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Sample records for bright greenish yellow

  1. Hyperspectral bright greenish-yellow fluorescence (BGYF) imaging of aflatoxin contaminated corn kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Haibo; Hruska, Zuzana; Brown, Robert L.; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2006-10-01

    Aflatoxin contaminated corn poses a serious threat to both domestic animals and humans, because of its carcinogenic properties. Traditionally, corn kernels have been examined for evidence of bright greenish-yellow fluorescence (BGYF), which is an indication of possible presence of Aspergillus flavus, one of the aflatoxin producing strains of fungi, when illuminated with a high-intensity ultra-violet light. The BGYF test is typically the first step that leads to an in-depth chemical analysis for possible aflatoxin contamination. The objective of the present study was to analyze hyperspectral BGYF response of corn kernels under UVA excitation. The target corn samples were collected from a commercial corn field in 2005 and showed abundant BGYF response. The BGYF positive kernels were manually picked out and imaged under a visible near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system under UV radiation with excitation wavelength centered at 365 nm. Initial results exhibited strong emission spectra with peaks centered from 500 nm to 515 nm wavelength range for BGYF positive kernels. Aflatoxin levels on the BGYF positive and negative corn kernels (used as control) were measured subsequently with high performance liquid chromatography. The mean aflatoxin concentration level was 5114 ppb for the BGYF positive and undetectable for the normal kernels.

  2. Chemical composition, at consuming ripeness level of tomatoes irradiated at mature green and greenish yellow stages of maturity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Wandawi, H. K.; Abdul-Rahman, M. H.; Al-Shaickley, K. A.

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L.,var.Monte carlo) have been Y-irradiated (100-400Krad) and left to ripen to consuming ripeness. The results revealed that in fruits irradiated with 100,200 and 300 krad at mature-green, 48 hour after harvesting and at greenish yellow stages of maturity, 24 hours after harvesting, the levels of ascorbic acid were accounted to 62, 51, 27% and 84, 59, 34% of control samples respectively. In fruits irradiated with 200 krad at mature-green stage and 48 hours after harvesting and in fruits irradiated with 400 krad at greenish yellow stage and 48 hours after harvesting, the levels of lycopene were 279 and 246% of that of control samples; while the lowest levels of lycopene were in fruits irradiated with 400 krad and at mature-green and greenish yellow stages and 48 hours after harvesting where lycopene accounted to 11 and 24% respectively when compared to control samples . on the other hand, radiation had no significant effect on PH, titrable acidity and °Brix of tomatoes.

  3. Microfluidic White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Based on Integrated Patterns of Greenish-Blue and Yellow Solvent-Free Liquid Emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Naofumi; Kasahara, Takashi; Edura, Tomohiko; Oshima, Juro; Ishimatsu, Ryoichi; Tsuwaki, Miho; Imato, Toshihiko; Shoji, Shuichi; Mizuno, Jun

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrated a novel microfluidic white organic light-emitting diode (microfluidic WOLED) based on integrated sub-100-μm-wide microchannels. Single-μm-thick SU-8-based microchannels, which were sandwiched between indium tin oxide (ITO) anode and cathode pairs, were fabricated by photolithography and heterogeneous bonding technologies. 1-Pyrenebutyric acid 2-ethylhexyl ester (PLQ) was used as a solvent-free greenish-blue liquid emitter, while 2,8-di-tert-butyl-5,11-bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)-6,12-diphenyltetracene (TBRb)-doped PLQ was applied as a yellow liquid emitter. In order to form the liquid white light-emitting layer, the greenish-blue and yellow liquid emitters were alternately injected into the integrated microchannels. The fabricated electro-microfluidic device successfully exhibited white electroluminescence (EL) emission via simultaneous greenish-blue and yellow emissions under an applied voltage of 100 V. A white emission with Commission Internationale de l’Declairage (CIE) color coordinates of (0.40, 0.42) was also obtained; the emission corresponds to warm-white light. The proposed device has potential applications in subpixels of liquid-based microdisplays and for lighting.

  4. Microfluidic White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Based on Integrated Patterns of Greenish-Blue and Yellow Solvent-Free Liquid Emitters

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Naofumi; Kasahara, Takashi; Edura, Tomohiko; Oshima, Juro; Ishimatsu, Ryoichi; Tsuwaki, Miho; Imato, Toshihiko; Shoji, Shuichi; Mizuno, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated a novel microfluidic white organic light-emitting diode (microfluidic WOLED) based on integrated sub-100-μm-wide microchannels. Single-μm-thick SU-8-based microchannels, which were sandwiched between indium tin oxide (ITO) anode and cathode pairs, were fabricated by photolithography and heterogeneous bonding technologies. 1-Pyrenebutyric acid 2-ethylhexyl ester (PLQ) was used as a solvent-free greenish-blue liquid emitter, while 2,8-di-tert-butyl-5,11-bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)-6,12-diphenyltetracene (TBRb)-doped PLQ was applied as a yellow liquid emitter. In order to form the liquid white light-emitting layer, the greenish-blue and yellow liquid emitters were alternately injected into the integrated microchannels. The fabricated electro-microfluidic device successfully exhibited white electroluminescence (EL) emission via simultaneous greenish-blue and yellow emissions under an applied voltage of 100 V. A white emission with Commission Internationale de l’Declairage (CIE) color coordinates of (0.40, 0.42) was also obtained; the emission corresponds to warm-white light. The proposed device has potential applications in subpixels of liquid-based microdisplays and for lighting. PMID:26439164

  5. Yellow steam and electrical pipes across from Bright Angel Lodge. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Yellow steam and electrical pipes across from Bright Angel Lodge. Note control valve to right of control box, view E. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  6. Yellow to greenish-blue colour-tunable photoluminescence and 4f-centered slow magnetic relaxation in a cyanido-bridged Dy(III)(4-hydroxypyridine)-Co(III) layered material.

    PubMed

    Chorazy, Szymon; Wang, Junhao; Ohkoshi, Shin-Ichi

    2016-09-14

    A cyanido-bridged layered {[Dy(III)(4-OHpy)2(H2O)3][Co(III)(CN)6]}·0.5H2O (1) (4-OHpy = 4-hydroxypyridine) framework with dual photo-luminescence and magnetic properties was prepared. 1 exhibits visible emission whose color, yellow to greenish-blue, is switchable by selected wavelengths of UV excitation light. Magnetic data revealed that 1 shows not only the slow magnetic relaxation of a typical Dy(III) single-ion origin but also the relaxation process caused by the magnetic dipole-magnetic dipole interactions between the neighbouring Dy(III) centers. PMID:27523162

  7. 7 CFR 29.3030 - Greenish (V).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Greenish (V). A color term applied to greenish-tinged tobacco. Any leaf which has a greenish tinge or a pale green color affecting 20 percent or more of its surface may be described as greenish. (See Rule 17.)...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3030 - Greenish (V).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Greenish (V). A color term applied to greenish-tinged tobacco. Any leaf which has a greenish tinge or a pale green color affecting 20 percent or more of its surface may be described as greenish. (See Rule 17.)...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3030 - Greenish (V).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Greenish (V). A color term applied to greenish-tinged tobacco. Any leaf which has a greenish tinge or a pale green color affecting 20 percent or more of its surface may be described as greenish. (See Rule 17.)...

  10. 7 CFR 29.1025 - Greenish (V).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1025 Greenish (V). A color term applied to greenish-tinged tobacco. Any leaf which has a greenish tinge or a pale green color affecting 20 percent or more of its surface may be described...

  11. 7 CFR 29.1025 - Greenish (V).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1025 Greenish (V). A color term applied to greenish-tinged tobacco. Any leaf which has a greenish tinge or a pale green color affecting 20 percent or more of its surface may be described...

  12. 7 CFR 29.1025 - Greenish (V).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1025 Greenish (V). A color term applied to greenish-tinged tobacco. Any leaf which has a greenish tinge or a pale green color affecting 20 percent or more of its surface may be described...

  13. 7 CFR 29.2525 - Greenish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2525 Greenish. A term applied to greenish-tinged tobacco. Any leaf which has a greenish tinge or a pale green color affecting 20 percent or more...

  14. Acid-growth response and alpha-expansins in suspension cultures of bright yellow 2 tobacco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, B. M.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    The possibility that Bright Yellow 2 (BY2) tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) suspension-cultured cells possess an expansin-mediated acid-growth mechanism was examined by multiple approaches. BY2 cells grew three times faster upon treatment with fusicoccin, which induces an acidification of the cell wall. Exogenous expansins likewise stimulated BY2 cell growth 3-fold. Protein extracted from BY2 cell walls possessed the expansin-like ability to induce extension of isolated walls. In western-blot analysis of BY2 wall protein, one band of 29 kD was recognized by anti-expansin antibody. Six different classes of alpha-expansin mRNA were identified in a BY2 cDNA library. Northern-blot analysis indicated moderate to low abundance of multiple alpha-expansin mRNAs in BY2 cells. From these results we conclude that BY2 suspension-cultured cells have the necessary components for expansin-mediated cell wall enlargement.

  15. 7 CFR 29.3030 - Greenish (V).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Greenish (V). 29.3030 Section 29.3030 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official...

  16. 7 CFR 29.1025 - Greenish (V).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Greenish (V). 29.1025 Section 29.1025 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official...

  17. 7 CFR 29.2525 - Greenish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Greenish. 29.2525 Section 29.2525 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard...

  18. Complete nucleotide sequences of a new bipartite begomovirus from Malvastrum sp. plants with bright yellow mosaic symptoms in South Texas.

    PubMed

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Villegas, Cecilia; Gregg, Lori; Murray, K Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Two isolates of a novel bipartite begomovirus, tentatively named malvastrum bright yellow mosaic virus (MaBYMV), were molecularly characterized from naturally infected plants of the genus Malvastrum showing bright yellow mosaic disease symptoms in South Texas. Six complete DNA-A and five DNA-B genome sequences of MaBYMV obtained from the isolates ranged in length from 2,608 to 2,609 nucleotides (nt) and 2,578 to 2,605 nt, respectively. Both genome segments shared a 178- to 180-nt common region. In pairwise comparisons, the complete DNA-A and DNA-B sequences of MaBYMV were most similar (87-88 % and 79-81 % identity, respectively) and phylogenetically related to the corresponding sequences of sida mosaic Sinaloa virus-[MX-Gua-06]. Further analysis revealed that MaBYMV is a putative recombinant virus, thus supporting the notion that malvaceous hosts may be influencing the evolution of several begomoviruses. The design of new diagnostic primers enabled the detection of MaBYMV in cohorts of Bemisia tabaci collected from symptomatic Malvastrum sp. plants, thus implicating whiteflies as potential vectors of the virus. PMID:27016928

  19. Differential responses to high- and low-dose ultraviolet-B stress in tobacco Bright Yellow-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Shinya; Kojo, Kei H.; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Endo, Masaki; Toki, Seiichi; Isoda, Hiroko; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation leads to DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, growth inhibition, and cell death. To evaluate the UV-B stress–induced changes in plant cells, we developed a model system based on tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells. Both low-dose UV-B (low UV-B: 740 J m−2) and high-dose UV-B (high UV-B: 2960 J m−2) inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell death; these effects were more pronounced at high UV-B. Flow cytometry showed cell cycle arrest within 1 day after UV-B irradiation; neither low- nor high-UV-B–irradiated cells entered mitosis within 12 h. Cell cycle progression was gradually restored in low-UV-B–irradiated cells but not in high-UV-B–irradiated cells. UV-A irradiation, which activates cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) photolyase, reduced inhibition of cell proliferation by low but not high UV-B and suppressed high-UV-B–induced cell death. UV-B induced CPD formation in a dose-dependent manner. The amounts of CPDs decreased gradually within 3 days in low-UV-B–irradiated cells, but remained elevated after 3 days in high-UV-B–irradiated cells. Low UV-B slightly increased the number of DNA single-strand breaks detected by the comet assay at 1 day after irradiation, and then decreased at 2 and 3 days after irradiation. High UV-B increased DNA fragmentation detected by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay 1 and 3 days after irradiation. Caffeine, an inhibitor of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) checkpoint kinases, reduced the rate of cell death in high-UV-B–irradiated cells. Our data suggest that low-UV-B–induced CPDs and/or DNA strand-breaks inhibit DNA replication and proliferation of BY-2 cells, whereas larger contents of high-UV-B–induced CPDs and/or DNA strand-breaks lead to cell death. PMID:25954287

  20. PIXE analysis of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lin; Ding, Xun-liang; Feng, Song-lin; Cheng, Huang-sheng; Zhang, Wen-Jiang; Fan, Chang-Sheng

    2006-03-01

    This paper reports the results about the PIXE analysis of major, minor and trace elements of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain and blue-and-white porcelain produced in Hutian Kiln (Jingdezhen district, Jiangxi province) during 10th-14th centuries. The porcelain body and greenish white glaze from northern Song (AD 960), southern Song (AD 1037-1276), early Yuan (AD 1279-1320), later Yuan (AD 1320-1368) were investigated together with white-and-blue glaze from Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644). The obtained data were further analyzed by factor analysis.

  1. Chirped GaAs-AlAs distributed Bragg reflectors for high brightness yellow-green light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.J.; Chang, C.S.; Su, Y.K.; Chang, P.T.; Wu, Y.R.; Huang, K.H.; Chen, T.P.

    1997-02-01

    A novel chirped distributed Bragg reflector (CDBR) structure was grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on a GaAs substrate where the optical thickness of each pair decreases monotonically from the bottom of the structure to the top surface. It was found that the fabricated CDBR structure can reflect yellow-green light with a maximum reflectivity of more than 80%, and it can reflect light more efficiently in a wider wavelength range than the conventional DBR structure. Yellow-green AlGaInP LED`s with the CDBR structure and the conventional DBR structure were both fabricated. It was found that by using the CDBR structure, one can achieve a higher luminescence intensity.

  2. Alamethicin permeabilizes the plasma membrane and mitochondria but not the tonoplast in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Bright Yellow) suspension cells

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The ion channel-forming peptide AlaM (alamethicin) is known to permeabilize isolated mitochondria as well as animal cells. When intact tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) Bright Yellow-2 cells were treated with AlaM, the cells became permeable for low-molecular-mass molecules as shown by induced leakage of NAD(P)+. After the addition of cofactors and substrates, activities of cytosolic as well as mitochondrial respiratory enzymes could be directly determined inside the permeabilized cells. However, at an AlaM concentration at which the cytoplasmic enzymes were maximally accessible, the vacuole remained intact, as indicated by an unaffected tonoplast proton gradient. Low-flux permeabilization of plasma membranes and mitochondria at moderate AlaM concentrations was reversible and did not affect cell vigour. Higher AlaM concentrations induced cell death. After the addition of catalase that removes the H2O2 necessary for NADH oxidation by apoplastic peroxidases, mitochondrial oxygen consumption could be measured in permeabilized cells. Inhibitor-sensitive oxidation of the respiratory substrates succinate, malate and NADH was observed after the addition of the appropriate coenzymes (ATP, NAD+). The capacities of different pathways in the respiratory electron-transport chain could thus be determined directly. We conclude that AlaM permeabilization provides a very useful tool for monitoring metabolic pathways or individual enzymes in their native proteinaceous environment with controlled cofactor concentrations. Possible uses and limitations of this method for plant cell research are discussed. PMID:15836437

  3. S-Nitrosylation of Ascorbate Peroxidase Is Part of Programmed Cell Death Signaling in Tobacco Bright Yellow-2 Cells1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    de Pinto, Maria Concetta; Locato, Vittoria; Sgobba, Alessandra; Romero-Puertas, Maria del Carmen; Gadaleta, Cosimo; Delledonne, Massimo; De Gara, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a small redox molecule that acts as a signal in different physiological and stress-related processes in plants. Recent evidence suggests that the biological activity of NO is also mediated by S-nitrosylation, a well-known redox-based posttranslational protein modification. Here, we show that during programmed cell death (PCD), induced by both heat shock (HS) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 cells, an increase in S-nitrosylating agents occurred. NO increased in both experimentally induced PCDs, although with different intensities. In H2O2-treated cells, the increase in NO was lower than in cells exposed to HS. However, a simultaneous increase in S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), another NO source for S-nitrosylation, occurred in H2O2-treated cells, while a decrease in this metabolite was evident after HS. Consistently, different levels of activity and expression of GSNO reductase, the enzyme responsible for GSNO removal, were found in cells subjected to the two different PCD-inducing stimuli: low in H2O2-treated cells and high in the heat-shocked ones. Irrespective of the type of S-nitrosylating agent, S-nitrosylated proteins formed upon exposure to both of the PCD-inducing stimuli. Interestingly, cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (cAPX), a key enzyme controlling H2O2 levels in plants, was found to be S-nitrosylated at the onset of both PCDs. In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that S-nitrosylation of cAPX was responsible for the rapid decrease in its activity. The possibility that S-nitrosylation induces cAPX ubiquitination and degradation and acts as part of the signaling pathway leading to PCD is discussed. PMID:24158396

  4. Production of Reactive Oxygen Species, Alteration of Cytosolic Ascorbate Peroxidase, and Impairment of Mitochondrial Metabolism Are Early Events in Heat Shock-Induced Programmed Cell Death in Tobacco Bright-Yellow 2 Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Vacca, Rosa Anna; de Pinto, Maria Concetta; Valenti, Daniela; Passarella, Salvatore; Marra, Ersilia; De Gara, Laura

    2004-01-01

    To gain some insight into the mechanisms by which plant cells die as a result of abiotic stress, we exposed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright-Yellow 2 cells to heat shock and investigated cell survival as a function of time after heat shock induction. Heat treatment at 55°C triggered processes leading to programmed cell death (PCD) that was complete after 72 h. In the early phase, cells undergoing PCD showed an immediate burst in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide (O2·-) anion production. Consistently, death was prevented by the antioxidants ascorbate (ASC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Actinomycin D and cycloheximide, inhibitors of transcription and translation, respectively, also prevented cell death, but with a lower efficiency. Induction of PCD resulted in gradual oxidation of endogenous ASC; this was accompanied by a decrease in both the amount and the specific activity of the cytosolic ASC peroxidase (cAPX). A reduction in cAPX gene expression was also found in the late PCD phase. Moreover, changes of cAPX kinetic properties were found in PCD cells. Production of ROS in PCD cells was accompanied by early inhibition of glucose (Glc) oxidation, with a strong impairment of mitochondrial function as shown by an increase in cellular NAD(P)H fluorescence, and by failure of mitochondria isolated from cells undergoing PCD to generate membrane potential and to oxidize succinate in a manner controlled by ADP. Thus, we propose that in the early phase of tobacco Bright-Yellow 2 cell PCD, ROS production occurs, perhaps because of damage of the cell antioxidant system, with impairment of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:15020761

  5. Cytochrome c Is Released in a Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Manner and Is Degraded via Caspase-Like Proteases in Tobacco Bright-Yellow 2 Cells en Route to Heat Shock-Induced Cell Death1

    PubMed Central

    Vacca, Rosa Anna; Valenti, Daniela; Bobba, Antonella; Merafina, Riccardo Sandro; Passarella, Salvatore; Marra, Ersilia

    2006-01-01

    To gain some insight into the mechanism of plant programmed cell death, certain features of cytochrome c (cyt c) release were investigated in heat-shocked tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright-Yellow 2 cells in the 2- to 6-h time range. We found that 2 h after heat shock, cyt c is released from intact mitochondria into the cytoplasm as a functionally active protein. Such a release did not occur in the presence of superoxide anion dismutase and catalase, thus showing that it depends on reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interestingly, ROS production due to xanthine plus xanthine oxidase results in cyt c release in sister control cultures. Maximal cyt c release was found 2 h after heat shock; later, activation of caspase-3-like protease was found to increase with time. Activation of this protease did not occur in the presence of ROS scavenger enzymes. The released cyt c was found to be progressively degraded in a manner prevented by either the broad-range caspase inhibitor (zVAD-fmk) or the specific inhibitor of caspase-3 (AC-DEVD-CHO), which have no effect on cyt c release. In the presence of these inhibitors, a significant increase in survival of the cells undergoing programmed cell death was found. We conclude that ROS can trigger release of cyt c, but do not cause cell death, which requires caspase-like activation. PMID:16531480

  6. Commercial yellow sticky strips more attractive than yellow boards to western cherry fruit fly (Dipt., Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bright yellow sticky rectangles made of paper boards were previously identified as the most effective traps for capturing western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae). Thin rectangular sheets of yellow plastic allow higher light passage than yellow boards and may b...

