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Sample records for bridge deck reliability

  1. Plans: Poop Deck, Boat Deck, Housetop, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plans: Poop Deck, Boat Deck, Housetop, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge Deck, Navigating Bridge, Forecastle Deck, Upper Deck, Second Deck and Hold - Saugatuck, James River Reserve Fleet, Newport News, Newport News, VA

  2. Boat Deck, Cabin Deck, Bridge Deck, Flat House Top, Stage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Boat Deck, Cabin Deck, Bridge Deck, Flat House Top, Stage Top, Mast House Top, Upper Deck, Flat House Tops, Forecastle Deck, Main Deck - American Racer, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  3. Dog Bridge, view of the deck of the bridge and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Dog Bridge, view of the deck of the bridge and rails looking from Linden Lane - National Park Seminary, Bounded by Capitol Beltway (I-495), Linden Lane, Woodstove Avenue, & Smith Drive, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  4. Imaging radar for bridge deck inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Warhus, J.; Mast, J.; Nelson, S.

    1995-04-13

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)l is developing a prototype imaging radar for inspecting steel reinforced concrete bridge decks. The system is designed to acquire Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data and provide high-resolution images of internal structure, flaws, and defects enabling bridge inspectors to nondestructively evaluate and characterize bridge deck condition. Concrete delamination resulting from corrosion of steel reinforcing bars (rebars) is an important structural defect that the system is designed to detect. The prototype system uses arrays of compact, low-cost Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR) modules, supported by appropriate data acquisition and storage subsystems, to generate and collect the radar data, and unique imaging codes to reconstruct images of bridge deck internals. In this paper, we provide an overview of the prototype system concept, discuss its expected performance, and present recent experimental results showing the capability of this approach to detect thin delamination simulations embedded in concrete.

  5. 20. VIEW OF STEEL ARCH, SHOWING UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF STEEL ARCH, SHOWING UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE DECK AT EAST END, TYPICAL FLOOR BEAM DETAILS AND IRVING DECKING, X-BRACING AND PENETRATION OF ARCH LOWER CHORD THROUGH DECK, LOOKING NORTHWEST. GAS LINE IS CARRIED ON FLOOR BEAM OUTRIGGERS. NEW BRIDGE IS AT LEFT - Notre Dame Bridge, Spanning Merrimack River on Bridge Street, Manchester, Hillsborough County, NH

  6. 4. VIEW UNDERNEATH BRIDGE, SHOWING STONE ABUTMENT AND THE DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW UNDERNEATH BRIDGE, SHOWING STONE ABUTMENT AND THE DECK BEAMS, STRINGERS AND DIAGONAL BRACING OF DECK SUPPORT SYSTEM - John Bright No. 1 Iron Bridge, Spanning Poplar Creek at Havenport Road (TR 263), Carroll, Fairfield County, OH

  7. Cracking behavior of structural slab bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baah, Prince

    Bridge deck cracking is a common problem throughout the United States, and it affects the durability and service life of concrete bridges. Several departments of transportation (DOTs) in the United States prefer using continuous three-span solid structural slab bridges without stringers over typical four-lane highways. Recent inspections of such bridges in Ohio revealed cracks as wide as 0.125 in. These measured crack widths are more than ten times the maximum limit recommended in ACI 224R-01 for bridge decks exposed to de-icing salts. Measurements using digital image correlation revealed that the cracks widened under truck loading, and in some cases, the cracks did not fully close after unloading. This dissertation includes details of an experimental investigation of the cracking behavior of structural concrete. Prism tests revealed that the concrete with epoxy-coated bars (ECB) develops the first crack at smaller loads, and develops larger crack widths compared to the corresponding specimens with uncoated (black) bars. Slab tests revealed that the slabs with longitudinal ECB developed first crack at smaller loads, exhibited wider cracks and a larger number of cracks, and failed at smaller ultimate loads compared to the corresponding test slabs with black bars. To develop a preventive measure, slabs with basalt and polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete were also included in the test program. These test slabs exhibited higher cracking loads, smaller crack widths, and higher ultimate loads at failure compared to the corresponding slab specimens without fibers. Merely satisfying the reinforcement spacing requirements given in AASHTO or ACI 318-11 is not adequate to limit cracking below the ACI 224R-01 recommended maximum limit, even though all the relevant design requirements are otherwise met. Addition of fiber to concrete without changing any steel reinforcing details is expected to reduce the severity and extent of cracking in reinforced concrete bridge decks.

  8. Monitoring durability of new concrete bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktan, Haluk M.; Yaman, Ismail O.; Staton, John F.

    2001-08-01

    The ND durability monitoring procedure, which measures the soundness of field concrete, is based on the fundamental relationship between ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and permeability of an elastic medium. An experimental study documented adequate sensitivity between UPV and concrete permeability. The durability monitoring procedure is based on a parameter developed as part of this study and called paste quality loss (PQL) which is computed from the probability density function parameters of ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements taken from standard and field concrete. For PQL computation, measurements taken on standard concrete specimens, which are made from field concrete mixture, are compared to field measurements. The verification tests on 1000 mm x 1500 mm x 230 mm lab-deck specimens indicated that the PQL parameter computed from the UPV measurements as early as the 28th day is a good predictor of soundness. The UPV measurements made at increasing age of concrete very clearly document the rapid loss of soundness of improperly cured concrete decks. Deck replacement projects on three NHS bridges were used in the implementation of durability monitoring by PQL (paste quality loss) evaluation. The respective 56-day PQL's were calculated as 15%, 31% and 9% indicating a significant variability in the three bridges.

  9. Development of a nondestructive evaluation method for FRP bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jeff; Fox, Terra

    2010-05-01

    Open steel grids are typically used on bridges to minimize the weight of the bridge deck and wearing surface. These grids, however, require frequent maintenance and exhibit other durability concerns related to fatigue cracking and corrosion. Bridge decks constructed from composite materials, such as a Fiber-reinforced Polymer (FRP), are strong and lightweight; they also offer improved rideability, reduced noise levels, less maintenance, and are relatively easy to install compared to steel grids. This research is aimed at developing an inspection protocol for FRP bridge decks using Infrared thermography. The finite element method was used to simulate the heat transfer process and determine optimal heating and data acquisition parameters that will be used to inspect FRP bridge decks in the field. It was demonstrated that thermal imaging could successfully identify features of the FRP bridge deck to depths of 1.7 cm using a phase analysis process.

  10. 15. UPPER DECK, VIEW OF FERRY BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. UPPER DECK, VIEW OF FERRY BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST TOWARD THE HUDSON RIVER - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad & Ferry Terminal, Ferry Slips & Bridges, Bounded by Observer, Newark & River Streets, Hudson River, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  11. 9. VIEW OF LOWER DECK OF FERRY BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF LOWER DECK OF FERRY BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST TOWARDS HUDSON RIVER - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad & Ferry Terminal, Ferry Slips & Bridges, Bounded by Observer, Newark & River Streets, Hudson River, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  12. 16. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE DECK DURING DEMOLITION, SHOWING EXTRADOSAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE DECK DURING DEMOLITION, SHOWING EXTRADOSAL REINFORCING BARS OF PATENTED THACHER TYPE, AND PLAIN TRANSVERSE BARS CONNECTING EXTRADOSAL AND INTRADOSAL REINFORCEMENTS - Sanderson Avenue Bridge, Sanderson Avenue spanning Lackawanna River, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  13. 12. View underside of bridge, showing concrete tee beam deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View underside of bridge, showing concrete tee beam deck spans supported by concrete piles, looking southwest - Colonel Alexander Scammell Memorial Bridge, Spanning Bellamy River at U.S. Route 4, Dover, Strafford County, NH

  14. 8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern end looking toward north-northwest. - Bridge No. 4800, Spanning Minnesota River on Trunk Highway 4 between Brown & Nicollet Counties, Sleepy Eye, Brown County, MN

  15. DETAIL VIEW OF SINGLE PANEL POINTS TAKEN FROM BRIDGE DECK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF SINGLE PANEL POINTS TAKEN FROM BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING CONNECTION BETWEEN VERTICAL AND UPPER CHORD MEMBER - White Bowstring Arch Truss Bridge, Spanning Yellow Creek at Cemetery Drive (Riverside Drive), Poland, Mahoning County, OH

  16. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE DECK POUR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE DECK POUR, VIEW TO NORTHWEST SHOWING HIGH LINE SYSTEM. - Rex T. Barber Veterans Memorial Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge, Dalles-California Highway (US 97), Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  17. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE DECK POUR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE DECK POUR, VIEW TO NORTH. - Rex T. Barber Veterans Memorial Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge, Dalles-California Highway (US 97), Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  18. DETAIL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE DECK POUR, VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rex T. Barber Veterans Memorial Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge, Dalles-California Highway (US 97), Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  19. Monitoring fatigue life in concrete bridge deck slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newhook, J.; Limaye, V.

    2007-04-01

    Concrete bridge deck slabs are the most common form of bridge deck construction in short and medium span bridge structures in North America. Understanding and monitoring the condition of these bridge decks is an important component of a bridge management strategy. Progressive deterioration due to fatigue occurs in concrete decks due to the large number of cycles of heavy wheels loads and normally manifests itself as the progressive growth of cracks in the top and underside of the deck slab. While some laboratory fatigue testing programs have been reported in the literature, there is very little information on proposed techniques to monitor this phenomenon. This paper discusses the issue of how fatigue monitoring may be included as part of a structural health monitoring system for bridges. The paper draws upon previously published experimental results to identify the main characteristics of fatigue damage and structural response for concrete bridge deck slabs. Several means of monitoring this response are then evaluated and monitoring methods are proposed. A specific field structure monitoring program is used to illustrate the application of the concept. The cases study examines several sensor systems and discusses the various limitations and needs in this area. The results are of interest to both the general area of structural health monitoring as well as fatigue monitoring specifically.

  20. 10. OVERALL VIEW OF BRIDGE, WITH WEST DECK TRUSS APPROACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. OVERALL VIEW OF BRIDGE, WITH WEST DECK TRUSS APPROACH SPAN AND PIER NO. 1 IN FOREGROUND, FROM WEST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  1. EARTHQUAKE PERFORMANCE OF A BRIDGE DECK AND ABUTMENT.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.; Brady, G.

    1985-01-01

    During the 24 April 1984 Morgan Hill Earthquake (M equals 6. 1), 15 channels of acceleration records were obtained at the site of the I-280-680/US 101 interchange 12 km west of the epicenter. These records include free field measurements as well as the acceleration response at one of the supporting column bases, and at three locations in one of the spans of the three-span continuous post-tensioned box-girder deck. The purpose of this paper is to review the performance of this bridge deck and its abutment through the study of these records. The objective in extensively instrumenting a bridge deck or any structure is to obtain relevant response data to study its behaviour during strong motion events and ultimately extrapolate conclusions for improved design.

  2. Comparison of aerodynamic characteristics of pentagonal and hexagonal shaped bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Md. Naimul; Katsuchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Hitoshi; Nishio, Mayuko

    2016-07-01

    Aerodynamics of the long-span bridge deck should be well understood for an efficient design of the bridge system. For practical bridges various deck shapes are being recommended and adopted, yet not all of their aerodynamic behaviors are well interpreted. In the present study, a numerical investigation was carried out to explore the aerodynamic characteristics of pentagonal and hexagonal shaped bridge decks. A relative comparison of steady state aerodynamic responses was made and the flow field was critically analyzed for better understanding the aerodynamic responses. It was found that the hexagonal shaped bridge deck has better aerodynamic characteristics as compared to the pentagonal shaped bridge deck.

  3. Henry Hudson Bridge upper deck and pedestrian walkway showing parapets ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Henry Hudson Bridge upper deck and pedestrian walkway showing parapets with pipe rails. View of Inwood Hill Park in background, with a faint view of the Empire State Building amidst distant highrises at left, looking south. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  4. Using emissivity-corrected thermal maps to locate deep structural defects in concrete bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DelGrande, Nancy; Durbin, Philip F.

    1995-05-01

    Dual-band infrared (DBIR) thermal imaging is a promising, noncontact, nondestructive evaluation tool to evaluate the amount of deteriorated concrete on asphalt-covered bridge decks. We conducted proof-of-principle demonstrations to characterize defects in concrete structures which could be detected with DBIR thermal imaging. We constructed two identical concrete slabs with synthetic delaminations, e.g., 1.8-in. thick styrofoam squares, implanted just above the 2-in. deep steel reinforcement bars. We covered one of the slabs with a 2-in. layer of asphalt. We mounted the DBIR cameras on a tower platform, to simulate the optics needed to conduct bridge-deck inspections from a moving vehicle. We detected 4-in. implants embedded in concrete and 9-in. implants embedded in asphalt-cevered concrete. The midday (above ambient) and predawn (below ambient) delamination-site temperatures correlated with the implant sizes. Using DBIR image ratios, we enhanced thermal-constrast and removed emissivity-noise, e.g., from concrete compositional variations and clutter. Using the LLNL/VIEW code, we removed the asphalt thermal-gradient mask to depict the 4-in. deep, 9- in. square, concrete implant site. We plan to image bridge deck defects from a moving vehicle for accurate estimations of the amount of deteriorated concrete impairing the deck integrity. Potential longterm benefits are affordable and reliable rehabilitation for asphalt-covered decks.

  5. Using emissivity-corrected thermal maps to locate deep structural defects in concrete bridge decks

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.

    1995-04-05

    Dual-band infrared (DBIR) thermal imaging is a promising, non-contact, nondestructive evaluation tool to evaluate the amount of deteriorated concrete on asphalt-covered bridge decks. We conducted proof-of-principle demonstrations to characterize defects in concrete structures which could be detected with DBIR thermal imaging. We constructed two identical concrete slabs with synthetic delaminations, e.g., 1/8-in. thick styrofoam squares, implanted just above the 2-in.-deep steel reinforcement bars. We covered one of the slabs with a 2-in. layer of asphalt. We mounted the DBIR cameras on a tower platform, to simulate the optics needed to conduct bridge-deck inspections from a moving vehicle. We detected 4-in. implants embedded in concrete and 9-in. implants embedded in asphalt-covered concrete. The midday (above-ambient) and predawn (below-ambient) delamination-site temperatures correlated with the implant sizes. Using DBIR image ratios, we enhanced thermal-contrast and removed emissivity-noise, e.g., from concrete compositional variations and clutter. Using the LLNL/VIEW code, we removed the asphalt thermal-gradient mask, to depict the 4-in. deep, 9-in. square, concrete implant size. We plan to image bridge deck defects, from a moving vehicle, for accurate estimations of the amount of deteriorated concrete impairing the deck integrity. Potential longterm benefits are affordable and reliable rehabilitation for asphalt-covered decks.

  6. Development of Aluminum Bridge Deck System with Reynolds Metals Company

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, C.R.; Hayden, W.H.

    1999-04-01

    Currently, there are many structurally-deficient and obsolete bridges in the US highway system. The expected cost for repair and replacement is enormous; therefore, more cost-effective materials and construction methodology must be sought. Reynolds Metals Company formed a vertical consortium to develop and market a cost-effective, innovative, lightweight, corrosion resistant aluminum bridge deck system based on hollow aluminum shapes that could be welded together in the shop to form deck panels. Panels would be shipped to the construction sites for final assembly, which uses connections along longitudinal edges. These deck panels would replace conventional steel or concrete panels. An epoxy-gravel wearing surface would be applied to the top side of the deck to provide a durable, skid-resistant surface. However, before this deck system could be widely utilized, the overall structural integrity had to be fully demonstrated. Reynolds Metals Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORN L) entered in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to conduct a number of fundamental investigations into potentially critical technical areas over approximately a four-year period.

  7. Concrete bridge deck early problem detection and mitigation using robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gucunski, Nenad; Yi, Jingang; Basily, Basily; Duong, Trung; Kim, Jinyoung; Balaguru, Perumalsamy; Parvardeh, Hooman; Maher, Ali; Najm, Husam

    2015-04-01

    More economical management of bridges can be achieved through early problem detection and mitigation. The paper describes development and implementation of two fully automated (robotic) systems for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and minimally invasive rehabilitation of concrete bridge decks. The NDE system named RABIT was developed with the support from Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). It implements multiple NDE technologies, namely: electrical resistivity (ER), impact echo (IE), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and ultrasonic surface waves (USW). In addition, the system utilizes advanced vision to substitute traditional visual inspection. The RABIT system collects data at significantly higher speeds than it is done using traditional NDE equipment. The associated platform for the enhanced interpretation of condition assessment in concrete bridge decks utilizes data integration, fusion, and deterioration and defect visualization. The interpretation and visualization platform specifically addresses data integration and fusion from the four NDE technologies. The data visualization platform facilitates an intuitive presentation of the main deterioration due to: corrosion, delamination, and concrete degradation, by integrating NDE survey results and high resolution deck surface imaging. The rehabilitation robotic system was developed with the support from National Institute of Standards and Technology-Technology Innovation Program (NIST-TIP). The system utilizes advanced robotics and novel materials to repair problems in concrete decks, primarily early stage delamination and internal cracking, using a minimally invasive approach. Since both systems use global positioning systems for navigation, some of the current efforts concentrate on their coordination for the most effective joint evaluation and rehabilitation.

  8. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Testing on a Laboratory Concrete Bridge Deck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, Shannon E.; Woodward, C.; Cramer, M. J.

    2007-03-01

    Nonlinear ultrasonic testing has been shown to be extremely sensitive to distributed damage in concrete. Nonlinear nondestructive ultrasonic tests were performed on a laboratory bridge to detect distributed damage in the deck after it had been overloaded. The NLUT detected damage throughout the deck, and of particular interest in locations where damage was not visible. These results were compared to results obtained using pulse velocity tests at the same locations. The nonlinear ultrasonics were several orders of magnitude more sensitive than results obtained from pulse velocity.

