance as friction surfaces primarily and also as concrete sealers. Dural Flexolith, Poly-Carb Flexogrid, and Con/Chem Cono/Crete were placed ...

M. Rasoulian N. Rabalais

1991-01-01

57

Field Verification of Bridge Deck Post-Tensioning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study documents the results of measurements made during longitudinal and transverse prestressing of the decks of two spans of a full scale pretensioned girder and slab bridge crossing the Colorado River near LaGrange, Texas. It addresses such importan...

J. E. Breen R. L. Carrasquillo J. Farbiarz R. B. Anderson

1987-01-01

58

Cathodic protection for reinforced concrete bridge decks: Laboratory phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory and prototype model study of the application of cathodic protection to control corrosion of concrete bridge deck reinforcement is described. Both impressed-current and sacrificial anode systems were examined. Laboratory studies of the electrochemical behavior of steel in a simulated concrete environment demonstrated that corrosion can be controlled by the application of cathodic current, and indicated desired criteria. A

J. B. Vrable

1977-01-01

59

Galvanic cathodic protection for reinforced concrete bridge decks: Field evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of four sacrificial zinc anode cathodic protection systems to a reinforced concrete highway bridge deck is described. Two system designs were found to be the most promising in terms of polarized potentials and protective current densities achieved during the 3 year monitoring program. One design uses commercially available zinc ribbon anodes spaced at 5 in (127 mm) centers;

D. Whiting; D. Stark

1981-01-01

60

8. VIEW NORTH DETAIL OF THE TIMBER DECK BRIDGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW NORTH - DETAIL OF THE TIMBER DECK BRIDGE FROM THE RARITAN AND DELAWARE BAY RAILROAD MAIN LINE FILL EMBANKMENT - Raritan & Delaware Bay Railroad, Crossing Compton Creek & Church Road (Bounded North by Port Monmouth Road, & South by Broadway), Belford, Monmouth County, NJ

61

Effects of Temperature on Fiber Composite Bridge Decks, Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of fiber composite honeycomb structures as bridge decks has gained importance because of its light weight and ease of installation. The purpose of this study was to compare the cost savings of fiber composite honeycomb with the structural durabili...

M. G. Nagabhushanam

2009-01-01

62

Development of Aluminum Bridge Deck System with Reynolds Metals Company  

SciTech Connect

Currently, there are many structurally-deficient and obsolete bridges in the US highway system. The expected cost for repair and replacement is enormous; therefore, more cost-effective materials and construction methodology must be sought. Reynolds Metals Company formed a vertical consortium to develop and market a cost-effective, innovative, lightweight, corrosion resistant aluminum bridge deck system based on hollow aluminum shapes that could be welded together in the shop to form deck panels. Panels would be shipped to the construction sites for final assembly, which uses connections along longitudinal edges. These deck panels would replace conventional steel or concrete panels. An epoxy-gravel wearing surface would be applied to the top side of the deck to provide a durable, skid-resistant surface. However, before this deck system could be widely utilized, the overall structural integrity had to be fully demonstrated. Reynolds Metals Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORN L) entered in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to conduct a number of fundamental investigations into potentially critical technical areas over approximately a four-year period.

Brinkman, C.R.; Hayden, W.H.

1999-04-01

63

Ultimate strength of a steel–concrete composite bridge deck slab with profiled sheeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate behaviour of a steel–concrete composite deck slab system with profiled steel sheeting and perfobond rib shear connectors was experimentally investigated. The main objectives of this study are to develop a composite deck slab for girder bridges that spans longer but weighs less than the conventional reinforced concrete (RC) deck slab and to experimentally validate the proposed deck slab

Hyeong-Yeol Kim; Youn-Ju Jeong

2010-01-01

64

Design of GFRP deck and deck-to-girder connections for girder bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and analysis of GFRP (glass fiber reinforced polymer) decks for the girder bridges. In the\\u000a material design, Eglass fibers with vinyl ester resin are assumed for the materials. Five GFRP plates having different stacking\\u000a patterns and material compositions are designed and pultruded. Total 100 specimens are tested for tension, compression, shear,\\u000a and flexure. Based on

Hyeong-Yeol Kim; Sun-Myung Kim; Young-Ho Lee

2004-01-01

65

FRP STAY-IN-PLACE FORMWORK AND REINFORCING FOR CONCRETE HIGHWAY BRIDGE DECKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research described in this paper is aimed at developing an innovative approach to designing and building concrete bridges, especially bridge decks. This new approach is intended to allow more rapid construction, improve the deck durability, reduce costs and improve efficiency by making the design process reflect the actual deck behavior. As part of the development of this new design

Michael OLIVA; Han-Ug BAE; Jeffrey BARKER; Seung-Woon YOO

66

Stiffness and strength of fiber reinforced polymer composite bridge deck systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigates two principal characteristics that are of primary importance in Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bridge deck applications: STIFFNESS and STRENGTH. The research was undertaken by investigating the stiffness and strength characteristics of the multi-cellular FRP bridge deck systems consisting of pultruded FRP shapes. A systematic analysis procedure was developed for the stiffness analysis of multi-cellular FRP deck systems.

Aixi Zhou

2002-01-01

67

Dual-band infrared imaging for concrete bridge deck inspection  

SciTech Connect

Dual-band infrared (DBIR) imaging methods and unique image-correction algorithms used successfully for underground and obscured object imaging and detection (of buried mines, archaeological structures, geothermal aquifers and airframe defects) are adapted for inspection of concrete highways and bridge decks to provide early warnings of subsurface defects. To this end, we prepared small concrete test slabs with defects (embedded plastic layers). We used selective DBIR (3--5 {mu}m and 8--12 {mu}m) image ratios to depict the defect sites and remove the effects of surface clutter. We distinguish true temperature-difference signals (at surrogate delamination sites) from emissivity noise (at sites with oil stains, sand, gravel, metal parts and roughness differences) towards improved concrete bridge deck inspections.

Durbin, P.; Del Grande, N.

1994-02-01

68

Testing and Evaluation of Components for a Composite Bridge Deck  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the results of an experimental investigation conducted on 76 mm (3 in) square hollow pultruded glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) tubes and their assemblies have been discussed. These GFRP tubes are used in the fabrication of an all-composite bridge deck that is designed for H-20 truckloads as specified by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials

Prakash Kumar; K. Chandrashekhara; Antonio Nanni

2003-01-01

69

NDE of FRP Bridge Beams and Decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 100 fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) innovative bridge projects have been undertaken throughout the US in the past 5 years. However, little if any effort has been devoted to developing the capability to nondestructively evaluate these components. Assumptions that experience with NDE of FRP for aircraft applications can be adapted to these applications are naive. Results of efforts to develop

John C. Duke; Scott Case; John J. Lesko

2003-01-01

70

In-service inspection of deck beam bridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Economic and effective evaluation of the actual condition of a bridge is an important issue for bridge maintenance and preservation. The current condition of the bridge is usually far more different from the construction design and also with the bridge being in service for few years, a quantitative evaluation is essential. Assimilating reviews and comparisons of traditional inspection and evaluation methods, this paper promotes the concept of application of wireless sensors developed at the Bridge Research Center for rapid installation and low power requirements for in-service real-time bridge inspection. The concept focuses on obtaining useful data such as strain, displacement, frequency for estimating the actual characteristics of the bridge while in service, thus avoid closing the traffic as compared to traditional load test which needs traffic closure causing inconvenience to public and indirectly affecting economy. Plans and procedures of the field inspection are detailed as well as the data processing and the analysis results are presented. The effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed real-time inspection based on wireless sensors approach are illustrated via the practical inspection of a deck beam bridge.

Wang, Ruolin; Singh, Varsha; Wang, Ming L.

2005-05-01

71

Vertical impedance measurements on concrete bridge decks for assessing susceptibility of reinforcing steel to corrosion.  

PubMed

Corrosion is a pressing problem for aging concrete infrastructure, especially bridge decks. Because of its sensitivity to factors that affect corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete, resistivity is an important structural health indicator for reinforced concrete structures. In this research, an instrument was developed to measure vertical impedance on concrete bridge decks. Measurements of vertical impedance on slabs prepared in the laboratory, on slabs removed from decommissioned bridge decks, and on an in-service bridge deck in the field demonstrate the utility of the new apparatus. PMID:22938329

Bartholomew, Paul D; Guthrie, W Spencer; Mazzeo, Brian A

2012-08-01

72

Galvanic cathodic protection for reinforced concrete bridge decks: Field evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of four sacrificial zinc anode cathodic protection systems to a reinforced concrete highway bridge deck is described. Two system designs were found to be the most promising in terms of polarized potentials and protective current densities achieved during the 3 year monitoring program. One design uses commercially available zinc ribbon anodes spaced at 5 in (127 mm) centers; the other, custom-fabricated perforated zinc sheets. Both systems are overlaid with an open-graded asphalt friction course. The systems yield maximum current density and polarized potentials under warm and moist environment conditions.

Whiting, D.; Stark, D.

1981-06-01

73

Assessment of the Cracking Problem in Newly Constructed Bridge Decks in Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Early age cracking on concrete bridge decks has been experienced by many DOTs. In Colorado the cracking problem on newly constructed bridge decks has not been completely solved. In this study, the extent and causes of the cracking problem were investigate...

Y. Xi B. Shing N. Abu-Hejleh A. Asiz A. Suwito Z. Xie A. Ababneh

2003-01-01

74

Load and resistance factor design of fiber reinforced polymer composite bridge deck  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of our bridges were constructed with conventional civil engineering materials of steel and concrete in a typical slab on girder or truss construction. Reinforced concrete bridge decks have approximately 40% life of the steel girders that support these structures. In order to support the use of alternative materials to replace deteriorating concrete decks, this paper outlines the Load

Lisa King; Houssam Toutanji; Rajesh Vuddandam

75

Fatigue behaviour of concrete bridge deck slabs reinforced with GFRP bars  

Microsoft Academic Search

GFRP bars are often used for the internal reinforcement of concrete bridge deck slabs as an alternative to traditional steel reinforcements with excellent results in terms of corrosion resistance. Several experiments on bridge decks were conducted to evaluate their structural behaviour but their fatigue performance still needs an adequate experimental investigation. This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign

Valter Carvelli; Marco Andrea Pisani; Carlo Poggi

2010-01-01

76

Impact of specification changes on chloride-induced corrosion service life of bridge decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model was developed to determine the time to first repair and to subsequently rehabilitate concrete bridge decks exposed to chloride deicer salts. Said model incorporates the statistical nature of factors affecting the corrosion process. The time to first repair and rehabilitate was predicted for 10 bridge decks built in Virginia between 1981 and 1994.The model was validated using historical

Trevor J Kirkpatrick; Richard E Weyers; Michael M Sprinkel; Christine M Anderson-Cook

2002-01-01

77

Assessing the Impacts of Bridge Deck Runoff Contaminants in Receiving Waters. Volume 1: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the results of NCHRP Project 25-13, Assessment of Impacts of Bridge Deck Runoff Contaminants on Receiving Waters in two volumes. The first volume is the project final report (Assessing the Impacts of Bridge Deck Runoff Contaminants i...

T. V. Dupuis

2002-01-01

78

Simple model of cable-stayed bridge deck subjected to static wind loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cable-stayed bridges have been known since 18th century with aesthetics design. The structural system and the structural behavior are significantly different from those of continuous bridges. Compared to continuous bridge, cable- stayed bridges have more flexure bridge deck than those of continuous bridges.On the other hand, cable-stayed bridges have less stiffness to resist wind loading especially for lateral loads. The first considering of bridge engineering is safety. In 1940's, Tacoma Narrows Suspension Bridge destroyed by wind loading is a good example even though it is not a cable-stayed bridge. After the bridge was destroyed, a lot of research articles have been published regarding cable supported bridge subjected to wind loading. In recent days, high strength materials have been served. The bridge engineers use the advantages to expand the span length of cable-stayed bridges. Due to the span length increased and the use of high strength materials, cable- stayed bridges have more significant nonlinear behavior subjected to wind loading. In this paper, a slice bridge deck of cable-stayed bridge connected to internal support cables is considered. The deck has been considered to be subjected to lateral static wind loading. Since cables can not take compressive force, the deck has strongly nonlinear behavior even though the materials are linear elastic. Several primary load combinations have ben considered in this paper such as the bridge deck supposed to be moved horizontally without rotation or the bridge deck supposed to be moved horizontally with rotational deformation. The mathematical formulas and the numerical solutions are found and represented in graphical forms. The results can be provided to bridge designers and researchers for further study of this type of structure subjected to wind loading.

Kang, Yi-Lung; Wang, Yang-Cheng

1997-05-01

79

Framework for incorporating nondestructive evaluation (NDE) into pavement and bridge management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major components of an infrastructure management system is the condition assessment or deterioration modeling. With application to highway pavements and bridges, this paper presents conceptually how nondestructive evaluation (NDE) results can be utilized to provide a quantitative assessment of the infrastructure condition in a format usable for network-level pavement management systems and bridge management systems. NDE techniques

John O. Sobanjo; Kamal S. Tawfiq

1999-01-01

80

ANDERS: future of concrete bridge deck evaluation and rehabilitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Automated Nondestructive Evaluation and Rehabilitation System (ANDERS) aims to provide a uniquely comprehensive tool that will transform the manner in which bridge decks are assessed and rehabilitated. It is going to be achieved through: 1) much higher evaluation detail and comprehensiveness of detection at an early stage deterioration, 2) comprehensive condition and structural assessment at all stages of deterioration, and 3) integrated assessment and rehabilitation that will be minimally invasive, rapid and cost effective. ANDERS is composed of four systems. that merge novel imaging and NDE techniques, together with novel intervention approaches to arrest the deterioration processes. These technologies are incorporated within a series of human-operated and robotic vehicles. To perform assessments, ANDERS will be equipped with two complimentary nondestructive approaches. The first, Multi-Modal Nondestructive Evaluation (MM-NDE) System aims to identify and characterize localized deterioration with a high degree of resolution. The second, Global Structural Assessment (GSA) System aims to capture global structural characteristics and identify any appreciable effects of deterioration on a bridge structure. Output from these two approaches will be merged through a novel Automated Structural Identification (Auto St-Id) approach that will construct, calibrate, and utilize simulation models to assess overall structural vulnerability and capacity. These three systems comprise the assessment suite of ANDERS and will directly inform the Nondestructive Rehabilitation (NDR) System. The NDR System leverages robotics for the precision and rapid delivery of novel materials capable of halting the early-stage deterioration identified.

Gucunski, Nenad; Moon, Franklin

2011-03-01

81

Predicting Ultimate Punching Failure in Concrete Bridge Deck Slabs through Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an efficient non-linear finite element (NLFEA) model using the commercial FE package ABAQUS to predict the ultimate load behaviour of deck slabs in concrete bridge deck slabs. In order to overcome the instability problems, stabilization methods were adopted and failure criteria were established to capture the ultimate loads. The proposed NLFEA predictions showed a good correlation with

Yu Zheng; D. Robinson; S. Taylor; D. Cleland

2009-01-01

82

LIFE CYCLE COST MODEL FOR EVALUATING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF BRIDGE DECKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concrete infrastructure systems require large capital investments and resource flows to construct and maintain. An integrated life cycle assessment and cost model was developed to evaluate infrastructure sustainability, and compare alternative materials and designs using environmental, economic and social indicators. The model is applied to two alternative concrete bridge deck designs: one a conventional steel reinforced concrete (SRC) deck with

G. A. Keoleian; A. Kendall; R. Chandler; G. E. Helfand; M. Lepech; V. C. Li

83

Experimental characterization of a pultruded GFRP bridge deck for light-weight vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composite bridge deck system assembled from a modular profile with double-rectangular cells has been developed for light-weight vehicles. This paper presents the experimental characterization of the flexural performance of pultruded GFRP decks under static loading. Several tests were carried on single module and adhesively bonded modules. The specimen details such as dimensions, material properties and fiber architecture are given.

Jaehong Lee; Youngbin Kim; Jinwoo Jung; John Kosmatka

2007-01-01

84

Health monitoring of precast bridge deck panels reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Beaver Creek Bridge on US highway 6 is the pilot project for Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) bridge decks and posttensioned bridge decks in the state of Utah. The bridge was built in 2009, using accelerated bridge construction practices, including the use of precast prestressed girders, as well as precast decking. The westbound bridge decking was composed of 12 precast panels each measuring 41'-5" long, 6'-10" wide, and 9¼" thick, and weighing approximately 33 kips. At the time, these panels were the longest GFRP panels in the United States. The Utah Department of Transportation has decided to evaluate GFRP reinforcing bars as an alternative to steel rebar in this bridge deck. The hope is to increase the lifespan of bridge decks to match the service life of the entire bridge. Due to the nature of the GFRP bars, the panels were lifted at four points using straps instead of imbedded anchors. During the four-point lifting, the panels exhibited small deflections and strains; furthermore, no cracks larger than hairline cracks were found in the panels after lifting. The Beaver Creek Bridge deck is the first precast deck in the state of Utah to be posttensioned in the direction of traffic. Posttensioning bridge decks is expected to become the norm in the state of Utah. The posttensioning resulted in increased continuity between panels. In order to quantify the expected performance of the bridge during its service life, a truck load test was performed. The truck load test was comprised of a static and dynamic test. During the truck load test, the bridge experienced deflections in the panels which were 93% below design values. Girder deflections were also small. The use of GFRP bars has the potential to extend the life of bridge decks exposed to deicing salts from 45 years to 100 years, while only requiring an increased capital cost in the bridge of 8%. Furthermore, the use of GFRP bars in conjunction with accelerated building practices has the potential to reduce long-term user delays resulting from maintenance. The difference in capital cost could decrease as designers become more comfortable with the material and gain experience with the system.

Ries, James Mcdaniel

85

Low Porosity High Strength Concrete for Highway Bridge Decks (Joint Highway Research Project).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Premature failure of concrete bridge decks stemming from chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcing steel constitutes a major problem. This study relates to the possibility of substituting low porosity concrete (made with gypsum-free portland cement) for c...

S. E. Coleman M. Maage S. Diamond

1982-01-01

86

Investigation into Shrinkage of High-Performance Concrete Used for Iowa Bridge Decks and Overlays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High-performance concrete (HPC) overlays have been used increasingly as an effective and economical method for bridge decks in Iowa and other states. However, due to its high cementitious material content, HPC often displays high shrinkage cracking potent...

H. Senevirante K. Wang S. Sritharan S. M. Schlorholtz X. Hou X. Wang

2013-01-01

87

Double deck bridge behavior and failure mechanism under seismic motions using nonlinear analyzes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the behavior and the failure mechanism of a double deck bridge constructed in China through nonlinear time history analysis. A parametric study was conducted to evaluate the influence of different structural characteristics on the behavior of the double deck bridge under transverse seismic motions, and to detect the effect of bidirectional loading on the seismic response of this type of bridge. The results showed that some characteristics, such as the variable lateral stiffness, the foundation modelling, and the longitudinal reinforcement ratio of the upper and lower columns of the bridge pier bents have a major impact on the double deck bridge response and its failure mechanism under transverse seismic motions. It was found that the soft story failure mechanism is not unique to the double deck bridge and its occurrence is related to some conditions and structural characteristics of the bridge structure. The analysis also showed that the seismic vulnerability of the double deck bridge under bi-directional loading was severely increased compared to the bridge response under unidirectional transverse loading, and out-of-phase movements were triggered between adjacent girders.

Alali, Shirin; Li, Jianzhong; Guo, Guanzhong

2013-09-01

88

Glass fiber-reinforced polymer\\/steel hybrid honeycomb sandwich concept for bridge deck applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bridge decks possess inherently high strength-to-weight ratios, but relatively low effective elastic moduli. As a result, serviceability issues govern GFRP bridge deck design. Therefore, the objective of this study was to increase the stiffness of a commercial GFRP honeycomb sandwich panel through the inclusion of steel within the cross section.GFRP-steel hybrid parametric studies were conducted to

Nicolas J. Lombardi; Judy Liu

2011-01-01

89

The interaction between the atmosphere and curing concrete bridge decks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term durability of concrete can be compromised by excessive concrete temperatures or temperature gradients and lack of moisture during the first few days after placement. Because the concrete binder components undergo temperature-dependent hydration reactions during this period, atmospheric and construction conditions influence the ultimate concrete quality. To understand this interaction, curing concrete bridge energy balances were estimated with meteorological techniques and calorimetry and model experiments were performed. The agreement of concrete hydration heat estimates from the energy balances, calorimetry experiments, and model simulations validates our methodology and results. In Chapter 2, we estimate from meteorological measurements and techniques the energy balances of four curing concrete bridge decks. One challenge is to determine fluxes from small surfaces (largest horizontal dimension <50 m) in a heterogeneous landscape with methods that are best suited for larger, more homogeneous areas. Estimating the concrete heat generation provides the means to successfully meet this challenge. The energy balance and calorimetry estimates of 24 h concrete heat generation agree within 20%. Between 70--85% of the concrete's heat transfer occurs at its top surface and heat transfer through steel support beams can be significant. A new parameterization for computing bulk exchange coefficients for small areas is developed. Chapter 3, we improve with calorimetry experiments a simple bimolecular heat generation expression for hydrating binder. We show that this expression, with a new parameterization accounting for retarder effects on hydration rates, simulates temperatures to within 2°C and 72 h heat generation (˜265 kJ kg-1) to within 10% of the observed. In Chapter 4, we present models developed with the field and laboratory work and show that the highest concrete temperatures occur at high initial concrete temperatures and air temperatures and humidities, and at low wind speeds and cloud cover fractions. Peak bridge concrete temperatures can exceed 60°C. Large concrete temperature gradients (˜2°C cm-1 ) occur at the concrete top surface and the support beam top. An application of the 1D model with input from a weather forecast model predicts concrete temperatures within 2°C of the observed and so is a suitable operational model.

Wojcik, Gary S.

90

An Autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle for Non-Destructive Testing of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Bridge Decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite bridge decks is increasing in many civil engineering applications because of its many useful properties. The traditional reinforced concrete bridge decks have steel reinforcing bars embedded in concrete. Because of the use of deicing salt on the bridges to melt snow and ice in winter, the reinforcing bars tend to corrode, thus reducing

P. Klinkhachortt; A. Scott Mercer; Udaya B. Halabe; H. Hangarao

2007-01-01

91

Effects of aerodynamic interferences between heaving and torsional vibration of bridge decks: the case of Tacoma Narrows Bridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are still some unknown facts on the failure of old Tacoma Narrows Bridge in 1940, especially on the mystery of onset velocity of torsional flutter. In this study, the aerodynamic interferences between heaving vibration and torsional vibration on this bridge deck were investigated to explain the mystery. It became clear that there are aerodynamic interferences between vortex-induced heaving vibrations

Masaru Matsumoto; Hiromichi Shirato; Tomomi Yagi; Rikuma Shijo; Akitoshi Eguchi; Hitoshi Tamaki

2003-01-01

92

Detection of Delamination in Concrete Bridge Decks Using Mfcc of Acoustic Impact Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delamination of the concrete cover is a commonly observed damage in concrete bridge decks. The delamination is typically initiated by corrosion of the upper reinforcing bars and promoted by freeze-thaw cycling and traffic loading. The detection of delamination is important for bridge maintenance and acoustic non-destructive evaluation (NDE) is widely used due to its low cost, speed, and easy implementation.

G. Zhang; R. S. Harichandran; P. Ramuhalli

2010-01-01

93

Stiffness and strength of fiber reinforced polymer composite bridge deck systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research investigates two principal characteristics that are of primary importance in Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bridge deck applications: STIFFNESS and STRENGTH. The research was undertaken by investigating the stiffness and strength characteristics of the multi-cellular FRP bridge deck systems consisting of pultruded FRP shapes. A systematic analysis procedure was developed for the stiffness analysis of multi-cellular FRP deck systems. This procedure uses the Method of Elastic Equivalence to model the cellular deck as an equivalent orthotropic plate. The procedure provides a practical method to predict the equivalent orthotropic plate properties of cellular FRP decks. Analytical solutions for the bending analysis of single span decks were developed using classical laminated plate theory. The analysis procedures can be extended to analyze continuous FRP decks. It can also be further developed using higher order plate theories. Several failure modes of the cellular FRP deck systems were recorded and analyzed through laboratory and field tests and Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Two schemes of loading patches were used in the laboratory test: a steel patch made according to the ASSHTO's bridge testing specifications; and a tire patch made from a real truck tire reinforced with silicon rubber. The tire patch was specially designed to simulate service loading conditions by modifying real contact loading from a tire. Our research shows that the effects of the stiffness and contact conditions of loading patches are significant in the stiffness and strength testing of FRP decks. Due to the localization of load, a simulated tire patch yields larger deflection than the steel patch under the same loading level. The tire patch produces significantly different failure compared to the steel patch: a local bending mode with less damage for the tire patch; and a local punching-shear mode for the steel patch. A deck failure function method is proposed for predicting the failure of FRP decks. Using developed laminated composite theories and FEA techniques, a strength analysis procedure containing ply-level information was proposed and detailed for FRP deck systems. The behavior of the deck's unsupported (free) edges was also investigated using ply-level FEA.