  7. The darkening of zinc yellow: XANES speciation of chromium in artist;s paints after light and chemical exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Zanella, Luciana; Casadio, Francesca; Gray, Kimberly A.; Warta, Richard; Ma, Qing; Gaillard, Jean-François

    2012-03-14

    The color darkening of selected brushstrokes of the masterpiece A Sunday on La Grande Jatte - 1884 (by Georges Seurat) has been attributed to the alteration of the chromate pigment zinc yellow. The pigment originally displays a bright greenish-yellow color but may undergo, after aging, darkening to a dull, ocher tone. We used XANES to probe the oxidation state of Cr on paint reconstructions, and show that color changes are associated with the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Paint mixtures containing the pigment and linseed oil to mimic mixtures used in La Grande Jatte were subjected to artificial aging in the presence of light, SO{sub 2}, and variable air humidity - 50 and 90% relative humidity. High relative humidity led to the largest degree of Cr(VI) reduction whereas low relative humidity promoted light-induced alterations. These results are corroborated by visible reflectance measurements on the same laboratory samples and contribute to a better understanding of the chemical reactivity of chromate pigments, which are present in many historical works of art.

  8. Yellow Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa. The virus is transmitted to people by the ... fever Maps of Yellow fever endemic areas in Africa and South America Yellow fever vaccination Prevention Vaccine ...

  9. Changes in the Antioxidant Systems as Part of the Signaling Pathway Responsible for the Programmed Cell Death Activated by Nitric Oxide and Reactive Oxygen Species in Tobacco Bright-Yellow 2 Cells1

    PubMed Central

    de Pinto, Maria Concetta; Tommasi, Franca; De Gara, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been postulated to be required, together with reactive oxygen species (ROS), for the activation of the hypersensitive reaction, a defense response induced in the noncompatible plant-pathogen interaction. However, its involvement in activating programmed cell death (PCD) in plant cells has been questioned. In this paper, the involvement of the cellular antioxidant metabolism in the signal transduction triggered by these bioactive molecules has been investigated. NO and ROS levels were singularly or simultaneously increased in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Bright-Yellow 2) cells by the addition to the culture medium of NO and/or ROS generators. The individual increase in NO or ROS had different effects on the studied parameters than the simultaneous increase in the two reactive species. NO generation did not cause an increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity or induction of cellular death. It only induced minor changes in ascorbate (ASC) and glutathione (GSH) metabolisms. An increase in ROS induced oxidative stress in the cells, causing an oxidation of the ASC and GSH redox pairs; however, it had no effect on PAL activity and did not induce cell death when it was generated at low concentrations. In contrast, the simultaneous increase of NO and ROS activated a process of death with the typical cytological and biochemical features of hypersensitive PCD and a remarkable rise in PAL activity. Under the simultaneous generation of NO and ROS, the cellular antioxidant capabilities were also suppressed. The involvement of ASC and GSH as part of the transduction pathway leading to PCD is discussed. PMID:12376637

  10. YELLOW BERRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow berry refers to the non-vitreous form of the wheat kernel. Individual kernels may be vitreous, non-vitreous (yellow berry) or have varying proportions of each (“mottled”). Yellow berry, in and of itself, represents no defect of the kernel. As in maize, rice and other cereals, the non-vitre...

  11. Photonic polycrystal in the greenish-white scales of the African longhorn beetle Prosopocera lactator (Cerambycidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomer, Jean-François; Simonis, Priscilla; Bay, Annick; Cloetens, Peter; Suhonen, Heikki; Rassart, Marie; Vandenbem, Cédric; Vigneron, Jean Pol

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional photonic-crystal grains were found in the scales of the longhorn beetle Prosopocera lactator (Cerambycidae). The local geometric structure can be described as a face-centered-cubic array of spheres, connected by short rods, reminiscent of the “ball-and-stick” models used by solid-state chemists to visualize atomic structures. Based on scanning electron microscopy, x-ray nanotomography, optical measurements, photonic band-structure calculations, and computer simulations of the reflectance, the desaturated greenish coloration is shown to arise from the observed photonic polycrystalline structure. X-ray nanotomography is revealed as a very promising tool for photonic-crystal morphology studies.

  12. Highly efficient greenish-blue platinum-based phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes on a high triplet energy platform

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y. L. Gong, S. White, R.; Lu, Z. H.; Wang, X.; Wang, S.; Yang, C.

    2014-04-28

    We have demonstrated high-efficiency greenish-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) based on a dimesitylboryl-functionalized C^N chelate Pt(II) phosphor, Pt(m-Bptrz)(t-Bu-pytrz-Me). Using a high triplet energy platform and optimized double emissive zone device architecture results in greenish-blue PHOLEDs that exhibit an external quantum efficiency of 24.0% and a power efficiency of 55.8 lm/W. This record high performance is comparable with that of the state-of-the-art Ir-based sky-blue organic light-emitting diodes.

  13. Laser-induced Greenish-Blue Photoluminescence of Mesoporous Silicon Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yan-Ru; Zheng, Minrui; Bai, Fan; Liu, Junjun; Tok, Eng-Soon; Huang, Zhifeng; Sow, Chorng-Haur

    2014-05-01

    Solid silicon nanowires and their luminescent properties have been widely studied, but lesser is known about the optical properties of mesoporous silicon nanowires (mp-SiNWs). In this work, we present a facile method to generate greenish-blue photoluminescence (GB-PL) by fast scanning a focused green laser beam (wavelength of 532 nm) on a close-packed array of mp-SiNWs to carry out photo-induced chemical modification. The threshold of laser power is 5 mW to excite the GB-PL, whose intensity increases with laser power in the range of 5-105 mW. The quenching of GB-PL comes to occur beyond 105 mW. The in-vacuum annealing effectively excites the GB-PL in the pristine mp-SiNWs and enhances the GB-PL of the laser-modified mp-SiNWs. A complex model of the laser-induced surface modification is proposed to account for the laser-power and post-annealing effect. Moreover, the fast scanning of focused laser beam enables us to locally tailor mp-SiNWs en route to a wide variety of micropatterns with different optical functionality, and we demonstrate the feasibility in the application of creating hidden images.

  14. Yellow Fever Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    What is yellow fever?Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is found in certain parts of Africa and South America. Yellow fever is spread through the bite of an infected ...

  15. Yellow Fever Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    What is yellow fever?Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is found in certain parts of Africa ... How can I prevent yellow fever?Yellow fever vaccine can prevent yellow fever. ... only at designated vaccination centers. After getting the vaccine, you ...

  16. Rainbow brightness.

    PubMed

    Gedzelman, S D

    1982-08-15

    A theory for the brightness of rainbows is presented. The light reaching the observer consists of a beam of singly scattered sunlight, originating from the directly illuminated portion of a rainswath, which, in turn, has suffered depletion by scattering or absorption in its path through the atmosphere. The model incorporates the relevant features of cloud geometry and solar position in relation to the observer appropriate to rainbows. The model helps explain why the bottom (or near-horizon portion) of the rainbow tends to be both brighter and redder than the top (or horizontal portion furthest above the ground) when the sun is near the horizon. The greater brightness of the bottom of the bow derives principally from the greater length of the directly illuminated part of the rainswath near the horizon, while the increased redness of the bow's bottom is due to the severe depletion of the short-wavelength contribution to the rainbow beam in its passage through the atmosphere. PMID:20396168

  17. Novel full color greenish-white-emitting SrBi()3∶Eu phosphor for white light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yufeng; Ding, Yanjun; Peng, Zhimin

    2014-01-01

    The full color greenish-white-emitting phosphors Eu-doped Sr3Bi( have been successfully synthesized by the conventional solid-state reaction, and its photoluminescence properties have been investigated for the first time. The emission spectra of Sr3Bi(∶Eu phosphors exhibit a greenish-white-emitting by combining blue, green, and red emissions, which are originated from the 5d→4f transition of the Eu. The excitation spectra reveal broad strong bands from 300 to 400 nm, which match well with the readily available emissions from near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode (LED) chips. The correlated color temperature, color rendering index (CRI), and Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates of the entitled phosphors excited by 330 and 365 nm are also investigated. The experimental results indicate that the Eu-doped Sr3Bi( phosphors are a promising innovative greenish-white-emitting phosphor for white LEDs.

  18. Cantharellus chicagoensis sp. nov. is supported by molecular and morphological analysis as a new yellow chanterelle in midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Leacock, Patrick R; Riddell, Jill; Wilson, Andrew W; Zhang, Rui; Ning, Chen; Mueller, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    Recent molecular systematic studies of Cantharellus cibarius sensu lato have revealed previously unknown species in different regions of North America. This study investigates yellow chanterelles in the Midwest using phylogenetic analysis of three DNA regions: nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and 28S sequences and translation elongation factor 1α gene (EF1α). This analysis reveals a locally common taxon Cantharellus chicagoensis sp. nov. as distinct from sympatric species present in northeastern Illinois, northwestern Indiana and Wisconsin. This chanterelle features a pileus that often has a greenish yellow margin when immature, a squamulose disk when mature, a yellow spore print and the absence of a fragrant odor. Multiple Cantharellus specimens group with C. flavus and C. phasmatis, expanding their known range, and others with C. roseocanus Our observations highlight the diversity of Cantharellus in midwestern USA and further document the need for additional systematic focus on the region's fungi. PMID:27153882

  19. A strongly greenish-blue-emitting Cu4Cl4 cluster with an efficient spin-orbit coupling (SOC): fast phosphorescence versus thermally activated delayed fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu-Lin; Yu, Rongmin; Wu, Xiao-Yuan; Liang, Dong; Jia, Ji-Hui; Lu, Can-Zhong

    2016-05-01

    In this communication, we report a new greenish-blue-emitting Cu(i) complex, Cu4Cl4(NP)2, a with high photoluminescence quantum yield of 90% and a short decay time of 9.9 μs. Due to the strong SOC combined with the small activation energy ΔEST, the emission at room temperature consists of approximately equivalent fast phosphorescence and TADF. PMID:27086679

  20. First Report of Soybean Yellow Mottle Mosaic Virus in Soybean in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) is a soybean-infecting virus recently described in Korea that initially induces bright yellow mosaic on leaves followed by stunting and reduced growth of older leaves. Nucleotide sequence analysis of genomic RNA of the Korean isolate of SYMMV suggested tha...

  1. Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is the most widespread and economically important virus disease of cereals. The viruses causing BYD were initially grouped based on common biological properties, including persistent and often strain-specific transmission by aphids and induction of yellowing symptoms. The...

  2. Brightness of Moonlight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garstang, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Measurement of the brightness of moonlight by comparison with lamp-light from a low wattage light bulb is an elementary project in astronomy which illustrates scientific principles for the freshman level. Two methods used for the comparison (shadow brightness method and grease spot method) are explained, with suggestions and expected answers. (DH)

  3. Simultaneous brightness contrast of foraging Papilio butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Takahashi, Yuki; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the sense of brightness in the foraging Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus. We presented two red discs of different intensity on a grey background to butterflies, and trained them to select one of the discs. They were successfully trained to select either a high intensity or a low intensity disc. The trained butterflies were tested on their ability to perceive brightness in two different protocols: (i) two orange discs of different intensity presented on the same intensity grey background and (ii) two orange discs of the same intensity separately presented on a grey background that was either higher or lower in intensity than the training background. The butterflies trained to high intensity red selected the orange disc of high intensity in protocol 1, and the disc on the background of low intensity grey in protocol 2. We obtained similar results in another set of experiments with purple discs instead of orange discs. The choices of the butterflies trained to low intensity red were opposite to those just described. Taken together, we conclude that Papilio has the ability to learn brightness and darkness of targets independent of colour, and that they have the so-called simultaneous brightness contrast. PMID:22179808

  4. [Physical and antioxidant characteristics of black (Brassica nigra) and yellow mustard (Brassica alba) seeds and their products].

    PubMed

    Mejia-Garibay, Beatriz; Guerrero-Beltrán, José Ángel; Palou, Enrique; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2015-06-01

    The composition, some physical properties (density, refraction index, and color), antioxidant capacity (DPPH), and fatty acid profile of seeds of black (Brassica nigra) or yellow mustard (Brassica alba) were evaluated, as well as for their oils and residues from oil extraction. Density of the black and yellow mustard oils were 0.912 ± 0.01 and 0.916 ± 0.01 g/mL, respectively; their refraction indexes were 1.4611 ± 0.01 and 1.4617 ± 0.01, respectively; being not significantly different (p > 0.05) between two mustards. Color parameters of the black and yellow mustard oils presented greenish-yellow tones and reddish-yellow tones, respectively; regarding antioxidant activities, these ranged from 25 mg equivalents of Trolox/100 gin the yellow mustard oil to 1,366 mg equivalents of Trolox/100 g in the residues from oil extraction of black seed mustard. The fatty acid profile of the black mustard seed revealed that its predomipant fatty acid is oleic (22.96%), followed by linoleic (6.63%) and linolenic (3.22%), whereas foryellow mustard seed the major fatty acid is erucic (6.87%), followed by oleic (5.08%) and linoleic (1.87%) acids. PMID:26817385

  5. Bright superior mirages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehn, Waldemar H.

    2003-01-01

    Superior mirages of unusual brightness are occasionally observed. Two such cases, photographed over the frozen surface of Lake Winnipeg, Canada, are documented. Visually, these mirages appear as featureless bright barriers far out on the lake. They are just images of the lake ice, yet the luminance in one case was 2.5 times (in the other, 1.7 times) the luminance of the ice surface in front of the mirage. The mirage itself can be modeled by means of a conduction inversion, but a proper explanation of the brightness is not yet available.

  6. Star Light, Star Bright.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iadevaia, David G.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a technique for obtaining a rough measure of the brightness among different stars. Materials needed include a standard 35-mm camera, a plastic ruler, and a photo enlarger. Although a telescope can be used, it is not essential. (JN)

  7. Yellow fever: an update.

    PubMed

    Monath, T P

    2001-08-01

    Yellow fever, the original viral haemorrhagic fever, was one of the most feared lethal diseases before the development of an effective vaccine. Today the disease still affects as many as 200,000 persons annually in tropical regions of Africa and South America, and poses a significant hazard to unvaccinated travellers to these areas. Yellow fever is transmitted in a cycle involving monkeys and mosquitoes, but human beings can also serve as the viraemic host for mosquito infection. Recent increases in the density and distribution of the urban mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, as well as the rise in air travel increase the risk of introduction and spread of yellow fever to North and Central America, the Caribbean and Asia. Here I review the clinical features of the disease, its pathogenesis and pathophysiology. The disease mechanisms are poorly understood and have not been the subject of modern clinical research. Since there is no specific treatment, and management of patients with the disease is extremely problematic, the emphasis is on preventative vaccination. As a zoonosis, yellow fever cannot be eradicated, but reduction of the human disease burden is achievable through routine childhood vaccination in endemic countries, with a low cost for the benefits obtained. The biological characteristics, safety, and efficacy of live attenuated, yellow fever 17D vaccine are reviewed. New applications of yellow fever 17D virus as a vector for foreign genes hold considerable promise as a means of developing new vaccines against other viruses, and possibly against cancers. PMID:11871403

  8. Bright patches on Ariel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Distinct bright patches are visible on Ariel, the brightest of Uranus' five largest satellites. Voyager 2 obtained this image Jan. 22, 1986, from a distance of 2.52 million kilometers (1.56 million miles). The clear-filter image, obtained with the narrow-angle camera, shows a resolution of 47 km (29 miles). Ariel is about 1,300 km (800 mi) in diameter. This image shows several distinct bright areas that reflect nearly 45 percent of the incident sunlight; on average, the satellite displays a reflectivity of about 25-30 percent. The bright areas are probably fresh water ice, perhaps excavated by impacts. The south pole of Ariel is slightly off center of the disk in this view. Voyager 2 will obtain its best views of the satellite on Jan. 24, at a closest-approach distance of 127,000 km (79,000 mi). The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  9. High Brightness Test Stand

    SciTech Connect

    Birx, D.L.; Caporaso, G.J.; Boyd, J.K.; Hawkins, S.A.; Poor, S.E.; Reginato, L.L.; Rogers, D. Jr.; Smith, M.W.

    1985-08-07

    The High Brightness Test Stand is a 2 MeV, less than or equal to 10 kA electron accelerator module. This accelerator module, designed as an upgrade prototype for the Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA), combines solid state nonlinear magnetic drives with state-of-the-art induction linac technology. The facility serves a dual role, as it not only provides a test bed for this new technology, but is used to develop high brightness electron optics. We will both further describe the accelerator, as well as present some of the preliminary electron optics measurements.

  10. Flower-like morphology of blue and greenish-gray ZnCoxAl2-xO4 nanopigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahba, Adel Maher; Imam, N. G.; Mohamed, Mohamed Bakr

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, ZnCoxAl2 - xO4 (x = 0.00-1.50) nanosized pigments were synthesized for the first time by citrate-precursor autocombustion method and heat treatment at 900 °C. In this new nanopigment system the vacancies participate in the spinel structure since the divalent cobalt ions substitute the trivalent Al ions. Structural, microstructural and optical properties were investigated using XRD, FTIR, TEM, HRSEM, XRF, and PL techniques. XRD and FTIR spectra proved the formation of a pure cubic spinel phase. Size of the synthesized nano-crystals ranges from 15 to 60 nm, which is further confirmed with TEM micrographs. HRSEM confirms the microporous nature with flower-like morphology of the prepared nanopigments. Cation distribution has been suggested for the whole samples that matches quite well with XRD and IR experimental data. PL results show that the ZnCoxAl2 - xO4 pigments have good potential for use as a yellow-orange phosphor for displays and/or white light-emitting diodes.

  11. Greenish-blue fluorescence of 6-(4-aminophenyl)-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methoxynicotinonitrile: Synthesis, spectroscopy, crystal structure, and fluorescence property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwunwong, T.; Chantrapromma, S.; Fun, H.-K.

    2015-12-01

    The title compound, C20H17N3O2, was synthesized by the cyclization of a chalcone derivative with malononitrile, and was characterized by 1H NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy techniques. The crystal structure was determined by single crystal X-ray structure determination. In the crystal packing, the molecules are linked by N-H···N hydrogen bonds forming a two dimensional network parallel to the (1 0-2) plane. The crystal structure is further stabilized by weak C-H···π interactions. The compound exhibits greenish-blue fluorescence in acetonitrile with an emission wavelength at 476 nm when was excited at 365 nm.

  12. Bright Fireball Over Georgia

    NASA Video Gallery

    A camera in Cartersville, Ga., captured this view of a bright fireball over Georgia on the night of Mar. 7, 2012, at approx. 10:19:11 EST. The meteor was first recorded at an altitude of 51.5 miles...