  9. Dual-band infrared imaging for concrete bridge deck inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, P.; Del Grande, N.

    1994-02-01

    Dual-band infrared (DBIR) imaging methods and unique image-correction algorithms used successfully for underground and obscured object imaging and detection (of buried mines, archaeological structures, geothermal aquifers and airframe defects) are adapted for inspection of concrete highways and bridge decks to provide early warnings of subsurface defects. To this end, we prepared small concrete test slabs with defects (embedded plastic layers). We used selective DBIR (3--5 {mu}m and 8--12 {mu}m) image ratios to depict the defect sites and remove the effects of surface clutter. We distinguish true temperature-difference signals (at surrogate delamination sites) from emissivity noise (at sites with oil stains, sand, gravel, metal parts and roughness differences) towards improved concrete bridge deck inspections.

  10. Polymer concrete overlay on SH-51, bridge deck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, T. M.

    1982-06-01

    A thin resinous overlay was placed on a sound bridge deck in Oklahoma to evaluate its performance over one year using various physical tests. The evaluation shows how well the overlay protects the reinforcing steel from corrosion due to deicing salts. The steps leading to the construction of the overlay are detailed as well as the actual placing of the overlay. The results of various physical tests are reported for both before and after the overlay.

  11. Understanding the impulse response method applied to concrete bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clem, D. J.; Popovics, J. S.; Schumacher, T.; Oh, T.; Ham, S.; Wu, D.

    2013-01-01

    The Impulse Response (IR) method is a well-established form of non-destructive testing (NDT) where the dynamic response of an element resulting from an impact event (hammer blow) is measured with a geophone to make conclusions about the element's integrity, stiffness, and/or support conditions. The existing ASTM Standard C1740-10 prescribes a set of parameters that can be used to evaluate the conditions above. These parameters are computed from the so-called `mobility' spectrum which is obtained by dividing the measured bridge deck response by the measured impact force in the frequency domain. While applying the test method in the laboratory as well as on an actual in-service concrete bridge deck, the authors of this paper observed several limitations that are presented and discussed in this paper. In order to better understand the underlying physics of the IR method, a Finite Element (FE) model was created. Parameters prescribed in the Standard were then computed from the FE data and are discussed. One main limitation appears to be the use of a fixed upper frequency of 800 Hz. Test data from the real bridge deck as well as the FE model both show that most energy is found above that limit. This paper presents and discusses limitations of the ASTM Standard found by the authors and suggests ways for improving it.

  12. Fatigue reliability of deck structures subjected to correlated crack growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, G. Q.; Garbatov, Y.; Guedes Soares, C.

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this work is to analyse fatigue reliability of deck structures subjected to correlated crack growth. The stress intensity factors of the correlated cracks are obtained by finite element analysis and based on which the geometry correction functions are derived. The Monte Carlo simulations are applied to predict the statistical descriptors of correlated cracks based on the Paris-Erdogan equation. A probabilistic model of crack growth as a function of time is used to analyse the fatigue reliability of deck structures accounting for the crack propagation correlation. A deck structure is modelled as a series system of stiffened panels, where a stiffened panel is regarded as a parallel system composed of plates and are longitudinal. It has been proven that the method developed here can be conveniently applied to perform the fatigue reliability assessment of structures subjected to correlated crack growth.

  13. Torsional stiffness degradation and aerostatic divergence of suspension bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. T.; Ge, Y. J.; Yang, Y. X.

    2013-07-01

    The mechanism of aerostatic torsional divergence (ATD) of long-span suspension bridges is investigated. A theoretical analysis on the basis of a generalized model is presented, showing that the vertical motion of a bridge deck is crucial to the torsional stiffness of the whole suspended system, and that the vertical motion of either cable with a magnitude beyond a certain threshold could result in a sudden degradation of the torsional stiffness of the system. This vertical motion-induced degradation of stiffness is recognized as the main reason for the ATD. Long-span suspension bridges are susceptible to such a type of divergence, especially when they are immersed in turbulent wind fields. The divergences that occur in turbulent wind fields differ significantly from those in smooth wind fields, and the difference is well explained by the generalized model that the loosening of any one cable could result in the vanishing of the part of stiffness provided by the whole cable system. The mechanism revealed in this paper leads to a definition of the critical wind speed of the ATD in a turbulent flow; that is, the one resulting in a vertical motion so large as to loosen either cable to a stressless state. Numerical results from the nonlinear finite-element (FE) analysis of the Xihoumen suspension bridge, in conjunction with observations from wind tunnel tests on an aero-elastic full bridge model, are in support of the viewpoint presented in this study.

  14. Application of ultrasonic surface wave techniques for concrete bridge deck condition assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mengxing; Anderson, Neil; Sneed, Lesley; Maerz, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasonic surface wave (USW) is a well-established technique for the performance monitoring of concrete structures. In order to investigate the capability and reliability of this technique for concrete bridge deck condition assessment, a portable seismic property analyzer (PSPA) with USW capabilities was used to assess the condition of a reinforced concrete bridge deck exhibiting visible evidence of significant deterioration. After the investigation was completed, variable thicknesses of concrete were removed from upper surface of the concrete deck by milling and hydrodemolition, with greater thickness being removed where the concrete was more deteriorated. The thickness of removed concrete during the hydrodemolition process was mapped by Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). A comparison of the thickness of concrete removed and the USW data indicates that there is a qualitative correlation between the USW results at each test location and the thickness of concrete removed at those same test locations. Results suggest that the PSPA, and comparable USW techniques, could be potentially effective for estimating the thicknesses of concrete that would be removed during milling and hydrodemolition, although more work is needed to study the relationship between USW and removal thickness data in order to be used for quantity estimations.

  15. Research on tensile strength characteristics of bridge deck pavement bonding layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shaopeng; Han, Jun

    2010-03-01

    As the development of the traffic in the world, the bridge deck pavement is playing a more and more important role in the whole traffic system. Big span bridge has become more and more especially cement concrete bridge, therefore the bridge deck pavement bonding layers are emphasized as an important part of bridge traffic system, which can mitigate travel impact to bridge and magnify stationary or traffic amenity. The quality and durability of deck pavement bonding layer has directly effect on traffic safety, comfort, durability and investment of bridge. It represents the first line of defence against the ingress of water, road de-icing salts and aggressive chemicals. In real project, many early age damage of bridge deck pavement has become serious disease that affecting the function of bridge. During the construction of the bridge deck, many types of asphalt binders were used, such as styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) modified asphalt, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) modified asphalt, neoprene latex asphalt, etc. In this paper UTM-25 was used to test the tensile strength of different bridge deck pavement bonding layers with the different treatment methods to inter-surface.

  16. Research on tensile strength characteristics of bridge deck pavement bonding layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shaopeng; Han, Jun

    2009-12-01

    As the development of the traffic in the world, the bridge deck pavement is playing a more and more important role in the whole traffic system. Big span bridge has become more and more especially cement concrete bridge, therefore the bridge deck pavement bonding layers are emphasized as an important part of bridge traffic system, which can mitigate travel impact to bridge and magnify stationary or traffic amenity. The quality and durability of deck pavement bonding layer has directly effect on traffic safety, comfort, durability and investment of bridge. It represents the first line of defence against the ingress of water, road de-icing salts and aggressive chemicals. In real project, many early age damage of bridge deck pavement has become serious disease that affecting the function of bridge. During the construction of the bridge deck, many types of asphalt binders were used, such as styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) modified asphalt, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) modified asphalt, neoprene latex asphalt, etc. In this paper UTM-25 was used to test the tensile strength of different bridge deck pavement bonding layers with the different treatment methods to inter-surface.

  17. Ground-penetrating imaging radar development for bridge deck and road bed inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.; Nelson, S.D.; Johansson, E.M.

    1993-05-01

    Ground-penetrating imaging radar (GPIR) is proposed for large-area inspection of concrete and concrete/asphalt composite bridge decks and roadways. This technique combines ground-penetrating radar (GPR) with unique image reconstruction algorithms developed for identification and characterization of subsurface flaws and structural features. New data acquisition hardware and image reconstruction techniques, under development at LLNL, offer the possibility for reliable and efficient, high-resolution subsurface imaging through the use of improved ultra-wideband transmitters, antennas, and arrays, and enhanced image- and signal-processing software. A field test of a limited-capability prototype system is planned for FY-93, as is completion of a conceptual design for a practical inspection system. A follow-on program for FY-94 would focus on development and demonstration of an advanced bridge inspection system prototype based on the conceptual design completed during FY-93.

  18. Health monitoring of precast bridge deck panels reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, James Mcdaniel

    The Beaver Creek Bridge on US highway 6 is the pilot project for Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) bridge decks and posttensioned bridge decks in the state of Utah. The bridge was built in 2009, using accelerated bridge construction practices, including the use of precast prestressed girders, as well as precast decking. The westbound bridge decking was composed of 12 precast panels each measuring 41'-5" long, 6'-10" wide, and 9¼" thick, and weighing approximately 33 kips. At the time, these panels were the longest GFRP panels in the United States. The Utah Department of Transportation has decided to evaluate GFRP reinforcing bars as an alternative to steel rebar in this bridge deck. The hope is to increase the lifespan of bridge decks to match the service life of the entire bridge. Due to the nature of the GFRP bars, the panels were lifted at four points using straps instead of imbedded anchors. During the four-point lifting, the panels exhibited small deflections and strains; furthermore, no cracks larger than hairline cracks were found in the panels after lifting. The Beaver Creek Bridge deck is the first precast deck in the state of Utah to be posttensioned in the direction of traffic. Posttensioning bridge decks is expected to become the norm in the state of Utah. The posttensioning resulted in increased continuity between panels. In order to quantify the expected performance of the bridge during its service life, a truck load test was performed. The truck load test was comprised of a static and dynamic test. During the truck load test, the bridge experienced deflections in the panels which were 93% below design values. Girder deflections were also small. The use of GFRP bars has the potential to extend the life of bridge decks exposed to deicing salts from 45 years to 100 years, while only requiring an increased capital cost in the bridge of 8%. Furthermore, the use of GFRP bars in conjunction with accelerated building practices has the potential to

  19. Crack mitigation in concrete bridge decks through experimental analysis and computer modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Douglas M.

    Bridge deck cracking can cause deterioration of bridge decks, leading to a shorter life span and poor performance. Throughout the US, cracking has been identified as a problem, with transverse cracking along the deck at regular spacings being the most prominent type. This problem is usually caused by drying shrinkage within the concrete. The material properties, restraint, and distances without expansion joints all affect the crack pattern within the deck. This study will delve into the reasons that bridge decks crack, the strains that are associated with drying shrinkage, and possible methods for abating its effects. The research is divided into two parts, the first being laboratory experimentation, which was conducted through the use of two 7 ft. x 10 ft. experimental concrete bridge bays. Each bay was instrumented with strain and temperature gages throughout the deck and girders, which collected data for six months. The first deck was poured with a control concrete mix used currently in Illinois. The second deck was poured with a type K expansive concrete, which could battle the effects of shrinkage. For both decks, the results suggest a compressive strain throughout the rebar and along the top surface of the concrete, except for the locations where cracks are found (at these locations the strain slopes upward into tension). The strain in the type K deck, though, was notably less than that in the control deck and the onset of cracking was delayed by three weeks, giving the indication of an improvement over the current mix design. The second portion of the research was focused on using a finite element model to replicate the bridge bay and study the results. Equivalent temperature loading was used to apply the shrinkage loads recorded during the experimental portion of the research. The model was then expanded to encompass a full-scale bridge and in order to provide some insight into shrinkage strain in the real world. The end goal is to help alleviate cracking

  20. Analytical Study of Vertical and Torsional Free Vibration of Cable Supported Bridge Decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorman, Daniel J.

    The superposition method is employed to obtain an analytical type solution for the free vibration of cable supported bridge decks. Each pair of vertical elastic cables is considered to impart a vertical force to the deck by means of a rigid cross-member passing transversely beneath it. Rigid knife-edge support encountered at bridge towers is handled as well. In this introductory study the deck is treated as a thin isotropic plate. Any number of support cable pairs, of any stiffness, may be handled. Inter cross-member distances are referred to as spans. Free vibration eigenvalues and mode shapes are presented for three and four span illustrative cases.

  1. Analysis, prediction, and case studies of early-age cracking in bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElSafty, Adel; Graeff, Matthew K.; El-Gharib, Georges; Abdel-Mohti, Ahmed; Mike Jackson, N.

    2016-05-01

    Early-age cracking can adversely affect strength, serviceability, and durability of concrete bridge decks. Early age is defined as the period after final setting, during which concrete properties change rapidly. Many factors can cause early-age bridge deck cracking including temperature change, hydration, plastic shrinkage, autogenous shrinkage, and drying shrinkage. The cracking may also increase the effect of freeze and thaw cycles and may lead to corrosion of reinforcement. This research paper presents an analysis of causes and factors affecting early-age cracking. It also provides a tool developed to predict the likelihood and initiation of early-age cracking of concrete bridge decks. Understanding the concrete properties is essential so that the developed tool can accurately model the mechanisms contributing to the cracking of concrete bridge decks. The user interface of the implemented computer Excel program enables the user to input the properties of the concrete being monitored. The research study and the developed spreadsheet were used to comprehensively investigate the issue of concrete deck cracking. The spreadsheet is designed to be a user-friendly calculation tool for concrete mixture proportioning, temperature prediction, thermal analysis, and tensile cracking prediction. The study also provides review and makes recommendations on the deck cracking based mainly on the Florida Department of Transportation specifications and Structures Design Guidelines, and Bridge Design Manuals of other states. The results were also compared with that of other commercially available software programs that predict early-age cracking in concrete slabs, concrete pavement, and reinforced concrete bridge decks. The outcome of this study can identify a set of recommendations to limit the deck cracking problem and maintain a longer service life of bridges.

  2. Analysis, prediction, and case studies of early-age cracking in bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElSafty, Adel; Graeff, Matthew K.; El-Gharib, Georges; Abdel-Mohti, Ahmed; Mike Jackson, N.

    2016-06-01

    Early-age cracking can adversely affect strength, serviceability, and durability of concrete bridge decks. Early age is defined as the period after final setting, during which concrete properties change rapidly. Many factors can cause early-age bridge deck cracking including temperature change, hydration, plastic shrinkage, autogenous shrinkage, and drying shrinkage. The cracking may also increase the effect of freeze and thaw cycles and may lead to corrosion of reinforcement. This research paper presents an analysis of causes and factors affecting early-age cracking. It also provides a tool developed to predict the likelihood and initiation of early-age cracking of concrete bridge decks. Understanding the concrete properties is essential so that the developed tool can accurately model the mechanisms contributing to the cracking of concrete bridge decks. The user interface of the implemented computer Excel program enables the user to input the properties of the concrete being monitored. The research study and the developed spreadsheet were used to comprehensively investigate the issue of concrete deck cracking. The spreadsheet is designed to be a user-friendly calculation tool for concrete mixture proportioning, temperature prediction, thermal analysis, and tensile cracking prediction. The study also provides review and makes recommendations on the deck cracking based mainly on the Florida Department of Transportation specifications and Structures Design Guidelines, and Bridge Design Manuals of other states. The results were also compared with that of other commercially available software programs that predict early-age cracking in concrete slabs, concrete pavement, and reinforced concrete bridge decks. The outcome of this study can identify a set of recommendations to limit the deck cracking problem and maintain a longer service life of bridges.

  3. 12. ANNISQUAM BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST ALONG DECK, C.1885. Photocopy of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. ANNISQUAM BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST ALONG DECK, C.1885. Photocopy of photograph (original glass plate negative #T14 in the collection of the Annisquam Historical Society, Annisquam, Massachusetts). Photographer: Martha Harvey (1862-1949). - Annisquam Bridge, Spanning Lobster Cove between Washington & River Streets, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

  4. Stiffness and strength of fiber reinforced polymer composite bridge deck systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Aixi

    This research investigates two principal characteristics that are of primary importance in Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bridge deck applications: STIFFNESS and STRENGTH. The research was undertaken by investigating the stiffness and strength characteristics of the multi-cellular FRP bridge deck systems consisting of pultruded FRP shapes. A systematic analysis procedure was developed for the stiffness analysis of multi-cellular FRP deck systems. This procedure uses the Method of Elastic Equivalence to model the cellular deck as an equivalent orthotropic plate. The procedure provides a practical method to predict the equivalent orthotropic plate properties of cellular FRP decks. Analytical solutions for the bending analysis of single span decks were developed using classical laminated plate theory. The analysis procedures can be extended to analyze continuous FRP decks. It can also be further developed using higher order plate theories. Several failure modes of the cellular FRP deck systems were recorded and analyzed through laboratory and field tests and Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Two schemes of loading patches were used in the laboratory test: a steel patch made according to the ASSHTO's bridge testing specifications; and a tire patch made from a real truck tire reinforced with silicon rubber. The tire patch was specially designed to simulate service loading conditions by modifying real contact loading from a tire. Our research shows that the effects of the stiffness and contact conditions of loading patches are significant in the stiffness and strength testing of FRP decks. Due to the localization of load, a simulated tire patch yields larger deflection than the steel patch under the same loading level. The tire patch produces significantly different failure compared to the steel patch: a local bending mode with less damage for the tire patch; and a local punching-shear mode for the steel patch. A deck failure function method is proposed for predicting the

  5. On the aeroelastic transient behaviour of a streamlined bridge deck section in a wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoor, S.; Hémon, P.; Amandolese, X.