Zhou, Aixi

94

Strength evaluations of sinusoidal core for FRP sandwich bridge deck panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) sandwich deck panels with sinusoidal core geometry have shown to be successful both in new construction and the rehabilitation of existing bridge decks. This paper is focused on an experimental study of the strength evaluations of a honeycomb sandwich core under out-of-plane compression and transverse shear. The sinusoidal core is made of E-glass Chopped Strand Mat (ChSM)

An Chen; Julio F. Davalos

2010-01-01

95

First application of second-generation steel-free deck slabs for bridge rehabilitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The arching action in concrete deck slabs for girder bridges is utilized fully in steel-free deck slabs. These concrete slabs, requiring no tensile reinforcement, are confined longitudinally by making them composite with the girders, and transversely by external steel straps connecting the top flanges of external girders. Between 1995 and 1999, five steel-free deck slabs without any tensile reinforcement were cast on Canadian bridges. All these slabs developed fairly wide full-depth cracks roughly midway between the girders. While extensive fatigue testing done in the past three years has confirmed that the presence of even wide cracks does not pose any danger to the safety of the structures, wide cracks are generally not acceptable to bridge engineers. The developers of the steel-free deck slabs have now conceded that these slabs should be reinforced with a crack-control mesh of nominal glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars. Steel-free deck slabs with crack-control meshes are being referred as the second generation slabs. With the help of testing on full-scale models, it has been found that deck slabs with GFRP bars have the best fatigue resistance and those with steel bars the worst.

Eden, Ruth; Klowak, Chad; Mufti, Aftab A.; Tadros, Gamil; Bakht, Baidar; Loewen, Eric

2004-07-01

96

ADVANCED ANALYSIS OF STRESSES FOR CONTROL OF TRANSVERSE CRACKING IN EARLY-AGE CONCRETE DECKS OF COMPOSITE BRIDGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study is to assess accurately the stresses and the risk of transverse cracking in the early- age\\u000a concrete decks of composite bridges. An analytical method that can reasonably predict the stresses in early-age concrete decks\\u000a was investigated first. Several series of test members that can exhibit the early-age behavior of composite bridge decks were\\u000a fabricated

B. H. Oh; S. C. Choi

97

Application of Noise Cancelling and Damage Detection Algorithms in NDE of Concrete Bridge Decks Using Impact Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delamination is a commonly observed distress in concrete bridge decks. Among all the delamination detection methods, acoustic methods have the advantages of being fast and inexpensive. In traditional acoustic inspection methods, the inspector drags a chain along or hammers on the bridge deck and detects delamination from the 'hollowness' of the sounds. The signals are often contaminated by ambient traffic

Gang Zhang; Ronald S. Harichandran; Pradeep Ramuhalli

2011-01-01

98

A Mode ling Approach To Design Of A Ground-Source Heat Pump Bridge Deck Heating System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the approach taken to design a hydronic snow melting system for a bridge deck on an interstate highway in Oklahoma where a vertical borehole, closed-loop ground-source heat pump system is to be used as an energy efficient means to provide the heating requirement. It is proposed to use the bridge deck as a solar collector in the

Andrew Chiasson; Jeffrey D. Spitler

99

1. View,looking east,of the deck of the bridge taken from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. View,looking east,of the deck of the bridge taken from the intersection of w. 25th Street and Detroit Avenue. The bridge connects the city's east and west side over the Cuyahoga River Valley. Photograph illustrates the flared approaches designed to accommodate an, open well, through which streetcars could enter the bridge's lower level. This plan was later abandoned after construction had already begun, in favor of short subways that would carry the streetcars west beneath Detroit Avenue for a distance of 725 feet and south beneath W. 25th St. for a distance of 560 feet. - Detroit Superior High Level Bridge, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

100

Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Bars as Top Mat Reinforcement for Bridge Decks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of GFRP bars as reinforcement for concrete is still a relatively new technology, and more information about the behavior of GFRP is needed to safely design a bridge deck with GFRP bars. This project is the first in a series of three projects spons...

J. M. DeFreese C. L. Roberts-Wollman

2002-01-01

101

Evaluation of Performance and Maximum Length of Continuous Decks in Bridges, Part 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the performance history of continuous bridge decks in the State of Georgia, to determine why the current design detail works, to recommend a new design detail, and to recommend the maximum and/or optimum length...

D. White K. Snedeker L. Kahn

2011-01-01

102

Two-Course Bonded Concrete Bridge Deck Construction, 'Condition and Performance After Six Years'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the findings from a six-year study of two-course bonded concrete bridge decks constructed in Virginia. Each of three special portland cement concretes was applied as an overlay, or wearing course, on two experimental spans. The overla...

S. S. Tyson

1981-01-01

103

Specifications Compliance for Depth of Concrete Cover over Bridge Deck Reinforcement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report concerns concrete cover depth over bridge deck reinforcement for a sample of 13 spans constructed under a requirement for 3-1/4 + or - 1/4 in. of cover. It is the first interim report on an experimental features project (No. 013675010, 'Perfor...

W. G. Leslie

1978-01-01

104

Behavior of a Skew Steel-Deck Bridge under Static and Dynamic Loads.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report deals with the results of a field investigation and subsequent analysis of a short span skew, skewly stiffened steel deck bridge. The wearing surface was a 1/4 in. thick layer of aluminum oxide grits on a resin binder. The strain and deflection...

J. G. Bouwkamp

1965-01-01

105

Probabilistic model for the chloride-induced corrosion service life of bridge decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical model to determine the time to first repair and subsequent rehabilitation of concrete bridge decks exposed to chloride deicer salts that incorporates the statistical nature of factors affecting the corrosion process is developed. The model expands on an existing deterministic model using statistical resampling techniques. Emphasis was placed on the diffusion portion of the diffusion-cracking model. Data collected

Trevor J Kirkpatrick; Richard E Weyers; Christine M Anderson-Cook; Michael M Sprinkel

2002-01-01

106

Experimental Use of Urethane Foam Insulation to Control Bridge Deck Icing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The general objective of the project was to determine the usefulness of foam insulation as a means of reducing the formation of frost and ice on bridge decks. The specific aim was to evaluate its effectiveness in producing temperature conditions approxima...

1969-01-01

107

Framework for incorporating nondestructive evaluation (NDE) into pavement and bridge management systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the major components of an infrastructure management system is the condition assessment or deterioration modeling. With application to highway pavements and bridges, this paper presents conceptually how nondestructive evaluation (NDE) results can be utilized to provide a quantitative assessment of the infrastructure condition in a format usable for network-level pavement management systems and bridge management systems. NDE techniques typically applied to pavements include Visual Rating, Falling Weight Deflectometer, Dynaflect, Seismic Pavement Analyzer, and the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). Bridges can also be evaluated using the GPR. NDE is particularly useful at the network level of infrastructure management because of the mobility of conducting the tests. Detailed mechanistic methods have been suggested for NDE interpretation but this method may not be practical at network level. Interpretation of NDE results, through knowledge-based systems and intelligent databases indicate the defects and residual capacity of infrastructures. Measured physical properties and defects in the infrastructure component materials can be correlated to existing scales of condition assessment such as in the NBI and PONTIS formats for bridge management and also to an index or rating such as the PSI in highway pavements.

Sobanjo, John O.; Tawfiq, Kamal S.

1999-02-01

108

Influence of asphalt pavement on damping ratio and resonance frequencies of timber bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since timber bridges are light-weight structures with a high life-load to death-load ratio, they are susceptible to vibration and thus satisfying vibration serviceability is a governing design criterion. A good knowledge of the damping properties of timber bridges is therefore a key aspect for guaranteeing a sufficient serviceability. Since observations suggest that timber bridges with an asphalt pavement increase the

Sandy Schubert; Daniel Gsell; René Steiger; Glauco Feltrin

2010-01-01

109

Investigation of Materials for Thin Bonded Overlays on Bridge Decks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bridges in Kansas are exposed to winter conditions, including deicing chemicals used to keep the roads and bridges clear of ice and snow. These chemicals and water are harmful to the concrete and the steel reinforcing bars used in bridge structures. The o...

D. Meggers C. Hobson

2007-01-01

110

Direct identification of flutter derivatives and aerodynamic admittances of bridge decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flutter derivatives and aerodynamic admittances provide basis of predicting the critical wind speed in flutter and buffeting analysis of long-span cable-supported bridges. In this paper, one popular stochastic system identification technique, covariance-driven stochastic subspace identification (SSI in short), is first presented for estimation of the flutter derivatives and aerodynamic admittances of bridge decks from their random responses in turbulent flow.

Ming Gu; Xian-Rong Qin

2004-01-01

111

Performance study of a bridge involving sliding decks and pounded abutment during a violent earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study on the sliding of bridge decks and pounding at abutment-backfill. It involves a multi-span concrete bridge supported on simple rubber bearings, subjected to longitudinal as well as vertical ground motions from the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. To account for soil–structure interaction, the stiffness and strength constants of backfill soils are determined by relating the tilting

Ching-Jong Wang; Ming-Hsiang Shih

2007-01-01

112

Fabry-Perot sensors for the monitoring of FRP reinforced bridge decks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extensive use of deicing salts in Canada during winter times is identified as the main reason behind the deterioration of highway bridges and parking garages. To fight this infrastructure crisis, Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP) has become a very attractive alternative to traditional reinforcing steel due to their non-corrosive nature and light weight. The replacement of steel with Glass FRP bars in bridge deck slabs has been extensively researched in the last few years. This paper presents the first efforts to implement these bars in two highway bridges in Quebec, Canada, and Vermont, USA. These projects are aimed to prove the feasibility of using GFRP bars in bridge construction. GFRP bars were used as reinforcement for parts of the deck slabs in the two bridges while traditional steel was used in the remaining parts. Fibre Optic Sensors (FOS) were used to measure strains in the concrete, reinforcing bars and steel girders. The sensors were surface mounted on the bars or steel girders using standard glue, or embedded in concrete. Static and dynamic testing of the bridges was done using loaded trucks placed for maximum stresses. The design, construction, testing, and results obtained from the bridges are briefly outlined in this paper. The results indicated the accuracy of the sensors and their feasibility for bridge construction and remote monitoring.

Benmokrane, Brahim; Quirion, Marco; El-Salakawy, Ehab; Debaiky, Ahmed S.; Lackey, Tom

2004-07-01

113

Development and implementation of an experimental program to investigate cost-effective concrete bridge deck preservation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deterioration of bridge decks has been identified as a major problem in the State of Indiana. The primary cause of this deterioration is salt water ingress from the application of deicing salts during the winter. Deicing chemicals placed on the road mix with water and enter the deck through cracks and the pore structure of the concrete. This results

John Paul Lyrenmann

2011-01-01

114

Applications of ground penetrating radar (GPR) in bridge deck monitoring and assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the essence of two case studies by the authors on two major bridges in the UK. The first case study reports on the applications of GPR and associated work carried out on the Forth Road Bridge near Edinburgh, Scotland, with the main objective of identifying possible structural defects including damaged rebar and moisture ingress at specific locations of the bridge deck. The second case study focuses on a full assessment of the Pentagon Road Bridge, in Chatham, Kent, England with particular emphasis on the identification of possible defects including structural cracks within the deck structure and establishing the layout of the upper and lower rebar positions throughout the bridge. These studies present interesting results in terms of locations of rebar and an accurate estimate of concrete cover condition as well as reporting on a remarkable similarity in the processed data concerning areas affected by ingress of moisture within the deck structures of the two bridges under investigation. It is believed that this paper will be of particular interest to bridge engineers and structural engineering practitioners with enthusiasm for adopting non-destructive testing methods such as GPR in the health monitoring and assessment of bridge structures. The observed similarities in the processed data between the two reported case studies present an interesting concept within the general context of the interpretation of GPR data, with the potential for use in many other forthcoming cases. The paper also reports on the adopted method for the GPR survey with emphasis on difficulties and challenges encountered during the actual survey. The presented results benefit from advanced processing and presentation techniques.

Alani, Amir M.; Aboutalebi, Morteza; Kilic, Gokhan

2013-10-01

115

Insulation of Concrete Bridge Decks (Kyp-64-2).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report concludes a phase of study pertaining to the moderation of some insidious effects of freezing temperatures. In this study, the State was especially concerned with the possibilities of preventing premature icing on bridges. Some rather marvelous...

W. A. Mossbarger

1965-01-01

116

The influence of the section shape of box-girder decks on the steady aerodynamic yawing moment of double cantilever bridges under construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yawing moment acting on the box-girder deck of reinforced concrete bridges constructed using the balanced cantilever method during the erection stage has been experimentally analyzed by testing different types of bridge cross-sections. Experimental results show that the yawing moment coefficient decreases as the bridge decks become streamlined, and that the yawing moment coefficient reaches a maximum when the bridge

S. Pindado; J. Meseguer; S. Franchini

2005-01-01

117

Cathodic Protection for Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks. Woodinville Interchange Bridge 522/30ES.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A slotted cathodic protection system was installed on the deck of the ES ramp in the Woodinville Interchange during the summer of 1985. The slotted cathodic protection system involves sawing 3/4 inch by 3/4 inch slots longitudinally in the existing deck a...

T. H. Roper E. H. Henley

1986-01-01

118

Impedance spectroscopy of concrete cover on bridge decks with reinforcing steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcing steel is a major problem for aging bridge structures near marine environments or in cold regions where deicing salts are applied as part of winter maintenance. Corrosion is the result of the interaction of diffused chloride ions with the embedded steel. One property of affected decks that facilitates detection of chloride ions is their ability to conduct electricity. Impedance spectroscopy can be used to measure concrete conductivity and thereby identify areas of increased chloride concentration characterized by elevated risks of corrosion. A new probe and measurement apparatus has been engineered to measure large areas of concrete on bridge decks. Comparison between measurements obtained in the laboratory and in the field will be presented.

Bartholomew, Paul; Blankenagel, Bryan; Guthrie, Spencer; Mazzeo, Brian

2011-10-01

119

An Automatic Impact-based Delamination Detection System for Concrete Bridge Decks  

SciTech Connect

Delamination of concrete bridge decks is a commonly observed distress in corrosive environments. In traditional acoustic inspection methods, delamination is assessed by the "hollowness" of the sound created by impacting the bridge deck with a hammer or bar or by dragging a chain where the signals are often contaminated by ambient traffic noise and the detection is highly subjective. In the proposed method, a modified version of independent component analysis (ICA) is used to filter the traffic noise. To eliminate subjectivity, Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) are used as features for detection and the delamination is detected by a radial basis function (RBF) neural network. Results from both experimental and field data suggest that the proposed methods id noise robust and has satisfactory performance. The methods can also detect the delamination of repair patches and concrete below the repair patches. The algorithms were incorporated into an automatic impact-bases delamination detection (AIDD) system for field application.

Zhang, Gang; Harichandran, Ronald S.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

2012-01-02

120

Fatigue Tests Of Cracked Reinforced Concrete Slabs For Estimating The Service Life Of Composite Bridge Decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large-scale experimental program was co-sponsored by the main French owners of composite bridges in order to estimate the fatigue service life of cracked decks, as it occurs due to restrained shrinkage of concrete. The fatigue tests were carried out at the Structures Laboratory of LCPC on six transversally cracked reinforced concrete slabs largely equipped with gauges and sensors. 1.4

François Toutlemonde; Guillaume Ranc

2001-01-01

121

PERFORMANCE TESTS OF INNOVATIVE DUCTILE STEEL RETROFITTED DECK-TRUSS BRIDGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Seismic vulnerability assessments of many existing deck-truss bridges often reveals the vulnerability of their substructure and many superstructure members. As an alternative to costly strengthening of many components or seismic isolation, an innovative retrofit strategy developed which requires only replacement of the existing non-ductile end and lower-end bracing with ductile panels. By incorporating these energy dissipating devices acting as

Majid SARRAF; Michel BRUNEAU

122

Time-dependent reliability of deteriorating reinforced concrete bridge decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structural deterioration reliability model is developed to calculate probabilities of structural failure (flexure) for a typical reinforced concrete continuous slab bridge. Corrosion may be initiated from the application of de-icing salts or atmospheric exposure in a marine environment. It is assumed that corrosion will lead to a reduction in the cross-sectional area of the reinforcing steel. Monte Carlo simulation

Mark G. Stewart; David V. Rosowsky

1998-01-01

123

Behavior of Concrete Bridge Decks Reinforced with MMFX Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion of steel reinforcement is considered to be one of the leading causes of deterioration of concrete bridges. This fact has led to the development of numerous technologies such as corrosionresistant steel that attempt to mitigate this expensive problem. The recent development of highstrength, highly corrosion-resistant steel, commercially known as Micro-composite Multi-Structural Formable (MMFX) steel, is a promising technology. MMFX

Hatem Seliem; Gregory Lucier; Sami Rizkalla; Paul Zia

124

Bridge deck repairs with polymer concrete patching materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FHWA polymer concrete as formulated at Brookhaven National laboratory (BNL) was mixed, placed into spalls and finished on grade with steel trowels on more than a dozen bridges. This polymer concrete was a two-component system consisting of a liquid monomer component comprised of methyl methacrylate base, which contained a cross linking agent with promoters and an inhibitor, and a powder component which contained reactive polymers, blend of silica sands, initiator, and color pigments. These formed an impregnable material of approximately 8000 psi. Cure time for this project's cold weather formulation to obtain this strength was approximately 2 hours at 40 F.

Edgecomb, W. C., Jr.

1983-01-01

125

Testing of full-scale concrete bridge deck slabs reinforced with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) bars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental study investigating the behavior of FRP-reinforced concrete bridge deck slabs under concentrated loads. A total of eight full-scale deck slabs measuring 3000-mm long by 2500-mm wide were constructed. The test parameters were: (i) slab thickness (200, 175 and 150mm); (ii) concrete compressive strength (35–65MPa); (iii) bottom transverse reinforcement ratio (1.2–0.35%); and (iv) type of reinforcement

K. Bouguerra; E. A. Ahmed; S. El-Gamal; B. Benmokrane

2011-01-01

126

Long-Term Durability of Fiber-Reinforced Polymers (FRPS) and In-Situ Monitoring of FRP Bridge Decks in O'Fallon Park Bridge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRPs) were selected and used to build the bridge deck for OFallon Park Bridge in Denver, Colorado. This report contains two parts. The first part is an in-house experimental study on the durability of the selected GFRPs, ...

Y. Xi S. Chang A. Asiz Y. Li

2004-01-01

127

Detection of Through-Deck Type Fatigue Cracks in Steel Bridges by Self-Reference Lock-in Thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new remote nondestructive inspection technique, based on thermoelastic temperature measurement by infrared thermography, is developed for detection and evaluation of fatigue cracks propagating from welded joints in steel bridges. Fatigue cracks are detected from localized high thermoelastic temperature change at crack tips due to stress singularity under variable loading from traffics on the bridge. Selfreference lock-in data processing technique is developed for the improvement of signal/noise ratio in the crack detection process. The technique makes it possible to perform correlation processing without an external reference signal. It is very difficult to detect through-deck type fatigue cracks in steel decks by the conventional NDT technique, since they are not open to the inspection. In this paper, self-reference lock-in thermography is applied for detection of through-deck type fatigue cracks. Experiments are carried out to steel deck sample, which simulates an actual steel bridge, during crack propagation test. It is found that significant stress concentration zone can be observed near the crack front, which enabled us to detect through-deck type fatigue cracks and to estimate its size.

Izumi, Y.; Sakagami, T.; Kubo, S.; Tamakoshi, T.

2010-06-01

128

Initial testing of advanced ground-penetrating radar technology for the inspection of bridge decks: the HERMES and PERES Bridge Inspectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since early 1995 the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has been sponsoring the development of ground-penetrating radar technology to produce a tool for the non-destructive evaluation of bridge decks. Under contract with the FHWA, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory designed and built a system capable of recording data over a 2 meter width during normal traffic flow. The derived system is called `The HERMES Bridge Inspector' (High-speed Electromagnetic Roadway Measurement and Evaluation System) and includes a 64 channel antenna array within a 30 ft trailer. For detailed investigation of portions of a bridge deck, a robotic cart mounted radar has been developed. This cart system is named `The PERES Bridge Inspector' (Precision Electromagnetic Roadway Evaluation System). PERES records data over the chosen area by rastering a single transceiver over the road. Images of the deck interior are reconstructed from the original synthetic aperture data using diffraction tomography. The work presented herein describes the findings of initial experiments conducted to determine the inspection capabilities of these systems. Internal defects such as delaminations, voids and disbonds; and construction details including deck thickness, asphalt overlay thickness and reinforcement layout were the features targeted. The final goal is for these systems, and other non-destructive technologies, to provide information on the condition of the nation's bridges for input to bridge management systems.

Davidson, Nigel C.; Chase, Steven B.

1999-02-01

129

An integrated system for bridge management using probabilistic and mechanistic deterioration models: Application to bridge decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a system for the maintenance management of aging highway bridges that integrates two different approaches\\u000a for deterioration modeling. Probabilistic state-based\\/time-based models are used to predict the macro-response of bridge components\\u000a for network level analysis, while reliability-based mechanistic models are used to predict the micro-response of bridge components\\u000a for project level analysis. Probabilistic state-based\\/time-based models are developed using

G. Morcous; Z. Lounis; Yong Cho

2010-01-01

130

Field investigation and performance of bridge approach slabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bridge approach slabs are designed to function as a transitional roadway to the bridge deck, spanning the distance between the abutment and the road pavement. However, the number of rough riding approaches with heavy maintenance requirements is sufficient to convince highway agencies that a serious problem exists. The complaints usually describe a ‘bump’ that motorists feel when they approach or

H. H. Nassif; T. Abu-Amra; N. Suksawang; Y. Khodair; N. Shah

2009-01-01

131

Early age performance of latex-modified concrete bridge deck overlays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental factors and physical properties of latex modified concrete (LMC) are hypothesized to contribute to early age cracking in bridge deck overlays. Cracking permits the ingress of moisture and aggressive solutions into the substrate and may contribute to other subsequent distresses. Understanding the material properties and mechanisms involved is necessary to minimize these distresses. This research consisted of a two part study: first, the development of LMC strength and fracture properties at ages ranging from 5 hours to 28 days was studied, and secondly, the effects of the environment on LMC distresses were modelled. Environmental conditions: temperature, solar energy, and wind speed were determined from weather records. A fracture mechanics based model, the Fictitious Crack Model (FCM), incorporating finite element analyses and superposition techniques was employed with material properties from the first part of study on LMC performance. Different bilinear strain softening diagrams were used to predict fracture performance at different ages. The predictions agreed well with the test data. The impacts of temperature differentials on crack development were studied. The shrinkage effect was also indirectly incorporated through the temperature analysis. The material properties study indicated significant changes in strength, deformability and fracture properties, particularly during the early age. The developments differ slightly from conventional concrete. Test results indicated a significant improvement in reducing and bridging microcracks, especially in the prepeak-load region. Fracture toughness and deformability increased significantly with time. Fracture energy varied from 2.3 to 133.1 N/m, depending on age, and to some degree, on notch depth ratio. In the second stage, the FCM provided a reasonable prediction for crack initiation and propagation when only temperature effects are of concern. Age, surface conditions and structural restraint strongly affect crack resistance of the overlays. Only slight effects were observed from the overlay thickness in the study range (51-76mm). Shallow pre-existing cracks possibly reduce the crack resistance of the overlay about 30 percent. A prolonged moist cure for 48 hours after placing is suggested to reduce the risk of cracking. With available environmental information, it is possible to develop guidelines for appropriate environmental conditions for LMC bridge deck construction to minimize the risk of early age cracking.

Sujjavanich, Suvimol

132

Epoxy-coated-rebar performance in the deck of the Perley Bridge  

SciTech Connect

The Perley Bridge spans the Ottawa River between the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. During a 1979 rehabilitation project, epoxy-coated rebar (ECR) was installed in an effort to extend the service life of span 17. External signs of corrosion were observed in the west lane of span 17 as early as 1985, but none were observed in the east lane. The cover concrete on the east lane was almost twice that of the west lane. A wide variety of techniques were used to evaluate the difference between slabs cut from the east and west lanes. The most useful techniques were potential mapping, chloride profiling, petrographic analyses, adhesion testing, epoxy damage, analyses of reinforcing bar-concrete crosssections, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements of epoxy properties. Cover depth and chloride contamination were the most significant factors affecting damage to the rebar. Based on these techniques, results showed that the epoxy coating used on the west lane of the Perley Bridge deck in span 17 provided only 1 to 4 years of additional corrosion protection over bare rebar.

Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Dahlin, Cheryl L.; Tinnea, John S.

2001-01-01

133

Field Investigation of the Corrosion Protection Performance of Bridge Decks and Piles Constructed with Epoxy-Coated Reinforcing Steel in Virginia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The corrosion protection performance of epoxy-coated reinforcing steel (ECR) was assessed in three bridge decks and the piles in three marine structures in Virginia in 1996. The decks were 17 years old, two of the marine structures were 8 years old, and t...

R. E. Weyers M. M. Sprinkel W. Pyc J. Zemajtis Y. Liu D. Mokarem

1997-01-01

134

Application of Noise Cancelling and Damage Detection Algorithms in NDE of Concrete Bridge Decks Using Impact Signals  

SciTech Connect

Delamination is a commonly observed distress in concrete bridge decks. Among all the delamination detection methods, acoustic methods have the advantages of being fast and inexpensive. In traditional acoustic inspection methods, the inspector drags a chain along or hammers on the bridge deck and detects delamination from the 'hollowness' of the sounds. The signals are often contaminated by ambient traffic noise and the detection of delamination is highly subjective. This paper describes the performance of an impact-bases acoustic NDE method where the traffic noise was filtered by employing a noise cancelling algorithm and where subjectivity was eliminated by introducing feature extraction and pattern recognition algorithms. Different algorithms were compared and the best one was selected in each category. The comparison showed that the modified independent component analysis (ICA) algorithm was most effective in cancelling the traffic noise and features consisting of mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) had the best performance in terms of repeatability and separabillty. The condition of the bridge deck was then detected by a radial basis function (RBF) neural network. The performance of the system was evaluated using both experimental and field data. The results show that the selected algorithms increase the noise robustness of acoustic methods and perform satisfactorily if the training data is representative.