  13. Brightness predictions for comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Daniel W. E.; Marsden, Brian G.; Morris, Charles S.

    2001-02-01

    Daniel W E Green, Brian G Marsden and Charles S Morris write with the aim of illuminating the issue of cometary light curves and brightness predictions, following the publication in this journal last October of the letter by John McFarland (2000).

  14. A Bright Shining Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurowitz, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Sometimes students come up with crazy ideas. When this author first started teaching at Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology in Virginia five years ago, she had a sophomore share such an idea with her. He wanted to put solar panels on the school's roof as a way to reduce the school's carbon footprint and set a bright clean…

  15. Bright Streak on Amalthea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These two images of Jupiter's small, irregularly shaped moon Amalthea, obtained by the camera onboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft in August 1999(left) and November 1999 (right), form a 'stereo pair' that helps scientists determine this moon's shape and the topography of its surface features. Features as small as 3.8 kilometers (2.4 miles) across can be resolved in these images, making them among the highest-resolution images ever taken of Amalthea.

    The large impact crater visible in both images, near the right-hand edge of Amalthea's disk, is about 40 kilometers (about 29 miles) across; two ridges, tall enough to cast shadows, extend from the top of the crater in a V-shape reminiscent of a 'rabbit ears' television antenna. To the left of these ridges, in the top center portion of Amalthea's disk, is a second large impact crater similar in size to the first crater. To the left of this second crater is a linear 'streak' of relatively bright material about 50 kilometers (31 miles) long. In previous spacecraft images of Amalthea taken from other viewing directions, this bright feature was thought to be a small, round, bright 'spot' and was given the name Ida. These new images reveal for the first time that Ida is actually a long, linear 'streak.' This bright streak may represent material ejected during the formation of the adjacent impact crater, or it may just mark the crest of a local ridge. Other patches of relatively bright material can be seen elsewhere on Amalthea's disk, although none of these other bright spots has Ida's linear shape.

    In both images, sunlight is coming from the left and north is approximately up. Note that the north pole of Amalthea is missing in the right-hand image (it was cut off by the edge of the camera frame). The bright streak, Ida, is on the side of the moon that faces permanently away from Jupiter, and the crater near the right-hand edge of the disk is in the center of Amalthea's leading side (the side of the moon that 'leads

  16. Yellow leaf blotch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow leaf blotch occurs worldwide in temperate climates. The disease is reported from countries in Asia, Australasia, Oceania, Europe, North America, Central America, the West Indies, and South America. In the northern Great Plains of North America, it is often the major leaf disease on alfalfa....

  17. Barley Yellow Dwarf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley yellow dwarf is the most economically important virus disease affecting most cereal crops world wide. This manuscript summarizes the current knowledge of the disease etiology, epidemiology and management. This information is incorporated into the latest revision of the American Phytopathologi...

  18. New yellow-emitting phosphorescent cyclometalated iridium(III) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, P.; Tomova, R.; Petrova, P.; Stanimirov, S.; Petkov, I.

    2012-12-01

    We have synthesized a new yellow iridium complex Iridium(III) bis[2-phenylbenzothiazolato-N,C2']-(1-phenylicosane-1,3-dionate) (bt)2Ir(bsm), based on the benzothiazole derivative. The synthesized molecule was identified by 1H NMR and elemental analysis. The UV-Visible absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of (bt)Ir2(bsm) in CH2Cl2 solution were found at 273 nm and 559 nm, respectively. The complex was used as a dopant into a hole-transporting layer (HTL) in a multilayered organic light emitting device (OLED) structure: ITO/doped-HTL/EL/ETL/M. ITO was a transparent anode of In2O3:SnO2, M- a metallic Al cathode, HTL- 4,4'-bis(9H-carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) incorporated in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) matrix, EL- electroluminescent layer of bis(8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline)-(4-phenylphenoxy)aluminum (BAlq) and ETL- electron-transporting layer of tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum (Alq3). The electroluminescent (EL) spectra of OLEDs were basically the sum of the emissions of BAlq at 496 nm and the emission of (bt)2Ir(bsm) at 559 nm. With increasing (bt)2Ir(bsm) concentration, the relative electroluminescent intensity of greenish-blue emission (at 496 nm) decreased, while the yellow (at 559 nm) - increased and CIE coordinates of the device shifted from (0.21, 0.33) at 0 wt % to (0.40, 0.48) at 8 wt % of the dopant. It was found that OLED with 0.5 wt % (bt)2Ir(bsm) had the best performance and stable color chromaticity at various voltages.

  19. Bright field illumination system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Edward D. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A Bright Field Illumination system for inspecting a range of characteristically different kinds of defects, depressions, and ridges in a selected material surface. The system has an illumination source placed near a first focus of an elliptical reflector. In addition, a camera facing the inspected area is placed near the illumination source and the first focus. The second focus of the elliptical reflector is located at a distance approximately twice the elliptical reflector's distance above the inspected surface. The elliptical reflector directs the light from the source onto the inspected surface. Due to the shape of the elliptical reflector, light that is specularly reflected from the inspected surface is directed into the camera is which located at the position of the reflected second focus of the ellipse. This system creates a brightly lighted background field against which damage sites appear as high contrast dark objects which can be easily detected by a person or an automated inspection system. In addition, the Bright Field Illumination system and method can be used in combination with a vision inspection system providing for multiplexed illumination and data handling of multiple kinds of surface characteristics including abrupt and gradual surface variations and differences between measured characteristics of different kinds and prior instruments.

  20. Light Pollution and Night Sky Brightness at the Site of Kottamia Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawar, S.; Morcos, A. B.; Mikhail, J. S.

    1995-01-01

    Photoelectric measurements of the night sky brightness and the light pollution of Kottamia Observatory have been carried out and the deduced results are expressed in mag/sec2. The maximum brightness of the sky in the direction of Cairo city at zenith distance 45° and azimuth 70° when the sun is almost 60° below the horizon are 22.68; 21.54 and 19.82 mag/sec2 for blue, yellow and red colours respectively. The corresponding values of night sky background are 22.94; 21.85 and 20.14 mag/sec2 respectively. The isophotes of the sky brightness at Kottamia Observatory have been drawn for blue, yellow and red colours. The variations of the night sky brightness and the (B-V) colour index with altitude of the observed point have been studied. The light pollution and the night sky brightness at the site of Kottamia Observatory is compared with that deduced by different investigators at other sites. It has been shown that the sky brightness at zenith distance 45° at Kottamia Observatory site is similar to Kitt Peak and Palomar Observatory sites. Kottamia Observatory site is slightly brighter than Junipero Serra while it is darker than Mount Hamilton and San Jose sites. The comparative results have been carried out at blue and yellow colours. No comparison is obtained at red as there is no data published for the red colour.

  1. Large Bright Ripples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    3 February 2004 Wind is the chief agent of change on Mars today. Wind blows dust and it can move coarser sediment such as sand and silt. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows bright ripples or small dunes on the floors of troughs northeast of Isidis Planitia near 31.1oN, 244.6oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide; sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  2. Large, Bright Wind Ripples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-397, 20 June 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows large, relatively bright ripples of windblown sediment in the Sinus Sabaeus region south of Schiaparelli Basin. The surrounding substrate is thickly mantled by very dark material, possibly windblown silt that settled out of the atmosphere. The picture is located near 7.1oS, 343.7oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  3. Lightness, brightness, and anchoring.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barton L; Whitbread, Michael; de Silva, Chamila

    2014-01-01

    The majority of work in lightness perception has evaluated the perception of lightness using flat, matte, two-dimensional surfaces. In such contexts, the amount of light reaching the eye contains a conflated mixture of the illuminant and surface lightness. A fundamental puzzle of lightness perception is understanding how it is possible to experience achromatic surfaces as specific achromatic shades in the face of this ambiguity. It has been argued that the perception of lightness in such contexts implies that the visual system imposes an "anchoring rule" whereby a specific relative luminance (the highest) serves as a fixed point in the mapping of image luminance onto the lightness scale ("white"). We conducted a series of experiments to explicitly test this assertion in contexts where this mapping seemed most unlikely-namely, low-contrast images viewed in dim illumination. Our results provide evidence that the computational ambiguity in mapping luminance onto lightness is reflected in perceptual experience. The perception of the highest luminance in a two-dimensional Mondrian display varied monotonically with its brightness, ranging from midgray to white. Similar scaling occurred for the lowest luminance and, by implication, all other luminance values. We conclude that the conflation between brightness and lightness in two-dimensional Mondrian displays is reflected in perception and find no support for the claim that any specific relative luminance value acts as a fixed anchor point in this mapping function. PMID:25104828

  4. the sub-Plinian Greenish Pumice eruption (19,065±105 yr cal BP) of Mount Somma - Vesuvius. Geochemical and textural constrains.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdanowicz, Géraldine; Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Cioni, Raffaello; Mundula, Filippo; Orsi, Giovanni; Civetta, Lucia

    2016-04-01

    Researches are currently focused on large intensity and stable eruptive columns as for Plinian event. But the large variability in deposits issued from sub-Plinian eruptions needs more observations, theoretical and experimental investigations to be better described and enhances criteria of classification and the knowledge on processes at the origin of this unsteadiness of various timescales. Here, we focus on the well-known example of sub-Plinian eruption exhibiting by Mount Somma-Vesuvius: the Greenish Pumice eruption (GP). On the basis of coupled geochemical and textural analyses we investigate the volatile behavior (H2O, CO2 and halogen (F, Cl)) to better constrain (1) the magma reservoir location and pre-eruptive state and (2) the sub-Plinian eruptive style through a detailed study of the degassing processes in relation with the dynamic of the eruptive column. Results evidence that Cl act as a geobarometer for the trachytic-phonolitic melt involved during the eruption indicating that magma reservoir was at 100 MPa (Cl buffer value: 5300 ±130 ppm) and wholly H2O-saturated (pre-eruptive H2O content between 3.8 and 5.2 wt%). The eruption dynamic is clearly explained by open-system degassing processes responsible of the eruptive column instability, correlated to textural heterogeneities of the eruptive products reflecting conduit heterogeneity (smaller diameter and higher horizontal gradient in magma ascent velocity).

  5. Barley yellow dwarf viruses.

    PubMed

    Miller, W A; Rasochová, L

    1997-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf viruses represent one of the most economically important and ubiquitous groups of plant viruses. This review focuses primarily on four research areas in which progress has been most rapid. These include (a) evidence supporting reclassification of BYDVs into two genera; (b) elucidation of gene function and novel mechanisms controlling gene expression; (c) initial forays into understanding the complex interactions between BYDV virions and their aphid vectors; and (d) replication of a BYDV satellite RNA. Economic losses, symptomatology, and means of control of BYD are also discussed. PMID:15012520

  6. High brightness electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, Richard L.; Carlsten, Bruce E.; Young, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of acclerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electons as the electrons enter the first cavity.

  7. High brightness electron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1995-07-01

    High energy physics accelerators and free electron lasers put increased demands on the electron beam sources. This paper describes the present research on attaining intense bright electron beams using photoinjectors. Recent results from the experimental programs will be given. The performance advantages and difficulties presently faced by researchers will be discussed, and the following topics will be covered. Progress has been made in photocathode materials, both in lifetime and quantum efficiency. Cesium telluride has demonstrated significantly longer lifetimes than cesium antimonide at 10{sup {minus}8} torr. However, the laser system is more difficult because cesium telluride requires quadrupled YLF instead of the doubled YLF required for cesium antimonide. The difficulty in using photoinjectors is primarily the drive laser, in particular the amplitude stability. Finally, emittance measurements of photoinjector systems can be complicated by the non-thermal nature of the electron beam. An example of the difficulty in measuring beam emittance is given.

  8. Bright Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    9 June 2004 Martian dust devils sometimes disrupt thin coatings of surface dust to create dark streak patterns on the surface. However, not all dust devils make streaks, and not all dust devil streaks are dark. In Syria Planum, the streaks are lighter than the surrounding plains. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows an example from Syria near 8.8oS, 103.6oW. The thin coating of surface dust in this region is darker than the substrate beneath it. This is fairly unusual for Mars, because most dust is bright. This image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the left/lower left.

  9. Maximizing Brightness in Photoinjectors

    SciTech Connect

    Limborg-Deprey, C.; Tomizawa, H.; /JAERI-RIKEN, Hyogo

    2011-11-30

    If the laser pulse driving photoinjectors could be arbitrarily shaped, the emittance growth induced by space charge effects could be totally compensated for. In particular, for RF guns the photo-electron distribution leaving the cathode should have a 3D-ellipsoidal shape. The emittance at the end of the injector could be as small as the cathode emittance. We explore how the emittance and the brightness can be optimized for photoinjector based on RF gun depending on the peak current requirements. Techniques available to produce those ideal laser pulse shapes are also discussed. If the laser pulse driving photoinjectors could be arbitrarily shaped, the emittance growth induced by space charge effects could be totally compensated for. In particular, for RF guns, the photo-electron distribution leaving the cathode should be close to a uniform distribution contained in a 3D-ellipsoid contour. For photo-cathodes which have very fast emission times, and assuming a perfectly uniform emitting surface, this could be achieved by shaping the laser in a pulse of constant fluence and limited in space by a 3D-ellipsoid contour. Simulations show that in such conditions, with the standard linear emittance compensation, the emittance at the end of the photo-injector beamline approaches the minimum value imposed by the cathode emittance. Brightness, which is expressed as the ratio of peak current over the product of the two transverse emittance, seems to be maximized for small charges. Numerical simulations also show that for very high charge per bunch (10nC), emittances as small as 2 mm-mrad could be reached by using 3D-ellipsoidal laser pulses in an S-Band gun. The production of 3D-ellipsoidal pulses is very challenging, but seems worthwhile the effort. We briefly discuss some of the present ideas and difficulties of achieving such pulses.

  10. Yellow fever vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2014-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral communicable disease transmitted by an arbovirus of the Flavivirus genus. It is primarily a zoonotic disease, especially the monkeys. Worldwide, an estimated 200 000 cases of yellow fever occurred each year, and the case-fatality rate is ~15%. Forty-five endemic countries in Africa and Latin America, with a population of close to 1 billion, are at risk. Up to 50% of severely affected persons from YF die without treatment. During 2009, 55 cases and 18 deaths were reported from Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. Brazil reported the maximum number of cases and death, i.e., 42 cases with 11 deaths. From January 2010 to March 2011, outbreaks of YF were reported to the WHO by Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Senegal, and Uganda. Cases were also reported in three northern districts of Abim, Agago, and Kitugun near the border with South Sudan. YF usually causes fever, muscle pain with prominent backache, headache, shivers, loss of appetite, and nausea or vomiting. Most patients improve, and their symptoms disappear after 3 to 4 d. Half of the patients who enter the toxic phase die within 10–14 d, while the rest recover without significant organ damage. Vaccination has been the single most important measure for preventing YF. The 17D-204 YF vaccine is a freeze-dried, live attenuated, highly effective vaccine. It is available in single-dose or multi-dose vials and should be stored at 2–8 °C. It is reconstituted with normal saline and should be used within 1 h of reconstitution. The 0.5 mL dose is delivered subcutaneously. Revaccination is recommended every 10 y for people at continued risk of exposure to yellow fever virus (YFV). This vaccine is available worldwide. Travelers, especially to Africa or Latin America from Asia, must have a certificate documenting YF vaccination, which is required by certain countries for entry under the International Health Regulations (IHR) of the WHO. PMID

  11. Ceres' Yellow Spots - Observations with Dawn Framing Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Michael; Schäfer, Tanja; Cloutis, Edward A.; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Platz, Thomas; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Hoffmann, Martin; Thangjam, Guneshwar S.; Kneissl, Thomas; Nathues, Andreas; Mengel, Kurt; Williams, David A.; Kallisch, Jan; Ripken, Joachim; Russell, Christopher T.

    2016-04-01

    The Framing Camera (FC) onboard the Dawn spacecraft acquired several spectral data sets of (1) Ceres with increasing spatial resolution (up to 135 m/pixel with nearly global coverage). The FC is equipped with seven color filters (0.4-1.0 μm) plus one panchromatic ('clear') filter [1]. We produced spectral mosaics using photometrically corrected FC color filter images as described in [2]. Even early FC color mosaics obtained during Dawn's approach unexpectedly exhibited quite a diversity of surface materials on Ceres. Besides the ordinary cerean surface material, potentially composed of ammoniated phyllosilicates [3] or some other alteration product of carbonaceous chondrites [4], a large number of bright spots were found on Ceres [5]. These spots are substantially brighter than the average surface (exceeding its triple standard deviation), with the spots within Occator crater being the brightest and most prominent examples (reflectance more than 10 times the average of Ceres). We observed bright spots which are different by their obvious yellow color. This yellow color appears both in a 'true color' RGB display (R=0.65, G=0.55, B=0.44 μm) as well as in a false color display (R=0.97, G=0.75, B=0.44 μm) using a linear 2% stretch. Their spectra show a steep red slope between 0.44 and 0.55 μm (UV drop-off). On the contrary to these yellow spots, the vast majority of bright spots appears white in the aforementioned color displays and exhibit blue sloped spectra, except for a shallow UV drop-off. Thus, yellow spots are easily distinguishable from white spots and the remaining cerean surface by their high values in the ratio 0.55/0.44 μm. We found 8 occurrences of yellow spots on Ceres. Most of them (>70 individual spots) occur both inside and outside crater Dantu, where white spots are also found in the immediate vicinity. Besides Dantu, further occurrences with only a few yellow spots were found at craters Ikapati and Gaue. Less definite occurrences are found at 97

  12. A high brightness photoinjector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Sage, Gregory Peter

    Linear colliders, future electron acceleration schemes, and short pulse, ultrawideband millimeter-wave sources require very bright electron beams. Conventional electron injectors including thermionic cathodes and RF bunchers or DC guns have intrinsic limitations which preclude their usage for many of these applications. RF photoinjectors have shown their ability to produce relativistic electron beams with low emittance and energy spread. However, previously developed RF photoinjectors are also subject to significant limitations. These include extreme sensitivity to timing between the RF in the accelerator structure and the drive laser, low efficiency with respect to the number and charge of the electron bunches produced by the injector, and high cost associated with both the RF drive and laser systems. The presently described system has addressed these issues by combining state-of-the-art capabilities in the laser and RF systems, photocathode materials, and new concepts for synchronization. Phase jitter generated by sources including Klystron modulator voltage fluctuation has been measured in detail, and schemes for alleviating this problem have undergone initial proof-of-principle testing. New concepts for the drive laser system have been tested which will lead to further improvements in performance, simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and compactness. The analytical and experimental work associated with the development of a high brightness, high gradient electron accelerator is presented. The presentation emphasizes the systematic progress toward the original design goals of the project, as well as the state-of-the-art innovations characterizing the system. The linear electron accelerator system is based on a 1 1/2 cell side-wall coupled, π-mode standing wave accelerator structure, driven by a 20 MW SLAC Klystron operating at 8.548 GHz, a Ti:Sapphire laser oscillator, and an 8-pass, chirped pulse Ti:Sapphire laser amplifier. Simulations show an rms transverse

  13. How Bright Is the Sun?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berr, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    Presents a sequence of activities designed to allow eighth grade students to deal with one of the fundamental relationships that govern energy distribution. Activities guide students to measure light bulb brightness, discover the inverse square law, compare light bulb light to candle light, and measure sun brightness. (two references) (MCO)

  14. Brightness measurements on the Livermore high brightness test stand

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G.J.; Birx, D.L.