    2011-11-01

    The study deals with the transient behaviour of a two degrees of freedom bridge deck section in a wind tunnel under the effect of an initial excitation. Response of the bridge deck section subjected to an initial mechanical excitation and excitation by an upstream gust is investigated separately. Experiments are conducted with three different frequency ratios between the plunge and pitch degrees of freedom. This experimental study shows that transient growth of energy occurs for wind velocities below the onset of flutter, reaching a level higher than 5 times the level of the initial excitation. In high wind conditions, this means that statistical or spectral computation techniques might underestimate the motion amplitude reached by a flexible bridge deck. This emphasises the importance of using temporal techniques under such circumstances.

  6. Application of seismic surface-waves in concrete bridge-deck evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetrat, Farhad

    Accurate and timely condition assessment of bridge decks is essential for economic management of aging highway bridges. The ability to evaluate concrete modulus profile in a bridge deck can help the detection of early signs of deterioration and optimize the bridge maintenance procedures. This study presents a new method for modulus profiling of concrete bridge decks. The stiffness matrix method is used to simulate wave propagation in a layered media. The results are compared to numerical finite element models. Dispersion analysis is done using the multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and phase-shift methods. The characteristics of dispersion surface are analyzed and the effects of model parameters on dispersion surface are examined through a series of parametric studies. An inversion technique is proposed for a fast inversion of surface-wave data collected on bridge decks. This technique utilizes a database of pre-calculated dispersion surfaces and takes advantage of the observed patterns in the parametric study as a priori information for the inversion process.

  7. Ground-penetrating radar for highway and bridge deck condition assessment and inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiler, Michael; McNeil, Sue; Garrett, James H., Jr.

    1995-05-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been developed and used successfully for bridge deck and roadway condition assessment. In the past, GPR interpretation has been done manually by trained engineers and technicians with the aid of standard signal processing techniques. This method of collection produced vast quantities of data, and the interpretation required a great amount of time. Recently, parallel processing in the form of artificial neural networks (ANNs) has been applied to the interpretation of GPR condition assessment data from highways. This paper introduces general strategy for using ANNs for the interpretation of GPR data. Results of applying this strategy to bridge deck condition assessment data are also given.

  8. Wireless monitoring of the longitudinal displacement of the Tamar Suspension Bridge deck under changing environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Battista, Nicky; Westgate, Robert; Koo, Ki Young; Brownjohn, James

    2011-04-01

    In order to be able to monitor the performance and health of a civil structure it is essential to understand how it behaves under different environmental conditions. It is a well documented fact that the structural performance of bridges can be altered considerably when they are subjected to changes in environmental conditions. This paper presents a study investigating the longitudinal movement of the road deck on Tamar Suspension Bridge in Plymouth in the UK over six months. The expansion joint of the bridge deck was instrumented with pull-wire type extensometers. The data were transmitted wirelessly using commercial wireless sensor nodes and collected at a data acquisition laptop computer, which was accessible online for remote monitoring. In addition, position data of various locations on the bridge deck were collected using a Robotic Total Station (RTS). Environmental data, such as the temperature, and structural data, such as cable tension, were acquired from other monitoring systems. Conclusions drawn from a fusion of the bridge deck's longitudinal displacement with other structural and environmental data are discussed in this paper.

  9. Characterization of stormwater runoff from bridges in North Carolina and the effects of bridge deck runoff on receiving streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Chad R.; Fitzgerald, Sharon A.; Sherrell, Roy D.; Harned, Douglas A.; Staub, Erik L.; Pointer, Brian H.; Wehmeyer, Loren L.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the North Carolina General Assembly passed House Bill 2436 that required the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) to study the water-quality effects of bridges on receiving streams. In response, the NCDOT and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated on a study to provide information necessary to address the requirements of the Bill. To better understand the effects of stormwater runoff from bridges on receiving streams, the following tasks were performed: (1) characterize stormwater runoff quality and quantity from a representative selection of bridges in North Carolina; (2) measure stream water quality upstream from selected bridges to compare bridge deck stormwater concentrations and loads to stream constituent concentrations and loads; and (3) determine if the chemistry of bed sediments upstream and downstream from selected bridges differs substantially based on presence or absence of a best management practice for bridge runoff.

  10. Experimental Analysis of Stiffness of the Riveted Steel Railway Bridge Deck Members' Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gocál, Jozef; Hlinka, Richard; Jošt, Jozef; Bahleda, František

    2014-12-01

    The paper deals with the real behaviour of the riveted steel railway bridge deck members' connections with respect to their bending stiffness. Attention is paid to the stringer-to-cross beam connection as well as the cross beam-to-main girder connection. The stiffness of the two connections is investigated on the basis of evaluation of the experimentally determined stress response of the observed structural members to the actual traffic load on an existing railway bridge.

  11. Cross-spectral recognition method of bridge deck aerodynamic admittance function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lin; Ge, Yaojun

    2015-12-01

    This study proposes a new identification algorithm about the admittance function, which can estimate the full set of six aerodynamic admittance functions considering cross power spectral density functions about the forces and the turbulence components. The method was first numerically validated through Monte Carlo simulations, and then adopted to estimate the aerodynamic admittance of a streamlined bridge deck. The identification method was further validated through a comparison between the numerical calculation and wind tunnel tests on a moving bridge section.

  12. Fabry-Perot sensors for the monitoring of FRP reinforced bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmokrane, Brahim; Quirion, Marco; El-Salakawy, Ehab; Debaiky, Ahmed S.; Lackey, Tom

    2004-07-01

    The extensive use of deicing salts in Canada during winter times is identified as the main reason behind the deterioration of highway bridges and parking garages. To fight this infrastructure crisis, Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP) has become a very attractive alternative to traditional reinforcing steel due to their non-corrosive nature and light weight. The replacement of steel with Glass FRP bars in bridge deck slabs has been extensively researched in the last few years. This paper presents the first efforts to implement these bars in two highway bridges in Quebec, Canada, and Vermont, USA. These projects are aimed to prove the feasibility of using GFRP bars in bridge construction. GFRP bars were used as reinforcement for parts of the deck slabs in the two bridges while traditional steel was used in the remaining parts. Fibre Optic Sensors (FOS) were used to measure strains in the concrete, reinforcing bars and steel girders. The sensors were surface mounted on the bars or steel girders using standard glue, or embedded in concrete. Static and dynamic testing of the bridges was done using loaded trucks placed for maximum stresses. The design, construction, testing, and results obtained from the bridges are briefly outlined in this paper. The results indicated the accuracy of the sensors and their feasibility for bridge construction and remote monitoring.

  13. A comprehensive evaluation of high friction overlay systems on bridge decks in cold climate regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostick, Robert D.

    In recent history the Minnesota Department of Transportation has looked to improve the safety of bridge decks by installing high friction overlays (HFO). A comprehensive study researched four different proprietary HFO systems placed on fourteen bridge decks throughout Minnesota. Research was split into three separate tasks: (1) laboratory testing of aggregate properties, (2) field observations and testing, and (3) a comprehensive analysis of crash data investigated crash rates on bridges with HFO systems. Field observations and testing revealed that the use of snowplows quickly abrades HFO systems. Abrasion, among other factors, causes a reduction in surface friction values, and reduces the life of HFO systems. Furthermore, improving crash rate trends cannot be directly correlated to the installation of HFO systems. Research concludes that HFO systems should not be used in Minnesota. Other cold climate transportation agencies should conduct research emulated after this study to assess HFO systems in their jurisdiction.

  14. Evaluation of Epoxo 300-C nonskid coating for use on bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, S. Q.

    1984-01-01

    There is a problem of polishing steel grid bridge decks. The I-10 bridge over the East Pascagoula River is of particular concern because of the volume, speed of traffic, length of span, and the rapid decrease in skid numbers. In addition, the grid causes lateral movement which is critical with motorcycles. The purpose of the study was to find a better way to improve skid resistance on steel grid bridge decks. It appears from the tests that Epoxo will provide a good long-life skid resistant surface on concrete and also steel plate. On the steel grid the wear is much heavier because of the small contact area between the tire and the grid.

  15. Evaluation of Fiber Optic Strain Measurement System for Monitoring FRP Bridge Decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkhachorn, P.; Lonkar, G. M.; Halabe, Udaya B.; GangaRao, H. V. S.

    2005-04-01

    The use of Fiber Optic sensors for structural monitoring applications has attained popularity among researchers and practitioners recently due to their immense advantages. This paper discusses a continuous structural monitoring technique using surface mounted and embedded fiber optic strain sensors to measure the strain in FRP bridge decks. An Extrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometric (EFPI) strain sensor was selected for evaluation as it offers a good compromise between accuracy and cost considerations. This EFPI strain sensor, along with a conventional strain gauge, was surface mounted on a FRP bridge decks. The decks were then subjected to an accelerated aging test in an environmental chamber and the performance of both the strain sensors was recorded for a performance comparison. The results from the seven months of accelerated aging that is equivalent to 10 years of actual life show that the strain gauge sensor and the EFPI Fiber Optic sensor are still in working condition. The EFPI fiber optic sensor detects minute and sudden changes in strain more effectively than the strain gauge sensor. Placement in the environmental chamber did not affect the EFPI sensor's performance and is an indication of its applicability to field structural monitoring for lengthy periods of time. The second part is a preliminary work where a fiber optic sensor was embedded inside a FRP plate during the pultrusion process. This shows the feasibility of manufacturing FRP bridge decks with embedded fiber optic sensors.

  16. Early-age durability assessment of cast-in-place RC bridge deck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktan, Haluk M.; Yaman, Ismail O.; Udegbunam, Oge; Hearn, Nataliya

    2000-06-01

    A novel method for evaluating concrete permeability at an early age is being developed for use in performance-related specifications where the material durability is specified as a performance parameter. In developing the method, the fundamental relationship between ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and permeability of a porous medium is derived. An experimental relationship between UPV and concrete permeability is also established which strongly correlates with its theoretical counterpart. This experimental relationship is developed from UPV and permeability tests conducted on specimens made from a series of concrete grades. The experimental relation utilized the data collected from specimens made from a total of 20 bridge deck normal concrete mixes corresponding to five w/c (water-cement ratio) groups of 0.35, 0.40, 0.45, 0.50 and 0.55. The implementation procedure developed is the application of the 'paste efficiency' principle. In implementing 'paste efficiency' principle during the casting of a bridge deck, standard specimens are prepared in the field and cured in the laboratory. UPV measurements are obtained at an early age both from the deck and the standard specimens. The decrease in UPV from standard specimens indicates paste quality loss (PQL) and is proportional to the increase in permeability of deck concrete.

  17. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements of steel and ice impacts on concrete for acoustic interrogation of delaminations in bridge decks

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzeo, Brian A.; Patil, Anjali N.; Klis, Jeffrey M.; Hurd, Randy C.; Truscott, Tadd T.; Guthrie, W. Spencer

    2014-02-18

    Delaminations in bridge decks typically result from corrosion of the top mat of reinforcing steel, which leads to a localized separation of the concrete cover from the underlying concrete. Because delaminations cannot be detected using visual inspection, rapid, large-area interrogation methods are desired to characterize bridge decks without disruption to traffic, without the subjectivity inherent in existing methods, and with increased inspector safety. To this end, disposable impactors such as water droplets or ice chips can be dropped using automatic dispensers onto concrete surfaces to excite mechanical vibrations while acoustic responses can be recorded using air-coupled microphones. In this work, numerical simulations are used to characterize the flexural response of a model concrete bridge deck subject to both steel and ice impactors, and the results are compared with similar experiments performed in the laboratory on a partially delaminated concrete bridge deck slab. The simulations offer greater understanding of the kinetics of impacts and the responses of materials.

  18. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements of steel and ice impacts on concrete for acoustic interrogation of delaminations in bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzeo, Brian A.; Patil, Anjali N.; Klis, Jeffrey M.; Hurd, Randy C.; Truscott, Tadd T.; Guthrie, W. Spencer

    2014-02-01

    Delaminations in bridge decks typically result from corrosion of the top mat of reinforcing steel, which leads to a localized separation of the concrete cover from the underlying concrete. Because delaminations cannot be detected using visual inspection, rapid, large-area interrogation methods are desired to characterize bridge decks without disruption to traffic, without the subjectivity inherent in existing methods, and with increased inspector safety. To this end, disposable impactors such as water droplets or ice chips can be dropped using automatic dispensers onto concrete surfaces to excite mechanical vibrations while acoustic responses can be recorded using air-coupled microphones. In this work, numerical simulations are used to characterize the flexural response of a model concrete bridge deck subject to both steel and ice impactors, and the results are compared with similar experiments performed in the laboratory on a partially delaminated concrete bridge deck slab. The simulations offer greater understanding of the kinetics of impacts and the responses of materials.

  19. Impedance spectroscopy of concrete cover on bridge decks with reinforcing steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomew, Paul; Blankenagel, Bryan; Guthrie, Spencer; Mazzeo, Brian

    2011-10-01

    Chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcing steel is a major problem for aging bridge structures near marine environments or in cold regions where deicing salts are applied as part of winter maintenance. Corrosion is the result of the interaction of diffused chloride ions with the embedded steel. One property of affected decks that facilitates detection of chloride ions is their ability to conduct electricity. Impedance spectroscopy can be used to measure concrete conductivity and thereby identify areas of increased chloride concentration characterized by elevated risks of corrosion. A new probe and measurement apparatus has been engineered to measure large areas of concrete on bridge decks. Comparison between measurements obtained in the laboratory and in the field will be presented.

  20. An Automatic Impact-based Delamination Detection System for Concrete Bridge Decks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Gang; Harichandran, Ronald S.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2012-01-02

    Delamination of concrete bridge decks is a commonly observed distress in corrosive environments. In traditional acoustic inspection methods, delamination is assessed by the "hollowness" of the sound created by impacting the bridge deck with a hammer or bar or by dragging a chain where the signals are often contaminated by ambient traffic noise and the detection is highly subjective. In the proposed method, a modified version of independent component analysis (ICA) is used to filter the traffic noise. To eliminate subjectivity, Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) are used as features for detection and the delamination is detected by a radial basis function (RBF) neural network. Results from both experimental and field data suggest that the proposed methods id noise robust and has satisfactory performance. The methods can also detect the delamination of repair patches and concrete below the repair patches. The algorithms were incorporated into an automatic impact-bases delamination detection (AIDD) system for field application.

  1. Bridge deck repairs with polymer concrete patching materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgecomb, W. C., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The FHWA polymer concrete as formulated at Brookhaven National laboratory (BNL) was mixed, placed into spalls and finished on grade with steel trowels on more than a dozen bridges. This polymer concrete was a two-component system consisting of a liquid monomer component comprised of methyl methacrylate base, which contained a cross linking agent with promoters and an inhibitor, and a powder component which contained reactive polymers, blend of silica sands, initiator, and color pigments. These formed an impregnable material of approximately 8000 psi. Cure time for this project's cold weather formulation to obtain this strength was approximately 2 hours at 40 F.

  2. Implementation of civionics in a second generation steel-free bridge deck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klowak, Chad; Rivera, Evangeline; Mufti, Aftab

    2005-05-01

    As the design and construction of civil structures continue to evolve, it is becoming imperative that these structures be monitored for their health. In order to meet this need, the discipline of Civionics has emerged. Civionics is a new term coined from Civil-Electronics, which is derived from the application of electronics to civil structures. It is similar to the term Avionics, which is used in the aerospace industry. If structural health monitoring is to become part of civil structural engineering, it should include Civionics. It involves the application of electronics to civil structures and aims to assist engineers in realizing the full benefits of structural health monitoring (SHM). In past SHM field applications, the main reason for the failure of a sensor was not the installation of the sensor itself but the egress of the sensor cables. Often, the cables were not handled and protected correctly. For SHM to be successful, specifications must be written on the entire process, beginning with system design and concluding with data collection, interpretation, and management. Civionics specifications include the technical requirements for a SHM system which encompasses fibre optic sensors, cables, conduits, junction boxes and the control room. A specification for data collection and storage is currently being developed as well. In the spring of 2004 research engineers at the University of Manitoba constructed a full-scale second generation steel free bridge deck. The bridge deck is the first of its kind to fully incorporate a complete civionics structural health monitoring system to monitor the deck's behaviour during destructive testing. Throughout the construction of the bridge deck, the entire installation of the civionics system was carried out by research engineers simulating an actual implementation of such a system in a large scale construction environment. One major concern that consulting engineers have raised is the impact that a civionics system that

  3. Biaxial Behavior of Ultra-High Performance Concrete and Untreated UHPC Waffle Slab Bridge Deck Design and Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, Kacie Caple

    Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) was evaluated as a potential material for future bridge deck designs. Material characterization tests took place to identify potential challenges in mixing, placing, and curing UHPC. Biaxial testing was performed to evaluate behavior of UHPC in combined tension and compression stress states. A UHPC bridge deck was designed to perform similarly to a conventional concrete bridge deck, and a single unit bridge deck section was tested to evaluate the design methods used for untreated UHPC. Material tests identified challenges with placing UHPC. A specified compressive strength was determined for structural design using untreated UHPC, which was identified as a cost-effective alternative to steam treated UHPC. UHPC was tested in biaxial tension-compression stress states. A biaxial test method was developed for UHPC to directly apply tension and compression. The influence of both curing method and fiber orientation were evaluated. The failure envelope developed for untreated UHPC with random fiber orientation was suggested as a conservative estimate for future analysis of UHPC. Digital image correlation was also evaluated as a means to estimate surface strains of UHPC, and recommendations are provided to improve consistency in future tests using DIC methods. A preliminary bridge deck design was completed for untreated UHPC and using established material models. Prestressing steel was used as primary reinforcement in the transverse direction. Preliminary testing was used to evaluate three different placement scenarios, and results showed that fiber settling was a potential placement problem resulting in reduced tensile strength. The UHPC bridge deck was redesigned to incorporate preliminary test results, and two single unit bridge deck sections were tested to evaluate the incorporated design methods for both upside down and right-side up placement techniques. Test results showed that the applied design methods would be conservative

  4. Real Time Detection of Defects in GFRP Bridge Decks Using Infrared Thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkhachorn, P.; Lonkar, G. M.; Halabe, Udaya B.; GangaRao, Hota V. S.

