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1

Application of Lightweight Aggregate Concrete in Old Bridge Deck Pavement Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In terms of the severe phenomena arising in the bridges of our country in recent years, like decrease of bearing force, loss of pre-stress and damage of bridge deck, this paper studies the application of lightweight aggregate concrete in the old bridge deck pavement from the aspects of concrete preparation, construction technics and quality control, and probes into the key

Liu Juan-hong; Song Shao-min; Zhong Jian-feng; Chen Xiao-fang

2010-01-01

2

Superplasticized concretes for rehabilitation of bridge decks and highway pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two mixes, one with medium workability and high cement content suitable for bridge deck replacement and another with high workability suitable for structural and pavement concrete were selected for intensive study. For these mixes, properties of the fresh concrete (slump, vebe time, flow table spread, air content, initial and final setting times) are reported. The effects of retempering are described. The influence of three types of cements on the properties of plastic and hardened concrete is explained. Complete results of the following tests are presented: compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, static modulus of elasticity, dynamic modulus of elasticity, pulse velocity and dry unit weight at 1, 3, 28 and 90 days curing. The selected concretes had high durability and satisfactory resistance against deicer scaling.

Ramakrishnan, V.; Coyle, W. V.

1981-01-01

3

Research on tensile strength characteristics of bridge deck pavement bonding layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the development of the traffic in the world, the bridge deck pavement is playing a more and more important role in the whole traffic system. Big span bridge has become more and more especially cement concrete bridge, therefore the bridge deck pavement bonding layers are emphasized as an important part of bridge traffic system, which can mitigate travel impact to bridge and magnify stationary or traffic amenity. The quality and durability of deck pavement bonding layer has directly effect on traffic safety, comfort, durability and investment of bridge. It represents the first line of defence against the ingress of water, road de-icing salts and aggressive chemicals. In real project, many early age damage of bridge deck pavement has become serious disease that affecting the function of bridge. During the construction of the bridge deck, many types of asphalt binders were used, such as styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) modified asphalt, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) modified asphalt, neoprene latex asphalt, etc. In this paper UTM-25 was used to test the tensile strength of different bridge deck pavement bonding layers with the different treatment methods to inter-surface.

Wu, Shaopeng; Han, Jun

2010-03-01

4

Rapid bridge deck replacement  

E-print Network

. Background and Significant Work Purdue University-Indiana State Highway Corrnrission New York State Thruway Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . New York State Department of Transportation . Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission Interstate 80 Overpass, Oakland... York Thruway Authority 7 Roundout Creek Bridge Deck, Kingston, New York. New York State Department of Transportation 8 Delaware River Bridge, New York-Pennsylvania. New York State Department of Transportation 10 9 Erie County Bridge Deck...

Osegueda, Roberto Alejandro

1983-01-01

5

4. View of bridge deck from northeast approach (bridge deck ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. View of bridge deck from northeast approach (bridge deck from southwest approach is virtually identical - Big Cottonwood River Bridge No. 246, Spanning Big Cottonwood River at Cottonwood Street (City Road No. 165), New Ulm, Brown County, MN

6

Bridge and pavement maintenance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deterioration of New York State Highway structures; precast repair of continuously reinforced concrete pavement (abridgment) patching of continuously reinforced concrete pavements, evaluation of several maintenance methods for continuously reinforced concrete pavement, patching jointed concrete pavements, highway pavement repairs by using polymer concrete, pressure grouting of concrete pavements, and choosing cost-effective maintenance are discussed.

Fitzpatrick, M. W.; Law, D. A.; Dixon, W. C.; Elkins, G. E.; Mucullough, B. F.; Darter, M. I.; Yoder, E. J.; Florence, R. H., Jr.; Virkler, S. J.; McGhee, K. H.

1981-03-01

7

Infrared Thermography Testing of FRP Bridge Decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results from an experimental study that investigated the use of infrared thermography for subsurface defect detection in Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bridge decks. FRP bridge deck specimens were cast with embedded subsurface defects (air- and water-filled) of varying planar sizes and thicknesses. These decks were tested using infrared thermography under the influence of several heating sources

Cheng L. Hing; Udaya B. Halabe; Powsiri Klinkhachorn; Hota V. S. GangaRao

2007-01-01

8

Bridge deck performance engineering testing procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research describes the development and use of three test procedures designed for the qualification and acceptance of bridge deck systems and their wear surfaces. The tests were developed to provide a means of assessing a given deck's performance in comparison to other deck types and traditional cast-in-place reinforced concrete deck systems. The proposed performance-based tests attempt to assess the

Brian Paschal Hammond

2009-01-01

9

Dog Bridge, view of the deck of the bridge and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Dog Bridge, view of the deck of the bridge and rails looking from Linden Lane - National Park Seminary, Bounded by Capitol Beltway (I-495), Linden Lane, Woodstove Avenue, & Smith Drive, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

10

Improved ground-penetrating radar, bridge decks  

SciTech Connect

Inspection of high-value structures, like bridges and buildings, using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an application of a technology that is growing in importance. In a typical inspection application, inspectors use GPR to locate structural components, like embedded reinforcing bars, to avoid weakening the structure while collecting core samples for detailed inspection. Advanced GPR, integrated with imaging technologies for use as an NDE tool, can provide the capability to quickly locate and characterize construction flaws and wear- or age-induced damage in these structures without resorting to destructive methods. In this paper, we discuss an important inspection application, namely, concrete bridge deck inspection. We describe an advanced bridge deck inspection system concept (Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar, GPIR) and present results from experiments designed to simulate the concept.

Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.; Johansson, E.M.; Nelson, S.D.

1993-11-29

11

8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern end looking toward north-northwest. - Bridge No. 4800, Spanning Minnesota River on Trunk Highway 4 between Brown & Nicollet Counties, Sleepy Eye, Brown County, MN

12

DETAIL VIEW OF SINGLE PANEL POINTS TAKEN FROM BRIDGE DECK, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF SINGLE PANEL POINTS TAKEN FROM BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING CONNECTION BETWEEN VERTICAL AND UPPER CHORD MEMBER - White Bowstring Arch Truss Bridge, Spanning Yellow Creek at Cemetery Drive (Riverside Drive), Poland, Mahoning County, OH

13

10. AN IMAGE, LOOKING DUE NORTH OF THE BRIDGE DECK, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. AN IMAGE, LOOKING DUE NORTH OF THE BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING LAYERS OF GRAVEL, ASPHALT AND TIMBER. - Wells County Bridge No. 74, Spanning Rock Creek Ditch at County Road 400, Bluffton, Wells County, IN

14

Concrete bridge deck condition assessment with automated multisensor techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early and accurate detection, location and assessment of damage in reinforced concrete bridge decks may be beneficial in the scheduling and performance of maintenance and rehabilitation activities. This article presents the results of a multiple sensor study of the condition of the reinforced concrete deck of the Van Buren Road Bridge in Dumfries, VA. The tests compared the following five

Dryver Huston; Jianhong Cui; Dylan Burns; David Hurley

2011-01-01

15

BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE BRIDGE DECK MODEL REINFORCED BY CARBON FRP  

E-print Network

used successfully as reinforcements and for prestressing several concrete highway bridges in Canada the construction ofthe bridge. testing of six pretensioned concrete beams of 1:3.6 scale model of the bridgeBEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE BRIDGE DECK MODEL REINFORCED BY CARBON FRP Amr Abdelrahman, Tarek Hassan

16

South Elevation; Deck Plan Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

South Elevation; Deck Plan - Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, Addison Branch), spanning Lemon Fair River above Richville Pond, west of East Shoreham Road, Shoreham, Addison County, VT

17

Concrete Bridge Deck Condition Assessment with Automated Multisensor Techniques  

E-print Network

non- destructive instruments to assess subsurface conditions. A variety of different non-destructive that examined the condition of a reinforced concrete bridge deck using multiple sensors. Some of the sensor

Huston, Dryver R.

18

Perspective view of 125' Warren deck trusses of Bridge No. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view of 125' Warren deck trusses of Bridge No. 1413, Sixth Potomac Crossing, looking north from Maryland shore. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

19

A Novel Radar-Magnetic Technique for Dielectric Permittivity Mapping of Bridge Decks in Order to Determine Moisture and Salinity of the Concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the assessment of the condition of concrete bridge decks it is impor- tant to know the moisture and the salinity of the concrete. Usually, the salinity is de- termined by potential measurements and is verified by analyzing samples in the laboratory. However, this method requires the removal of the pavement. We devel- oped a novel technique for nondestructive determination

Hans-Joachim KRAUSE; Thorsten WINKLER; Coralie DANG

20

An Investigation on Transversely Prestressed Concrete Bridge Decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is concerned with the development of design specifications for the use of transverse post-tensioning in concrete bridge decks. The ultimate goal behind this proposal is to improve the durability of concrete bridge superstructures. Experimental results from previous studies are used to validate the analytical models implemented in the development of the design specifications. It is found that the

J. A. Ramirez; Jhon Paul Smith

2003-01-01

21

HURRICANE INDUCED WAVE AND SURGE FORCES ON BRIDGE DECKS  

E-print Network

Katrina (Douglass et al. 2006)........................................................................... 1 Figure 1-2 Schematic of bridge deck subject to surge and waves during storm conditions... ........................................................ 81 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background Hurricanes can generate forces which cause hydraulically induced failure in coastal bridges. This was especially apparent in the recent hurricanes: Ivan and Katrina. The predominant mechanisms...

McPherson, Ronald L.

2010-01-16

22

BEHAVIOUR OF BRIDGE DECKS REINFORCED BY GFRP  

E-print Network

deck slab was supported by four precast prestressed concrete beams spaced at 1.80 m center to center.90 Prestressed beams Applied load o 1.80 1.80 1.80 0.90 \\ Plan 0.20 Cross section Fig.1 Schematic a/the deck slab The beams were simply supported on concrete blocks, anchored to the structural floor. Since corrosion

23

Issues in bridge deck damage evaluation using aerial photos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small format aerial photography (SFAP) with low flying technique is proposed for damage evaluation of bridge decks. High resolution images obtained using under-belly photography can be used to quantify the various bridge deck problems. The conventional truck-mount or vehicle-mount deck imaging technologies require a large number of image samples. Hence the physical scanning is time consuming and it is also challenging consider the size and location of a bridge. Aerial imaging overcomes these issues, but they face different kinds of challenges that are posed by obstacles such as shadow from trees, power lines and vehicles, signs and luminaries structures. The image resolution uncertainty, which is a function of the pilot skills and flying conditions, may also add additional challenges to aerial imaging technique. Hence different image processing tools have to be integrated into a single package to achieve the desired task. This paper summarizes the challenges faced and the preliminary results are presented and discussed.

Natarajan, M.; Chen, S. E.; Boyle, C.; Martin, E.; Hauser, E.

2012-04-01

24

FEM analysis of vehicle-bridge vibration considering bridge deck's vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is to analyze the vehicle-bridge interaction system based on finite element method (FEM). The vehicle is studied as FEM model as well as the bridge: the bridge structure modeled by shell element considering the bridge deck's vibration, and the vehicle is also modeled by FEM. The coupling effect is implemented by displacement coordination condition and Newmark-? method is

Yong Ding; Shuqing Kong; Jianyuan Huang; Xu Xie

2010-01-01

25

EARTHQUAKE PERFORMANCE OF A BRIDGE DECK AND ABUTMENT.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the 24 April 1984 Morgan Hill Earthquake (M equals 6. 1), 15 channels of acceleration records were obtained at the site of the I-280-680/US 101 interchange 12 km west of the epicenter. These records include free field measurements as well as the acceleration response at one of the supporting column bases, and at three locations in one of the spans of the three-span continuous post-tensioned box-girder deck. The purpose of this paper is to review the performance of this bridge deck and its abutment through the study of these records. The objective in extensively instrumenting a bridge deck or any structure is to obtain relevant response data to study its behaviour during strong motion events and ultimately extrapolate conclusions for improved design.

Celebi, M.; Brady, G.

1985-01-01

26

Performance of Bridge Decks and Girders with Lightweight Aggregate Concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural lightweight concrete is a very versatile material and Haydite and Minergy lightweight aggregates can be utilized in the mixture development of concrete for use in girders and decks in bridges. More widespread use of lightweight aggregates (LWA) would result in savings in construction cost due to considerable dead load reduction. \\u0009The materials phase of this research study evaluated the

J. A. Ramirez; J. Olek; Eric Joseph Rolle; Brian J. Manlone

2000-01-01

27

Deck plate girder spans and steel piers of Bridge No. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Deck plate girder spans and steel piers of Bridge No. 1396, Fourth Potomac and Second B&O Crossing, over original B&O right of way (right) and flood plain (left), looking west. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

28

Western deck plate girder span of Bridge No. 1413, Sixth ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Western deck plate girder span of Bridge No. 1413, Sixth Potomac Crossing, passing over MD 51, with "WESTERN MARYLAND RAILWAY" painted on the girder panels, looking northwest. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

29

NELSON, JAMES LEE. Behavior of GFRP Bridge Decks for Highway Bridges. (Under the direction of Dr. Sami Rizkalla)  

E-print Network

Abstract NELSON, JAMES LEE. Behavior of GFRP Bridge Decks for Highway Bridges. (Under the direction the model. #12;Behavior of GFRP Bridge Decks for Highway Bridges by JAMES LEE NELSON III A thesis submitted (Chair) Dr. Emmett Sumner L-A ~ f"'. h;:~ ~/~Dr. Eric Klang #12;ii Copyright 2005 by James Lee Nelson

30

Bridge deck designs for railing impacts  

E-print Network

holes. The galvanized T101 post is constructed of a 26 1/8 in. long W6x20 (A36 steel) wide flange welded to a 10 in. x 9 in. x 7/8 in. base plate with I in. x 1 1/2 in. slotted bolt holes. In the bottom of the deck, the dashed lines running the width... A325 or A32l Threaded Rod I 8 Farmed Holes IO x 7/8 x 9 Base Plate W/ I x I I/2 SlottedHoles Bolt Ancnoraee Plates Welded Wire Fabric, IB x 48 (Centered Between stx5 Bars) 4 Nor GI/S 5 ate 5 Bars 85 Let c-c ttx4 Bars, Top Steel 2 CL 75...

Arnold, Althea Gayle

1984-01-01

31

Modelling of pavement materials on steel decks using the five-point bending test: Thermo mechanical evolution and fatigue damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the modelling of wearing courses on steel orthotropic decks such as the Millau viaduct in France. This is of great importance when dealing with durability: due to the softness of such a support, the pavement is subjected to considerable strains that may generate top-down cracks in the layer at right angles of the orthotropic plate stiffeners

L. Arnaud; A. Houel

2010-01-01

32

Understanding the impulse response method applied to concrete bridge decks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Impulse Response (IR) method is a well-established form of non-destructive testing (NDT) where the dynamic response of an element resulting from an impact event (hammer blow) is measured with a geophone to make conclusions about the element's integrity, stiffness, and/or support conditions. The existing ASTM Standard C1740-10 prescribes a set of parameters that can be used to evaluate the conditions above. These parameters are computed from the so-called `mobility' spectrum which is obtained by dividing the measured bridge deck response by the measured impact force in the frequency domain. While applying the test method in the laboratory as well as on an actual in-service concrete bridge deck, the authors of this paper observed several limitations that are presented and discussed in this paper. In order to better understand the underlying physics of the IR method, a Finite Element (FE) model was created. Parameters prescribed in the Standard were then computed from the FE data and are discussed. One main limitation appears to be the use of a fixed upper frequency of 800 Hz. Test data from the real bridge deck as well as the FE model both show that most energy is found above that limit. This paper presents and discusses limitations of the ASTM Standard found by the authors and suggests ways for improving it.

Clem, D. J.; Popovics, J. S.; Schumacher, T.; Oh, T.; Ham, S.; Wu, D.

2013-01-01

33

Thermal infrared inspection of FRP bridge decks for health monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even in the best of economic times, funding for infrastructure maintenance, repair and rehabilitation is never adequate. As infrastructure in the United States continues to age, the funding deficit to simply maintain the existing bridges will continue to soar. Due to the inadequacy of capital allocated for infrastructure repair and rehabilitation, new, more durable construction materials with potentially longer service lives are being explored as a means of narrowing the financial deficit. One such material is fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites (FRP). By replacing conventional bridge component structural materials (i.e.; reinforced concrete and steel) with FRP, which has a higher strength to weight ratio, bridges can achieve a significant reduction in dead load weight. Bridges that have experienced substructure and superstructure deterioration can undergo a superstructure replacement with FRP rather than be subjected to the traditional load posting (vehicular load restrictions). Through reducing the bridge dead load without compromising bridge strength, original design live loads can be maintained. In order for these new bridge superstructure components to be readily accepted as viable construction materials, quick and effective means of monitoring them for degradation and overall structural health must be established and standardized. One of the most promising methods of achieving this is through the use of thermal infrared (TIR). A slight increase in temperature above ambient will allow for adequate inspection of large sections of bridge decking for detection of debonded areas between FRP components. This paper illustrates the successes and challenges of using TIR for this purpose, both in the laboratory and in field investigations. Areas for future work and improvements will be suggested.

Miceli, Marybeth; Duke, John C.; Horne, Michael

2003-04-01

34

NISTIR 7841 Study of Early-Age Bridge Deck Cracking in Nevada  

E-print Network

NISTIR 7841 Study of Early-Age Bridge Deck Cracking in Nevada and Wyoming Dale P. Bentz Paul E in Nevada and Wyoming Dale P. Bentz Paul E. Stutzman Aaron R. Sakulich W. Jason Weiss Materials bridge decks were constructed in the Lake Mead National Recreation area in Nevada. Within six months

Bentz, Dale P.

35

Effects of superstructure flexibility on strength of reinforced concrete bridge decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research studies the impact of the relative rigidity between the concrete bridge deck and the remaining structural components of the bridge superstructure on the behavior of the concrete deck. The study uses non-linear 3-D FEM models, which are developed using ANSYS 5.7 software package. Experimental data from one-span non-composite bridge superstructure are used to validate and calibrate the proposed

S. Zhou; D. C. Rizos; M. F. Petrou

2004-01-01

36

Health monitoring of precast bridge deck panels reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Beaver Creek Bridge on US highway 6 is the pilot project for Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) bridge decks and posttensioned bridge decks in the state of Utah. The bridge was built in 2009, using accelerated bridge construction practices, including the use of precast prestressed girders, as well as precast decking. The westbound bridge decking was composed of 12 precast panels each measuring 41'-5" long, 6'-10" wide, and 9" thick, and weighing approximately 33 kips. At the time, these panels were the longest GFRP panels in the United States. The Utah Department of Transportation has decided to evaluate GFRP reinforcing bars as an alternative to steel rebar in this bridge deck. The hope is to increase the lifespan of bridge decks to match the service life of the entire bridge. Due to the nature of the GFRP bars, the panels were lifted at four points using straps instead of imbedded anchors. During the four-point lifting, the panels exhibited small deflections and strains; furthermore, no cracks larger than hairline cracks were found in the panels after lifting. The Beaver Creek Bridge deck is the first precast deck in the state of Utah to be posttensioned in the direction of traffic. Posttensioning bridge decks is expected to become the norm in the state of Utah. The posttensioning resulted in increased continuity between panels. In order to quantify the expected performance of the bridge during its service life, a truck load test was performed. The truck load test was comprised of a static and dynamic test. During the truck load test, the bridge experienced deflections in the panels which were 93% below design values. Girder deflections were also small. The use of GFRP bars has the potential to extend the life of bridge decks exposed to deicing salts from 45 years to 100 years, while only requiring an increased capital cost in the bridge of 8%. Furthermore, the use of GFRP bars in conjunction with accelerated building practices has the potential to reduce long-term user delays resulting from maintenance. The difference in capital cost could decrease as designers become more comfortable with the material and gain experience with the system.

Ries, James Mcdaniel

37

Structural condition assessment and service load performance of deteriorated prestressed concrete deck beam bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precast pretensioned deck beam bridges are a generic bridge type widely used by IDOT for new construction through the end of the 1970's and still widely used on county roads throughout Illinois. While these bridges were economical to build, IDOT discontinued their use because reflective cracks developed along the length of the longitudinal joints between beams. Three 30 years old

Juan Bolivar Fuentes

2002-01-01

38

Bridge Prioritization for Installation of Automatic Anti-icing Systems in Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

During severe winter conditions bridges freeze before the surrounding roadways, often catching unsuspecting drivers off guard. Depending on weather and pavement conditions, automatic bridge deck anti-icing systems spray chemicals that prevent or minimize ice bonding to the pavement. The Nebraska Department of Roads (NDOR) is interested in installing such systems on various bridges statewide. However, the presence of 2,193 bridges

Aemal Khattak; Geza Pesti

39

Assessing effects of highway bridge deck runoff on near-by recieving waters in coastal margins using remote monitoring techniques  

E-print Network

bridge deck or a highway surface located in a state where highway and or bridge deck surface runoff studies have been conducted. (Dupuis, 1999) 1.3 SCOPE OF WORK AND STRUCTURE OF THESIS The work performed during the project involved field scale...ASSESSING EFFECTS OF HIGHWAY BRIDGE DECK RUNOFF ON NEARBY RECEIVING WATERS IN COASTAL MARGINS USING REMOTE MONITORING TECHNIQUES A Thesis by OKE NWANESHIUDU Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University...

Nwaneshiudu, Oke

2005-02-17

40

Investigation of paperboard tubes as formwork for concrete bridge decks Andrew J. Spottiswoode a,1  

E-print Network

in this paper was to investigate the use of short arc-length seg- ments and semi-circular segments of paperboardInvestigation of paperboard tubes as formwork for concrete bridge decks Andrew J. Spottiswoode a,1 November 2011 Accepted 4 December 2011 Keywords: Paperboard tubes Cardboard tubes Bridges Formwork

Bank, Lawrence C.

41

12. ANNISQUAM BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST ALONG DECK, C.1885. Photocopy of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. ANNISQUAM BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST ALONG DECK, C.1885. Photocopy of photograph (original glass plate negative #T14 in the collection of the Annisquam Historical Society, Annisquam, Massachusetts). Photographer: Martha Harvey (1862-1949). - Annisquam Bridge, Spanning Lobster Cove between Washington & River Streets, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

42

A displacement-based seismic design procedure for concrete bridges having deck integral with the piers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-step displacement-based seismic design procedure is presented and exemplified for concrete bridges having piers integral\\u000a with a continuous prestressed deck, which is restrained transversely at the abutments but free to slide there longitudinally.\\u000a It includes a simple estimation of inelastic deformation demands (chord or plastic hinge rotations in piers, curvatures for\\u000a the deck) via elastic 5%-damped modal response spectrum

Vasilios G. Bardakis; Michael N. Fardis

2011-01-01

43

Experimental Evaluation and Implementation of PostTensioning in Concrete Bridge Decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research program was conducted to evaluate the design recommendations for transverse post-tensioning of bridge decks developed in the FHWA\\/IN\\/JTRP\\/2002-26 (SPR-2409) report. The test specimen consisted of a 40x18 ft cast-in-place concrete deck on precast pretensioned girders. Thirty-two tests were carried out by applying different distributions of transverse post-tensioning force, in combination with a changing number of diaphragms, and two

Julio A. Ramirez; Gerardo Aguilar

2010-01-01

44

Unmanned Ground Vehicle for Autonomous Non-Destructive Testing of FRP Bridge Decks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current non-destructive techniques for defect analysis of FRP bridge decks have a narrow scope. These techniques are very good at detecting certain types of defects but are not robust enough to detect all defects by themselves. For example, infrared thermography (IRT) can detect air filled defects and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is good at detecting water filled ones. These technologies can be combined to create a more robust defect detection scheme. To accomplish this, an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) has been designed that incorporates both IR and GPR analysis to create a comprehensive defect map of a bridge deck. The UGV autonomously surveys the deck surface and acquires data. The UGV has two 1.5 GHz ground coupled GPR antennas that are mounted on the front of the UGV to collect GPR data. It also incorporates an active heating source and a radiometric IR camera to capture IR images of the deck, even in less than ideal weather scenarios such as cold cloudy days. The UGV is designed so that it can collect data in an assembly line fashion. It moves in 1 foot increments. When moving, it collects GPR data from the two antennas. When it stops it heats a section of the deck. The next time it stops to heat a section, the IR camera is analyzing the preheated deck section while preparing for the next section. Because the data is being continually collected using this method, the UGV can survey the entire deck in an efficient and timely manner.

Klinkhachorn, P.; Mercer, A. Scott; Halabe, Udaya B.; GangaRao, Hota V. S.

2007-03-01

45

Experimental Investigation of the Role of Entrapped Air on Solitary Wave Forces on a Coastal Bridge Deck  

E-print Network

of bridge structures during tsunami and storm surge events, most recently the Tohoku (2011) and Indian Ocean that design regulations stipulate that bridges must have adequately sized air relief openings on the decks

Frandsen, Jannette B.

46

Development and Construction of Low-Cracking High-Performance Concrete (LC-HPC) Bridge Decks: Construction Methods, Specifications, and Resistance to Chloride Ion Penetration  

E-print Network

The development, construction, and evaluation of Low-Cracking High-Performance Concrete (LC-HPC) bridge decks are described based on laboratory test results and experiences gained through the construction of 14 LC-HPC bridge decks. The study...

McLeod, Heather Anne Kirkvold

2009-08-22

47

Liu, Rees and Spitler. 1 Simulation of a Geothermal Bridge Deck Anti-icing System and Experimental Validation  

E-print Network

-mail: sjrees@okstate.edu. * corresponding author. Submitted to the TRB 82nd Annual Meeting Submission Date: 11 and Spitler. 3 INTRODUCTION Preferential icing of bridge decks not only results in higher traffic accident. Similarly the large thermal mass of the bridge deck requires that transient performance be considered. (This

48

Development of early age shrinkage stresses in reinforced concrete bridge decks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the instrumentation and data analysis of a reinforced concrete bridge deck constructed on 3-span continuous steel girders in Evansville, West Virginia. An instrumentation system consisting of 232 sensors is developed and implemented specifically to measure strains and temperature in concrete deck, strains in longitudinal and transverse rebars, the overall contraction and expansion of concrete deck, and crack openings. Data from all sensors are automatically collected every 30 minutes starting at the time of placing the concrete deck. Measured strain and temperature time-histories were used to calculate the stresses, which were processed to attenuate the thermal effects due to daily temperature changes and isolate the drying shrinkage component. The results indicated that most of concrete shrinkage occurs during the first three days. Under the constraining effects from stay-in-place forms and reinforcement, early age shrinkage leads to elevated longitudinal stress, which is the main factor responsible for crack initiation.

William, Gergis W.; Shoukry, Samir N.; Riad, Mourad Y.

2008-12-01

49

Using emissivity-corrected thermal maps to locate deep structural defects in concrete bridge decks  

SciTech Connect

Dual-band infrared (DBIR) thermal imaging is a promising, non-contact, nondestructive evaluation tool to evaluate the amount of deteriorated concrete on asphalt-covered bridge decks. We conducted proof-of-principle demonstrations to characterize defects in concrete structures which could be detected with DBIR thermal imaging. We constructed two identical concrete slabs with synthetic delaminations, e.g., 1/8-in. thick styrofoam squares, implanted just above the 2-in.-deep steel reinforcement bars. We covered one of the slabs with a 2-in. layer of asphalt. We mounted the DBIR cameras on a tower platform, to simulate the optics needed to conduct bridge-deck inspections from a moving vehicle. We detected 4-in. implants embedded in concrete and 9-in. implants embedded in asphalt-covered concrete. The midday (above-ambient) and predawn (below-ambient) delamination-site temperatures correlated with the implant sizes. Using DBIR image ratios, we enhanced thermal-contrast and removed emissivity-noise, e.g., from concrete compositional variations and clutter. Using the LLNL/VIEW code, we removed the asphalt thermal-gradient mask, to depict the 4-in. deep, 9-in. square, concrete implant size. We plan to image bridge deck defects, from a moving vehicle, for accurate estimations of the amount of deteriorated concrete impairing the deck integrity. Potential longterm benefits are affordable and reliable rehabilitation for asphalt-covered decks.

Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.

1995-04-05

50

Characterization of stormwater runoff from bridges in North Carolina and the effects of bridge deck runoff on receiving streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2008, the North Carolina General Assembly passed House Bill 2436 that required the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) to study the water-quality effects of bridges on receiving streams. In response, the NCDOT and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated on a study to provide information necessary to address the requirements of the Bill. To better understand the effects of stormwater runoff from bridges on receiving streams, the following tasks were performed: (1) characterize stormwater runoff quality and quantity from a representative selection of bridges in North Carolina; (2) measure stream water quality upstream from selected bridges to compare bridge deck stormwater concentrations and loads to stream constituent concentrations and loads; and (3) determine if the chemistry of bed sediments upstream and downstream from selected bridges differs substantially based on presence or absence of a best management practice for bridge runoff.

Wagner, Chad R.; Fitzgerald, Sharon A.; Sherrell, Roy D.; Harned, Douglas A.; Staub, Erik L.; Pointer, Brian H.; Wehmeyer, Loren L.

2011-01-01

51

Review Of The ASTM Standard On IR Testing Of Concrete Bridge Decks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ASTM Standard D4788, "Test Method for Detecting Delaminations in Bridge Decks Using Infrared Thermometry", is a newly approved standard dealing with a unique new application for remote sensing. This paper reviews the standard and describes the major attributes of the ASTM organization.

Weil, Gary J.

1989-03-01

52

Identifying damage on a bridge deck using vibration-based damage indices derived from limited measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damage induced within the deck of a bridge superstructure produces concomitant changes to its vibration characteristics (notably its natural frequencies and mode shapes). Vibration-based damage detection (VBDD) methods exploit these changes to infer information regarding the nature of the damage. This paper focuses on interpreting the spatial patterns of changes produced in the fundamental mode shape with the goal of

Abu B. Siddique; Leon D. Wegner; Bruce F. Sparling

2006-01-01

53

BEHAVIOR OF 3-D WOVEN GLASS FIBER REINFORCED POLYMERIC BRIDGE DECK SLABS  

E-print Network

in-plane fiber reinforcement is uncrimped due to the orientation of the weaving. The 3-D fibers to the outer skins and within the skins. Keywords: bridge, decks, FRP, flexure, stiffness, strength, weaving properties, for decades. The high strength to weight ratio, stiffness to weight ratio, and corrosion

54

Numerical simulations and experimental measurements of steel and ice impacts on concrete for acoustic interrogation of delaminations in bridge decks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Delaminations in bridge decks typically result from corrosion of the top mat of reinforcing steel, which leads to a localized separation of the concrete cover from the underlying concrete. Because delaminations cannot be detected using visual inspection, rapid, large-area interrogation methods are desired to characterize bridge decks without disruption to traffic, without the subjectivity inherent in existing methods, and with increased inspector safety. To this end, disposable impactors such as water droplets or ice chips can be dropped using automatic dispensers onto concrete surfaces to excite mechanical vibrations while acoustic responses can be recorded using air-coupled microphones. In this work, numerical simulations are used to characterize the flexural response of a model concrete bridge deck subject to both steel and ice impactors, and the results are compared with similar experiments performed in the laboratory on a partially delaminated concrete bridge deck slab. The simulations offer greater understanding of the kinetics of impacts and the responses of materials.

Mazzeo, Brian A.; Patil, Anjali N.; Klis, Jeffrey M.; Hurd, Randy C.; Truscott, Tadd T.; Guthrie, W. Spencer

2014-02-01

55

Numerical simulations and experimental measurements of steel and ice impacts on concrete for acoustic interrogation of delaminations in bridge decks  

SciTech Connect

Delaminations in bridge decks typically result from corrosion of the top mat of reinforcing steel, which leads to a localized separation of the concrete cover from the underlying concrete. Because delaminations cannot be detected using visual inspection, rapid, large-area interrogation methods are desired to characterize bridge decks without disruption to traffic, without the subjectivity inherent in existing methods, and with increased inspector safety. To this end, disposable impactors such as water droplets or ice chips can be dropped using automatic dispensers onto concrete surfaces to excite mechanical vibrations while acoustic responses can be recorded using air-coupled microphones. In this work, numerical simulations are used to characterize the flexural response of a model concrete bridge deck subject to both steel and ice impactors, and the results are compared with similar experiments performed in the laboratory on a partially delaminated concrete bridge deck slab. The simulations offer greater understanding of the kinetics of impacts and the responses of materials.

Mazzeo, Brian A.; Patil, Anjali N.; Klis, Jeffrey M. [Brigham Young University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Provo, Utah, 84602 (United States); Hurd, Randy C.; Truscott, Tadd T. [Brigham Young University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Provo, Utah, 84602 (United States); Guthrie, W. Spencer [Brigham Young University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Provo, Utah, 84602 (United States)

2014-02-18

56

Effective presentation of impact-echo data for bridge deck NDE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air-Coupled Impact Echo (IE) test is a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) test method, where the dynamic response of an element resulting from an impact event is measured with an air-coupled sensor. IE has been used to characterize damage in concrete bridge decks in a rapid fashion. However, the large amount of data from air-coupled IE tests from bridge decks must be manipulated and presented such that infrastructure engineers can effectively assess the condition of the structure. To address this problem, we used both impact-echo and flexural mode vibrations to characterize the area and degree of delamination damage. The practical nature of this imaging approach is demonstrated experimentally with concrete slabs containing simulated delamination damage.

Oh, T.; Popovics, J. S.

2014-02-01

57

An Automatic Impact-based Delamination Detection System for Concrete Bridge Decks  

SciTech Connect

Delamination of concrete bridge decks is a commonly observed distress in corrosive environments. In traditional acoustic inspection methods, delamination is assessed by the "hollowness" of the sound created by impacting the bridge deck with a hammer or bar or by dragging a chain where the signals are often contaminated by ambient traffic noise and the detection is highly subjective. In the proposed method, a modified version of independent component analysis (ICA) is used to filter the traffic noise. To eliminate subjectivity, Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) are used as features for detection and the delamination is detected by a radial basis function (RBF) neural network. Results from both experimental and field data suggest that the proposed methods id noise robust and has satisfactory performance. The methods can also detect the delamination of repair patches and concrete below the repair patches. The algorithms were incorporated into an automatic impact-bases delamination detection (AIDD) system for field application.

Zhang, Gang; Harichandran, Ronald S.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

2012-01-02

58

Structural condition assessment and service load performance of deteriorated prestressed concrete deck beam bridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precast pretensioned deck beam bridges are a generic bridge type widely used by IDOT for new construction through the end of the 1970's and still widely used on county roads throughout Illinois. While these bridges were economical to build, IDOT discontinued their use because reflective cracks developed along the length of the longitudinal joints between beams. Three 30 years old deteriorated beams were removed from an existing bridge over Spoon River in Fulton County, IL and delivered to Newmark Civil Engineering Laboratory. The program consisted of a series of comprehensive, destructive and non-destructive, tests and evaluations of the three beams with emphasis on three major areas; (1) The Condition Assessment of the as-delivered beams. (2) The service load performance of the bridge sub-assemblage constructed from those beams. After a comprehensive inspection of the beams was completed, the beams were integrated together into a bridge subassembly that simulated a bridge lane. (3) Following the service load tests, the three beams were separated and tested individually to failure. The critical signs to be observed in existing structures that will lead the inspectors to conclude that a deck beam is being overloaded were are also studied. Several conclusions were found. Cracking of the longitudinal joint has little effect on the stiffness of the bridge if the transverse rod is snug. The presence of a snug transverse tie rod increases the strength of the longitudinal joint. After a longitudinal joint has fractured, reincorporating a snug transverse rod can significantly reestablish the stiffness of the longitudinal joint and reduce overloading of a deteriorated beam. Participation factors must be based on relative bending moments of one beam with respect to the total amount of bending moment produced by the applied load and not to the amount of total vertical displacement. The participation factors will vary along the span of the bridge deck and will depend on the longitudinal position of the load. The amount of load taken by a loaded beam of the deck is not directly related to the beam that will experience the maximum bending moment under a given load combination. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Fuentes, Juan Bolivar

59

MULTIPLE SENSOR PERIODIC NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF A CONCRETE BRIDGE DECK  

E-print Network

results of periodically multiple sensor nondestructive testing of a reinforced concrete slab of nondestructive testing tools and methods that are suitable for an objective condition assessment of bridge nondestructive testing measurements have been successfully carried out for new construction or in

Huston, Dryver R.

60

Performance of Bridge Decks and Girders with Lightweight Aggregate Concrete, v. 2 of 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural lightweight concrete is a very versatile material and Haydite and Minergy lightweight aggregates can be utilized in the mixture development of concrete for use in girders and decks in bridges. More widespread use of lightweight aggregates (LWA) would result in savings in construction cost due to considerable dead load reduction.\\u000aThe materials phase of this research study evaluated the

J. A. Ramirez; J. Olek; Eric Joseph Rolle; Brian Joseph Malone

2000-01-01

61

Ground-penetrating imaging radar development for bridge deck and road bed inspection  

SciTech Connect

Ground-penetrating imaging radar (GPIR) is proposed for large-area inspection of concrete and concrete/asphalt composite bridge decks and roadways. This technique combines ground-penetrating radar (GPR) with unique image reconstruction algorithms developed for identification and characterization of subsurface flaws and structural features. New data acquisition hardware and image reconstruction techniques, under development at LLNL, offer the possibility for reliable and efficient, high-resolution subsurface imaging through the use of improved ultra-wideband transmitters, antennas, and arrays, and enhanced image- and signal-processing software. A field test of a limited-capability prototype system is planned for FY-93, as is completion of a conceptual design for a practical inspection system. A follow-on program for FY-94 would focus on development and demonstration of an advanced bridge inspection system prototype based on the conceptual design completed during FY-93.

Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.; Nelson, S.D.; Johansson, E.M.

1993-05-01

62

DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION OF LOW-CRACKING HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE (LC-HPC) BRIDGE DECKS: FREE SHRINKAGE TESTS, RESTRAINED RING TESTS, CONSTRUCTION EXPERIENCE, AND CRACK SURVEY RESULTS  

E-print Network

The development, construction, and evaluation of low-cracking high-performance concrete (LC-HPC) bridge decks are described based on laboratory test results and experiences gained during the construction of 13 LC-HPC bridge decks in Kansas, along...

Yuan, Jiqiu

2011-12-31

63

Fatigue Life of Damaged Bridge Deck Panels Strengthened With Carbon Fiber Hongseob Oh, Jongsung Sim, and Christian Meyer  

E-print Network

, Jongsung Sim, and Christian Meyer ABSTRACT To simulate fatigue damage to bridge deck slabs, cyclic loading of the response of metal structures to repeated loads. Microscopic flaws, inclusions, and other stress raisers is well-established for metals, and modern metal structures subjected to multiple load applications

Meyer, Christian

64

Structural Aspects of Railway Truss Bridges Affecting Transverse Shear Forces in Steel-Concrete Composite Decks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the steel-concrete interface, the horizontal shear forces that are transverse to cross beams occur due to joint action of the steel-concrete composite deck and the truss girders. Numerical analysis showed that values of the forces are big in comparison to the longitudinal shear forces. In both cases extreme force values occur near side edges of a slab. The paper studies possibilities of reduction of these shear forces by structural alterations of the following: rigidity of a concrete slab, arrangement of a wind bracing, arrangement of concrete slab expansion joints. An existing railway truss bridge span has been analysed. Numerical analysis shows that it is possible to reduce the values of shear forces transverse to cross beams. It may reach 20% near the side edges of slabs and 23% in the centre of slab width.

Siekierski, Wojciech

2015-03-01

65

Plans: Aft Gun Platform, Quarters for 16 Gunmen, Poop Deck, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Plans: Aft Gun Platform, Quarters for 16 Gunmen, Poop Deck, Boat Deck, House Top, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge Deck, Navigating Bridge, Forecastle Deck, Gun Platform, Upper Deck, Second Deck and Hold Plan - Mission Santa Ynez, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

66

Early age performance of latex-modified concrete bridge deck overlays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental factors and physical properties of latex modified concrete (LMC) are hypothesized to contribute to early age cracking in bridge deck overlays. Cracking permits the ingress of moisture and aggressive solutions into the substrate and may contribute to other subsequent distresses. Understanding the material properties and mechanisms involved is necessary to minimize these distresses. This research consisted of a two part study: first, the development of LMC strength and fracture properties at ages ranging from 5 hours to 28 days was studied, and secondly, the effects of the environment on LMC distresses were modelled. Environmental conditions: temperature, solar energy, and wind speed were determined from weather records. A fracture mechanics based model, the Fictitious Crack Model (FCM), incorporating finite element analyses and superposition techniques was employed with material properties from the first part of study on LMC performance. Different bilinear strain softening diagrams were used to predict fracture performance at different ages. The predictions agreed well with the test data. The impacts of temperature differentials on crack development were studied. The shrinkage effect was also indirectly incorporated through the temperature analysis. The material properties study indicated significant changes in strength, deformability and fracture properties, particularly during the early age. The developments differ slightly from conventional concrete. Test results indicated a significant improvement in reducing and bridging microcracks, especially in the prepeak-load region. Fracture toughness and deformability increased significantly with time. Fracture energy varied from 2.3 to 133.1 N/m, depending on age, and to some degree, on notch depth ratio. In the second stage, the FCM provided a reasonable prediction for crack initiation and propagation when only temperature effects are of concern. Age, surface conditions and structural restraint strongly affect crack resistance of the overlays. Only slight effects were observed from the overlay thickness in the study range (51-76mm). Shallow pre-existing cracks possibly reduce the crack resistance of the overlay about 30 percent. A prolonged moist cure for 48 hours after placing is suggested to reduce the risk of cracking. With available environmental information, it is possible to develop guidelines for appropriate environmental conditions for LMC bridge deck construction to minimize the risk of early age cracking.

Sujjavanich, Suvimol

67

Low-Cracking High-Performance Concrete (LC-HPC) Bridge Decks: Shrinkage-Reducing Admixtures, Internal Curing, and Cracking Performance  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT The development, construction, and evaluation of low-cracking high-performance concrete (LC-HPC) bridge decks is described based on laboratory tests of mixtures containing shrinkage-reducing admixtures and mineral admixtures in conjunction...

Pendergrass, Ben Andrew

2014-05-31

68

Application of Noise Cancelling and Damage Detection Algorithms in NDE of Concrete Bridge Decks Using Impact Signals  

SciTech Connect

Delamination is a commonly observed distress in concrete bridge decks. Among all the delamination detection methods, acoustic methods have the advantages of being fast and inexpensive. In traditional acoustic inspection methods, the inspector drags a chain along or hammers on the bridge deck and detects delamination from the 'hollowness' of the sounds. The signals are often contaminated by ambient traffic noise and the detection of delamination is highly subjective. This paper describes the performance of an impact-bases acoustic NDE method where the traffic noise was filtered by employing a noise cancelling algorithm and where subjectivity was eliminated by introducing feature extraction and pattern recognition algorithms. Different algorithms were compared and the best one was selected in each category. The comparison showed that the modified independent component analysis (ICA) algorithm was most effective in cancelling the traffic noise and features consisting of mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) had the best performance in terms of repeatability and separabillty. The condition of the bridge deck was then detected by a radial basis function (RBF) neural network. The performance of the system was evaluated using both experimental and field data. The results show that the selected algorithms increase the noise robustness of acoustic methods and perform satisfactorily if the training data is representative.

Zhang, Gang; Harichandran, Ronald S.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

2011-09-13

69

Plans: 3'/50 Cal. Gun Platform, Boat Deck House Top & ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Plans: 3'/50 Cal. Gun Platform, Boat Deck House Top & Fidley Top, Boat Deck, Radar Platform Lower, Pilot House Top, Navigation Bridge, Upper Bridge Deck, Poop Deck, Cargo Deck, Motor Boat Platform, Bridge Deck, Forecastle Deck, Upper Deck - Taluga, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

70

Determination of initial cable forces in prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridges for given design deck profiles using the force equilibrium method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of initial cable forces in a prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridge for a given vertical profile of deck under its dead load is an important but difficult task that affects the overall design of the bridge. A new method utilizing the idea of force equilibrium is presented in this paper for their determination. The method can easily account for

D. W. Chen; F. T. K. Au; L. G. Tham; P. K. K. Lee

2000-01-01

71

Development and Construction of Low-Cracking High-Performance Concrete (LC-HPC) Bridge Decks: Free Shrinkage, Mixture Optimization, and Concrete Production  

E-print Network

The development and evaluation of low-cracking high-performance concrete (LC-HPC) for use in bridge decks is described based on laboratory test results and experience gained during the construction of 14 bridges. The study is divided into three...

Lindquist, Will David

2008-01-01

72

Detection of Air and Water-Filled Subsurface Defects in GFRP Composite Bridge Decks Using Infrared Thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Any discontinuity within a structural component influences the transmission of thermal energy through its thickness, which leads to differences in surface temperatures just above the defective and defect-free areas. The variation in the surface temperatures are recorded using a digital infrared camera and the thermal images (thermograms) are analyzed to locate the presence of subsurface defects such as debonds and delaminations within the structure. While past studies focused on detection of air-filled subsurface defects (debonds and delaminations) in fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite bridge decks using infrared thermography, this paper includes the detection of fully and partially water-filled defects as well. Simulated water-filled defects were embedded within the flange-to-flange junction of adjacent GFRP bridge deck modules to create delaminations. The deck specimens were then tested before and after the application of a 3/8? (9.5 mm) thick polymer concrete wearing surface. It was found that water-filled delaminations as small as 2? 2? 1/16? (51 mm 51 mm 1.6 mm) could be detected in case of specimens without wearing surface, but this was not possible after application of the wearing surface. The heating source considered included heater and solar radiation. Use of cooling sources such as cold water and liquid carbon dioxide were also explored. These results helped establish the limits of detection for fully and partially water-filled delaminations using Infrared Thermograpy. Additional studies included the detection of debond between 2? (51mm) thick asphalt overlay and the underlying composite deck and it was found that air-filled debonds as small as 4? 4? 1/16? (102 mm 102 mm 1.6 mm) could be detected using heater as well as solar radiation as heat sources.

Halabe, Udaya B.; Roy, M.; Klinkhachorn, P.; GangaRao, Hota V. S.

2006-03-01

73

Examination of Single- and Multi-Channel GPR Bridge Deck Condition Assessment Methods with Comparison to Complementary NDE Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sixteen-channel GPR system which houses both longitudinally- and transversely-polarized, 2.0 GHz antenna elements within a single housing was compared with a single-channel GPR system that was separately using both 1.5GHz and 2.6GHz antennas oriented in the transverse polarization, for the purpose of determining effectiveness of bridge deck condition assessment. The multi-channel system has obvious benefits which include closely-spaced GPR antennas (channels) that provide better lateral resolution, as well as combined data sets from co-linear antennas oriented in both the transverse and longitudinal polarizations, which has benefits for imaging within the deck's internal structure. However, the primary objective was to determine whether the multi-channel system would perform in a similar manner to proven single-channel GPR technology during an attenuation-based GPR condition assessment on an older, partially deteriorated deck in northwestern New Jersey that is annually exposed to freeze-thaw conditions as well as de-icing salts. These assessments were made by focusing on identifying the strongest reflections from the upper mat of transversely-oriented rebars within the deck and comparing reflection strength, or conversely, attenuation of the GPR signal, from each of the 'picked' GPR rebar responses. Coordinates for each of the GPR picks, along with amplitude or attenuation measurements, were gridded and contour-plotted for the purpose of identifying areas identified as either relatively deteriorated or sound. Initially, results were compared for data with no applied correction that takes into account GPR signal attenuation with increasing depth within the concrete deck. Final GPR maps were produced incorporating a depth-correction technique similar to what is described by Barnes, et. al., Romero, et. al, and Gucunski, et. al., a process which has been clearly demonstrated to better correlate GPR results with not only ground truth (cores, sounding) but also with other NDE technologies. Not only did all the single- and multi-channel system comparisons generate nearly identical deterioration maps when GPR results were compared and examined, but mapped results obtained from other NDE methods on the same deck were used to identify zones where corrosive environment (electrical resistivity - ER) elastic modulus (ultrasonic surface wave - USW), and identified delaminations (impact-echo - IE) had commonality with the GPR results. A summary of the equipment used, as well as general data collection and analysis procedures is provided for the GPR condition assessments. Brief descriptions of background and references to how the complementary NDT technologies are deployed, and how data are interpreted, are also discussed. Comparative maps for all technologies are used for illustrative purposes.

Romero, Francisco A.; Manacorda, Guido; Simi, Alessandro; Gucunski, Nenad; Parvardeh, Hooman

2013-04-01

74

Reflected Deck Plan, Reflected Roof Plan, Deck Plan Bridgeport ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Reflected Deck Plan, Reflected Roof Plan, Deck Plan - Bridgeport Covered Bridge, Spanning South Fork of Yuba River at bypassed section of Pleasant Valley Road (originally Virginia Turnpike) in South Yuba River State Park , Bridgeport, Nevada County, CA

75

LACKEY, PAUL E. An Investigation of Bridge Deck Overhang Falsework Systems Installed onto Bulb Tee Girders. (Under the direction of Dr. Emmett Sumner.)  

E-print Network

in punching shear and concrete bearing/spalling at premature loads. Meadow Burke Products, Inc. has to accurately predict the behavior and ultimate strength of the system. ACI code for punching shear does not accurately predict the punching shear capacity of the MBT girder flange. #12;AN INVESTIGATlON OF BRIDGE DECK

76

Structural Health Monitoring Systems for Bridge Decks and Rehabilitated Precast Prestress Concrete Beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bridges are an integral part of a highway network and represent a multi-billion dollar investment. It is imperative that they are always open to traffic, resistant to natural disaster, and undaunted by millions of loading cycles per year. However, bridges are expensive to maintain and do occasionally fail. Early signs of deterioration are often not seen because concrete, some type

Mohsen A. Issa; Hameed I. Shabila; Mohammad Alhassan

77

Bridge deck surface temperature monitoring by infrared thermography and inner structure identification using PPT and PCT analysis methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the objectives of ISTIMES project was to evaluate the potentialities offered by the integration of different electromagnetic techniques able to perform non-invasive diagnostics for surveillance and monitoring of transport infrastructures. Among the EM methods investigated, we focused our research and development efforts on uncooled infrared camera techniques due to their promising potential level of dissemination linked to their relative low cost on the market. On the other hand, works were also carried out to identify well adapted implementation protocols and key limits of Pulse Phase Thermography (PPT) and Principal Component Thermography (PCT) processing methods to analyse thermal image sequence and retrieve information about the inner structure. So the first part of this research works addresses infrared thermography measurement when it is used in quantitative mode (not in laboratory conditions) and not in qualitative mode (vision applied to survey). In such context, it requires to process in real time thermal radiative corrections on raw data acquired to take into account influences of natural environment evolution with time, thanks to additional measurements. But, camera sensor has to be enough smart to apply in real time calibration law and radiometric corrections in a varying atmosphere. So, a complete measurement system was studied and developed [1] with low cost infrared cameras available on the market. In the system developed, infrared camera is coupled with other sensors to feed simplified radiative models running, in real time, on GPU available on small PC. The whole measurement system was implemented on the "Musmeci" bridge located in Potenza (Italy). No traffic interruption was required during the mounting of our measurement system. The infrared camera was fixed on top of a mast at 6 m elevation from the surface of the bridge deck. A small weather station was added on the same mast at 1 m under the camera. A GPS antenna was also fixed at the basis of the mast and at a same elevation than the bridge deck surface. This trial took place during 4 days, but our system was leaved in stand alone acquisition mode only during 3 days. Thanks to the software developed and the small computer hardware used, thermal image were acquired at a frame rate of 0.1 Hz by averaging 50 thermal images leaving the original camera frame rate fixed at 5 Hz. Each hour, a thermal image sequence was stored on the internal hard drive and data were also retrieved, on demand, by using a wireless connection and a tablet PC. In the second part of this work, thermal image sequences analysis was carried out. Two analysis approaches were studied: one based on the use of the Fast Fourier Transform [2] and the second one based on the Principal Component Analysis [3-4]. Results obtained show that the inner structure of the deck was identified though thermal images were affected by the fact that the bridge was open to traffic during the whole experiments duration. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT - The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement n 225663. References [1] Dumoulin J. and Averty R., Development of an infrared system coupled with a weather station for real time atmospheric corrections using GPU computing: Application to bridge monitoring", QIRT 2012, Naples, Italy, June 2012. [2] Cooley J.W., Tukey J.W., "An algorithm for the machine calculation of complex Fourier series", Mathematics of Computation, vol. 19, n 90, 1965, p. 297-301. [3] Rajic N., "Principal component thermography for flaw contrast enhancement and flaw depth characterization in composite structures", Composite Structures, vol 58, pp 521-528, 2002. [4] Marinetti S., Grinzato E., Bison P. G., Bozzi E., Chimenti M., Pieri G. and Salvetti O. "Statistical analysis of IR thermographic sequences by PCA," Infrared Physics & Technology vol 46 pp 85-91, 2004.

Dumoulin, Jean

2013-04-01

78

Thermo-hygro-mechanical behavior of early-age concrete deck in composite bridge under environmental loadings. Part 1: temperature and relative humidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

When concrete is cast in the field, the fluctuations of temperature and relative humidity (RH) are very complicated because\\u000a they are affected by hydration and environmental conditions, especially at early ages. This study evaluates quantitatively\\u000a the effect of various factors on the changes in temperature and RH that produce strain and stress in early-age concrete decks\\u000a in composite bridges under

Seongcheol Choi; Soo Won Cha; Byung Hwan Oh; Ick Hyun Kim

2011-01-01

79

7. DETAIL OF DECK TRUSS SPANNING CANAL. THIS DECK TRUSS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. DETAIL OF DECK TRUSS SPANNING CANAL. THIS DECK TRUSS WA ALSO ERECTED IN 1893 AS PART OF AN EXTENSIVE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE BRIDGE. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH SIDE OF CANAL. - Illinois Central Railroad, Illinois River Bridge, Spanning Illinois River, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

80

Direct observations of non-stationary bridge deck aeroelastic vibration in wind tunnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is useful to study the ambient non-stationary response of a cable-supported bridge to monitor the aeroelastic status of the structure. In the absence of effective non-stationary analyzing tools, it is suitable to have signal processing techniques to pre-examine the measured ambient responses for the time scale at which the aeroelastic system varies to know if the recording can be

Xin Zhang; James M. W. Brownjohn; Yi Wang; Tso-Chien Pan

2006-01-01

81

HERMES: a high-speed radar imaging system for inspection of bridge decks  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion of rebar in concrete bridges causes subsurface cracks and is a major cause of structural degradation that necessitates repair or replacement. Early detection of corrosion effects can limit the location and extent of necessary repairs, while providing long-term information about the infrastructure status. Most current detection methods, however, are destructive of the road surface and require closing or restricting traffic while the tests are performed. A ground-penetrating radar imaging system has been designed and developed that will perform the nondestructive evaluation of road-bed cracking at traffic speeds; i.e., without the need to restrict traffic flow. The first-generation system (called the HERMES bridge inspector), consists of an offset-linear array of 64 impulse radar transceivers and associated electronics housed in a trailer. Computers in the trailer and in the towing vehicle control the data acquisition, processing, and display. Cross-road resolution is three centimeters at up to 30 cm in depth, while down-road resolution depends on speed; 3 cm below 20 mph up to 8 cm at 50 mph. A two-meter- wide path is inspected on each pass over the roadway. This paper, describes the design of this system, shows preliminary results, and lays out its deployment schedule.