Zhang, Gang; Harichandran, Ronald S.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

2011-09-13

135

Laboratory and field performance of FOS sensors in static and dynamic strain monitoring in concrete bridge decks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing need for designing and constructing innovative concrete bridges using FRP reinforcing bars as internal reinforcement to avoid the corrosion problems and high costs of maintenance and repair. For efficient use and to increase the lifetime of these bridges, it is important to develop efficient monitoring systems for such innovative structures. Fabry-Perot and Bragg fibre optic sensors (FOS) that can measure the strains and temperature are promising candidates for life-long health monitoring of these structures. This article reports laboratory and field performance of Fabry-Perot and Bragg FOS sensors as well as electrical strain gauges in static and dynamic strain monitoring in concrete bridge decks. The laboratory tests include tensile testing of glass FRP bars and testing of full-scale concrete bridge deck slabs reinforced with glass and carbon FRP bars under static and cyclic concentrated loads. The field tests include static and dynamic testing of two bridges reinforced with steel and glass FRP bars. The obtained strain results showed satisfactory agreement between the different gauges.

Benmokrane, B.; Debaiky, A.; El-Ragaby, A.; Roy, R.; El-Gamal, S.; El-Salakawy, E.

2006-04-01

136

Development and Construction of Low-Cracking High-Performance Concrete (LC-HPC) Bridge Decks: Free Shrinkage, Mixture Optimization and Concrete Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development and evaluation of low-cracking high-performance concrete (LC-HPC) for use in bridge decks is described based on laboratory test results and experience gained during the construction of 14 bridges. This report emphasizes the material aspect...

D. Darwin J. Browning W. Lindquist

2009-01-01

137

Examination of Single- and Multi-Channel GPR Bridge Deck Condition Assessment Methods with Comparison to Complementary NDE Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sixteen-channel GPR system which houses both longitudinally- and transversely-polarized, 2.0 GHz antenna elements within a single housing was compared with a single-channel GPR system that was separately using both 1.5GHz and 2.6GHz antennas oriented in the transverse polarization, for the purpose of determining effectiveness of bridge deck condition assessment. The multi-channel system has obvious benefits which include closely-spaced GPR antennas (channels) that provide better lateral resolution, as well as combined data sets from co-linear antennas oriented in both the transverse and longitudinal polarizations, which has benefits for imaging within the deck's internal structure. However, the primary objective was to determine whether the multi-channel system would perform in a similar manner to proven single-channel GPR technology during an attenuation-based GPR condition assessment on an older, partially deteriorated deck in northwestern New Jersey that is annually exposed to freeze-thaw conditions as well as de-icing salts. These assessments were made by focusing on identifying the strongest reflections from the upper mat of transversely-oriented rebars within the deck and comparing reflection strength, or conversely, attenuation of the GPR signal, from each of the 'picked' GPR rebar responses. Coordinates for each of the GPR picks, along with amplitude or attenuation measurements, were gridded and contour-plotted for the purpose of identifying areas identified as either relatively deteriorated or sound. Initially, results were compared for data with no applied correction that takes into account GPR signal attenuation with increasing depth within the concrete deck. Final GPR maps were produced incorporating a depth-correction technique similar to what is described by Barnes, et. al., Romero, et. al, and Gucunski, et. al., a process which has been clearly demonstrated to better correlate GPR results with not only ground truth (cores, sounding) but also with other NDE technologies. Not only did all the single- and multi-channel system comparisons generate nearly identical deterioration maps when GPR results were compared and examined, but mapped results obtained from other NDE methods on the same deck were used to identify zones where corrosive environment (electrical resistivity - ER) elastic modulus (ultrasonic surface wave - USW), and identified delaminations (impact-echo - IE) had commonality with the GPR results. A summary of the equipment used, as well as general data collection and analysis procedures is provided for the GPR condition assessments. Brief descriptions of background and references to how the complementary NDT technologies are deployed, and how data are interpreted, are also discussed. Comparative maps for all technologies are used for illustrative purposes.

Romero, Francisco A.; Manacorda, Guido; Simi, Alessandro; Gucunski, Nenad; Parvardeh, Hooman

2013-04-01

138

9. VIEW OF UNDERSIDE, LOOKING W, DECK BEAMS, DECKING, AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF UNDERSIDE, LOOKING W, DECK BEAMS, DECKING, AND ABUTMENT CONSTRUCTED OF UNDRESSED LOCAL STONE. - Slates' Mill Bridge, Township Road 439 spanning South Branch of Tunkhannock Creek in Benton Township, Dalton, Lackawanna County, PA

139

A Methodology to Assess the Degradation in the Structural Response of the Deck of a Reinforced Concrete Road Bridge due to Corrosion of Reinforcing Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper provides a methodology to analyse the effect of corrosion on the strength and stiffness of the slab-and-girder deck of a road bridge. A linear finite element model of a typical medium span deck of an existing bridge was developed as per the as-built drawings. The vehicular loadings were as per the recommendations of the Indian Roads Congress specifications and the design rating of the bridge. Based on the phenomenon of corrosion, a time-dependent reduction in the area of flexural reinforcement near the soffits of the girders, was considered in the model. The effects of flexural cracking, creep and spalling of concrete were incorporated in the model with non-prismatic section properties and their stage-wise variations. From the analyses of a girder section and the computational model, it was observed that due to corrosion, the allowable moment capacity of a girder falls below the demand under dead load plus the rated live load, within the target service life of the bridge. However, the effect of corrosion on the stiffness of the deck is not substantial to be accurately measured by a conventional sensor. It is recommended that the procedure adopted in the paper can be used by the practicing professionals for numerically assessing longer span decks, to have a'priori estimates of the quantities that can be measured in a field test.

Banerjee, Soumendra; Sengupta, Amlan K.

2012-02-01

140

Laboratory Tests of Prestressed Concrete Deck Planks and Deck Assemblies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the past decade prestressed concrete deck plank forms have been used to a limited extent with a cast-in-place topping for bridge deck construction. These planks become an integral part of the deck through composite action with the topping. Normally th...

R. M. Barnoff D. E. Rainey

1974-01-01

141

Aerodynamic admittance and the `strip theory’ for horizontal buffeting forces on a bridge deck  

Microsoft Academic Search

In wind tunnel tests of bridges for buffeting arising from fluctuating wind velocity, one of the items requiring attention is how to simulate the natural wind characteristics of the construction region. In wind tunnel tests of long-span cable-stayed bridges under construction, when two types of turbulent boundary layer with different wind characteristics were used, there was a tendency for the

Kazutoshi Matsuda; Yuichi Hikami; Tohru Fujiwara; Akira Moriyama

1999-01-01

142

HERMES: a high-speed radar imaging system for inspection of bridge decks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Corrosion of rebar in concrete bridges causes subsurface cracks and is a major cause of structural degradation that necessitates repair or replacement. A ground-penetrating radar imaging system has been designed and developed that performs the nondestruct...

S. G. Azevedo

1996-01-01

143

Performance Investigation of a Fiber Reinforced Composite Honeycomb Deck for Bridge Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report focuses mainly on the evaluation of stiffness and ultimate load-carrying capacity of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) honeycomb sandwich panels, with a sinusoidal core, used in bridge applications. Evaluation of fatigue performance is als...

O. Kalny R. J. Peterman

2005-01-01

144

Analytical approach to sensitivity analysis of flutter speed in bridges considering variable deck mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design techniques based upon sensitivity analysis are not usual in the current design of suspension bridges. However, sensitivity analysis has been proved to be a useful tool in the car and aircraft industries. Evaluation of sensitivity analysis is a mandatory step in the way towards an efficient automated optimum design process which would represent a huge jump in the conception

Félix Nieto; Santiago Hernández; José Á. Jurado; Alejandro Mosquera

2011-01-01

145

Influence of ambient temperature on the fatigue damage of welded bridge decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue life assessment of critical bridge members using online monitoring data has been investigated in recent years. To make an efficient evaluation, a representative block of cycles is usually defined. However, relatively small amount of data in the representative block sometimes fail to cover the change caused by temperature and increasing traffic flow, which are proved by this paper to

Tong Guo; Aiqun Li; Hao Wang

2008-01-01

146

Time domain vs. frequency domain characterization of aeroelastic forces for bridge deck sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of unsteady transverse wind forces of bridge sections under oscillatory motion is commonly addressed in the frequency domain by means of the so-called flutter derivatives. Thin airfoil theory suggests that for streamlined bodies a time domain treatment is equivalent; in this case small-amplitude motions are assumed and superposition of effects can still be accepted. This observation led researchers

L. Caracoglia; N. P. Jones

2003-01-01

147

Seismic Integrity of a Long Span Bridge with Tower-Deck Buffers  

SciTech Connect

The wind action is acknowledged to be the primary environmental load in the design of suspension bridges. It affects both the performance of safety and serviceability. Nevertheless, the impact of earthquakes cannot be neglected especially when the construction site is located in a high seismicity region. The evaluation of the vulnerability of a suspension bridge requires a hazard analysis on the site, the definition of the seismic intensity related to the desired return periods, the generation of artificial signals for the reference site and the collection of critical records for integrity analyses,. The signals will then be used in the structural analyses for the verification of structural safety and structural robustness. This paper is focused on the generation of these critical signals, with their own a-synchronicity, and the associated numerical nonlinear analyses, which must be conducted in the time domain.

Casciati, Fabio [University of Pavia, Department of Structural Mechanics, Via Ferrata 1, Pavia (Italy); Giuliano, Fabio [Univerity of Rome 'La Sapienza' (Italy)

2008-07-08

148

Glass fiber-reinforced polymer\\/steel hybrid honeycomb sandwich concept for bridge deck applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) materials possess inherently high strength-to-weight ratios, but their elastic moduli are low relative to civil engineering (CE) construction materials. As a result, serviceability issues are what govern GFRP material design in the CE bridge industry. Therefore, the study objective was to increase the stiffness of a commercial GFRP honeycomb sandwich panel through the inclusion of steel

Nicolas J Lombardi

2008-01-01

149

Evaluation of Concrete Deck and Crack Sealers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness and relative performance of commercially available concrete bridge deck and crack sealants. A total of thirteen deck sealants and ten crack sealants were selected for study under laborato...

J. A. Pincheira M. A. Dorshorst

2005-01-01

150

HERMES: a high-speed radar imaging system for inspection of bridge decks  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion of rebar in concrete bridges causes subsurface cracks and is a major cause of structural degradation that necessitates repair or replacement. Early detection of corrosion effects can limit the location and extent of necessary repairs, while providing long-term information about the infrastructure status. Most current detection methods, however, are destructive of the road surface and require closing or restricting traffic while the tests are performed. A ground-penetrating radar imaging system has been designed and developed that will perform the nondestructive evaluation of road-bed cracking at traffic speeds; i.e., without the need to restrict traffic flow. The first-generation system (called the HERMES bridge inspector), consists of an offset-linear array of 64 impulse radar transceivers and associated electronics housed in a trailer. Computers in the trailer and in the towing vehicle control the data acquisition, processing, and display. Cross-road resolution is three centimeters at up to 30 cm in depth, while down-road resolution depends on speed; 3 cm below 20 mph up to 8 cm at 50 mph. A two-meter- wide path is inspected on each pass over the roadway. This paper, describes the design of this system, shows preliminary results, and lays out its deployment schedule.

Azevedo, S.G.

1996-10-26

151

Direct observations of non-stationary bridge deck aeroelastic vibration in wind tunnel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is useful to study the ambient non-stationary response of a cable-supported bridge to monitor the “aeroelastic status” of the structure. In the absence of effective non-stationary analyzing tools, it is suitable to have signal processing techniques to pre-examine the measured ambient responses for the time scale at which the aeroelastic system varies to know if the recording can be treated as a quasi-stationary process or must be treated as non-stationary one. Among the factors contributing to the non-stationarity, the effect of signature turbulence is studied in this paper by joint time frequency analysis on wind tunnel experiments with a partially streamlined box girder sectional model. Hilbert transform combined with empirical mode decomposition method is used. Instantaneous frequency domain properties of the aeroelastic vibration are obtained. Time-dependant features of the interactive system are partially revealed.

Zhang, Xin; Brownjohn, James M. W.; Wang, Yi; Pan, Tso-Chien

2006-03-01

152

Cathodic Bridge Deck Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five systems of cathodic protection were installed on the US87 Missouri-Pacific Railroad overpass in Big Spring, Texas. The design and construction of the systems are summarized in this report. The Federal Highway Administration sponsored the demonstratio...

L. Smith

1990-01-01

153

Pavement Design,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 12 papers in the report deal with the following areas: nine-year performance evaluation of Arizona's prestressed concrete pavement; FEACONS III computer program for analysis of jointed concrete pavements; thickness design of roller-compacted concrete ...

R. L. Powers J. P. Zaniewski M. Tia J. M. Armaghani C. L. Wu

1987-01-01

154

10. OBLIQUE VIEW, PORTION OF EAST TRUSS AND TIMBER DECK, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. OBLIQUE VIEW, PORTION OF EAST TRUSS AND TIMBER DECK, FROM SOUTHWEST, SHOWING TOP CHORD, VERTICALS, METAL RAILING, AND TRANSVERSE DECK PLANKS - River Road Bridge, Crossing Casselman River on Casselman River Road, Grantsville, Garrett County, MD

155

9. OBLIQUE VIEW, NORTH PORTAL AND TIMBER DECK, FROM NORTHWEST, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. OBLIQUE VIEW, NORTH PORTAL AND TIMBER DECK, FROM NORTHWEST, SHOWING INCLINED ENDPOSTS, OVERHEAD BRACING, VERTICALS OF EASTTRUSS PANELS, EAST RAILING, AND TRANSVERSE DECK PLANKS - River Road Bridge, Crossing Casselman River on Casselman River Road, Grantsville, Garrett County, MD

156

15. DETAIL, UNDERSIDE OF DECK, FROM BELOW AND WEST, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. DETAIL, UNDERSIDE OF DECK, FROM BELOW AND WEST, SHOWING STRUCTURAL CONFIGURATION, INCLUDING FLOOR BEAMS, STRINGERS, BRACING, AND STEEL MESH DECK - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

157

Detail of roadway deck, showing truss vertical and diagonals, guardrails ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of roadway deck, showing truss vertical and diagonals, guardrails and concrete deck and curb, view to south - Gillespie Dam Bridge, Spanning Gila River on Old US 80 Highway, south of Gillespie Dam, Arlington, Maricopa County, AZ

158

37. HANGAR FROM RAILROAD DECK TELESCOPED IN COLUMN & SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. HANGAR FROM RAILROAD DECK TELESCOPED IN COLUMN & SHOWING PIN WHICH TRANSFERS LOAD FROM RAILROAD DECK TO TRUSS WHEN IN DOWN POSITION - Armour, Swift, Burlington Bridge, Kansas City, Jackson County, MO

159

Evaluation of High Performance Concrete in Four Bridge Decks as Well as Prestressed Girders for Two Bridges. Study SD98-06.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The South Dakota Department of Transportation constructed two three span high performance concrete (HPC) bridges in the summers of 1999 and 2000. The twin prestressed girder bridges are located along Interstate 29 near Sioux Falls, South Dakota. In each b...

A. Sigl V. Ramakrishnan

2001-01-01

160

Laboratory and field performance of FOS sensors in static and dynamic strain monitoring in concrete bridge decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing need for designing and constructing innovative concrete bridges using FRP reinforcing bars as internal reinforcement to avoid the corrosion problems and high costs of maintenance and repair. For efficient use and to increase the lifetime of these bridges, it is important to develop efficient monitoring systems for such innovative structures. Fabry-Perot and Bragg fibre optic sensors

B. Benmokrane; A. Debaiky; A. El-Ragaby; R. Roy; S. El-Gamal; E. El-Salakawy

2006-01-01

161

SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN vSHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN - Snake River Bridge at Lyons' Ferry, State Route 261 spanning Snake River, Starbuck, Columbia County, WA

162

Structural improvement of strengthened deck panels with externally bonded plates  

SciTech Connect

Concrete bridge decks require eventual replacement and rehabilitation due to decreasing load-carrying capacity. This paper compares different strengthening design procedures that improve the usability and structural performance of bridge decks. The failure characteristics of bridge decks strengthened with various materials such as carbon fiber sheet, glass fiber sheet, steel plate, and grid CFRP and GFRP are analyzed, and the theoretical load-carrying capacities are evaluated using traditional beam and yield line theory, and punching shear analysis. The strengthening materials increase the punching shear strength of the deck and change the failure mode of the strengthened panel.

Sim, Jongsung [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa1-dong, Ansan 425-791 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Hongseob [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa1-dong, Ansan 425-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: opera69@chollian.net

2005-07-01

163

16. VIEW NORTH FROM SWINGSPAN DECK, CHANNEL OPEN, FENDER SYSTEM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. VIEW NORTH FROM SWING-SPAN DECK, CHANNEL OPEN, FENDER SYSTEM AND ABUTMENT ON CHANNEL END OF NORTHERN FIXED SPAN; new bridge located on right - Tipers Bridge, Spanning Great Wicomico River at State Route 200, Kilmarnock, Lancaster County, VA

164

29. VIEW EAST FROM DECKING ON NORTHWEST CORNER OF PIVOT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. VIEW EAST FROM DECKING ON NORTHWEST CORNER OF PIVOT PIER, DRIVE SYSTEM FOR SWING-SPAN INCLUDES: (from left to right) BULL WHEEL, GEARING AND DRIVE SHAFTS, INCLUDING MANUAL DRIVE ACCESSED THROUGH BRIDGE DECK, ELECTRIC LINES FROM SHORE, AND TRACK AND RAIL ON CONCRETE PIER - Tipers Bridge, Spanning Great Wicomico River at State Route 200, Kilmarnock, Lancaster County, VA

165

11. Standing on westerly fender at edge of bridge looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Standing on westerly fender at edge of bridge looking easterly, showing horizontal beams for deck and cross beams (reflection of steel grating on deck). Also shows bridge guardrail. - Colusa Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River, Colusa, Colusa County, CA

166

Development of a Bridge Performance Prediction Model as a Rational Basis for a Structures Management System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bridge management is one component of the transportation and pavement management infrastructure. Like pavement management, bridge management is a large-scale complex system, but can be treated separately, since bridges exude some independent characteristi...

D. M. Glagola W. T. Scherer

1992-01-01

167

Pavement Roughness and Rideability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains a description of a new method for assessing pavement roughness. The method is based on a statistical transform between the physical measure of a pavement profile and the subjective rating of pavement rideability. This transform is expr...

M. S. Janoff J. B. Nick P. S. Davit G. F. Hayhoe

1985-01-01

168

Experimental study on durability comparison of the GFRP decks by resin types  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a structural member that is exposed to the environment, bridge decks are affected by the surrounding conditions including\\u000a temperature and humidity. Especially, temperature shock caused by burning vehicles on the deck, chemical reactions by dissimilar\\u000a materials or salinity on the bridges near the seaside can cause serious damage to bridge decks and therefore, they have to\\u000a be resistant to

Ki-Tae Park; Yoon-Koog Hwang; Young-Ho Lee; Jinwoo Jung

2007-01-01

169

308. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF DECK TRUSS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

308. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF DECK TRUSS SPANS WITH THROUGH TRUSS SPANS AND CANTILEVER TRUSS IN BACKGROUND, SOUTH SIDE, FACING WEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

170

9. DETAIL OF PRATT DECK TRUSS, AND NORTH PORTAL OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. DETAIL OF PRATT DECK TRUSS, AND NORTH PORTAL OF PENNSYLVANIA PETIT TRUSS WITH CONCRETE SUPPORTING PIER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - James Bethel Gresham Memorial Bridge, Spanning Green Pond River at Kentucky Route 81, Calhoun, McLean County, KY

171

Deck view, looking west from rear side of Lincoln Memorial. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Deck view, looking west from rear side of Lincoln Memorial. Hemi circle in background below Custis-Lee Mansion. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

172

8. EAST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM EAST, SHOWING PORTAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. EAST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM EAST, SHOWING PORTAL CONFIGURATION AND LATERAL BRACING, STEEL MESH FLOOR, METAL RAILINGS, AND PORTION OF EAST APPROACH - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

173

39. Viaduct sub deck general view showing typical steel post ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. Viaduct sub deck general view showing typical steel post and cross-brace configuration with typical stone pier in background. VIEW EAST - Broadway Bridge, Spanning Foundry Street, MBTA Yard, Fort Point Channel, & Lehigh Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

174

7. WEST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM WEST, SHOWING PORTAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. WEST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM WEST, SHOWING PORTAL CONFIGURATION AND LATERAL BRACING, STEEL MESH FLOOR, AND METAL RAILINGS - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

175

15. UNDERSIDE OF DECK, FROM BELOW AND SOUTHEAST, SHOWING STRUCTURAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. UNDERSIDE OF DECK, FROM BELOW AND SOUTHEAST, SHOWING STRUCTURAL CONFIGURATION, INCLUDING STRINGERS, TRANSVERSE FLOOR BEAMS, AND JOINT CONNECTION - River Road Bridge, Crossing Casselman River on Casselman River Road, Grantsville, Garrett County, MD

176

17. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING METAL DECK PLATES COVERING DAMAGED AREA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING METAL DECK PLATES COVERING DAMAGED AREA OF WEST APPROACH SPAN - Middle Fork Stanislaus River Bridge, Spans Middle Fork Stanislaus River at State Highway 108, Dardanelle, Tuolumne County, CA

177

47. Pouring deck columns, steampowered concrete mixer at center; direction ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. Pouring deck columns, steam-powered concrete mixer at center; direction of view not clear, but probably to north. - Parks Bar Bridge, Spanning Yuba River at State Highway 20, Smartville, Yuba County, CA

178

4. VIEW OF DECK AND BOTH TRUSSES LOOKING NORTHWARD FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF DECK AND BOTH TRUSSES LOOKING NORTHWARD FROM THE CENTER OF THE ROAD - Fayette County Bridge No. 103, Township Route 364, spanning Jacobs Creek (Nicholson Township), Masontown, Fayette County, PA

179

15. VAL, DETAIL OF SUPPORT CARRIAGE, PROJECTILE LOADING DECK AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. VAL, DETAIL OF SUPPORT CARRIAGE, PROJECTILE LOADING DECK AND THE BREECH END OF THE LAUNCHER BRIDGE LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

180

17. VAL PROJECTILE LOADING DECK AND BREECH END OF LAUNCHER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. VAL PROJECTILE LOADING DECK AND BREECH END OF LAUNCHER BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTH. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

181

VIEW OF ELEVATED RAILROAD AND HIGHWAY DECK TRUSS SPAN AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF ELEVATED RAILROAD AND HIGHWAY DECK TRUSS SPAN AND CONCRETE PIER ?C? LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

182

Detail of portal of Span No. 9, showing roadway deck, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of portal of Span No. 9, showing roadway deck, guardrails and truss, view to east - Gillespie Dam Bridge, Spanning Gila River on Old US 80 Highway, south of Gillespie Dam, Arlington, Maricopa County, AZ

183

20. DETAIL VIEW OF DECK SOFFIT AND EXPANSION JOINT, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. DETAIL VIEW OF DECK SOFFIT AND EXPANSION JOINT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM NORTH ABUTMENT - Chili Bar Bridge, Spanning South Fork of American River at State Highway 193, Placerville, El Dorado County, CA

184

2. GENERAL VIEW, FROM DECK, SHOWING THREE OF FOUR TOWERS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. GENERAL VIEW, FROM DECK, SHOWING THREE OF FOUR TOWERS - Jones Beach State Parkway Channel Bascule Bridge MP-3, Route 908 E, spanning Sloop Channel Southeast of East Bay, Hempstead, Nassau County, NY

185

11. DETAIL LOOKING THROUGH ARCH, SHOWING ROADWAY DECK, VERTICALS AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. DETAIL LOOKING THROUGH ARCH, SHOWING ROADWAY DECK, VERTICALS AND LATERAL BRACES. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

186

13. Telephoto view looking east showing center pier and deck ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Telephoto view looking east showing center pier and deck superstructure. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1983 - Neshanic Station Lenticular Truss Bridge, State Route 567, spanning South Branch of Raritan River, Neshanic Station, Somerset County, NJ

187

15. Detail view of connection between vertical posts and deck ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Detail view of connection between vertical posts and deck beam. Jack Boucher, photographer, 1983 - Neshanic Station Lenticular Truss Bridge, State Route 567, spanning South Branch of Raritan River, Neshanic Station, Somerset County, NJ

188

16. Detail view of deck beam end. Jet Lowe, photographer, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Detail view of deck beam end. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1983 - Neshanic Station Lenticular Truss Bridge, State Route 567, spanning South Branch of Raritan River, Neshanic Station, Somerset County, NJ

189

Interior view of eastern lift span, with decking above, looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of eastern lift span, with decking above, looking back from center of span, toward lift mechanism area. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

190

29. DECK / WEB / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF CANTILEVER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. DECK / WEB / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF CANTILEVER ARM OF THROUGH TRUSS. VIEW TO WEST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

191

Pavement management and rehabilitation of portland cement concrete pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pavement management and rehabilitation projects and techniques are discussed. The following topics are discussed: economic analyses and dynamic programming in resurfacing project selection; implementation of an urban pavement management system; pavement performance modeling for pavement management; illustration of pavement management: from data inventory to priority analysis; rehabilitation of concrete pavements by using portland cement concrete overlays; pavement management study: Illinois tollway pavement overlays; resurfacing of plain jointed-concrete pavements; design procedure for premium composite pavement; model study of anchored pavement; prestressed concrete overlay at O'Hare International Airport: in-service evaluation; and, bonded portland cement concrete resurfacing.

Zegeer, C. V.; Agent, K. R.; Rizenbergs, R. L.; Curtayne, P. C.; Scullion, T.; Pedigo, R. D.; Hudson, W. R.; Roberts, F. L.; Karan, M. A.; Haas, R.

192

Weather network computer to control deck-heating system  

SciTech Connect

A ground-source heating system for bridge deicing is briefly described in this article. The deck heating system will be controlled by the Oklahoma state weather network. Warm ground air will be pumped from more than 100 boreholes at least 200 feet deep. The heat transfer fluid, possibly propylene glycol, will be circulated through a sealed tube system in the bridge deck. Costs are estimated at $200,000 for the heating system and $840,000 for the total redecking project.