    2006-03-01

    This work is aimed at building a real time system to detect subsurface defects in GFRP bridge decks using infrared thermography. The issues addressed are: (a) development of a real time defect detection system, and (b) image mosaicking to build a composite image map. In the tests conducted, a turn key system was built in Matlab environment using the FLIR SDK to acquire image from the ThermaCAM S60 infrared camera. The images were then analyzed by defect detection algorithms. Efforts were made to minimize the time to detect defects in a captured image. In the second phase, image mosaicking was used to build a "composite image" that combines all the infrared images to form a single image. The location of defects in the "composite image" leads to a system that will be able to point out defects in the bridge as a whole. The study creates a base that can be used for real time defect detection in GFRP bridge decks.

  5. Deck and Cable Dynamic Testing of a Single-span Bridge Using Radar Interferometry and Videometry Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piniotis, George; Gikas, Vassilis; Mpimis, Thanassis; Perakis, Harris

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the dynamic testing of a roadway, single-span, cable-stayed bridge for a sequence of static load and ambient vibration monitoring scenarios. Deck movements were captured along both sideways of the bridge using a Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and a Ground-based Microwave Interfererometer (GBMI) system. Cable vibrations were measured at a single point location on each of the six cables using the GBMI technique. Dynamic testing involves three types of analyses; firstly, vibration analysis and modal parameter estimation (i. e., natural frequencies and modal shapes) of the deck using the combined DIC and GBMI measurements. Secondly, dynamic testing of the cables is performed through vibration analysis and experimental computation of their tension forces. Thirdly, the mechanism of cable-deck dynamic interaction is studied through their Power Spectra Density (PSD) and the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) analyses. Thereby, the global (deck and cable) and local (either deck or cable) bridge modes are identified, serving a concrete benchmark of the current state of the bridge for studying the evolution of its structural performance in the future. The level of synergy and complementarity between the GBMI and DIC techniques for bridge monitoring is also examined and assessed.

  6. Detection of Delamination in Concrete Bridge Decks Using Mfcc of Acoustic Impact Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Harichandran, R. S.; Ramuhalli, P.

    2010-02-01

    Delamination of the concrete cover is a commonly observed damage in concrete bridge decks. The delamination is typically initiated by corrosion of the upper reinforcing bars and promoted by freeze-thaw cycling and traffic loading. The detection of delamination is important for bridge maintenance and acoustic non-destructive evaluation (NDE) is widely used due to its low cost, speed, and easy implementation. In traditional acoustic approaches, the inspector sounds the surface of the deck by impacting it with a hammer or bar, or by dragging a chain, and assesses delamination by the "hollowness" of the sound. The detection of the delamination is subjective and requires extensive training. To improve performance, this paper proposes an objective method for delamination detection. In this method, mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) of the signal are extracted. Some MFCC are then selected as features for detection purposes using a mutual information criterion. Finally, the selected features are used to train a classifier which is subsequently used for detection. In this work, a simple quadratic Bayesian classifier is used. Different numbers of features are used to compare the performance of the detection method. The results show that the performance first increases with the number of features, but then decreases after an optimal value. The optimal number of features based on the recorded signals is four, and the mean error rate is only 3.3% when four features are used. Therefore, the proposed algorithm has sufficient accuracy to be used in field detection.

  7. Structural Aspects of Railway Truss Bridges Affecting Transverse Shear Forces in Steel-Concrete Composite Decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siekierski, Wojciech

    2015-03-01

    At the steel-concrete interface, the horizontal shear forces that are transverse to cross beams occur due to joint action of the steel-concrete composite deck and the truss girders. Numerical analysis showed that values of the forces are big in comparison to the longitudinal shear forces. In both cases extreme force values occur near side edges of a slab. The paper studies possibilities of reduction of these shear forces by structural alterations of the following: rigidity of a concrete slab, arrangement of a wind bracing, arrangement of concrete slab expansion joints. An existing railway truss bridge span has been analysed. Numerical analysis shows that it is possible to reduce the values of shear forces transverse to cross beams. It may reach 20% near the side edges of slabs and 23% in the centre of slab width.

  8. Plans: Aft Gun Platform, Quarters for 16 Gunmen, Poop Deck, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plans: Aft Gun Platform, Quarters for 16 Gunmen, Poop Deck, Boat Deck, House Top, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge Deck, Navigating Bridge, Forecastle Deck, Gun Platform, Upper Deck, Second Deck and Hold Plan - Mission Santa Ynez, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  9. Multi-mode traffic-induced vibrations in composite ladder-deck bridges under heavy moving vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camara, A.; Ruiz-Teran, A. M.

    2015-10-01

    Composite (steel-concrete) ladder-decks represent one of the most common solutions in road bridges nowadays. In these structures the Serviceability Limit State (SLS) of vibrations is traditionally ignored or roughly addressed by means of simple static deflection-based approaches, inherently assuming that the vibrations are controlled by the fundamental longitudinal mode. This work demonstrates that a wide range of high-order vibrational modes, involving the transverse flexure of the slab between longitudinal girders, govern the accelerations recorded in the deck and inside the vehicles. In addition, a new methodology for analysing the Vehicle-Bridge Interaction is proposed, including the approaching platforms, the transition slabs, and the bridge joints. The results suggest that the riding comfort for vehicle users is specially affected by direct effects on the wheels, like the road roughness and possible construction misalignments at the bridge joints, as well as low-frequency vibrations coming from the deck in short or slender bridges. The filtering effects resulting from the average of the response in time and in space when calculating the root mean square acceleration are also explored, and new design parameters are provided. In addition, several structural features (such as the depth and spacing of the longitudinal and transverse steel beams, the thickness of the concrete slab, and the stiffness of the cantilever cross beams at the diaphragm sections) have been studied, and a set of new design criteria has been established. It has been demonstrated that the transverse flexibility of the deck (specially influenced by the support conditions and the slab thickness) is critically important for the users' (pedestrians and vehicle passengers) comfort, as it controls the aforementioned high-order vibrational modes which govern the dynamic response.

  10. Application of Noise Cancelling and Damage Detection Algorithms in NDE of Concrete Bridge Decks Using Impact Signals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Gang; Harichandran, Ronald S.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2011-09-13

    Delamination is a commonly observed distress in concrete bridge decks. Among all the delamination detection methods, acoustic methods have the advantages of being fast and inexpensive. In traditional acoustic inspection methods, the inspector drags a chain along or hammers on the bridge deck and detects delamination from the 'hollowness' of the sounds. The signals are often contaminated by ambient traffic noise and the detection of delamination is highly subjective. This paper describes the performance of an impact-bases acoustic NDE method where the traffic noise was filtered by employing a noise cancelling algorithm and where subjectivity was eliminated by introducing feature extraction and pattern recognition algorithms. Different algorithms were compared and the best one was selected in each category. The comparison showed that the modified independent component analysis (ICA) algorithm was most effective in cancelling the traffic noise and features consisting of mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) had the best performance in terms of repeatability and separabillty. The condition of the bridge deck was then detected by a radial basis function (RBF) neural network. The performance of the system was evaluated using both experimental and field data. The results show that the selected algorithms increase the noise robustness of acoustic methods and perform satisfactorily if the training data is representative.

  11. Modeling of Multi-Layered Protection Systems for Chloride Penetration in Concrete Bridge Decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harajli, Ali A.

    Modeling of Multi-Layered Protection Systems for Chloride Penetration in Concrete Bridge Decks. This paper covers the development of a new methodology for predicting the chloride concentration and corrosion initiation times for a multi-layer protection overlay system. The first topic will be presenting an innovative method to predict the chloride concentrations using different diffusion coefficients for each protective layer. The new method covers the cases where the applied surface chloride concentrations are either a constant or linear functions with time. The second topic will implement the results from field data about the chloride variations due to the presence of applied topical layers for comparison with the theoretical models. This section will also apply damage factors that are time-dependent to simulate external factors such as traffic loading or vibrations. The third topic will investigate the sensitivity of the single and multi-layer systems due to diffusivity parameter changes. The fourth topic will analyze the random variation of the diffusivity values to predict the mean and standard deviation of chloride concentrations. The diffusivity values are selected from published values by NIST and are based on certain water cement (w/c) ratios.

  12. Laboratory and field performance of FOS sensors in static and dynamic strain monitoring in concrete bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmokrane, B.; Debaiky, A.; El-Ragaby, A.; Roy, R.; El-Gamal, S.; El-Salakawy, E.

    2006-03-01

    There is a growing need for designing and constructing innovative concrete bridges using FRP reinforcing bars as internal reinforcement to avoid the corrosion problems and high costs of maintenance and repair. For efficient use and to increase the lifetime of these bridges, it is important to develop efficient monitoring systems for such innovative structures. Fabry-Perot and Bragg fibre optic sensors (FOS) that can measure the strains and temperature are promising candidates for life-long health monitoring of these structures. This article reports laboratory and field performance of Fabry-Perot and Bragg FOS sensors as well as electrical strain gauges in static and dynamic strain monitoring in concrete bridge decks. The laboratory tests include tensile testing of glass FRP bars and testing of full-scale concrete bridge deck slabs reinforced with glass and carbon FRP bars under static and cyclic concentrated loads. The field tests include static and dynamic testing of two bridges reinforced with steel and glass FRP bars. The obtained strain results showed satisfactory agreement between the different gauges.

  13. Plans: 3'/50 Cal. Gun Platform, Boat Deck House Top & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plans: 3'/50 Cal. Gun Platform, Boat Deck House Top & Fidley Top, Boat Deck, Radar Platform Lower, Pilot House Top, Navigation Bridge, Upper Bridge Deck, Poop Deck, Cargo Deck, Motor Boat Platform, Bridge Deck, Forecastle Deck, Upper Deck - Taluga, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  14. Ground penetrating radar and microwave tomography 3D applications for the deck evaluation of the Musmeci bridge in Potenza, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavusi, Massimo; Soldovieri, Francesco; Di Napoli, Rosario; Loperte, Antonio; Di Cesare, Antonio; Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Lapenna, Vincenzo

    2011-09-01

    An extensive experimental and numerical investigation has been carried out to assess the status of the 'Ponte sul Basento' (1967-1976), in the town of Potenza (Basilicata region, southern Italy), better known as the Musmeci bridge. Architecturally, the bridge is a considerable reinforced 20th century concrete structure that was designed and built by the Italian architect Sergio Musmeci (1926-1981). Moreover, the bridge represents an important element of the infrastructural network, linking the city centre to the Potenza-Sicignano highway, crossing the Basento river and the railway close to the main train station of the city. Recently, due to ageing and continuous and significant traffic, the bridge started to be affected by several problems such as water infiltration. Within the presented study, a widespread ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey has been designed to investigate the geometrical characteristics of the bridge deck (Gerber saddles, internal stiffening walls, pillar supports) and detect the presence of defects or damage due to water infiltration and traffic fatigue. Concerning this, a 900 MHz 3D GPR survey has been performed along a zone of one of the lanes on the road surface. Moreover, a second 1500 MHz 3D survey has been carried out at the bottom of the bridge deck in order to gain detailed information about an important structural element of the bridge, the Gerber saddle. Both results have been processed following two approaches: the first a classical time-domain processing session based on commercial software and the use of migration; the second in microwave tomography, an advanced frequency domain automatic PC-based inversion algorithm. In this paper, we present a comparative interpretation of both kinds of processed results, and provide considerations about the investigated structures.

  15. Estimation of Structure-Borne Noise Reduction Effect of Steel Railway Bridge Equipped with Floating Ladder Track and Floating Reinforced-Concrete Deck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Tsutomu; Sogabe, Masamichi; Asanuma, Kiyoshi; Wakui, Hajime

    A number of steel railway bridges have been constructed in Japan. Thin steel members used for the bridges easily tend to vibrate and generate structure-borne noise. Accordingly, the number of constructions of steel railway bridges tends to decrease in the urban areas from a viewpoint of environmental preservation. Then, as a countermeasure against structure-borne noise generated from steel railway bridges, we have developed a new type of the steel railway bridge equipped with a floating-ladder track and a floating reinforced-concrete (RC) deck. As a result of train-running experiment, it became apparent that the new steel railway bridge installed by double floating system has reduced a vibration velocity level by 10.5 dB(A) at main girder web as compared with a steel railway bridge installed by directly fastened track. This reduction effect was achieved by the ladder track and RC deck supported by resilient materials.

  16. Examination of Single- and Multi-Channel GPR Bridge Deck Condition Assessment Methods with Comparison to Complementary NDE Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Francisco A.; Manacorda, Guido; Simi, Alessandro; Gucunski, Nenad; Parvardeh, Hooman

    2013-04-01

    A sixteen-channel GPR system which houses both longitudinally- and transversely-polarized, 2.0 GHz antenna elements within a single housing was compared with a single-channel GPR system that was separately using both 1.5GHz and 2.6GHz antennas oriented in the transverse polarization, for the purpose of determining effectiveness of bridge deck condition assessment. The multi-channel system has obvious benefits which include closely-spaced GPR antennas (channels) that provide better lateral resolution, as well as combined data sets from co-linear antennas oriented in both the transverse and longitudinal polarizations, which has benefits for imaging within the deck's internal structure. However, the primary objective was to determine whether the multi-channel system would perform in a similar manner to proven single-channel GPR technology during an attenuation-based GPR condition assessment on an older, partially deteriorated deck in northwestern New Jersey that is annually exposed to freeze-thaw conditions as well as de-icing salts. These assessments were made by focusing on identifying the strongest reflections from the upper mat of transversely-oriented rebars within the deck and comparing reflection strength, or conversely, attenuation of the GPR signal, from each of the 'picked' GPR rebar responses. Coordinates for each of the GPR picks, along with amplitude or attenuation measurements, were gridded and contour-plotted for the purpose of identifying areas identified as either relatively deteriorated or sound. Initially, results were compared for data with no applied correction that takes into account GPR signal attenuation with increasing depth within the concrete deck. Final GPR maps were produced incorporating a depth-correction technique similar to what is described by Barnes, et. al., Romero, et. al, and Gucunski, et. al., a process which has been clearly demonstrated to better correlate GPR results with not only ground truth (cores, sounding) but also with

  17. Development and construction of low-cracking high-performance concrete (LC-HPC) bridge decks: Free shrinkage tests, restrained ring tests, construction experience, and crack survey results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jiqiu

    2011-12-01

    The development, construction, and evaluation of low-cracking high-performance concrete (LC-HPC) bridge decks are described based on laboratory test results and experiences gained during the construction of 13 LC-HPC bridge decks in Kansas, along with another deck bid under the LC-HPC specifications but for which the owner did not enforce the specification. This study is divided into four parts covering (1) an evaluation of the free shrinkage properties of LC-HPC candidate mixtures, (2) an investigation of the relationship between the evaporable water content in the cement paste and the free shrinkage of concrete, (3) a study of the restrained shrinkage performance of concrete using restrained ring tests, and (4) a description of the construction and preliminary evaluation of LC-HPC and control bridge decks constructed in Kansas. The first portion of the study involves evaluating the effects of the duration of curing, fly ash, and a shrinkage reducing admixture (SRA) on the free-shrinkage characteristics of concrete mixtures. The results indicate that an increase of curing period reduces free shrinkage. With 7 days of curing, concretes containing fly ash as a partial replacement for cement exhibit higher free shrinkage than concretes with 100% portland cement. When the curing period is increased to 14, 28, and 56 days, the adverse effect of adding fly ash on free shrinkage is minimized and finally reversed. The addition of an SRA significantly reduces free shrinkage for both the 100% portland cement mixture and the mixture containing fly ash. The second portion of the study investigates the relationship between the evaporable water content in the cement paste and the free shrinkage of concrete. A linear relationship between free shrinkage and evaporable water content in the cement paste is observed. For a given mixture, specimens cured for a longer period contain less evaporable water and exhibit lower free shrinkage and less weight loss in the free shrinkage

  18. Reliability-based lifetime maintenance of aging highway bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enright, Michael P.; Frangopol, Dan M.

    2000-06-01

    As the nation's infrastructure continues to age, the cost of maintaining it at an acceptable safety level continues to increase. In the United States, about one of every three bridges is rated structurally deficient and/or functionally obsolete. It will require about 80 billion to eliminate the current backlog of bridge deficiencies and maintain repair levels. Unfortunately, the financial resources allocated for these activities fall extremely short of the demand. Although several existing and emerging NDT techniques are available to gather inspection data, current maintenance planning decisions for deficient bridges are based on data from subjective condition assessments and do not consider the reliability of bridge components and systems. Recently, reliability-based optimum maintenance planning strategies have been developed. They can be used to predict inspection and repair times to achieve minimum life-cycle cost of deteriorating structural systems. In this study, a reliability-based methodology which takes into account loading randomness and history, and randomness in strength and degradation resulting from aggressive environmental factors, is used to predict the time- dependent reliability of aging highway bridges. A methodology for incorporating inspection data into reliability predictions is also presented. Finally, optimal lifetime maintenance strategies are identified, in which optimal inspection/repair times are found based on minimum expected life-cycle cost under prescribed reliability constraints. The influence of discount rate on optimum solutions is evaluated.