    1985-05-09

    Several techniques using small radius collimating pipes with and without axial magnetic fields to measure the brightness of an extracted 1 - 2 kA, 1 - 1.5 MeV electron beam will be described. The output beam of the High Brightness Test Stand as measured by one of these techniques is in excess of 2 x 10/sup 5/ amp/cm/sup 2//steradian. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Yellow Fever Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    David-West, Tam. S.; Smith, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    A sequential and quantitative survey of brain and liver of suckling mice for infective virus and complement-fixing antigen, after infection with yellow fever virus, showed that while there was progressive increase of infective virus content in both organs, only the brain showed a corresponding rise in CF antigen. Histopathological examination revealed that the liver was not significantly involved. The target organ was the brain, where the progressive pathological changes culminated in an acute encephalitis by the 3rd day of experiment. Organ destruction began with the molecular layer of the grey matter. But by the 4th day after infection the entire cerebral cortex was involved. At the initial stages the hippocampus was particularly affected. Tissue damage did not appear to be entirely due to the differential quantitative localization of infective virus. It was hypothesized that the CF antigen acting singly or in conjunction with some hypothetical proteins may be principally involved in the pathological outcome of the disease. ImagesFigs. 7-9Figs. 3-6 PMID:5582071

  16. Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using proteins crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the unexpected hypothesis that the virus releases its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have fairly flat coats, but in TYNV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early stuties of TYMV, but McPherson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central void on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides linked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the void. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine

  17. Asymmetries in blue-yellow color perception and in the color of 'the dress'.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Alissa D; Spillmann, Lothar; Werner, John S; Webster, Michael A

    2015-06-29

    The perception of color poses daunting challenges, because the light spectrum reaching the eye depends on both the reflectance of objects and the spectrum of the illuminating light source. Solving this problem requires sophisticated inferences about the properties of lighting and surfaces, and many striking examples of 'color constancy' illustrate how our vision compensates for variations in illumination to estimate the color of objects (for example [1-3]). We discovered a novel property of color perception and constancy, involving how we experience shades of blue versus yellow. We found that surfaces are much more likely to be perceived as white or gray when their color is varied along bluish directions, compared with equivalent variations along yellowish (or reddish or greenish) directions. This selective bias may reflect a tendency to attribute bluish tints to the illuminant rather than the object, consistent with an inference that indirect lighting from the sky and in shadows tends to be bluish. The blue-yellow asymmetry has striking effects on the appearance of images when their colors are reversed, turning white to yellow and silver to gold, and helps account for the variation among observers in the colors experienced in 'the dress' image that recently consumed the internet. Observers variously describe the dress as blue-black or white-gold, and this has been explained by whether the dress appears to be in direct lighting or shade (for example [5]). We show that these individual differences and potential lighting interpretations also depend on the special ambiguity of blue, for simply reversing the image colors causes almost all observers to report the lighter stripes as yellowish. PMID:25981792

  18. Smog Yellows Taj Mahal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Built as a monument to the favorite wife of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, the Taj Mahal has watched over the city of Agra, India, since the mid-seventeenth century with its pillars of gleaming white marble. By the spring of 2007, however, one of the world's most visited landmarks was turning yellow, and a panel of India's parliament had little trouble identifying the culprit: pollution. The panel blamed particles of soot and dirt suspended high in the atmosphere for the Taj Mahal's dinginess. The Taj Mahal's home, Agra, sits not far from the base of the Himalaya, and smog regularly collects along the southern side of the mountain range. On May 16, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the area around Agra, India. The closeup image shows the immediate vicinity of the Taj Majal. The larger image shows the surrounding area. In both pictures, dingy, gray-beige haze obscures the satellite's view of the land surface. India had tried to minimize the adverse impact of air pollution on the famous landmark. According to the BBC, in the late 1990s, India's Supreme Court ordered the closure of thousands of iron foundries and kilns that had belched smoke near the monument. Many of the 3 million tourists who visited the Taj Majal each year approached the monument on horse-drawn carriages or battery-operated buses as fossil-fuel-powered vehicles could not drive within 2 kilometers (1.5 miles). Since those efforts have failed to save the Taj Majal's complexion, Indian officials have considered applying a cleansing mud pack to the monument's surface to draw out the dirt. As India industrializes, smog results, and the Taj Mahal's gleaming whiteness is only one casualty. Pollution has been blamed for a decrease in Indian rice harvests, which had soared during the 'Green Revolution' of the 1960s and 1970s. Haze and dust also appear to bring on the region's monsoon rains earlier than normal.

  19. In Situ Mosaic Brightness Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert G.; Lorre, Jean J.

    2012-01-01

    In situ missions typically have pointable, mast-mounted cameras, which are capable of taking panoramic mosaics comprised of many individual frames. These frames are mosaicked together. While the mosaic software applies radiometric correction to the images, in many cases brightness/contrast seams still exist between frames. This is largely due to errors in the radiometric correction, and the absence of correction for photometric effects in the mosaic processing chain. The software analyzes the overlaps between adjacent frames in the mosaic and determines correction factors for each image in an attempt to reduce or eliminate these brightness seams.

  20. The EUVE bright source list

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroozas, B.; Mcdonald, K.; Antia, B.; Mcdonald, J.; Wiercigroch, A.

    1993-01-01

    Initial results for bright extreme ultraviolet sources discovered during the EUVE all-sky and deep ecliptic surveys have been published as a Bright Source List (BSL) and released to the astronomical community with a recent NASA research announcement (NRA 93-OSS-02, Appendix F). This paper describes the data processing software, the EUVE survey data set, and the production of the BSL at the Center for EUV Astrophysics. The contents, format, and selection criteria for sources, the data processing strategy, some problems encountered, and a summary of the BSL results are presented.

  1. Io's Sodium Cloud (Clear and Green-Yellow Filters)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The green-yellow filter and clear filter images of Io which were released over the past two days were originally exposed on the same frame. The camera pointed in slightly different directions for the two exposures, placing a clear filter image of Io on the top half of the frame, and a green-yellow filter image of Io on the bottom half of the frame. This picture shows that entire original frame in false color, the most intense emission appearing white.

    East is to the right. Most of Io's visible surface is in shadow, though one can see part of an illuminated crescent on its western side. The burst of white light near Io's eastern equatorial edge (most distinctive in the green filter image) is sunlight scattered by the plume of the volcano Prometheus.

    There is much more bright light near Io in the clear filter image, since that filter's wider wavelength range admits more scattered light from Prometheus' sunlit plume and Io's illuminated crescent. Thus in the clear filter image especially, Prometheus's plume was bright enough to produce several white spikes which extend radially outward from the center of the plume emission. These spikes are artifacts produced by the optics of the camera. Two of the spikes in the clear filter image appear against Io's shadowed surface, and the lower of these is pointing towards a bright round spot. That spot corresponds to thermal emission from the volcano Pele.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  2. Network based sky Brightness Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Dan; Pulvermacher, R.; Davis, D. R.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed and are currently testing an autonomous 2 channel photometer designed to measure the night sky brightness in the visual wavelengths over a multi-year campaign. The photometer uses a robust silicon sensor filtered with Hoya CM500 glass. The Sky brightness is measured every minute at two elevation angles typically zenith and 20 degrees to monitor brightness and transparency. The Sky Brightness monitor consists of two units, the remote photometer and a network interface. Currently these devices use 2.4 Ghz transceivers with a free space range of 100 meters. The remote unit is battery powered with day time recharging using a solar panel. Data received by the network interface transmits data via standard POP Email protocol. A second version is under development for radio sensitive areas using an optical fiber for data transmission. We will present the current comparison with the National Park Service sky monitoring camera. We will also discuss the calibration methods used for standardization and temperature compensation. This system is expected to be deployed in the next year and be operated by the International Dark Sky Association SKYMONITOR project.

  3. StarBright Learning Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinowski, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This article features StarBright Learning Exchange, a program that provides a cross-cultural exchange between Australian and South African early childhood educators. The program was originated when its president, Carol Allen, and her colleague, Karen Williams, decided that they could no longer sit by and watch the unfolding social catastrophe that…

  4. Bright Transients discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Young, D. R.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-08-01

    Six bright transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  5. Bright Transients discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Denneau, L.; Stalder, B.; Heinze, A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-04-01

    Seven bright transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  6. Teradiode's high brightness semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Robin K.; Chann, Bien; Burgess, James; Lochman, Bryan; Zhou, Wang; Cruz, Mike; Cook, Rob; Dugmore, Dan; Shattuck, Jeff; Tayebati, Parviz

    2016-03-01

    TeraDiode is manufacturing multi-kW-class ultra-high brightness fiber-coupled direct diode lasers for industrial applications. A fiber-coupled direct diode laser with a power level of 4,680 W from a 100 μm core diameter, <0.08 numerical aperture (NA) output fiber at a single center wavelength was demonstrated. Our TeraBlade industrial platform achieves world-record brightness levels for direct diode lasers. The fiber-coupled output corresponds to a Beam Parameter Product (BPP) of 3.5 mm-mrad and is the lowest BPP multi-kW-class direct diode laser yet reported. This laser is suitable for industrial materials processing applications, including sheet metal cutting and welding. This 4-kW fiber-coupled direct diode laser has comparable brightness to that of industrial fiber lasers and CO2 lasers, and is over 10x brighter than state-of-the-art direct diode lasers. We have also demonstrated novel high peak power lasers and high brightness Mid-Infrared Lasers.

  7. Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, C P; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

    2014-01-01

    Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

  8. Blackberry Yellow Vein Disease Complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new virus disease has emerged in the Midsouth and Southeastern United States and was named blackberry yellow vein disease (BYVD). Originally, it was thought the disease was caused by Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) as the virus was found in many diseased plants and symptoms were very similar to thos...

  9. Yellow flowers generated by expression of the aurone biosynthetic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Eiichiro; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Nakamura, Noriko; Fukui, Yuko; Yonekura-Sakakibara, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Masaatsu; Nakayama, Toru; Tanaka, Takaharu; Kusumi, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-01

    Flower color is most often conferred by colored flavonoid pigments. Aurone flavonoids confer a bright yellow color on flowers such as snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) and dahlia (Dahlia variabilis). A. majus aureusidin synthase (AmAS1) was identified as the key enzyme that catalyzes aurone biosynthesis from chalcones, but transgenic flowers overexpressing AmAS1 gene failed to produce aurones. Here, we report that chalcone 4′-O-glucosyltransferase (4′CGT) is essential for aurone biosynthesis and yellow coloration in vivo. Coexpression of the Am4′CGT and AmAS1 genes was sufficient for the accumulation of aureusidin 6-O-glucoside in transgenic flowers (Torenia hybrida). Furthermore, their coexpression combined with down-regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in yellow flowers. An Am4′CGT-GFP chimeric protein localized in the cytoplasm, whereas the AmAS1(N1-60)-RFP chimeric protein was localized to the vacuole. We therefore conclude that chalcones are 4′-O-glucosylated in the cytoplasm, their 4′-O-glucosides transported to the vacuole, and therein enzymatically converted to aurone 6-O-glucosides. This metabolic pathway is unique among the known examples of flavonoid, including anthocyanin biosynthesis because, for all other compounds, the carbon backbone is completed before transport to the vacuole. Our findings herein not only demonstrate the biochemical basis of aurone biosynthesis but also open the way to engineering yellow flowers for major ornamental species lacking this color variant. PMID:16832053

  10. Analysis of visual perception of light emitting diode brightness in dense fog with various droplet sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, Bobsy Arief; Nakashima, Yoshio; Takamatsu, Mamoru

    2008-05-01

    Road signs must provide a conspicuous signal to a wide variety of drivers over a broad range of environmental and geometric conditions. Recently, there are an increasing number of applications in which light emitting diodes (LEDs) are used as the light source, including critical transportation signaling. In the presence of fog, the resulting visual signal is disturbed due to light scattering by airborne water droplets. By measuring LED brightness with human spectral sensitivity in various densities and various droplet sizes (10, 30, 50, and 100 μm), it is understood that the particle size distribution (fog droplet size) and density of fog does affect visibility in fog. The colored LEDs that contain a yellow component had high brightness evaluation, blue component had low brightness evaluation in all densities and different droplet sizes. The result in this paper can contribute to air and land traffic safety and the prevention of accidents.

  11. Differential color brightness as a body orientation cue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbour, Christopher G.; Coss, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    Ninety male and female college students reclining on their backs in the dark were disoriented when positioned on a rotating platform under a slowly rotating disk that filled their entire visual field. Half of the disk was painted with a brighter value (about 69 percent higher luminance level) of the color on the other half. The effects of red, blue, and yellow were examined. Subjects wearing frosted goggles viewed the illuminated disk for three rotations. The disk was stopped when the subjects felt that they were right side up. A significant proportion of subjects selected the disk position in which the brighter side of each of the three colors filled their upper visual field. These results suggest that color brightness as well as lighting variation could provide Space Station crew members with body orientation cues as they move around.

  12. Brightness-equalized quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U.; Le, Phuong; Ma, Liang; Entenberg, David; Harney, Allison S.; Condeelis, John; Smith, Andrew M.

    2015-10-01

    As molecular labels for cells and tissues, fluorescent probes have shaped our understanding of biological structures and processes. However, their capacity for quantitative analysis is limited because photon emission rates from multicolour fluorophores are dissimilar, unstable and often unpredictable, which obscures correlations between measured fluorescence and molecular concentration. Here we introduce a new class of light-emitting quantum dots with tunable and equalized fluorescence brightness across a broad range of colours. The key feature is independent tunability of emission wavelength, extinction coefficient and quantum yield through distinct structural domains in the nanocrystal. Precise tuning eliminates a 100-fold red-to-green brightness mismatch of size-tuned quantum dots at the ensemble and single-particle levels, which substantially improves quantitative imaging accuracy in biological tissue. We anticipate that these materials engineering principles will vastly expand the optical engineering landscape of fluorescent probes, facilitate quantitative multicolour imaging in living tissue and improve colour tuning in light-emitting devices.

  13. Low-brightness quantum radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco

    2015-05-01

    One of the major scientific thrusts from recent years has been to try to harness quantum phenomena to dramatically increase the performance of a wide variety of classical information processing devices. These advances in quantum information science have had a considerable impact on the development of standoff sensors such as quantum radar. In this paper we analyze the theoretical performance of low-brightness quantum radar that uses entangled photon states. We use the detection error probability as a measure of sensing performance and the interception error probability as a measure of stealthiness. We compare the performance of quantum radar against a coherent light sensor (such as lidar) and classical radar. In particular, we restrict our analysis to the performance of low-brightness standoff sensors operating in a noisy environment. We show that, compared to the two classical standoff sensing devices, quantum radar is stealthier, more resilient to jamming, and more accurate for the detection of low reflectivity targets.

  14. Brightness-equalized quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U.; Le, Phuong; Ma, Liang; Entenberg, David; Harney, Allison S.; Condeelis, John; Smith, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    As molecular labels for cells and tissues, fluorescent probes have shaped our understanding of biological structures and processes. However, their capacity for quantitative analysis is limited because photon emission rates from multicolour fluorophores are dissimilar, unstable and often unpredictable, which obscures correlations between measured fluorescence and molecular concentration. Here we introduce a new class of light-emitting quantum dots with tunable and equalized fluorescence brightness across a broad range of colours. The key feature is independent tunability of emission wavelength, extinction coefficient and quantum yield through distinct structural domains in the nanocrystal. Precise tuning eliminates a 100-fold red-to-green brightness mismatch of size-tuned quantum dots at the ensemble and single-particle levels, which substantially improves quantitative imaging accuracy in biological tissue. We anticipate that these materials engineering principles will vastly expand the optical engineering landscape of fluorescent probes, facilitate quantitative multicolour imaging in living tissue and improve colour tuning in light-emitting devices. PMID:26437175

  15. A New Sky Brightness Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, David L.; McKenna, D.

    2006-12-01

    A good estimate of sky brightness and its variations throughout the night, the months, and even the years is an essential bit of knowledge both for good observing and especially as a tool in efforts to minimize sky brightness through local action. Hence a stable and accurate monitor can be a valuable and necessary tool. We have developed such a monitor, with the financial help of Vatican Observatory and Walker Management. The device is now undergoing its Beta test in preparation for production. It is simple, accurate, well calibrated, and automatic, sending its data directly to IDA over the internet via E-mail . Approximately 50 such monitors will be ready soon for deployment worldwide including most major observatories. Those interested in having one should enquire of IDA about details.

  16. Iapetus Bright and Dark Terrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Saturn's outermost large moon, Iapetus, has a bright, heavily cratered icy terrain and a dark terrain, as shown in this Voyager 2 image taken on August 22, 1981. Amazingly, the dark material covers precisely the side of Iapetus that leads in the direction of orbital motion around Saturn (except for the poles), whereas the bright material occurs on the trailing hemisphere and at the poles. The bright terrain is made of dirty ice, and the dark terrain is surfaced by carbonaceous molecules, according to measurements made with Earth-based telescopes. Iapetus' dark hemisphere has been likened to tar or asphalt and is so dark that no details within this terrain were visible to Voyager 2. The bright icy hemisphere, likened to dirty snow, shows many large impact craters. The closest approach by Voyager 2 to Iapetus was a relatively distant 600,000 miles, so that our best images, such as this, have a resolution of about 12 miles. The dark material is made of organic substances, probably including poisonous cyano compounds such as frozen hydrogen cyanide polymers. Though we know a little about the dark terrain's chemical nature, we do not understand its origin. Two theories have been developed, but neither is fully satisfactory--(1) the dark material may be organic dust knocked off the small neighboring satellite Phoebe and 'painted' onto the leading side of Iapetus as the dust spirals toward Saturn and Iapetus hurtles through the tenuous dust cloud, or (2) the dark material may be made of icy-cold carbonaceous 'cryovolcanic' lavas that were erupted from Iapetus' interior and then blackened by solar radiation, charged particles, and cosmic rays. A determination of the actual cause, as well as discovery of any other geologic features smaller than 12 miles across, awaits the Cassini Saturn orbiter to arrive in 2004.

  17. High-brightness multilaser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Douglas S.; Gordon, Wayne L.; Jollay, Richard A.; Roblee, Jeffrey W.; Gavrilovic, Paul; Kuksenkov, Dmitri V.; Goyal, Anish K.; Zu, Qinxin

    1999-04-01

    This paper discusses a high-brightness multi-laser source developed at Polaroid for such applications as coupling light to fibers, pumping fiber lasers, pumping solid state lasers, material processing, and medical procedures. The power and brightness are obtained by imaging the nearfields of up to eight separate multi-mode lasers side by side on a multi-faceted mirror that makes the beams parallel. The lasers are microlensed to equalize the divergences in the two principal meridians. Each laser is aligned in a field- replaceable illuminator module whose output beam, focused at infinity, is bore-sighted in a mechanical cylinder. The illuminators are arranged roughly radially and the nearfields are reimaged on the mirror, which is produced by diamond machining. The array of nearfields is linearly polarized. A customizable afocal relay forms a telecentric image of the juxtaposed nearfields, as required by the application. The lasers can be of differing powers and wavelengths, and they can be independently switched. Light from other sources can be combined. The output can be utilized in free space or it can be coupled into a fiber for transport or a fiber laser for pumping. A linearly polarized free space output can be obtained, which allows two units to be polarization combined to double the power and brightness.