Roe, A.

1997-04-07

193

Pavement Roughness and Serviceability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, through the Pavement Evaluation Section in the Bureau of Materials, Testing and Research, has been doing research since 1968 in the field of pavement roughness trends. The interim report concerns the program ...

J. G. Hopkins

1972-01-01

194

Pavement Management and Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 9 papers in this report deal with the following areas: optimization of long-range major rehabilitation of airfield pavements; development and implementation of Alberta's pavement information and needs system; predicting reductions in service life of s...

D. H. Artman J. S. Liebman M. I. Darter M. A. Karan T. J. Christison

1983-01-01

195

Prediction of pavement roughness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simplified procedure has been developed for considering roughness in pavement design. The procedure utilizes statistical parameters to generate stochastic pavement material properties and profiles. A methodology was developed for predicting the rutting of a pavement section due to applied traffic. Thus the predicted rut depth can be applied to the profiles yielding a predicted surface profile. This profile can then be used to determine a measure of pavement roughness.

Barker, W. R.

1982-09-01

196

Uncontrolled Concrete Bridge Parapet Cracking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Ohio Department of Transportation has recently identified the problem of wide-spread premature cracking of concrete bridge parapets throughout its District 12 region (Northeast Ohio). Many of the bridge decks that contain these prematurely cracked par...

A. Kalabon J. Bazzo N. Delatte

2013-01-01

197

21. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Looking at bridge deck, guard rail, juncture of two bridge spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

198

Reconstruction of a pavement geothermal deicing system  

SciTech Connect

In 1948, US 97 in Klamath Falls, Oregon was routed over Esplanade Street to Main Street and through the downtown area. In order to widen the bridge across the US Bureau of Reclamation A Canal and to have the road cross under the Southern Pacific Railroad main north-south line, a new bridge and roadway were constructed at the beginning of this urban route. Because the approach and stop where this roadway intersected Alameda Ave (now Hwy 50 -- Eastside Bypass) caused problems with traffic getting traction in the winter on an adverse 8% grade, a geothermal experiment in pavement de-icing was incorporated into the project. A grid system within the pavement was connected to a nearby geothermal well using a downhole heat exchanger (DHE). The 419-foot well provided heat to a 50-50 ethylene glycol-water solution that ran through the grid system at about 50 gpm. This energy could provide a relatively snow free pavement at an outside temperature of {minus}10 F and snowfall up to 3 inches per hour, at a heat requirement of 41 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}. Over time, the well temperature dropped from 143 to 98 F at the surface. The bridge and surface pavement, geothermal well, and associated equipment were modified. This paper describes the modifications.

Lund, J.W. [Geo-Heat Center, Klamath Falls, OR (United States)

1999-03-01

199

Bridges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through a five-lesson series that includes numerous hands-on activities, students are introduced to the importance and pervasiveness of bridges for connecting people to resources, places and other people, with references to many historical and current-day examples. In learning about bridge types â arch, beam, truss and suspension â students explore the affect of tensile and compressive forces. Students investigate the calculations that go into designing bridges; they learn about loads and cross-sectional areas by designing and testing the strength of model piers. Geology and soils are explored as they discover the importance of foundations, bearing pressure and settlement considerations in the creation of dependable bridges and structures. Students learn about brittle and ductile material properties. Students also learn about the many cost factors that comprise the economic considerations of bridge building. Bridges are unique challenges that take advantage of the creative nature of engineering.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

200

Pavement evaluation and rehabilitation  

SciTech Connect

The 20 papers in this report deal with the following areas: determination of layer moduli using a falling weight deflectometer; evaluation of effect of uncrushed base layers on pavement performance; the effect of contact area shape and pressure distribution on multilayer systems response; sensitivity analysis of selected backcalculation procedures; performance of a full-scale pavement design experiment in Jamaica; subsealing and load-transfer restoration; development of a demonstration prototype expert system for concrete pavement evaluation; numerical assessment of pavement test sections; development of a distress index and rehabilitation criteria for continuously reinforced concrete pavements using discriminant analysis; a mechanistic model for thermally induced reflection cracking of portland cement concrete pavement with reinforced asphalt concrete overlay; New Mexico study of interlayers used in reflective crack control; status of the South Dakota profilometer; incorporating the effects of tread pattern in a dynamic tire excitation mechanism; external methods for evaluating shock absorbers for road-roughness measurements; factor analysis of pavement distresses for surface condition predictions; development of a utility evaluation for nondestructive-testing equipment used on asphalt-concrete pavements; estimating the life of asphalt overlays using long-term pavement performance data; present serviceability-roughness correlations using rating panel data; video image distress analysis technique for Idaho transportation department pavement-management system; acceptability of shock absorbers for road roughness-measuring trailers.

Ali, N.A.; Khosla, N.P.; Johnson, E.G.; Hicks, R.G.; Uzan, J.

1987-01-01

201

Hillsboro Canal Bridge Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the implementation of a testing and monitoring program for bridge 930338 in Belle Glade. Glass-fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) deck panels and plates were installed over an existing steel superstructure using grouted steel studs. Thi...

A. P. Singh H. R. Hamilton J. L. McCall X. Peng

2011-01-01

202

STATUS OF POROUS PAVEMENT RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper discusses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's porous pavement research program along with the economics, advantages, potential applications, and status and future research needs of porous pavements. Porous pavements are an available stormwater management techniq...

203

Catalogue des Degradations des Revetements Hydrocarbones d'Ouvrages d'Art: Classification, Causes and Remedes (Catalogue of the Deterioration of Bituminous Pavements: Classification, Causes and Remedies).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present report was initiated on the bases of both the information concerning the composition of the bridge pavements obtained through the bridge authorities in charge, and the visual inspection of about 500 bridges scattered throughout the whole Belgi...

C. de Backer

1984-01-01

204

Design of perpetual asphalt pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design conception of overseas perpetual pavement is introduced. Based on the successful experience on the improvement of asphalt pavement structure abroad,which can change the prensent situation of using single semi-rigid base asphalt pavements in our country,the design method of perpetual asphalt pavement is studied.The different pavement structures can be applied reasonablely.The earlier impairments of asphalt pavements can be prevented

Chang Hongxing; Zhao Jun; Tang Jiyu

2011-01-01

205

View northeast, wharf B decking, showing different decking materials ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View northeast, wharf B decking, showing different decking materials - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

206

22. FANTAIL DECK, SHOWING DETAIL OF DECK EXTENSION AND EXTERIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. FANTAIL DECK, SHOWING DETAIL OF DECK EXTENSION AND EXTERIOR LOCKING MECHANISM ON HATCH DOOR TO CREW'S BERTHING. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

207

17. DECK ABOVE CO'S STATEROOM, LOOKING TOWARDS BOW AT DECK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. DECK ABOVE CO'S STATEROOM, LOOKING TOWARDS BOW AT DECK ABOVE PILOT HOUSE. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

208

Small-format fly-over photography for highway bridge monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current bridge visual inspections are time-consuming, subjective, and rely heavily on personal experiences. The resulting ratings may be inconsistent. This paper discusses using remote-sensing technologies for bridge assessment, specifically, the use of high-resolution aerial imagery. The Small-Format Aerial Photography (SFAP) is a low-cost solution for bridge surface imaging. Providing top-down views, the airplanes flying at 1000 ft, can allow visualization of sub-inch (< 0.5 inch) cracks and joint openings on bridge decks or highway pavements. However, the site lighting may influence the quality of the images; surrounding tree shades and the highway wear surface reflectivity. Several examples of bridge evaluation using SFAP aerial photography are presented to demonstrate the capability of remote sensing as an effective tool for bridge construction monitoring and condition assessment. Several imaging issues are raised about analytical techniques that are necessary to ensure proper quantification of bridge problems, which include crack detection, movement determination, heavy trucking assessment, debris detection, channel width determination and environment assessment.

Chen, Shen-En; Rice, Corey; Boyle, Chuck; Hauser, Edd; Philbrick, Brian

2010-03-01

209

9. Third Melan Bridge on tour route, Union Avenue just ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Third Melan Bridge on tour route, Union Avenue just beyond tour stop 6, deck view to the west. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

210

12. Standing at south end of bridge at centerline of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Standing at south end of bridge at centerline of roadway/deck showing decorative iron work at south end of bridge, looking north. - Colusa Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River, Colusa, Colusa County, CA

211

Millimeter-wave nondestructive evaluation of pavement conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States is suffering from an aging civil infrastructure crisis. Key to recovery are rapid inspection technologies like that being investigated by the VOTERS project (Versatile Onboard Traffic Embedded Roaming Sensors), which aims to outfit ordinary road vehicles with compact low-cost hardware that enables them to rapidly assess and report the condition of roadways and bridge decks free of driver interaction. A key piece of hardware, and the focus of this paper, is a 24 GHz millimeter-wave radar system that measures the reflectivity of pavement surfaces. To account for the variability of real-world driving, such as changes in height, angle, speed, and temperature, a sensor fusion approach is used that corrects MWR measurements based on data from four additional sensors. The corrected MWR measurements are expected to be useful for various characterization applications, including: material type; deterioration such as cracks and potholes; and surface coverage conditions such as dry, wet, oil, water, and ice. Success at each of these applications is an important step towards achieving the VOTERS objective, however, this paper focuses on surface coverage, as whatever covers the driving surface will be most apparent to the MWR sensor and if not accounted for could significantly limit the accuracy of other applications. Contributions of the paper include findings from static lab tests, which validate the approach and show the effects of height and angle. Further contributions come from lab and in-field dynamic tests, which show the effects of speed and demonstrate that the MWR approach is accurate under city driving conditions.

Vines-Cavanau, David; Busuioc, Dan; Birken, Ralf; Wang, Ming

2012-03-01

212

Pavement Management Activities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 12 papers in the report deal with the following areas: development and implementation of a new rehabilitation information and priority programming system (RIPPS); dynamic decision model for a pavement management system; life-cycle costing of paved Ala...

M. A. Karan R. C. G. Haas A. Cheetham T. J. Christison S. M. Khalil

1984-01-01

213

Pavement Distresses at Intersections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Asphaltic concrete pavements at intersections and their approaches, where traffic is required to stop and start, exhibit several types of distress. Among the more prominent forms of these distresses are deep rutting, pushing and shoving, and severe washbo...

D. Q. Hunsucker B. W. Meade

1995-01-01

214

Direct identification offlutter derivatives and aerodynamic admittances ofbridge decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flutter derivatives and aerodynamic admittances provide basis ofpredicting the critical wind speed in flutter and buffeting analysis oflong-span cable-supported bridges. In this paper, one popular stochastic system identification technique, covariance- driven stochastic subspace identification (SSI in short), is first presented for estimation of the flutter derivatives and aerodynamic admittances ofbridge decks f rom their random responses in turbulent flow. Numerical

Ming Gu; Xian-Rong Qin

2004-01-01

215

45. Formwork for decks in place, except on arch ribs ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. Formwork for decks in place, except on arch ribs between piers 2 and 3, concrete being poured on south arch, view to north-northeast from near south abutment. - Parks Bar Bridge, Spanning Yuba River at State Highway 20, Smartville, Yuba County, CA

216

7. View showing placement of timber deck placement on chord ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. View showing placement of timber deck placement on chord and built up construction of top chord and continuous construction through top panel points, eye bar construction on bottom chord - Bridge No. 2.4, Spanning Boiling Fork Creek at Railroad Milepost JC-2.4, Decherd, Franklin County, TN

217

Corrosion in prestressed concrete: Pipes, piles, and decks  

SciTech Connect

This is the first compilation or book focusing on prestressed concrete. It features 21 classic NACE papers on prestressed concrete piping, piles, bridge decks, and cathodic protection. It includes basic corrosion mechanisms of prestressed concrete structures with detailed case histories of corrosion failures and corrective measures.

Szeliga, M. [ed.

1995-12-31

218

19. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN MACHINERY UNDER GRID DECK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN MACHINERY UNDER GRID DECK AT CENTRAL PEDESTAL AREA, SNOWING CENTER RING, RADIALS TO EDGE ROLLERS, GEARS, AND ELECTRICAL BOXES (taken in January 1984) - Sharptown Bridge, Spanning Nanticoke River, State Route 313, Sharptown, Wicomico County, MD

219

Bridge Types: Suspension Bridge Spans, Section AA; Cantilever Truss Spans, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Bridge Types: Suspension Bridge Spans, Section A-A; Cantilever Truss Spans, Section B-B; Through Truss Spans, Section C-C; Deck Truss Spans, Section D-D - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

220

Evaluation of Bridge Protective Strategies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents existing knowledge on the effectiveness of different common strategies for protecting bridge decks against deterioration caused by de-icing salts. The strategies considered are: (1) increased cover to the top bar; (2) low-slump dense ...

K. Babaei N. M. Hawkins

1987-01-01

221

Fatigue Failure of Welded Connections at Orthotropic Bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthotropic decks were applied to the long span bridges after World War II due to several advantages, such as light weight, high strength, few deck joints, durability, rapid construction, life-cycle economy. The fatigue problem of orthotropic decks was realized twenty years ago since fatigue failure was found. In the past two decades large amount of studies and investigations were carried

Z. H. Qian; D. Abruzzese

222

TweetDeck  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those people who like to tweet, the TweetDeck application is quite a find. With this application, users can truly "tweet like a pro", as they will be able to customize their Twitter experience by creating groups, saved searches, and automatic updates. It is billed as "air traffic for Twitter", and that's a fairly apt description of this powerful tool. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

2011-01-01

223

Training Development for Pavement Preservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research project strives to help the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) fully achieve the full benefits of pavement preservation through training on proper selection, design, and application of pavement preservation treatments. In some cases, th...

A. Morandeira C. T. Jahren J. Mallen

2013-01-01

224

10. DECK VIEW FORWARD FROM MAIN DECK TO FORECASTLE. NOTE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. DECK VIEW FORWARD FROM MAIN DECK TO FORECASTLE. NOTE PIPE FITTING FOR OIL PUMPING SYSTEM (DISCHARGE). THE HATCH OPENINGS TO RIGHT ARE ABOVE THE SHIP'S BOILER ROOM. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

225

High altitude premium pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect on performance that various additives and, or compaction had on the performance of pavements was evaluated. The following additives were evaluated: Anti-stripping additives, ground scrap rubber and carbon black. Samples were also evaluated at approximately 0, 3, 10 and 15% voids to determine the effect compaction had on the performance of the pavement. The resilient modulus, effect of water on cohesion of compacted bituminous mixtures and an accelerated moisture damage test was performed on each design mix. Most of the additives did not show significant, if any, improvement in the laboratory test results. The best improvement in laboratory test results came from the anti-stripping asphalt additives, which is one of the least costly and simplest to include in the pavement mixture.

Abel, F.; Proctor, J.

1980-02-01

226

Experimental pavement delineation treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visibility and durability of materials used to delineate shoulders and medians adjacent to asphalt pavements were evaluated. Materials evaluated were polysulfide and coal tar epoxies, one and two component polyesters, portland cement, acrylic paints, modified-alkyd traffic paint, preformed plastic tape, and thermoplastic markings. Neat applications, sand mortars, and surface treatments were installed in several geometric patterns including cross hatches, solid median treatments, and various widths of edge lines. Thermoplastic pavement markings generally performed very well, providing good visibility under adverse viewing conditions for at least 4 years. Thermoplastic 4 in. wide edge lines appear to provide adequate visibility for most conditions.

Bryden, J. E.; Lorini, R. A.

1981-06-01

227

76 FR 42545 - Regulated Navigation Area; Chelsea Street Bridge Construction, Chelsea, MA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...will coincide with the concrete bridge deck placement. There will...surrounding the Chelsea Street Bridge traffic will be allowed to pass...of materials, performance, design, or operation; test methods...Navigation Area; Chelsea Street Bridge Construction, Chelsea,...

2011-07-19

228

14. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING GIRDERS, BEARING SHOES, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING GIRDERS, BEARING SHOES, FLOOR BEAMS, STRINGERS, LATERAL BRACING AND CONCRETE DECK. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

229

Suspension Bridge Structural Systems: Cable Suspension & Anchorage; Warren Stiffening ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Suspension Bridge Structural Systems: Cable Suspension & Anchorage; Warren Stiffening Truss; Upper & Lower Decks; Assembled System - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

230

46. Photographic copy of original construction plan (Wabasha St. Bridge, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

46. Photographic copy of original construction plan (Wabasha St. Bridge, Section of Roadway, 280 ft span, 1888); typical details of deck - Wabasha Street Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at Wabasha Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

231

2. VIEW FROM UNDERNEATH BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING LATTICED BENTS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW FROM UNDERNEATH BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING LATTICED BENTS OF WESTERN APPROACH SPANS - Mahoning Avenue Pratt Double-Deck Bridge, Spanning Mill Creek at Mahoning Avenue (C.R. 319), Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

232

22. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing downwest side. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing down-west side. Looking at road deck and vertical laced channel. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

233

4. SIDE VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING ARCHES, CANTILEVERED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. SIDE VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING ARCHES, CANTILEVERED WALKWAY, DECK BEAMS AND STREAMBED - Benson Street Concrete Bowstring Bridge, Spanning Mill Creek at Benson Street, Lockland, Hamilton County, OH

234

10. Substructure of bridge, showing timber bents, piles, crossbracing, caps ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Substructure of bridge, showing timber bents, piles, cross-bracing, caps and stringers under deck. View to northeast. - Outlet Creek Bridge, Sullivan Lake Ranger Administrative Site, Metaline Falls, Pend Oreille County, WA

235

12. GENERAL VIEW OF THE WESTERN PORTION OF THE BRIDGE. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. GENERAL VIEW OF THE WESTERN PORTION OF THE BRIDGE. IT CONSISTS (LEFT TO RIGHT) OF SIX PRATT DECK TRUSSES, A PENNSYLVANIA THROUGH TRUSS, AND TWO MORE PRATT DECK TRUSSES. THE AERIAL VIEW IS FROM THE SOUTHWEST - Susquehanna River Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River, Havre de Grace, Harford County, MD

236

IDENTIFICATION OF VEHICLE AXLE LOADS FROM BRIDGE DYNAMIC RESPONSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented to identify moving loads on a bridge deck modelled as an orthotropic rectangular plate. The dynamic behavior of the bridge deck under moving loads is analyzed using the orthotropic plate theory and modal superposition principle, and Tikhonov regularization procedure is applied to provide bounds to the identified forces in the time domain. The identified results using

X. Q. ZHU; S. S. Law

2000-01-01

237

POROUS PAVEMENT: RESEARCH; DEVELOPMENT; AND DEMONSTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper discusses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's porous pavement research program along with the economics, advantages, potential applications, and status and future research needs of porous pavements. Porous pavements are an available stormwater management techniq...

238

Rehabilitation Techniques for Stripped Asphalt Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Asphalt stripping is a fairly common form of distress for pavements in Montana, particularly for pavements that were surfaced with an open-graded friction course. Currently, the technique for rehabilitating these pavements involves the costly removal of m...

D. R. Johnson R. B. Freeman

2002-01-01

239

Modeling Damage in Concrete Pavements and Bridges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project focused on micromechanical modeling of damage in concrete under general, multi-axial loading. A continuum-level, three-dimensional constitutive model based on micromechanics was developed. The model accounts for damage in concrete by statisti...

H. A. Toutanji Q. Zuo

2010-01-01

240

Pavement performance equations. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The WSDOT PMS data base was used to develop regression equations for three pavement surface types: bituminous surface treatments, asphalt concrete, and portland-cement concrete. The primary regression equations developed were to predict Pavement Condition Rating (PCR) which is a measure of the pavement surface distress (ranges from 100 (no distress) to below 0 (extensive distress)). Overall, the equations fit the data rather well given the expected variation of pavement performance information. The relative effects of age (time since construction or reconstruction) were illustrated for the three surface types.

Mahoney, J.P.; Kay, R.K.; Jackson, N.C.

1988-03-01

241

General outlook of pavement and vehicle dynamics  

SciTech Connect

The interaction between vehicle and pavement is complex since pavement roughness excites the dynamic forces generated by vehicles, while these dynamic forces simultaneously increase the pavement roughness. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the results of recent research related to pavement and vehicle dynamics and their interaction and to evaluate their potential use in the design and management of pavements. Pavement dynamic models are capable of determining stresses, strains, and deflections in various directions when harmonic, pulse, or transient loads are applied. Vehicle dynamic models simulate the effect of pavement roughness on the inertia of various vehicle components. These models can predict the dynamic forces produced by different axles and wheels of traveling vehicles at different locations along the pavement. Pavement response computed using dynamic models matches field measurements closer than those computed using static models. The concept of vehicle-pavement interaction can be applied to weigh-in-motion, pavement design and performance, and vehicle regulations.

Mamlouk, M.S. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1997-11-01

242

Investigation of Soluble Salts on Kentucky Bridges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Invisible soluble salts present on steel highway structures can act to promote corrosion even after maintenance painting. Soluble salts include chloride, nitrate and sulfate ions. Soluble salts found on bridge decks and roadways are the result of usage of...

S. Palle R. Younce T. Hopwood

2003-01-01

243

Pavement Drainage and Pavement-Shoulder Joint Evaluation and Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this research were i) to evaluate the performance of pavement subdrainage systems ii) study the behavior of moisture conditions below pavements and iii) provide recommendations for unproved drainage criteria based on analysis of field data. Existing and retrofitted subdrainage collector systems were inspected through external visual inspection in combination with a probe for internal inspection. Distresses and

Zubair Ahmed; Thomas D. White; Philippe L. Bourdeau

1993-01-01

244

Interaction of Vehicles and Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 9 papers in this report deal with the following areas: problems encountered in using vehicle ride as a criterion of pavement roughness; evaluation of panel rating methods for assessing pavement ride quality; high-speed road monitoring system; use of r...

B. E. Quinn J. B. Nick M. S. Janoff P. G. Jordan J. Porter

1983-01-01

245

Rehabilitation Strategies for Highway Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NCHRP Project 1-38 was conducted to develop a process for selection of appropriate rehabilitation strategies for the ranges of pavement types and conditions found in the United States. A review of the pavement rehabilitation practices of State DOTs, and t...

C. E. Correa K. T. Hall R. P. Elliot S. H. Carpenter

2001-01-01

246

Geotextiles in Flexible Pavement Construction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|People everywhere in the developed world regularly drive on paved roads. Learning about the construction techniques and materials used in paving benefits technology and construction students. This article discusses the use of geosynthetic textiles in pavement construction. It presents background on pavements and describes geotextiles and drainage…

Alungbe, Gabriel D.

2004-01-01

247

46 CFR 178.430 - Drainage of well deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.430 Drainage of well deck vessels. (a) The weather deck on a well deck vessel must be watertight. (b) The area required on...

2012-10-01

248

46 CFR 178.430 - Drainage of well deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.430 Drainage of well deck vessels. (a) The weather deck on a well deck vessel must be watertight. (b) The area required on...

2011-10-01

249

Effects of Various Deicing Chemicals on Pavement Concrete Deterioration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deleterious effects of deicers on concrete pavements and bridges have concerned concrete researchers for several decades. The present study experimentally investigates the effects of different deicers on concrete deterioration. Laboratory simulations of environmental conditions (wet\\/dry and freeze\\/thaw cycling) were conducted on highway concrete samples with various deicer chemicals (NaCl, CaCl 2, MgCl2, calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) of 5 different

HYOMIN LEE; ROBERT D. CODY; ANITA M. CODY; PAUL G. SPRY

250

Bridge afflux analysis through arched bridge constrictions using artificial intelligence methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many studies have been carried out for estimating the afflux through modern straight deck bridge constrictions, little attention has been given to medieval arched bridge constrictions. Hydraulic Research Wallingford in the UK (Brown, P.M., 1988. Afflux at arch bridges. Report SR 182. Wallingford, UK: HR Wallingford) recently published a major coverage of both experimental and field afflux data obtained

Mustafa Mamak; Galip Seckin; Murat Cobaner; Ozgur Kisi

2009-01-01

251

Culture and Flight Deck Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Culture is widely believed to play an important role in the international aviation system. Given the many factors, including the infrastructure of aviation, that affect aviation safety, the role of culture remains uncertain. It is accepted that culture must exert some influence on the patterns of behavior enacted by flight crews on the flight deck, but different views of

Edwin Hutchins; Barbara E. Holder

2002-01-01

252

The Effectiveness of Darkening Surface and Insulating Bridge Slabs to Reduce Unequal Icing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A research study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of reducing the frequency and rapidity of icing of bridge decks by insulating the underside of the bridge deck with urethane foam, by rise of a very dark material as a surface treatment, or bot...

F. L. Holman

1968-01-01

253

Operating the Portable Seismic Pavement Analyzer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The portable seismic pavement analyzer (PSPA) is a non-destructive testing device that measures the seismic modulus of concrete pavements. This report provides guidance on how to operate the PSPA including (a) general use and recommendations of the PSPA, ...

H. P. Bell

2006-01-01

254

Prefabricated Vertical Drains and Pavement Drainage Systems,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 7 papers in the report deal with the following areas: Design, construction, and evaluation of West Virginia's first free-draining pavement system; Subbase permeability and pavement performance; Core flow-capacity requirements of geocomposite fin-drain...

J. S. Baldwin D. C. Long K. L. Highlands G. L. Hoffman B. J. Dempsey

1988-01-01

255

Design, Management, and Operation of Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 5 papers in the report deal with the following areas: Pavement response and load restrictions on spring thaw-weakened flexible pavements; Use of thermistors and spring road management; Method for determining optimal blading frequency of unpaved roads;...