  19. Reflected Deck Plan, Reflected Roof Plan, Deck Plan Bridgeport ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Reflected Deck Plan, Reflected Roof Plan, Deck Plan - Bridgeport Covered Bridge, Spanning South Fork of Yuba River at bypassed section of Pleasant Valley Road (originally Virginia Turnpike) in South Yuba River State Park , Bridgeport, Nevada County, CA

  20. Bridging Resilience Engineering and Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring

    2010-06-01

    There has been strong interest in the new and emerging field called resilience engineering. This field has been quick to align itself with many existing safety disciplines, but it has also distanced itself from the field of human reliability analysis. To date, the discussion has been somewhat one-sided, with much discussion about the new insights afforded by resilience engineering. This paper presents an attempt to address resilience engineering from the perspective of human reliability analysis (HRA). It is argued that HRA shares much in common with resilience engineering and that, in fact, it can help strengthen nascent ideas in resilience engineering. This paper seeks to clarify and ultimately refute the arguments that have served to divide HRA and resilience engineering.

  1. Bridge deck surface temperature monitoring by infrared thermography and inner structure identification using PPT and PCT analysis methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumoulin, Jean

    2013-04-01

    One of the objectives of ISTIMES project was to evaluate the potentialities offered by the integration of different electromagnetic techniques able to perform non-invasive diagnostics for surveillance and monitoring of transport infrastructures. Among the EM methods investigated, we focused our research and development efforts on uncooled infrared camera techniques due to their promising potential level of dissemination linked to their relative low cost on the market. On the other hand, works were also carried out to identify well adapted implementation protocols and key limits of Pulse Phase Thermography (PPT) and Principal Component Thermography (PCT) processing methods to analyse thermal image sequence and retrieve information about the inner structure. So the first part of this research works addresses infrared thermography measurement when it is used in quantitative mode (not in laboratory conditions) and not in qualitative mode (vision applied to survey). In such context, it requires to process in real time thermal radiative corrections on raw data acquired to take into account influences of natural environment evolution with time, thanks to additional measurements. But, camera sensor has to be enough smart to apply in real time calibration law and radiometric corrections in a varying atmosphere. So, a complete measurement system was studied and developed [1] with low cost infrared cameras available on the market. In the system developed, infrared camera is coupled with other sensors to feed simplified radiative models running, in real time, on GPU available on small PC. The whole measurement system was implemented on the "Musmeci" bridge located in Potenza (Italy). No traffic interruption was required during the mounting of our measurement system. The infrared camera was fixed on top of a mast at 6 m elevation from the surface of the bridge deck. A small weather station was added on the same mast at 1 m under the camera. A GPS antenna was also fixed at the

  2. Determining bridge deck deterioration through the use of three-dimensional photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Darrin C.

    The bridge inspection industry has yet to utilize a rapidly growing technology that shows promise to help improve the inspection process. This thesis investigates the abilities that 3D photogrammetry is capable of providing to the bridge inspector for a number of deterioration mechanisms. The technology can provide information about the surface condition of some bridge components, primarily focusing on the surface defects of a concrete bridge which include cracking, spalling and scaling. Testing was completed using a Canon EOS 7D camera which then processed photos using AgiSoft PhotoScan to align the photos and develop models. Further processing of the models was done using ArcMap in the ArcGIS 10 program to view the digital elevation models of the concrete surface. Several experiments were completed to determine the ability of the technique for the detection of the different defects. The cracks that were able to be resolved in this study were a 1/8 inch crack at a distance of two feet above the surface. 3D photogrammetry was able to be detect a depression of 1 inch wide with 3/16 inch depth which would be sufficient to measure any scaling or spalling that would be required be the inspector. The percentage scaled or spalled was also able to be calculated from the digital elevation models in ArcMap. Different camera factors including the distance from the defects, number of photos and angle, were also investigated to see how each factor affected the capabilities. 3D photogrammetry showed great promise in the detection of scaling or spalling of the concrete bridge surface.

  3. Reliability assessment of long span bridges based on structural health monitoring: application to Yonghe Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shunlong; Li, Hui; Ou, Jinping; Li, Hongwei

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the reliability estimation studies based on structural health monitoring data for long span cable stayed bridges. The data collected by structural health monitoring system can be used to update the assumptions or probability models of random load effects, which would give potential for accurate reliability estimation. The reliability analysis is based on the estimated distribution for Dead, Live, Wind and Temperature Load effects. For the components with FBG strain sensors, the Dead, Live and unit Temperature Load effects can be determined by the strain measurements. For components without FBG strain sensors, the Dead and unit Temperature Load and Wind Load effects of the bridge can be evaluated by the finite element model, updated and calibrated by monitoring data. By applying measured truck loads and axle spacing data from weight in motion (WIM) system to the calibrated finite element model, the Live Load effects of components without FBG sensors can be generated. The stochastic process of Live Load effects can be described approximately by a Filtered Poisson Process and the extreme value distribution of Live Load effects can be calculated by Filtered Poisson Process theory. Then first order reliability method (FORM) is employed to estimate the reliability index of main components of the bridge (i.e. stiffening girder).

  4. Seismic Integrity of a Long Span Bridge with Tower-Deck Buffers

    SciTech Connect

    Casciati, Fabio; Giuliano, Fabio

    2008-07-08

    The wind action is acknowledged to be the primary environmental load in the design of suspension bridges. It affects both the performance of safety and serviceability. Nevertheless, the impact of earthquakes cannot be neglected especially when the construction site is located in a high seismicity region. The evaluation of the vulnerability of a suspension bridge requires a hazard analysis on the site, the definition of the seismic intensity related to the desired return periods, the generation of artificial signals for the reference site and the collection of critical records for integrity analyses,. The signals will then be used in the structural analyses for the verification of structural safety and structural robustness. This paper is focused on the generation of these critical signals, with their own a-synchronicity, and the associated numerical nonlinear analyses, which must be conducted in the time domain.

  5. 7. DETAIL OF DECK TRUSS SPANNING CANAL. THIS DECK TRUSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF DECK TRUSS SPANNING CANAL. THIS DECK TRUSS WA ALSO ERECTED IN 1893 AS PART OF AN EXTENSIVE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE BRIDGE. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH SIDE OF CANAL. - Illinois Central Railroad, Illinois River Bridge, Spanning Illinois River, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  6. HERMES: a high-speed radar imaging system for inspection of bridge decks

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, S.G.

    1996-10-26

    Corrosion of rebar in concrete bridges causes subsurface cracks and is a major cause of structural degradation that necessitates repair or replacement. Early detection of corrosion effects can limit the location and extent of necessary repairs, while providing long-term information about the infrastructure status. Most current detection methods, however, are destructive of the road surface and require closing or restricting traffic while the tests are performed. A ground-penetrating radar imaging system has been designed and developed that will perform the nondestructive evaluation of road-bed cracking at traffic speeds; i.e., without the need to restrict traffic flow. The first-generation system (called the HERMES bridge inspector), consists of an offset-linear array of 64 impulse radar transceivers and associated electronics housed in a trailer. Computers in the trailer and in the towing vehicle control the data acquisition, processing, and display. Cross-road resolution is three centimeters at up to 30 cm in depth, while down-road resolution depends on speed; 3 cm below 20 mph up to 8 cm at 50 mph. A two-meter- wide path is inspected on each pass over the roadway. This paper, describes the design of this system, shows preliminary results, and lays out its deployment schedule.

  7. Demonstration of dual-band infrared thermal imaging at Grass Valley Creek bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N. K.; Durbin, P.F.; Logan, C.M.; Perkins, D.E.; Schich, P.C.

    1996-11-01

    We demonstrated dual-band infrared (DBIR) thermal imaging at the Grass Valley Creek Bridges near Redding CA. DBIR thermal imaging is an enabling technology for rapid, reliable, bridge deck inspections while minimizing lane closures. bridge-deck inspections were conducted from a mobile DBIR bridge inspection laboratory during November 2-3, 1995. We drove this self-contained unit at limited highway speeds over 0.4 lane miles of bridge deck. Using two thermal IR bands, we distinguished delaminations from clutter. Clutter, or unwanted thermal detail, occurs from foreign materials or uneven shade on the bridge deck surface. By mapping the DBIR spectral- response differences at 3-5 {mu}m and 8-12 {mu}m, we removed foreign material clutter. By mapping the deck diurnal thermal inertia variations, we removed clutter from uneven shade. Thermal inertia is a bulk deck property, the square root of thermal conductivity x density x heat capacity. Delaminated decks have below-average thermal inertias, or above-average day-night temperature excursions. Compared to normal decks areas, delaminated deck areas were typically 2 or 3 {degrees}C warmer at noon, and 0.5{degrees}C cooler at night. The mobile DBIR bridge inspection laboratory is currently undergoing extensive testing to examine bridges by the Federal Highway Administration.

  8. Detail of deck plate girder and 150' Warren deck truss ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of deck plate girder and 150' Warren deck truss skewed connection atop skewed concrete pier, Bridge No. 1348, Second Potomac and C&O Canal Crossing, looking northwest. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  9. Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2009; Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2009; Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2010 - Gilpin's Falls Covered Bridge, Spanning North East Creek at Former (Bypassed) Section of North East Road (SR 272), North East, Cecil County, MD

  10. Viaducts: S.F. Vaiduct, Single Deck Spans; S.F. Viaduct, Double Deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Viaducts: S.F. Vaiduct, Single Deck Spans; S.F. Viaduct, Double Deck Spans; Yerba Buena Viaduct, Double Deck Spans; East Bay Approach, Girder Spans - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. 37. HANGAR FROM RAILROAD DECK TELESCOPED IN COLUMN & SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. HANGAR FROM RAILROAD DECK TELESCOPED IN COLUMN & SHOWING PIN WHICH TRANSFERS LOAD FROM RAILROAD DECK TO TRUSS WHEN IN DOWN POSITION - Armour, Swift, Burlington Bridge, Kansas City, Jackson County, MO

  12. 15. DETAIL, UNDERSIDE OF DECK, FROM BELOW AND WEST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL, UNDERSIDE OF DECK, FROM BELOW AND WEST, SHOWING STRUCTURAL CONFIGURATION, INCLUDING FLOOR BEAMS, STRINGERS, BRACING, AND STEEL MESH DECK - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  13. 11. Standing on westerly fender at edge of bridge looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Standing on westerly fender at edge of bridge looking easterly, showing horizontal beams for deck and cross beams (reflection of steel grating on deck). Also shows bridge guardrail. - Colusa Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River, Colusa, Colusa County, CA

  14. SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN vSHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN - Snake River Bridge at Lyons' Ferry, State Route 261 spanning Snake River, Starbuck, Columbia County, WA

  15. 14. VIEW OF CANTILEVERED SOUTHERN TRUSS SECTION AND WOOD DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF CANTILEVERED SOUTHERN TRUSS SECTION AND WOOD DECK FROM THE CENTRAL BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURE SHOWN IN PA-474-13. - Coverts Crossing Bridge, Spanning Mahoning River along Township Route 372 (Covert Road), New Castle, Lawrence County, PA

  16. 16. VIEW NORTH FROM SWINGSPAN DECK, CHANNEL OPEN, FENDER SYSTEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW NORTH FROM SWING-SPAN DECK, CHANNEL OPEN, FENDER SYSTEM AND ABUTMENT ON CHANNEL END OF NORTHERN FIXED SPAN; new bridge located on right - Tipers Bridge, Spanning Great Wicomico River at State Route 200, Kilmarnock, Lancaster County, VA

  17. 29. VIEW EAST FROM DECKING ON NORTHWEST CORNER OF PIVOT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW EAST FROM DECKING ON NORTHWEST CORNER OF PIVOT PIER, DRIVE SYSTEM FOR SWING-SPAN INCLUDES: (from left to right) BULL WHEEL, GEARING AND DRIVE SHAFTS, INCLUDING MANUAL DRIVE ACCESSED THROUGH BRIDGE DECK, ELECTRIC LINES FROM SHORE, AND TRACK AND RAIL ON CONCRETE PIER - Tipers Bridge, Spanning Great Wicomico River at State Route 200, Kilmarnock, Lancaster County, VA

  18. Demonstration of dual-band infrared thermal imaging for bridge inspection. Phase II, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, P.F.; Del Grande, N.K.; Schaich, P.C.

    1996-03-01

    Developing and implementing methods of effective bridge rehabilitation is a major issue for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). The nation spends $5 billion annually to replace, rehabilitate or construct new bridges. According to the National Bridge Inventory, over 100,000 U.S. bridges are structurally deficient. About 40,000 of these bridges have advanced deck deterioration. The most common causes of serious deck deterioration is delamination. Delaminations result when steel reinforcements within the bridge deck corrode, creating gaps that separate the concrete into layers. A reliable inspection technology, capable of identifying delaminations, would represent a power new tool in bridge maintenance. To date, most bridge inspections rely on human interpretation of surface visual features of chain dragging. These methods are slow, disruptive, unreliable and raise serious safety concerns. Infrared thermal imaging detects subsurface delaminations and surface clutter, which is introduced by foreign material on the roadway. Typically, foreign material which is not always evident on a video tape image, produces a unique IR reflectance background unlike the thermal response of a subsurface delamination. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses dual-band infrared (DBIR) thermal imaging to identify and remove nonthermal IR reflectance backgrounds from foreign material on the roadway. DBIR methods improve the performance of IR thermal imaging by a factor of ten, compared to single-band infrared (SBIR) methods. DBIR thermal imaging allows precise temperature measurement to reliably locate bridge deck delaminations and remove wavelength-dependent emissivity variations due to foreign material on the roadway.

  19. Bridging the gap between metallurgy and fatigue reliability of hydraulic turbine runners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, D.; Gagnon, M.; Godin, S.

    2014-03-01

    The failure of hydraulic turbine runners is a very rare event. Hence, in order to assess the reliability of these components, one cannot rely on statistical models based on the number of failures in a given population. However, as there is a limited number of degradation mechanisms involved, it is possible to use physically-based reliability models. Such models are more complicated but have the advantage of being able to account for physical parameters in the prediction of the evolution of runner degradation. They can therefore propose solutions to help improve reliability. With the use of such models, the effect of materials properties on runner reliability can easily be illustrated. This paper will present a brief review of the Kitagawa-Takahashi diagram that links the damage tolerance approach, based on fracture mechanics, to the stress or strain-life approaches. This diagram is at the centre of the reliability model used in this study. Using simplified response spectra obtained from on-site runner stress measurements, the paper will show how fatigue reliability is impacted by materials fatigue properties, namely fatigue crack propagation behaviour and fatigue limit obtained on S-N curves. It will also present a review of the most important microstructural features of 13%Cr- 4%Ni stainless steels used for runner manufacturing and will review how they influence fatigue properties in an effort to bridge the gap between metallurgy and turbine runners reliability.

  20. Long-term gage reliability for structural health monitoring of steel bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaras, Vasilis A.; Fasl, Jeremiah; Reichenbach, Matt; Helwig, Todd; Wood, Sharon; Frank, Karl

    2012-04-01

    Real-time monitoring of fracture critical steel bridges can potentially enhance inspection practices by tracking the behavior of the bridge. Significant advances have occurred in recent years on the development of robust hardware for field monitoring applications. These systems can monitor, process, and store data from a variety of sensors (e.g. strain gages, crack propagation gages etc.) to track changes in the behavior of the bridge. Thus, for a long-term monitoring system to be successful, the reliability of gages that are to be monitored for several years is very important. This paper focuses on the results of a research study focused on developing a wireless monitoring system with a useful life of more than 10 years. An important aspect of the study is to identify strain gages and installation procedures that result in long lives as well as characterizing the effect of temperature fluctuations and other environmental factors on the sensor drift and noise. In long-term monitoring applications, slight sensor drift and noise can build up over time to produce misleading results. Thus, a wide variety of gages that can be used to monitor bridges have been tested for over a year through environmental tests. The environmental tests were developed to determine the durability of the gages and their protective coatings (e.g. zinc-based spray, wax and silicon, etc.) against humidity, sun exposure and other environmental effects that are expected in long-term bridge monitoring applications. Moreover, fatigue tests were performed to determine the fatigue category of the weldable gages and to reveal any debonding issues of the bondable gages. This paper focuses on the results of laboratory tests on gage durability that were conducted as part of a research project sponsored by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  1. Plans: Top of House, Mast Housetop, Arrangement of QuartersBoat Deck, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plans: Top of House, Mast Housetop, Arrangement of Quarters-Boat Deck, Arrangement of Quarters-Bridge Deck, Mast Housetop, Arrangement of Top of House, Gun Platform - Arthur M. Huddell, James River Reserve Fleet, Newport News, Newport News, VA

  2. View, underside of deck, from northwest and below, showing structural ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View, underside of deck, from northwest and below, showing structural configuration, including pin connections of vertical truss members to lower chord, transverse floor beams, stringers, lateral bracing, concrete deck, and squared cut stone masonry center pier, including upstream concrete encased nose - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  3. North portal and deck view, from north, showing inclined endposts, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North portal and deck view, from north, showing inclined endposts, Pratt through trusses, north portal strut, overhead bracing, pipe rails and posts, and concrete deck with bituminous wearing surface - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  4. South portal and deck view from south, showing inclined endposts, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South portal and deck view from south, showing inclined endposts, Pratt through trusses, south portal strut, overhead bracing, pipe rails and posts, and concrete deck with bituminous wearing surface - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  5. 304. Dennis Hill, Photographer May 1998 VIEW ALONG UPPER DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    304. Dennis Hill, Photographer May 1998 VIEW ALONG UPPER DECK AT AT DECK TRUSS SPANS, WITH THROUGH TRUSS SPANS AND YERBA BUENA ISLAND IN BACKGROUND, FACING WEST-SOUTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. Interior view of skewed Baltimore truss and curved deck of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of skewed Baltimore truss and curved deck of Bridge No. 1363, First B&O Crossing, looking west. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  7. 10. Detail of deck underside, from the Minnesota bank, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail of deck underside, from the Minnesota bank, looking northwest - Enloe Bridge No. 90021, Spanning Red River of North between Minnesota & North Dakota on County State Aid Highway 28, Wolverton, Wilkin County, MN