  18. LSST Site: Sky Brightness Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Jamison; Claver, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is an upcoming robotic survey telescope. At the telescope site on Cerro Pachon in Chile there are currently three photodiodes and a Canon camera with a fisheye lens, and both the photodiodes and Canon monitor the night sky continuously. The NIST-calibrated photodiodes directly measure the flux from the sky, and the sky brightness can also be obtained from the Canon images via digital aperture photometry. Organizing and combining the two data sets gives nightly information of the development of sky brightness across a swath of the electromagnetic spectrum, from blue to near infrared light, and this is useful for accurately predicting the performance of the LSST. It also provides data for models of moonlight and twilight sky brightness. Code to accomplish this organization and combination was successfully written in Python, but due to the backlog of data not all of the nights were processed by the end of the summer.Burke was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  19. A series of color tunable yellow-orange-red-emitting SrWO4:RE (Sm3+, Eu3+-Sm3+) phosphor for near ultraviolet and blue light-based warm white light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yandong; Liu, Yonghao; Yang, Rui

    2016-03-01

    A series of wide-range-tunable light emissive SrWO4:Sm3+, SrWO4:Sm3+,Eu3+ phosphors were synthesized via the simple co-precipitation method. The charge compensation can greatly improve SrWO4: Sm3+ phosphors luminous intensity. The critical distance, ηT and energy transfer mechanism of SrWO4:0.01Sm3+,0.12Eu3+ were studied. These obtained phosphors exhibit a high luminous efficiency, purity and lower color temperature of the comfortable warm white LEDs. Hues varying have been generated by appropriately tuning the Sm3+ ions concentration, excitation wavelength or Sm3+, Eu3+ co-doping, which have the color tunable wide gamut light covering the yellow-green, greenish-yellow, yellow, yellow orange, orange, reddish orange and red chromaticity region. In particular, SrWO4:0.01Sm3+,0.12Eu3+ phosphors excited at 404 and 480 nm have higher color saturation than commercially available Y2O2S:Eu3+ red phosphor. These phosphors can be excited efficiently using commercial ultraviolet, blue laser diodes and LEDs, and can be used for developing new color light sources, fluorescent display devices, ultraviolet-sensors and tunable visible lasers.

  20. High brightness beams and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes the present research on attaining intense bright electron beams. Thermionic systems are briefly covered. Recent and past results from the photoinjector programs are given. The performance advantages and difficulties presently faced by researchers using photoinjectors is discussed. The progress that has been made in photocathode materials, both in lifetime and quantum efficiency, is covered. Finally, a discussion of emittance measurements of photoinjector systems and how the measurement is complicated by the non-thermal nature of the electron beam is presented.

  1. HUBBLE FINDS MANY BRIGHT CLOUDS ON URANUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A recent Hubble Space Telescope view reveals Uranus surrounded by its four major rings and by 10 of its 17 known satellites. This false-color image was generated by Erich Karkoschka using data taken on August 8, 1998, with Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer. Hubble recently found about 20 clouds - nearly as many clouds on Uranus as the previous total in the history of modern observations. The orange-colored clouds near the prominent bright band circle the planet at more than 300 mph (500 km/h), according to team member Heidi Hammel (MIT). One of the clouds on the right-hand side is brighter than any other cloud ever seen on Uranus. The colors in the image indicate altitude. Team member Mark Marley (New Mexico State University) reports that green and blue regions show where the atmosphere is clear and sunlight can penetrate deep into Uranus. In yellow and grey regions the sunlight reflects from a higher haze or cloud layer. Orange and red colors indicate very high clouds, such as cirrus clouds on Earth. The Hubble image is one of the first images revealing the precession of the brightest ring with respect to a previous image [LINK to PRC97-36a]. Precession makes the fainter part of the ring (currently on the upper right-hand side) slide around Uranus once every nine months. The fading is caused by ring particles crowding and hiding each other on one side of their eight-hour orbit around Uranus. The blue, green and red components of this false-color image correspond to exposures taken at near-infrared wavelengths of 0.9, 1.1, and 1.7 micrometers. Thus, regions on Uranus appearing blue, for example, reflect more sunlight at 0.9 micrometer than at the longer wavelengths. Apparent colors on Uranus are caused by absorption of methane gas in its atmosphere, an effect comparable to absorption in our atmosphere which can make distant clouds appear red. Credit: Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona) and NASA

  2. Very high brightness diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, Stefan; Lewis, Ben; Michaelis, Karsten; Schmidt, Torsten

    2012-03-01

    Multiple Single Emitter (MSE) modules allow highest power and highest brightness diode lasers based on standard broad area diodes. 12 single emitters, each rated at 11 W, are stacked in fast axis and with polarization multiplexing 200W are achieved in a fully collimated beam with a beam quality of 7mm*mrad in both axes. Volume Bragg Gratings (VBG) stabilize the wavelength and narrow the linewidth to less than 2nm. Dichroic mirrors are used for dense wavelength multiplexing of 4 channels within 12 nm. 400W are measured from a 0.2 mm fiber, 0.1 NA. Control and drive electronics are integrated into the 200 W platform and represent a basic building block for a variety of applications, such as a flexible turn key system comprising 12 MSE modules. An integrated beam switch directs the light in six 100 μm, or in one 0.2 mm and one 0.1 mm fiber. 800W are measured from the six 0.1 mm fibers and 700W from the 0.2 mm fiber. The technologies can be transferred to other wavelengths to include 793 nm and 1530 nm. Narrow line gratings and optimized spectral combining enable further improvements in spectral brightness and power.

  3. Yellow nails following hemodialysis in chronic renal failure: is it yellow nail syndrome or a variant?

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vandana; Vasanth, Vani; Balachandran, C

    2008-01-01

    Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is triad of yellow nails, lymphedema, and respiratory tract involvement. The exact pathogenesis of nail changes in YNS is unknown. We present a case of yellow nails and localized lymphedema secondary to artificial AV fistula in a 55-year-old chronic renal failure patient on hemodialysis for 5 years. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of yellow nail syndrome reported in association with artificial AV fistula. PMID:19094857

  4. Flesh color inheritance and gene interactions among canary yellow, pale yellow and red watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two loci, C and i-C were previously reported to determine flesh color between canary yellow and red watermelon. Recently LCYB was found as a color determinant gene for canary yellow (C) and co-dominant CAPS marker was developed to identify canary yellow and red alleles. Another report suggested th...

  5. [Yellow fever epidemiology in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mondet, B

    2001-08-01

    We have carried out a meticulous time-space-analysis of the incidence of yellow fever in humans in Brazil from 1954 to 1972 and especially from 1973 to 1999. This study has added to our knowledge of the epidemiology of yellow fever and enabled us to redefine epidemiological zones and determine their geographical limits. The endemic area is located within the Amazon basin; here cases are scattered and generally limited in number. However, there are also "foci of endemic emergence" within this area, where cases are less rare, although occurrence remains irregular. The epidemic area is for the most part situated outside the Amazon basin, to the north east and particularly to the south. It has been divided into two parts according to whether the occurrence of yellow fever is cyclic or sporadic. The epidemics, which are all sylvatic, follow either a circular path (in the forest area) or a linear path (in forest-galleries of the savannah area). The study of the development of the 3 main epidemics (1972-74; 1979-82; 1986-92) in the cyclic emergence area showed that, on each occasion, the yellow fever virus appeared at a particularly active outbreak site located in the "serra dos Carajás", and from there, it followed the courses of the Tocantins and Araguaia rivers upstream, moving southwards during the "pre-epidemic phase" which may be visible due to the occurrence of a few cases, or may remain invisible. Subsequently the virus reached the emergence area, where it appeared in the form of epidemics. In this zone, it also followed privileged south-western pathways, moving from one hydraulic basin to another along the upstream courses of the rivers. Almost exactly the same pathways have been identified for each of the 3 epidemics studied. The distances travelled by the virus over a period of one year--when it goes rapidly--can reach several hundred kilometers. On the other hand, it may be stationary for a period of one or two consecutive years, occasionally three, remaining

  6. How Bright Can Supernovae Get?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    Supernovae enormous explosions associated with the end of a stars life come in a variety of types with different origins. A new study has examined how the brightest supernovae in the Universe are produced, and what limits might be set on their brightness.Ultra-Luminous ObservationsRecent observations have revealed many ultra-luminous supernovae, which haveenergies that challenge our abilities to explain them usingcurrent supernova models. An especially extreme example is the 2015 discovery of the supernova ASASSN-15lh, which shone with a peak luminosity of ~2*1045 erg/s, nearly a trillion times brighter than the Sun. ASASSN-15lh radiated a whopping ~2*1052 erg in the first four months after its detection.How could a supernova that bright be produced? To explore the answer to that question, Tuguldur Sukhbold and Stan Woosley at University of California, Santa Cruz, have examined the different sources that could produce supernovae and calculated upper limits on the potential luminosities ofeach of these supernova varieties.Explosive ModelsSukhbold and Woosley explore multiple different models for core-collapse supernova explosions, including:Prompt explosionA stars core collapses and immediately explodes.Pair instabilityElectron/positron pair production at a massive stars center leads to core collapse. For high masses, radioactivity can contribute to delayed energy output.Colliding shellsPreviously expelled shells of material around a star collide after the initial explosion, providing additional energy release.MagnetarThe collapsing star forms a magnetar a rapidly rotating neutron star with an incredibly strong magnetic field at its core, which then dumps energy into the supernova ejecta, further brightening the explosion.They then apply these models to different types of stars.Setting the LimitThe authors show that the light curve of ASASSN-15lh (plotted in orange) can be described by a model (black curve) in which a magnetar with an initial spin period of 0.7 ms

  7. [Bright light therapy for elderly].

    PubMed

    Okawa, Masako

    2015-06-01

    Bright light therapy (BLT) holds considerable promise for sleep problems in the elderly. BLT for community-dwelling patients with Alzheimer's disease showed significant improvement in sleep parameters. In the institutional setting, BLT was effective in reducing daytime nap duration. Morning BLT was found to advance the peak circadian rhythm and increase activity level in daytime and melatonin level at night. Light therapy could be used in combination with other nonpharmacological methods such as social activities, outside walking, physical exercises, which showed greater effects than independent BLT on sleep and cognitive function. BLT treatment strategy was proposed in the present paper. We should pay more attentions to BLT in community setting for mental and physical well-being. PMID:26065132

  8. Color tunable green-yellow-orange-red erbium/europium codoped fluorolead germanate glass phosphor for application in LED illumination technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia-Neto, Artur S.; Souza, Wellington S.; Domingues, Renata O.; da Costa, Ernande B.; Bueno, Luciano A.

    2013-03-01

    Color tunable wide gamut light covering the greenish, yellow-green, yellow, orange, and reddish tone chromaticity region in europium/erbium co-doped lead-cadmium-germanate PbGeO3:PbF2:CdF2 glass phosphor is presented. The phosphors were synthesized, and their light emission properties examined under UV/blue light-emitting-diode excitation. Luminescence emission around 525, 550, 590, 610, and 660 nm was obtained and analyzed as a function of Eu/Er concentration, excitation wavelength, and glass host composition. The color tunability was actually obtained via proper combination of Er3+ and Eu3+ active ions concentration. The combination of the emission tone with a blue LED in the region of 400-460 nm, yields a mixture of light with color in the white-light region presenting a CCT in the range of 2000 to 4000 K. Results indicate that the color-tunable fluorolead germanate erbium/europium co-doped glass phosphor herein reported is a promising novel contender for application in LED-based solid-state illumination technology

  9. Epidemiology of Blackberry yellow vein associated virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberry yellow vein disease is one of the most important diseases of blackberry in the United States. Several viruses are found associated with the symptomology but Blackberry yellow vein associated virus (BYVaV) appears to be the most prevalent of all, leading to the need for a better understand...

  10. Yellow Fever Outbreak, Southern Sudan, 2003

    PubMed Central

    Onyango, Clayton O.; Grobbelaar, Antoinette A.; Gibson, Georgina V.F.; Sang, Rosemary C.; Sow, Abdourahmane; Swanepoel, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In May 2003, an outbreak of fatal hemorrhagic fever, caused by yellow fever virus, occurred in southern Sudan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus belonged to the East African genotype, which supports the contention that yellow fever is endemic in East Africa with the potential to cause large outbreaks in humans. PMID:15498174

  11. Control strategies for yellow nutsedge and nightshade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow nutsedge is a perennial weed that is difficult to control in several crops once established. It is particularly problematic in onion production. Yellow nutsedge reproduces and is dispersed primarily by tubers that are formed at the apical ends of underground rhizomes. Tubers may remain viable...

  12. History of Epidemiological Aspects of Yellow Fever

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Wilbur G.

    1982-01-01

    This review attempts to follow the trail of the development of epidemiological aspects and concepts of yellow fever and yellow fever transmission (vectors, vertebrate hosts, spacing of epidemic outbreaks) with less emphasis on well-documented early history and more emphasis on epidemiological problems still remaining, plus discussion of possible means of resolving certain of these problems. PMID:6758368

  13. PROSPECTIVE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS FOR YELLOW STARTHISTLE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow starthistle is an important alien weed that has invaded 20 million acres in the western U.S. Yellow starthistle is spiny plant that interferes with grazing livestock and outdoors recreation, it is fatally poisonous to horses, and it outcompetes desirable vegetation. Previously released agen...

  14. Adjusting the tasseled cap brightness and greenness factors for atmospheric path radiance and absorption on a pixel by pixel basis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, R. D.; Slater, P. N.; Pinter, P. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A radiative transfer model was used to convert ground measured reflectances into the radiance at the top of the atmosphere, for several levels of atmospheric path radiance. The radiance in MSS7 (0.8 to 1.1 m) was multiplied by the transmission fraction for atmospheres having different levels of precipitable water. The radiance values were converted to simulated LANDSAT digital counts for four path radiance levels and four levels of precipitable water. These values were used to calculate the Kauth-Thomas brightness, greenness, yellowness, and nonsuch factors. Brightness was affected by surface conditions and path radiance. Greenness was affected by surface conditions, path radiance, and precipitable water. Yellowness was affected by path radiance and nonsuch by precipitable water, and both factors changed only slightly with surface conditions. Yellowness and nonsuch were used to adjust brightness and greenness to produce factors that were affected only by surface conditions such as soils and vegetation, and not by path radiance and precipitable water.

  15. Quantum communication with macroscopically bright nonclassical states.

    PubMed

    Usenko, Vladyslav C; Ruppert, Laszlo; Filip, Radim

    2015-11-30

    We analyze homodyne detection of macroscopically bright multimode nonclassical states of light and propose their application in quantum communication. We observe that the homodyne detection is sensitive to a mode-matching of the bright light to the highly intense local oscillator. Unmatched bright modes of light result in additional noise which technically limits detection of Gaussian entanglement at macroscopic level. When the mode-matching is sufficient, we show that multimode quantum key distribution with bright beams is feasible. It finally merges the quantum communication with classical optical technology of visible beams of light. PMID:26698776

  16. Properties of Photospheric Bright Points outside Sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, H. X.; Yang, Y. F.; Feng, S.; Wang, F.; Deng, H.; Ji, K. F.

    2015-09-01

    Photospheric bright points are tiny bright features located in intergranular lanes. They are widely believed as the foot points of magnetic flux tubes. In this paper, various properties of bright points outside NOAA 11598 sunspots are analyzed using the TiO-band data detected by the 1-m New Vacuum Solar Telescope of Yunnan Observatories, which is located at the Fuxian Solar Physics Observing Station, Yunnan Province. We divide the periphery of the sunspot into four annular regions based on the dilation technology of image morphology. Then, a Laplacian and morphological dilation algorithm is used to identify bright points, and a three-dimensional segment algorithm is applied to track the evolution of bright points. Finally, we detect the parameters of the bright points in the four annular regions, including the density, intensity, size, shape, and velocity. Statistical results show that the density, size, and velocity of photospheric bright points are obviously affected by the strong magnetic fields of sunspots, and their peak values are in the second region instead of the closest region of the sunspot. The bright points decrease their densities and sizes, but increase their velocities with the distance away from the sunspot center. Additionally, the maximum intensity contrast presents the decreasing trend. However, the bright point shapes are basically invariant, and independent of this distance.

  17. Experimental therapies for yellow fever.

    PubMed

    Julander, Justin G

    2013-02-01

    A number of viruses in the family Flaviviridae are the focus of efforts to develop effective antiviral therapies. Success has been achieved with inhibitors for the treatment of hepatitis C, and there is interest in clinical trials of drugs against dengue fever. Antiviral therapies have also been evaluated in patients with Japanese encephalitis and West Nile encephalitis. However, no treatment has been developed against the prototype flavivirus, yellow fever virus (YFV). Despite the availability of the live, attenuated 17D vaccine, thousands of cases of YF continue to occur each year in Africa and South America, with a significant mortality rate. In addition, a small number of vaccinees develop severe systemic infections with the 17D virus. This paper reviews current efforts to develop antiviral therapies, either directly targeting the virus or blocking detrimental host responses to infection. PMID:23237991

  18. [Pleuritis in yellow nail syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kossakowski, C A; Schmiegelow, P; Müller, K-M

    2012-03-01

    A 76-year-old man presented clinically with coughing and shortness of breath and was diagnosed radiologically to have massive pleural effusion as a combined feature of yellow nail syndrome. A lung biopsy was taken and revealed histologically: chronic non-specific inflammation in the pleuropulmonary border, intrapleural edema with eightfold pleural thickening in comparison to normal, angiogenesis in both the nutritive and functional intrapleural blood vessels, no abnormalities of lymphatic vessels with normal topographical distribution as detected by immunohistochemistry for antibody D2-40, granulomatous chronic foreign body reaction as a consequence of pleural effusion therapy by talcum pleurodesis.The histopathological findings of chronic non-specific pleuritis with angiogenesis and increased permeability of blood vessels led to massive intrapleural edema with pleural effusion. Abnormalities of lymphatic vessels could not be confirmed. Considering the features of this disease, they are probably secondary to chronic r infectious or immunological inflammation or paraneoplastic complications with angiogenesis (in about 19%). PMID:22048329

  19. Spatial Brightness Perception of Trichromatic Stimuli

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, Michael P.; Houser, Kevin W.

    2012-11-16

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of tuning optical radiation on brightness perception for younger (18-25 years of age) and older (50 years of age or older) observers. Participants made forced-choice evaluations of the brightness of a full factorial of stimulus pairs selected from two groups of four metameric stimuli. The large-field stimuli were created by systematically varying either the red or the blue primary of an RGB LED mixture. The results indicate that light stimuli of equal illuminance and chromaticity do not appear equally bright to either younger or older subjects. The rank-order of brightness is not predicted by any current model of human vision or theory of brightness perception including Scotopic to Photopic or Cirtopic to Photopic ratio theory, prime color theory, correlated color temperature, V(λ)-based photometry, color quality metrics, linear brightness models, or color appearance models. Age may affect brightness perception when short-wavelength primaries are used, especially those with a peak wavelength shorter than 450 nm. The results suggest further development of metrics to predict brightness perception is warranted, and that including age as a variable in predictive models may be valuable.

  20. Incoherently coupled dark-bright photorefractive solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhigang; Segev, Mordechai; Coskun, Tamer H.; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Afanasjev, Vsevolod V.

    1996-11-01

    We report the observation of incoherently coupled dark-bright spatial soliton pairs in a biased bulk photorefractive crystal. When such a pair is decoupled, the dark component evolves into a triplet structure, whereas the bright one decays into a self-defocusing beam.

  1. Bright Star Astrometry with URAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, N.

    2015-10-01

    The U.S. Naval Observatory Robotic Astrometric Telescope (URAT) is observing the northern sky since April 2012 for an astrometric survey. Multiple overlaps per year are performed in a single bandpass (680-750 nm) using the "redlens" 20 cm aperture astrograph and a mosaic of large CCDs. Besides the regular, deep survey to magnitude 18.5, short exposures with an objective grating are taken to access stars as bright as 3rd magnitude. A brief overview of the program, observing and reductions is given. Positions on the 8 to 20 mas level are obtained of 66,202 Hipparcos stars at current epochs. These are compared to the Hipparcos Catalog to investigate its accuracy. About 20% of the observed Hipparcos stars are found to have inconsistent positions with the Hipparcos Catalog prediction on the 3 sigma level or over (about 75 mas or more discrepant position offsets). Some stars are now seen at an arcsec (or 25 sigma) off their Hipparcos Catalog predicted position.