M. S. Rutherford Barcomb Alfelor

1989-01-01

256

A three dimensional approach for tracking cracks in bridges using GPR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion associated with reinforcing bars is the most significant contributor to bridge deficiencies. The corrosion is usually caused by moisture and chloride ion exposure. The reinforcing bars are attacked by corrosion and yield expansive corrosion products. These oxidation products occupy a larger volume than the original intact steel and internal expansive stresses lead to cracking and debonding. There are some conventional inspection methods for the detection of the reinforcing bar's corrosion but they can be invasive and destructive, often laborious, and lane closure is required and it is difficult or unreliable for any quantification of corrosion. For these reasons, bridge engineers always prefer more to use the ground penetrating radar (GPR) technique. In this work a novel numerical approach for three dimensional tracking and mapping of cracks in the bridge is proposed. The work starts from some interesting results based on the use of the 3D imaging technique in order to improve the potentiality of the GPR to detect voids, cracks or buried objects. The numerical approach has been tested on data acquired on a bridge by using a pulse GPR system specifically designed for bridge deck and pavement inspection. The equipment integrates two arrays of Ultra Wide Band ground coupled antennas, having a main working frequency of 2 GHz. The two arrays are using antennas arranged with a different polarization. The cracks, associated often to moisture increase and higher values of the dielectric constant, produce a not negligible increase of the signal amplitude. Following this, the algorithm, organized in preprocessing, processing and postprocessing stages, analyzes the signal by comparing the value of the amplitude all over the domain of the radar scan.

Benedetto, Andrea

2013-10-01

257

Analysis of Flexible Pavements Reinforced with Geogrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effectiveness of glass fiber grids as a reinforcement of the asphalt layer in a flexible pavement system was investigated.\\u000a The study involved both laboratory experimental work and computer analysis of pavement sections. Twenty flexible pavement\\u000a sections (with and without glass fiber grids) were constructed and tested in the laboratory as a part of the experimental\\u000a study. The laboratory-scale pavement sections

Hema Siriwardane; Raj Gondle; Bora Kutuk

2010-01-01

258

Mormon Creek Bridge: Performance After Three Years.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Mormon Creek Bridge is an experimental parallel-chord, stress-laminated deck design. It is the first of its kind and has been in service for more than 3 years. The structural performance and experimental features of the bridge have been monitored cont...

W. J. McCutcheon

1992-01-01

259

Capturing Solar Energy from Asphalt Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of extracting heat energy from asphalt pavements has been investigated in this study. The scope of work consisted of finite element modeling and testing with small and large scale asphalt pavement samples. Water flowing through copper tubes inserted within asphalt pavements samples were used as heat exchangers in the experiments. The rise in temperature of water as a

Rajib B. Mallick; Bao-Liang Chen; Sankha Bhowmick; Michael S. Hulen

260

Flexible pavement performance evaluation using deflection criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flexible pavement projects in Nebraska were monitored for dynamic deflections, roughness, and distress for six consecutive years. Present surface conditions were characterized and data for evaluating rehabilitation needs, including amount of overlay, were provided. Data were evaluated and factors were isolated for determining the structural adequacy of flexible pavements, evaluating existing pavement strength and soil subgrade conditions, and determining overlay

R. J. Wedner

1980-01-01

261

Electrochemical diagnosis and rehabilitation of pilings for a marine bridge  

SciTech Connect

Deteriorating steel reinforcement in concrete bridge pilings and deck cap connections in a saline environment were evaluated using physical-chemical, electrochemical, and visual inspections to design cathodic protection using sacrificial anodes.

Rincon, O.T. de; Romero, M.F. de; Contreras, D.; Moron, O.; Ludovic, J.; Bravo, J. [Univ. de Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela)

1996-08-01

262

41. VAL, DETAIL OF CONNECTING BRIDGE SHOWING SIDE THAT FACED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. VAL, DETAIL OF CONNECTING BRIDGE SHOWING SIDE THAT FACED THE FIRING RANGE TAKEN FROM THE BARGE DECK. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

263

Investigation of Recycling Bituminous Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interest in cold-mixed in-place recycling of asphalt pavements is becoming more widespread. This final report summarized the findings of four major studies conducted over a period of 5 years. Guidelines were developed that would enable the paving engineer...

M. Tia A. Iida J. McKinney L. Wood

1983-01-01

264

Prevention of Early Pavement Deterioration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was done to identify the major forms and causes of early pavement distress, and to recommend changes in specifications or policies to prevent the distress. Three major forms of distress in Utah were identified as follows: (1) Unstable mixes, (2...

D. I. Anderson D. E. Peterson M. L. Wiley

1978-01-01

265

Rigid Pavement Database: Overview and Data Collection Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rigid pavement (RP) database contains historical distress data obtained from more than 400 continuously reinforced concrete pavements (CRCP) and jointed concrete pavements (JCP) across the state of Texas. Data collection efforts began in 1974 and have...

T. Dossey T. Turen B. F. McCullough

1998-01-01

266

Evaluation of Flexible Pavement Performance Life in Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pavement performance life provides information on how long a particular pavement type will typically last before it needs rehabilitation. This study presents the research effort to estimate the average flexible pavement performance life in Florida. Tw...

W. V. Ping Y. He

1998-01-01

267

Effective Pavement Marking Practices for Sealcoat and Hot-Mix Asphalt Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the tasks of research conducted to identify effective pavement marking practices for seal coat and hot-mix asphalt (HMAC) pavements in Texas. The researchers reviewed literature, determined current Texas Department of Transportation ...

T. J. Gates H. G. Hawkins E. R. Rose

2003-01-01

268

Pavement Evaluation Concepts Using Nondestructive Structural Evaluation and Pavement Condition Index.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A logical method for pavement evaluation utilizing both nondestructive procedures for structural analysis and pavement condition distress to identify maintenance needs is presented. Alternatives for maintaining desired serviceability are categorized as ro...

J. W. Hall

1987-01-01

269

Calibration of Pavement Response Models for the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most pavement design methodologies assume that the tire-pavement contact stress is equal to the tire inflation pressure and uniformly distributed over a circular contact area. However, tire-pavement contact area is not in a circular shape and the contact ...

J. A. Prozzi R. Luo

2007-01-01

270

AUTOMATED PAVEMENT IMAGING PROGRAM (APIP) FOR PAVEMENT CRACKS CLASSIFICATION AND QUANTIFICATION - A PHOTOGRAMMETRIC APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of pavement conditions is an important part of pavement management. Traditionally, pavement condition data are gathered by human inspectors who walk or drive along the road to assess the distresses and subsequently produce report sheets. This visual survey method is not only time consuming and costly but more importantly it compromises the safety of the field personnel. With

M. Mustaffar; T. C. Ling

1998-01-01

271

46 CFR 116.1110 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Drainage and Watertight Integrity of Weather Decks § 116.1110 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must be watertight and have...

2012-10-01

272

46 CFR 178.410 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.410 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must be watertight and have...

2011-10-01

273

46 CFR 178.410 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.410 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must be watertight and have...

2012-10-01

274

The Effectiveness of Hot-deck Procedures in Small Samples.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simulation study was conducted to identify the best hot-deck variation to impute missing values. The three variations included in the study were the hot-deck random, the hot-deck sequential, and the hot-deck distance. The properties of these methods were investigated under three levels of the proportion of incomplete records and four levels…

Kaiser, Javaid

275

A design system for rigid pavement rehabilitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development, use, and applicability of a rigid pavement rehabilitation design system, RPRDS, developed for use by the Texas State Department of Highways and Public Transportation is described. Like other pavement design systems, RPRDS makes use of the systems approach to incorporate a number of pavement design and analytical models into a computer program, RPRDS-1, for the generation, analysis, and comparison of numerous pavement design strategies. Basically, RPRDS generates a number of feasible overlay design strategies based on user inputs, performs a present value cost analysis on each, and then presents those which are optimal.

Seeds, S. B.; McCullough, B. F.; Hudson, W. R.

1982-01-01

276

Flexible pavement performance evaluation using deflection criteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flexible pavement projects in Nebraska were monitored for dynamic deflections, roughness, and distress for six consecutive years. Present surface conditions were characterized and data for evaluating rehabilitation needs, including amount of overlay, were provided. Data were evaluated and factors were isolated for determining the structural adequacy of flexible pavements, evaluating existing pavement strength and soil subgrade conditions, and determining overlay thickness requirements. Terms for evaluating structural condition for pavement sufficiently ratings were developed and existing soil support value and subgrade strength province maps were evaluated.

Wedner, R. J.

1980-04-01

277

UNIDENTIFIED CATENARY SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TRIPLE PIPE TOWERS, SHOWING HOWE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

UNIDENTIFIED CATENARY SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TRIPLE PIPE TOWERS, SHOWING HOWE PIPE TRUSS RAILING AND TRUSSED DECK BEAMS TYPICAL TO BRIDGES BUILT BY FLINN-MOYER COMPANY. NOTE THAT TOWER PIPES LIE IN ONE PLANE, UNLIKE TRIPODAL ARRANGEMENT AT CLEAR FORK OF THE BRAZOS SUSPENSION BRIDGE. ELEVATION VIEW. - Clear Fork of Brazos River Suspension Bridge, Spanning Clear Fork of Brazos River at County Route 179, Albany, Shackelford County, TX

278

Outdoor Math 2000: Pricing a Deck  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students Read a diagram and determine the minimum cost of each of the three deck designs, using prices and information about lumber from a chart. Then they apply the Pythagoreum theorum to calculate nonstandard shapes.

2010-01-01

279

A simplified fragility analysis of fan type cable stayed bridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simplified fragility analysis of fan type cable stayed bridges using Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) procedure is presented for determining their failure probability under random ground motion. Seismic input to the bridge support is considered to be a risk consistent response spectrum which is obtained from a separate analysis. For the response analysis, the bridge deck is modeles as a beam supported on spring at different points. The stiffnesses of the springs are determined by a separate 2D static analysis of cable-tower-deck system. The analysis provides a coupled stiffness matrix for the spring system. A continuum method of analysis using dynamic stiffness is used to determine the dynamic properties of the bridges. The response of the bridge deck is obtained by the response spectrum method of analysis as applied to multidegree of freedom system which duly takes into account the quasi-static component of bridge deck vibration. The fragility analysis includes uncertainties arising due to the variation in ground motion, material property, modeling, method of analysis, ductility factor and damage concentration effect. Probability of failure of the bridge deck is determined by the First Order Second Moment (FOSM) method of reliability. A three span double plane symmetrical fan type cable stayed bridge of total span 689 m, is used as an illustrative example. The fragility curves for the bridge deck failure are obtained under a number of parametric variations. Some of the important conclusions of the study indicate that (i) not only vertical component but also the horizontal component of ground motion has considerable effect on the probability of failure; (ii) ground motion with no time lag between support excitations provides a smaller probability of failure as compared to ground motion with very large time lag between support excitation; and (iii) probability of failure may considerably increase soft soil condition.

Khan, R. A.; Datta, T. K.; Ahmad, S.

2005-06-01

280

Storebælt suspension bridge – vortex shedding excitation and mitigation by guide vanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the final phases of deck erection and surfacing of the suspended spans of the Storebælt bridge, vertical deck oscillations of low frequency were observed by workers and supervision staff. The results of on-site monitoring of the oscillations and wind speed measurements at the nearby island of Sprogø correlated well with wind-tunnel test results obtained during design, indicating that the

Allan Larsen; Søren Esdahl; Jacob E Andersen; Tina Vejrum

2000-01-01

281

Pavement distress detection and severity analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic recognition of road distresses has been an important research area since it reduces economic loses before cracks and potholes become too severe. Existing systems for automated pavement defect detection commonly require special devices such as lights, lasers, etc, which dramatically increase the cost and limit the system to certain applications. Therefore, in this paper, a low cost automatic pavement

E. Salari; G. Bao

2011-01-01

282

Pervious Pavement System Evaluation-Paper  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of a pervious pavement can be effective as a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete paver systems as a type of porous pavement. Although the pavers are impermeable, the spaces between the pave...

283

Concrete Overlay as a Rehabilitation Option for Distressed Asphalt Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-thin Whitetopping (UTW) involves placing a very thin concrete overlay 50 mm to 100 mm thick (2”-4”) on the milled surface of a distressed asphalt pavement. To investigate the performance of UTW placed over a flexible pavement subjected to slow and heavy moving wheel loads, whitetopping mixes were placed over a milled pavement surface in the Accelerated Pavement Testing (APT)

Sudarshan Rajan; J. Olek

2002-01-01

284

Parametric Study of Factors Affecting Flexible-Pavement Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new 'Whole-Life' Pavement Performance Model (WLPPM) that is capable of making deterministic pavement damage predictions due to realistic traffic and environmental loading has been developed. A vehicle simulation is used to generate dynamic tire forces that are a function of distance along the pavement. These dynamic tire forces are then combined with the appropriate pavement primary response influence functions

A. C. Collop; D. Cebon

1995-01-01

285

Finite Element Medling of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks with ABAQUS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The finite element method is still a predominant technique for the analysis of reinforced concrete (RC) structures and can be a very effective tool to offset expensive experimental techniques. One commercially available finite element code, ABAQUS, has th...

G. Thiagarajan S. Roy

2005-01-01

286

Development Length of GFRP Reinformcement in Concrete Bridge Decks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes an experimental program that investigated the development length and variability in bond of glass-fiber-reinforced-polymer (GFRP) reinforcement in concrete. The study variables included manufacturer (Marshall Industries Composites, ...

C. Shield C. W. French J. Hanus

2000-01-01

287

Use of Hydrodemolition to Remove Deteriorated Concrete from Bridge Decks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hydrodemolition is a relatively new method of removing select portions of a hardened concrete structure. By utilizing the erosive power of high-velocity water streams, hydrodemolition equipment breaks up concrete by disintegrating the cement matrix betwee...

E. C. Lohrey

1996-01-01

288

Predicting pavement distress in oil field areas  

SciTech Connect

A study on oil field traffic characteristics was performed and a procedure was developed for assessing current and future effects of oil field truck traffic on surface-treated (stage construction type) pavements. A computer program calculates several types of pavement distress and serviceability parameters to evaluate pavement performance under various axle load repetitions. Stepwise regression analysis of 132 surface-treated pavement sections led to the development of individual distress equations for rutting, raveling, flushing, alligator cracking, patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, and failures (potholes). The versatility of the program provides a means of anticipating early pavement failures due to increased axle load repetitions. The program also provides the basic framework for computing the effects of other ''special-use'' truck traffic demands.

Mason, J.M.; Scullion, T.; Stampley, B.E.

1983-05-01

289

Predicting pavement distress in oil field areas  

SciTech Connect

A study on oil field traffic characteristics was performed and a procedure was developed for assessing current and future effects of oil field truck traffic on surface-treated (stage construction type) pavements. A computer program calculates several types of pavement distress and serviceability parameters to evaluate pavement performance under various axle load repetitions. Stepwise regression analysis of 132 surface-treated pavement sections led to the development of individual distress equations for rutting, raveling, flushing, alligator cracking, patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, and failures (potholes). The versatility of the program provides a means of anticipating early pavement failures due to increased axle load repetitions. The program also provides the basic framework for computing the effects of other ''special-use'' truck traffic demands.

Mason, J.M.; Scullion, T.; Stampley, B.E.

1984-05-01

290

Instrumentation of bridges for long-term performance monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the state of the art in bridge design is advancing toward the performance-based design, it becomes increasingly important to monitor and evaluate the long-term structural performance of bridges, including strains in critical structural members, soil pressures on the abutment back walls and footings, accelerations on the decks and bents, etc. Such information is essential in developing new performance criteria

Maria Q. Feng; Doo-Kie Kim; Li-Hong Sheng; Yoo Jin Kim

2001-01-01

291

Effects of temperature and water on pavement performance  

SciTech Connect

The 12 papers in the report deal with the following areas: procedures for estimation of asphalt-concrete pavement moduli at in-situ temperatures; stress caused by temperature gradient in portland-cement concrete pavements; characterizing temperature effects for pavement analysis and design; temperature response of concrete pavements; an examination of environmental versus load effects on pavements; moisture in portland-cement concrete; effect of rainfall on the performance of continuously reinforced concrete pavements in Texas; effect of moisture on the structural performance of a crushed-limestone road base; water-induced distress in flexible pavement in a wet tropical climate; an evaluation of design high-water clearances for pavements; economic impact of pavement subsurface drainage; use of open-graded, free-draining layers in pavement systems; a national synthesis report.

Badu-Tweneboah, K.; Tia, M.; Ruth, B.E.; Richardson, J.M.; Armaghani, J.M.

1987-01-01

292

Evaluation of Concrete Overlays for Bridge Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents performance of 12 concrete bridge decks that were rehabilitated and/or protected with latex-modified concrete and low-slump dense concrete overlays in order to prevent future de-icing salt penetration and reinforcing steel corrosion. ...

K. Babaei

1987-01-01

293

Aeroelastic Wind Forces on Flexible Bridge Girders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-stationary aeroelastic wind force processes on a streamlined bridge deck are modelled for use within computations in the range of statistically stationary girder oscillation and for the mathematical investigation of the limit of aeroelastic stability. Time Domain (TD) methods, as the direct integration on a finite-element (FE) model, are applied in structural analyses for taking into consideration both geometric and

Claudio Borri; Rüdiger Höffer

2000-01-01

294

Long-Term Performance of Stone Interlayer Pavement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an evaluation of long-term performance of an alternative flexible pavement design referred to here as stone interlayer pavement. This pavement design was introduced to reduce\\/defer reflective cracking experienced with soil-cement bases. The stone interlayer pavement consisted of a crushed limestone base on top of a cement-stabilized base. The performance of the stone interlayer pavement was compared to

Hani Titi; Masood Rasoulian; Mark Martinez; Byron Becnel; Gary Keel

2003-01-01

295

Factors Affecting the Design Thickness of Bridge Slabs: Results of Static and Fatigue Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The punching shear behavior of concrete bridge decks under static, pulsating fatigue, and rolling fatigue loads was studied using analytical and experimental models. In this report, study results are presented for static and pulsating fatigue loads on cas...

N. H. Burns R. E. Klingner J. Kim

1994-01-01

296

Numerical Studies on the Seismic Retrofit of Bridges Using Shape Memory Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent earthquakes have highlighted the seismic vulnerability of bridges due to excessive movements at the joints (in simply supported deck bridges) or concentration of seismic forces in a few piers (in multi-span continuous deck bridges). Steel-based seismic restrainers and viscous shock transmitters are used to limit the joint openings in simply supported deck bridges or to redistribute the seismic force among all piers in continuous deck bridges, respectively. Currently used devices, however, have some limitations such as large dimensions, no energy dissipation, possible large residual displacements, bad control of the force transmitted to the substructure (steel restrainers), large dimensions, difficulty of installation in existing structures, need of maintenance, and sensitivity to the earthquake characteristics (viscous shock transmitters). Shape memory alloys (SMAs) with superelastic behavior show the potential to overcome the limitations involved in the current technologies. In this article, a multi-performance seismic device based on superelastic SMA wires is proposed for the seismic retrofit of multi-span simply supported and continuous deck bridges. The effectiveness of the SMA devices is assessed through a number of nonlinear time-history analyses on two bridge structures representative of existing Italian highway bridges. Results are compared to the seismic response of the bridges in the as-built configuration.

Cardone, Donatello; Perrone, Giuseppe; Sofia, Salvatore

2011-07-01

297

Pavement distress detection and severity analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic recognition of road distresses has been an important research area since it reduces economic loses before cracks and potholes become too severe. Existing systems for automated pavement defect detection commonly require special devices such as lights, lasers, etc, which dramatically increase the cost and limit the system to certain applications. Therefore, in this paper, a low cost automatic pavement distress evaluation approach is proposed. This method can provide real-time pavement distress detection as well as evaluation results based on the color images captured from a camera installed on a survey vehicle. The entire process consists of two main parts: pavement surface extraction followed by pavement distress detection and classification. In the first part, a novel color segmentation method based on a feed forward neural network is applied to separate the road surface from the background. In the second part, a thresholding technique based on probabilistic relaxation is utilized to separate distresses from the road surface. Then, by inputting the geometrical parameters obtained from the detected distresses into a neural network based pavement distress classifier, the defects can be classified into different types. Simulation results are given to show that the proposed method is both effective and reliable on a variety of pavement images.

Salari, E.; Bao, G.

2011-02-01

298

Subsea well with retrievable piping deck  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus and method for drilling and completing a subsea well located at the seabed using a retrievable piping deck. The apparatus includes a template supported on the seabed, the retrievable piping deck supported on the template, a plurality of wellheads supported on the template and a plurality of Christmas trees supported on the wellheads. The piping deck has preinstalled flow lines and hydraulic lines to conduct well fluid from the Christmas trees to the surface and to conduct hydraulic control fluid from the surface to the trees. In addition to the Christmas trees, a well fluid manifold and a gaseous-liquid component separator can be supported on the template. The fluid connections between the Christmas trees and the hydraulic and flow lines and between the manifold and separator and the hydraulic and flow lines are accomplished by vertically oriented stab-in connectors. After installation of the template and drilling of the wells, the piping deck is lowered independently to the template and coupled thereto and then the Christmas trees and manifold-separator are lowered to the template and into fluid communication with the piping deck hydraulic and flow lines.

Pokladnik, R.L.; Valka, W.A.

1984-03-27

299

Structural health monitoring of Lindquist bridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many forestry bridges in Canada are typically single-lane, single span structures with two steel plate girders and a deck comprising of precast reinforced concrete panels. The concept of arching in deck slabs was utilized in the steel-free precast panels used in the Lindquist Bridge in British Columbia, Canada. The panels were completely devoid of tensile reinforcement and transverse confinement to the panels was provided by external steel straps. After the bridge was constructed in 1998, electrical strain gauges were installed on the girders and straps. Static and dynamic load tests were performed. The cracks on the top and bottom of the deck were mapped in 1999 and 2003. In 2006, a load test and crack mapping were performed on the bridge. The strain readings in the straps were compared with the data obtained 8 years prior. After analysis of the strain gauge readings, conclusions were drawn on the performance of the bridge. The cracks were formed to accommodate arching action and it was concluded that the bridge is still performing as it was designed.

Sargent, D. D.; Murison, E. R.; Bakht, B.; Mufti, A. A.

2007-05-01

300

Mechanistic design concepts for conventional flexible pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical design concepts for convetional flexible pavement (asphalt concrete (AC) surface plus granular base/subbase) for highways are proposed and validated. The procedure is based on ILLI-PAVE, a stress dependent finite element computer program, coupled with appropriate transfer functions. Two design criteria are considered: AC flexural fatigue cracking and subgrade rutting. Algorithms were developed relating pavement response parameters (stresses, strains, deflections) to AC thickness, AC moduli, granular layer thickness, and subgrade moduli. Extensive analyses of the AASHO Road Test flexible pavement data are presented supporting the validity of the proposed concepts.

Elliott, R. P.; Thompson, M. R.

1985-02-01

301

Deck Boxes for UHF SATCOM Radio Frequency Interference Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report concerns itself with the design, construction, and utilization of a remotely controlled deck box assembly. This deck box assembly was used in conjunction with other specialized equipments for the study of radio frequency interference. This stu...

G. B. Parker J. E. Ohlson

1976-01-01

302

10. BUOY DECK, NEAR PILOT HOUSE SUPERSTRUCTURE, LOOKING TOWARDS FOCASTLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. BUOY DECK, NEAR PILOT HOUSE SUPERSTRUCTURE, LOOKING TOWARDS FOCASTLE DECK, SHOWING MOST OF BOOM. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

303

Fracture Mode Study of AH36 Steel Cloverleaf Deck Sockets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes mechanical testing performed on AH36 steel deck sockets followed by a fracture mode study. For all specimens, 'untreated' designates deck sockets, which possess a hardened martensite surface layer, a cold worked layer, and surface mi...

M. A. Gaudett X. J. Zhang

1998-01-01

304

123. FORWARD PORT VIEW OF THE ISLAND WITH FLIGHT DECK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

123. FORWARD PORT VIEW OF THE ISLAND WITH FLIGHT DECK GUN MOUNTS, TAKEN FROM FORWARD FLIGHT DECK. APRIL 1945, (NATIONAL ARCHIVES NO. 80-G-469299) - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

305

19. DECK ABOVE CO'S STATEROOM, LOOKING TOWARDS STERN, SHOWING DETAIL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. DECK ABOVE CO'S STATEROOM, LOOKING TOWARDS STERN, SHOWING DETAIL OF TOP OF STACK AND DECK ABOVE CREW'S BERTHING. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

306

21. DECK ABOVE CREW'S BERTHING, LOOKING TOWARDS STERN, SHOWING DETAIL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. DECK ABOVE CREW'S BERTHING, LOOKING TOWARDS STERN, SHOWING DETAIL OF THIS DECK THAT WAS EXTENDED IN THE 1960'S. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

307

10. BUOY DECK, NEAR PILOT HOUSE SUPERSTRUCTURE, LOOKING TOWARDS FOCASTLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. BUOY DECK, NEAR PILOT HOUSE SUPERSTRUCTURE, LOOKING TOWARDS FOCASTLE DECK. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

308

46 CFR 12.15-13 - Deck engine mechanic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Deck engine mechanic. 12.15-13 Section 12.15-13...Department § 12.15-13 Deck engine mechanic. (a) An applicant for an endorsement as deck engine mechanic shall be a person holding an MMC...

2010-10-01

309

46 CFR 12.15-13 - Deck engine mechanic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Deck engine mechanic. 12.15-13 Section 12.15-13...Department § 12.15-13 Deck engine mechanic. (a) An applicant for an endorsement as deck engine mechanic shall be a person holding an MMC...

2012-10-01

310

46 CFR 12.15-13 - Deck engine mechanic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Deck engine mechanic. 12.15-13 Section 12.15-13...Department § 12.15-13 Deck engine mechanic. (a) An applicant for an endorsement as deck engine mechanic shall be a person holding an MMC...