  8. 308. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF DECK TRUSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    308. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF DECK TRUSS SPANS WITH THROUGH TRUSS SPANS AND CANTILEVER TRUSS IN BACKGROUND, SOUTH SIDE, FACING WEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. 12. VIEW EAST ALONG DECK CENTERLINE, PRIOR TO CANTILEVERING SIDEWALK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW EAST ALONG DECK CENTERLINE, PRIOR TO CANTILEVERING SIDEWALK ON DOWNSTREAM SIDE File photo, Caltrans Office of Strutures Maintenance, March 1938. Photographer unknown. Photocopy of photograph - San Roque Canyon Bridge, State Highway 192, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. Detail, pier and underside of deck at truss span 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, pier and underside of deck at truss span 2 from below and north, showing floor system configuration, lower chords and cantilevered sidewalk - Breslau Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Susquehanna River at Hannover Street, Plymouth, Luzerne County, PA

  11. 12. REPRESENTATIVE VIEW OF UNDERSIDE OF DECK, LOOKING WEST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. REPRESENTATIVE VIEW OF UNDERSIDE OF DECK, LOOKING WEST FROM UNDER BRIDGE AT ITS EASTERNMOST WIDE SPAN - Central of Georgia Railway, Bay Street Viaduct, U.S. 17 & Bay Street, spanning Central of Georgia Railroad, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  12. 10. REPRESENTATIVE DETAIL VIEW OF CANTILEVERED DECK AND CONSTRUCTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. REPRESENTATIVE DETAIL VIEW OF CANTILEVERED DECK AND CONSTRUCTION OF BRIDGE SUBSTRUCTURE - Central of Georgia Railway, Bay Street Viaduct, U.S. 17 & Bay Street, spanning Central of Georgia Railroad, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  13. 17. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING METAL DECK PLATES COVERING DAMAGED AREA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING METAL DECK PLATES COVERING DAMAGED AREA OF WEST APPROACH SPAN - Middle Fork Stanislaus River Bridge, Spans Middle Fork Stanislaus River at State Highway 108, Dardanelle, Tuolumne County, CA

  14. 11. VIEW, LOOKING UNDER DECK TOWARD WEST END, SHOWING FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW, LOOKING UNDER DECK TOWARD WEST END, SHOWING FLOOR BEAMS, STRINGERS, CROSS BRACING AND CANTILEVERED WALKWAY - Milford Bridge, Spanning Little Miami River on U.S. 50, Milford, Clermont County, OH

  15. 4. VIEW FROM EAST ABUTMENT SHOWING BASCULE LEAFS AND DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW FROM EAST ABUTMENT SHOWING BASCULE LEAFS AND DECK SUBSTRUCTURE. - Chicago River Bascule Bridge, Monroe Street, Spanning South Branch of Chicago River at Monroe Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  16. BELOW DECK DETAIL FROM EAST BANK. NOTE WROUGHT IRON LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BELOW DECK DETAIL FROM EAST BANK. NOTE WROUGHT IRON LOWER CHORD TENSION MEMBERS - Honey Run Bridge, Spanning Butte Creek, bypassed section of Honey Run Road (originally Carr Hill Road), Paradise, Butte County, CA

  17. Interior view of eastern lift span, with decking above, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of eastern lift span, with decking above, looking back from center of span, toward lift mechanism area. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. Deck view, looking west from rear side of Lincoln Memorial. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Deck view, looking west from rear side of Lincoln Memorial. Hemi circle in background below Custis-Lee Mansion. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. 9. VIEW SHOWING TRUSSES FROM DECK WITH 4' RANGE POLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SHOWING TRUSSES FROM DECK WITH 4' RANGE POLE AT SECOND VERTICAL POST ON SOUTH SIDE, LOOKING WEST - White River Bridge, Spanning White River at U.S. Highway 70, De Valls Bluff, Prairie County, AR

  20. 20. WEB / DECK / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. WEB / DECK / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF THROUGH TRUSSES. VIEW TO WEST. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

  1. 22. INCLINED END POST / DECK / GUARDRAIL DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. INCLINED END POST / DECK / GUARDRAIL DETAIL OF THROUGH TRUSSES. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

  2. 8. EAST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM EAST, SHOWING PORTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EAST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM EAST, SHOWING PORTAL CONFIGURATION AND LATERAL BRACING, STEEL MESH FLOOR, METAL RAILINGS, AND PORTION OF EAST APPROACH - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  3. 7. WEST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM WEST, SHOWING PORTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. WEST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM WEST, SHOWING PORTAL CONFIGURATION AND LATERAL BRACING, STEEL MESH FLOOR, AND METAL RAILINGS - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  4. Deck view, west approach; former Western Pacific (now Union Pacific) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Deck view, west approach; former Western Pacific (now Union Pacific) Railroad at left; wind turbine generators atop hill in background; view to northeast; 90mm lens - Carroll Overhead Bridge, Altamont Pass Road, Livermore, Alameda County, CA

  5. 16. DETAIL OF EAST DECK GIRDER APPROACH SPANS AND STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF EAST DECK GIRDER APPROACH SPANS AND STEEL CYLINDER PIERS, FROM EAST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO WEST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  6. 15. DETAIL OF EAST DECK GIRDER APPROACH SPANS AND STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL OF EAST DECK GIRDER APPROACH SPANS AND STEEL CYLINDER PIERS, FROM EAST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  7. 45. UPPER CHORD / END POST DETAIL OF WEST DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. UPPER CHORD / END POST DETAIL OF WEST DECK TRUSS APPROACH SPAN, SHOWING FLOOR STRUCTURE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  8. 25. DETAIL OF PIER NO. 2, SHOWING THROUGH AND DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DETAIL OF PIER NO. 2, SHOWING THROUGH AND DECK TRUSS BEARING SHOES. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  9. 18. WEST DECK TRUSS APPROACH SPAN AND PIERS NO. 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. WEST DECK TRUSS APPROACH SPAN AND PIERS NO. 1 AND 2, FROM WEST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  10. 29. DECK / WEB / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF CANTILEVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. DECK / WEB / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF CANTILEVER ARM OF THROUGH TRUSS. VIEW TO WEST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  11. 15. DETAIL VIEW OF STAIRWAY FROM DECK LEVEL TO OPERATOR'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL VIEW OF STAIRWAY FROM DECK LEVEL TO OPERATOR'S CABIN, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  12. 20. DETAIL VIEW OF DECK SOFFIT AND EXPANSION JOINT, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL VIEW OF DECK SOFFIT AND EXPANSION JOINT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM NORTH ABUTMENT - Chili Bar Bridge, Spanning South Fork of American River at State Highway 193, Placerville, El Dorado County, CA

  13. 6. DETAIL OF STEEL GUARDRAIL, CONCRETE CURB AND DECK EXPANSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF STEEL GUARDRAIL, CONCRETE CURB AND DECK EXPANSION JOINT, WITH DRY BED OF RIO PUERCO IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO EAST. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  14. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF SIDE STEEL RAIL, DECK, AND SHELF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF SIDE STEEL RAIL, DECK, AND SHELF FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER - Price River Bridge, Spanning Price River, 760 North Street in Carbonville, 1 mile northwest of Price, Carbonville, Carbon County, UT

  15. 47. Pouring deck columns, steampowered concrete mixer at center; direction ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Pouring deck columns, steam-powered concrete mixer at center; direction of view not clear, but probably to north. - Parks Bar Bridge, Spanning Yuba River at State Highway 20, Smartville, Yuba County, CA

  16. 123. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF UPPER DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF UPPER DECK OFF-RAMP DESCENDING TO FREMONT STREET, WITH TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP BEHIND, FACING NORTH. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. VIEW TO THE SOUTHWEST. FRETWORK RAILINGS ON THE DECK REFLECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO THE SOUTHWEST. FRETWORK RAILINGS ON THE DECK REFLECT THE DECORATIVE AND UTILITARIAN ASPECTS OF THE ARCHITECTURE. - Keller Memorial Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River at U.S. Highway 31, Decatur, Morgan County, AL

  18. 37. View showing support system below deck setting on pier ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. View showing support system below deck setting on pier 2, looking west. Note rollers beneath pod (center photo) and navigational light on left center - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  19. 5. DECK VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING RESERVOIR AT RIGHT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DECK VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING RESERVOIR AT RIGHT AND LINCOLN MEMORIAL AT DISTANT CENTER. - Tidal Reservoir, Inlet Bridge, Ohio Drive, spanning Inlet of Tidal Basin, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. 19. VERTICAL VIEW, FROM DECK, SHOWING CONNECTION OF CENTER TRUSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VERTICAL VIEW, FROM DECK, SHOWING CONNECTION OF CENTER TRUSS TENSION BARS, DIAGONAL TENSION RODS, AND LATTICE-JOINED VERTICAL CHANNELS - Lenox Bridge, Spanning Obion River, Rural Road S8025, Lenox, Dyer County, TN

  1. 7. Underside of span, details of deck, stringers, floor beams, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Underside of span, details of deck, stringers, floor beams, bottom-lateral bracing, and north abutment; looking north - Bridge No. 92101, Spanning Pike River at County Highway 373, Embarrass, St. Louis County, MN

  2. 63. View aft along starboard side of hurricane deck from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. View aft along starboard side of hurricane deck from starboard bridge, short stack beyond lifeboat at left of image is donkey boiler stack. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  3. 28. VIEW EAST FROM DECKING ON SOUTHWEST CORNER OF PIVOT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW EAST FROM DECKING ON SOUTHWEST CORNER OF PIVOT PIER, DRIVE SYSTEM FOR SWING-SPAN INCLUDES: (from left to right) ELECTRIC LINE FROM SHORE (bottom left), TRACK AND RAIL ON CONCRETE PIER, ELECTRIC MOTOR, GASOLINE MOTOR, SHAFTS TO WEDGE DRIVE CRANKS, WEDGE DRIVE DRIVE SHAFT, WEDGE DRIVE GEAR BOX, AND (on right) GEARING FOR MANUAL WEDGE DRIVE ACCESSED THROUGH BRIDGE DECK - Tipers Bridge, Spanning Great Wicomico River at State Route 200, Kilmarnock, Lancaster County, VA

  4. Weather network computer to control deck-heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, A.

    1997-04-07

    A ground-source heating system for bridge deicing is briefly described in this article. The deck heating system will be controlled by the Oklahoma state weather network. Warm ground air will be pumped from more than 100 boreholes at least 200 feet deep. The heat transfer fluid, possibly propylene glycol, will be circulated through a sealed tube system in the bridge deck. Costs are estimated at $200,000 for the heating system and $840,000 for the total redecking project.

  5. 21. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Looking at bridge deck, guard rail, juncture of two bridge spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  6. 11. Short subways led to the lower deck of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Short subways led to the lower deck of the Detroit-Superior Bridge. Street cars entered the subways through open wells located in the center of the roadways. This undated photograph shows the Superior Avenue entrance. The view is looking west. Photograph courtesy Office of the Cuyahoga County Engineer in Cleveland, Ohio. - Detroit Superior High Level Bridge, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. Future Flight Decks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbuckle, P. Douglas; Abbott, Kathy H.; Abbott, Terence S.; Schutte, Paul C.

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of commercial transport flight deck configurations over the past 20-30 years and expected future developments are described. Key factors in the aviation environment are identified that the authors expect will significantly affect flight deck designers. One of these is the requirement for commercial aviation accident rate reduction, which is probably required if global commercial aviation is to grow as projected. Other factors include the growing incrementalism in flight deck implementation, definition of future airspace operations, and expectations of a future pilot corps that will have grown up with computers. Future flight deck developments are extrapolated from observable factors in the aviation environment, recent research results in the area of pilot-centered flight deck systems, and by considering expected advances in technology that are being driven by other than aviation requirements. The authors hypothesize that revolutionary flight deck configuration changes will be possible with development of human-centered flight deck design methodologies that take full advantage of commercial and/or entertainment-driven technologies.

  8. Views of South African Chemistry Students in University Bridging Programs on the Reliability of Experimental Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlamini, Betty; Rollnick, Marissa; Lotz, Sandra; Lubben, Fred

    2001-01-01

    Reports on an investigation of the status of procedural knowledge in chemistry among students entering into bridging programs at two South African universities. Findings show that students overall tend to repeat in order to get a recurring reading. Very few students were able to use a line of best fit for a set of graphical data. Discusses…

  9. Fatigue performance of welded aluminum deck structures

    SciTech Connect

    Haagensen, P.J.; Ranes, M.; Kluken, A.O.; Kvale, I.

    1996-12-01

    Aluminum alloys are used increasingly in load carrying structures where low weight and low maintenance costs are at a premium. Helicopter decks, structures for living quarters and personnel transfer bridges between platforms are examples of offshore applications. While these structures are not usually subjected to high fatigue loads, the increasing use of aluminum in high speed ships, and more recently in highway bridge structures, makes the question of fatigue performance more important. In this paper the fatigue properties of small scale weldments in an AA6005 alloy are compared with the results of fatigue tests on full scale sections of welded extrusions in the same material, which were used in an aluminum bridge deck structure. The fatigue performance is also compared with the fatigue clauses in the new British design code BS8118 for aluminium structures and the proposed Eurocode 9. The prospects of using a new joining technique, friction stir welding (FSW), in the production of large scale panels for deck and ship hull structures is discussed. The FSW process is described briefly, and some fatigue test data are presented.

  10. Bridge Types: Suspension Bridge Spans, Section AA; Cantilever Truss Spans, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bridge Types: Suspension Bridge Spans, Section A-A; Cantilever Truss Spans, Section B-B; Through Truss Spans, Section C-C; Deck Truss Spans, Section D-D - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. 12. MAIN DECK, VIEW FROM NEAR POOP DECK. VIEW FORWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. MAIN DECK, VIEW FROM NEAR POOP DECK. VIEW FORWARD OF MIDSHIP AREA WITH MASTS AND FIVE PORT OIL TANK HATCHES SEEN AT LEFT. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  12. 22. FANTAIL DECK, SHOWING DETAIL OF DECK EXTENSION AND EXTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. FANTAIL DECK, SHOWING DETAIL OF DECK EXTENSION AND EXTERIOR LOCKING MECHANISM ON HATCH DOOR TO CREW'S BERTHING. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. 17. DECK ABOVE CO'S STATEROOM, LOOKING TOWARDS BOW AT DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DECK ABOVE CO'S STATEROOM, LOOKING TOWARDS BOW AT DECK ABOVE PILOT HOUSE. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  14. Truck-based mobile wireless sensor networks for the experimental observation of vehicle-bridge interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junhee; Lynch, Jerome P.; Lee, Jong-Jae; Lee, Chang-Geun

    2011-06-01

    Heavy vehicles driving over a bridge create a complex dynamic phenomenon known as vehicle-bridge interaction. In recent years, interest in vehicle-bridge interaction has grown because a deeper understanding of the phenomena can lead to improvements in bridge design methods while enhancing the accuracy of structural health monitoring techniques. The mobility of wireless sensors can be leveraged to directly monitor the dynamic coupling between the moving vehicle and the bridge. In this study, a mobile wireless sensor network is proposed for installation on a heavy truck to capture the vertical acceleration, horizontal acceleration and gyroscopic pitching of the truck as it crosses a bridge. The vehicle-based wireless monitoring system is designed to interact with a static, permanent wireless monitoring system installed on the bridge. Specifically, the mobile wireless sensors time-synchronize with the bridge's wireless sensors before transferring the vehicle response data. Vertical acceleration and gyroscopic pitching measurements of the vehicle are combined with bridge accelerations to create a time-synchronized vehicle-bridge response dataset. In addition to observing the vehicle vibrations, Kalman filtering is adopted to accurately track the vehicle position using the measured horizontal acceleration of the vehicle and positioning information derived from piezoelectric strip sensors installed on the bridge deck as part of the bridge monitoring system. Using the Geumdang Bridge (Korea), extensive field testing of the proposed vehicle-bridge wireless monitoring system is conducted. Experimental results verify the reliability of the wireless system and the accuracy of the vehicle positioning algorithm.

  15. Boeing flight deck design philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoll, Harty

    1990-01-01

    Information relative to Boeing flight deck design philosophy is given in viewgraph form. Flight deck design rules, design considerations, functions allocated to the crew, redundancy and automation concerns, and examples of accident data that were reviewed are listed.

  16. Mercury On Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The crew of the U.S.S. Kearsarge spell out the words 'Mercury 9' on the ship's flight deck while on the way to the recovery area where astronaut Gordon Cooper is expected to splash down in his 'Faith 7' Mercury space capsule.