  2. Brightness alteration with interweaving contours

    PubMed Central

    Roncato, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Chromatic induction is observed whenever the perceived colour of a target surface shifts towards the hue of a neighbouring surface. Some vivid manifestations may be seen in a white background where thin coloured lines have been drawn (assimilation) or when lines of different colours are collinear (neon effect) or adjacent (watercolour) to each other. This study examines a particular colour induction that manifests in concomitance with an opposite effect of colour saturation (or anti-spread). The two phenomena can be observed when a repetitive pattern is drawn in which outline thin contours intercept wider contours or surfaces, colour spreading appear to fill the surface occupied by surfaces or thick lines whereas the background traversed by thin lines is seen as brighter or filled of a saturated white. These phenomena were first observed by Bozzi (1975) and Kanizsa (1979) in figural conditions that did not allow them to document their conjunction. Here we illustrate various manifestations of this twofold phenomenon and compare its effects with the known effects of brightness and colour induction. Some conjectures on the nature of these effects are discussed. PMID:23483806

  3. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION Host-free, yellow phosphorescent material in white organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Meng-Ting; Chu, Miao-Tsai; Lin, Jin-Sheng; Tseng, Mei-Rurng

    2010-11-01

    A white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) with a high power efficiency has been demonstrated by dispersing a host-free, yellow phosphorescent material in between double blue phosphorescent emitters. The device performance achieved a comparable value to that of using a complicated host-guest doping system to form the yellow emitter in WOLEDs. Based on this device concept as well as the molecular engineering of blue phosphorescent host material and light-extraction film, a WOLED with a power efficiency of 65 lm W-1 at a practical brightness of 1000 cd m-2 with Commission Internationale d'Echariage coordinates (CIEx,y) of (0.37, 0.47) was achieved.

  4. A clinicopathological study of human yellow fever*

    PubMed Central

    Francis, T. I.; Moore, D. L.; Edington, G. M.; Smith, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    During an epidemic of yellow fever in the Jos Plateau area of Nigeria, 9 adult males with clinically diagnosed yellow fever were studied by haematological, biochemical, virological, serological, and liver biopsy methods. The ages of the patients ranged from 20 to 55 years and the duration of illness was 3-62 days. No virus was isolated from any patient but all patients should biochemical evidence of severe hepatocellular damage. Leucopenia was a feature of the late acute stage of the disease. Five sera had antibodies to yellow fever at titres greater than 1: 32, 3 of them being monospecific for yellow fever. The classical histological features of yellow fever were present only in the acute or late acute stages, when complement-fixation tests may be negative. With convalescence and the production of complement-fixing antibodies in high titres, the histological features resembled those of a persisting nonspecific hepatitis. In an endemic area, the histological features of yellow fever will depend on the stage of the disease and a picture of nonspecific hepatitis would not exclude yellow fever in the absence of confirmation from serological tests. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2AFig. 2BFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4538039

  5. Cortical processing of a brightness illusion

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Anna Wang; Lu, Haidong D.; Hung, Chou P.

    2005-01-01

    Several brightness illusions indicate that borders can affect the perception of surfaces dramatically. In the Cornsweet illusion, two equiluminant surfaces appear to be different in brightness because of the contrast border between them. Here, we report the existence of cells in monkey visual cortex that respond to such an “illusory” brightness. We find that luminance responsive cells are located in color-activated regions (cytochrome oxidase blobs and bridges) of primary visual cortex (V1), whereas Cornsweet responsive cells are found preferentially in the color-activated regions (thin stripes) of second visual area (V2). This colocalization of brightness and color processing within V1 and V2 suggests a segregation of contour and surface processing in early visual pathways and a hierarchy of brightness information processing from V1 to V2 in monkeys. PMID:15738406

  6. Function of bright coloration in the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi (Araneae: Araneidae).

    PubMed

    Bush, Alex A; Yu, Douglas W; Herberstein, Marie E

    2008-06-01

    There are two major competing explanations for the counter-intuitive presence of bright coloration in certain orb-web spiders. Bright coloration could lure insect prey to the web vicinity, increasing the spider's foraging success. Alternatively, the markings could function as disruptive camouflage, making it difficult for the insect prey to distinguish spiders from background colour variation. We measured the prey capture rates of wasp spiders, Argiope bruennichi, that were blacked out, shielded from view using a leaf fragment, or left naturally coloured. Naturally coloured spiders caught over twice the number of prey as did either blacked-out or leaf-shielded spiders, and almost three times as many orthopteran prey. Spectrophotometer measurements suggest that the bright yellow bands on the spider's abdomen are visible to insect prey, but not the banding on the legs, which could disguise the spider's outline. Thus, our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that bright coloration in the wasp spider acts as a visual lure for insect prey and weak support for the hypothesis that the arrangement of the banding pattern across the spider's body disguises the presence of the spider on the web. PMID:18331982

  7. Function of bright coloration in the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi (Araneae: Araneidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Alex A; Yu, Douglas W; Herberstein, Marie E

    2008-01-01

    There are two major competing explanations for the counter-intuitive presence of bright coloration in certain orb-web spiders. Bright coloration could lure insect prey to the web vicinity, increasing the spider's foraging success. Alternatively, the markings could function as disruptive camouflage, making it difficult for the insect prey to distinguish spiders from background colour variation. We measured the prey capture rates of wasp spiders, Argiope bruennichi, that were blacked out, shielded from view using a leaf fragment, or left naturally coloured. Naturally coloured spiders caught over twice the number of prey as did either blacked-out or leaf-shielded spiders, and almost three times as many orthopteran prey. Spectrophotometer measurements suggest that the bright yellow bands on the spider's abdomen are visible to insect prey, but not the banding on the legs, which could disguise the spider's outline. Thus, our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that bright coloration in the wasp spider acts as a visual lure for insect prey and weak support for the hypothesis that the arrangement of the banding pattern across the spider's body disguises the presence of the spider on the web. PMID:18331982

  8. Bright Streaks and Dark Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The south polar region of Mars is covered every year by a layer of carbon dioxide ice. In a region called the 'cryptic terrain,' the ice is translucent and sunlight can penetrate through the ice to warm the surface below.

    The ice layer sublimates (evaporates) from the bottom. The dark fans of dust seen in this image come from the surface below the layer of ice, carried to the top by gas venting from below. The translucent ice is 'visible' by virtue of the effect it has on the tone of the surface below, which would otherwise have the same color and reflectivity as the fans.

    Bright streaks in this image are fresh frost. The CRISM team has identified the composition of these streaks to be carbon dioxide.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_003113_0940 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 26-Mar-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.8 degrees latitude, 106.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 244.9 km (153.0 miles). At this distance the image scale is 49.0 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects 147 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 50 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:20 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 79 degrees, thus the sun was about 11 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 207.6 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  9. Bright Sparks of Our Future!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riordan, Naoimh

    2016-04-01

    My name is Naoimh Riordan and I am the Vice Principal of Rockboro Primary School in Cork City, South of Ireland. I am a full time class primary teacher and I teach 4th class, my students are aged between 9-10 years. My passion for education has developed over the years and grown towards STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) subjects. I believe these subjects are the way forward for our future. My passion and beliefs are driven by the unique after school programme that I have developed. It is titled "Sparks" coming from the term Bright Sparks. "Sparks" is an after school programme with a difference where the STEM subjects are concentrated on through lessons such as Science, Veterinary Science Computer Animation /Coding, Eco engineering, Robotics, Magical Maths, Chess and Creative Writing. All these subjects are taught through activity based learning and are one-hour long each week for a ten-week term. "Sparks" is fully inclusive and non-selective which gives all students of any level of ability an opportunity to engage into these subjects. "Sparks" is open to all primary students in County Cork. The "Sparks" after school programme is taught by tutors from the different Universities and Colleges in Cork City. It works very well because the tutor brings their knowledge, skills and specialised equipment from their respective universities and in turn the tutor gains invaluable teaching practise, can trial a pilot programme in a chosen STEM subject and gain an insight into what works in the physical classroom.

  10. 35. Ca. 1930 historic view facing northeast, showing Yellow Mill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Ca. 1930 historic view facing northeast, showing Yellow Mill Bridge and inset showing former ca. 1901 Yellow Mill Bridge. Photo located at the Bridgeport Public Library, Bridgeport, CT. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  11. A Comprehensive Evaluation of Yellow-flowering Magnolias

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of yellow-flowering magnolias were evaluated for flower color, bloom duration and growth rate in USDA Hardiness Zone 6b. All selections were reported to have yellow blooms; however, tepal color in this test ranged from light pink with some yellow coloration to dark yellow. The darkest...

  12. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  13. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  14. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  15. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  16. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  17. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  18. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  19. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  20. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  1. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  2. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  3. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  4. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  5. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  6. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  7. Teachable Fiction Comes to Yellow Sky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tietz, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Proposes that teachable fiction is efficient, strategically sound, and very visual. Analyzes Stephen Crane's "The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky" to show it fulfills these three characteristics. Suggests the story should be taught later in the semester. (PM)

  8. Is the Yellow Light Long Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salow, Robert; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes an activity to determine whether the length of the yellow (warning) signal of a traffic light provides adequate time to stop or pass through the intersection. Discusses the necessary equations, mathematics, and subsequent graphs. (MVL)

  9. Lost Trust: A Yellow Fever Patient Response

    PubMed Central

    Runge, John S.

    2013-01-01

    In the 19th century, yellow fever thrived in the tropical, urban trade centers along the American Gulf Coast. Industrializing and populated, New Orleans and Memphis made excellent habitats for the yellow fever-carrying Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the virulence they imparted on their victims. Known for its jaundice and black, blood-filled vomit, the malady terrorized the region for decades, sometimes claiming tens of thousands of lives during the near annual summertime outbreaks. In response to the failing medical community, a small, pronounced population of sick and healthy laypeople openly criticized the efforts to rid the Gulf region of yellow jack. Utilizing newspapers and cartoons to vocalize their opinions, these critics doubted and mocked the medical community, contributing to the regional and seasonal dilemma yellow fever posed for the American South. These sentient expressions prove to be an early example of patient distrust toward caregivers, a current problem in clinical heath care. PMID:24348220

  10. Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using protein crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the enexpected hypothesis that the virus release its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have farly flat coats, but in TYMV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early studies of TYMV, but McPhereson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central viod on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides liked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the voild. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine.

  11. The influence of depicted illumination on brightness

    PubMed Central

    Williams, S. Mark; McCoy, Allison N.; Purves, Dale

    1998-01-01

    The striking illusions produced by simultaneous brightness contrast generally are attributed to the center-surround receptive field organization of lower order neurons in the primary visual pathway. Here we show that the apparent brightness of test objects can be either increased or decreased in a predictable manner depending on how light and shadow are portrayed in the scene. This evidence suggests that perceptions of brightness are generated empirically by experience with luminance relationships, an idea whose implications we pursue in the accompanying paper. PMID:9789082

  12. Evidence for the contribution of S cones to the detection of flicker brightness and red-green.

    PubMed

    Teufel, H J; Wehrhahn, C

    2000-06-01

    We were interested in the question of how cones contribute to the detection of brightness, red-green, and blue-yellow. The linear combination of cone signals contributing to flicker detection was determined by fitting a plane to 64 points (colors) of equal heterochromatic flicker brightness. A small S-cone contribution to flicker brightness of similar amplitude in all five subjects was identified. The ratio of L- to M-cone contribution was found to vary considerably among subjects (1.7-4.1). Chromatic detection thresholds were determined for small patches in the isoluminant plane defined by flicker brightness. These stimuli were presented at an eccentricity of 40 arc min. By using color naming at the detection threshold, one can attribute different segments of the resulting detection ellipses to different chromatic mechanisms. Linear approximation of these segments provided an estimate for the contribution of the different cone types to the detection of red-green and blue-yellow. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that S cones contribute to the red-green mechanism with the same sign as that of the contribution from L cones. The blue-yellow mechanism very probably subtracts S-cone contrast from luminance contrast. The detection ellipse can be mapped into a circle in cone difference space. The base of this canonical transformation is a set of three cone fundamentals that differs from previously published estimates. Projecting the circle onto the three cone difference axes produces sinusoidal changes within the respective excitations. We propose that simultaneous sinusoidal changes of equal increment in the three cone difference excitations generate stimuli differing by equal saliency. PMID:10850469

  13. The solar brightness temperature at millimeter wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuseski, R. A.; Swanson, P. N.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of the brightness temperature of the sun near 36 GHz and 93 GHz were made using the new moon as a calibration source. Provided the brightness temperature of the moon is known and all measurements are reduced to the same zenith angle, a simple expression can be used for the sun-to-new moon ratio which is independent of antenna gain, atmospheric absorption and reemission, and radiometer calibration constants. This ratio was measured near 36 GHz and at two frequencies near 93 GHz with a Dicke switched superheterodyne radiometer system and a 2.4 m Cassegrain antenna. The slopes of the solar brightness temperature spectrum based on these ratios were measured. The absolute solar brightness spectrum derived from all current available measurements supplemented by the present ones is also plotted and discussed.

  14. Just How Bright Is a Laser?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Baak, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to quantify the subjective sensation of brightness of the spot projected by a helium-neon laser and compares this with conventional sources of light. Provides an exercise in using the blackbody radiation formulas. (JRH)

  15. New Observations of Subarcsecond Photospheric Bright Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, T. E.; Schrijver, C. J.; Shine, R. A.; Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. M.; Scharmer, G.

    1995-01-01

    We have used an interference filter centered at 4305 A within the bandhead of the CH radical (the 'G band') and real-time image selection at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope on La Palma to produce very high contrast images of subarcsecond photospheric bright points at all locations on the solar disk. During the 6 day period of 15-20 Sept. 1993 we observed active region NOAA 7581 from its appearance on the East limb to a near-disk-center position on 20 Sept. A total of 1804 bright points were selected for analysis from the disk center image using feature extraction image processing techniques. The measured FWHM distribution of the bright points in the image is lognormal with a modal value of 220 km (0.30 sec) and an average value of 250 km (0.35 sec). The smallest measured bright point diameter is 120 km (0.17 sec) and the largest is 600 km (O.69 sec). Approximately 60% of the measured bright points are circular (eccentricity approx. 1.0), the average eccentricity is 1.5, and the maximum eccentricity corresponding to filigree in the image is 6.5. The peak contrast of the measured bright points is normally distributed. The contrast distribution variance is much greater than the measurement accuracy, indicating a large spread in intrinsic bright-point contrast. When referenced to an averaged 'quiet-Sun' area in the image, the modal contrast is 29% and the maximum value is 75%; when referenced to an average intergranular lane brightness in the image, the distribution has a modal value of 61% and a maximum of 119%. The bin-averaged contrast of G-band bright points is constant across the entire measured size range. The measured area of the bright points, corrected for pixelation and selection effects, covers about 1.8% of the total image area. Large pores and micropores occupy an additional 2% of the image area, implying a total area fraction of magnetic proxy features in the image of 3.8%. We discuss the implications of this area fraction measurement in the context of

  16. New Observations of Subarcsecond Photospheric Bright Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, T. E.; Schrijver, C. J.; Shine, R. A.; Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. M.; Scharmer, G.

    1995-01-01

    We have used an interference filter centered at 4305 A within the bandhead of the CH radical (the 'G band') and real-time image selection at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope on La Palma to produce very high contrast images of subarcsecond photospheric bright points at all locations on the solar disk. During the 6 day period of 1993 September 15-20 we observed active region NOAA 7581 from its appearance on the East limb to a near-disk-center position on September 20. A total of 1804 bright points were selected for analysis from the disk center image using feature extraction image processing techniques. The measured Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) distribution of the bright points in the image is lognormal with a modal value of 220 km (0 sec .30) and an average value of 250 km (0 sec .35). The smallest measured bright point diameter is 120 km (0 sec .17) and the largest is 600 km (O sec .69). Approximately 60% of the measured bright points are circular (eccentricity approx. 1.0), the average eccentricity is 1.5, and the maximum eccentricity corresponding to filigree in the image is 6.5. The peak contrast of the measured bright points is normally distributed. The contrast distribution variance is much greater than the measurement accuracy, indicating a large spread in intrinsic bright-point contrast. When referenced to an averaged 'quiet-Sun' area in the image, the modal contrast is 29% and the maximum value is 75%; when referenced to an average intergranular lane brightness in the image, the distribution has a modal value of 61% and a maximum of 119%. The bin-averaged contrast of G-band bright points is constant across the entire measured size range. The measured area of the bright points, corrected for pixelation and selection effects, covers about 1.8% of the total image area. Large pores and micropores occupy an additional 2% of the image area, implying a total area fraction of magnetic proxy features in the image of 3.8%. We discuss the implications of this

  17. Several evolutionary channels for bright planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richer, Michael G.; McCall, Marshall L.

    2016-08-01

    The populations of bright planetary nebulae in the discs of spirals appear to differ in their spectral properties from those in ellipticals and the bulges of spirals. The bright planetary nebulae from the bulge of the Milky Way are entirely compatible with those observed in the discs of spiral galaxies. The similarity might be explained if the bulge of the Milky Way evolved secularly from the disc, in which case the bulge should be regarded as a pseudo-bulge.

  18. Observations and diagnostics in high brightness beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cianchi, A.; Anania, M. P.; Bisesto, F.; Castellano, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.

    2016-09-01

    The brightness is a figure of merit largely used in the light sources, like FEL (Free Electron Lasers), but it is also fundamental in several other applications, as for instance Compton backscattering sources, beam driven plasma accelerators and THz sources. Advanced diagnostics are essential tools in the development of high brightness beams. 6D electron beam diagnostics will be reviewed with emphasis on emittance measurement.

  19. Energy-exchange collisions of dark-bright-bright vector solitons.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, R; Manikandan, N; Aravinthan, K

    2015-12-01

    We find a dark component guiding the practically interesting bright-bright vector one-soliton to two different parametric domains giving rise to different physical situations by constructing a more general form of three-component dark-bright-bright mixed vector one-soliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with nine free real parameters. Moreover our main investigation of the collision dynamics of such mixed vector solitons by constructing the multisoliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with the help of Hirota technique reveals that the dark-bright-bright vector two-soliton supports energy-exchange collision dynamics. In particular the dark component preserves its initial form and the energy-exchange collision property of the bright-bright vector two-soliton solution of the Manakov model during collision. In addition the interactions between bound state dark-bright-bright vector solitons reveal oscillations in their amplitudes. A similar kind of breathing effect was also experimentally observed in the Bose-Einstein condensates. Some possible ways are theoretically suggested not only to control this breathing effect but also to manage the beating, bouncing, jumping, and attraction effects in the collision dynamics of dark-bright-bright vector solitons. The role of multiple free parameters in our solution is examined to define polarization vector, envelope speed, envelope width, envelope amplitude, grayness, and complex modulation of our solution. It is interesting to note that the polarization vector of our mixed vector one-soliton evolves in sphere or hyperboloid depending upon the initial parametric choices. PMID:26764780

  20. Energy-exchange collisions of dark-bright-bright vector solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, R.; Manikandan, N.; Aravinthan, K.