Azevedo, S.G.

1996-10-26

82

Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2009; Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2009; Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2010 - Gilpin's Falls Covered Bridge, Spanning North East Creek at Former (Bypassed) Section of North East Road (SR 272), North East, Cecil County, MD

83

NORTON, TAYLOR MONTGOMERY. 3D Orthogonal Woven Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Bridge Deck: Fabrication and Experimental Investigation. (Under the  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT NORTON, TAYLOR MONTGOMERY. 3D Orthogonal Woven Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Bridge and Experimental Investigation by Taylor Montgomery Norton A thesis submitted to the Graduate Faculty of North Usner Norton. Thank you for always supporting me. You inspire me in my work and in my life. I love you

84

Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Open-Channel Flows Over Bridge-Decks Under Various Flooding Conditions  

E-print Network

Flooding Conditions S. PATIL, M. KOSTIC and P. MAJUMDAR Department of Mechanical Engineering Northern are restricted to few design variations and limited flooding conditions as excessive time and cost are tied up. This study simulates limited scaled experimental data conducted elsewhere for bridge flooding in open channel

Kostic, Milivoje M.

85

Bridges  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Bridges from top to bottom: Expressway Bridge, Liberty Memorial Bridge, Burlington Northern SantaFe Railway Bridge, and Interstate 94 Grant Marsh Bridge. Photo taken by USGS personnel on a Civil Air Patrol flight....

86

Permeable Pavement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate how different riparian ground covers, such as grass or pavement, affect river flooding. They learn about permeable and impermeable materials through the measurement how much water is absorbed by several different household materials in a model river. Students use what they learn to make recommendations for engineers developing permeable pavement. Also, they consider several different limitations for design in the context of a small community.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

87

SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN vSHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN - Snake River Bridge at Lyons' Ferry, State Route 261 spanning Snake River, Starbuck, Columbia County, WA

88

Structural improvement of strengthened deck panels with externally bonded plates  

SciTech Connect

Concrete bridge decks require eventual replacement and rehabilitation due to decreasing load-carrying capacity. This paper compares different strengthening design procedures that improve the usability and structural performance of bridge decks. The failure characteristics of bridge decks strengthened with various materials such as carbon fiber sheet, glass fiber sheet, steel plate, and grid CFRP and GFRP are analyzed, and the theoretical load-carrying capacities are evaluated using traditional beam and yield line theory, and punching shear analysis. The strengthening materials increase the punching shear strength of the deck and change the failure mode of the strengthened panel.

Sim, Jongsung [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa1-dong, Ansan 425-791 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Hongseob [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa1-dong, Ansan 425-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: opera69@chollian.net

2005-07-01

89

Bridges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bridges come in a wide variety of sizes, shapes, and lengths and are found all over the world. It is important that bridges are strong so they are safe to cross. Design and build a your own model bridge. Test your bridge for strength using a force sensor that measures how hard you pull on your bridge. By observing a graph of the force, determine the amount of force needed to make your bridge collapse.

2012-07-19

90

Estimation of Structure-Borne Noise Reduction Effect of Steel Railway Bridge Equipped with Floating Ladder Track and Floating Reinforced-Concrete Deck  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of steel railway bridges have been constructed in Japan. Thin steel members used for the bridges easily tend to vibrate and generate structure-borne noise. Accordingly, the number of constructions of steel railway bridges tends to decrease in the urban areas from a viewpoint of environmental preservation. Then, as a countermeasure against structure-borne noise generated from steel railway bridges,

Tsutomu Watanabe; Masamichi Sogabe; Kiyoshi Asanuma; Hajime Wakui

2010-01-01

91

Bridges  

MedlinePLUS

Bridges A bridge, also known as a fixed removable denture, is made to replace one or more missing teeth. Bridges can be supported in any of three ways: ... a combination of teeth and implants A traditional bridge is made by creating a crown for the ...

92

LRRB Pavement Management Systems Pavement Management Systems  

E-print Network

LRRB Pavement Management Systems Pavement Management Systems Presented by: Michael Marti SRF devoted to local road research Research is: Managed by the LRRB Conducted by DOT, U of M, Mn for implementing and monitoring research results (RIC) #12;LRRB Pavement Management Systems LRRB Structure LRRB

Minnesota, University of

93

Bridges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bridges have been drawing plenty of attention lately, with numerous construction projects around the world and the controversy over the deteriorating bridge infrastructure in the US. They have been an essential part of transportation for hundreds of years, and it is the job of civil engineers to design the safest, most durable bridges possible.Bridge Basics (1) has a large list of different types of bridges with brief explanations. This is a good place for beginners to learn about various bridge designs and parts. The Web site of a nationwide engineering design contest (2) offers free West Point Bridge Designer software. This educational tool allows the user to create a custom virtual bridge model. Although this year's contest is over, another one is planned for next year. Rice University is the home of the Bridges Project (3), a comprehensive database of "all 74 1,000 ft. span bridges in the United States." For each of these, a short description and construction history are given, and some include photos and other interesting facts. The Gibraltar Bridge, a proposed nine mile bridge that connects Europe and Africa, was recently featured on the Discovery Channel's Engineering the Impossible (4). This Web site discusses its specifications, as well as the many challenges that must be overcome for it to be a reality. The Innovative Bridge Research and Construction Program (5) investigates new technologies that can be used in the "repair, rehabilitation, replacement and new construction of bridges" in the US. This is particularly important now, since a large portion of the countries bridges are badly in need of maintenance. A more specific area of research being conducted to protect bridge infrastructure involves the corrosion of steel reinforcements in concrete bridges (6). The material on this site provides an in-depth report on the findings of the Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center. Technical reports and papers are published in the bimonthly Journal of Bridge Engineering (7). It covers almost any topic related to bridges, and is offered free online by the American Society of Civil Engineers. Fun activities for grade school students are given on this page (8). Separated into three levels of difficulty, the projects give students freedom to learn about and design any kind of bridge structure that interests them. A list of materials and criteria are given, but there are few explicit instructions, allowing for maximum creativity.

Leske, Cavin.

94

Bridges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through a five-lesson series that includes numerous hands-on activities, students are introduced to the importance and pervasiveness of bridges for connecting people to resources, places and other people, with references to many historical and current-day examples. In learning about bridge typesarch, beam, truss and suspensionstudents explore the effect of tensile and compressive forces. Students investigate the calculations that go into designing bridges; they learn about loads and cross-sectional areas by designing and testing the strength of model piers. Geology and soils are explored as they discover the importance of foundations, bearing pressure and settlement considerations in the creation of dependable bridges and structures. Students learn about brittle and ductile material properties. Students also learn about the many cost factors that comprise the economic considerations of bridge building. Bridges are unique challenges that take advantage of the creative nature of engineering.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

95

Longitudinal Section AA; Reflected Deck Plan; Reflected Ceiling Plan ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Longitudinal Section A-A; Reflected Deck Plan; Reflected Ceiling Plan - Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, Addison Branch), spanning Lemon Fair River above Richville Pond, west of East Shoreham Road, Shoreham, Addison County, VT

96

63. View aft along starboard side of hurricane deck from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

63. View aft along starboard side of hurricane deck from starboard bridge, short stack beyond lifeboat at left of image is donkey boiler stack. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

97

22. INCLINED END POST / DECK / GUARDRAIL DETAIL OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. INCLINED END POST / DECK / GUARDRAIL DETAIL OF THROUGH TRUSSES. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

98

20. WEB / DECK / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF THROUGH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. WEB / DECK / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF THROUGH TRUSSES. VIEW TO WEST. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

99

Interior view of eastern lift span, with decking above, looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of eastern lift span, with decking above, looking back from center of span, toward lift mechanism area. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

100

Deck view, looking west from rear side of Lincoln Memorial. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Deck view, looking west from rear side of Lincoln Memorial. Hemi circle in background below Custis-Lee Mansion. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

101

10. Detail of deck underside, from the Minnesota bank, looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Detail of deck underside, from the Minnesota bank, looking northwest - Enloe Bridge No. 90021, Spanning Red River of North between Minnesota & North Dakota on County State Aid Highway 28, Wolverton, Wilkin County, MN

102

9. VIEW SHOWING TRUSSES FROM DECK WITH 4' RANGE POLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW SHOWING TRUSSES FROM DECK WITH 4' RANGE POLE AT SECOND VERTICAL POST ON SOUTH SIDE, LOOKING WEST - White River Bridge, Spanning White River at U.S. Highway 70, De Valls Bluff, Prairie County, AR

103

5. DETAIL VIEW OF SIDE STEEL RAIL, DECK, AND SHELF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. DETAIL VIEW OF SIDE STEEL RAIL, DECK, AND SHELF FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER - Price River Bridge, Spanning Price River, 760 North Street in Carbonville, 1 mile northwest of Price, Carbonville, Carbon County, UT

104

Deck view, west approach; former Western Pacific (now Union Pacific) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Deck view, west approach; former Western Pacific (now Union Pacific) Railroad at left; wind turbine generators atop hill in background; view to northeast; 90mm lens - Carroll Overhead Bridge, Altamont Pass Road, Livermore, Alameda County, CA

105

28. VIEW EAST FROM DECKING ON SOUTHWEST CORNER OF PIVOT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. VIEW EAST FROM DECKING ON SOUTHWEST CORNER OF PIVOT PIER, DRIVE SYSTEM FOR SWING-SPAN INCLUDES: (from left to right) ELECTRIC LINE FROM SHORE (bottom left), TRACK AND RAIL ON CONCRETE PIER, ELECTRIC MOTOR, GASOLINE MOTOR, SHAFTS TO WEDGE DRIVE CRANKS, WEDGE DRIVE DRIVE SHAFT, WEDGE DRIVE GEAR BOX, AND (on right) GEARING FOR MANUAL WEDGE DRIVE ACCESSED THROUGH BRIDGE DECK - Tipers Bridge, Spanning Great Wicomico River at State Route 200, Kilmarnock, Lancaster County, VA

106

4/28/2010 1Porous Pavements Porous Pavements  

E-print Network

4/28/2010 1Porous Pavements Porous Pavements for Stormwater Restoration in Urban Environments Cliff Aichinger Ramsey-Washington Metro Watershed District #12;4/28/2010 2Porous Pavements Porous Pavements Why am new volume reduction rules. Porous pavement is one of a relative few BMPs that address stormwater

Minnesota, University of

107

11. Short subways led to the lower deck of the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Short subways led to the lower deck of the Detroit-Superior Bridge. Street cars entered the subways through open wells located in the center of the roadways. This undated photograph shows the Superior Avenue entrance. The view is looking west. Photograph courtesy Office of the Cuyahoga County Engineer in Cleveland, Ohio. - Detroit Superior High Level Bridge, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

108

STATUS OF POROUS PAVEMENT RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper discusses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's porous pavement research program along with the economics, advantages, potential applications, and status and future research needs of porous pavements. Porous pavements are an available stormwater management techniq...

109

Fatigue performance of welded aluminum deck structures  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum alloys are used increasingly in load carrying structures where low weight and low maintenance costs are at a premium. Helicopter decks, structures for living quarters and personnel transfer bridges between platforms are examples of offshore applications. While these structures are not usually subjected to high fatigue loads, the increasing use of aluminum in high speed ships, and more recently in highway bridge structures, makes the question of fatigue performance more important. In this paper the fatigue properties of small scale weldments in an AA6005 alloy are compared with the results of fatigue tests on full scale sections of welded extrusions in the same material, which were used in an aluminum bridge deck structure. The fatigue performance is also compared with the fatigue clauses in the new British design code BS8118 for aluminium structures and the proposed Eurocode 9. The prospects of using a new joining technique, friction stir welding (FSW), in the production of large scale panels for deck and ship hull structures is discussed. The FSW process is described briefly, and some fatigue test data are presented.

Haagensen, P.J.; Ranes, M.; Kluken, A.O.; Kvale, I.

1996-12-01

110

Precast concrete pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report reviewed published literature on precast concrete pavements and found that precast concrete pavements have had some limited application in airfields, roads, and storage areas. This review of past experience and an analytical study of precast slabs concluded that existing design and construction techniques can be adapted for use with precast concrete pavements, but more work is needed to develop effective and easily constructed load transfer designs for slab joints. Precast concrete does not offer any advantage for conventional pavements due to its high cost and surface roughness, but it may find applications for special problems such as construction in adverse weather, subgrade settlement, temporary pavements that need to be relocated, and military operations.

Rollings, R. S.; Chou, Y. T.

1981-11-01

111

Passive control of bridges: The double cable net method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new type of cable-supported bridge. The main elements of the bridge are two cable systems, (?) and (?), and a concrete bridge deck. The combination of a deck structure and a net of external prestressed cables is a very advantageous structural system because the use of external prestressing cables, called (a), neutralizes the permanent load and some

A. Michalopoulos; Th. Nikolaidis; G. E. Stavroulakis; C. C. Baniotopoulos

2005-01-01

112

Chaos theory analysis of cable-stayed bridge vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cable-stayed bridges are a recent development in bridge structural design in which the cables meet the bridge deck at an acute angle rather than perpendicularly. Some early cable-stayed bridges have exhibited large amplitude stay cable oscillations. One such bridge, the Fred Hartman Bridge across the Houston Ship Channel in Texas displayed two different modes of vibration: a local mode involving

Richard A. Livingston; Shuang Jin

2006-01-01

113

ForPeerReview REINFORCEMENT-FREE DECKS USING A MODIFIED STRUT-  

E-print Network

and Environmental Engineering Keywords: design procedure, strut-and-tie model, reinforcement-free deck, bridge decks of Wisconsin-Madison, Civil and Environmental Engineering Oliva, Michael; University of Wisconsin-Madison, Civil and Environmental Engineering Bank, Lawrence; University of Wisconsin-Madison, Civil

Russell, Jeffrey S.

114

12. MAIN DECK, VIEW FROM NEAR POOP DECK. VIEW FORWARD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. MAIN DECK, VIEW FROM NEAR POOP DECK. VIEW FORWARD OF MIDSHIP AREA WITH MASTS AND FIVE PORT OIL TANK HATCHES SEEN AT LEFT. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

115

Shear Connections for the Development of a Full-Depth Precast Concrete Deck System  

E-print Network

. 12 Badie et al. (2006) provides a thorough review of the state-of-the-art of accelerated bridge deck construction methods is reviewed in a recently published report by the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). Research...

Henley, Matthew D.

2010-07-14

116

Pervious Pavement System Evaluation  

EPA Science Inventory

Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, grade...

117

Automated pavement crack detection  

E-print Network

AUTOMATED PAVEMENT CRACK DETECTION A Thesis by ASHOK MADHAVA RAO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject...: Electrical Engineering AUTOMATED PAVEMENT CRACK DETECTION A Thesis by ASHOK MADHAVA RAO Approved as to style and content by . c Norman C. Grisw d (Chair of Committ ) Nasser Kehtarnavaz (Member) g, J~, Karan Watson Robert L. Lytt (Member) Jo W...

Rao, Ashok Madhava

1991-01-01

118

Boeing flight deck design philosophy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information relative to Boeing flight deck design philosophy is given in viewgraph form. Flight deck design rules, design considerations, functions allocated to the crew, redundancy and automation concerns, and examples of accident data that were reviewed are listed.

Stoll, Harty

1990-01-01

119

22. View is from the deck, looking down to the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. View is from the deck, looking down to the junction of the last pony truss and the first through truss. This shows how the respective end posts are embedded into the concrete pier extension. There are only two of these, located on each end of pier #6. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

120

18. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN UNDER GRID DECK, ONE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN UNDER GRID DECK, ONE OF TWO DRIVE GEARS ON NORTH SIDE OF PEDESTAL THAT MESHES INTO FIXED GEAR RING, SET INTO TOP OF CENTER CONCRETE PEDESTAL, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (taken in March 1984) - Sharptown Bridge, Spanning Nanticoke River, State Route 313, Sharptown, Wicomico County, MD

121

Development of Hybrid Bridges: State of Arts and Conceptual Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A state of the art of developments of the Hybrid bridges is presented focusing on steel-concrete composite bridges, considering the steel beam, concrete deck and connections developments. The analysis and design methods of composite bridge structures, connections, the reliability and life cycle of bridges, new bridge system forms and the use of alternative materials are reviewed with some possible applications.

Suhaib Yahya Kasim Al-Darzi; Airong Chen

2006-01-01

122

6. DETAIL VIEW OF SINGLE PANEL POINTS TAKEN FROM BRIDGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DETAIL VIEW OF SINGLE PANEL POINTS TAKEN FROM BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING CONNECTION BETWEEN VERTICAL AND UPPER CHORD MEMBER. - White Bowstring Arch Truss Bridge, Spanning Yellow Creek at Cemetery Drive (Riverside Drive), Poland, Mahoning County, OH

123

14. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING GIRDERS, BEARING SHOES, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING GIRDERS, BEARING SHOES, FLOOR BEAMS, STRINGERS, LATERAL BRACING AND CONCRETE DECK. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

124

Recycling of pavement materials  

E-print Network

was recycled. Mixing was accom- plished by using a 10-by $0-foot drum mixer with a low efficiency wet wash. This mixer had an asphalt line in- side the drum and introduced $. 5 percent asphalt by weight into the old pavement which contained. ). 7 percent... material from old asphalt pavement and coarse aggregate. One and one- half percent emulsion was added. Air pollution seemed to be the biggest problem. Warren Brothers feel that the main objective of recycling is to utilize existing plants with minor...

O'Neal, Randy Jim

1976-01-01

125

Experimental pavement delineation treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visibility and durability of materials used to delineate shoulders and medians adjacent to asphalt pavements were evaluated. Materials evaluated were polysulfide and coal tar epoxies, one and two component polyesters, portland cement, acrylic paints, modified-alkyd traffic paint, preformed plastic tape, and thermoplastic markings. Neat applications, sand mortars, and surface treatments were installed in several geometric patterns including cross hatches, solid median treatments, and various widths of edge lines. Thermoplastic pavement markings generally performed very well, providing good visibility under adverse viewing conditions for at least 4 years. Thermoplastic 4 in. wide edge lines appear to provide adequate visibility for most conditions.

Bryden, J. E.; Lorini, R. A.

1981-06-01

126

Loose Canons on Deck  

E-print Network

Posted originally on the Archive of Our Own at http://archiveofourown.org/works/592681. Rating: General Audiences Archive Warning: No Archive Warnings Apply Category: Gen Fandom: Mina de Malfois Character: Mina de Malfois - Character, Josh Amos... Additional Tags: Fandom Stats: Published: 2012-12-14 Words: 4215 Loose Canons on Deck by Kadorienne Summary Josh has been flooding fandom with old paper 'zine fics, and Mina is suspected of pseuicide. Notes Thank you to Grey Bard, invaluable humor consultant...

2012-12-24

127

Pervious Pavement System Evaluation  

EPA Science Inventory

Pervious pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in Edison, NJ, is evaluating concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pollutant removal of a bench-scale permeable interlo...

128

POROUS PAVEMENT: RESEARCH; DEVELOPMENT; AND DEMONSTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper discusses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's porous pavement research program along with the economics, advantages, potential applications, and status and future research needs of porous pavements. Porous pavements are an available stormwater management techniq...

129

Binzhou Perpetual Pavement Test Road  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressway construction has been carried out on a large-scale in China. Vigorous economical development has caused rapid growth in traffic volume and truck axle loads creating a severe challenge for the pavement structure design. Therefore, the high-performance and low- maintenance cost of a long-life perpetual pavement structure is gaining attention. This paper discusses the first perpetual asphalt pavement test road

Yongshun Yang; Jincheng Wei; Wang Lin; David Timm; Gerald Huber

2009-01-01

130

Concrete bridge inspection with a mobile GPR system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed knowledge of the present condition of bridges is essential for the planning of maintenance and rehabilitation. Mobile ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems are efficient tools for obtaining information such as depth of rebar, asphalt pavement thickness and concrete damage beneath the pavement. Non-destructive testing, quasi-continuous results and efficient data acquisition are the main advantages of mobile GPR systems.

J. Hugenschmidt

2002-01-01

131

General outlook of pavement and vehicle dynamics  

SciTech Connect

The interaction between vehicle and pavement is complex since pavement roughness excites the dynamic forces generated by vehicles, while these dynamic forces simultaneously increase the pavement roughness. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the results of recent research related to pavement and vehicle dynamics and their interaction and to evaluate their potential use in the design and management of pavements. Pavement dynamic models are capable of determining stresses, strains, and deflections in various directions when harmonic, pulse, or transient loads are applied. Vehicle dynamic models simulate the effect of pavement roughness on the inertia of various vehicle components. These models can predict the dynamic forces produced by different axles and wheels of traveling vehicles at different locations along the pavement. Pavement response computed using dynamic models matches field measurements closer than those computed using static models. The concept of vehicle-pavement interaction can be applied to weigh-in-motion, pavement design and performance, and vehicle regulations.

Mamlouk, M.S. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1997-11-01

132

14. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING DAMAGE TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING DAMAGE TO FLOOR BEAMS AND DECK OF WEST APPROACH SPAN, CAUSED WHEN CONTRACTOR'S FORCES, WORKING ON ADJACENT ABUTMENT FOR REPLACEMENT BRIDGE, DYNAMITED GRANITE BOULDERS INTO UPSTREAM SIDE OF HISTORIC BRIDGE - Middle Fork Stanislaus River Bridge, Spans Middle Fork Stanislaus River at State Highway 108, Dardanelle, Tuolumne County, CA

133

Development of Improved Pavement Performance Prediction Models for the Indiana Pavement Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) is increasingly committed to the Pavement Management System. For this reason, updated simple pavement performance prediction models with the least number of explanatory (independent) variables are required to predict the performance of various pavement types for future planning of rehabilitation or replacement. In Indiana, the two main pavement types are jointed concrete pavement (JCP)

Sedat Gulen; Karen Zhu; John Weaver; Jie Shan; William F. Flora

2001-01-01

134

Nondestructive evaluation inspection of the Arlington Memorial Bridge using a robotic assisted bridge inspection tool (RABIT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The information presented in this report provides a detailed assessment of the condition of the Arlington Memorial Bridge (AMB) deck. The field-data collection was obtained by both the RABIT Bridge Inspection Tool and a number of semi-automated non-destructive evaluation (NDE) tools. The deployment of the semi-automated NDE tools was performed to inspect the AMB deck condition and also to validate data obtained by the RABIT Bridge Inspection Tool. Data mining and analysis were accomplished through enhanced data interpretation and visualization capabilities using advanced data integration, fusion, and 2D rendering. One of the major challenges that the research team had to overcome in assessing the condition of the AMB deck was the presence of an asphalt overlay on the entire bridge deck.

Gucunski, Nenad; Boone, Shane D.; Zobel, Rob; Ghasemi, Hamid; Parvardeh, Hooman; Kee, Seong-Hoon

2014-04-01

135

Effects of Various Deicing Chemicals on Pavement Concrete Deterioration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deleterious effects of deicers on concrete pavements and bridges have concerned concrete researchers for several decades. The present study experimentally investigates the effects of different deicers on concrete deterioration. Laboratory simulations of environmental conditions (wet\\/dry and freeze\\/thaw cycling) were conducted on highway concrete samples with various deicer chemicals (NaCl, CaCl 2, MgCl2, calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) of 5 different

HYOMIN LEE; ROBERT D. CODY; ANITA M. CODY; PAUL G. SPRY

136

27. VIEW NORTHWEST FROM DECKING ON SOUTHEAST CORNER OF PIVOT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. VIEW NORTHWEST FROM DECKING ON SOUTHEAST CORNER OF PIVOT PIER, DRIVE SYSTEM FOR SWING-SPAN INCLUDES: (from left to right) WEDGE DRIVE GEAR BOX, SHAFTS TO WEDGE DRIVE DRIVE, WEDGE DRIVE CRANK SHAFTS, ELECTRIC MOTOR, INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER GASOLINE ENGINE, CONTROL RODS FOR STARTING AND CHOKING ENGINE, PIVOT (bottom center), AND TRACK ON CONCRETE PIER - Tipers Bridge, Spanning Great Wicomico River at State Route 200, Kilmarnock, Lancaster County, VA

137

Geotextiles in Flexible Pavement Construction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People everywhere in the developed world regularly drive on paved roads. Learning about the construction techniques and materials used in paving benefits technology and construction students. This article discusses the use of geosynthetic textiles in pavement construction. It presents background on pavements and describes geotextiles and drainage

Alungbe, Gabriel D.

2004-01-01

138

Pavement performance prediction using adaptive logic networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pavement performance is one of the most important components of the pavement management system. Prediction of the future performance of a pavement section is important in programming maintenance and rehabilitation needs. Models for predicting pavement performance have been developed on the basis of traffic and age. The purpose of this research is to extend the use of a relatively new

Mohd Y Nawaiseh

2002-01-01

139

On the typography of flight-deck documentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many types of paper documentation are employed on the flight-deck. They range from a simple checklist card to a bulky Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM). Some of these documentations have typographical and graphical deficiencies; yet, many cockpit tasks such as conducting checklists, way-point entry, limitations and performance calculations, and many more, require the use of these documents. Moreover, during emergency and abnormal situations, the flight crews' effectiveness in combating the situation is highly dependent on such documentation; accessing and reading procedures has a significant impact on flight safety. Although flight-deck documentation are an important (and sometimes critical) form of display in the modern cockpit, there is a dearth of information on how to effectively design these displays. The object of this report is to provide a summary of the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed matter. The report attempts 'to bridge' the gap between basic research about typography, and the kind of information needed by designers of flight-deck documentation. The report focuses on typographical factors such as type-faces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Some graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are also discussed. In addition, several aspects of cockpit reading conditions such as glare, angular alignment, and paper quality are addressed. Finally, a list of recommendations for the graphical design of flight-deck documentation is provided.

Degani, Asaf

1992-01-01

140

Pervious Pavement System Evaluation- Abstract  

EPA Science Inventory

Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, gra...

141

Pavement management using hyperspectral imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public Works facilities require up-to-date information on the health status of the road network they maintain. However, roadway maintenance and rehabilitation involves the greatest portion of a municipality's annual operating budget. Government officials use various technologies such as a pavement management system to assist in making better decisions about their roadways systems, pavement condition, history, and projects. Traditionally, manual surveying has served as the method of obtaining this information. To better assist in decision-making, a regionally specific spectral library for urban areas is being developed and used in conjunction with hyperspecrtal imaging, to map urban materials and pavement conditions. A Geographical Information and Positioning System (GIS/GPS) will also be implemented to overlay relative locations. This paper will examine the benefits of using hyperspectral imaging over traditional methods of roadway maintenance and rehabilitation for pavement management applications. In doing so, we will identify spatial and spectral requirements for successful large-scale road feature extraction.