  17. All Hands on Deck!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Barbara C.

    1982-01-01

    An approach to helping children learn mathematics facts that uses standard decks of cards is promoted. Teachers are warned that the methods outlined involve activities that can be noisy, but that pupils are learning while they are relaxing, laughing, and sharing in a good time with their friends. (MP)

  18. 4. View in foreground of the deck of the Viaduct. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View in foreground of the deck of the Viaduct. The ornamental wrought iron railing, sandstone sidewalks, and cobblestone roadway are visible. The bridge accommodated two streetcar lines flanked by two lanes of vehicular traffic. In the background is the Detroit- Superior High Level Bridge, which replaced the viaduct. View is looking Southwest. - Superior Avenue Viaduct, Cleveland East & West side, Cuyahoga Valley Vicinity, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  19. SOUTH ABUTMENT AND BELOW DECK DETAIL. NOTE THE FLOOR BEAMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH ABUTMENT AND BELOW DECK DETAIL. NOTE THE FLOOR BEAMS ON THE APPROACH DO NOT REST ON THE LOWER CHORD BUT ARE SUSPENDED BELOW THE LOWER CHORDS BY MEANS LOOPED IRON HANGERS THAT WRAP AROUND WOODEN BLOCKS RESTING ON THE LOWER CHORD. - Crum Bridge, Spanning Little Muskingum River, TR 384A (formerly Old Camp Road), Rinard Mills, Monroe County, OH

  20. 21. DETAIL, METAL MANHOLE COVER IN DECK NEAR EAST PARAPET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL, METAL MANHOLE COVER IN DECK NEAR EAST PARAPET, SHOWING ROUND MANHOLE COVER, WITH SIMPLE GEOMETRIC ORNAMENTATION AND CENTRAL STYLIZED 'RBC' (RICHMOND BRIDGE CORPORATION) INSIGNIA - Fifth Street Viaduct, Spanning Bacon's Quarter Branch Valley on Fifth Street, Richmond, Independent City, VA

  1. 6. DECK OF SIDEWALK AND GUARD RAILS. LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DECK OF SIDEWALK AND GUARD RAILS. LOOKING NORTH. - Route 31 Bridge, New Jersey Route 31, crossing disused main line of Central Railroad of New Jersey (C.R.R.N.J.) (New Jersey Transit's Raritan Valley Line), Hampton, Hunterdon County, NJ

  2. 5. DECK FROM SOUTH, ON EAST SIDEWALK. LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DECK FROM SOUTH, ON EAST SIDEWALK. LOOKING NORTH. - Route 31 Bridge, New Jersey Route 31, crossing disused main line of Central Railroad of New Jersey (C.R.R.N.J.) (New Jersey Transit's Raritan Valley Line), Hampton, Hunterdon County, NJ

  3. 253. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer July 1998 VIEW OF DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    253. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer July 1998 VIEW OF DECK TRUSS AND CANTILEVER TRUSS FROM YERBA BUENA ISLAND TO OAKLAND, SOUTH SIDE (1 OF 3 PANORAMA), FACING NORTH-NORTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. Corrosion in prestressed concrete: Pipes, piles, and decks

    SciTech Connect

    Szeliga, M.

    1995-12-31

    This is the first compilation or book focusing on prestressed concrete. It features 21 classic NACE papers on prestressed concrete piping, piles, bridge decks, and cathodic protection. It includes basic corrosion mechanisms of prestressed concrete structures with detailed case histories of corrosion failures and corrective measures.

  5. 7. View showing placement of timber deck placement on chord ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View showing placement of timber deck placement on chord and built up construction of top chord and continuous construction through top panel points, eye bar construction on bottom chord - Bridge No. 2.4, Spanning Boiling Fork Creek at Railroad Milepost JC-2.4, Decherd, Franklin County, TN

  6. 22. View is from the deck, looking down to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View is from the deck, looking down to the junction of the last pony truss and the first through truss. This shows how the respective end posts are embedded into the concrete pier extension. There are only two of these, located on each end of pier #6. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  7. 31. DECK / VERTICAL / UPPER CHORD DETAIL OF THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. DECK / VERTICAL / UPPER CHORD DETAIL OF THROUGH TRUSS AT PIN-CONNECTED EXPANSION JOINT BETWEEN CANTILEVER ARM AND SUSPENDED SPAN. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  8. 237. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 ELEVATION VIEW OF DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    237. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 ELEVATION VIEW OF DECK TRUSS AND YERBA BUENA EAST VIADUCT CONNECTION AT PIER YB-I, SOUTH SIDE, FACING NORTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. CLOSEUP OF TYPICAL BUILTUP, RIVETED AND PIN CONNECTED DECK TRUSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSE-UP OF TYPICAL BUILT-UP, RIVETED AND PIN CONNECTED DECK TRUSS LOOKING UP AND NORTHEAST. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  10. 27. DETAIL OF DECK JOINT BETWEEN APPROACH SPAN No. 3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. DETAIL OF DECK JOINT BETWEEN APPROACH SPAN No. 3 AND NORTH CANTILEVER ANCHOR ARM AND RESPECTIVE BEARINGS AT PIER No. 3, LOOKING EAST - Jackson's Ferry Bridge, Route 52 over New River, 6.3 miles south of Route 94, Austinville, Wythe County, VA

  11. Bridging Human Reliability Analysis and Psychology, Part 2: A Cognitive Framework to Support HRA

    SciTech Connect

    April M. Whaley; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; Ronald L. Boring; Jing Xing

    2012-06-01

    This is the second of two papers that discuss the literature review conducted as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) effort to develop a hybrid human reliability analysis (HRA) method in response to Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) SRM-M061020. This review was conducted with the goal of strengthening the technical basis within psychology, cognitive science and human factors for the hybrid HRA method being proposed. An overview of the literature review approach and high-level structure is provided in the first paper, whereas this paper presents the results of the review. The psychological literature review encompassed research spanning the entirety of human cognition and performance, and consequently produced an extensive list of psychological processes, mechanisms, and factors that contribute to human performance. To make sense of this large amount of information, the results of the literature review were organized into a cognitive framework that identifies causes of failure of macrocognition in humans, and connects those proximate causes to psychological mechanisms and performance influencing factors (PIFs) that can lead to the failure. This cognitive framework can serve as a tool to inform HRA. Beyond this, however, the cognitive framework has the potential to also support addressing human performance issues identified in Human Factors applications.

  12. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER CHORD CONNECTION FROM UNDERNEATH BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER CHORD CONNECTION FROM UNDERNEATH BRIDGE, SHOWING DECK BEAM AND STIRRUP - John Bright No. 1 Iron Bridge, Spanning Poplar Creek at Havenport Road (TR 263), Carroll, Fairfield County, OH

  13. 24. Detail view north under bridge showing arched bascule girder, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Detail view north under bridge showing arched bascule girder, deck girders and cross beams, and bracing of east bascule leaf. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  14. View of Tensaw River Bridge, looking northeast. Photograph taken from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Tensaw River Bridge, looking northeast. Photograph taken from observation deck of Battleship USS Alabama - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  15. 4. SIDE VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING ARCHES, CANTILEVERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SIDE VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING ARCHES, CANTILEVERED WALKWAY, DECK BEAMS AND STREAMBED - Benson Street Concrete Bowstring Bridge, Spanning Mill Creek at Benson Street, Lockland, Hamilton County, OH

  16. 2. GENERAL VIEW OF BRIDGE SHOWING PARKER THROUGH TRUSS CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW OF BRIDGE SHOWING PARKER THROUGH TRUSS CENTER SPAN AND DECK TRUSS SPANS AT EITHER SIDE OF CENTER SPAN, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Ouachita River Bridge, Spanning Ouachita River at U.S. Highway 167, Calion, Union County, AR

  17. Suspension Bridge Structural Systems: Cable Suspension & Anchorage; Warren Stiffening ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Suspension Bridge Structural Systems: Cable Suspension & Anchorage; Warren Stiffening Truss; Upper & Lower Decks; Assembled System - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF SINGLE PANEL POINTS TAKEN FROM BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF SINGLE PANEL POINTS TAKEN FROM BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING CONNECTION BETWEEN VERTICAL AND UPPER CHORD MEMBER. - White Bowstring Arch Truss Bridge, Spanning Yellow Creek at Cemetery Drive (Riverside Drive), Poland, Mahoning County, OH

  19. Interior of the Fisher School Covered Bridge, view to north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of the Fisher School Covered Bridge, view to north showing road deck, guardrail, and howe truss. - Fisher School Covered Bridge, Crab Creek Road at Fiver Rivers Road, Fisher, Lincoln County, OR

  20. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF MYSTIC RIVER BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF MYSTIC RIVER BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM NEW (U/C) RAILROAD BRIDGE DECK - Mystic River Drawbridge No. 7, Spanning Mystic River at Boston & Maine Railroad Eastern Route, Somerville, Middlesex County, MA

  1. 22. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing downwest side. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing down-west side. Looking at road deck and vertical laced channel. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  2. Bridging Human Reliability Analysis and Psychology, Part 1: The Psychological Literature Review for the IDHEAS Method

    SciTech Connect

    April M. Whaley; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; Ronald L. Boring; Jeffrey C. Joe; Katya L. Le Blanc; Jing Xing

    2012-06-01

    In response to Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) SRM-M061020, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is sponsoring work to update the technical basis underlying human reliability analysis (HRA) in an effort to improve the robustness of HRA. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop a hybrid of existing methods addressing limitations of current HRA models and in particular issues related to intra- and inter-method variabilities and results. This hybrid method is now known as the Integrated Decision-tree Human Event Analysis System (IDHEAS). Existing HRA methods have looked at elements of the psychological literature, but there has not previously been a systematic attempt to translate the complete span of cognition from perception to action into mechanisms that can inform HRA. Therefore, a first step of this effort was to perform a literature search of psychology, cognition, behavioral science, teamwork, and operating performance to incorporate current understanding of human performance in operating environments, thus affording an improved technical foundation for HRA. However, this literature review went one step further by mining the literature findings to establish causal relationships and explicit links between the different types of human failures, performance drivers and associated performance measures ultimately used for quantification. This is the first of two papers that detail the literature review (paper 1) and its product (paper 2). This paper describes the literature review and the high-level architecture used to organize the literature review, and the second paper (Whaley, Hendrickson, Boring, & Xing, these proceedings) describes the resultant cognitive framework.

  3. Soil on Phoenix Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) of NASA's Phoenix Lander, shows Martian soil piled on top of the spacecraft's deck and some of its instruments. Visible in the upper-left portion of the image are several wet chemistry cells of the lander's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The instrument on the lower right of the image is the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer. The excess sample delivered to the MECA's sample stage can be seen on the deck in the lower left portion of the image.

    This image was taken on Martian day, or sol, 142, on Saturday, Oct. 19, 2008. Phoenix landed on Mars' northern plains on May 25, 2008.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Designing Flight Deck Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl

    2005-01-01

    Three reports address the design of flight-deck procedures and various aspects of human interaction with cockpit systems that have direct impact on flight safety. One report, On the Typography of Flight- Deck Documentation, discusses basic research about typography and the kind of information needed by designers of flight deck documentation. Flight crews reading poorly designed documentation may easily overlook a crucial item on the checklist. The report surveys and summarizes the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed material. It focuses on typographical factors such as proper typefaces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are discussed; and several cockpit conditions such as lighting levels and glare are addressed, as well as usage factors such as angular alignment, paper quality, and colors. Most of the insights and recommendations discussed in this report are transferable to paperless cockpit systems of the future and computer-based procedure displays (e.g., "electronic flight bag") in aerospace systems and similar systems that are used in other industries such as medical, nuclear systems, maritime operations, and military systems.

  5. 12. GENERAL VIEW OF THE WESTERN PORTION OF THE BRIDGE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. GENERAL VIEW OF THE WESTERN PORTION OF THE BRIDGE. IT CONSISTS (LEFT TO RIGHT) OF SIX PRATT DECK TRUSSES, A PENNSYLVANIA THROUGH TRUSS, AND TWO MORE PRATT DECK TRUSSES. THE AERIAL VIEW IS FROM THE SOUTHWEST - Susquehanna River Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River, Havre de Grace, Harford County, MD

  6. 21. FANTAIL DECK, SHOWING DETAIL OF DECK EXTENSION AND EXTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. FANTAIL DECK, SHOWING DETAIL OF DECK EXTENSION AND EXTERIOR LOCKING MECHANISM ON HATCH DOOR TO CREW'S BERTHING. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  7. 10. DECK VIEW FORWARD FROM MAIN DECK TO FORECASTLE. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DECK VIEW FORWARD FROM MAIN DECK TO FORECASTLE. NOTE PIPE FITTING FOR OIL PUMPING SYSTEM (DISCHARGE). THE HATCH OPENINGS TO RIGHT ARE ABOVE THE SHIP'S BOILER ROOM. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  8. 14. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING DAMAGE TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING DAMAGE TO FLOOR BEAMS AND DECK OF WEST APPROACH SPAN, CAUSED WHEN CONTRACTOR'S FORCES, WORKING ON ADJACENT ABUTMENT FOR REPLACEMENT BRIDGE, DYNAMITED GRANITE BOULDERS INTO UPSTREAM SIDE OF HISTORIC BRIDGE - Middle Fork Stanislaus River Bridge, Spans Middle Fork Stanislaus River at State Highway 108, Dardanelle, Tuolumne County, CA

  9. View to southwest along bridge alignment, showing reverse curve from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to southwest along bridge alignment, showing reverse curve from near deck level; Southern Pacific Railroad track passing beneath bridge; Western Pacific Railroad track out of sight behind bridge; photographer unknown; 1933 photo from collection of Office of Structures Maintenance, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento - Carroll Overhead Bridge, Altamont Pass Road, Livermore, Alameda County, CA

  10. Nondestructive evaluation inspection of the Arlington Memorial Bridge using a robotic assisted bridge inspection tool (RABIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gucunski, Nenad; Boone, Shane D.; Zobel, Rob; Ghasemi, Hamid; Parvardeh, Hooman; Kee, Seong-Hoon

    2014-04-01

    The information presented in this report provides a detailed assessment of the condition of the Arlington Memorial Bridge (AMB) deck. The field-data collection was obtained by both the RABIT™ Bridge Inspection Tool and a number of semi-automated non-destructive evaluation (NDE) tools. The deployment of the semi-automated NDE tools was performed to inspect the AMB deck condition and also to validate data obtained by the RABIT™ Bridge Inspection Tool. Data mining and analysis were accomplished through enhanced data interpretation and visualization capabilities using advanced data integration, fusion, and 2D rendering. One of the major challenges that the research team had to overcome in assessing the condition of the AMB deck was the presence of an asphalt overlay on the entire bridge deck.

  11. 27. VIEW NORTHWEST FROM DECKING ON SOUTHEAST CORNER OF PIVOT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW NORTHWEST FROM DECKING ON SOUTHEAST CORNER OF PIVOT PIER, DRIVE SYSTEM FOR SWING-SPAN INCLUDES: (from left to right) WEDGE DRIVE GEAR BOX, SHAFTS TO WEDGE DRIVE DRIVE, WEDGE DRIVE CRANK SHAFTS, ELECTRIC MOTOR, INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER GASOLINE ENGINE, CONTROL RODS FOR STARTING AND CHOKING ENGINE, PIVOT (bottom center), AND TRACK ON CONCRETE PIER - Tipers Bridge, Spanning Great Wicomico River at State Route 200, Kilmarnock, Lancaster County, VA

  12. Characterization of stormwater runoff from bridges in North Carolina and the effects of bridge runoff on receiving streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Chad; Fitzgerald, Sharon; Lauffer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of a collaborative study between USGS, NC Department of Transportation and URS Corporation to characterize stormwater runoff from bridges in North Carolina and the effects of bridge runoff on receiving streams. This investigation measured bridge deck runoff from 15 bridges for 12-15 storms, stream water-quality data for baseflow and storm conditions at four of the bridge deck sites and streambed sediment chemistry upstream and downstream of 30 bridges across North Carolina. Background on why the study was conducted, objectives and scope and a general summary of the major results and conclusions will be presented.

  13. Similarities and differences in bare concrete deck deterioration curves from multi NDE technology surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinyoung; Gucunski, Nenad; Dinh, Kien

    2016-04-01

    Reinforced concrete decks are in most cases the fastest deteriorating components of a bridge due to the multitude of influencing factors: direct traffic loading and environmental effects, maintenance activities (salting), etc. Among many deterioration types, corrosion-induced deterioration is the most common problem in reinforced concrete decks. The study concentrates on the condition assessment of bridge decks using complementary NDE techniques. The assessment has three main components: assessment of corrosive environment and corrosion processes, and assessment with respect to the deck delamination. The study concentrates on a complementary use of five NDE techniques: impact echo (IE) to detect and characterize delamination, ground penetrating radar (GPR) to describe the corrosive environment and detect delamination, and electrical resistivity (ER) to estimate the corrosion rate by measuring concrete resistivity. The ability of the NDE methods to objectively characterize deterioration progression is illustrated by the results from NDE surveys of 10 bridges of different ages in New Jersey during a period of one year. The deterioration progression is illustrated by condition maps and condition indices. As demonstrated in the paper, multiple deterioration models are developed utilizing the proposed methodology, which shows high potential for development of more realistic deterioration and life cycle cost models for bridge decks.

  14. Seismic Retrofitting of an Existing Steel Railway Bridge by Fluid Viscous Dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Avijit; Ghosh, Aparna Dey

    2016-06-01

    There are over a lakh of bridges in the Indian Railways, many of which have become seismically deficient, either through aging or due to inadequate seismic design considerations. The extensive damage of bridges all over the world in recent earthquakes has propelled significant advancement in earthquake protection and retrofitting of bridges. Amongst various passive control systems that are reliable as well as cost-effective, Fluid Viscous Dampers (FVDs) are proving to be successful in bridge vibration control. Orificed FVDs, commercially available as Taylor Devices, have already been successfully installed in several bridges worldwide. However, there has been no such application or study related to Indian railway bridges. In this paper, an existing thirty years' old railway bridge in Jharkhand, India, has been analyzed in SAP2000v14 considering reduced stiffness and found deficient when subjected to spectrum-compatible accelerograms. Subsequent retrofitting of the bridge superstructure with FVDs has been carried out and the results indicate substantial reductions in the responses of the bridge deck.