2011-10-01

311

46 CFR 12.15-13 - Deck engine mechanic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Deck engine mechanic. 12.15-13 Section 12.15-13...Department § 12.15-13 Deck engine mechanic. (a) An applicant for an endorsement as deck engine mechanic shall be a person holding an MMC...

2009-10-01

312

46 CFR 108.167 - Weather deck ladders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weather deck ladders. 108.167 Section 108...Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.167 Weather deck ladders. Each unit must have...permanent, inclined ladder between each weather deck. Classified...

2012-10-01

313

46 CFR 174.215 - Drainage of weather deck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 174.215 Section 174.215 Shipping...Offshore Supply Vessels § 174.215 Drainage of weather deck. The weather deck must have open rails to allow rapid clearing...

2012-10-01

314

46 CFR 190.10-45 - Weather deck communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 190.10-45... Means of Escape § 190.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical...communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined...

2012-10-01

315

46 CFR 173.062 - Drainage of weather deck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 173.062 Section 173.062 Shipping...VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.062 Drainage of weather deck. The weather deck of each sailing school vessel must be...

2012-10-01

316

46 CFR 190.10-45 - Weather deck communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 190.10-45... Means of Escape § 190.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical...communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined...

2011-10-01

317

46 CFR 72.10-45 - Weather deck communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 72.10-45...ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 72.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical...communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent...

2012-10-01

318

46 CFR 174.215 - Drainage of weather deck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 174.215 Section 174.215 Shipping...Offshore Supply Vessels § 174.215 Drainage of weather deck. The weather deck must have open rails to allow rapid clearing...

2011-10-01

319

46 CFR 92.10-45 - Weather deck communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 92.10-45...ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical...communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined...

2012-10-01

320

46 CFR 72.10-45 - Weather deck communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 72.10-45...ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 72.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical...communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent...

2011-10-01

321

29 CFR 1918.36 - Weather deck rails.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weather deck rails. 1918.36 Section 1918.36...LONGSHORING Working Surfaces § 1918.36 Weather deck rails. Removable weather deck rails shall be kept in place except when...

2013-07-01

322

46 CFR 173.062 - Drainage of weather deck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 173.062 Section 173.062 Shipping...VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.062 Drainage of weather deck. The weather deck of each sailing school vessel must be...

2011-10-01

323

49 CFR 1544.237 - Flight deck privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flight deck privileges. 1544.237 Section...OPERATORS Operations § 1544.237 Flight deck privileges. (a) For each aircraft that has a door to the flight deck, each aircraft operator must...

2012-10-01

324

49 CFR 1544.237 - Flight deck privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flight deck privileges. 1544.237 Section...OPERATORS Operations § 1544.237 Flight deck privileges. (a) For each aircraft that has a door to the flight deck, each aircraft operator must...

2011-10-01

325

Excogitated Composite Multifunctional Layer for Pavement Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study evaluated a three-dimensional excogitated composite multifunctional (ECM) layer design for pavement construction. Research was conducted in the design and selection of materials that would satisfy the geometry and multi-functional requirements o...

B. J. Dempsey

1995-01-01

326

Degradation Modeling of Polyurea Pavement Markings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Polyurea is a long life pavement marking material used for assets requiring long periods of uninterrupted accessibility. Knowing the performance characteristics of such markings is critical to asset management planning focused on maximizing marking materi...

J. D. Needham

2011-01-01

327

Evaluation of Joint Sealants of Concrete Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report document investigation of concrete pavement joint sealants which began with project 1371 'Evaluation of Joint Sealants.' The purpose of the continued investigation is to propose specification and test protocol for joint sealants in concrete pa...

A. H. Gurjar T. Tang D. G. Zollinger

1997-01-01

328

Avoiding Early Failure of Intersection Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary mode of failure of the intersections studied was rutting with shoving in some cases. The leading materials related cause of pavement failure was asphalt content in excess of the designed value. Most of the mixtures studied contained relatively...

M. Ameri-Gaznon J. W. Button D. Perdomo D. N. Little D. G. Zollinger

1989-01-01

329

Investigation of Premature Distresses in Flexible Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was undertaken to investigate the growing concern regarding premature distresses in flexible pavements in North Carolina and to identify the causes and mechanisms associated with these untimely failures. This objective was approached through ext...

N. P. Khosla

1985-01-01

330

Aircraft Tire/Pavement Pressure Distribution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents tire/pavement pressure distributions calculated for seven different aircraft tires. The tires are main gear equipment on a variety of Air Force aircraft. The calculations were made with a finite element tire model developed previously...

J. T. Tielking

1989-01-01

331

Automatic inspection of pavement cracking distress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the image-processing algorithm customized for high-speed, real-time inspection of pavement cracking. In the algorithm, a pavement image is divided into grid cells of 8x8 pixels and each cell is classified as a non-crack or crack cell using the grayscale information of the border pixels. Whether a crack cell can be regarded as a basic element (or seed)

B. Xu; Y. Huang

2005-01-01

332

Wavelet-aided pavement distress image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wavelet-based pavement distress detection and evaluation method is proposed. This method consists of two main parts, real-time processing for distress detection and offline processing for distress evaluation. The real-time processing part includes wavelet transform, distress detection and isolation, and image compression and noise reduction. When a pavement image is decomposed into different frequency subbands by wavelet transform, the distresses,

Jian Zhou; Peisen S. Huang; Fu-Pen Chiang

2003-01-01

333

A dedicated tidal stream atlas of the stratified tidal flows near Stonecutters Bridge, Hong Kong, based on 3D numerical simulations with HLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction works at the Stonecutters Bridge crossing the Rambler Channel in Hong Kong involve bridge deck lift operations with dynamically positioned barges. Nautical simulations for marine safety assessment and the programming of the bridge deck lift operations require reliable predictions of the local currents. To that purpose, we designed a detailed hydrodynamic Delft3D-FLOW model for simulating 3D stratified tidal flow

R. Morelissen; A. C. Bijlsma; M. J. Tapley

2010-01-01

334

Fracture of highway and airport pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing solutions for the stresses in a cracked slab containing a crack and supported by an elastic foundation are extended to obtain the stress intensity factor (SIF) for a crack in a pavement subjected to moving vehicular loads. In the existing solutions the stresses can be obtained only for a uniform bending stress (before the crack occurs) along the crack surface. For pavements subjected to moving vehicular loads, the stress distribution along the crack surface is not uniform and the approximation of a uniform stress is often unsatisfactory. The present work extends the above solutions to cover more realistic loading of highway and airport pavements. This facilitates the application of the principles of fracture mechanics to the fatigue crack propagation and fracture of pavements. Beginning with a part-through semi-elliptical starter crack, the crack is assumed to grow under load and the SIF is presented at various stages of crack growth, from the starter crack into a short through-crack that eventually becomes a very long through-crack. Some examples of the fracture of typical rigid and flexible highway and airport pavements are presented to show the need to consider fracture in the design of pavements.

Ramsamooj, D. V.

1993-03-01

335

Reducing traffic noise with quieter pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, interest has increased in the use of pavement type to reduce traffic noise. This has been driven by public concern over noise from freeways and state transportation agencies' interest in using pavement instead of sound walls to mitigate traffic noise. Beginnings of the recent interest go back to 1998 with the formation of the Institute for Safe, Quiet & Durable Highways at Purdue University and the initiation long-term research by the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) on the effectiveness of quieter pavements. In 2002, the State of Arizona announced plans to overlay 115 miles of concrete freeway in the greater Phoenix area with a quieter asphalt rubber surface. This turned into the first Quiet Pavement Pilot Program in partnership between Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the Arizona Department of Transportation. Since that time, the FHWA in cooperation with the American Association of State Highway Transportation Agencies conducted a fact finding ``Scan'' tour in Europe to evaluate their quiet pavement technology and policy. This was followed by the first comparative tire/pavement noise testing in the US and Europe using the same procedures and test tires. The results, issues, and future directions surrounding these activities will be discussed.

Donavan, Paul

2005-09-01

336

Typography of Flight-Deck Documentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many types of paper documentation are employed on the flight-deck. They range from a simple checklist card to a bulky Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM). Some of these documentations have typographical and graphical deficiencies; yet, many cockpit tasks such as...

A. Degani

1992-01-01

337

46 CFR 116.900 - Deck rails.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Rails on a vessel subject to the 1966 International Convention...A sailing vessel, an open boat, or any other vessel not...considered necessary by the cognizant OCMI, based on...and the deck so that no open space exists that is...

2012-10-01

338

Deck Clearance System for Gun Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is an object of the present invention to provide automatic clearance of obstacles while providing maximum field of fire in a rotating gun system. Another object is to provide said automatic deck clearance in a manner which slows the weapon down as a de...

C. L. Joseph

1981-01-01

339

Structural behavior of bubble deck slab  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bubble deck slab is a method of virtually eliminating all concrete from the middle of a floor slab, which is not performing any structural function, thereby dramatically reducing structural dead weight. High density polyethylene hollow spheres replace the in-effective concrete in the centre of the slab, thus decreasing the dead weight and increasing the efficiency of the floor. By introducing

P. Prabhu Teja; P. Vijay Kumar; S. Anusha; C. H. Mounika; Purnachandra Saha

2012-01-01

340

The glass cockpit [flight deck automation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The highly automated cockpits designed for the latest generation of new aircraft are making the planes safer and cheaper to fly, but misunderstandings between computers and pilots have been implicated in a number of accidents. The author describes the features and benefits of flight deck automation and then discusses the problems caused by pilot errors when using the computerised systems.

W. Sweet

1995-01-01

341

Human factors issues of flight deck automation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely acknowledged that commercial transport aircraft automation has improved the economy of airliners, and that accident rates for advanced technology commercial aircraft are lower than those of comparable conventional technology aircraft. Nevertheless, criticism of the human factors of modern flight deck automation is common among pilots and other aviation professionals (e.g., Billings, 1997). Until recently, though, there was

Ken Funk; Beth Lyall

1998-01-01

342

Alternate/Modified Binders for Asphalt Airfield Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents a laboratory-based research effort to determine the effects of asphalt modifiers and alternate binders on asphalt airfield pavements. The modified binders were tested to determine their potential for reducing pavement deformation dis...

G. L. Anderton

1990-01-01

343

Sustainable Pavement Maintenance Practices. Research Results Digest 365.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This synthesis reports on the state of the practice in sustainable pavement maintenance and preservation. It is concerned and directed at quantifying and understanding how pavement maintenance and preservation practices minimize environmental impacts. The...

2011-01-01

344

Guidance for M-E Pavement Design Implementation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design guide developed under the National Cooperative Highway Research Program represents a dramatic change in how both rigid and flexible pavements are analyzed and designed. Recognizing the limitations of the current d...

D. H. Timm K. P. Davis R. E. Turochy

2010-01-01

345

An Investigation of the Smoothness Characteristics of Highway Pavement Surfaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report briefly describes Illinois' study of riding quality of newly constructed pavement, modifications made to the sensing devices of the BPR-Type Roughometer to improve its capabilities in measuring short pavement sections and to increase the operat...

J. E. LaCroix

1976-01-01

346

Use of Precast Slabs for Pavement Rehabilitation on I-66.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Highway agencies continuously strive to expedite pavement construction and repairs and to evaluate materials and methods to provide long-lasting pavements. As part of this effort, agencies have used precast concrete slabs for more than 10 years with succe...

C. Ozyildirim M. S. Hossain

2012-01-01

347

Development of Predictive Equations Based on Pavement Condition Index Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research project evaluated runway pavement condition survey information in order to develop models or equations capable of predicting future pavement performance and projected life expectancy. The data was obtained from the Federal Aviation Administr...

C. V. Floro

1992-01-01

348

Structural Evaluation Methodology for Pavements Based on Dynamic Deflections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A framework for structural evaluation of pavements based on dynamic deflections is presented. A self-iterative procedure has been developed to estimate insitu Young's moduli of pavement layers by using the approach of inverse application of layered elasti...

W. Uddin A. H. Meyer W. R. Hudson K. H. Stokoe

1985-01-01

349

Application of Energy Concepts to the Performance of Airfield Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pavement engineers have not been able to predict the performance of pavement systems prior to actual construction and operational utilization. A solution to this problem was obtained by verifying the following hypothesis developed from energy concepts: A ...

M. E. Harr W. H. Highter

1973-01-01

350

Proceedings of the National Seminar on Asphalt Pavement Recycling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 19 papers in this report deal with the following areas: economics of recycling; seminar on asphalt pavement recycling overview of project selection; cost and energy considerations in project selection for recycling asphalt pavements; specifications re...

S. P. LaHue F. N. Finn W. J. Halstead R. C. Ingberg D. R. Gallagher

1980-01-01

351

Effects of Temperature and Water on Pavement Performance,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 12 papers in the report deal with the following areas: procedures for estimation of asphalt concrete pavement moduli at in situ temperatures; stress caused by temperature gradient in portland cement concrete pavements; characterizing temperature effec...

K. Badu-Tweneboah M. Tia B. E. Ruth J. M. Richardson J. M. Armaghani

1987-01-01

352

Evaluation of Pavement Damage due to New Tire Designs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study is to evaluate pavement damage due to new tire designs using accelerated pavement testing (APT) and finite element (FE) modeling. Three tire configurations were investigated in this study, including the newly developed wide-bas...

H. Wang I. L. Al-Qadi

2009-01-01

353

Pavement snow melting in Klamath Falls - rehabilitation of the ODOT Well  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the use of geothermal energy in pavement de-icing in Klamath Falls, Oregon. Due to a change in traffic routing in 1948, U.S. Highway 97 was routed with a new bridge and roadway through downtown Klamath Falls with an adverse 8 percent grade. Problems with traffic in winter led to the incorporation of a geothermal experiment in de-icing into the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) construction project. The geothermal well was originally artesian, but the static water level has dropped over the years of usage, and the water temperatures at various depths have also dropped. Changes in city environmental regulations in 1985 have called for the elimination of all surface and sewer discharge from geothermal wells. Modifications to the existing pavement de-icing system which would bring it into compliance with the city ordinances are discussed in this paper.

Thurston, R.E. [Oregon Dept. of Transportation, Milwaukee, OR (United States); Culver, G.; Lund, J.W.

1995-02-01

354

Molecular mechanisms controlling pavement cell shape in Arabidopsis leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pavement cells have an interlocking jigsaw puzzle-shaped leaf surface pattern. Twenty-three genes involved in the pavement\\u000a cell morphogenesis were discovered until now. The mutations of these genes through various means lead to pavement cell shape\\u000a defects, such as loss or lack of interdigitation, the reduction of lobing, gaps between lobe and neck regions in pavement\\u000a cells, and distorted trichomes. These

Pingping Qian; Suiwen Hou; Guangqin Guo

2009-01-01

355

Surface Distresses Detection of Pavement Based on Digital Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Pavement crack is the main form of early diseases of pavement. The use of digital photography to record pavement images and\\u000a subsequent crack detection and classification has undergone continuous improvements over the past decade. Digital image processing\\u000a has been applied to detect the pavement crack for its advantages of large amount of information and automatic detection. The\\u000a applications of digital

Aiguo Ouyang; Chagen Luo; Chao Zhou

2010-01-01

356

AutoPAVER: A software package for automated pavement evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research developed a method that improves data collection and reduces data entry times for Pavement Condition Index (PCI) surveys for use with PAVER, a pavement maintenance management system. The method, AutoPAVER, is a microcomputer software package used to analyze pictures of pavement surfaces and to forward the resulting analysis to PAVER. The user works interactively with the system to identify and classify pavement distresses. Distress measurement and data entry are done on the computer.

Ginsberg, Mark D.; Shahin, M. Y.; Walther, Jeanette A.

1990-07-01

357

Evaluation of Temporary Pavement Marking Systems for Resurfacing Zones. Appendix B. Driver Comprehension of Temporary Pavement Marking Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains the results of the driver comprehension experiment of the selected temporary pavement marking systems, including the comprehension of selected traffic signs. The following temporary pavement marking systems were included in this stu...

H. T. Zwahlen T. Schnell

1996-01-01

358

Characterization of Unbound Pavement Materials From Virginia Sources for Use in the New Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Procedure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The implementation of mechanistic-empirical pavement design requires mechanistic characterization of pavement layer materials. The subgrade and base materials are used as unbound, and their characterization for Virginia sources was considered in this stud...

M. S. Hossain

2010-01-01

359

A model of whole?life flexible pavement performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new 'whole-life' pavement performance model (WLPPM), that is capable of making deterministic pavement damage predictions due to realistic traffic and environmental loading, has been developed. A vehicle simulation is used to generate dynamic tyre forces that are a function of distance along the road. These dynamic tyre forces are then combined with the appropriate pavement primary response influence functions

A. C. Collop; D. Cebon

1995-01-01

360

Full-Cost Approach to Airport Pavement Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airport pavements are a key element of the commercial airport infrastructure that often are taken for granted. The current Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) endorsed pavement management system developed in the 1970's does not meet the needs of U. S. commercial service airports because it ignores all modes of pavement failure other than surface distress. Not only is it a time

Robert Harrison

361

LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS OF PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project conducted in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration. 16. Abstract This report describes the development of a new life cycle cost analysis methodology for portland cement concrete pavements — one that considers all aspects of pavement design, construction, maintenance, and user impacts throughout the analysis period. It predicts pavement performance using state-of-the-art performance models and reliability concepts, from which

William James Wilde; Steve Waalkes; Rob Harrison

1999-01-01

362

Development of laser system to measure pavement rutting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asphalt pavement rutting is one of the most common and destructive pavement distresses observed on U.S. roads, particularly in the urban environment at intersections. They are an important indicator of the structural integrity of the pavement as well as having an impact on road user safety. For these reasons, most road agencies regularly monitor the levels of rut depths on

Hongzhi Wang

2005-01-01

363

Full-Depth Pavement Reclamation with Foamed Asphalt: Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive study on full-depth reclamation (FDR) of pavements with foamed asphalt has been completed for the California Department of Transportation by the University of California Pavement Research Center. A literature review revealed that very little research had been carried out on the reclamation of thick asphalt pavements (multiple overlays over a relatively weak base or subgrade). A mechanistic sensitivity

David Jones; P. Fu; John T Harvey; F. Halles

2008-01-01

364

Non-linear finite element analysis of flexible pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research study is being undertaken to incorporate the realistic material properties of the pavement layers and the moving traffic load, in the analysis of flexible pavements, using the finite element theory. As a preliminary step taken herein in this direction, a pavement structure where field measurements have been carried out when subjected to a cyclic loading, is selected and

Muhammad N. S. Hadi; B. C. Bodhinayake

2003-01-01

365

Viscoelastic modelling for asphalt pavements - Software ViscoRoute  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huet-Sayegh model (1963) gives a set of constitutive equations of a visco-elastic material which accounts well for the behaviour of asphalt pavement layers, especially regarding thermal effects. This model allows rather good predictions of experimental data. The French pavement design method consists in a pavement mechanistic analysis based on the Burmister multilayer elastic model (1943) -LCPC software ALIZE (1982)-. In

A. Chabot; P. Tamagny; D. Poché; D. Duhamel

366

Physically Meaningful Harmonization of Tire\\/Pavement Friction Measurement Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate characterization and evaluation of tire\\/pavement friction is critical in assuring runway and highway safety. Historically, Pavement Friction Measurement Devices (PFMDs) employing different measuring mechanisms have been used to evaluate tire\\/pavement friction. They yield significantly disparate friction coefficients under the same contact conditions. Currently, an empirically developed data harmonization method based on a reference device (Dynamic Friction Tester (DFT)) is

Madhura Priyanga Nishshanke Rajapakshe

2011-01-01

367

Vibration of coupled train and cable-stayed bridge systems in cross winds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a framework for performing dynamic analysis of coupled train and cable-stayed bridge systems in cross winds. A three-dimensional finite element model is used to represent a long span cable-stayed bridge with a highway at the upper level and two railway tracks at the lower level of the bridge deck. Wind forces acting on the bridge, including both

Y. L. Xu; N. Zhang; H. Xia

2004-01-01

368

Standard plans for southern pine bridges. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

This publication contains standardized designs and details for three timber bridge superstructure types, including stress-laminated sawn lumber bridges, stress laminated glued laminated timber (glulam) bridges, and longitudinal sawn lumber stringer bridges with transverse plank decks. Each set of plans encompasses numerous span length and width combinations, design loadings for AASHTO HS 20-44 and HS 25-44 vehicles, and two options for live-load deflection criteria.

Hilbrich Lee, P.D.; Ritter, M.A.; Triche, M.

1995-09-01

369

APPLICATION OF EMPIRICAL AND MECHANISTIC-EMPIRICAL PAVEMENT DESIGN PROCEDURES TO Mn\\/ROAD CONCRETE PAVEMENT TEST SECTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current pavement design procedures are based principally on empirical approaches. The introduction of new materials and the significant increase in traffic volumes have brought uncertainty to their prediction of pavement behavior. The current trend toward developing more mechanistic-empirical type pavement design methods led Minnesota to develop the Minnesota Road Research Project (Mn\\/ROAD). The project consists of 40 heavily instrumented test

T. R. Burnham

370

Spills on Flat Inclined Pavements  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the general spill phenomenology for liquid spills occurring on relatively impermeable surfaces such as concrete or asphalt pavement and the development and application of a model to describe the time evolution of such spills. The discussion assumes evaporation and degradation are negligible and a homogeneous surface. In such an instance, the inherent interfacial properties determine the spatial extent of liquid spreading with the initial flow being controlled by the release rate of the spill and by the liquids resistance to flow as characterized by its viscosity. A variety of spill scenarios were simulated and successful implementation of the model was achieved. A linear relationship between spill area and spill volume was confirmed. The simulations showed spill rate had little effect on the final spill area. Slope had an insignificant effect on the final spill area, but did modify spill shape considerably. However, a fluid sink on the edge of the simulation domain, representing a storm drain, resulted in a substantial decrease in spill area. A bona fide effort to determine the accuracy of the model and its calculations remain, but comparison against observations from a simple experiment showed the model to correctly determine the spill area and general shape under the conditions considered. Further model verification in the form of comparison against small scale spill experiments are needed to confirm the models validity.

Simmons, Carver S.; Keller, Jason M.; Hylden, Jeff L.

2004-03-01

371

Flutter derivatives identification through full bridge aeroelastic model transfer function analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full bridge 1: 250 scale 13 m long aeroelastic model of the proposed Messina Suspension Bridge has been built and tested at the Danish Maritime Institute wind tunnel. This experimental exercise was undertaken as a check at the conclusion of the design, having already defined the optimised deck section and measured its aerodynamic characteristics through 1: 87 and 1:

A. Zasso; A. Cigada; S. Negri

1996-01-01

372

PROGRESSIVE COLLAPSE OF STEEL TRUSS BRIDGES, THE CASE OF I-35W COLLAPSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steel deck truss bridges, being determinate systems and not having redundancy, can progressively collapse over the entire span, if a single primary member or gusset plate connection of the main trusses fails. One of the recent tragic examples of such progressive collapse of the entire bridge due to loss of a single gusset plate is the case of I-35W steel

Abolhassan Astaneh-Asla

373

Comparison between SAW and laser welding processes applied to duplex structures for bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the project ‘Bridgeplex’, partly supported by the European Research Fund for Coal and Steel, was to explore the suitability of austenitic-ferritic (duplex) stainless steel for the construction of large welded bridges. Using duplex stainless steels for bridge decks would be a major step forward in providing durable, low maintenance structures, exploiting both their corrosion resistance and high

S. Sorrentino; M. Fersini; G. Zilli

2009-01-01

374

STRUCTURAL REHABILITATION OF AN OFF-SYSTEM BRIDGE USING EXTERNALLY BONDEND CFRP LAMINATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the use of Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) laminates for the flexural strengthening of a concrete bridge superstructure. The system consists of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) laminates bonded onto the concrete surface in order to provide the necessary flexural reinforcement for the deck. The bridge superstructure selected for this project is a 4-span reinforced concrete (RC) slab.

Nestore Galati; Antonio Nanni

375

Snap loads and torsional oscillations of the original Tacoma Narrows Bridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1940, the original Tacoma Narrows Bridge was completed on June 10 and opened to traffic on July 1. On November 7, the deck collapsed. Before that day, significant vertical oscillations had occurred, but no torsion. The bridge as built was stable with respect to torsional motion under the winds of November 7 and previous winds with higher speeds. However,

R. H. Plaut

2008-01-01

376

SOIL\\/STRUCTURE INTERACTION OF INTEGRAL BRIDGE WITH FULL HEIGHT ABUTMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of integral bridges with full height abutments is dominated by the cyclical ( daily and seasonal) temperature changes in the bridge deck and the resulting imposition of cyclical horizontal displacements to the backfill soil of the abutments. It is known that the lateral earth pressures over the back of the abutments escalate to valu es considerably in excess

Neil C. M. Tsang; George L. England; Treve Dunstan

377

Federal Aviation Administration Airport Pavement Management and Airport Pavement Roughness Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides the status of two ongoing nondestructive testing (NDT) programs by the FAA: (1) PAVEAIR a web-based Airport Pavement Management System and (2) research subjective responses of pilots to vibrations induced by airport pavement roughness using a Boeing simulator. By 2011, the FAA is scheduled to complete a three-year effort to create an internet-based computer program for airport

Albert LARKIN; Gordon F. HAYHOE

378

46 CFR 108.137 - Bulkhead and deck separations of accommodation spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Bulkhead and deck separations of accommodation spaces. 108.137 Section 108.137 Shipping...and deck separations of accommodation spaces. Each boundary bulkhead and deck that separates an accommodation space or control station from the...

2012-10-01

379

46 CFR 178.450 - Calculation of drainage area for cockpit and well deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.450 Calculation of drainage area...4389.12 à [(Recess Volume à Recess Ratio) + (Weather Deck Volume à Weather Deck Ratio)]; or Basic Drainage area in...