    2015-12-01

    We find a dark component guiding the practically interesting bright-bright vector one-soliton to two different parametric domains giving rise to different physical situations by constructing a more general form of three-component dark-bright-bright mixed vector one-soliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with nine free real parameters. Moreover our main investigation of the collision dynamics of such mixed vector solitons by constructing the multisoliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with the help of Hirota technique reveals that the dark-bright-bright vector two-soliton supports energy-exchange collision dynamics. In particular the dark component preserves its initial form and the energy-exchange collision property of the bright-bright vector two-soliton solution of the Manakov model during collision. In addition the interactions between bound state dark-bright-bright vector solitons reveal oscillations in their amplitudes. A similar kind of breathing effect was also experimentally observed in the Bose-Einstein condensates. Some possible ways are theoretically suggested not only to control this breathing effect but also to manage the beating, bouncing, jumping, and attraction effects in the collision dynamics of dark-bright-bright vector solitons. The role of multiple free parameters in our solution is examined to define polarization vector, envelope speed, envelope width, envelope amplitude, grayness, and complex modulation of our solution. It is interesting to note that the polarization vector of our mixed vector one-soliton evolves in sphere or hyperboloid depending upon the initial parametric choices.

  1. The Sky Brightness Data Archive (SBDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, Eric R.; Craine, Erin M.; Craine, Brian L.

    2011-05-01

    Although many astronomers have long been sensitive to issues of light pollution and deteriorating sky quality it is only in recent years that such interest has extended to other groups including, among others, ecologists, health professionals, and urban planners. Issues of light pollution and loss of dark skies are starting to appear in the scientific literature in the context of health and behavior impacts on both human and animal life. Nonetheless, a common deficiency in most such studies is the absence of historical or baseline data against which to compare sky brightness trends and temporal changes. To address this deficiency we have begun to collect a variety of types of quantitative sky brightness data for insertion in an international sky brightness archive that can be accessed for research projects which are dependent upon an understanding of the nature of local light pollution issues. To aid this process we have developed a mobile sky brightness meter which automatically logs sky brightness and observation location. The device can be stationary for long periods of time or can be easily transported for continuous sky brightness measurement from ground vehicles, boats, or aircraft. The sampling rate is typically about 0.25Hz. We present here examples of different modes of sky brightness measurement, various means of displaying and analyzing such data, ways to interpret natural astronomical phenomena apparent in the data, and suggest a number of complementary scientific projects that may capture the interest of both professional and amateur scientists. Finally, we discuss the status of the archive and ways that potential contributors may submit their observations for publication in the archive.

  2. Microwave Brightness Temperatures of Tilted Convective Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Ye; Haferman, Jeffrey L.; Olson, William S.; Kummerow, Christian D.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft and ground-based radar data from the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled-Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) show that convective systems are not always vertical. Instead, many are tilted from vertical. Satellite passive microwave radiometers observe the atmosphere at a viewing angle. For example, the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) on Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites and the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) on the TRMM satellite have an incident angle of about 50deg. Thus, the brightness temperature measured from one direction of tilt may be different than that viewed from the opposite direction due to the different optical depth. This paper presents the investigation of passive microwave brightness temperatures of tilted convective systems. To account for the effect of tilt, a 3-D backward Monte Carlo radiative transfer model has been applied to a simple tilted cloud model and a dynamically evolving cloud model to derive the brightness temperature. The radiative transfer results indicate that brightness temperature varies when the viewing angle changes because of the different optical depth. The tilt increases the displacements between high 19 GHz brightness temperature (Tb(sub 19)) due to liquid emission from lower level of cloud and the low 85 GHz brightness temperature (Tb(sub 85)) due to ice scattering from upper level of cloud. As the resolution degrades, the difference of brightness temperature due to the change of viewing angle decreases dramatically. The dislocation between Tb(sub 19) and Tb(sub 85), however, remains prominent.

  3. Genetic engineering of yellow betalain pigments beyond the species barrier

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsuka, Takashi; Yamada, Eri; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Imamura, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Mariko; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Tsujimura, Ikuko; Saito, Misa; Sakamoto, Yuichi; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Nishihara, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Betalains are one of the major plant pigment groups found in some higher plants and higher fungi. They are not produced naturally in any plant species outside of the order Caryophyllales, nor are they produced by anthocyanin-accumulating Caryophyllales. Here, we attempted to reconstruct the betalain biosynthetic pathway as a self-contained system in an anthocyanin-producing plant species. The combined expressions of a tyrosinase gene from shiitake mushroom and a DOPA 4,5-dioxygenase gene from the four-o'clock plant resulted in successful betalain production in cultured cells of tobacco BY2 and Arabidopsis T87. Transgenic tobacco BY2 cells were bright yellow because of the accumulation of betaxanthins. LC-TOF-MS analyses showed that proline-betaxanthin (Pro-Bx) accumulated as the major betaxanthin in these transgenic BY2 cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis T87 cells also produced betaxanthins, but produced lower levels than transgenic BY2 cells. These results illustrate the success of a novel genetic engineering strategy for betalain biosynthesis. PMID:23760173

  4. Genetic engineering of yellow betalain pigments beyond the species barrier.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Takashi; Yamada, Eri; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Imamura, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Mariko; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Tsujimura, Ikuko; Saito, Misa; Sakamoto, Yuichi; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Nishihara, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Betalains are one of the major plant pigment groups found in some higher plants and higher fungi. They are not produced naturally in any plant species outside of the order Caryophyllales, nor are they produced by anthocyanin-accumulating Caryophyllales. Here, we attempted to reconstruct the betalain biosynthetic pathway as a self-contained system in an anthocyanin-producing plant species. The combined expressions of a tyrosinase gene from shiitake mushroom and a DOPA 4,5-dioxygenase gene from the four-o'clock plant resulted in successful betalain production in cultured cells of tobacco BY2 and Arabidopsis T87. Transgenic tobacco BY2 cells were bright yellow because of the accumulation of betaxanthins. LC-TOF-MS analyses showed that proline-betaxanthin (Pro-Bx) accumulated as the major betaxanthin in these transgenic BY2 cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis T87 cells also produced betaxanthins, but produced lower levels than transgenic BY2 cells. These results illustrate the success of a novel genetic engineering strategy for betalain biosynthesis. PMID:23760173

  5. Auroral bright spots on the dayside oval

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, A.T.Y. ); Venkatesan, D.; Murphree, J.S. )

    1989-05-01

    Global auroral images from the ultraviolet imager on the Viking spacecraft are used to investigate spatially periodic bright spots on the dayside auroral oval that resemble beads on a string. The newly achieved temporal resolution of 1 min. or less in monitoring worldwide auroral distributions by the Viking imager contributes significant to the capability of observing this phenomenon. It is found that these are frequently seen in the 1,400-1,600 MLT sector. The series of bright spots are not, however, limited to this unique local time sector, since they are seen to extend into the prenoon sector on some occasions. They occur often during substorm intervals but are also seen unaccompanied by substorm activities in the nightside. There is neither a consistent north-south nor east-west direction of motion for all the dayside bright spots observed so far. The observation of the time scales for the transient intensifications of bright spots and the lack of consistent directions of their motion are consistent with the characteristics expected from the suggestion that these bright spots are related to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability occurring within the magnetosphere.

  6. Selective myelosuppression following yellow phosphorus ingestion.

    PubMed

    Basheer, Aneesh; Mookkappan, Sudhagar; Padhi, Somanath; Iqbal, Nayyar

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity from accidental and intentional ingestion of yellow phosphorus, ubiquitously present in fireworks and rodenticides, has recently become more frequent. Gastrointestinal, renal, neurologic, and cardiovascular manifestations are common, with mortality of 23 per cent to 73 per cent. Reports of haematological abnormalities are rare. We report only the second case of severe neutropenia secondary to selective myelosuppression in a 14-year-old girl following intentional ingestion of yellow phosphorus. Leucocyte counts recovered spontaneously without further complications. Our case indicates that, besides hepatic and renal function monitoring, physicians should meticulously monitor blood counts in such cases for early detection of marrow suppression. Further studies are required to elucidate the complex mechanisms and significance of this unusual toxicity of yellow phosphorus. PMID:25848404

  7. Increasing use of yellow colors in Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akita, Munehira; Nara, Iwao

    2002-06-01

    Colors used for commercial signboards, displayed outdoors as well as indoors through windows, such as a store sign, an advertising sign, a sky sign, a poster, a placard, and a billboard were extensively surveyed in Kyoto City, Japan, in 1998. The survey showed that various kinds of yellow painted signs have increased rapidly and invaded a center area and suburbs of the city. Vivid yellow, what we called it the Y98 virus, is specially considered a color unpleasantly matched to the city image of Kyoto which was the capital of Japan for nearly 1000 years (794 to 1868) and is endowed with cultural and historic heritage. Discussions trying to find out what we could do to prevent the rapid spread of a big commercial display painted with vivid yellows what we called 'the Y98 virus' over the city will be summarized in a main text.

  8. Spectroscopic Surface Brightness Fluctuations: Amplifying Bright Stars in Unresolved Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitzkus, M.; Dreizler, S.; Roth, M. M.

    2015-08-01

    We report on our early-stage efforts to resolve the Surface Brightness Fluctuations (SBFs) in the spectral dimension. Combining the diagnostic power of SBFs with the physical information content of spectra seems a tempting possibility to gain new insights into the bright stars in unresolved stellar populations. The new VLT integral field spectrograph MUSE is the first instrument that enables spectroscopic SBFs observationally.

  9. Yellow fever vaccination in the Americas.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Outbreaks of yellow fever in recent years in the Americas have prompted concern about the possible urbanization of jungle fever. Vaccination, using the 17D strain of yellow fever virus, provides an effective, practical method of large scale protection against the disease. Because yellow fever can reappear in certain areas after a 2-year dormancy period, some countries maintain routine vaccination programs in areas where jungle yellow fever is endemic. The size of the endemic area (approximately half of South America), transportation and communication difficulties, and the inability to ensure a reliable cold chain are problems facing these programs. In addition, the problem of reaching dispersed and isolated populations has been addressed by the use of mobile teams, radio monitoring, and educational methods. During yellow fever outbreaks, many countries institute massive vaccination campaigns, targeted at temporary workers and migrants. Because epidemics in South America may involve extensive areas, these campaigns may not effectively address the problem. The ped-o-jet injector method, used in Brazil and Colombia, should be used in outbreak situations, as it is effective for large-scale vaccination. Vaccine by needle, suggested for maintenance programs, should be administered to those above 1 year of age. An efficient monitoring method to avoid revaccination, and to assess immunity, should be developed. The 17D strain produces seroconversion in 95% of recipients, and most is prepared in Brazil and Colombia. But, problems with storage methods, instability in seed lots, and difficulties in large-scale production were identified in 1981 by the Pan American Health Organization and WHO. The group recommended modernization of current production techniques and further research to develop a vaccine that could be produced in cell cultures. Brazil and Colombia have acted on these recommendations, modernizing vaccine production and researching thermostabilizing media for

  10. Bright stars observed by FIMS/SPEAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Young-Soo; Seon, Kwang-Il; Min, Kyoung-Wook; Choi, Yeon-Ju; Lim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Yeo-Myeong; Edelstein, Jerry; Han, Wonyong

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we present a catalogue of the spectra of bright stars observed during the sky survey using the Far-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (FIMS), which was designed primarily to observe diffuse emissions. By carefully eliminating the contamination from the diffuse background, we obtain the spectra of 70 bright stars observed for the first time with a spectral resolution of 2-3 Å over the wavelength of 1370-1710 Å. The far-ultraviolet spectra of an additional 139 stars are also extracted with a better spectral resolution and/or higher reliability than those of the previous observations. The stellar spectral type of the stars presented in the catalogue spans from O9 to A3. The method of spectral extraction of the bright stars is validated by comparing the spectra of 323 stars with those of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations.

  11. Brightness discrimination in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Lind, Olle; Karlsson, Sandra; Kelber, Almut

    2013-01-01

    Birds have excellent spatial acuity and colour vision compared to other vertebrates while spatial contrast sensitivity is relatively poor for unknown reasons. Contrast sensitivity describes the detection of gratings of varying spatial frequency. It is unclear whether bird brightness discrimination between large uniform fields is poor as well. Here we show that budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) need a Michelson contrast of 0.09 to discriminate between large spatially separated achromatic fields in bright light conditions. This is similar to the peak contrast sensitivity of 10.2 (0.098 Michelson contrast) for achromatic grating stimuli established in earlier studies. The brightness discrimination threshold described in Weber fractions is 0.18, which is modest compared to other vertebrates. PMID:23349946

  12. Observing Faint Companions Close to Bright Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serabyn, Eugene

    2012-04-01

    Progress in a number of technical areas is enabling imaging and interferometric observations at both smaller angular separations from bright stars and at deeper relative contrast levels. Here we discuss recent progress in several ongoing projects at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. First, extreme adaptive optics wavefront correction has recently enabled the use of very short (i.e., blue) wavelengths to resolve close binaries. Second, phase-based coronagraphy has recently allowed observations of faint companions to within nearly one diffraction beam width of bright stars. Finally, rotating interferometers that can observe inside the diffraction beam of single aperture telescopes are being developed to detect close-in companions and bright exozodiacal dust. This paper presents a very brief summary of the techniques involved, along with some illustrative results.

  13. Dark Dunes Over-riding Bright Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Some martian sand dunes may be more active than others. In this picture, wind has caused the dark and somewhat crescent-shaped dunes to advance toward the lower left. While their movement cannot actually be seen in this April 1998snapshot, the location of their steepest slopes--their slip faces--on their southwestern sides indicates the direction of movement. Oddly, these dark dunes have moved across and partly cover sets of smaller, bright ridges that also formed by wind action.

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image illustrates an intriguing martian 'find.' Strangely, the two dune types have different shapes and a different relative brightness. There are two explanations for the relationship seen here, and neither can be distinguished as 'the answer'--(1) it is possible that the brighter dunes are old and cemented, and represent some ancient wind activity, whereas the dark dunes are modern and are marching across the older, 'fossilized' dune forms, or (2) the bright dunes are composed of grains that are much larger or more dense than those that compose the dark dunes. In the latter scenario, the bright dunes move more slowly and are over-taken by the dark dunes because their grains are harder to transport. An interpretation involving larger or denser grains is consistent with the small size and even-spacing of the bright dunes, as well, but usually on Earth such features occur on the surfaces of larger, finer-grained dunes, not under them. The actual composition of either the bright or dark materials are unknown. This example is located on the floor of an impact crater in western Arabia Terra at 10.7oN, 351.0oW. The picture is illuminated from the right.

  14. Comet brightness parameters: Definition, determination, and correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meisel, D. D.; Morris, C. S.

    1976-01-01

    The power-law definition of comet brightness is reviewed and possible systematic influences are discussed that can affect the derivation of m sub o and n values from visual magnitude estimates. A rationale for the Bobrovnikoff aperture correction method is given and it is demonstrated that the Beyer extrafocal method leads to large systematic effects which if uncorrected by an instrumental relationship result in values significantly higher than those derived according to the Bobrovnikoff guidelines. A series of visual brightness parameter sets are presented which have been reduced to the same photometric system. Recommendations are given to insure that future observations are reduced to the same system.

  15. The historical investigation of cometary brightness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, David W.

    1998-12-01

    The interpretation of the way in which the brightness of a comet varied as a function of both its heliocentric and geocentric distance was essentially started by Isaac Newton in his book Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687. Astronomers have argued about the form of this variability ever since, and for many years it was regarded as an important clue as to the physical nature of the cometary nucleus and its decay process. This paper reviews our understanding of the causes of cometary brightness variability between about 1680 and the 1950s.

  16. Diagnostics for high-brightness beams

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Special techniques are required for beam diagnostics on high-brightness particle beams. Examples of high-brightness beams include low-emittance proton linacs (either pulsed or CW), electron linacs suitable for free-electron-laser applications, and future linear colliders. Non-interceptive and minimally-interceptive techniques for measuring beam current, position, profile, and transverse and longitudinal emittance will be reviewed. Included will be stripline, wire scanner, laser neutralization, beam-beam scattering, interceptive microgratings, spontaneous emission, optical transition radiation, and other techniques. 24 refs.

  17. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF KNAPWEEDS AND YELLOW STARTHISTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant genus Centaurea (family Asteraceae) includes many species that are important invasive alien weeds in the western U.S. These include spotted, diffuse, squarrose and meadow knapweeds and yellow starthistle. Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens) is closely related and was once included in th...

  18. Improving Growth in Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given that the role of the somatotropic axis (e.g. growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I) in yellow perch growth is uniquely unresolved, and the interplay of sex steroids with the somatotropic axis unknown, research efforts are focused in this area. To accomplish this, we will isolate and...

  19. Enzootic Transmission of Yellow Fever Virus, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Auguste, Albert J.; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A.; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela. PMID:25531105

  20. Yellowing reaction in encapsulant of photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Shigekuni, T.; Kumano, M.

    1997-12-31

    To clarify the mechanism of the yellowing reaction in encapsulant used for photovoltaic (PV) modules, a low molecular weight substance in EVA (Ethylene vinyl acetate) under accelerated weathering test (Dew cycle test, 1000 hours) with yellow change and virgin EVA were extracted with methanol. Extracts were chemically analyzed by GCIR (Gas Chromatography Infrared-Ray spectroscopic analysis), GC-AED (Gas Chromatography Atomic Emission Detector), and FDMS (Field Desorption Mass Spectroscopy). The conditions of this accelerated test were based on JIS-K9117. The analysis results showed that 2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methyl phenol of antioxidant and 2-hydroxy-4-octoxy-benzophenone of UV absorbent were consumed after the weathering test and that 3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde having yellow color was newly produced. A mechanism of the yellowing reaction in encapsulant was presented here that 2,6-di-t-N-O radical from Bis-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinyl sebacate to produce 3,5 di-t-butyl-4-hydroxy benzaldehyde.

  1. Yellow Nutsedge control in Potato with Imazosulfuron

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow nutsedge control in potato with imazosulfuron was evaluated in trials conducted on a sandy loam soil near Pasco, WA and on a silt loam soil near Ontario, OR in 2007. Imazosulfuron was tested at 0.34, 0.45, and 0.56 kg ai/ha applied preemergence (PRE), PRE followed by postemergence (POST), and...

  2. [A case of Yellow fever in 1887].

    PubMed

    Hansen, Sven Erik

    2015-01-01

    A young Danish sailor died from yellow fever in Barbados in 1887. The Shipmaster's letter to the family with a description of the course of the disease, which has been preserved, is presented here together with a photo of the sailor and a painting of the Danish sailing-ship. PMID:27086445

  3. Phytoplankton and sediments in Yellow Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Sediment and phytoplankton cloud the waters of the Yellow Sea in this true-color MODIS image acquired March 18, 2002. The swirls of sediment appear as a murky brownish blue color, while the phytoplankton are purely blue green and are concentrated around the small island in the lower right corner of the image.

  4. Xanthopsia and van Gogh's yellow palette.

    PubMed

    Arnold, W N; Loftus, L S

    1991-01-01

    A survey of van Gogh's work from 1886 to 1890 indicated that paintings with a yellow dominance were numerous, episodic, and multi-regional. His underlying illness, by his own admission, affected his life and work; furthermore, episodes of malnutrition, substance abuse, environmental exposure, and drug experimentation (all evident from correspondence) exacerbated his condition. Accordingly, we reviewed plausible agents that might have modified the artist's colour perception. Xanthopsia due to overdosage of digitalis or santonin is well documented elsewhere, but evidence of useage of either drug by van Gogh cannot be substantiated. It is unlikely that ageing of the human lens was an influence because of the artist's youth. Sunstroke is too restrictive to fit the multiplicity of regions and motifs. Hallucinations induced by absinthe, the popular liqueur of the period, may explain particular canvases but not the majority of 'high yellow' paintings. Van Gogh's proclivity for exaggerated colours and his embrance of yellow in particular are clear from his letters and, in contradistinction to chemical or physical insults modifying perception, artistic preference is the best working hypothesis to explain the yellow dominance in his palette. PMID:1794418

  5. Sky brightness during eclipses: a review.

    PubMed

    Silverman, S M; Mullen, E G

    1975-12-01

    This paper is abstracted from the introductory section of "Sky Brightness During Eclipses: A Compendium from the Literature," AFCRL-TR-74-0363, Special Reports 180, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Hanscom AFB, Massachusetts 01731. This report should be consulted for fuller details and tables. PMID:20155120

  6. Bright Meteor Lights Up Atlanta Skies

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows a very bright meteor that streaked over the skies of Atlanta, Ga., on the night of Aug. 28, 2011. The view is from an all sky camera in Cartersville, Ga., operated by NASA’s Mars...