  15. On the typography of flight-deck documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf

    1992-01-01

    Many types of paper documentation are employed on the flight-deck. They range from a simple checklist card to a bulky Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM). Some of these documentations have typographical and graphical deficiencies; yet, many cockpit tasks such as conducting checklists, way-point entry, limitations and performance calculations, and many more, require the use of these documents. Moreover, during emergency and abnormal situations, the flight crews' effectiveness in combating the situation is highly dependent on such documentation; accessing and reading procedures has a significant impact on flight safety. Although flight-deck documentation are an important (and sometimes critical) form of display in the modern cockpit, there is a dearth of information on how to effectively design these displays. The object of this report is to provide a summary of the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed matter. The report attempts 'to bridge' the gap between basic research about typography, and the kind of information needed by designers of flight-deck documentation. The report focuses on typographical factors such as type-faces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Some graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are also discussed. In addition, several aspects of cockpit reading conditions such as glare, angular alignment, and paper quality are addressed. Finally, a list of recommendations for the graphical design of flight-deck documentation is provided.

  16. 17. LOOKING FROM DECK ABOVE MESS UP AT DECK ABOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. LOOKING FROM DECK ABOVE MESS UP AT DECK ABOVE CO'S STATEROOM. RECTANGULAR WINDOWS IS AT REAR OF PILOT HOUSE. TO RIGHT OF WINDOW IS TOP OF STAIRS TO STARBOARD WING OF FLYBRIDGE. AT EXTREME RIGHT IS ENGINE CONTROLS AND IN BACKGROUND IS COMPASS WITH COVER OVER IT. RIGHT EDGE OF THIS IMAGE IS SAME AS IMAGE 14, JUST OBSTRUCTED IN IMAGE 14 BY LIFE PRESERVER AND SEAT. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  17. 46 CFR 116.1110 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ARRANGEMENT Drainage and Watertight Integrity of Weather Decks § 116.1110 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must...

  18. 46 CFR 178.410 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.410 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck...

  19. 46 CFR 178.430 - Drainage of well deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.430 Drainage of well deck vessels. (a) The weather deck on a well deck vessel must be watertight. (b) The area required on a...

  20. 46 CFR 178.410 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.410 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck...

  1. 46 CFR 178.430 - Drainage of well deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.430 Drainage of well deck vessels. (a) The weather deck on a well deck vessel must be watertight. (b) The area required on a...

  2. 46 CFR 178.410 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.410 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck...

  3. 46 CFR 178.410 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.410 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck...

  4. 46 CFR 178.430 - Drainage of well deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.430 Drainage of well deck vessels. (a) The weather deck on a well deck vessel must be watertight. (b) The area required on a...

  5. 46 CFR 178.430 - Drainage of well deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.430 Drainage of well deck vessels. (a) The weather deck on a well deck vessel must be watertight. (b) The area required on a...

  6. 46 CFR 178.430 - Drainage of well deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.430 Drainage of well deck vessels. (a) The weather deck on a well deck vessel must be watertight. (b) The area required on a...

  7. 46 CFR 116.1110 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ARRANGEMENT Drainage and Watertight Integrity of Weather Decks § 116.1110 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must...

  8. 46 CFR 178.410 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.410 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck...

  9. 46 CFR 116.1110 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ARRANGEMENT Drainage and Watertight Integrity of Weather Decks § 116.1110 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must...

  10. 46 CFR 116.1110 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ARRANGEMENT Drainage and Watertight Integrity of Weather Decks § 116.1110 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must...

  11. Bridge diagnosis at 55 mph

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, S

    1998-10-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has helped sponsor a research project at Lawrence Livermore that produced a beneficial new tool as well as an R&D 100 Award. The HERMES Bridge Inspector will provide an invaluable capability to diagnose the problems of deteriorating bridge decks and do it accurately, efficiently, nondestructively, and, perhaps most important to motorists, without closing bridges. Almost 30% of 600,000 large highway bridges in the U.S. are classified "deficient" by the FHWA, and HERMES can make a significant contribution toward solving the problem of infrastructure assessment and repair. With further development, HERMES holds promise for other concrete inspection problems, such as railroads, tunnels, and runways. HERMES, or High-performance Electromagnetic Roadway Mapping and Evaluation System, is a radar-based sensing system mounted in a trailer. It can be pulled by a vehicle at traffic speeds over a bridge deck to collect information about the roadway subsurface -- its sensors gathering data 30 centimeters or more into concrete. An onboard computer system processes the data into three-dimensional images that pinpoint problems in the roadway concrete and give engineers quantitative information about deterioration in the bridge deck. Engineers can then better assess what repairs or reconstruction is necessary and avoid the cost overruns and delays that result from inexact problem diagnoses.

  12. UNIDENTIFIED CATENARY SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TRUSSED OBELISK TOWERS ON STONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    UNIDENTIFIED CATENARY SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TRUSSED OBELISK TOWERS ON STONE PIERS, SHOWING HOWE PIPE TRUSS RAILING AND TRUSSED DECK BEAMS TYPICAL TO BRIDGES BUILT BY FLINN-MOYER COMPANY. 3/4 VIEW FROM BELOW. - Clear Fork of Brazos River Suspension Bridge, Spanning Clear Fork of Brazos River at County Route 179, Albany, Shackelford County, TX

  13. PERSPECTIVE WITH WEST PORTAL. THE BRIDGE IS CLAD IN HORIZONTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE WITH WEST PORTAL. THE BRIDGE IS CLAD IN HORIZONTAL CLAPBOARD SIDING AND HAS A SHEET METAL ROOF. NOTE THE TWO OPENINGS THAT RUN THE LENGTH OF THE BRIDGE; ONE IS AT THE EAVES AND THE OTHER IS ABOUT 4’ ABOVE THE DECK. - Dreibelbis Station Bridge, Spanning Maiden Creek, Balthaser Road (TR 745), Lenhartsville, Berks County, PA

  14. 23. General views of Moody Bridge, in descending order: 1) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. General views of Moody Bridge, in descending order: 1) the northern approach with a partial 'barrel shot', 2) partial view of southern approach detailing bridge decking, railing and portal bracing, and 3) an elevation view to the northeast showing timber piers and abutment of southern approach. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  15. 2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM UPSTREAM OF BRIDGE IN ITS SETTING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM UPSTREAM OF BRIDGE IN ITS SETTING, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST FROM LOWER (RAILROAD) DECK OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC TRANSPORTATION COMPANY'S I STREET BRIDGE - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  16. 61. MISSISSIPPI, NOXUBEE CO. MACON MAHORNER'S BRIDGE Ms. 14, 6 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. MISSISSIPPI, NOXUBEE CO. MACON MAHORNER'S BRIDGE Ms. 14, 6 miles E to McLeod, 4.5 miles S on McLeod-Shuqualak road. Overall view of bridge, looking E along N side, from below deck level. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  17. 33 CFR 155.790 - Deck lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deck lighting. 155.790 Section..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.790 Deck lighting. (a) A self-propelled vessel with a capacity of... and sunrise must have deck lighting that adequately illuminates— (1) Each transfer operations...

  18. 33 CFR 155.790 - Deck lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deck lighting. 155.790 Section..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.790 Deck lighting. (a) A self-propelled vessel with a capacity of... and sunrise must have deck lighting that adequately illuminates— (1) Each transfer operations...

  19. 33 CFR 155.790 - Deck lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deck lighting. 155.790 Section..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.790 Deck lighting. (a) A self-propelled vessel with a capacity of... and sunrise must have deck lighting that adequately illuminates— (1) Each transfer operations...

  20. 33 CFR 155.790 - Deck lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deck lighting. 155.790 Section..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.790 Deck lighting. (a) A self-propelled vessel with a capacity of... and sunrise must have deck lighting that adequately illuminates— (1) Each transfer operations...

  1. 33 CFR 155.790 - Deck lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deck lighting. 155.790 Section..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.790 Deck lighting. (a) A self-propelled vessel with a capacity of... and sunrise must have deck lighting that adequately illuminates— (1) Each transfer operations...

  2. A reliable measurement for identifying a lumbosacral transitional vertebra with a solid bony bridge on a single-slice midsagittal MRI or plain lateral radiograph.

    PubMed

    Farshad, M; Aichmair, A; Hughes, A P; Herzog, R J; Farshad-Amacker, N A

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to devise a simple but reliable radiological method of identifying a lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV) with a solid bony bridge on sagittal MRI, which could then be applied to a lateral radiograph. The vertical mid-vertebral angle (VMVA) and the vertical anterior vertebral angle (VAVA) of the three most caudal segments of the lumbar spine were measured on MRI and/or on a lateral radiograph in 92 patients with a LSTV and 94 controls, and the differences per segment (Diff-VMVA and Diff-VAVA) were calculated. The Diff-VMVA of the two most caudal vertebrae was significantly higher in the control group (25° (sd 8) than in patients with a LSTV (type 2a+b: 16° (SD 9), type 3a+b: -9° (SD 10), type 4: -5° (SD 7); p < 0.001). A Diff-VMVA of ≤ +10° identified a LSTV with a solid bony bridge (type 3+4) with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 89% on MRI and a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 74% on a lateral radiograph. A sensitivity of 100% could be achieved with a cut-off value of 28° for the Diff-VAVA, but with a lower specificity (76%) on MRI than with Diff-VMVA. Using this simple method (Diff-VMVA ≤ +10°), solid bony bridging of the posterior elements of a LSTV, and therefore the first adjacent mobile segment, can be easily identified without the need for additional imaging. PMID:24151275

  3. 23 CFR 661.47 - Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.47 Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds? No. Bridge maintenance repairs, e.g., guard rail repair, deck repairs, repair...

  4. 23 CFR 661.47 - Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.47 Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds? No. Bridge maintenance repairs, e.g., guard rail repair, deck repairs, repair...

  5. 23 CFR 661.47 - Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.47 Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds? No. Bridge maintenance repairs, e.g., guard rail repair, deck repairs, repair...

  6. 23 CFR 661.47 - Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.47 Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds? No. Bridge maintenance repairs, e.g., guard rail repair, deck repairs, repair...

  7. 23 CFR 661.47 - Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.47 Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds? No. Bridge maintenance repairs, e.g., guard rail repair, deck repairs, repair...

  8. On the impact of Ag doping on performance and reliability of GeS2-based conductive bridge memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longnos, F.; Vianello, E.; Cagli, C.; Molas, G.; Souchier, E.; Blaise, P.; Carabasse, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Jousseaume, V.; De Salvo, B.; Dahmani, F.; Verrier, P.; Bretegnier, D.; Liebault, J.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we study the impact of Ag doping on GeS2-based CBRAM devices employing Ag as active electrode. Several devices with Ag doping varying between 10% and 24% are extensively analyzed. First, we assess switching voltages and time-to-set as a function of Ag concentration in the electrolyte layer. Subsequently, we evaluate the two most important reliability aspects of RRAM devices: endurance and data retention at different temperatures. The results show that an increase of Ag doping in the GeS2 layer yields a strong improvement to both endurance and data retention performances. The extrapolated temperature allowing for 10 years data retention increases from 75 °C for the 10% Ag-doped sample to 109 °C for the 24% Ag-doped one.

  9. 58. MISSISSIPPI, NOXUBEE CO. MACON MAHORNER'S BRIDGE, 1884, Ms. 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. MISSISSIPPI, NOXUBEE CO. MACON MAHORNER'S BRIDGE, 1884, Ms. 14, E 6.5 mi. to McLeod, 4.5 miles S on McLeod-Shuqualak road. Mahorner's bridge (1884). Lower panel point, west span. View is at right-angles to the bridge and from below deck level. show pin connection, floor beams, and stringers. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  10. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, SHOWING SPRING LINE OF SPANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, SHOWING SPRING LINE OF SPANS FROM CROWN OF MID-CHANNEL PIER, PAIRED COLUMNS SUPPORTING DECK, ARCHED WINDOW RAILING, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST FROM EUREKA SOUTHERN RAILROAD BRIDGE. CABLES VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND ARE EARTHQUAKE RESTRAINERS RETROFITTED TO 1952 HIGHWAY BRIDGE, WHICH FUNCTIONED AS DESIGNED IN APRIL 1992 TEMBLOR - Van Duzen River Bridge, Spanning Van Duzen River at CA State Highway 101, Alton, Humboldt County, CA

  11. UNIDENTIFIED CATENARY SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TRIPLE PIPE TOWERS, SHOWING HOWE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    UNIDENTIFIED CATENARY SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TRIPLE PIPE TOWERS, SHOWING HOWE PIPE TRUSS RAILING AND TRUSSED DECK BEAMS TYPICAL TO BRIDGES BUILT BY FLINN-MOYER COMPANY. NOTE THAT TOWER PIPES LIE IN ONE PLANE, UNLIKE TRIPODAL ARRANGEMENT AT CLEAR FORK OF THE BRAZOS SUSPENSION BRIDGE. ELEVATION VIEW. - Clear Fork of Brazos River Suspension Bridge, Spanning Clear Fork of Brazos River at County Route 179, Albany, Shackelford County, TX

  12. 135. Main deck, starboard side below boat beams (skids), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    135. Main deck, starboard side below boat beams (skids), looking toward forecastle deck from next to deck house. (J9.28518) - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. 29 CFR 1918.33 - Deck loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deck loads. 1918.33 Section 1918.33 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Working Surfaces § 1918.33 Deck loads. (a) Employees...

  14. 46 CFR 116.425 - Deck coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deck coverings. 116.425 Section 116.425 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.425 Deck coverings. (a)...

  15. Commander Brand sleeps on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Brand, with hands folded in front of his chest, sleeps on aft flight deck. Brand's head is just above aft flight deck floor with his back to onorbit station panels. The back and feet of a second crewmember appear next to Brand.

  16. 46 CFR 108.486 - Helicopter decks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter decks. 108.486 Section 108.486 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Protection for Helicopter Facilities § 108.486 Helicopter decks....

  17. 46 CFR 177.900 - Deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Deck rails. 177.900 Section 177.900 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.900 Deck rails. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, rails or equivalent protection must...

  18. 46 CFR 169.327 - Deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Deck rails. 169.327 Section 169.327 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.327 Deck rails. (a) All rails or lifelines must be at least 30 inches...

  19. 46 CFR 169.327 - Deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Deck rails. 169.327 Section 169.327 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.327 Deck rails. (a) All rails or lifelines must be at least 30 inches...

  20. 46 CFR 169.327 - Deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Deck rails. 169.327 Section 169.327 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.327 Deck rails. (a) All rails or lifelines must be at least 30 inches...

  1. 46 CFR 169.327 - Deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Deck rails. 169.327 Section 169.327 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.327 Deck rails. (a) All rails or lifelines must be at least 30 inches...

  2. 46 CFR 169.327 - Deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deck rails. 169.327 Section 169.327 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.327 Deck rails. (a) All rails or lifelines must be at least 30 inches...

  3. 46 CFR 177.900 - Deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... simultaneously. (c) Where space limitations make deck rails impractical for areas designed for crew use only.... (2) Rails on a vessel subject to the 1966 International Convention on Load Lines must be at least 1... installed between a top rail required by paragraph (a) of this section, and the deck so that no open...

  4. 46 CFR 177.900 - Deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... simultaneously. (c) Where space limitations make deck rails impractical for areas designed for crew use only.... (2) Rails on a vessel subject to the 1966 International Convention on Load Lines must be at least 1... installed between a top rail required by paragraph (a) of this section, and the deck so that no open...

  5. 30. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH TOWARD THE WALKWAY EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH TOWARD THE WALKWAY EAST ABUTMENT. THE HORIZONTAL CABLES RUN FROM THE ABUTMENT TO THE QUARTER POINT OF THE WALKWAY DECK. February 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. Review on antibacterial characteristics of bridge engineering biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing-Qing; Chen, Meng-Yao; He, Rui-Lin; Zhang, Zhong-Feng; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the research on timber construction materials used in bridge construction. It focuses on the application of antiseptic treatments and the use of timber engineering materials in decks and bridges. This review also provides an overview on the future research and prospects of engineered timber materials. PMID:26858558

  7. 15. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING LONGITUDINAL STRINGERS SUPPORTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING LONGITUDINAL STRINGERS SUPPORTING WOODEN DECK AND RESTING ON TRANSVERSE FLOOR BEAMS. DIAGONAL EYE BARS FOR REINFORCEMENT ARE SEEN AT CENTER; VIEW FROM SOUTH BANK. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  8. 15. 'Concrete Bridge Over Salt River, Port Kenyon, Humboldt County, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. 'Concrete Bridge Over Salt River, Port Kenyon, Humboldt County, California, A.J. Logan, County Surveyor, H.J. Brunnier, Consulting Engineer, March 7, 1919,' showing general plan, plan of top chord, elevation of main girder, transverse section, plan section at deck level. - Salt River Bridge, Spanning Salt River at Dillon Road, Ferndale, Humboldt County, CA

  9. Review on antibacterial characteristics of bridge engineering biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qing-qing; Chen, Meng-yao; He, Rui-lin; Zhang, Zhong-feng; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the research on timber construction materials used in bridge construction. It focuses on the application of antiseptic treatments and the use of timber engineering materials in decks and bridges. This review also provides an overview on the future research and prospects of engineered timber materials. PMID:26858558

  10. 15. BRIDGE TENDER ALBERT REEVES OF MAURICETOWN AND HELPER WALLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BRIDGE TENDER ALBERT REEVES OF MAURICETOWN AND HELPER WALLY HALES HOLDING HUGE KEY ABOVE HOLE IN DECK OF CENTER SWING SPAN TO REVEAL KEY BASETHE KEY IS SET UPON A MALE FITTING USED TO OPEN THE SPAN - Maurice River Pratt Through-Truss Swing Bridge, Spanning Maurice River, Mauricetown, Cumberland County, NJ