2012-10-01

380

46 CFR 178.450 - Calculation of drainage area for cockpit and well deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.450 Calculation of drainage area...4389.12 à [(Recess Volume à Recess Ratio) + (Weather Deck Volume à Weather Deck Ratio)]; or Basic Drainage area in...

2011-10-01

381

46 CFR 171.150 - Drainage of a vessel with a well deck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks § 171.150 Drainage of a vessel with a well deck. (a) Each well deck on a vessel must be...

2011-10-01

382

46 CFR 171.150 - Drainage of a vessel with a well deck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks § 171.150 Drainage of a vessel with a well deck. (a) Each well deck on a vessel must be...

2012-10-01

383

Identification of aerodynamic parameters for eccentric bridge section model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equations of motion for bridge deck section model elastically suspended in wind tunnel are formulated about mass center of the system using the Lagrangian approach, accommodating both the elasticity and damping eccentricities in the formulation. The Subsection Extended-Order Iterative Least Square (SEO-ILS) algorithm is developed in the state space for direct identification of system matrices from free vibration data

Zhengqing Chen; Yan Han; Yanzhong Luo; Xugang Hua

2010-01-01

384

Design and Analysis of Composite Isogrid for Bridge Construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the use of continuous composite isogrid structures for potential applications in bridge decks. Preliminary design and analysis are presented showing the capability and reliability of this structure. Fabrication, and mechanical and thermal properties for the structure are presented. Low cost materials and fabrication techniques available are also discussed.

Koury, James L.; Dutta, Piyush K.

1994-02-01

385

57. INTERIOR VIEW OF VAL BRIDGE STRUCTURE SHOWING LAUNCHING TUBE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

57. INTERIOR VIEW OF VAL BRIDGE STRUCTURE SHOWING LAUNCHING TUBE, STAIRS AND PORTION OF LAUNCHING DECK. NOTE SUPPORT CARRIAGE ASSEMBLY IN DISTANCE. Date unknown, circa March 1948. (Original photograph in possession of Dave Willis, San Diego, California.) - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

386

GEOSYNTHETIC-REINFORCED PAVEMENT SYSTEM : TESTING & DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large scale experimental program was presented in this paper, aimed at the improvement of the understanding, and evaluation of the structural contribution of geosynthetic reinforcement to pavement systems. The structural contribution of a geogrid was quantified by the increase in the layer coefficient of the base course material. Design parameters derived from the laboratory testing were analyzed and presented.

FILIPPO MONTANELLI

387

Kansas Tire/Pavement Noise Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of noise testing accomplished by the National Center for Asphalt Technology using a close-proximity noise trailer. The paper discusses the nature of tire/pavement noise and the results of testing selecte...

B. Waller D. I. Hanson R. S. James

2005-01-01

388

Effective Tool for Enhancing Elastostatic Pavement Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The falling weight deflectometer (FWD) test is one of the most com- monly used tools for nondestructive evaluation of flexible pavements. Although the test is intrinsically dynamic, the state-of-practice back- calculation techniques used to interpret the FWD records are primarily elastostatic based, partly because of the high computational cost of dynamic multilayered solutions. It has long been known that the

Bojan B. Guzina; Robert H. Osburn

2002-01-01

389

Concrete pavement analysis: the first eighty years  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper traces the evolution of analytical methods for concrete pavements over the period from the publication of Westergaard's early work in the 1920s until today. It is demonstrated that this development was accomplished in parallel with the birth and coming of age of geotechnical engineering, and was likewise pioneered by a number of colorful and distinguished personalities. Westergaard's analysis

Anastasios M. Ioannides

2006-01-01

390

Restrain of a seismically isolated bridge by external stoppers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current design of seismically isolated bridges usually combines the use of bearings and stoppers, as a second line of\\u000a defence. The stoppers allow the development of the in-service movements of the bridge deck, without transmitting significant\\u000a loads to the piers and their foundations, while during earthquake they transmit the entire seismic action. Despite the fact\\u000a that stoppers, which restrain

Stergios A. Mitoulis; Ioannis A. Tegos

2010-01-01

391

Finite element analysis for train–track–bridge interaction system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the dynamic analysis of train–track–bridge interaction system using the finite element method. In\\u000a this interaction system, each four-wheelset vehicle in the train is modeled by a mass–spring–damper system with 10 degrees\\u000a of freedom; the rails and the bridge decks are modeled as a number of Bernoulli–Euler beam elements, while the elasticity\\u000a and damping properties of the

Ping Lou

2007-01-01

392

The Collapse of the I-35W Bridge in Minneapolis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|On Wednesday, Aug. 1, 2007, at 6:05 p.m. (during evening rush hour), the I-35W bridge across the Mississippi River in Minneapolis collapsed, killing 13 people and injuring 145. At the time of the collapse, repair work was in progress on the deck of the bridge, resulting in an additional 287 tons of construction material and equipment being on the…

Feldman, Bernard J.

2010-01-01

393

Evaluation of Poisson's Ratio for Use in the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pavement design industry is moving towards the use of mechanistic principles in designing flexible pavements. To determine the resultant strains in the pavement system using these principles, two material properties are required; 1) modulus and 2) Poi...

A. Maher T. Bennert

2008-01-01

394

76 FR 67018 - Notice to Manufacturers of Airport In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Airport In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation...Manufacturers of In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems...Passive In- Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems that meet the...

2011-10-28

395

Determination of Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Effects on Louisiana's PCC Pavement Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the development of the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) as a new pavement design tool, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is now considered a more important design parameter in estimating pavement performance including crac...

H. C. Shin Y. Chung

2011-01-01

396

Improved Drainage and Frost Action Criteria for New Jersey Pavement Design. Phase II. Data Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of including open-graded drainage layers in their highway pavements was studied. Before constructing actual pavements with open-graded drainage layers, frost penetration depths and moisture content profiles beneath several pavements in New...

R. L. Berg

1979-01-01

397

Pavement Recycling Guidelines for State and Local Governments. Participant's Reference Book.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recycling or reuse of existing asphalt pavement materials to produce new pavement materials has the following advantages: (1) reduced costs of construction, (2) conservation of aggregate and binder, (3) preservation of the existing pavement geometrics, (4...

P. S. Kandhal R. B. Mallick

1997-01-01

398

Pavements Recycling Guidelines for State and Local Governments (on CD-ROM).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This participant's reference book was developed to support a 2-day workshop on pavement recycling guidelines for state and local governments. Recycling or reuse of existing asphalt pavement materials to produce new pavement materials has the following adv...

1998-01-01

399

Nondestructive evaluation techniques for enhanced bridge inspection  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive evaluation of bridges is a critical aspect in the US aging infrastructure problem. For example in California there are 26,000 bridges, 3000 are made of steel, and of the steel bridges, 1000 are fracture critical. California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), Federal Highway Administration, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are collaborating to develop and field NDE techniques to improve bridge inspections. We have demonstrated our NDE technologies on several bridge inspection applications. An early collaboration was to ultrasonically evaluate the steel pins in the E-9 pier on the San Francisco Bay Bridge. Following the Loma-Prieta earthquake in 1989 and the road way collapse at the E-9 pier, a complete nondestructive evaluation was conducted by Caltrans inspectors and several ultrasonic indications were noted. LLNL worked with Caltrans to help identify the source of these reflections. Another project was to digitally enhance high energy radiographs of bridge components such as cable end caps. We demonstrated our ability to improve the detection of corrosion and fiber breakage inside the end cap. An extension of this technology is limited view computer tomography (CT). We implemented our limited view CT software and produced cross-sectional views of bridge cables from digitized radiographic films. Most recently, we are developing dual band infrared imaging techniques to assess bridge decks for delaminations. We have demonstrated the potential of our NDE technology for enhancing the inspection of the country`s aging bridges.

Thomas, G.; Benson, S.; Durbin, P.; Del Grande, N.; Haskins, J.; Brown, A.; Schneberk, D.

1993-10-01

400

27. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK WITH TENDER ANNIE RUTH ALONGSIDE. COVER OF FORWARD COMPANIONWAY HAS BEEN PLACED ON MAIN DECK; SUN AWNING A TYPICAL FEATURE IN TROPICAL CLIMATES. CREW MEMBERS UNKNOWN Original 4-3/4'x6-3/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

401

30. View of main deck at bow (looking aft from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. View of main deck at bow (looking aft from samson post, upper deck removed), showing anchor windlass (left foreground), head (right foregound), and forward deckhouse; weather canopy overhead not an original or permanent feature - Schooner WAWONA, 1018 Valley Street, Seattle, King County, WA

402

The prescription and practice of work on the flight deck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological change has led to the proceduralisation of flight deck work. Yet accidents attributable to pilot error still occur. CSCW studies of work suggest work as prescribed does not always reflect work as practised. While one might expect this to be less true of safety critical settings like the flight deck, the case studies we present provide support for this

Peter Wright; Steven Pocock; Bob Fields

403

Calvert Cliffs RELAP5/MOD3/SCDAP plant deck  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the development of a RELAP5/MOD3/SCDAP input deck for the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant. Through the addition of SCDAP inputs, NPA interactive capabilities, and significant nodalization enhancements the range of applicability; of this input deck has been greatly increased.

Hendrix, C.E.; Determan, J.C.

1992-12-01

404

Effect of Bow Shape on Deck Wetness in Head Seas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments to examine the deck wetness process and to determine the effect of above water bow form on deck wetness in head seas were conducted in the 380 ft Towing Tank of the United States Naval Academy. A systematic series of bow forms, which flare and...

A. R. J. M. Lloyd

1984-01-01

405

46 CFR 28.565 - Water on deck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Water on deck. 28.565 Section 28.565...INDUSTRY VESSELS Stability § 28.565 Water on deck. (a) Each vessel with bulwarks...for a vessel that operates on protected waters, the residual righting energy,...

2012-10-01

406

Thermal cracking of rubber modified pavements, May 1995. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with the original ISTEA mandate (1991) to use crumb tire rubber in pavements, Alaska would be required to use about 250 tons of used tire rubber starting in 1994 and increasing to about 1,000 tons of rubber in 1997 and each year thereafter. A number of pavements using crumb rubber modifiers have been built in the state and have been in service for periods of 8 to 15 years. Knowledge of the behavior of these rubber-modified pavements under extreme climate conditions, particularly in relation to their low temperature cracking resistance, is necessary for future design and construction of rubberized pavements in Alaska. This report presents results of a study to determine the low temperature cracking resistance of rubber modified pavements in Alaska in comparison with conventional asphalt concrete pavements.

Raad, L.; Yuan, X.; Saboundjian, S.

1995-05-01

407

Three Bridge Fryer's Ford Bridge, Nimrod Bridge, and Ward's ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Three Bridge - Fryer's Ford Bridge, Nimrod Bridge, and Ward's Crossing Bridge - Fryer's Ford Bridge, Spanning East Fork of Point Remove Creek at Fryer Bridge Road (CR 67), Solgohachia, Conway County, AR

408

Predicting in-service fatigue life of flexible pavements based on accelerated pavement testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pavement performance prediction in terms of fatigue cracking and surface rutting are essential for any mechanistically-based pavement design method. Traditionally, the estimation of the expected fatigue field performance has been based on the laboratory bending beam test. Full-scale Accelerated Pavement Testing (APT) is an alternative to laboratory testing leading to advances in practice and economic savings for the evaluation of new pavement configurations, stress level related factors, new materials and design improvements. This type of testing closely simulates field conditions; however, it does not capture actual performance because of the limited ability to address long-term phenomena. The same pavement structure may exhibit different response and performance under APT than when in-service. Actual field performance is better captured by experiments such as Federal Highway Administration's Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) studies. Therefore, to fully utilize the benefits of APT, there is a need for a methodology to predict the long-term performance of in-service pavement structures from the results of APT tests that will account for such differences. Three models are generally suggested to account for the difference: shift factors, statistical and mechanistic approaches. A reliability based methodology for fatigue cracking prediction is proposed in this research, through which the three models suggested previously are combined into one general approach that builds on their individual strengths to overcome some of the shortcomings when the models are applied individually. The Bias Correction Factor (BCF) should account for all quantifiable differences between the fatigue life of the pavement site under APT and in-service conditions. In addition to the Bias Correction Factor, a marginal shifty factor, M, should be included to account for the unquantifiable differences when predicting the in-service pavement fatigue life from APT. The Bias Correction Factor represents an improvement of the currently used "shift factors" since they are more general and based on laboratory testing or computer simulation. By applying the proposed methodology, APT performance results from a structure similar to an in-service structure can be used to perform four-point bending beam tests and structural analysis to obtain an accurate estimate of the necessary Bias Correction Factor to estimate in-service performance.

Guo, Runhua

409

A Design Model for Geosynthetic-reinforced Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first paper to this companion series of articles [Perkins, S.W and Edens, M.Q. (2003) “Finite elements and distress models for geosynthetic-reinforced pavements”, International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 3(4), 239–250] described a finite element response model and empirical damage models that were combined to form a mechanistic–empirical (M–E) for geosynthetic-reinforced flexible pavement systems. The model provides predictions of an extension

S. W. Perkins; M. Q. Edens

2003-01-01

410

Covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy for pavement backcalculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The falling weight deflectometer (FWD) is the foremost and widely accepted tool for characterizing the deflection basins of pavements in a non-destructive manner. The FWD pavement deflection data are used to determine the in situ mechanical properties (elastic moduli) of the pavement layers through inverse analysis, a process commonly referred to as backcalculation (B\\/C). Several B\\/C methodologies have been proposed

Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan; Anshu Manik

2010-01-01

411

Finite element modelling of flexible pavements on soft soil subgrades  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of tyre pressure, wheel configuration and axle load variations of a transportation truck, on structural performance of a flexible road pavement with thin asphalt surfacing layer and soft peat soil subgrade was evaluated using the finite element method. The pavement structure was modelled as two-dimensional four-layer stratum using ANSYS\\/ED finite element suite. The pavement model was subjected to

R. M. Mulungye; P. M. O. Owende; K. Mellon

2007-01-01

412

Variability of pavement noise benefit by vehicle type  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Volpe Center Acoustics Facility, in support of the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), is participating in a long-term study to assess several types of pavement for the purpose of noise abatement. On a four-mile stretch of a two-lane highway in Southern California, several asphalt pavement overlays are being examined. Acoustical, meteorological, and traffic data are collected in each pavement

Judith L. Rochat; David R. Read

2005-01-01

413

Practical applications of nondestructive evaluation for airport pavement analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the equipment and methodologies currently used for nondestructive testing (NDT) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of the structural capacity of military and civil airport pavements, including: (1) commonly used equipment and test methods for measuring pavement response to dynamic loads; (2) qualitative and quantitative evaluation of NDT data; (3) methods for back-calculating layer properties from NDT data; (4) layered elastic methods for evaluating pavement performance using processed NDT data; and (5) application of analytical results for developing pavement rehabilitation and management strategies.

McQueen, Roy D.; Guo, Edward

1995-07-01

414

What Gives?: Design and Build a Bridge That Holds Heavy Weight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners design, build and test a model suspension bridge for sturdiness and strength. Participants explore how parts of the bridge, such as the deck, hangers, cables, towers and anchors, work together to keep the bridge up and support a heavy weighted object. Learners will use the design process to help develop and revise their structures. This activity may also be used with a unit on engineering, architecture, or a discussion on famous structures.

Wgbh

2008-01-01

415

Golden Gate Bridge response: a study with low-amplitude data from three earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The dynamic response of the Golden Gate Bridge, located north of San Francisco, CA, has been studied previously using ambient vibration data and finite element models. Since permanent seismic instrumentation was installed in 1993, only small earthquakes that originated at distances varying between ~11 to 122 km have been recorded. Nonetheless, these records prompted this study of the response of the bridge to low amplitude shaking caused by three earthquakes. Compared to previous ambient vibration studies, the earthquake response data reveal a slightly higher fundamental frequency (shorter-period) for vertical vibration of the bridge deck center span (~7.7–8.3 s versus 8.2–10.6 s), and a much higher fundamental frequency (shorter period) for the transverse direction of the deck (~11.24–16.3 s versus ~18.2 s). In this study, it is also shown that these two periods are dominant apparent periods representing interaction between tower, cable, and deck.

Celebi, Mehmet

2012-01-01

416

Modeling and analysis of the in-plane vibration of a complex cable-stayed bridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The in-plane vibration of a complex cable-stayed bridge that consists of a simply-supported four-cable-stayed deck beam and two rigid towers is studied. The nonlinear and linear partial differential equations that govern transverse and longitudinal vibrations of the cables and transverse vibrations of segments of the deck beam, respectively, are derived, along with their boundary and matching conditions. The undamped natural frequencies and mode shapes of the linearized model of the cable-stayed bridge are determined, and orthogonality relations of the mode shapes are established. Numerical analysis of the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the cable-stayed bridge is conducted for various symmetrical and non-symmetrical bridge cases with regards to the sizes of the components of the bridge and the initial sags of the cables. The results show that there are very close natural frequencies when the bridge model is symmetrical and/or partially symmetrical, and the mode shapes tend to be more localized when the bridge model is less symmetrical. The relationships between the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the cable-stayed bridge and those of a single fixed-fixed cable and the single simply-supported deck beam are analyzed. The results, which are validated by commercial finite element software, demonstrate some complex classical resonance behavior of the cable-stayed bridge.

Cao, D. Q.; Song, M. T.; Zhu, W. D.; Tucker, R. W.; Wang, C. H.-T.

2012-12-01

417

Airport pavement NDE research at CQEFP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center for Quality Engineering and Failure Prevention (CQEFP) at Northwestern University is actively involved in the development of new stress-wave based non-destructive evaluation techniques for airport pavements. This paper summarizes recent accomplishments and outlines current research directions. The development of a new stress-wave source is detailed first. The stress-wave generating technique allows for a high degree of control of the input stress wave while at the same time enabling the generation of significant wave amplitudes. Experimental results on concrete specimens demonstrate the controllability and penetrating ability of the developed stress wave generation technique. Its performance is compared to that of an impact source. Experimental results from an existing stress-wave based NDE technique, the impact-echo method, are presented and limitations of that approach are demonstrated. Finally, directions of future airport pavement NDE research at CQEFP, which focus upon application of the developed stress wave generation technique to pavement NDE problems, are outlined.

Popovics, John S.; Achenbach, Jan D.

1996-11-01

418

Advanced ground-penetrating, imaging radar for bridge inspection  

SciTech Connect

Inspecting high-value structures, like bridges and buildings using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an application of the technology that is growing in importance. In a typical inspection application, inspectors use GPR to locate structural components, like reinforcing bars embedded in concrete, to avoid weakening the structure while collecting core samples for detailed inspection. Advanced GPR, integrated with imaging technologies for use as an NDE tool, can provide the capability to locate and characterize construction flaws and wear- or age-induced damage in these structures without the need for destructive techniques like coring. In the following sections, we discuss an important inspection application, namely, concrete bridge deck inspection. We describe an advanced bridge deck inspection system concept and provide an overview of a program aimed at developing such a system. Examples of modeling, image reconstruction, and experimental results are presented.

Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.; Johansson, E.M.; Nelson, S.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lee, Hua [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1993-08-01

419

46 CFR 171.140 - Drainage of a flush deck vessel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks § 171.140 Drainage of a flush deck vessel. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must be watertight and have...

2012-10-01

420

46 CFR 171.140 - Drainage of a flush deck vessel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks § 171.140 Drainage of a flush deck vessel. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must be watertight and have...

2011-10-01

421

Region-suited geography playing card deck with main information and place-filler suit cards; a companion deck; and games  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention comprises a method for teaching/learning about the general location of major political units of contemporary society using a series of sets of decks of geography playing cards; each set of decks comprises a world regions deck, a suited country card deck, an unsuited country card deck and a blotswanna card deck. The world regions card deck represents contemporary settled earth and comprises a plurality of continental landmass area suits and a plurality of region cards. Each suited country card deck represents one continental area and comprises a plurality of region suits and a plurality of political unit or country cards. Each unsuited country card deck also represents one continental area and comprises a plurality of political unit or country cards. World regions and country card decks provide three different, and increasing, levels of card play difficulty. A blotswanna card deck comprises a plurality of cards, as well, and is used to structure the card play of regions and country card decks. Blotswanna cards structure use by mandating player compilation of a particular combination of cards from a deck and assigning varying point values to mandate achievement, from hand-to-hand of play. The blotswanna card deck, thus, structures learning and heightens excitement. Other novel features include improved directional-suit configurations and improved directional-suit naming conventions. Use of place-filler cards in country card decks enables development of locational suited decks wherein the suits of a deck have identical numbers of suit cards. Identical numbers of suit cards facilitate the play of adaptations of a number of popular card games. A card game developed for use with the invention and a version of the invention for use by young children are also included.

1999-07-27

422

Use of artificial living system for pavement distress survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automation of pavement surface distress survey is of considerable interest since it facilitates road maintenance. Pavement distress detection algorithm is proposed, which includes preprocessing and artificial life algorithm. In nature, bee population consists of different species of bees. Different species of bees cooperate with others and build combs. The process of building combs is based on a bottom-up structure instead

H. G. Zhang; Q. Wang

2004-01-01

423

A NEW APPROACH TO PAVEMENT DESIGN USING LIME STABILISED SUBGRADES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines various design procedures that have been known to be used and some of the shortcomings in their approach to specify suitable material properties and layer thickness. Each procedure provides a slightly different solution. The aim of this paper to propose a new design approach using either a mechanistic or empirical pavement analysis methods to find the pavement

George Vorobieff; Greg Murphy

2003-01-01

424

Wavelet-based pavement distress detection and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated pavement inspection system consists of image acquisition and distress image processing. The former is accomplished with imaging sensors, such as video cameras and photomultiplier tubes. The latter includes distress detection, isolation, classification, evaluation, segmentation, and compression. We focus on wavelet-based distress detection, isolation, and evaluation. After a pavement image is decomposed into different-frequency subbands by the wavelet transform,

Jian Zhou; Peisen S. Huang; Fu-Pen Chiang

2006-01-01

425

Permeable Pavement Research at the Edison Environmental Center  

EPA Science Inventory

There are few detailed studies of full-scale, replicated, actively-used permeable pavement systems. Practitioners need additional studies of permeable pavement systems in its intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) across a range of climatic events, daily usage conditio...

426

Permeable pavement demonstration site at Edison Environmental Center (Presentation)  

EPA Science Inventory

There are few studies of full-scale, outdoor, replicated, working pervious pavement systems. More studies of pervious pavement operating in its intended use (parking lot, roadway, etc.) during a range of climatic events, daily usage conditions, and maintenance regimes are necessa...

427

Network-Level Deflection Data Collection for Rigid Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The existing rigid pavement deflection data contained in the PES database are evaluated and found to be inadequate for any network-level study of the structural behavior of rigid pavements. The PES data were evaluated by comparing them with existing data ...

E. Perrone T. Dossey W. R. Hudson

1994-01-01

428

Shear Fatigue Behaviour of Tack Coats in Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, pavement engineers use mechanistic design methods that are based on algorithms to compute stresses, strains and displacements in a flexible pavement structure, or in a multi-layered structure in general. Most of these methods assume, to ease the modelling of the structure and the computation process, that the layers are fully bonded or completely unbounded to each other.

Malick Diakhate; Annabelle Phelipot; Anne Millien; Christophe Petit

2006-01-01

429

Paperless Pavement Condition Rating System Development. (Includes Executive Summary).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Pavement Condition Rating (PCR) system has been used by Ohio DOT as a means of establishing non-routine maintenance needs on highway sections for over 10 years. The PCR system develops a numerical rating for a segment of pavement which reflects the se...

J. C. Gilfert K. F. Conner

1996-01-01

430

Non-linear dynamic analysis of flexible and rigid pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Closed form analysis is commonly used to analyze pavement structures. This type of analysis assumes linear elastic material properties and static loading conditions. In reality, pavement materials are not linear elastic materials. For example, asphalt mixtures are viscoelastic materials and cohesive soils are elastic-plastic materials. Also truck loads are moving loads. The difference between the closed form analysis assumptions and

Sameh Mohamed Zaghloul

1993-01-01

431

Evaluation of superheavy load movement on flexible pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to industrial plant expansion, superheavy load moves have increased drastically in Louisiana within the past decade. This paper presents a case study of a superheavy load movement with over 1.8-million kg loads on a flexible pavement. The study included pavement structural analysis under superheavy load and the estimation of cost attributable to the movement. The structural evaluation was performed

Xingwei Chen; Jeffrey R. Lambert; Ching Tsai; Zhongjie Zhang

2012-01-01

432

Evaluation of pervious concrete pavement performance in cold weather climates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervious concrete pavement is a sustainable and environmentally conscious paving material. Use of pervious concrete pavement in freeze–thaw climates in Canada has been minimal to date. This paper describes the performance to date of five field sites in Canada. The test areas are monitored continually, starting at the construction stage, to understand the behaviour of pervious concrete in climates in

Vimy Henderson; Susan Tighe

2011-01-01

433

Evaluation of pervious concrete pavement performance in cold weather climates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervious concrete pavement is a sustainable and environmentally conscious paving material. Use of pervious concrete pavement in freeze–thaw climates in Canada has been minimal to date. This paper describes the performance to date of five field sites in Canada. The test areas are monitored continually, starting at the construction stage, to understand the behaviour of pervious concrete in climates in

Vimy Henderson; Susan Tighe

2012-01-01

434

Subgrade Temperature and Freezing Cycles in Pervious Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the construction of four new test cells in 2008, the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn\\/DOT) now has six unique pervious pavement test sections at the MnROAD test facility. Recorded temperatures in the pervious pavements and subgrades were compared to impervious Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) test sections over the same time interval. It was found that the subgrade in pervious

R. J. Rohne; M. A. Lebens

435

Comparison of test specimen preparation techniques for pervious concrete pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate different pervious concrete test specimen preparation techniques in an effort to produce specimens having properties similar to in-place pervious concrete pavement. Cylinders and slabs were cast using pervious concrete from three different paving projects using different procedures. The comparisons of cast specimens to pavement cores were based on infiltration rate, density, and

Bradley J. Putman; Andrew I. Neptune

2011-01-01

436

Instrumentation of bridges for long-term performance monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the state of the art in bridge design is advancing toward the performance-based design, it becomes increasingly important to monitor and evaluate the long-term structural performance of bridges, including strains in critical structural members, soil pressures on the abutment back walls and footings, accelerations on the decks and bents, etc. Such information is essential in developing new performance criteria for design. In this research, sensor systems for long-term structural performance monitoring have been installed on two new highway bridges on Orange County, California: the Jamboree Road Overcrossing and the West Street On-Ramp.