Ayalew, Balehager; Gomez, Richard B.; Roper, William E.; Carrasco, Oscar

2003-08-01

142

CRACKSCOPEAUTOMATIC PAVEMENT CRACKING INSPECTION SYSTEM  

E-print Network

0-5708-P4 CRACKSCOPEAUTOMATIC PAVEMENT CRACKING INSPECTION SYSTEM Authors: Bugao Xu, Ph.D. and PScope .................................................................................................................. 11 3.2 Camera connection.................................................................................................................14 3.4 Camera control

Texas at Austin, University of

143

46 CFR 178.430 - Drainage of well deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks 178.430 Drainage of well deck vessels. (a) The weather deck on a well deck vessel must be watertight. (b) The area required on...

2012-10-01

144

46 CFR 178.430 - Drainage of well deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks 178.430 Drainage of well deck vessels. (a) The weather deck on a well deck vessel must be watertight. (b) The area required on...

2010-10-01

145

46 CFR 178.430 - Drainage of well deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks 178.430 Drainage of well deck vessels. (a) The weather deck on a well deck vessel must be watertight. (b) The area required on...

2013-10-01

146

46 CFR 178.430 - Drainage of well deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks 178.430 Drainage of well deck vessels. (a) The weather deck on a well deck vessel must be watertight. (b) The area required on...

2014-10-01

147

17. LOOKING FROM DECK ABOVE MESS UP AT DECK ABOVE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. LOOKING FROM DECK ABOVE MESS UP AT DECK ABOVE CO'S STATEROOM. RECTANGULAR WINDOWS IS AT REAR OF PILOT HOUSE. TO RIGHT OF WINDOW IS TOP OF STAIRS TO STARBOARD WING OF FLYBRIDGE. AT EXTREME RIGHT IS ENGINE CONTROLS AND IN BACKGROUND IS COMPASS WITH COVER OVER IT. RIGHT EDGE OF THIS IMAGE IS SAME AS IMAGE 14, JUST OBSTRUCTED IN IMAGE 14 BY LIFE PRESERVER AND SEAT. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

148

41. VAL, DETAIL OF CONNECTING BRIDGE SHOWING SIDE THAT FACED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. VAL, DETAIL OF CONNECTING BRIDGE SHOWING SIDE THAT FACED THE FIRING RANGE TAKEN FROM THE BARGE DECK. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

149

Pervious Pavement System Evaluation-Poster  

EPA Science Inventory

Pervious pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Environmental Protection Agency's Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavingstone pervious pavement systems. The pavingstones themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between...

150

Asphalt Oxidation Kinetics and Pavement Oxidation Modeling  

E-print Network

Most paved roads in the United States are surfaced with asphalt. These asphalt pavements suffer from fatigue cracking and thermal cracking, aggravated by the oxidation and hardening of asphalt. This negative impact of asphalt oxidation on pavement...

Jin, Xin

2012-07-16

151

Making "Magic" Sidewalks of Pervious Pavement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use everyday building materialssand, pea gravel, cement and waterto create and test pervious pavement. They learn what materials make up a traditional, impervious concrete mix and how pervious pavement mixes differ. Groups are challenged to create their own pervious pavement mixes, experimenting with material ratios to evaluate how infiltration rates change with different mix combinations.

2014-09-18

152

Full-Range Analysis of Multi-Span Prestressed Concrete Segmental Bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in-situ concrete stitches of prestressed concrete segmental bridge are locations of potential weakness for the entire bridge deck but relatively little work has been carried out in this area. The effects of the performance of in-situ stitches on the global behaviour of bridge deck are not well understood. As most existing techniques cannot cope with such full-range analyses, a

Francis T. K. Au; Cliff C. Y. Leung

2011-01-01

153

Pavement Smoothness for Illinois DOT -Doug Dirks 1. Briefly summarize your current pavement smoothness requirements. See below.  

E-print Network

Pavement Smoothness for Illinois DOT - Doug Dirks 1. Briefly summarize your current pavement? N/A Illinois has both standard specifications and a special provision for pavement smoothness-Depth HMA Pavement 407.09 PCC Pavement 420.10 The following is a link to Division 400 of the Illinois

154

12. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, SHOWING SPRING LINE OF SPANS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, SHOWING SPRING LINE OF SPANS FROM CROWN OF MID-CHANNEL PIER, PAIRED COLUMNS SUPPORTING DECK, ARCHED WINDOW RAILING, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST FROM EUREKA SOUTHERN RAILROAD BRIDGE. CABLES VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND ARE EARTHQUAKE RESTRAINERS RETROFITTED TO 1952 HIGHWAY BRIDGE, WHICH FUNCTIONED AS DESIGNED IN APRIL 1992 TEMBLOR - Van Duzen River Bridge, Spanning Van Duzen River at CA State Highway 101, Alton, Humboldt County, CA

155

Pavement Design TTP Orientation Seminar  

E-print Network

the "good old" days? #12;Traffic Variables Highways - it's the trucks Loads Tire pressures Speeds? are your loads controlled? #12;Big Truck - 1960 #12;Big Truck - 2001 #12;Super Single Tires #12;Australian of these materials can be perpetually recyclable into the same infrastructure #12;#12;#12;#12;Pavements

Handy, Susan L.

156

Pavement Design TTP Orientation Seminar  

E-print Network

Variables Highways - it's the trucks Loads Tire pressures Speeds Dynamics (interaction controlled? #12;Big Truck - 1960 #12;Big Truck - 2001 #12;Super Single Tires #12;Australian for "truck" "Road of these materials can be perpetually recyclable into the same infrastructure #12;#12;#12;#12;Pavements

Handy, Susan L.

157

The Concrete and Pavement Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The modern world is characterized by the extensive use of concrete and asphalt pavement. Periodically, these materials are replaced and the old materials disposed of. In this challenge, students will be asked to develop ways to reuse the old materials. It is important for students to understand how concrete and asphalt are made and applied, as

Roman, Harry T.

2012-01-01

158

Nondestructive Evaluation of Pavements Ultrasonic  

E-print Network

Nondestructive Evaluation of Pavements Ð Ultrasonic Tomography Kyle Hoegh, Graduate Student Dr. Lev ­! The transducers act on the test object surface with oscillating piezoelectric elements for wave production from the specs (about 3 miles of testing in 50 ft intervals). Field Application ­ Atlanta Georgia

Minnesota, University of

159

Bituminous pavement recycling Aravind K. and Animesh Das  

E-print Network

Bituminous pavement recycling Aravind K. and Animesh Das Department of Civil Engineering IIT Kanpur Introduction The bituminous pavement rehabilitation alternatives are mainly overlaying, recycling and reconstruction. In the recycling process the material from deteriorated pavement, known as reclaimed asphalt

Das, Animesh

160

Integrated Materials and Construction Practices (IMCP) for Concrete Pavement  

E-print Network

Integrated Materials and Construction Practices (IMCP) for Concrete Pavement Workshop Participant Handbook Prepared for Prepared by Federal Highway Administration National Concrete Pavement Technology and Construction Practices for Concrete Pavements Workshop Participant Handbook--Front Matter i Technical Report

161

Green Water on Ship Decks Marilena Greco  

E-print Network

-wave plus Dam-Breaking (PDB) type PDB #12;Water-on-Deck Scenarios Hammer-Fist (HF) type HF #12;Water-on-Deck Investigations PDB type Most common scenario #12;PDB Water-on-Deck: Initial stages Initial area of the entrapped cavity From experiments Area/f2 m f max-f = (max-f)/cf Kjeldsen & Myrhaug (1979) #12;PDB Water

Nrvg, Kjetil

162

AUTOMATED PAVEMENT IMAGING PROGRAM (APIP) FOR PAVEMENT CRACKS CLASSIFICATION AND QUANTIFICATION - A PHOTOGRAMMETRIC APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of pavement conditions is an important part of pavement management. Traditionally, pavement condition data are gathered by human inspectors who walk or drive along the road to assess the distresses and subsequently produce report sheets. This visual survey method is not only time consuming and costly but more importantly it compromises the safety of the field personnel. With

M. Mustaffar; T. C. Ling

1998-01-01

163

29 CFR 1918.36 - Weather deck rails.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weather deck rails. 1918.36 Section 1918.36...LONGSHORING Working Surfaces 1918.36 Weather deck rails. Removable weather deck rails shall be kept in place except when...

2010-07-01

164

29 CFR 1918.36 - Weather deck rails.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weather deck rails. 1918.36 Section 1918.36...LONGSHORING Working Surfaces 1918.36 Weather deck rails. Removable weather deck rails shall be kept in place except when...

2014-07-01

165

46 CFR 108.167 - Weather deck ladders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Weather deck ladders. 108.167 Section 108...Arrangement Means of Escape 108.167 Weather deck ladders. Each unit must have...permanent, inclined ladder between each weather deck. Classified...

2014-10-01

166

29 CFR 1918.36 - Weather deck rails.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weather deck rails. 1918.36 Section 1918.36...LONGSHORING Working Surfaces 1918.36 Weather deck rails. Removable weather deck rails shall be kept in place except when...

2012-07-01

167

46 CFR 108.167 - Weather deck ladders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weather deck ladders. 108.167 Section 108...Arrangement Means of Escape 108.167 Weather deck ladders. Each unit must have...permanent, inclined ladder between each weather deck. Classified...

2012-10-01

168

46 CFR 108.167 - Weather deck ladders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weather deck ladders. 108.167 Section 108...Arrangement Means of Escape 108.167 Weather deck ladders. Each unit must have...permanent, inclined ladder between each weather deck. Classified...

2011-10-01

169

46 CFR 108.167 - Weather deck ladders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weather deck ladders. 108.167 Section 108...Arrangement Means of Escape 108.167 Weather deck ladders. Each unit must have...permanent, inclined ladder between each weather deck. Classified...

2010-10-01

170

29 CFR 1918.36 - Weather deck rails.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weather deck rails. 1918.36 Section 1918.36...LONGSHORING Working Surfaces 1918.36 Weather deck rails. Removable weather deck rails shall be kept in place except when...

2011-07-01

171

46 CFR 108.167 - Weather deck ladders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weather deck ladders. 108.167 Section 108...Arrangement Means of Escape 108.167 Weather deck ladders. Each unit must have...permanent, inclined ladder between each weather deck. Classified...

2013-10-01

172

29 CFR 1918.36 - Weather deck rails.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weather deck rails. 1918.36 Section 1918.36...LONGSHORING Working Surfaces 1918.36 Weather deck rails. Removable weather deck rails shall be kept in place except when...

2013-07-01

173

Generation mechanisms of tire-pavement noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tire-pavement noise is the dominant source of traffic noise at highway speeds. It is the result of a combination of several noise generation mechanisms, including tire carcass vibration and tread block vibration. Because multiple mechanisms are involved, it is difficult to predict the effects of changes in pavement parameters on tire-pavement noise. In this research, a set of experimental techniques were developed to decompose a measured tire-pavement noise spectrum into a set of constituent spectra relating to each generation mechanism. Three principal mechanisms were identified: treadband vibration, sidewall vibration, and tangential tread block vibration. By combining the constituent spectra associated with these mechanisms, it was possible to accurately predict the total tire-pavement noise spectrum. The constituent spectra were fit to tire-pavement noise data measured on asphalt and concrete pavements at highway speeds. It was found that the constituent spectra fit the measured data well, and a two-parameter model was developed to predict tire-pavement noise levels from pavement texture data.

Dare, Tyler P.

174

15. 'Concrete Bridge Over Salt River, Port Kenyon, Humboldt County, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. 'Concrete Bridge Over Salt River, Port Kenyon, Humboldt County, California, A.J. Logan, County Surveyor, H.J. Brunnier, Consulting Engineer, March 7, 1919,' showing general plan, plan of top chord, elevation of main girder, transverse section, plan section at deck level. - Salt River Bridge, Spanning Salt River at Dillon Road, Ferndale, Humboldt County, CA

175

Emergency Evacuation From Double-Deck Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airbus Industrie is considering building a family of double-deck aircraft. Aresearch project was initiated primarily to investigate the effects of the height of the newupper deck on human performance in case of an emergency, but it was also investigatedwhether factors such as visibility, slide design, and passenger safety instruction mightinfluence individuals` performance. A performance model was developed that includes (a)situational

Helmut Jungermann

2000-01-01

176

Commander Brand sleeps on aft flight deck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Commander Brand, with hands folded in front of his chest, sleeps on aft flight deck. Brand's head is just above aft flight deck floor with his back to onorbit station panels. The back and feet of a second crewmember appear next to Brand.

1982-01-01

177

Structural health monitoring of Lindquist bridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many forestry bridges in Canada are typically single-lane, single span structures with two steel plate girders and a deck comprising of precast reinforced concrete panels. The concept of arching in deck slabs was utilized in the steel-free precast panels used in the Lindquist Bridge in British Columbia, Canada. The panels were completely devoid of tensile reinforcement and transverse confinement to the panels was provided by external steel straps. After the bridge was constructed in 1998, electrical strain gauges were installed on the girders and straps. Static and dynamic load tests were performed. The cracks on the top and bottom of the deck were mapped in 1999 and 2003. In 2006, a load test and crack mapping were performed on the bridge. The strain readings in the straps were compared with the data obtained 8 years prior. After analysis of the strain gauge readings, conclusions were drawn on the performance of the bridge. The cracks were formed to accommodate arching action and it was concluded that the bridge is still performing as it was designed.

Sargent, D. D.; Murison, E. R.; Bakht, B.; Mufti, A. A.

2007-04-01

178

Pervious Pavement System Evaluation-Paper  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of a pervious pavement can be effective as a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete paver systems as a type of porous pavement. Although the pavers are impermeable, the spaces between the pave...

179

Concrete Overlay as a Rehabilitation Option for Distressed Asphalt Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-thin Whitetopping (UTW) involves placing a very thin concrete overlay 50 mm to 100 mm thick (2-4) on the milled surface of a distressed asphalt pavement. To investigate the performance of UTW placed over a flexible pavement subjected to slow and heavy moving wheel loads, whitetopping mixes were placed over a milled pavement surface in the Accelerated Pavement Testing (APT)

Sudarshan Rajan; J. Olek

2002-01-01

180

A strange bridge by Leonardo  

E-print Network

On folio 855 recto of the Codex Atlanticus, Leonardo da Vinci drew three 'easily movable' bridges, but one of them is enigmatic: all 'replicas' in Leonardo museums and exhibitions come as a surprise, to say the least, to any engineer or architect whose attention is drawn to it. This is the case for models in Amboise (France), Chicago and Portland (USA), Florence (Italy) and for the one of the traveling exhibition by the Australian company 'Grande Exhibitions' that already visited 40 major cities in the world. All 'replicas' of the bridge model attributed to Leonardo have pillars standing on the deck of the bridge, while the deck is suspended by cables attached on these pillars. At first sight this problem does not catch the attention of the observer, as the bridge seems to be a mixed form of a beam and a suspension bridge, but it was not overlooked by my colleague architect-engineer Dr. Laurens Luyten (Gent, Belgium). Yet, after a TV-interview in Brussels so much pressure was exerted by some of the museum col...

Huylebrouck, Dirk

2013-01-01

181

Improving Rutting Resistance of Pavement Structures Using Geosynthetics: An Overview  

PubMed Central

A pavement structure consists of several layers for the primary purpose of transmitting and distributing traffic loads to the subgrade. Rutting is one form of pavement distresses that may influence the performance of road pavements. Geosynthetics is one type of synthetic materials utilized for improving the performance of pavements against rutting. Various studies have been conducted on using different geosynthetic materials in pavement structures by different researchers. One of the practices is a reinforcing material in asphalt pavements. This paper intends to present and discuss the discoveries from some of the studies on utilizing geosynthetics in flexible pavements as reinforcement against permanent deformation (rutting). PMID:24526919

Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Khodaii, Ali; Almasi, Mohammad Hadi

2014-01-01

182

Improving rutting resistance of pavement structures using geosynthetics: an overview.  

PubMed

A pavement structure consists of several layers for the primary purpose of transmitting and distributing traffic loads to the subgrade. Rutting is one form of pavement distresses that may influence the performance of road pavements. Geosynthetics is one type of synthetic materials utilized for improving the performance of pavements against rutting. Various studies have been conducted on using different geosynthetic materials in pavement structures by different researchers. One of the practices is a reinforcing material in asphalt pavements. This paper intends to present and discuss the discoveries from some of the studies on utilizing geosynthetics in flexible pavements as reinforcement against permanent deformation (rutting). PMID:24526919

Mirzapour Mounes, Sina; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Khodaii, Ali; Almasi, Mohammad Hadi

2014-01-01

183

46 CFR 116.1110 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Drainage and Watertight Integrity of Weather Decks 116.1110 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must be watertight and have...

2014-10-01

184

46 CFR 116.1110 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Drainage and Watertight Integrity of Weather Decks 116.1110 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must be watertight and have...

2013-10-01

185

46 CFR 178.410 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks 178.410 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must be watertight and have...

2010-10-01

186

46 CFR 116.1110 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Drainage and Watertight Integrity of Weather Decks 116.1110 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must be watertight and have...

2012-10-01

187

46 CFR 178.410 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks 178.410 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must be watertight and have...

2014-10-01

188

46 CFR 116.1110 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Drainage and Watertight Integrity of Weather Decks 116.1110 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must be watertight and have...

2010-10-01

189

46 CFR 116.1110 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Drainage and Watertight Integrity of Weather Decks 116.1110 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must be watertight and have...

2011-10-01

190

46 CFR 178.410 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks 178.410 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must be watertight and have...

2012-10-01

191

Experimental study on fuzzy logic vibration control of a bridge using fail-safe magnetorheological fluid dampers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a semi-active vibration control of a scaled two-span bridge structure. Magneto-rheological fluid dampers are utilized as the semi-active energy absorbing devices, and a bridge vibration control system is developed. Closed-loop control system based on fuzzy logic is used to suppress the bridge deck motion under random excitation. It is demonstrated that this fuzzy logic control system can significantly reduce the relative deck displacement using about 60% less power compared to passive on state, while the absolute deck acceleration remains practically unchanged.

Liu, Yanming; Gordaninejad, Faramarz; Evrensel, Cahit A.; Hitchcock, Gregory H.

2001-07-01

192

State-of-the-art of long-span bridge engineering in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the state-of-the-art of longspan bridge engineering in China with emphases on recent long-span bridge\\u000a projects, bridge deck configuration and material, design codes of long-span bridges and improvement of aerodynamic performance.\\u000a The recent long-span bridge projects include thirty-eight completed suspension bridges, cable-stayed and arch bridges with\\u000a a main span over 400 m, and eighteen major bridges are under

Haifan Xiang; Yaojun Ge

2007-01-01

193

Graphical 3D Visualization of Highway Bridge Ratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging highway infrastructure requires effective rating methodologies to prioritize bridges for rehabilitation and repair. To aid engineers in decision making regarding bridge maintenance, a three-dimensional 3D visualization system is developed for rating reinforced concrete deck-girder bridge. Color codings show the most probable mode of failure for girder cross sections under combined moment-shear forces and allow an engineer to determine a

Gregory Esch; Michael H. Scott

2009-01-01

194

Definition of the 2005 flight deck environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed description of the functional requirements necessary to complete any normal commercial flight or to handle any plausible abnormal situation is provided. This analysis is enhanced with an examination of possible future developments and constraints in the areas of air traffic organization and flight deck technologies (including new devices and procedures) which may influence the design of 2005 flight decks. This study includes a discussion on the importance of a systematic approach to identifying and solving flight deck information management issues, and a description of how the present work can be utilized as part of this approach. While the intent of this study was to investigate issues surrounding information management in 2005-era supersonic commercial transports, this document may be applicable to any research endeavor related to future flight deck system design in either supersonic or subsonic airplane development.

Alter, K. W.; Regal, D. M.

1992-01-01

195

Resource management on the flight deck. [conferences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several approaches to the training and selection of aircrew are presented including both industry and nonindustry perspectives. Human factor aspects of the problem are also examined with specific emphasis on the psychology of the flight deck situation.

Cooper, G. E. (editor); White, M. D. (editor); Lauber, J. K. (editor)

1980-01-01

196

An evaluation of pavement markings and raised pavement markers at left exit lane drops  

E-print Network

AN EVALUATION OF PAVEMENT MARKINGS AND RAISED PAVEMENT MARKERS AT LEFT EXIT LANE DROPS A Thesis by MARTY TINA LANCE Submitted to Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved... Markings and Raised Pavement Markers at Left Exit Lane Drops. (August 1994) Marty Tina Lance, B. S. , Lander University; B. S. , Clemson University Chair of Advisory Cominittee: Dr. Thomas Urbanik II Most highway engineers agree that freeway exit lane...

Lance, Marty Tina

1994-01-01

197

Improvements to a Transport Model of Asphalt Binder Oxidation in Pavements: Pavement Temperature Modeling, Oxygen Diffusivity in Asphalt Binders and Mastics, and Pavement Air Void Characterization  

E-print Network

in asphalt binders and mastics, and characterizing air voids in pavements, these key model elements were studied in turn. Hourly pavement temperatures were calculated with an improved one-dimensional heat transfer model, coupled with methods to obtain model...

Han, Rongbin

2012-07-16

198

Work on Phoenix Science Deck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lockheed Martin Space Systems technicians Jim Young (left) and Jack Farmerie (right) work on the science deck of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

The spacecraft was built in a 100,000-class clean room near Denver under NASA's planetary protection practices to keep organics from being taken to Mars. The lander's robotic arm, built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, is seen at the top of the picture. The color and grey dots will be used to calibrate the spacecraft's Surface Stereoscopic Imager camera once the spacecraft has landed on the red planet.

The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2007-01-01

199

Beyond the Flight DeckBeyond the Flight Deck The Role of Maintenance Personnel  

E-print Network

Beyond the Flight DeckBeyond the Flight Deck The Role of Maintenance Personnel in Emergency Engineering l Flight Ops duty manager l Engineering test flight l Flight Attendants l ATC #12;UAL Maintenance l Technical training on respective fleet type l Some flight ops training, ex. LOFT. Familiarity

200

Pervious Pavement System Evaluation- Abstract 1  

EPA Science Inventory

Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, gra...

201

Permeable Pavement Research - Edison, New Jersey  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation provides the background and summary of results collected at the permeable pavement parking lot monitored at the EPA facility in Edison, NJ. This parking lot is surfaced with permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete, and porous asphalt. ...

202

Flexible Pavement Drainage Monitoring, Performance, and Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study is a continuation of the study FHWA\\/IN\\/JTRP project HPR-2078, Locating the Drainage Layer for Flexible Pavements. In this previous study, three test sections were constructed in a new pavement on a by-pass around Fort Wayne, Indiana. These test sections were instrumental to record temperatures, moisture, frost penetration, rainfall and subdrainage system overflow. Collected data and Finite Element

Aiwen Feng; Jianfeng Hua; Thomas D. White

1999-01-01

203

Extreme Hurricane Surge Estimation for Texas Coastal Bridges Using Dimensionless Surge Response Functions  

E-print Network

Page Fig. 1 Highway 90 bridge damaged during Hurricane Katrina ....................................... 5 Fig. 2 Two bridges damaged during Hurricane Ike ........................................................ 6 Fig. 3 Locations of twenty target... route. When Hurricane Katrina (2005) attacked the vital coastal bridges along the Gulf coast including the one on the US-90 in Mississippi (Fig. 1), extensive repair at public expense was required. For example; ? $803 million for the bridge deck...

Song, Youn Kyung

2010-10-12

204

Reducing traffic noise with quieter pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, interest has increased in the use of pavement type to reduce traffic noise. This has been driven by public concern over noise from freeways and state transportation agencies' interest in using pavement instead of sound walls to mitigate traffic noise. Beginnings of the recent interest go back to 1998 with the formation of the Institute for Safe, Quiet & Durable Highways at Purdue University and the initiation long-term research by the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) on the effectiveness of quieter pavements. In 2002, the State of Arizona announced plans to overlay 115 miles of concrete freeway in the greater Phoenix area with a quieter asphalt rubber surface. This turned into the first Quiet Pavement Pilot Program in partnership between Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the Arizona Department of Transportation. Since that time, the FHWA in cooperation with the American Association of State Highway Transportation Agencies conducted a fact finding ``Scan'' tour in Europe to evaluate their quiet pavement technology and policy. This was followed by the first comparative tire/pavement noise testing in the US and Europe using the same procedures and test tires. The results, issues, and future directions surrounding these activities will be discussed.

Donavan, Paul

2005-09-01

205

Fusing complementary images for pavement cracking measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cracking is a major pavement distress that jeopardizes road serviceability and traffic safety. Automated pavement distress survey (APDS) systems have been developed using digital imaging technology to replace human surveys for more timely and accurate inspections. Most APDS systems require special lighting devices to illuminate pavements and prevent shadows of roadside objects that distort cracks in the image. Most artificial lighting devices are laser based, and are either hazardous to unprotected people or require dedicated power supplies on the vehicle. This study was aimed to develop a new imaging system that can scan pavement surface at highway speed and determine the level of severity of pavement cracking without using any artificial lighting. The new system consists of dual line-scan cameras that are installed side by side to scan the same pavement area as the vehicle moves. Cameras are controlled with different exposure settings so that both sunlit and shadowed areas can be visible in two separate images. The paired images contain complementary details useful for reconstructing an image in which the shadows are eliminated. This paper intends to present (1) the design of the dual line-scan camera system, (2) a new calibration method for line-scan cameras to rectify and register paired images, (3) a customized image-fusion algorithm that merges the multi-exposure images into one shadow-free image for crack detection, and (4) the results of the field tests on a selected road over a long period.

Yao, Ming; Zhao, Zuyun; Yao, Xun; Xu, Bugao

2015-02-01

206

Thermal Stability Analysis under Embankment with Asphalt Pavement and Cement Pavement in Permafrost Regions  

PubMed Central

The permafrost degradation is the fundamental cause generating embankment diseases and pavement diseases in permafrost region while the permafrost degradation is related with temperature. Based on the field monitoring results of ground temperature along G214 Highway in high temperature permafrost regions, both the ground temperatures in superficial layer and the annual average temperatures under the embankment were discussed, respectively, for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements. The maximum depth of temperature field under the embankment for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements was also studied by using the finite element method. The results of numerical analysis indicate that there were remarkable seasonal differences of the ground temperatures in superficial layer between asphalt pavement and concrete pavement. The maximum influencing depth of temperature field under the permafrost embankment for every pavement was under the depth of 8?m. The thawed cores under both embankments have close relation with the maximum thawed depth, the embankment height, and the service time. The effective measurements will be proposed to keep the thermal stabilities of highway embankment by the results. PMID:24027444

Jinping, Li; Xiaojuan, Quan

2013-01-01

207

Thermal stability analysis under embankment with asphalt pavement and cement pavement in permafrost regions.  

PubMed

The permafrost degradation is the fundamental cause generating embankment diseases and pavement diseases in permafrost region while the permafrost degradation is related with temperature. Based on the field monitoring results of ground temperature along G214 Highway in high temperature permafrost regions, both the ground temperatures in superficial layer and the annual average temperatures under the embankment were discussed, respectively, for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements. The maximum depth of temperature field under the embankment for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements was also studied by using the finite element method. The results of numerical analysis indicate that there were remarkable seasonal differences of the ground temperatures in superficial layer between asphalt pavement and concrete pavement. The maximum influencing depth of temperature field under the permafrost embankment for every pavement was under the depth of 8?m. The thawed cores under both embankments have close relation with the maximum thawed depth, the embankment height, and the service time. The effective measurements will be proposed to keep the thermal stabilities of highway embankment by the results. PMID:24027444

Junwei, Zhang; Jinping, Li; Xiaojuan, Quan

2013-01-01

208

Demonstration of dual-band infrared thermal imaging for bridge inspection. Phase II, final report  

SciTech Connect

Developing and implementing methods of effective bridge rehabilitation is a major issue for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). The nation spends $5 billion annually to replace, rehabilitate or construct new bridges. According to the National Bridge Inventory, over 100,000 U.S. bridges are structurally deficient. About 40,000 of these bridges have advanced deck deterioration. The most common causes of serious deck deterioration is delamination. Delaminations result when steel reinforcements within the bridge deck corrode, creating gaps that separate the concrete into layers. A reliable inspection technology, capable of identifying delaminations, would represent a power new tool in bridge maintenance. To date, most bridge inspections rely on human interpretation of surface visual features of chain dragging. These methods are slow, disruptive, unreliable and raise serious safety concerns. Infrared thermal imaging detects subsurface delaminations and surface clutter, which is introduced by foreign material on the roadway. Typically, foreign material which is not always evident on a video tape image, produces a unique IR reflectance background unlike the thermal response of a subsurface delamination. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses dual-band infrared (DBIR) thermal imaging to identify and remove nonthermal IR reflectance backgrounds from foreign material on the roadway. DBIR methods improve the performance of IR thermal imaging by a factor of ten, compared to single-band infrared (SBIR) methods. DBIR thermal imaging allows precise temperature measurement to reliably locate bridge deck delaminations and remove wavelength-dependent emissivity variations due to foreign material on the roadway.

Durbin, P.F.; Del Grande, N.K.; Schaich, P.C.

1996-03-01

209

Wave impact on a deck or baffle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some coastal or ocean structures have deck-like baffles or horizontal platforms that can be exposed to wave action in heavy seas. A similar situation may occur in partially-filled tanks with horizontal baffles that become engulfed by sloshing waves. This can result in dangerous wave impact loads (slamming) causing a rapid rise of pressures which may lead to local damaging by crack initiation and/or propagation. We consider the wave impact against the whole of underside of horizontal deck (or baffle) projecting from a seawall (or vertical tank wall), previously studied by Wood and Peregrine (1996) using a different method based on conformal mappings. The approach used is to simplify the highly time-dependent and very nonlinear problem by considering the time integral of the pressure over the duration of the impact pressure-impulse, P (x, y). Our method expresses this in terms of eigenfunctions that satisfy the boundary conditions apart from that on the impact region and the matching of the two regions (under the platform and under the free surface); this results in a matrix equation to be solved numerically. As in Wood and Peregrine, we found that the pressure impulse on the deck increases when the length of deck increases, there is a strong pressure gradient beneath the deck near the seaward edge and the maximum pressure impulse occurs at the landward end of the impact zone.

Md Noar, Nor Aida Zuraimi; Greenhow, Martin

2015-02-01

210

Bridge permeameter  

DOEpatents

A system for single-phase, steady-state permeability measurements of porous rock utilizes a fluid bridge arrangement analogous to a Wheatstone bridge. The arms of the bridge contain the sample and calibrated flow resistors.

Graf, Darin C. (Edgewood, NM); Warpinski, Norman R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01

211

RESEARCH Open Access Pavement crack characteristic detection based  

E-print Network

are not caused by pavement distress such as tire marks, oil spills and shadows. In the field of 3D pavement crack distress such as tire marks, oil spills, shadows, and recent fillings [11]. Moreover, the shadows and poor

Joensuu, University of

212

Rutting and drainage design methodology for a concrete block pavement  

E-print Network

procedure provides a measure of the pavement's performance by predicting the amount of rutting. This thesis also presents the analysis of the structural performance of a concrete block pavement that was constructed at Texas A&M's Riverside campus...

Poduska, Daryl Jason

1998-01-01

213

Exploration of Pavement Oxidation Model Applications and Field Validation  

E-print Network

oxidation have been investigated, such as oxidation kinetics, asphalt hardening in response to oxidation, pavement design, and environmental conditions. Based on understandings on those elements, pavement oxidation models have been developed to predict...

Cui, Yuanchen

2014-08-11

214

MANUAL FOR WEB-BASED TXDOT RIGID PAVEMENT Sureel Saraf  

E-print Network

NOT INTENDED FOR CONSTRUCTION, BIDDING, OR PERMIT PURPOSES. Research Supervisor: Moon Won #12;#12;Web evaluation of portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement. For example, in the mechanistic-empirical pavement

Texas at Austin, University of

215

Early age delamination in concrete pavements made with gravel aggregates  

E-print Network

Gravel aggregates had been used extensively in the Houston District of Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) for continuously reinforced concrete pavements construction for many years. However, some of these pavements have been subject to early...

Liu, Juanyu

2009-06-02

216

POROUS PAVEMENT. PHASE I. DESIGN AND OPERATIONAL CRITERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Design and operational criteria, utilization concepts, benefits and disadvantages, as well as other characteristics of porous pavements are presented in this report. Particular emphasis is placed on porous asphalt pavements, but the criteria and design approach are applicable to ...

217

61. View forward down hurricane deck toward salon clerestory, walking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

61. View forward down hurricane deck toward salon clerestory, walking beam, stack, and wheelhouse. Second smaller stack is from donkey boiler on main deck. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

218

2. ROSS POWERHOUSE: TRANSFORMER DECK, TAILRACE, AND BOATHOUSE AS SEEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. ROSS POWERHOUSE: TRANSFORMER DECK, TAILRACE, AND BOATHOUSE AS SEEN FROM EAST END OF TRANSFORMER DECK, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Ross Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 10.7 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

219

123. FORWARD PORT VIEW OF THE ISLAND WITH FLIGHT DECK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

123. FORWARD PORT VIEW OF THE ISLAND WITH FLIGHT DECK GUN MOUNTS, TAKEN FROM FORWARD FLIGHT DECK. APRIL 1945, (NATIONAL ARCHIVES NO. 80-G-469299) - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

220

PAVEMENT OVERLAY THICKNESS EVALUATION USING GROUND PENTRATING RADAR (GPR)  

E-print Network

PAVEMENT OVERLAY THICKNESS EVALUATION USING GROUND PENTRATING RADAR (GPR) Dwayne Harris, M.Sc., PG deflectometer (FWD), and ground penetrating radar (GPR). Core drilling provides very accurate pin point pavement and affected by the limitations and assumptions the method used to estimate thickness. GPR provides pavement

Shan, Jie

221

PARTIAL-DEPTH REPAIR OF CONCRETE PAVEMENTSCONCRETE PAVEMENTS  

E-print Network

April 2012 PARTIAL-DEPTH REPAIR OF CONCRETE PAVEMENTSCONCRETE PAVEMENTS GUIDE FOR #12;#12;Guide for Partial-Depth Repair of Concrete Pavements i Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No. 2 Depth Repair of Concrete Pavements April 2012 6. Performing Organization Code 7. Author(s) 8. Performing

222

A Bayesian approach for improved pavement performance prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for predicting future pavement distresses such as longitudinal cracking. These predicted distress values are used to plan road repairs. Large inherent variability in measured cracking and an extremely small number of observations are the nature of the pavement cracking data, which calls for a parametric Bayesian approach. We model theoretical pavement distress with a sigmoidal equation

Eun Sug Park; Roger E. Smith; Thomas J. Freeman; Clifford H. Spiegelman

2008-01-01

223

Porous Pavement in Cold Climates Part: Performance and Cost  

E-print Network

Porous Pavement in Cold Climates Part: Performance and Cost Onondaga Environmental Institute 17 However, a large number of installations STILL continue to be sub-standard 4 #12;Porous Pavement Design Overview Porous pavements for new and redevelopment are a watershed- based strategy that can both mitigate

224

Development on preventive maintenance management system for expressway asphalt pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the status that there was no expressway pavement preventive maintenance management system at home and abroad at present, based on the technology theory obtained by the author and the demands and process of expressway asphalt pavement preventive maintenance management, preventive maintenance management system for expressway asphalt pavement (EPMMS (V1.0)) was developed. The work or functions of expressway

Hu Guoxiang; Li Jie

2010-01-01

225

Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Shannon Golden, Alabama DOT  

E-print Network

Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Shannon Golden, Alabama DOT PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT PROJECT · First in Alabama in more than 25 years! · IM-I059 (342) Etowah County ­ I-59 Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation with Unbonded Concrete Overlay ­ Length: 10.9 miles ­ Thickness: 11.0 to 13.5 inches ­ Volume: 300

226

46 CFR 72.10-45 - Weather deck communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 72.10-45...ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape 72.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical...communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent...

2011-10-01

227

46 CFR 190.10-45 - Weather deck communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 190.10-45... Means of Escape 190.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical...communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined...

2012-10-01

228

46 CFR 173.062 - Drainage of weather deck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 173.062 Section 173.062 Shipping...VESSEL USE School Ships 173.062 Drainage of weather deck. The weather deck of each sailing school vessel must be...

2011-10-01

229

46 CFR 92.10-45 - Weather deck communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 92.10-45...ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape 92.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical...communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined...

2011-10-01

230

46 CFR 173.062 - Drainage of weather deck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 173.062 Section 173.062 Shipping...VESSEL USE School Ships 173.062 Drainage of weather deck. The weather deck of each sailing school vessel must be...

2010-10-01

231

46 CFR 173.062 - Drainage of weather deck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 173.062 Section 173.062 Shipping...VESSEL USE School Ships 173.062 Drainage of weather deck. The weather deck of each sailing school vessel must be...

2014-10-01

232

46 CFR 72.10-45 - Weather deck communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 72.10-45...ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape 72.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical...communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent...

2010-10-01

233

46 CFR 92.10-45 - Weather deck communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 92.10-45...ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape 92.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical...communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined...

2010-10-01

234

46 CFR 72.10-45 - Weather deck communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 72.10-45...ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape 72.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical...communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent...

2014-10-01

235

46 CFR 190.10-45 - Weather deck communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 190.10-45... Means of Escape 190.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical...communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined...

2014-10-01

236

46 CFR 92.10-45 - Weather deck communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 92.10-45...ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape 92.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical...communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined...

2014-10-01

237

46 CFR 190.10-45 - Weather deck communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 190.10-45... Means of Escape 190.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical...communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined...

2010-10-01

238

46 CFR 190.10-45 - Weather deck communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 190.10-45... Means of Escape 190.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical...communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined...

2011-10-01

239

46 CFR 173.062 - Drainage of weather deck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 173.062 Section 173.062 Shipping...VESSEL USE School Ships 173.062 Drainage of weather deck. The weather deck of each sailing school vessel must be...

2013-10-01

240

46 CFR 92.10-45 - Weather deck communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 92.10-45...ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape 92.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical...communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined...

2012-10-01

241

46 CFR 92.10-45 - Weather deck communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 92.10-45...ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape 92.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical...communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined...

2013-10-01

242

46 CFR 190.10-45 - Weather deck communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 190.10-45... Means of Escape 190.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical...communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined...

2013-10-01

243

46 CFR 174.215 - Drainage of weather deck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 174.215 Section 174.215 Shipping...Offshore Supply Vessels 174.215 Drainage of weather deck. The weather deck must have open rails to allow rapid clearing...

2012-10-01

244

46 CFR 174.215 - Drainage of weather deck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 174.215 Section 174.215 Shipping...Offshore Supply Vessels 174.215 Drainage of weather deck. The weather deck must have open rails to allow rapid clearing...

2011-10-01

245

46 CFR 72.10-45 - Weather deck communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 72.10-45...ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape 72.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical...communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent...

2013-10-01

246

46 CFR 173.062 - Drainage of weather deck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 173.062 Section 173.062 Shipping...VESSEL USE School Ships 173.062 Drainage of weather deck. The weather deck of each sailing school vessel must be...

2012-10-01

247

46 CFR 72.10-45 - Weather deck communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 72.10-45...ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape 72.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical...communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent...

2012-10-01

248

46 CFR 174.215 - Drainage of weather deck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 174.215 Section 174.215 Shipping...Offshore Supply Vessels 174.215 Drainage of weather deck. The weather deck must have open rails to allow rapid clearing...

2013-10-01

249

46 CFR 174.215 - Drainage of weather deck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 174.215 Section 174.215 Shipping...Offshore Supply Vessels 174.215 Drainage of weather deck. The weather deck must have open rails to allow rapid clearing...

2014-10-01

250

46 CFR 174.215 - Drainage of weather deck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 174.215 Section 174.215 Shipping...Offshore Supply Vessels 174.215 Drainage of weather deck. The weather deck must have open rails to allow rapid clearing...

2010-10-01

251

Inelastic behaviour of externally prestressed continuous composite box-girder bridge with prefabricated slabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

For continuous composite bridges with prefabricated slabs, it is necessary to introduce prestress for ensuring serviceability of the deck in terms of cracking. Because of complex stress distribution in negative moment regions due to internal or external prestressing, flexural behaviour needs to be evaluated through experiments. Static tests on a continuous composite box-girder bridge of 2020 m span with prefabricated

Hyung-Keun Ryu; Chang-Su Shim; Sung-Pil Chang; Chul-Hun Chung

2004-01-01

252

Straw Bridges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners design, build and test a model bridge out of straws. The bridge must span 25 cm across a gap between two tables or two chairs. To measure the load, the bridge must securely hold a small cup. Learners test the load by placing as many pennies in the cup as possible and counting how many the bridge can hold.

Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago

2012-01-01

253

Spills on Flat Inclined Pavements  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the general spill phenomenology for liquid spills occurring on relatively impermeable surfaces such as concrete or asphalt pavement and the development and application of a model to describe the time evolution of such spills. The discussion assumes evaporation and degradation are negligible and a homogeneous surface. In such an instance, the inherent interfacial properties determine the spatial extent of liquid spreading with the initial flow being controlled by the release rate of the spill and by the liquids resistance to flow as characterized by its viscosity. A variety of spill scenarios were simulated and successful implementation of the model was achieved. A linear relationship between spill area and spill volume was confirmed. The simulations showed spill rate had little effect on the final spill area. Slope had an insignificant effect on the final spill area, but did modify spill shape considerably. However, a fluid sink on the edge of the simulation domain, representing a storm drain, resulted in a substantial decrease in spill area. A bona fide effort to determine the accuracy of the model and its calculations remain, but comparison against observations from a simple experiment showed the model to correctly determine the spill area and general shape under the conditions considered. Further model verification in the form of comparison against small scale spill experiments are needed to confirm the models validity.

Simmons, Carver S.; Keller, Jason M.; Hylden, Jeff L.

2004-03-01

254

Flight deck automation: Promises and realities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Issues of flight deck automation are multifaceted and complex. The rapid introduction of advanced computer-based technology onto the flight deck of transport category aircraft has had considerable impact both on aircraft operations and on the flight crew. As part of NASA's responsibility to facilitate an active exchange of ideas and information among members of the aviation community, a NASA/FAA/Industry workshop devoted to flight deck automation, organized by the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division of NASA Ames Research Center. Participants were invited from industry and from government organizations responsible for design, certification, operation, and accident investigation of transport category, automated aircraft. The goal of the workshop was to clarify the implications of automation, both positive and negative. Workshop panels and working groups identified issues regarding the design, training, and procedural aspects of flight deck automation, as well as the crew's ability to interact and perform effectively with the new technology. The proceedings include the invited papers and the panel and working group reports, as well as the summary and conclusions of the conference.

Norman, Susan D. (editor); Orlady, Harry W. (editor)

1989-01-01

255

33 CFR 155.790 - Deck lighting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...plane 3 feet above the deck the illumination must measure at least: (1) 5.0 foot candles at transfer connection points; and (2) 1.0 foot candle in transfer operations work areas. (c) Lighting must be located or shielded so...

2013-07-01

256

33 CFR 155.790 - Deck lighting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...plane 3 feet above the deck the illumination must measure at least: (1) 5.0 foot candles at transfer connection points; and (2) 1.0 foot candle in transfer operations work areas. (c) Lighting must be located or shielded so...

2014-07-01

257

33 CFR 155.790 - Deck lighting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...plane 3 feet above the deck the illumination must measure at least: (1) 5.0 foot candles at transfer connection points; and (2) 1.0 foot candle in transfer operations work areas. (c) Lighting must be located or shielded so...

2010-07-01

258

33 CFR 155.790 - Deck lighting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...plane 3 feet above the deck the illumination must measure at least: (1) 5.0 foot candles at transfer connection points; and (2) 1.0 foot candle in transfer operations work areas. (c) Lighting must be located or shielded so...

2012-07-01

259

33 CFR 155.790 - Deck lighting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...plane 3 feet above the deck the illumination must measure at least: (1) 5.0 foot candles at transfer connection points; and (2) 1.0 foot candle in transfer operations work areas. (c) Lighting must be located or shielded so...

2011-07-01

260

Flight-deck automation: promises and problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern microprocessor technology and display systems make it entirely feasible to automate many of the flight-deck functions previously performed manually. There are many benefits to be derived from automation; the question today is not whether a function can be automated, but whether it should be, due to various human factors issues. It is highly questionable whether total system safety is

EARL L. WIENER; RENWICK E. CURRY

1980-01-01

261

On Deck with the Scarlett Isabella  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A view from the deck of the Scarlett Isabella. The USGS returned from a seafloor data mapping mission offshore of the Delmarva Peninsula (Ocean City, MD) on July 25th, 2014. The data collected is foundational to our continued understanding of coastal change, vulnerabilities, and making our co...

262

Cognitive representations of flight-deck information attributes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large number of aviation issues are generically being called fligh-deck information management issues, underscoring the need for an organization or classification structure. One objective of this study was to empirically determine how pilots organize flight-deck information attributes and -- based upon that data -- develop a useful taxonomy (in terms of better understanding the problems and directing solutions) for classifying flight-deck information management issues. This study also empirically determined how pilots model the importance of flight-deck information attributes for managing information. The results of this analysis suggest areas in which flight-deck researchers and designers may wish to consider focusing their efforts.

Ricks, Wendell R.; Jonsson, Jon E.; Rogers, William H.

1994-01-01

263

Noise from Aft Deck Exhaust Nozzles Differences in Experimental Embodiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two embodiments of a rectangular nozzle on an aft deck are compared. In one embodiment the lower lip of the nozzle was extended with the sidewalls becoming triangles. In a second embodiment a rectangular nozzle was fitted with a surface that fit flush to the lower lip and extended outward from the sides of the nozzle, approximating a semi-infinite plane. For the purpose of scale-model testing, making the aft deck an integral part of the nozzle is possible for relatively short deck lengths, but a separate plate model is more flexible, accounts for the expanse of deck to the sides of the nozzle, and allows the nozzle to stand off from the deck. Both embodiments were tested and acoustic far-field results were compared. In both embodiments the extended deck introduces a new noise source, but the amplitude of the new source was dependent upon the span (cross-stream dimension) of the aft deck. The noise increased with deck length (streamwise dimension), and in the case of the beveled nozzle it increased with increasing aspect ratio. In previous studies of slot jets in wings it was noted that the increased noise from the extended aft deck appears as a dipole at the aft deck trailing edge, an acoustic source type with different dependence on velocity than jet mixing noise. The extraneous noise produced by the aft deck in the present studies also shows this behavior both in directivity and in velocity scaling.

Bridges, James E.

2014-01-01

264

Desert pavement development and landscape stability on the Eastern Libyan Plateau, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desert pavement surfaces of the eastern Libyan Plateau in central Egypt represent a stable landscape preserving Middle and Upper Paleolithic artifacts. Detailed measurements of pavement clasts indicate significant variability in clast size, density, lithology and orientation between pavements, but no spatial relationship among any of these pavement variables over the study area. Pavement characteristics are unrelated to local geomorphic features

Katherine A. Adelsberger; Jennifer R. Smith

2009-01-01

265

PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT FOR FLEXIBLE OVER RIGID COMPOSITE PAVEMENTS (Tollway)  

E-print Network

.02 of the Standard Specifications except as modified herein. Concrete supplied for the lower layer of an asphalt. If necessary for maintaining intimate contact with the pavement surface, the drag may be weighted using lumber

266

Chip Seals for Asphalt Concrete Pavements: A Proposed Emulsion Residue Specification and Existing Pavement Texture Evaluation  

E-print Network

from chip seal emulsions; and investigation of texture measurement methods for assessing existing pavement macrotexture before a chip seal is placed. The performance graded (PG) asphalt binder specification, which was developed to characterize asphalt...

Hoyt, Denise

2012-07-16

267

Permeable Pavements, Green Roofs, and Cisterns  

E-print Network

examples of appropriate uses for permeable pavements include patios, residential parking pads, driveways opportunity regardless of race, color, creed, national origin, religion, sex, age, or disability. In addition, fire lanes, overflow parking areas, and some daily parking areas. For runoff reduction, a per- meable

Hunt, William F.

268

Permeable pavement research ? Edison, New Jersey  

EPA Science Inventory

These are the slides for the New York City Concrete Promotional Council Pervious Concrete Seminar presentation. The basis for the project, the monitoring design and some preliminary monitoring data from the permeable pavement parking lot at the Edison Environmental Center are pre...

269

Innovations in Pavement Recycling Session CTS Conference  

E-print Network

Innovations in Pavement Recycling Session CTS Conference April 27, 2010 Jill M. Thomas, P !! Single lane construction zone !! Both have benefits #12;Case Example: Freeborn County Rubblization Bituminous #12;Many Benefits !! Cost savings. !! No new r.o.w. needed, thus no impact to wetlands

Minnesota, University of

270

PAVEMENT TECHNOLOGY UPDATE This Technology Transfer Program  

E-print Network

the road." In recent years, increasing amounts of crumb rubber from recycled tires have been added solve the very serious problem of waste tire disposal. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROGRAM SEPTEMBER 2009, VOL. 1, NO. 2 Rubber Roads: Waste Tires Find a Home By Larry Santucci, PE Pavement Specialist

California at Berkeley, University of

271

76 FR 67018 - Notice to Manufacturers of Airport In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Airport In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation...Manufacturers of In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems...Passive In- Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems that meet the...

2011-10-28

272

78 FR 26847 - Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise Analyses  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise Analyses AGENCY...specific pavement types used in Federal-aid highway traffic noise analyses. Current...include additional pavement types in Federal-aid highway traffic noise analyses....

2013-05-08

273

23 CFR 972.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition...the AASHTO's Pavement Management Guide.2 2 Pavement Management Guide, AASHTO...framework for a PMS: (1) A database and an ongoing...

2013-04-01

274

23 CFR 972.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition...the AASHTO's Pavement Management Guide.2 2 Pavement Management Guide, AASHTO...framework for a PMS: (1) A database and an ongoing...

2011-04-01

275

23 CFR 971.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition...the AASHTO's Pavement Management Guide. 1 1 Pavement Management Guide, AASHTO...framework for a PMS: (1) A database and an ongoing...

2014-04-01

276

23 CFR 971.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition...the AASHTO's Pavement Management Guide. 1 1 Pavement Management Guide, AASHTO...framework for a PMS: (1) A database and an ongoing...

2012-04-01

277

23 CFR 972.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition...the AASHTO's Pavement Management Guide.2 2 Pavement Management Guide, AASHTO...framework for a PMS: (1) A database and an ongoing...

2012-04-01

278

23 CFR 973.208 - Indian lands pavement management system (PMS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...208 Indian lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition...the AASHTO's Pavement Management Guide. 1 1 Pavement Management Guide, AASHTO...framework for a PMS: (1) A database and an ongoing...

2013-04-01

279

23 CFR 971.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition...the AASHTO's Pavement Management Guide. 1 1 Pavement Management Guide, AASHTO...framework for a PMS: (1) A database and an ongoing...

2013-04-01

280

23 CFR 971.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition...the AASHTO's Pavement Management Guide. 1 1 Pavement Management Guide, AASHTO...framework for a PMS: (1) A database and an ongoing...

2011-04-01

281

23 CFR 972.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition...the AASHTO's Pavement Management Guide.2 2 Pavement Management Guide, AASHTO...framework for a PMS: (1) A database and an ongoing...

2014-04-01

282

23 CFR 973.208 - Indian lands pavement management system (PMS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...208 Indian lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition...the AASHTO's Pavement Management Guide. 1 1 Pavement Management Guide, AASHTO...framework for a PMS: (1) A database and an ongoing...

2014-04-01

283

23 CFR 973.208 - Indian lands pavement management system (PMS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...208 Indian lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition...the AASHTO's Pavement Management Guide. 1 1 Pavement Management Guide, AASHTO...framework for a PMS: (1) A database and an ongoing...

2011-04-01

284

23 CFR 973.208 - Indian lands pavement management system (PMS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...208 Indian lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition...the AASHTO's Pavement Management Guide. 1 1 Pavement Management Guide, AASHTO...framework for a PMS: (1) A database and an ongoing...

2012-04-01

285

23 CFR 972.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition...the AASHTO's Pavement Management Guide.2 2 Pavement Management Guide, AASHTO...framework for a PMS: (1) A database and an ongoing...

2010-04-01

286

23 CFR 971.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition...the AASHTO's Pavement Management Guide. 1 1 Pavement Management Guide, AASHTO...framework for a PMS: (1) A database and an ongoing...

2010-04-01

287

23 CFR 973.208 - Indian lands pavement management system (PMS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...208 Indian lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition...the AASHTO's Pavement Management Guide. 1 1 Pavement Management Guide, AASHTO...framework for a PMS: (1) A database and an ongoing...

2010-04-01

288

Popsicle Bridge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how engineering has impacted the development of bridges over time, including innovative designs and the challenge of creating bridges that become landmarks for a city. Learners work in teams of "engineers" to design and build their own bridge out of glue and popsicle sticks. Learners test their bridges using weights, evaluate their results, and present their findings to the group.

IEEE

2013-08-30

289

Spaghetti Bridge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this engineering activity, learners investigate the differences between the strength of bridges made from flat and round building materials. They construct simple bridges out of linguine, which has a rectangular shape, and spaghetti, which has a circular shape. They then test and compare the weight capacity of the bridges.

2012-06-23

290

Bridge permeameter  

DOEpatents

A system is described for single-phase, steady-state permeability measurements of porous rock which utilizes a fluid bridge arrangement analogous to a Wheatstone bridge. The arms of the bridge contain the sample and calibrated flow resistors. 8 figs.

Graf, D.C.; Warpinski, N.R.

1996-08-13

291

Designing Bridges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the types of possible loads, how to calculate ultimate load combinations, and investigate the different sizes for the beams (girders) and columns (piers) of simple bridge design. Students learn the steps that engineers use to design bridges: understanding the problem, determining the potential bridge loads, calculating the highest possible load, and calculating the amount of material needed to resist the loads.

2014-09-18

292

Advanced ground-penetrating, imaging radar for bridge inspection  

SciTech Connect

Inspecting high-value structures, like bridges and buildings using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an application of the technology that is growing in importance. In a typical inspection application, inspectors use GPR to locate structural components, like reinforcing bars embedded in concrete, to avoid weakening the structure while collecting core samples for detailed inspection. Advanced GPR, integrated with imaging technologies for use as an NDE tool, can provide the capability to locate and characterize construction flaws and wear- or age-induced damage in these structures without the need for destructive techniques like coring. In the following sections, we discuss an important inspection application, namely, concrete bridge deck inspection. We describe an advanced bridge deck inspection system concept and provide an overview of a program aimed at developing such a system. Examples of modeling, image reconstruction, and experimental results are presented.

Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.; Johansson, E.M.; Nelson, S.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lee, Hua [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1993-08-01

293

MONITORING OF A HIGH PERFORMANCE PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BRIDGE WITH EMBEDDED OPTICAL FIBER SENSORS DURING FABRICATION, CONSTRUCTION AND SERVICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rio Puerco Bridge is located 15 miles west of Albuquerque, New Mexico. The bridge has 3 spans with length of 29 to 30 m. It is designed to be simply supported for dead load and continuous for live load. High Performance Concrete (HPC) was used for the cast-in-place concrete deck and the prestressed concrete beams. HPC can offer benefits

Rola L. Idriss

294

FRP FOR SHEAR STRENGTHENING OF AASHTO BRIDGE GIRDERS Robin L. Hutchinson, David R. Donald, and Sami H. Rizkalla  

E-print Network

capacity of a twenty-nine year old prestressed concrete bridge in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada be upgradedManitoba Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, R3T 5V6 KEYWORDS: AASHTO, bridges, bond, concrete, FRP, girders, shear-model pretensioned concrete girders in composite action with the deck slab. The first set of four beams were

295

Digital Bridges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Digital Bridges Web site consists of a collection of thirty representative 19th century American bridge engineering monographs, manuals, and documents from the Lehigh University Libraries' Special Collections." The archive provides an interesting retrospective into the beginnings of major bridge projects; the material is complete with high-resolution photographs and text scanned from original books. In addition to historical literature, Digital Bridges also features brief accounts of notable people and companies that influenced bridge construction across the country. A glossary of terms commonly used in the documents is also provided.

2002-01-01

296

Thermal cracking of rubber modified pavements, May 1995. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with the original ISTEA mandate (1991) to use crumb tire rubber in pavements, Alaska would be required to use about 250 tons of used tire rubber starting in 1994 and increasing to about 1,000 tons of rubber in 1997 and each year thereafter. A number of pavements using crumb rubber modifiers have been built in the state and have been in service for periods of 8 to 15 years. Knowledge of the behavior of these rubber-modified pavements under extreme climate conditions, particularly in relation to their low temperature cracking resistance, is necessary for future design and construction of rubberized pavements in Alaska. This report presents results of a study to determine the low temperature cracking resistance of rubber modified pavements in Alaska in comparison with conventional asphalt concrete pavements.

Raad, L.; Yuan, X.; Saboundjian, S.

1995-05-01

297

MODELING PAVEMENT DETERIORATION PROCESSES BY POISSON HIDDEN MARKOV MODELS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In pavement management, it is important to estimate lifecycle cost, which is composed of the expenses for repairing local damages, including potholes, and repairing and rehabilitating the surface and base layers of pavements, including overlays. In this study, a model is produced under the assumption that the deterioration process of pavement is a complex one that includes local damages, which occur frequently, and the deterioration of the surface and base layers of pavement, which progresses slowly. The variation in pavement soundness is expressed by the Markov deterioration model and the Poisson hidden Markov deterioration model, in which the frequency of local damage depends on the distribution of pavement soundness, is formulated. In addition, the authors suggest a model estimation method using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, and attempt to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed Poisson hidden Markov deterioration model by studying concrete application cases.

Nam, Le Thanh; Kaito, Kiyoyuki; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi; Okizuka, Ryosuke

298

DEFLECTIONS MEASURED ON EXPERIMENTAL ULTRA-THIN WHITETOPPING PAVEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the spring of 1998, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the American Concrete Pavement Association (ACPA) jointly constructed eight full-scale lanes of ultra-thin whitetopping (UTW) over existing hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements. These sections were placed at the FHWA's Pavement Test Facility, located at the Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center in McLean, Virginia. The experiment employed various combinations of thickness,

Xicheng Qi; James A. Sherwood; FHWA Terry Mitchell

299

Implications of reliability in mechanistic/empirical pavement design applications  

E-print Network

in Mechanistic/Empirical Pavement Design Applications. (May 1994) Brian Mark Killingsworth, B. S. Texas ASSAM University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Dan G. Zollinger At present there are many design procedures for both asphalt and concrete pavement... probabilistic-based design which evaluates reliability. Zollinger and Lytton state: "Design reliability is an indelible aspect of the pavement design process and needs to be genuinely considered and weighted equally with other design factors included...

Killingsworth, Brian Mark

1994-01-01

300

Pavement rehabilitation and funds allocation for a transportation network  

E-print Network

Continuously reinforced concrete pavement Jointed reinforced concrete pavement Jointed plain concrete pavement EP-4 EP-5 EP-6 EP-7 EP-8 EP-9 EP-10 Thick asphaltic concrete pavement (greater than 5 1/2" of hot-mixed asphaltic layers) Intermediate... condition of a h1ghway segment. AVU = Adjusted v 1sual defect utility. SIU = Serviceability index utility. SKU = Sk1 d number utility SCU = Structural Capac1ty ut1lity. al, a2, a3, a4 = Weighting factors. 1 1 (ADTF)(KEF) 2 3 4 ADTF = Average daily...

Stein, Alvaro

1985-01-01

301

Hybrid green permeable pave with hexagonal modular pavement systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modular permeable pavements are alternatives to the traditional impervious asphalt and concrete pavements. Pervious pore spaces in the surface allow for water to infiltrate into the pavement during rainfall events. As of their ability to allow water to quickly infiltrate through the surface, modular permeable pavements allow for reductions in runoff quantity and peak runoff rates. Even in areas where the underlying soil is not ideal for modular permeable pavements, the installation of under drains has still been shown to reflect these reductions. Modular permeable pavements have been regarded as an effective tool in helping with stormwater control. It also affects the water quality of stormwater runoff. Places using modular permeable pavement has been shown to cause a significant decrease in several heavy metal concentrations as well as suspended solids. Removal rates are dependent upon the material used for the pavers and sub-base material, as well as the surface void space. Most heavy metals are captured in the top layers of the void space fill media. Permeable pavements are now considered an effective BMP for reducing stormwater runoff volume and peak flow. This study examines the extent to which such combined pavement systems are capable of handling load from the vehicles. Experimental investigation were undertaken to quantify the compressive characteristics of the modular. Results shows impressive results of achieving high safety factor for daily life vehicles.

Rashid, M. A.; Abustan, I.; Hamzah, M. O.

2013-06-01

302

46 CFR 178.450 - Calculation of drainage area for cockpit and well deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks 178.450 Calculation of drainage area...4389.12 [(Recess Volume Recess Ratio) + (Weather Deck Volume Weather Deck Ratio)]; or Basic Drainage area in...

2012-10-01

303

46 CFR 178.450 - Calculation of drainage area for cockpit and well deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks 178.450 Calculation of drainage area...4389.12 [(Recess Volume Recess Ratio) + (Weather Deck Volume Weather Deck Ratio)]; or Basic Drainage area in...

2010-10-01

304

46 CFR 178.450 - Calculation of drainage area for cockpit and well deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks 178.450 Calculation of drainage area...4389.12 [(Recess Volume Recess Ratio) + (Weather Deck Volume Weather Deck Ratio)]; or Basic Drainage area in...

2013-10-01

305

46 CFR 178.450 - Calculation of drainage area for cockpit and well deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks 178.450 Calculation of drainage area...4389.12 [(Recess Volume Recess Ratio) + (Weather Deck Volume Weather Deck Ratio)]; or Basic Drainage area in...

2014-10-01

306

46 CFR 178.450 - Calculation of drainage area for cockpit and well deck vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks 178.450 Calculation of drainage area...4389.12 [(Recess Volume Recess Ratio) + (Weather Deck Volume Weather Deck Ratio)]; or Basic Drainage area in...

2011-10-01

307

77 FR 25189 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Federal Flight Deck Officer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Federal Flight Deck Officer Program AGENCY: Transportation...suitability for participating in the Federal Flight Deck Officer (FFDO) Program, and deputized...Collection Requirement Title: Federal Flight Deck Officer Program. Type of...

2012-04-27

308

33 CFR 149.696 - What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net? 149.696 Section...149.696 What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net? A helicopter landing deck safety net must comply...

2011-07-01

309

33 CFR 149.696 - What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net? 149.696 Section...149.696 What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net? A helicopter landing deck safety net must comply...

2014-07-01

310

33 CFR 149.696 - What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net? 149.696 Section...149.696 What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net? A helicopter landing deck safety net must comply...

2010-07-01

311

33 CFR 149.696 - What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net? 149.696 Section...149.696 What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net? A helicopter landing deck safety net must comply...

2012-07-01

312

33 CFR 149.696 - What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net? 149.696 Section...149.696 What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net? A helicopter landing deck safety net must comply...

2013-07-01

313

Analysis of creep effects for a cable-stayed bridge with composite girder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For steel-concrete composite beams, the stress's re-distribution between steel girder and concrete deck caused by the concrete creep may seriously affect the safety of the bridge, especially for a cable-stayed bridge with composite girder. Based on the effective elastic modular method, an approach for the analysis of the creep effects in the composite girder of a cable-stayed bridge was presented. The particularity of the proposed model relies on its ability to capture the redistribution of internal force and stress caused by creep in composite beam of some complex bridges such as cablestayed bridge, while considering the effect of the loading age of the precast concrete deck.

Jia, Buyu; Yan, Quansheng

2010-03-01

314

Analysis of creep effects for a cable-stayed bridge with composite girder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For steel-concrete composite beams, the stress's re-distribution between steel girder and concrete deck caused by the concrete creep may seriously affect the safety of the bridge, especially for a cable-stayed bridge with composite girder. Based on the effective elastic modular method, an approach for the analysis of the creep effects in the composite girder of a cable-stayed bridge was presented. The particularity of the proposed model relies on its ability to capture the redistribution of internal force and stress caused by creep in composite beam of some complex bridges such as cablestayed bridge, while considering the effect of the loading age of the precast concrete deck.

Jia, Buyu; Yan, Quansheng

2009-12-01

315

40 CFR Table 28 to Subpart G of... - Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks 28 Table 28 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection...Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD ) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks Deck construction Typical deck seam length...

2010-07-01

316

Smart Road Pavement Research HomePage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dubbed "the Smart Road" by Virginia's Department of Transportation, this full-scale facility for pavement research and evaluation of high-tech transportation systems uses computers, electronics, and satellites to create a realistic environment for collecting traffic and environmental data under controlled conditions, "and should advance the general understanding of the engineering behavior of pavement systems." This site, from the Virginia Tech Civil Engineering Materials Program, provides information from the researchers who have designed the Smart Road. The page contains a description of the project's current status, an explanation of objectives, construction photos, a detailed description of the instrumentation used, and data. Note, the research plan and testing links are still under construction. This site introduces an interesting project for highway and transportation engineers.

317

Multimodal approach to seismic pavement testing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A multimodal approach to nondestructive seismic pavement testing is described. The presented approach is based on multichannel analysis of all types of seismic waves propagating along the surface of the pavement. The multichannel data acquisition method is replaced by multichannel simulation with one receiver. This method uses only one accelerometer-receiver and a light hammer-source, to generate a synthetic receiver array. This data acquisition technique is made possible through careful triggering of the source and results in such simplification of the technique that it is made generally available. Multiple dispersion curves are automatically and objectively extracted using the multichannel analysis of surface waves processing scheme, which is described. Resulting dispersion curves in the high frequency range match with theoretical Lamb waves in a free plate. At lower frequencies there are several branches of dispersion curves corresponding to the lower layers of different stiffness in the pavement system. The observed behavior of multimodal dispersion curves is in agreement with theory, which has been validated through both numerical modeling and the transfer matrix method, by solving for complex wave numbers. ?? ASCE / JUNE 2004.

Ryden, N.; Park, C.B.; Ulriksen, P.; Miller, R.D.

2004-01-01

318

Spaghetti Bridge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners explore the field of civil engineering by making a bridge using spaghetti as their primary building material. Then they test their bridges to see how much weight they can carry before breaking. This activity allows learners to engage in the entire engineering process as they design, build, test, then discuss their bridges. Resource includes investigating questions to extend learning. Time estimated for activity can be split across multiple meetings.

Worcester Polytechnic Institute

2013-01-01

319

30. View of main deck at bow (looking aft from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. View of main deck at bow (looking aft from samson post, upper deck removed), showing anchor windlass (left foreground), head (right foregound), and forward deckhouse; weather canopy overhead not an original or permanent feature - Schooner WAWONA, 1018 Valley Street, Seattle, King County, WA

320

27. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK WITH TENDER ANNIE RUTH ALONGSIDE. COVER OF FORWARD COMPANIONWAY HAS BEEN PLACED ON MAIN DECK; SUN AWNING A TYPICAL FEATURE IN TROPICAL CLIMATES. CREW MEMBERS UNKNOWN Original 4-3/4'x6-3/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

321

33 CFR 157.168 - Crew member: Main deck watch.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crew member: Main deck watch. 157.168 Section 157.168 Navigation and Navigable...Vessels Cow Operations 157.168 Crew member: Main deck watch. During COW operations, the master shall ensure that at...

2010-07-01

322

Astronaut Ellen Ochoa at RMS controls on aft flight deck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Ellen Ochoa, payload commander, on the Space Shuttle Atlantis' aft flight deck, has just completed an operations at the controls for the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm while working in chorus with astronaut Donald R. McMonagle. McMonagle, mission commander, is seen here at his station on the forward flight deck. An RMS operations checklist floats in front of Ochoa.

1994-01-01

323

Crewmember working on the mid deck Zeolite Crystal Growth experiment.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

View showing Payload Specialist Bonnie Dunbar, in the mid deck, conducting the Zeolite Crystal Growth (ZCG) Experiment in the mid deck stowage locker work area. View shows assembly of zeolite sample in the metal autoclave cylinders prior to insertion into the furnace.

1992-01-01

324

14 CFR 121.547 - Admission to flight deck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Admission to flight deck. 121.547 Section 121.547 Aeronautics...DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations 121.547 Admission to flight deck. (a) No person may admit any...

2011-01-01

325

14 CFR 121.547 - Admission to flight deck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Admission to flight deck. 121.547 Section 121.547 Aeronautics...DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations 121.547 Admission to flight deck. (a) No person may admit any...

2013-01-01

326

14 CFR 121.547 - Admission to flight deck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Admission to flight deck. 121.547 Section 121.547 Aeronautics...DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations 121.547 Admission to flight deck. (a) No person may admit any...

2014-01-01

327

14 CFR 121.547 - Admission to flight deck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Admission to flight deck. 121.547 Section 121.547 Aeronautics...DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations 121.547 Admission to flight deck. (a) No person may admit any...

2012-01-01

328

14 CFR 121.547 - Admission to flight deck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admission to flight deck. 121.547 Section 121.547 Aeronautics...DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations 121.547 Admission to flight deck. (a) No person may admit any...

2010-01-01

329

Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and  

E-print Network

1 Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and Multi-Car Elevator Systems using Genetic Control Systems EGSCS 1970 Artificial Intelligence AI) Double-Deck Elevator Systems DDES Multi-Car Elevator Systems MCES DDES MCES AI AI GA Neural Network NN Fuzzy Logic FL Genetic Network Programming GNP

Fernandez, Thomas

330

46 CFR 28.565 - Water on deck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

(b) Except for a vessel that operates on protected waters, the residual righting energy, b in Figure 28.565, must not be less than the water on deck heeling energy, a in Figure 28.565. (c) The water on deck heeling energy must be determined assuming the...

2011-10-01

331

Guide to Cement-Based Integrated Pavement Solutions  

E-print Network

Conventional Overlays CRCP VIBRATORY COMPACTION Pervious Concrete Full-Depth Reclamation Cement- Treat- ed Base concrete, precast pavements, roller-compacted concrete, cement-treated base, full-depth reclamation, overlays, pervious pavement, roller-compacted concrete, full-depth reclamation, cement-treated base, cement

332

CHECKLIST FOR INSPECTION OF POROUS PAVEMENTS Location: Inspector  

E-print Network

for ice management S U Piles of accumulated salt removed in spring S U 2. Debris Cleanup (2-4 times a year minimum, Spring & Fall) Clean porous pavement to remove sediment and organic debris on the pavement available) S U 3. Controlling Run-On (2-4 times a year) Adjacent vegetated areas show no signs of erosion

333

Research on pavement crack recognition methods based on image processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to overview and analysis briefly pavement crack recognition methods , then find the current existing problems in pavement crack image processing, the popular methods of crack image processing such as neural network method, morphology method, fuzzy logic method and traditional image processing .etc. are discussed, and some effective solutions to those problems are presented.

Cai, Yingchun; Zhang, Yamin

2011-06-01

334

Infrared thermography and ground penetrating radar for airport pavements assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-destructive techniques, such as infrared thermography and ground penetrating radar, have the potential to produce rapid and accurate assessment of airport pavements. In this work, an examination of asphalt pavements situated at the International Airport of Athens in Greece, is performed. Infrared thermography and ground penetrating radar are introduced with the purpose of providing prompt and accurate condition assessment of

A. Moropoulou; N. P. Avdelidis; M. Koui; A. Aggelopoulos; P. Karmis

2002-01-01

335

TEXAS PAVEMENT PRESERVATION CENTER FOUR-YEAR SUMMARY REPORT  

E-print Network

TEXAS PAVEMENT PRESERVATION CENTER FOUR-YEAR SUMMARY REPORT Dr. Yetkin Yildirim, P.E., TPPC Director E-mail: yetkin@mail.utexas.edu Mailing address: Texas Pavement Preservation Center Center for Transportation Research The University of Texas at Austin 3208 Red River, CTR 318 Austin, TX 78705 Tel: (512) 232

Texas at Austin, University of

336

Cosmogenic 3 He surface-exposure dating of stone pavements  

E-print Network

and pedogenic modification of windblown dust. In-situ cosmogenic 3 He surface-exposure ages on volcanic volcanic bedrock, are indistinguishable at the 1 level. We conclude that stone pavements are born of windblown sediments, not deflation or water erosion, is the major agent of pavement evo- lution. According

Ahmad, Sajjad

337

Improvement of canny algorithm based on pavement edge detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce an improved Canny edge detection algorithm and an edge preservation filtering procedure for pavement edge detection applications. Data of pavement images were randomly selected to test this algorithm. There are some problems of Canny operator, unable to detect the weak edge and distinguish the grayscale with little change, the detected edge uncontinuous. Based on these

Huili Zhao; Guofeng Qin; Xingjian Wang

2010-01-01

338

Modeling the Hydrologic Processes of a Permeable Pavement System  

EPA Science Inventory

A permeable pavement system can capture stormwater to reduce runoff volume and flow rate, improve onsite groundwater recharge, and enhance pollutant controls within the site. A new unit process model for evaluating the hydrologic performance of a permeable pavement system has be...

339

Strategies for autonomous robots to inspect pavement distresses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distress survey is an important task for pavement maintenance and rehabilitation (M&R) activities. As distress surveys require tremendous human resources, many investigators have begun to develop automatic inspection methods with the aim of increasing the efficiency and accuracy of inspections. After assessment of distress surveys on pavements using an autonomous robot (P3-AT), this research aims at developing motion strategies

Yuan-Hsu Tseng; Shih-Chung Kang; Jia-Ruey Chang; Cheng-Hao Lee

2011-01-01

340

Permeable Pavement Research at the Edison Environmental Center  

EPA Science Inventory

There are few detailed studies of full-scale, replicated, actively-used permeable pavement systems. Practitioners need additional studies of permeable pavement systems in its intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) across a range of climatic events, daily usage conditio...

341

HEAVY METAL RETENTION WITHIN A POROUS PAVEMENT STRUCTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous pavements with reservoir structure for infiltration of runoff from parking spaces and residential streets offer the opportunity to dispose water without using additional space in urban areas. However, pollutants in urban runoff endanger soils and groundwater, when pol- lutant retention in the structure is not sufficient. Porous pavement structures with four differ- ent subbase materials were tested in rigs.

C. Dierkes; A. Holte; W. F. Geiger

342

Permeable pavement demonstration site at Edison Environmental Center (Presentation)  

EPA Science Inventory

There are few studies of full-scale, outdoor, replicated, working pervious pavement systems. More studies of pervious pavement operating in its intended use (parking lot, roadway, etc.) during a range of climatic events, daily usage conditions, and maintenance regimes are necessa...

343

Fuzzy optimization BP neural network model for pavement performance assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discussed the use of fuzzy optimization BP neural network as a management tool for the maintenance of expressway pavement. The algorithm was applied to model pavement performance evaluation, successful in accurately and quickly capturing the high nonlinear characteristics between objective practical data and subjective synthetic evaluations, avoided the neural network activation function's defects of unclear physical meanings. A

Yan Liu; Min Sun

2007-01-01

344

Permeable Pavement Monitoring at the Edison Environmental Center Demonstration Site  

EPA Science Inventory

There are few detailed studies of full-scale, replicated, actively-used pervious pavement systems. Practitioners need additional studies of pervious pavement systems in its intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) during a range of climatic events, daily usage conditions...

345

Permeable pavement monitoring at the Edison Environmental Center demonstration site  

EPA Science Inventory

There are few detailed studies of full-scale, replicated, actively-used pervious pavement systems. Practitioners need additional studies of pervious pavement systems in its intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) during a range of climatic events, daily usage conditions...

346

COLORADO DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Sustainability of Concrete Pavement  

E-print Network

COLORADO DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Sustainability of Concrete Pavement I-225 - Mississippi to 6 · 2 Mile Reconstruction Existing: · 4 Lane Divided Highway · 8" Concrete Pavement (Recycled on-site) · 4" Asphalt Overlay (Recycled off-site) Project Design: · 6 Lane Divided Highway · 13" Concrete

347

Electro-optical approach to pavement deflection management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype continuous deflection device, referred to as a rolling weight deflectometer (RWD), has been developed as a nondestructive evaluation tool for airfield pavements. The system consists of a rigid trailer equipped with specially designed optical triangulation pavement sensors, a high-speed data acquisition system, and a high-pressure tire/load platform assembly. Pavement sensors are mounted on a rigid box beam equipped with an internal sensor system that corrects, in real time, the relative pavement height position measurements for displacements induced in the beam by mechanical vibrations, changes in temperature, or nonuniform dynamic loads at points where the beam attaches to the frame. The device produces continuous deflection profiles that show pavement response to a moving loaded wheel along the path of travel. These deflection profiles, combined with multiple passes along a lane, provide a far more detailed picture of the pavement structural integrity than has ever before been possible, because existing evaluation tools only produce response information at discrete points. Preliminary results show deflections measured by the RWD are in general agreement with the expected pavement response for various loads. A discussion of the device configuration, preliminary data, and potential as a pavement management tool is presented.

Rish, Jeff W., III; Adcock, Avery D.; Tuan, Christopher Y.; Baker, Samuel L.; Welker, Hugh W., II; Johnson, Roger F.

1995-07-01

348

Permeable pavement demonstration at the Edison Environmental Center (Hartford, CT)  

EPA Science Inventory

In general, there is a lack of full-scale, outdoor, real-world porous pavement studies with system replicates. More studies of porous pavement operating in its intended use (parking lot, roadway, etc.) with climatic events, regular use, and maintenance effects, are necessary. The...

349

Permeable Pavement Demonstration at the Edison Environmental Center (Hartford)  

EPA Science Inventory

In general, there is a lack of full-scale, outdoor, real-world porous pavement studies with system replicates. More studies of porous pavement operating in its intended use (parking lot, roadway, etc.) with climatic events, regular use, and maintenance effects, are necessary. The...

350

Permeable pavement demonstration at the Edison Environmental Center  

EPA Science Inventory

There are few studies of full-scale, outdoor, replicated, functioning pervious pavement systems. More studies of pervious pavement operating in its intended use (parking lot, roadway, etc.) during a range of climatic events, daily usage conditions, and maintenance regimes are nec...

351

Variable structure system based logic fuzzy control of bridge vibration using fail-safe magnetorheological fluid dampers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a semi-active vibration control of a scaled two-span bridge structure. Magneto-rheological fluid dampers are utilized as the semi-active energy absorbing deices and a bridge vibration control system is developed. Closed-loop control system based on fuzzy logic is used to suppress the bridge deck motion under random excitations. The sufficient condition for the closed-loop stability of the fuzzy

Yanming Liu; Faramarz Gordaninejad; Cahit A. Evrensel; Gregory H. Hitchcock; Xiaojie Wang

2002-01-01

352

Significance of bearing capacity of clayey subgrade in flexible pavement design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clays as subgrades pose serious problems to flexible pavements built over them as they retain moisture for a longer period and possess low strength. Excessive settlements along the wheel tracks on pavement surface and bearing capacity failures in the subgrade soil are often observed in the flexible pavements constructed over such subgrades. So, the present status of flexible pavements in

C. N. V. Satyanarayana Reddy; N. V. Rama Moorthy

2005-01-01

353

Straw Bridges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working as engineering teams, students design and create model beam bridges using plastic drinking straws and tape as their construction materials. Their goal is to build the strongest bridge with a truss pattern of their own design, while meeting the design criteria and constraints. They experiment with different geometric shapes and determine how shapes affect the strength of materials. Let the competition begin!

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

354

New structural systems for zero-maintenance pavements. Volume 3: Anchored pavement system designed for Edens Expressway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of the Edens Expressway subjected to mechanical and environmental loads using the anchored pavement concept is discussed. The mechanical and thermal properties of materials that could be encountered in future reconstruction of Edens Expressway are presented in a consistent form for computer programming. These properties are viewed as typical design values during investigation of pavement response. The behavior

S. K. Saxena; S. G. Militsopoulos

1980-01-01

355

An analysis of pavement heat flux to optimize the1 water efficiency of a pavement-watering method2  

E-print Network

heat wave intensity and frequency. However,13 although water consumption necessary to implement; pavement heat flux; pavement-watering; urban heat island; climate change25 adaptation; heat wave26 1. In France and especially Paris, the predicted increases in heat32 wave intensity and frequency due

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

356

Bridge aerodynamics and aeroelasticity: A comparison of modeling schemes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate modeling of wind-induced loads on bridge decks is critical to ensure the functionality and survivability of long-span bridges. Over the last few decades, several schemes have emerged to model bridge behavior under winds from an aerodynamic/aeroelastic perspective. A majority of these schemes rely on the quasi-steady (QS) theory. This paper systematically compares and assesses the efficacy of five analytical models available in the literature with a new model presented herein. These models include: QS theory-based model, corrected QS theory-based model, linearized QS theory-based model, semi-empirical linear model, hybrid model, and the proposed modified hybrid model. The ability of these models to capture fluid memory and nonlinear effects either individually or collectively is examined. In addition, their ability to include the effects of turbulence in the approach flow on the bridge behavior is assessed. All models are compared in a consistent manner by utilizing the time domain approach. The underlying role of each model in capturing the physics of bridge behavior under winds is highlighted and the influence of incoming turbulence and its interaction with the bridge deck is examined. A discussion is included that focuses on a number of critical parameters pivotal to the effectiveness of corresponding models.

Wu, Teng; Kareem, Ahsan

2013-11-01

357

A Prototype Roof Deck Designed to Self-Regulate Deck Temperature and Reduce Heat Transfer  

SciTech Connect

A prototype roof and attic assembly exploits the use of radiation, convection and insulation controls to reduce the heat transfer penetrating its roof deck by almost 85% of the heat transfer crossing a conventional roof and attic assembly. The assembly exhibited attic air temperatures that did not exceed the peak day outdoor ambient temperature. The design includes a passive ventilation scheme that pulls air from the soffit and attic into an inclined air space above the deck. The design complies with fire protection codes because the air intake is internal and closed to the elements. Field data were benchmarked against an attic computer tool and simulations made for new and retrofit home constructions in hot, moderate and cold climates to access economics for the assembly.

Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

358

Development and implementation of an enhanced procedure for estimating pavement rehabilitation and maintenance expenditures  

E-print Network

with critical values of performance. 3. Calculation of Survival Parameters. The time elapsed until a new pavement section needs a major rehabilitation is known as the service life of the pavement. The statistical distribution of the service life is referred... specified time. The time elapsed until a new pavement section needs a major rehabilitation, or the time between major rehabilitations for an existing pavement section, is known as the service life of the pavement. The statistical distribution...

Garcia-Diaz, Juan Carlos

1987-01-01

359

Variable-structure-system-based logic fuzzy control of bridge vibration using fail-safe magnetorheological fluid dampers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a semi-active vibration control of a scaled two-span bridge structure. Magneto-rheological fluid dampers are utilized as the semi-active energy absorbing deices and a bridge vibration control system is developed. Closed-loop control system based on fuzzy logic is used to suppress the bridge deck motion under random excitations. The sufficient condition for the closed-loop stability of the fuzzy control system is derived from the variable structure system theory. It is demonstrated that this stable fuzzy control system can significantly reduce the relative deck displacement using about 55 percent less power compared to passive-on state, while the absolute deck acceleration is relatively unaffected.

Liu, Yanming; Gordaninejad, Faramarz; Evrensel, Cahit A.; Hitchcock, Gregory H.; Wang, Xiaojie

2002-06-01

360

Analysis Of Thermal Patterns On A Motorized Ski Deck  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of pressure distributions on skis while skiing is of interest to ski researchers in that it yields useful information on ski design parameters such as spring constant, damping, and dimensional shape in a dynamic environment. Obtaining pressure distribution data on skis while skiing is a complex task due to the amount of instrumentation required and mobility of the skier. Research has been performed on analyzing pressure distributions from skiers on a ski deck using infrared thermography. The ski deck offers a platform where the skier is stationary and the deck (carpet) moves under the skier. As the skier skis on the revolving ski deck carpet, thermal patterns are observed behind the skier on the carpet surface. The intensity of these thermal patterns are proportional to the temperature rise on the deck surface and the pressure applied by the ski bottom to the deck surface. Several thermograms were analyzed for different skiing turns ranging from basic wedge turns through advanced linked turns. Transient pressure distributions are presented for various maneuvers. Infrared thermography coupled with revolving ski deck technology has been used to qualitatively depict ski pressure distributions for ski instructors teaching students how to ski. This has resulted in a quicker and safer learning process. The technique can also be used as a quantitative tool for the analysis of newer and safer ski designs.

Roberts, Charles C.

1987-05-01

361

46 CFR 171.140 - Drainage of a flush deck vessel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks 171.140 Drainage of a flush deck vessel. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must be watertight and have...

2013-10-01

362

46 CFR 171.140 - Drainage of a flush deck vessel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks 171.140 Drainage of a flush deck vessel. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must be watertight and have...

2011-10-01

363

46 CFR 171.140 - Drainage of a flush deck vessel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks 171.140 Drainage of a flush deck vessel. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must be watertight and have...

2010-10-01

364

46 CFR 171.140 - Drainage of a flush deck vessel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks 171.140 Drainage of a flush deck vessel. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must be watertight and have...

2014-10-01

365

Interior view of the Flight Deck looking forward, the Commander's ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of the Flight Deck looking forward, the Commander's seat and controls are on the left and the pilot's seat and controls are on the right of the view. Note that the flight deck windows have protective covers over them in this view. This images can be digitally stitched with image HAER No. TX-116-A-20 to expand the view to include the overhead control panels of the flight deck. This view was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

366

Pavement cracking measurements using 3D laser-scan images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pavement condition surveying is vital for pavement maintenance programs that ensure ride quality and traffic safety. This paper first introduces an automated pavement inspection system which uses a three-dimensional (3D) camera and a structured laser light to acquire dense transverse profiles of a pavement lane surface when it carries a moving vehicle. After the calibration, the 3D system can yield a depth resolution of 0.5 mm and a transverse resolution of 1.56 mm pixel-1 at 1.4 m camera height from the ground. The scanning rate of the camera can be set to its maximum at 5000 lines s-1, allowing the density of scanned profiles to vary with the vehicle's speed. The paper then illustrates the algorithms that utilize 3D information to detect pavement distress, such as transverse, longitudinal and alligator cracking, and presents the field tests on the system's repeatability when scanning a sample pavement in multiple runs at the same vehicle speed, at different vehicle speeds and under different weather conditions. The results show that this dedicated 3D system can capture accurate pavement images that detail surface distress, and obtain consistent crack measurements in repeated tests and under different driving and lighting conditions.

Ouyang, W.; Xu, B.

2013-10-01

367

Myocardial Bridge  

MedlinePLUS

... flow enough that myocardial ischemia develops, especially during exercise or when the heart is beating quickly. What are the symptoms? Up to one-third of patients with a myocardial bridge do not have any ...

368

Bridging Anticoagulation  

MedlinePLUS

... dose regimen, for example, enoxaparin (Lovenox) 1 mg/kg twice daily, is often used in North America, ... allocated to receive bridging anticoagulation (dalteparin 100 IU/kg twice daily) or matching placebo when warfarin is ...

369

Spaghetti Bridge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play with your food while learning about engineering! Build a spaghetti bridge, then test its strength by piling on the marshmallows, raw spaghetti, raw linguine and coins. Investigate the difference between the strength of bridges made from flat and round building materials (spaghetti is round, while linguine is flat). Learn by doing that circles are among the strongest shapes in nature, and that external and internal stress distributes itself evenly throughout a round structure.

2012-12-13

370

Automated management for pavement inspection system (AMPIS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An automated in-situ road surface distress surveying and management system, AMPIS, has been developed on the basis of video images within the framework of GIS software. Video image processing techniques are introduced to acquire, process and analyze the road surface images obtained from a moving vehicle. ArcGIS platform is used to integrate the routines of image processing and spatial analysis in handling the full-scale metropolitan highway surface distress detection and data fusion/management. This makes it possible to present user-friendly interfaces in GIS and to provide efficient visualizations of surveyed results not only for the use of transportation engineers to manage road surveying documentations, data acquisition, analysis and management, but also for financial officials to plan maintenance and repair programs and further evaluate the socio-economic impacts of highway degradation and deterioration. A review performed in this study on fundamental principle of Pavement Management System (PMS) and its implementation indicates that the proposed approach of using GIS concept and its tools for PMS application will reshape PMS into a new information technology-based system providing a convenient and efficient pavement inspection and management.

Chung, Hung Chi; Girardello, Roberto; Soeller, Tony; Shinozuka, Masanobu

2003-08-01

371

Use of lug anchors to related pavement movement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minnesota Department of Transporatation's policy is that grades in the 3 to 5 percent and greater range are steep and may require lug anchors. Standard lug anchor spacing varies from 150 feet, center to center, for 3 percent grades to 75 feet, center to center, for 5 percent and greater grades. Conclusions are: (1) that lug anchors do prevent the downhill movement of the concrete pavement; (2) that when lug anchors are used a perforated pipe system also be built to collect the surface water that enters the pavement structure thus eliminating the anticipated base pumping and pavement settlement.

Oakey, S. A.

1980-04-01

372

37. View aft of port side of main deck taken ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. View aft of port side of main deck taken from just aft of midship house, showing main hatch, mainmast and poop bulkhead. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

373

42. View from forward end of poop deck, port side, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. View from forward end of poop deck, port side, looking aft toward poop capstan, booby hatch, and mizzenmast. Photograph by Russell Booth, June 1989. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

374

46 CFR 28.565 - Water on deck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...565 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Stability 28.565 Water on deck. (a) Each vessel with bulwarks must comply with the...

2010-10-01

375

29 CFR 1915.165 - Ship's deck machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165...Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems ...

2010-07-01

376

8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. Edwards ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

377

11. DETAIL SHOWING ROLLING ENGINE DECK AND NORTHEAST TRUSS OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. DETAIL SHOWING ROLLING ENGINE DECK AND NORTHEAST TRUSS OF SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

378

87. AFT CREWS' MESS DECK STARBOARD LOOKING TO PORT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

87. AFT CREWS' MESS DECK - STARBOARD LOOKING TO PORT SHOWING COFFEE MAKER, ICE CREAM FREEZER, TABLES AND SCUTTLEBUTTS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

379

8. Working decks for buoy maintenance. White Sage on left, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Working decks for buoy maintenance. White Sage on left, White Holly on right. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HOLLY, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, 4640 Urquhart Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

380

6. DECK #4 TOPSIDE FROM NORTHEAST CORNER END PIECE FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DECK #4 TOPSIDE FROM NORTHEAST CORNER END PIECE FOR ROBOTIC ARM FOR ANCHORING ASTRONAUT FOR MECHANICAL WORK. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

381

46 CFR 11.910 - Subjects for deck officer endorsements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Endorsements Deck Officer Endorsements 1. Master/chief mate, oceans/near-coastal, unlimited tonnage. 2...than 500 GRT and less than 1,600 GRT. 3. Second mate/third mate, oceans/near-coastal, unlimited tonnage,...

2014-10-01

382

10. View forward along centerline of main deck from stern; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. View forward along centerline of main deck from stern; steering gear box cover has been removed, revealing gears. - Schooner "Lettie G. Howard", South Street Seaport Museum, New York, New York County, NY

383

40. EXTERIOR, DETAIL VIEW OF TEXAS DECK (PORCH), THIRD FLOOR, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

40. EXTERIOR, DETAIL VIEW OF TEXAS DECK (PORCH), THIRD FLOOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER FROM THE SOUTHEAST - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

384

28. EXTERIOR, VIEW FROM THE DECK OF THE UMBRA TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. EXTERIOR, VIEW FROM THE DECK OF THE UMBRA TO THE EAST PORCH FROM THE SOUTH - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

385

26. EXTERIOR, EAST ELEVATION, VIEW NORTH FROM PORCH DECK TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. EXTERIOR, EAST ELEVATION, VIEW NORTH FROM PORCH DECK TO THE PORTE-COCHERE FROM THE SOUTH - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

386

69. VIEW OF DECK AND PILINGS FROM LIFEGUARD TOWER AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

69. VIEW OF DECK AND PILINGS FROM LIFEGUARD TOWER AT 2ND TEE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING NEPTUNE'S LOCKER AND CAPTAIN'S GALLEY IN BACKGROUND AT RIGHT - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

387

46 CFR 69.109 - Under-deck tonnage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...is calculated under this section. (b) Method of calculating tonnage. Under-deck tonnage is calculated by applying Simpson's first rule using the tonnage length and the areas of the transverse sections prescribed by this section. (c)...

2012-10-01

388

46 CFR 69.109 - Under-deck tonnage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...is calculated under this section. (b) Method of calculating tonnage. Under-deck tonnage is calculated by applying Simpson's first rule using the tonnage length and the areas of the transverse sections prescribed by this section. (c)...

2013-10-01

389

46 CFR 69.109 - Under-deck tonnage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...is calculated under this section. (b) Method of calculating tonnage. Under-deck tonnage is calculated by applying Simpson's first rule using the tonnage length and the areas of the transverse sections prescribed by this section. (c)...

2011-10-01

390

46 CFR 69.109 - Under-deck tonnage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...is calculated under this section. (b) Method of calculating tonnage. Under-deck tonnage is calculated by applying Simpson's first rule using the tonnage length and the areas of the transverse sections prescribed by this section. (c)...

2010-10-01

391

46 CFR 69.109 - Under-deck tonnage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...is calculated under this section. (b) Method of calculating tonnage. Under-deck tonnage is calculated by applying Simpson's first rule using the tonnage length and the areas of the transverse sections prescribed by this section. (c)...

2014-10-01

392

51. Port elevation, in port. Note reduced turtle deck due ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. Port elevation, in port. Note reduced turtle deck due to quarters expansion. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE SUMAC, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, 4640 Urquhart Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

393

45. Starboard elevation under way. Note large turtle deck and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. Starboard elevation under way. Note large turtle deck and crane configuration. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE SUMAC, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, 4640 Urquhart Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

394

14. Car deck, looking forward, 1915 Mack Truck on left ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Car deck, looking forward, 1915 Mack Truck on left with 1926 Dodge behind, 1937 Diamond Pickup Truck on right with 1931 Ford Model A Mail Truck behind. - Ferry EUREKA, Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

395

5. TOPSIDE VIEW FROM UPPER DECK LOOKING DOWN INTO TANK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. TOPSIDE VIEW FROM UPPER DECK LOOKING DOWN INTO TANK WITH SHUTTLE CARGO BAY MOCK-UP AT BOTTOM OF 40 FOOT TANK. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

396

4. TOPSIDE VIEW FROM UPPER DECK LOOKING DOWN INTO TANK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. TOPSIDE VIEW FROM UPPER DECK LOOKING DOWN INTO TANK WITH SHUTTLE CARGO BAY MOCK-UP AT BOTTOM OF 40 FOOT TANK. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

397

23. STEAM PLANT TURBINE DECK FROM NORTH END OF BUILDING, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. STEAM PLANT TURBINE DECK FROM NORTH END OF BUILDING, SHOWING FOURTH STEAM UNIT IN PLACE AT FAR SOUTH END. April 6, 1950 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

398

8. TURBINE DECK (UPPER FLOOR) INSIDE STEAM PLANT, SHOWING STEAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. TURBINE DECK (UPPER FLOOR) INSIDE STEAM PLANT, SHOWING STEAM TURBINES AND GENERATORS, LOOKING NORTH. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

399

19. Main deck just forward of fish batch, portion of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Main deck just forward of fish batch, portion of fish hatch cover has been opened to show the ventilation grate below. - Schooner "Lettie G. Howard", South Street Seaport Museum, New York, New York County, NY

400

General view of he forward wall of the mid deck ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of he forward wall of the mid deck of the Orbiter Discovery. In this view a majority of wall panels have been removed to reveal the avionics bays in the interstitial space between the mid deck forward wall and the forward bulkhead of the pressurized crew compartment. This photograph was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

401

Mechanical analysis of a mixed mode debonding test for "composite" pavements A. Chabot*, M. Hun, F. Hammoum  

E-print Network

of UltraThin White-topping pavements (UTW) [1-3] or near reflective cracks of composite pavement [4] during uniformly distributed over a rectangular area at the edge of a joint on an Ultra Thin Whitetopping pavement

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

402

Development of a mult-objective strategic management approach to improve decisions for pavement management practices in local agencies  

E-print Network

network pavement condition index (PCI), average network remaining life, percent of the pavement network in good condition, and percent of the pavement network in poor and very poor condition. Results from a case study show that funding allocation methods...

Chang Albitres, Carlos Martin

2009-05-15

403

A New Multiconstraint Method for Determining the Optimal Cable Stresses in Cable-Stayed Bridges  

PubMed Central

Cable-stayed bridges are one of the most popular types of long-span bridges. The structural behaviour of cable-stayed bridges is sensitive to the load distribution between the girder, pylons, and cables. The determination of pretensioning cable stresses is critical in the cable-stayed bridge design procedure. By finding the optimum stresses in cables, the load and moment distribution of the bridge can be improved. In recent years, different research works have studied iterative and modern methods to find optimum stresses of cables. However, most of the proposed methods have limitations in optimising the structural performance of cable-stayed bridges. This paper presents a multiconstraint optimisation method to specify the optimum cable forces in cable-stayed bridges. The proposed optimisation method produces less bending moments and stresses in the bridge members and requires shorter simulation time than other proposed methods. The results of comparative study show that the proposed method is more successful in restricting the deck and pylon displacements and providing uniform deck moment distribution than unit load method (ULM). The final design of cable-stayed bridges can be optimised considerably through proposed multiconstraint optimisation method. PMID:25050400

Asgari, B.; Osman, S. A.; Adnan, A.

2014-01-01

404

New structural systems for zero-maintenance pavements. Volume 3: Anchored pavement system designed for Edens Expressway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of the Edens Expressway subjected to mechanical and environmental loads using the anchored pavement concept is discussed. The mechanical and thermal properties of materials that could be encountered in future reconstruction of Edens Expressway are presented in a consistent form for computer programming. These properties are viewed as typical design values during investigation of pavement response. The behavior of the anchored pavement under induced temperature loads and weakening of subgrade (by thawing action) is clearly demonstrated. The example problem provides the input parameters of materials and loads for the analysis, the generation of finite element mesh, and the results of the analysis.

Saxena, S. K.; Militsopoulos, S. G.

1980-08-01

405

Bragg grating structural sensing system for bridge monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion of steel within bridges and other large concrete structures has become a serious problem and consequently there is growing interest in replacing the steel within such structures with carbon fiber based composite materials. The first highway bridge in the world to use carbon fiber composite prestressing tendons was constructed and opened to the public in the fall of 1993. This two span bridge was also unique in another respect, it is the first highway bridge in the world to have been built with a set of fiber optic Bragg grating sensors structurally integrated into several of its precast concrete deck support girders. A four-channel fiber laser sensor demodulation system that was rugged, compact and transportable was developed for this project. This demodulation system monitored the changes in the internal strain on all three types (steel and two types of carbon fiber composite) of prestressing tendons over several months. The same structurally integrated fiber optic sensing system has also been used to measure the change in the internal strain within the deck girders arising from both static and dynamic loading of the bridge with a large truck.

Measures, Raymond M.; Alavie, A. Tino; Maaskant, Robert; Ohn, Myo M.; Karr, Shawn E.; Huang, Shang Yuan

1994-09-01

406

Truck-based mobile wireless sensor networks for the experimental observation of vehicle-bridge interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy vehicles driving over a bridge create a complex dynamic phenomenon known as vehicle-bridge interaction. In recent years, interest in vehicle-bridge interaction has grown because a deeper understanding of the phenomena can lead to improvements in bridge design methods while enhancing the accuracy of structural health monitoring techniques. The mobility of wireless sensors can be leveraged to directly monitor the dynamic coupling between the moving vehicle and the bridge. In this study, a mobile wireless sensor network is proposed for installation on a heavy truck to capture the vertical acceleration, horizontal acceleration and gyroscopic pitching of the truck as it crosses a bridge. The vehicle-based wireless monitoring system is designed to interact with a static, permanent wireless monitoring system installed on the bridge. Specifically, the mobile wireless sensors time-synchronize with the bridge's wireless sensors before transferring the vehicle response data. Vertical acceleration and gyroscopic pitching measurements of the vehicle are combined with bridge accelerations to create a time-synchronized vehicle-bridge response dataset. In addition to observing the vehicle vibrations, Kalman filtering is adopted to accurately track the vehicle position using the measured horizontal acceleration of the vehicle and positioning information derived from piezoelectric strip sensors installed on the bridge deck as part of the bridge monitoring system. Using the Geumdang Bridge (Korea), extensive field testing of the proposed vehicle-bridge wireless monitoring system is conducted. Experimental results verify the reliability of the wireless system and the accuracy of the vehicle positioning algorithm.

Kim, Junhee; Lynch, Jerome P.; Lee, Jong-Jae; Lee, Chang-Geun

2011-06-01

407

Life cycle assessment of concrete pavements : impacts and opportunities  

E-print Network

The concrete pavement network in the United States plays a crucial role in the economy by enabling the transport of people and goods, but it also leads to resource consumption and environmental impacts. This thesis is ...

Loijos, Alex (Alexander Nikos)

2011-01-01

408

Regular Inspection and Maintenance Guidance for Porous Pavements  

E-print Network

year, more frequently for high use sites or sites with higher potential for run- on Vacuum sweeper shall be used regularly to remove sediment and organic debris on the pavement surface. The sweeper may

409

Roswell International Air Center Airport (ROW) Pavement Condition and Analysis  

E-print Network

Roswell International Air Center Airport (ROW) Pavement Condition and Analysis Submitted to: Jane M ................................................1. Conditions at Roswell International Air Center (ROW) 4 .................................Figure 1. Geographic Location of Roswell International Air Center (ROW) 4 ..............................Table 1

Cal, Mark P.

410

Silver City Grant County Airport (SVC) Pavement Condition and Analysis  

E-print Network

Silver City Grant County Airport (SVC) Pavement Condition and Analysis Submitted to: Jane M. Lucero ....................................1. Airport Conditions at Silver City Grant County Airport (SVC) 4 ..................................Figure 1. Geographic Location of Silver City Grant County Airport (SVC) 4 ......................Table 1

Cal, Mark P.

411

Incorporating uncertainty in the Life Cycle Cost Analysis of pavements  

E-print Network

Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) is an important tool to evaluate the economic performance of alternative investments for a given project. It considers the total cost to construct, maintain, and operate a pavement over its ...

Swei, Omar Abdullah

2012-01-01

412

Automated crack control analysis for concrete pavement construction  

E-print Network

The focus of this research is on the control of random cracking in concrete paving by using sawcut notch locations in the early stages of construction. This is a major concern in concrete pavement construction. This research also addresses a...

Jang, Se Hoon

2005-11-01

413

Variability of hot mix asphalt produced with reclaimed asphalt pavement  

E-print Network

of natural resources (aggregate, binder and energy). Adequate techniques to assess the variability of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) are lacking. The objectives of this research are to determine the variabilities of RAP and Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA), determine...

Yang, Guiqin

1999-01-01

414

COMPOSITE PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENTS (Tollway) Effective: January 30, 2012  

E-print Network

COMPOSITE PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENTS (Tollway) Effective: January 30, 2012 Revised: May 8, 2013 DESCRIPTION This work consists of: 1. Furnishing, mixing, and placing ternary concrete mixes Provision; 2. Supplying and installing all specified reinforcement; 3. Developing concrete mix design

415

3-D Seismic Methods for Shallow Imaging Beneath Pavement  

E-print Network

The research presented in this dissertation focuses on survey design and acquisition of near-surface 3D seismic reflection and surface wave data on pavement. Increased efficiency for mapping simple subsurface interfaces through a combined use...

Miller, Brian

2013-05-31

416

Desert pavement morphology and dynamics, Big Bend National Park, Texas  

E-print Network

set forth in Wood et al. (2002) to classify the desert pavements into surface mosaics based on degree of development. Sediment analysis and soil profile photographs were used to characterize the surface sediments and subsurface soil horizons...

Harmon, Courtney Michelle

2009-05-15

417

Strategies for autonomous robot to inspect pavement distresses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distress inspection is an important task in pavement maintenance. Pavement inspection requires tremendous human resources, so many investigators start developing automatic and robotic inspection methods to increase the efficiency and accuracy. However, the systems they developed are applicable for network-level inspection (large areas, long-distance) but too expensive or too big for project-level inspection (small areas, short-distance). Dealing with this problem,

Y. H. Tseng; S. C. Kang; Y. S. Su; C. H. Lee; J. R. Chang

2010-01-01

418

Preventive Maintenance Condition Standards of Expressway Asphalt Pavement  

Microsoft Academic Search

There isn't a unified pavement preventive maintenance road condition standard both at home and abroad till now, in view of that, macro and micro road condition standard for expressway asphalt pavement preventive maintenance is established, among which macro standard is under the promise of PSSIges83, and is under the control standard of 82lesPCI<88, 88lesRQI<93, 85lesSRI<90. Its determinative process, the usage

Hu Guoxiang; Li Jie

2009-01-01

419

Rehabilitation of continuously reinforced concrete pavements using overlays  

E-print Network

was actually experienced. Any rehabilitation alternative being considered must, hence be able to meet the design requirements and not fail during its design life. Rigid overlays provide a feasible option in terms of strength and longevity. For a nation... whose network of pavements is now in need of rehabilitation, CRC pavements present themselves as a very feasible and lucrative option, if life-cycle costs were the basis of design. If designed and constructed properly, CRC overlays can serve...

Sriraman, Soumya

1993-01-01

420

A relation of measured deflections, pavement performance and soil characteristics  

E-print Network

moving wheel loads. At the test road sponsored by the "&iestern Association of State Highway Officials in Idaho?i?+ pavement defleotions were studied under ocntrolled traffio oonditions ~ A similar study was made in Virginia on a newly oonstruoted... test road, In California? pavement defleotions were measured on mcvs 4 ments that hsd beer, in ssrvioe for several years ~ Upon observation of the results of these studies ~ whish inoluded a remarkable nor relation between road deflection and road...

Hanna, Daniel Nelson

1957-01-01

421

Bridged graphite oxide materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

422

Paper Bridge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this engineering activity, challenge learners to construct a paper bridge that can support 100 pennies. Learners discover how they can make a weak material like paper strong enough to support a load pennies by changing the shape of the paper (by rolling, crumpling or folding it).

2014-04-25

423

33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have? Each helicopter landing deck on a manned...

2013-07-01

424

33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have? Each helicopter landing deck on a manned...

2012-07-01

425

33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have? Each helicopter landing deck on a manned...

2014-07-01

426

33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have? Each helicopter landing deck on a manned...

2011-07-01

427

33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have? Each helicopter landing deck on a manned...

2010-07-01

428

Assessment on transient sound radiation of a vibrating steel bridge due to traffic loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structure-borne noise induced by vehicle-bridge coupling vibration is harmful to human health and living environment. Investigating the sound pressure level and the radiation mechanism of structure-borne noise is of great significance for the assessment of environmental noise pollution and noise control. In this paper, the transient noise induced by vehicle-bridge coupling vibration is investigated by employing the hybrid finite element method (FEM) and boundary element method (BEM). The effect of local vibration of the bridge deck is taken into account and the sound responses of the structure-borne noise in time domain is obtained. The precision of the proposed method is validated by comparing numerical results to the on-site measurements of a steel girder-plate bridge in service. It implies that the sound pressure level and its distribution in both time and frequency domains may be predicted by the hybrid approach of FEM-BEM with satisfactory accuracy. Numerical results indicate that the vibrating steel bridge radiates high-level noise because of its extreme flexibility and large surface area for sound radiation. The impact effects of the vehicle on the sound pressure when leaving the bridge are observed. The shape of the contour lines in the area around the bridge deck could be explained by the mode shapes of the bridge. The moving speed of the vehicle only affects the sound pressure components with frequencies lower than 10 Hz.

Zhang, He; Xie, Xu; Jiang, Jiqing; Yamashita, Mikio

2015-02-01

429

Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar in Bridge Health Monitoring Using Different Frequency Antennae Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspection and assessment of bridge structures within the context of health monitoring of structures as well as the life cycle of structures is of paramount importance for structural engineers and bridge owners. No doubt the early detection of structural defects in particular internal structural elements such as bridge deck delamination, formation of cracks and corrosion of rebar will enable engineers to remedy the imperfection and prolong the serviceability of the structure. Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) have proved to be effective in detecting such imperfections if utilised correctly. This paper presents and discusses the applications of GPR in assessing the structural integrity of a heavily used bridge in a town centre position (Pentagon Road Bridge, Chatham, Kent, UK) using different antennae in terms of frequency and method of application (2 GHz and 200-600 MHz GPR antennae). The paper focuses on the effectiveness of using the 'correct' tool and data processing in terms of better understanding possible structural defects. Processing, interpretation and analysis of collected data were supported by GRED software, with three-dimensional scanning capabilities. Reported results illustrate the effectiveness of GPR mapping providing valuable information regarding the positions of rebar (upper and lower reinforcement), unknown structural features as well as possible moisture ingress within the structure. The results also demonstrate a possible phenomenon in identifying the presence of moisture within the bridge deck confirming a similar finding in an earlier case (Forth Road Bridge in Scotland). Keywords: Bridge; Structure; Health Monitoring; Moisture Ingress.