Feng, Maria Q.; Kim, Doo-Kie; Sheng, Li-Hong; Fiji, Leonard M.; Kim, Yoo Jin

2001-08-01

437

Study on pavement technologies to mitigate the heat island effect and their effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the heat island effect in large cities has become a social issue in Japan. Pavements are thought to be one of the main causes of the heat island effect as they cover wide area of cities. Therefore, new pavements, such as water retention pavements or heat shield pavements, have been developed and used as countermeasures by the central and

K. Kubo; H. KIDO

438

Real-time measurement and high-speed identification of highway pavement surface deformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pavement distress status is very important to investigate and evaluate pavement condition, which is characterized by distress types, degree and area. The measurement of three dimensions structure of pavement surface is of great value for the judgment of pavement distress status. Optical three dimensional profilometry is a well established technique for the measurement of three dimensions surface profiles, which has

Lin Fu; Anzhi He; Zhenhua Li

2006-01-01

439

View northeast, wharf A decking detail, showing floor of former ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View northeast, wharf A decking detail, showing floor of former light attendant station (las) or boathouse - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

440

View south, wharf B, showing western docking structure, decking detail ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View south, wharf B, showing western docking structure, decking detail - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

441

View south, wharf A decking detail, sawn off section (ordnance ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View south, wharf A decking detail, sawn off section (ordnance wharf), timber breakwater - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

442

Preliminary Study Visual Access Driller to Spider Deck.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Preliminary study--Visual access, driller to spider deck; Design of drawworks; Technical requirements, design and procurement--Crown and traveling blocks; Schedule of demonstration of mock-up inspection equipment.

1964-01-01

443

12. CAPSTANS OF FRONT DECK. MIDDLE DOOR IS OPEN. ALL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. CAPSTANS OF FRONT DECK. MIDDLE DOOR IS OPEN. ALL DOORS COULD OPEN, TO GIVE OPERATOR AN UNIMPEDED VIEW. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

444

28. EXTERIOR, VIEW FROM THE DECK OF THE UMBRA TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. EXTERIOR, VIEW FROM THE DECK OF THE UMBRA TO THE EAST PORCH FROM THE SOUTH - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

445

5. VIEW OF LAUNCH DECK PROJECTING OVER FLAME DEFLECTOR WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW OF LAUNCH DECK PROJECTING OVER FLAME DEFLECTOR WITH BASE OF UMBILICAL MAST AT LEFT; VIEW TO SOUTH. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28501, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

446

11. DETAIL SHOWING ROLLING ENGINE DECK AND NORTHEAST TRUSS OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. DETAIL SHOWING ROLLING ENGINE DECK AND NORTHEAST TRUSS OF SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

447

8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. Edwards ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

448

33 CFR 157.168 - Crew member: Main deck watch.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.168 Crew member: Main deck watch. During COW...

2013-07-01

449

35. VIEW LOOKING FORWARD DOWN STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. VIEW LOOKING FORWARD DOWN STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK FROM A POINT NEAR WHEELHOUSE Original 5'x5' photograph taken by Robert S. Douglas, 1966 - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

450

Millimeter Wave Propagation Over an Aircraft Carrier Deck.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was performed to assess the magnitude of multipath interference effects on the transmission of millimeter waves in an aircraft carrier deck environment. The results indicate that although serious interference potential exists, the magnitude of the...

K. M. Decker

1971-01-01

451

8. VIEW NORTH, AT EAST END ACROSS DECK UNDER WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW NORTH, AT EAST END ACROSS DECK UNDER WEST SIDE SPLIT OF SOUTHBOUND VIADUCT OVERPASS - Route 1 Extension, South Street Viaduct, Spanning Conrail & Wheeler Point Road at South Street, Newark, Essex County, NJ

452

16. VAL PROJECTILE LOADING DECK AND VIEW OF RESERVOIR LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. VAL PROJECTILE LOADING DECK AND VIEW OF RESERVOIR LOOKING SOUTHWEST WITH MORRIS DAM IN THE DISTANCE. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

453

8. TURBINE DECK (UPPER FLOOR) INSIDE STEAM PLANT, SHOWING STEAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. TURBINE DECK (UPPER FLOOR) INSIDE STEAM PLANT, SHOWING STEAM TURBINES AND GENERATORS, LOOKING NORTH. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

454

5. TOPSIDE VIEW FROM UPPER DECK LOOKING DOWN INTO TANK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. TOPSIDE VIEW FROM UPPER DECK LOOKING DOWN INTO TANK WITH SHUTTLE CARGO BAY MOCK-UP AT BOTTOM OF 40 FOOT TANK. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

455

4. TOPSIDE VIEW FROM UPPER DECK LOOKING DOWN INTO TANK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. TOPSIDE VIEW FROM UPPER DECK LOOKING DOWN INTO TANK WITH SHUTTLE CARGO BAY MOCK-UP AT BOTTOM OF 40 FOOT TANK. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

456

14. VIEW OF SOUTH SERVICE DECK AT GRADE LEVEL WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. VIEW OF SOUTH SERVICE DECK AT GRADE LEVEL WITH COMPRESSED GAS TANK; VIEW TO EAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28417, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

457

Cone calorimeter tests of wood-based decking materials  

Treesearch

Forest Products Laboratory ... Claims for imported wood species have included Class A flame spread ratings. This paper discusses results of cone calorimeter tests conducted on a variety of wood-based decking materials. Keywords: Durability ...

458

33. View aft of main deck, port side, taken from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. View aft of main deck, port side, taken from just aft of forecastle bulkhead showing foremast, fore shrouds, pig house, midship house and boat skids. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

459

37. View aft of port side of main deck taken ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. View aft of port side of main deck taken from just aft of midship house, showing main hatch, mainmast and poop bulkhead. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

460

46 CFR 69.109 - Under-deck tonnage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Section 69.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS...tonnage deck intersects the inboard face of the transom frames or cant frames. (See § 69.123, figure 3.) (2) For...

2009-10-01

461

46 CFR 69.109 - Under-deck tonnage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Section 69.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS...tonnage deck intersects the inboard face of the transom frames or cant frames. (See § 69.123, figure 3.) (2) For...

2010-10-01

462

14. Car deck, looking forward, 1915 Mack Truck on left ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Car deck, looking forward, 1915 Mack Truck on left with 1926 Dodge behind, 1937 Diamond Pickup Truck on right with 1931 Ford Model A Mail Truck behind. - Ferry EUREKA, Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

463

12. BOOM, FROM SUPERSTRUCTURE DECK (ABOVE WINCH ROOM), LOOKING TOWARDS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. BOOM, FROM SUPERSTRUCTURE DECK (ABOVE WINCH ROOM), LOOKING TOWARDS BOW. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

464

18. DECK ABOVE PILOT HOUSE, LOOKING TOWARDS BOW, SHOWING DETAIL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. DECK ABOVE PILOT HOUSE, LOOKING TOWARDS BOW, SHOWING DETAIL, OF MAST. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

465

13. DETAIL OF BOOM'S GEARED WHEEL, FROM SUPERSTRUCTURE DECK (ABOVE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. DETAIL OF BOOM'S GEARED WHEEL, FROM SUPERSTRUCTURE DECK (ABOVE WINCH ROOM), FLYBRIDGE IS AT LEFT. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

466

Pavement damage model incorporating vehicle dynamics and a 3D pavement surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a mechanistic-empirical pavement damage model to predict changes in 3D road profiles due to dynamic axle loads. The traffic is represented by a fleet of quarter cars which allows for statistical variability in model parameters such as velocity, suspension stiffness, suspension damping, sprung mass, unsprung mass and tyre stiffness. The fleet model generates statistical distributions of dynamic

A. Taheri; E. J. OBrien; A. C. Collop

2012-01-01

467

ARCHIE: plan recognition and interface advice on the flight deck  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing amount of computer power available in civilian flight decks, it is becoming feasible to use some of this power for non-flight-critical systems. One area which could benefit greatly from some additional computer assistance is the pilot-machine interface. We describe the ARCHIE project, an attempt to make man-machine interfaces more robust and reliable. The initial target areas of this project are civilian glass cockpit flight decks and air traffic control stations.

Smart, William D.; Cairns, Alistair Y.; Ricketts, Ian W.

1994-03-01

468

A Heuristic for Reasoning about PowerPoint Deck Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

PowerPoint is both extremely prevalent and controversial. Unfortunately, much of the critical discussion concerning PowerPoint is both casually and poorly argued. A heuristic, offered here, can help reveal when claims about PowerPoint and deck design are poorly supported or ambiguous. This heuristic may prove useful to all those who reason about PowerPoint: those who formulate research questions, assess decks and

David K. Farkas

469

Geogrid mechanism in low-volume flexible pavements: accelerated testing of full-scale heavily instrumented pavement sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses full-scale accelerated testing to provide new insight into the effectiveness of geogrids on the performance of low-volume flexible pavements. Although several previous studies reported that geogrids improve pavement performance by enhancing its structural capacity and reducing distress potential, this study goes further to quantify the effectiveness of geogrids, specify the mechanism of the reinforcement they provide and

Imad L. Al-Qadi; Samer Dessouky; Erol Tutumluer; Jayhyun Kwon

2011-01-01

470

Chaos theory analysis of a cable-stayed bridge: Part I. Finite element model development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cable-stayed bridges can exhibit large amplitude irregular stay cable oscillations under certain conditions of combined traffic flow and rain-wind loads that can pose severe risks to structural integrity. To investigate the mechanisms causing this behavior, a high fidelity nonlinear finite element model of a typical cable-stayed bridge has been developed using LS-DYNA based on the design of the Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge at Cape Girardeau, MO. The model uses over 540,000 finite elements representing 1254 bridge components to fully describe the detailed real geometry of the bridge tower, deck, stay cables, edge girders and floor-beam support girders. Traffic loads on the bridge deck are simulated by a Poisson Distributed Pulse (PDP) stochastic process model involving multi-lane traffic flows of more than 300 vehicles of various axle loads with varying arrival rates. The response data sets generated by the LS-DYNA simulations were then analyzed for chaotic behavior with the software CTBR. This extracts the nonlinear system invariants, the Lyapunov exponents, to identify the chaotic behavior from the dynamics of the structural system. The simulations showed positive Lyapunov exponents at various locations of the bridge deck and the bridge stay cable network. The analysis of these results revealed that even in the absence of strong rain-wind excitations the bridge deck vibration exhibits significant chaotic behavior that could excite the stay cables into a stronger chaotic regime, especially at the upper portion of the networked stay cables. This illustrates a phenomenon often ignored or unable to be captured by conventional linear dynamics analysis. Analysis of actual data sets collected from a monitoring network on the bridge also confirmed this chaotic behavior.

Jin, Shuang; Livingston, Richard A.

2007-05-01

471

Smart suspension systems for bridge-friendly vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the effects of using semi-active control strategy (such as MR dampers) in vehicle suspensions on the coupled vibrations of a vehicle traversing a bridge are examined in order to develop various designs of smart suspension systems for bridge-friendly vehicles. The bridge-vehicle coupled system is modeled as a simply supported beam traversed by a two-degree-of-freedom quarter-car model. The surface unevenness on the bridge deck is modeled as a deterministic profile of a sinusoidal wave. As the vehicle travels along the bridge, the system is excited as a result of the surface unevenness and this excitation is characterized by a frequency defined by the speed of travel and the wavelength of the profile. The dynamic interactions between the bridge and the vehicle due to surface deck irregularities are obtained by solving the coupled equations of motion. Numerical results of a passive control strategy show that, when the lower natural frequency of the vehicle matches with a natural frequency (usually the first frequency) of the bridge and the excitation frequency, the maximum response of the bridge is large while the response of the vehicle is relatively smaller, meaning that the bridge behaves like a vibration absorber. This is undesirable from a bridge design viewpoint. Comparative studies of passive and semi-active controls for the vehicle suspension are performed. It is demonstrated that skyhook control can significantly mitigate the response of the bridge, while ground-hook control reduces the tire force impacted onto the bridge.

Chen, Yonghong; Tan, Chin An; Bergman, Larry A.; Tsao, T. C.

2002-06-01

472

Spaghetti Bridge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Civil engineers design structures such as buildings, dams, highways and bridges. Students explore the field of engineering by making a bridge using spaghetti as their primary building material. Then they test their bridges to see how much weight they can carry before breaking.

K-12 Outreach Office,

473

Bridge Cutout.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The subject of Main Patent No. 180,993 is a bridge cutout for automatic short-circuiting of series-connected incandescent lamps that have become defective. In this bridge cutout, the two electrodes are bridged by a thermite mixture, possibly with the addi...

O. Maresch F. Viehboeck

1980-01-01

474

BRIDGE NETWORK COSTS VS. TRUCK WEIGHT LIMITS: METHODOLOGY AND COMPUTER SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US National Cooperative Highway Research Program is developing, under project 12-51, a new methodology and decision support tool to be used by highway agencies to estimate the network-level bridge costs due to changes in truck weight limits. Combined with other tools for pavements and other affected assets, the system will help agencies to assess the full costs and benefits

Paul D. Thompson; Gongkang Fu; Jihang Feng; Waseem Dekelbab; Fred Moses; Harry Cohen; Dennis Mertz

475

Effects of random road surface roughness and long-term deflection of prestressed concrete girder and cable-stayed bridges on impact due to moving vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of random road surface roughness and long-term deflection of prestressed concrete bridges on the impact effects due to moving vehicles are investigated. The concrete bridges studied include multi-span girder bridges and cable-stayed bridges. The random road surface roughness is described by a zero-mean stationary Gaussian random process, while the long-term deflection of the concrete deck is represented as

F. T. K. Au; Y. S. Cheng; Y. K. Cheung

2001-01-01

476

Digital Bridges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Digital Bridges Web site consists of a collection of thirty representative 19th century American bridge engineering monographs, manuals, and documents from the Lehigh University Libraries' Special Collections." The archive provides an interesting retrospective into the beginnings of major bridge projects; the material is complete with high-resolution photographs and text scanned from original books. In addition to historical literature, Digital Bridges also features brief accounts of notable people and companies that influenced bridge construction across the country. A glossary of terms commonly used in the documents is also provided.

2002-01-01

477

Cellular bridges  

PubMed Central

Cell-to-cell communication is the basis of all biology in multicellular organisms, allowing evolution of complex forms and viability in dynamic environments. Though biochemical interactions occur over distances, physical continuity remains the most direct means of cellular interactions. Cellular bridging through thin cytoplasmic channels—plasmodesmata in plants and tunneling nanotubes in animals—creates direct routes for transfer of signals and components, even pathogens, between cells. Recently, two new cellular connections, designated epithelial (EP) bridges, were discovered and found to be structurally distinct from other cellular channels. The first EP bridge type facilitates material transport between cells similar to plasmodesmata and tunneling nanotubes, the second EP bridge type mediates migration of cells between EP cell masses representing a novel form of cell migration. Here, we compare the structures and functions of EP bridges with other cellular channels and discuss biochemical and cellular interactions involved in EP bridge formation. Potential roles for EP bridges in health and disease are also presented.

Edelman, Elazer R

2010-01-01

478

Pavement cracking measurements using 3D laser-scan images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pavement condition surveying is vital for pavement maintenance programs that ensure ride quality and traffic safety. This paper first introduces an automated pavement inspection system which uses a three-dimensional (3D) camera and a structured laser light to acquire dense transverse profiles of a pavement lane surface when it carries a moving vehicle. After the calibration, the 3D system can yield a depth resolution of 0.5 mm and a transverse resolution of 1.56 mm pixel-1 at 1.4 m camera height from the ground. The scanning rate of the camera can be set to its maximum at 5000 lines s-1, allowing the density of scanned profiles to vary with the vehicle's speed. The paper then illustrates the algorithms that utilize 3D information to detect pavement distress, such as transverse, longitudinal and alligator cracking, and presents the field tests on the system's repeatability when scanning a sample pavement in multiple runs at the same vehicle speed, at different vehicle speeds and under different weather conditions. The results show that this dedicated 3D system can capture accurate pavement images that detail surface distress, and obtain consistent crack measurements in repeated tests and under different driving and lighting conditions.

Ouyang, W.; Xu, B.

2013-10-01

479

Variability of pavement noise benefit by vehicle type  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Volpe Center Acoustics Facility, in support of the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), is participating in a long-term study to assess several types of pavement for the purpose of noise abatement. On a four-mile stretch of a two-lane highway in Southern California, several asphalt pavement overlays are being examined. Acoustical, meteorological, and traffic data are collected in each pavement overlay section, where microphones are deployed at multiple distances and heights. Single vehicle pass-by events are recorded primarily for three vehicle types: automobiles, medium trucks, and heavy trucks. Data are analyzed to determine the noise benefit of each pavement as compared to the reference dense-graded asphaltic concrete (DGAC); this includes a modified Statistical Pass-By Index as well as average Lmax values for each vehicle type. In addition, 1/3-octave band data are examined. Automobiles and heavy trucks are the focus of this paper, where benefits due to pavement will be presented for three pavement types: open-graded asphaltic concrete (OGAC) of 75 mm thickness, open-graded asphaltic concrete (OGAC) of 30 mm thickness, and rubberized asphaltic concrete, Type O (open) (RAC) of 30 mm thickness. Average Lmax values and spectral data show that noise benefits due to pavement can vary by vehicle type.

Rochat, Judith L.; Read, David R.

2005-09-01

480

Forced motion and free motion aeroelastic tests on a new concept dynamometric section model of the Messina suspension bridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presents a new original experimental rig to more deeply investigate the aerodynamic behaviour of long span suspension bridges. Set-up and model are designed to grant an accurate study on main aeroelastic phenomena in bridge engineering. More in details, experimental set-up and a 1:60 scale sectional model of Messina bridge deck are presented. The complete rig—composed by dynamometric model,

G. Diana; F. Resta; A. Zasso; M. Belloli; D. Rocchi

2004-01-01

481

Development of a Regional Pavement Performance Database for the AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials) Mechnistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide. Part 1. Sensitivity Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Optimization of transportation facilities for capacity and pavement condition could be achieved with mechanistic analysis of pavement structures. This report is focused on using the AASHTO M-E Design Guide (MEPDG) to show the results of quantitative sensi...

S. Kesiraju H. Bahia T. M. Adams

2007-01-01

482

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Enhancing the Pavement-Related Information Systems at the Texas Department of Transportation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research Project 0-4186 entitled, 'Cradle-to-Grave Monitoring of Pavements and Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) Functionality Enhancement Planning,' is intended to develop strategic plans for integrating the pavement-related databases at the ...

A. Karoonsoontawong Z. Zhang R. B. Machemehl

2003-01-01

483

Spaghetti Bridge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners explore the field of civil engineering by making a bridge using spaghetti as their primary building material. Then they test their bridges to see how much weight they can carry before breaking. This activity allows learners to engage in the entire engineering process as they design, build, test, then discuss their bridges. Resource includes investigating questions to extend learning. Time estimated for activity can be split across multiple meetings.

Institute, Worcester P.

2005-01-01

484

Reconstruction of a pavement geothermal deicing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1948, US 97 in Klamath Falls, Oregon was routed over Esplanade Street to Main Street and through the downtown area. In order to widen the bridge across the US Bureau of Reclamation A Canal and to have the road cross under the Southern Pacific Railroad main north-south line, a new bridge and roadway were constructed at the beginning of

1999-01-01

485

Evaluation of Pavement Surface Properties and Vehicle Interaction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The papers in the report relate to skid resistance, road roughness, braking, vehicle control, pavement performance and serviceability, design, and measurement systems for evaluating surface properties and vehicle interaction.

J. C. Burns R. J. Peters

1973-01-01

486

Recommendations for Minimizing Poor Qualtiy Coarse Aggregate in Asphalt Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Texas Department of Transportation has experienced with inconsistent performance of the coarse aggregate fraction of hot mix asphalt pavements. This project was initiated to address problems associated with variations in hot mix coarse aggregate quali...

J. P. Harris A. Chowdhury

2004-01-01

487

Investigation of the Frictional Resistance of Seal Coat Pavement Surfaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Numerous factors, including aggregate characteristics, construction variables, traffic volume, and environment, are believed to be affecting the frictional performance of highway pavements. The objective of this phase of the study was to investigate the e...

M. A. U. Abdul-Malak C. G. Papaleontiou D. W. Fowler A. H. Meyer

1988-01-01

488

ANALYSIS OF GROUP MAINTENANCE STRATEGY -ROAD PAVEMENT AND SEWERAGE PIPES-  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, it is critical to manage deteriorating sewerage and road facilities efficiently and strategically. Since the sewerage pipes are mostly installed under road pavement, the works for the replacement of the sewerage pipes are partially common to the works for the road. This means that the replacement cost can be saved by coordinating the timing of the replacements by sewerage pipe and road pavement. The purpose of the study is to develop the model based on Markov decision process to derive the optimal group maintenance policy so as to minimize lifecycle cost. Then the model is applied to case study area and demonstrated to estimate the lifecycle cost using statistical data such as pipe replacement cost, road pavement rehabilitation cost, and state of deterioration of pipes and road pavement.

Tanimoto, Keishi; Sugimoto, Yasuaki; Miyamoto, Shinya; Nada, Hideki; Hosoi, Yoshihiko

489

Condition of Longitudinal Steel in Illinois Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was made of several CRC pavements constructed within Illinois to determine the extent of corrosion occurring on the longitudinal reinforcement at transverse cracks. The effect of crack width, crack spacing, depth of reinforcement, slab th...

J. S. Dhamrait F. K. Jacobsen D. R. Schwartz

1973-01-01

490

Linear Lighting System for Automated Pavement Distress Measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The artificial lighting system is a specially designed lighting device for the automated pavement distress measurement system (VCrack) developed in a previous Texas Department of Transportation project. The basic function of this device is to provide inte...

B. Xu

2006-01-01

491

Chip Seals, Friction Courses, and Asphalt Pavement Rutting, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Washington State chip seal study; Friction courses for moderate traffic highways; Chip seals for high traffic pavements; Improving durability of open-graded friction courses; Estimating voids in a double chip seal; Correlation between field and ...

N. C. Kassabian A. G. Tobias L. Crayton K. Solomon N. Solomon

1990-01-01

492

Flexible Pavement Overlay Design by Dynamic Deflections. Phase 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes a comprehensive study to develop a flexible pavement overlay design procedure based on Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) deflections for the South Carolina Department of Highways and Public Transportation (SCDHPT). The study include...

R. L. Baus A. M. Johnson

1992-01-01

493

Automated Real-Time Pavement Crack Detection and Classification System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Statistics published by the Federal Highway Administration indicate that the maintenance and rehabilitation of highway pavement in the United States requires over 17 billion dollars per year. Currently, maintenance and repairs account for nearly one-third...

C. Glazier H. D. Cheng

2007-01-01

494

Implementation of Mechanistic Pavement Design: Field and Laboratory Implementation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the most important parameters needed for 2002 Mechanistic Pavement Design Guide is the dynamic modulus (E*). The dynamic modulus (E*) describes the relationship between stress and strain for a linear viscoelastic material. The E* is the prime mater...

A. Maher N. Gucunski T. Bennert

2005-01-01

495

Tentative Pavement and Geometric Design Criteria for Minimizing Hydroplaning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive literature review, multi-state questionnaires, mathematical modeling, computer simulations, field testing and data correlations were used to establish tentative criteria relating to geometric and pavement surface texture and cross slope to...

B. M. Gallaway D. L. Ivey D. L. Woods H. E. Ross W. B. Ledbetter

1975-01-01

496

Prediction of Hydroplaning Potential from Runoff Characteristics of Highway Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computer program, HYDROP, was developed to predict hydroplaning potential resulting from uniform rainfall of any intensity on sections of highway pavement with varying degrees of topographic irregularity. The program uses a kinematic-wave approximation ...

J. R. Reed D. F. Kibler R. S. Heubner G. W. Marks

1985-01-01

497

Long-Life Concrete Pavements in Europe and Canada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Long-life concrete pavements require less frequent repair and rehabilitation and contribute to highway safety and congestion mitigation. The Federal Highway Administration, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and National C...

A. Correa D. Dawood K. Hall R. Tally S. Vanikar T. Cackler

2007-01-01

498

Pavement Rehabilitation, Strength and Deformation Characteristics, and Surface Properties, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

TRBs Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 1905 examines pavement rehabilitation in areas such as monitoring, cold in-place recycling, application of the reliability concept, treatments, reflective crack relief, and ...

2005-01-01

499

Pervious Pavements: Installation, Operations and Strength. Part 1: Pervious Concrete.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pervious pavement systems are now being recognized as a best management practice by the Environmental Protection Agency and the state of Florida. The pervious concrete system is designed to have enhanced pore sizes in the surface layer compared to convent...

E. Stuart I. Uju M. Chopra M. Hardin M. Wanielista

2011-01-01

500

Finite Element Evaluation of Pervious Concrete Pavement for Roadway Shoulders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pervious concrete has provided an effective solution for storm runoff for parking lots, sidewalks, bike trails, and other applications. It should be readily adaptable for use on roadway shoulders. Being a relatively new material for use in pavement for ro...

A. Alam L. Haselbach W. Cofer

2011-01-01