Alani, A.; Kilic, G.; Aboutalebi, M.

2012-04-01

430

The Belizean Bridge Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the famous swing bridge in Belize. Students build bridges from a variety of materials and answer the questions, What are different types of bridges?, How do bridges work?, How can you tell if a bridge design will be safe?, and What is the best way to build a bridge over a river while still allowing boat traffic? (SAH)

Murfin, Brian

2000-01-01

431

Bridge Inspector's Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A guide for the instruction of bridge inspectors is provided in this manual as well as instructions for conducting and reporting on a bridge inspection. The chapters outline the qualifications necessary to become a bridge inspector. The subject areas covered are: The Bridge Inspector, Bridge Structures, Bridge Inspection Reporting System,

Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Bureau of Public Roads.

432

Over the Edge and Back: What to Do If You Drive Off the Pavement Edge  

MedlinePLUS

AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety Over the Edge and Back What to do if you drive off ... fatal relative to other crashes on similar roads. AAA Foundationfor Traffic Safety Pavement edge drop-off Pavement ...

433

Determination of the Presence Conditions of Pavement Markings using Image Processing  

E-print Network

Pavement markings, as a form of traffic control devices, play a crucial role in safely guiding drivers. Restriping pavement markings is an important task in the maintenance of traffic control devices. Every year state agencies spend a lot of money...

Ge, Hancheng

2012-10-19

434

Evaluation of Three Porous Pavement Systems in a Newly Constructed Parking Lot  

EPA Science Inventory

This project examines porous pavement systems in a newly constructed parking lot next to Building 205 at the Edison Environmental Center. Porous pavement systems are one means of promoting environmental sustainability through stormwater runoff reduction. This project examines t...

435

POROUS PAVEMENT PHASE I DESIGN AND OPERATIONAL CRITERIA (EPA/600/2-80/135)  

EPA Science Inventory

Design and operational criteria, utilization concepts, benefits and disadvantages, as well as other characteristics of porous pavements are presented in this report. Particular emphasis is placed on porous asphalt pavements, but the criteria and design approach are applicable to ...

436

Digital Bridges: Bridges of the Nineteenth Century  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The collection consists of thirty representative 19th-century American bridge engineering monographs, manuals, and documents from the Lehigh University Libraries' Special Collections. The source documents have been scanned, converted to text, and partially corrected to make all significant terms and personal and proper names retrievable through the site's search engine. Topics include specific bridges (the Brooklyn Bridge, the East River Bridge), bridge types (suspension bridges, wrought iron bridges), bridge components (cabling, foundations), bridge design, bridge disasters, and others. The collection is browseable by title and searchable by keyword. Printable versions of the documents are also available. A glossary is also provided with definitions of terms, short biographies of authors, and descriptions of some of the bridges

2002-01-01

437

Simulated aircraft load testing and non-destructive evaluation of bituminous pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Federal Aviation Administration's National Airport Pavement Test Facility was constructed to generate full-scale accelerated pavement test data for the development of advanced airport pavement design criteria. During the first round of traffic testing, a six-wheel (Boeing 777) landing gear and a four-wheel (Boeing 747) landing gear were trafficked on flexible test pavements until they were deemed failed. Non-destructive

Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan; Marshall R. Thompson

2008-01-01

438

of Transportation Rigid Pavement Design and Analysis Web-Based Training Site  

E-print Network

Texas Department of Transportation Rigid Pavement Design and Analysis Web-Based Training Site Highway Administration Texas Department of Transportation, 2004 Rigid Pavement Design and Analysis Web for six computer programs pertaining mainly to the design and analysis of rigid pavements. The programs

Texas at Austin, University of

439

Project Information Form Project Title White Paper on The application of permeable pavement with emphasis  

E-print Network

Project Information Form Project Title White Paper on The application of permeable pavement (by each agency or organization) Cal Trans Total Project Cost $29,007 Agency ID or Contract Number Project Depending on the type of surface pavement, permeable pavement can be termed as porous asphalt

California at Davis, University of

440

Concrete Pavement I-285 under 5th runway at Hartsfield Jackson  

E-print Network

Concrete Pavement Sweet as a James Page I-285 under 5th runway at Hartsfield Jackson International Concrete Paving project I-285 East Perimeter Fiscal 2012 GDOT placed 205,704 square yards of RCC Pavement Portland Cement Concrete Pavement State Route 96 Crawford / Peach Counties I-75 Tift County CRC Lane

441

46 CFR 11.504 - Application of deck service for limited engineer endorsements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Application of deck service for limited engineer endorsements. 11.504 Section...ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Engineer Officer 11.504 Application of deck service for limited engineer endorsements. Service...

2013-10-01

442

46 CFR 11.504 - Application of deck service for limited engineer endorsements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Application of deck service for limited engineer endorsements. 11.504 Section...ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Engineer Officer 11.504 Application of deck service for limited engineer endorsements. Service...

2012-10-01

443

46 CFR 11.504 - Application of deck service for national limited engineer endorsements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Application of deck service for national limited engineer endorsements. 11.504 Section 11...Professional Requirements for National Engineer Officer Endorsements 11.504 ...Application of deck service for national limited engineer endorsements. Service gained...

2014-10-01

444

46 CFR 11.504 - Application of deck service for limited engineer endorsements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Application of deck service for limited engineer endorsements. 11.504 Section...ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Engineer Officer 11.504 Application of deck service for limited engineer endorsements. Service...

2010-10-01

445

46 CFR 11.504 - Application of deck service for limited engineer endorsements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Application of deck service for limited engineer endorsements. 11.504 Section...ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Engineer Officer 11.504 Application of deck service for limited engineer endorsements. Service...

2011-10-01

446

46 CFR 108.133 - Hull superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and deckhouses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Hull superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and deckhouses...EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection 108.133 Hull superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and...

2011-10-01

447

46 CFR 108.133 - Hull superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and deckhouses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Hull superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and deckhouses...EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection 108.133 Hull superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and...

2010-10-01

448

Commander Brand and Pilot Overmyer operate controls on forward flight deck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On forward flight deck, Commander Brand and Pilot Overmyer operate controls from commanders and pilots seats. Overall view taken from the aft flight deck looking forward shows both astronauts reviewing procedures and checking CRT screen data.

1982-01-01

449

Commander Brand and Pilot Overmyer operate controls on forward flight deck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On forward flight deck, Commander Brand and Pilot Overmyer operate controls from commanders and pilots seats. Overall view taken from the aft flight deck looking forward shows Overmyer pointing to data on Panel 7 (F7) CRT 1 screen.

1982-01-01

450

46 CFR 28.410 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. 28.410 Section 28.410...Than 16 Individuals on Board 28.410 Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs....

2014-10-01

451

46 CFR 28.410 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. 28.410 Section 28.410...Than 16 Individuals on Board 28.410 Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs....

2011-10-01

452

46 CFR 28.410 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. 28.410 Section 28.410...Than 16 Individuals on Board 28.410 Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs....

2012-10-01

453

46 CFR 28.410 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. 28.410 Section 28.410...Than 16 Individuals on Board 28.410 Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs....

2013-10-01

454

46 CFR 108.137 - Bulkhead and deck separations of accommodation spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...deck separations of accommodation spaces. Each boundary bulkhead and deck that separates an accommodation space or control station from the following must be an A...respectively (a) Machinery space; (b) Galley or...

2012-10-01

455

46 CFR 108.137 - Bulkhead and deck separations of accommodation spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...deck separations of accommodation spaces. Each boundary bulkhead and deck that separates an accommodation space or control station from the following must be an A...respectively (a) Machinery space; (b) Galley or...

2011-10-01

456

46 CFR 108.137 - Bulkhead and deck separations of accommodation spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...deck separations of accommodation spaces. Each boundary bulkhead and deck that separates an accommodation space or control station from the following must be an A...respectively (a) Machinery space; (b) Galley or...

2010-10-01

457

46 CFR 108.137 - Bulkhead and deck separations of accommodation spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...deck separations of accommodation spaces. Each boundary bulkhead and deck that separates an accommodation space or control station from the following must be an A...respectively (a) Machinery space; (b) Galley or...

2014-10-01

458

46 CFR 108.137 - Bulkhead and deck separations of accommodation spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...deck separations of accommodation spaces. Each boundary bulkhead and deck that separates an accommodation space or control station from the following must be an A...respectively (a) Machinery space; (b) Galley or...

2013-10-01

459

46 CFR 109.575 - Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. 109.575 Section 109...109.575 Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. The master or person in...liquids are allowed to accumulate on the helicopter...

2013-10-01

460

46 CFR 109.575 - Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. 109.575 Section 109...109.575 Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. The master or person in...liquids are allowed to accumulate on the helicopter...

2014-10-01

461

46 CFR 109.575 - Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. 109.575 Section 109...109.575 Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. The master or person in...liquids are allowed to accumulate on the helicopter...

2012-10-01

462

46 CFR 109.575 - Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. 109.575 Section 109...109.575 Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. The master or person in...liquids are allowed to accumulate on the helicopter...

2011-10-01

463

46 CFR 109.575 - Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. 109.575 Section 109...109.575 Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. The master or person in...liquids are allowed to accumulate on the helicopter...

2010-10-01

464

Bridge Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a quick activity (on page 2 of the PDF) about how the arrangement of carbon atoms determines carbon's different properties. Learners will build bridges with Post-It notes that model two types of carbon molecules, graphite and carbon nanotubes, and test which structure of the same material can bear the weight of the most pennies. Also relates to linked video, DragonflyTV Nano: Hockey Sticks.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2008-01-01

465

Fatigue reliability of deck structures subjected to correlated crack growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work is to analyse fatigue reliability of deck structures subjected to correlated crack growth. The stress intensity factors of the correlated cracks are obtained by finite element analysis and based on which the geometry correction functions are derived. The Monte Carlo simulations are applied to predict the statistical descriptors of correlated cracks based on the Paris-Erdogan equation. A probabilistic model of crack growth as a function of time is used to analyse the fatigue reliability of deck structures accounting for the crack propagation correlation. A deck structure is modelled as a series system of stiffened panels, where a stiffened panel is regarded as a parallel system composed of plates and are longitudinal. It has been proven that the method developed here can be conveniently applied to perform the fatigue reliability assessment of structures subjected to correlated crack growth.

Feng, G. Q.; Garbatov, Y.; Guedes Soares, C.

2013-12-01

466

Stormwater quality of spring-summer-fall effluent from three partial-infiltration permeable pavement systems and conventional asphalt pavement.  

PubMed

This study examined the spring, summer and fall water quality performance of three partial-infiltration permeable pavement (PP) systems and a conventional asphalt pavement in Ontario. The study, conducted between 2010 and 2012, compared the water quality of effluent from two Interlocking Permeable Concrete Pavements (AquaPave() and Eco-Optiloc()) and a Hydromedia() Pervious Concrete pavement with runoff from an Asphalt control pavement. The usage of permeable pavements can mitigate the impact of urbanization on receiving surface water systems through quantity control and stormwater treatment. The PP systems provided excellent stormwater treatment for petroleum hydrocarbons, total suspended solids, metals (copper, iron, manganese and zinc) and nutrients (total-nitrogen and total-phosphorus) by reducing event mean concentrations (EMC) as well as total pollutant loadings. The PPs significantly reduced the concentration and loading of ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3), nitrite (NO2(-)) and organic-nitrogen (Org-N) but increased the concentration and loading of nitrate (NO3(-)). The PP systems had mixed performances for the treatment of phosphate (PO4(3-)). The PP systems increased the concentration of sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) but EMCs remained well below recommended levels for drinking water quality. Relative to the observed runoff, winter road salt was released more slowly from the PP systems resulting in elevated spring and early-summer Cl and Na concentrations in effluent. PP materials were found to introduce dissolved solids into the infiltrating stormwater. The release of these pollutants was verified by additional laboratory scale testing of the individual pavement and aggregate materials at the University of Guelph. Pollutant concentrations were greatest during the first few months after construction and declined rapidly over the course of the study. PMID:24681366

Drake, Jennifer; Bradford, Andrea; Van Seters, Tim

2014-06-15

467

DEPLETION OF COPPER-BASED PRESERVATIVES FROM PINE DECKING AND IMPACTS ON SOIL-DWELLING INVERTEBRATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiata pine decking was treated with CCA or Copper Azole wood preservative to Australian Standard H3 retention using conventional and modified Bethel schedules, and air-dried. Treated and durable hardwood (kwila) control decking boards were subjected to natural leaching in weather- exposed decks in Brisbane, Queensland. Analysis of collected deck runoff water revealed losses up to 700mg Cu, 175mg Cr, 600mg

Michael J Kennedy

468

Endeavour, OV-105, forward flight deck controls during Rockwell manufacture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, forward flight deck controls are documented during manufacture, assembly, and checkout at North American Rockwell facilities Building 150, Palmdale, California. Overall view looks from aft flight deck forward showing displays and controls with panel F7 CRT screens lit and window shades in place on W2, W3, W4, W5. OV-105 is undergoing final touches prior to rollout and a scheduled flight for STS-49. View was included as part of Rockwell International (RI) Submittal No. 40 (STS 87-0342-40) with alternate number A901207 R-16/NAS9-17800.

1991-01-01

469

Detail view of the interior of the flight deck looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of the interior of the flight deck looking forward showing the overhead control panels. Note that the flight deck windows have protective covers over them in this view. This images can be digitally stitched with image HAER No. TX-116-A-19 to expand the view to include the Commander and Pilot positions during ascent and reentry and landing. This view was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

470

Detail view of the flight deck looking aft. The aft ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of the flight deck looking aft. The aft viewing windows are uncovered in this view and look out towards the payload bay. The overhead viewing windows have exterior covers in place in this view. The aft flight deck contains displays and controls for executing maneuvers for rendezvous, docking, payload deployment and retrieval, payload monitoring and the remote manipulator arm controls. Payload bay doors are also operated from this location. This view was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

471

Cognitive representations of flight-deck information attributes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experiment described in this paper had two ojectives. The first objective was to empirically identify how pilots organize flight-deck information attributes. Such an organization should provide a useful nomenclature for classifying Information Management (IM) issues and problems. The second objective of this study was to empirically assess pilots' estimate of the relative importance of each attribute on managing information. Results from addressing this latter objective were intended to suggest areas on which flight-deck researchers and designers will want to focus their attention.

Ricks, Wendell R.; Jonsson, Jon E.; Rogers, William H.

1993-01-01

472

Evaluation of Performance and Design of Ultra-Thin Whitetopping (Bonded Concrete Resurfacing) Using Large-Scale Accelerated Pavement Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-Thin Whitetopping (UTW) is a pavement rehabilitation technique that involves the placement of a thin Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) overlay, 2 inches (50 mm) to 4 inches (100 mm) thick, over a distressed Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) pavement. Typically, the HMA pavement is milled and cleaned which helps to create a bond between the existing HMA pavement and the PCC

Scott Newbolds; Jan Olek

2008-01-01

473

Evaluation of performance and design of Ultra-Thin Whitetopping (bonded concrete resurfacing) using large-scale accelerated pavement testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-Thin Whitetopping (UTW) is a pavement rehabilitation technique that involves the placement of a thin Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) overlay, 2 inches (50 mm) to 4 inches (100 mm) thick, over a distressed Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) pavement. Typically, the HMA pavement is milled and cleaned which helps to create a bond between the existing HMA pavement and the PCC

Scott Andrew Newbolds

2007-01-01

474

Research of infrared laser based pavement imaging and crack detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Road crack detection is seriously affected by many factors in actual applications, such as some shadows, road signs, oil stains, high frequency noise and so on. Due to these factors, the current crack detection methods can not distinguish the cracks in complex scenes. In order to solve this problem, a novel method based on infrared laser pavement imaging is proposed. Firstly, single sensor laser pavement imaging system is adopted to obtain pavement images, high power laser line projector is well used to resist various shadows. Secondly, the crack extraction algorithm which has merged multiple features intelligently is proposed to extract crack information. In this step, the non-negative feature and contrast feature are used to extract the basic crack information, and circular projection based on linearity feature is applied to enhance the crack area and eliminate noise. A series of experiments have been performed to test the proposed method, which shows that the proposed automatic extraction method is effective and advanced.

Hong, Hanyu; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Xiuhua; Jing, Genqiang

2013-08-01

475

Bridge Builders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive game, students build bridges using fractional lengths in the form of fraction bars. Gap length may be known or unknown, entirely empty or partially filled. Fractions to fill the gap must be constructed in specific ways, using the four basic operations. After five tries at one level, the game resets. Note that the game sometimes expects particular answers: students may need to multiply 2/5 by 3 rather than multiplying 3/5 by 2, for example, even though both computations would produce the same result.

2010-01-01

476

Development of equations to determine the increase in pavement condition due to treatment and the rate of decrease in condition after treatment for a local agency pavement network.  

E-print Network

DEVELOPMENT OF EQUATIONS TO DETERMINE THE INCREASE IN PAVEMENT CONDITION DUE TO TREATMENT AND THE RATE OF DECREASE IN CONDITION AFTER TREATMENT FOR A LOCAL AGENCY PAVEMENT NETWORK A Thesis by MAITHILEE MUKUND DESHMUKH Submitted... CONDITION DUE TO TREATMENT AND THE RATE OF DECREASE IN CONDITION AFTER TREATMENT FOR A LOCAL AGENCY PAVEMENT NETWORK A Thesis by MAITHILEE MUKUND DESHMUKH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial...

Deshmukh, Maithilee Mukund.

2010-07-14

477

Desert pavements and associated rock varnish in the Mojave Desert: How old can they be?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desert pavements are common features of arid landscapes and have been widely used as a relative age indicator of the geomorphic surfaces upon which they are developed. In this study I examined the patterns of pavement development as a function of elevation in the Mojave Desert as well as the causes for the gradual disappearance of pavement at high elevations. Pavement density, as measured by percentage of pebble coverage, decreases systematically with elevation gain by 3% per 100 m, from 95% coverage below 500 m to less than 60% at 1700 m. Plants appear to be the main agent of pavement disruption; plant density decreases as pavement density increases. Burrowing by rodents and crusting by cryptobiota also disrupt pavement development at higher elevation. During the last glacial maximum, plant communities were displaced 1000 1400 m downward in the Mojave Desert. Pavements today generally do not survive above the blackbush (Coleogyne ramossisma)-sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) zone. Evidence from packrat middens shows that these and other plants typical of high elevations today grew as low as 300 400 m during the last glacial maximum. I suggest that during the last glacial maximum, desert pavements were confined to the lowest alluvial fans of Death Valley and adjoining low valleys. No alluvial desert pavements above 400 m in the region are older than the latest Pleistocene. By the same reasoning, desert varnish on desert pavements above 400 m may all be Holocene in age, except where developed on stable boulders.

Quade, Jay

2001-09-01

478

Vibration of vehicle-pavement coupled system based on a Timoshenko beam on a nonlinear foundation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the coupled nonlinear vibration of vehicle-pavement system. The pavement is modeled as a Timoshenko beam resting on a six-parameter foundation. The vehicle is simplified as a spring-mass-damper oscillator. For the first time, the dynamic response of vehicle-pavement coupled system is studied by modeling the pavement as a Timoshenko beam resting on a nonlinear foundation. Consequently, the shear effects and the rotational inertia of the pavement are included in the modeling process. The pavement model is assumed to be a linear-plus-cubic Pasternak-type foundation. Furthermore, the convergent Galerkin truncation is used to obtain approximate solutions to the coupled vibratory response of the vehicle-pavement coupled system. The dynamic responses of the vehicle-pavement system with the asphalt pavement on soft soil foundation are investigated via the numerical examples. The numerical results show that the calculation for the coupled vibratory response needs high-order modes. Moreover, the coupling effects between the pavement and the vehicle are numerically examined by using the convergent modal truncation. The physical parameters of the vehicle-pavement system such as the shear modulus are compared for determining their influences on the coupled vibratory response.

Ding, Hu; Yang, Yan; Chen, Li-Qun; Yang, Shao-Pu

2014-12-01

479

Impact of compressed natural gas fueled buses on street pavements  

SciTech Connect

Capital Metro, the Ausin, Texas transit authority, is currently evaluating a number of CNG fueled buses. As part of the U.S. DOT Region Six University Transportation Centers Program (UTCP), a study was instigated into the scale of incremental pavement consumption associated with the operation of these buses. The study suggests that replacing current vehicles with CNG powered models utilizing aluminum storage tanks would raise average network equivalent single rehabilitation costs across the network of over four percent. Finally, it recommends that full cost study be undertaken with evaluation of the adoption of alternative bus fuels - which includes pavement and environmental impacts.

Yang, D.; Harrison, R.

1995-07-01

480

Fatigue properties of rubber modified pavements. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results of a study to determine the fatigue behavior of rubber modified pavements in Alaska in comparison with conventional asphalt concrete pavements. Laboratory studies were conducted on field specimens using the flexural fatigue test in the controlled-displacement mode. Tests were performed at 72 deg F and 40 deg F. Tested materials include (1) conventional HMA with AC 2.5 and AC 5; (2) PlusRide RUMAC with AC 5; (3) asphalt-rubber concrete with AC 2.5 (wet Process); and (4) rubberized asphalt-rubber concrete with AC 2.5 (wet/dry process).

Raad, L.; Saboundjian, S.; Yuan, X.

1995-05-01

481

Evaluation of Multilayered Pavement Structures from Measurements of Surface Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is presented for evaluating the thickness and stiffness of multilayered pavement structures from guided waves measured at the surface. Data is collected with a light hammer as the source and an accelerometer as receiver, generating a synthetic receiver array. The top layer properties are evaluated with a Lamb wave analysis. Multiple layers are evaluated by matching a theoretical phase velocity spectrum to the measured spectrum. So far the method has been applied to the testing of pavements, but it may also be applicable in other fields such as ultrasonic testing of coated materials.

Ryden, Nils; Lowe, Michael J. S.; Cawley, Peter; Park, Choon B.

2006-03-01

482

28. HULETT NO. 4 SEEN FROM THE DECK OF THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. HULETT NO. 4 SEEN FROM THE DECK OF THE 'GEORGE M. CARL.' THE END OF UNLOADING, TRACTOR SCRAPERS ARE LOWERED INTO THE HOLD TO 'CLEAN UP.' PRIOR TO ABOUT 1953, MEN WITH SHOVELS DID THE JOB. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

483

Meeting Mathematics Standards with a Deck of Playing Cards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The activities contained in this document have been presented at several conference sessions. Participants engaged in hands-on activities for Grades 3 through 8 that utilized a deck of playing cards to meet mathematics content and process standards. Activities included variations of card games, but with a mathematical twist, and other card-based

McAllister, Deborah A.; McDonald, Shirley A.; Bothman, Susan M.

2010-01-01

484

19. TRAVELING CRANE ATOP SUPERSTRUCTURE, FROM RUN LINE DECK. Looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. TRAVELING CRANE ATOP SUPERSTRUCTURE, FROM RUN LINE DECK. Looking up to north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

485

22. STEAM PLANT TURBINE DECK FROM SOUTH END OF BUILDING, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. STEAM PLANT TURBINE DECK FROM SOUTH END OF BUILDING, SHOWING TOPS OF DIESEL ENGINES AT FAR NORTH END, PRIOR TO INSTALLATION OF STEAM UNIT NO. 4. Ca. 1948 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

486

38. Port side of engine compartment at salon deck level, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. Port side of engine compartment at salon deck level, with salon wall panels removed to show engine frame. Main connecting rod from crank to walking beam appears at extreme right of view, top of cylinder and piston rod appear at extreme left. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

487

General view of the aft Flight Deck looking at the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of the aft Flight Deck looking at the mission specialist seats directly behind and to the side of the commander and pilot's seats. These seats are removed, packed and stowed during on-orbit activities. This image was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

488

Closeup view of the mid deck aft wall of the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Close-up view of the mid deck aft wall of the Orbiter Discovery showing a mission specific configuration of stowage lockers within the modular system designed for maximum flexibility. This photograph was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

489

Closeup view of the aft flight deck of the Orbiter ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Close-up view of the aft flight deck of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the aft center control panels A6, A7, A8, A12, A13, A14, A16 and A17. This View was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

490

General view of the flight deck of the orbiter Discovery ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of the flight deck of the orbiter Discovery looking forward and overhead at the overhead instrumentation and control panels. This view was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

491

PBF Cooling Tower. View of stairway to fan deck. Vents ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PBF Cooling Tower. View of stairway to fan deck. Vents are made of redwood. Camera facing southwest toward north side of Cooling Tower. Siding is corrugated asbestos concrete. Photographer: Kirsh. Date: June 6, 1969. INEEL negative no. 69-3463 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

492

STS 51-G crew photo on the flight deck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS 51-G crew photo on the flight deck. Left to right in the front are John O. Creighton, Shannon W. Lucid, Daniel C. Brandenstein; and in the back row are Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud, Steven R. Nagel, John N. Fabian and Patrick Baudry.

1985-01-01

493

Multichannel Seismic Streamer Repair on the Helo Deck  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The streamer is flaked out on the deck with a make shift workbench for tools. The technical staff (Geological Survey of Canada) are sharing a lighter moment during trouble shooting and repair aboard CCGS Louis S. St-Laurent. Adequate space for repair of the 100-m long system is not available i...

494

Astronaut Sidney Gutierrez on flight deck holding Hasselblad camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Sidney M. Gutierrez, mission commander, pauses on the flight deck during Earth observations on the Space Shuttle Endeavour. Gutierrez holds a 70mm Hasselblad camera. The camera was one of several instruments used during the Space Radar Laboratory (SRL) mission to record data on planet Earth.

1994-01-01

495

46 CFR 12.15-13 - Deck engine mechanic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...rating of junior engineer on steam vessels of 4,000 horsepower...indoctrination and training in the engine department of an automated steam vessel of 4,000 horsepower...a course of training for deck engine mechanic acceptable to...

2010-10-01

496

46 CFR 12.15-13 - Deck engine mechanic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...rating of junior engineer on steam vessels of 4,000 horsepower...indoctrination and training in the engine department of an automated steam vessel of 4,000 horsepower...a course of training for deck engine mechanic acceptable to...

2011-10-01

497

46 CFR 12.15-13 - Deck engine mechanic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...rating of junior engineer on steam vessels of 4,000 horsepower...indoctrination and training in the engine department of an automated steam vessel of 4,000 horsepower...a course of training for deck engine mechanic acceptable to...

2013-10-01

498

46 CFR 12.15-13 - Deck engine mechanic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...rating of junior engineer on steam vessels of 4,000 horsepower...indoctrination and training in the engine department of an automated steam vessel of 4,000 horsepower...a course of training for deck engine mechanic acceptable to...

2012-10-01

499

85. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST OF FUEL PIPELINE TO LAUNCH DECK. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

85. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST OF FUEL PIPELINE TO LAUNCH DECK. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF SKID 2 VISIBLE ON LEFT. DOORS OF ROOMS ON SOUTHWEST SIDE OF LSB (BLDG. 770) VISIBLE IN CENTER OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

500

Privacy Engineering Objectives and Risk Model-Discussion Deck  

E-print Network

, Confidentiality) Metrics ModelPrivacy Risk Management Framework Privacy Engineering Components Policy (LawPrivacy Engineering Objectives and Risk Model- Discussion Deck Objective-Based Design for Improving components of privacy engineering developed from the output of NIST's first Privacy Engineering Workshop