  7. Brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2016-01-01

    According to the literature, while calculating the brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers, one needs to account for the so-called 'depth-of-field' effects. In fact, the particle beam cross-section varies along the wiggler. It is usually stated that the effective photon source size increases accordingly, while the brightness is reduced. Here we claim that this is a misconception originating from an analysis of the wiggler source based on geometrical arguments, regarded as almost self-evident. According to electrodynamics, depth-of-field effects do not exist: we demonstrate this statement both theoretically and numerically, using a well-known first-principle computer code. This fact shows that under the usually accepted approximations, the description of the wiggler brightness turns out to be inconsistent even qualitatively. Therefore, there is a need for a well-defined procedure for computing the brightness from a wiggler source. We accomplish this task based on the use of a Wigner function formalism. We exemplify this formalism in simple limiting cases. We consider the problem of the calculation of the wiggler source size by means of numerical simulations alone, which play the same role of an experiment. We report a significant numerical disagreement between exact calculations and approximations currently used in the literature.

  8. Lunar craters with radar bright ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Zisk, S. H.; Schultz, P. H.; Cutts, J. A.; Shorthill, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    The properties of the 3.8-cm radar-bright halos observed around certain lunar impact craters are compiled and compared with 70-cm radar, thermal infrared and photogeological data in order to address the nature of the halos. Diameters, positions, and radar and IR signal strengths are presented for 120 radar-bright ejecta regions of size greater than 20 km and twice the diameter of the crater. The 3.8-cm halos are noted to range in size up to 30 times that of the crater itself, although the strength of the signal from the crater and rim lies in a narrow range, while the IR halos are smaller in extent and variable in signal strength. The radar-bright ejecta are found to have a range of optical properties, and to be associated with fresh primary impact craters. Data are thus consistent with craters having radar-bright ejecta deposits having ages of less than 10 million to 1 billion years, with the radar and infrared signatures of the ejecta deposits produced by combinations of enhanced blockiness and roughness.

  9. Polyvinylpyrrolidone dewaxing aid for bright stocks

    SciTech Connect

    Achia, B.U.; Shaw, D.H.

    1980-05-20

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone having a number average molecular weight ranging from about 150,000 to 400,000 has been found to be an effective dewaxing aid for bright stock in ketone dewaxing processes. Using as little as 100 ppm based on the waxy oil can result in almost a 50% increase in the filter rate of the dewaxed oils from the wax.

  10. Illusory brightness step in the Chevreul illusion.

    PubMed

    Morrone, M C; Burr, D C; Ross, J

    1994-06-01

    It is well known that a staircase luminance profile is not seen veridically, but appears as the scallopy-like Chevreul illusion. We have shown that adding thin lines (either light or dark) to the centre of each step creates an illusory brightness change at the point of the line. The regions between the added lines and the edges seem to be uniform, with a clear change in brightness at the point where the line was added. The conditions under which the illusion occurred were measured systematically, both by contrast matching and by annulment. One model that can readily account for the illusion is the local-energy model of feature detection (Morrone & Burr, 1988 Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 235, 221-245). Adding the bar to the step creates a peak in local energy at all scales. At the higher scales, the phase of the energy is near zero, the signal for a line; but at the lower scales the phase is near pi/2, the signal for an edge. We propose that the edge signal of the lower scales causes the brightness illusion and that this brightness difference is structured by the feature defined sharply by the higher scales (even though that feature is not an edge). As well as predicting the existence of the illusion, simulations with the energy model predicted quantitatively the apparent contrast of the illusion as a function of stimulus contrast, bar-position and high-pass filter frequency. PMID:7941364

  11. Alberta Associations for Bright Children Members' Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Association for Bright Children, Edmonton.

    This handbook is designed to provide information to parents of gifted children in Alberta, Canada. The handbook outlines the mission and objectives of the Alberta Associations for Bright Children and describes the structure of the non-profit organization. The booklet then addresses: (1) the characteristics of gifted children; (2) the rights of…

  12. 21 CFR 573.1020 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.1020 Yellow prussiate of soda. Yellow prussiate of soda (sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 573.1020 Section...

  13. 21 CFR 573.1020 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 573.1020 Section 573.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Additive Listing § 573.1020 Yellow prussiate of soda. Yellow prussiate of soda...

  14. 21 CFR 573.1020 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 573.1020 Section 573.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Additive Listing § 573.1020 Yellow prussiate of soda. Yellow prussiate of soda...

  15. 21 CFR 573.1020 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 573.1020 Section 573.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Additive Listing § 573.1020 Yellow prussiate of soda. Yellow prussiate of soda...

  16. Unusual manifestation of the yellow nail syndrome - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Papaiordanou, Francine; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Miyaoka, Mariana Yumi; Yang, Jeane Jeong Hoon; Pires, Mario Cezar

    2014-01-01

    The yellow nail syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the classic triad of yellow and dystrophic nails, lymphedema and pleural effusion. We report in this paper a case of yellow nail syndrome, presenting the classic triad of the disease, associated with an unusual lymph accumulation in the abdomen region. PMID:24937826

  17. 49 CFR 172.438 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label. 172.438 Section 172... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.438 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II must be as follows: EC02MR91.033 (b) In addition to complying with §...

  18. 49 CFR 172.438 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label. 172.438 Section 172... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.438 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II must be as follows: EC02MR91.033 (b) In addition to complying with §...

  19. 49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440 Section 172... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as follows: EC02MR91.034 (b) In addition to complying...

  20. 49 CFR 172.438 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label. 172.438 Section 172... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.438 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II must be as follows: EC02MR91.033 (b) In addition to complying with §...

  1. 49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440 Section 172... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as follows: EC02MR91.034 (b) In addition to complying...

  2. 49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440 Section 172... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as follows: EC02MR91.034 (b) In addition to complying...

  3. 49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440 Section 172... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as follows: EC02MR91.034 (b) In addition to complying...

  4. 49 CFR 172.438 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label. 172.438 Section 172... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.438 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II must be as follows: EC02MR91.033 (b) In addition to complying with §...

  5. 49 CFR 172.438 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label. 172.438 Section 172... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.438 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II must be as follows: EC02MR91.033 (b) In addition to complying with §...

  6. 49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440 Section 172... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as follows: EC02MR91.034 (b) In addition to complying...

  7. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  8. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  9. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  10. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  11. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  12. Seedling emergence of yellow woodsorrel in eastern South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow woodsorrel is a perennial weed invading no-till rotations in eastern South Dakota. This study quantified the seedling emergence pattern of yellow woodsorrel across a four-year period. Yellow woodsorrel began emerging in early May and continued for 14 weeks. Approximately 80% of seedlings em...

  13. A novel emaravirus is associated with redbud yellow ringspot disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow ringspot is the only virus-like disease reported in redbud (Cercis spp.) with symptoms including vein clearing, chlorotic ringspots and oak-leaf pattern. A putative new emaravirus was present in 48 of 48l trees displaying typical yellow ringspot symptoms and the name redbud yellow ringspot as...

  14. Cortical brightness adaptation when darkness and brightness produce different dynamical states in the visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Xing, Dajun; Yeh, Chun-I; Gordon, James; Shapley, Robert M

    2014-01-21

    Darkness and brightness are very different perceptually. To understand the neural basis for the visual difference, we studied the dynamical states of populations of neurons in macaque primary visual cortex when a spatially uniform area (8° × 8°) of the visual field alternated between black and white. Darkness evoked sustained nerve-impulse spiking in primary visual cortex neurons, but bright stimuli evoked only a transient response. A peak in the local field potential (LFP) γ band (30-80 Hz) occurred during darkness; white-induced LFP fluctuations were of lower amplitude, peaking at 25 Hz. However, the sustained response to white in the evoked LFP was larger than for black. Together with the results on spiking, the LFP results imply that, throughout the stimulus period, bright fields evoked strong net sustained inhibition. Such cortical brightness adaptation can explain many perceptual phenomena: interocular speeding up of dark adaptation, tonic interocular suppression, and interocular masking. PMID:24398523

  15. Intermittent Episodes of Bright Light Suppress Myopia in the Chicken More than Continuous Bright Light

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Weizhong; Feldkaemper, Marita; Schaeffel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Bright light has been shown a powerful inhibitor of myopia development in animal models. We studied which temporal patterns of bright light are the most potent in suppressing deprivation myopia in chickens. Methods Eight-day-old chickens wore diffusers over one eye to induce deprivation myopia. A reference group (n = 8) was kept under office-like illuminance (500 lux) at a 10∶14 light∶dark cycle. Episodes of bright light (15 000 lux) were super-imposed on this background as follows. Paradigm I: exposure to constant bright light for either 1 hour (n = 5), 2 hours (n = 5), 5 hours (n = 4) or 10 hours (n = 4). Paradigm II: exposure to repeated cycles of bright light with 50% duty cycle and either 60 minutes (n = 7), 30 minutes (n = 8), 15 minutes (n = 6), 7 minutes (n = 7) or 1 minute (n = 7) periods, provided for 10 hours. Refraction and axial length were measured prior to and immediately after the 5-day experiment. Relative changes were analyzed by paired t-tests, and differences among groups were tested by one-way ANOVA. Results Compared with the reference group, exposure to continuous bright light for 1 or 2 hours every day had no significant protective effect against deprivation myopia. Inhibition of myopia became significant after 5 hours of bright light exposure but extending the duration to 10 hours did not offer an additional benefit. In comparison, repeated cycles of 1∶1 or 7∶7 minutes of bright light enhanced the protective effect against myopia and could fully suppress its development. Conclusions The protective effect of bright light depends on the exposure duration and, to the intermittent form, the frequency cycle. Compared to the saturation effect of continuous bright light, low frequency cycles of bright light (1∶1 min) provided the strongest inhibition effect. However, our quantitative results probably might not be directly translated into humans, but rather need further amendments in clinical

  16. Circadian Phase-Shifting Effects of Bright Light, Exercise, and Bright Light + Exercise.

    PubMed

    Youngstedt, Shawn D; Kline, Christopher E; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Zielinski, Mark R; Devlin, Tina M; Moore, Teresa A

    2016-01-01

    Limited research has compared the circadian phase-shifting effects of bright light and exercise and additive effects of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the phase-delaying effects of late night bright light, late night exercise, and late evening bright light followed by early morning exercise. In a within-subjects, counterbalanced design, 6 young adults completed each of three 2.5-day protocols. Participants followed a 3-h ultra-short sleep-wake cycle, involving wakefulness in dim light for 2h, followed by attempted sleep in darkness for 1 h, repeated throughout each protocol. On night 2 of each protocol, participants received either (1) bright light alone (5,000 lux) from 2210-2340 h, (2) treadmill exercise alone from 2210-2340 h, or (3) bright light (2210-2340 h) followed by exercise from 0410-0540 h. Urine was collected every 90 min. Shifts in the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) cosine acrophase from baseline to post-treatment were compared between treatments. Analyses revealed a significant additive phase-delaying effect of bright light + exercise (80.8 ± 11.6 [SD] min) compared with exercise alone (47.3 ± 21.6 min), and a similar phase delay following bright light alone (56.6 ± 15.2 min) and exercise alone administered for the same duration and at the same time of night. Thus, the data suggest that late night bright light followed by early morning exercise can have an additive circadian phase-shifting effect. PMID:27103935

  17. Circadian Phase-Shifting Effects of Bright Light, Exercise, and Bright Light + Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Christopher E.; Elliott, Jeffrey A.; Zielinski, Mark R.; Devlin, Tina M.; Moore, Teresa A.

    2016-01-01

    Limited research has compared the circadian phase-shifting effects of bright light and exercise and additive effects of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the phase-delaying effects of late night bright light, late night exercise, and late evening bright light followed by early morning exercise. In a within-subjects, counterbalanced design, 6 young adults completed each of three 2.5-day protocols. Participants followed a 3-h ultra-short sleep-wake cycle, involving wakefulness in dim light for 2h, followed by attempted sleep in darkness for 1 h, repeated throughout each protocol. On night 2 of each protocol, participants received either (1) bright light alone (5,000 lux) from 2210–2340 h, (2) treadmill exercise alone from 2210–2340 h, or (3) bright light (2210–2340 h) followed by exercise from 0410–0540 h. Urine was collected every 90 min. Shifts in the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) cosine acrophase from baseline to post-treatment were compared between treatments. Analyses revealed a significant additive phase-delaying effect of bright light + exercise (80.8 ± 11.6 [SD] min) compared with exercise alone (47.3 ± 21.6 min), and a similar phase delay following bright light alone (56.6 ± 15.2 min) and exercise alone administered for the same duration and at the same time of night. Thus, the data suggest that late night bright light followed by early morning exercise can have an additive circadian phase-shifting effect. PMID:27103935

  18. High-brightness AlGaInP light-emitting diodes using surface texturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Norbert; Kugler, Siegmar; Stauss, Peter; Streubel, Klaus P.; Wirth, Ralph; Zull, Heribert

    2001-05-01

    There is a large number of new applications in lighting and display technology where high-brightness AlGaInP-LEDs can provide cost-efficient solutions for the red to yellow color range. Osram Opto Semiconductors has developed a new generation of MOVPE-grown AlInGaP-LEDs to meet these demands. Our structures use optimized epitaxial layer design, improved contact geometry and a new type of surface texturing. Based on this technology we achieve luminous efficiencies of more than 30 lm/W and wallplug efficiencies exceeding 10% of LEDs on absorbing GaAs substrates. The epitaxial structure does not require the growth of extremely thick window layer and standard processes are used for the chip fabrication. This allows for high production yields and cost-efficient production.

  19. Bright color reflective displays with interlayer reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitson, Stephen; Geisow, Adrian; Rudin, John; Taphouse, Tim

    2011-08-01

    A good solution to the reflective display of color has been a major challenge for the display industry, with very limited color gamuts demonstrated to date. Conventional side-by-side red, green and blue color filters waste two-thirds of incident light. The alternative of stacking cyan, magenta and yellow layers is also challenging -- a 10% loss per layer compounds to nearly 50% overall. Here we demonstrate an architecture that interleaves absorbing-to-clear shutters with matched wavelength selective reflectors. This increases color gamut by reducing losses and more cleanly separating the color channels, and gives much wider choice of electro-optic colorants.

  20. The bright optical flash from GRB 060117

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínek, M.; Prouza, M.; Kubánek, P.; Hudec, R.; Nekola, M.; Řídký, J.; Grygar, J.; Boháčová, M.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Gorosabel, J.; Hrabovský, M.; Mandát, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Palatka, M.; Pandey, S. B.; Pech, M.; Schovánek, P.; Šmída, R.; Trávníček, P.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Vítek, S.

    2006-08-01

    We present a discovery and observation of an extraordinarily bright prompt optical emission of the GRB 060117 obtained by a wide-field camera atop the robotic telescope FRAM of the Pierre Auger Observatory from 2 to 10 min after the GRB. We found rapid average temporal flux decay of α = -1.7 ± 0.1 and a peak brightness R = 10.1 mag. Later observations by other instruments set a strong limit on the optical and radio transient fluxes, unveiling an unexpectedly rapid further decay. We present an interpretation featuring a relatively steep electron-distribution parameter p ≃ 3.0 and providing a straightforward solution for the overall fast decay of this optical transient as a transition between reverse and forward shock.

  1. Quantum Bright Soliton in a Disorder Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacha, K.; Delande, D.; Zakrzewski, J.

    2009-11-01

    At very low temperature, a quasi-one-dimensional ensemble of atoms with attractive interactions tend to form a bright soliton. When exposed to a sufficiently weak external potential, the shape of the soliton is not modified, but its external motion is affected. We develop in detail the Bogoliubov approach for the problem, treating, in a non-perturbative way, the motion of the center of mass of the soliton. Quantization of this motion allows us to discuss its long time properties. In particular, in the presence of a disordered potential, the quantum motion of the center of mass of a bright soliton may exhibit Anderson localization, on a localization length which may be much larger than the soliton size and could be observed experimentally.

  2. N-bright-bright and N-dark-dark solitons of the coupled generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnu Priya, N.; Senthilvelan, M.

    2016-07-01

    We construct N-bright-bright and N-dark-dark soliton solutions of an integrable two coupled generalized nonlinear Schrödinger (CGNLS) equation for arbitrary values of system parameters. These solutions are more general than the reported one. While the bright-bright solitons are captured in the focusing regime of CGNLS equation, the dark-dark soliton solutions are identified in the defocusing regime. We present N-bright-bright solitons in the Gram determinant forms and prove that these determinant forms satisfy the Hirota bilinear equations.

  3. Yellow Fever Outbreak, Imatong, Southern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Ofula, Victor O.; Sang, Rosemary C.; Konongoi, Samson L.; Sow, Abdourahmane; De Cock, Kevin M.; Tukei, Peter M.; Okoth, Fredrick A.; Swanepoel, Robert; Burt, Felicity J.; Waters, Norman C.; Coldren, Rodney L.

    2004-01-01

    In May 2003, the World Health Organization received reports about a possible outbreak of a hemorrhagic disease of unknown cause in the Imatong Mountains of southern Sudan. Laboratory investigations were conducted on 28 serum samples collected from patients in the Imatong region. Serum samples from 13 patients were positive for immunoglobulin M antibody to flavivirus, and serum samples from 5 patients were positive by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction with both the genus Flavivirus–reactive primers and yellow fever virus–specific primers. Nucleotide sequencing of the amplicons obtained with the genus Flavivirus oligonucleotide primers confirmed yellow fever virus as the etiologic agent. Isolation attempts in newborn mice and Vero cells from the samples yielded virus isolates from five patients. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis enabled an interagency emergency task force to initiate a targeted vaccination campaign to control the outbreak. PMID:15207058

  4. High-efficiency 20 W yellow VECSEL.

    PubMed

    Kantola, Emmi; Leinonen, Tomi; Ranta, Sanna; Tavast, Miki; Guina, Mircea

    2014-03-24

    A high-efficiency optically pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser emitting 20 W at a wavelength around 588 nm is demonstrated. The semiconductor gain chip emitted at a fundamental wavelength around 1170-1180 nm and the laser employed a V-shaped cavity. The yellow spectral range was achieved by intra-cavity frequency doubling using a LBO crystal. The laser could be tuned over a bandwidth of ~26 nm while exhibiting watt-level output powers. The maximum conversion efficiency from absorbed pump power to yellow output was 28% for continuous wave operation. The VECSEL's output could be modulated to generate optical pulses with duration down to 570 ns by directly modulating the pump laser. The high-power pulse operation is a key feature for astrophysics and medical applications while at the same time enables higher slope efficiency than continuous wave operation owing to decreased heating. PMID:24663985

  5. Spectral Characterization of Bright Materials on Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capaccioni, Fabrizio; DeSanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; Li, Jian-Yang; Longobardo, A.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Palomba, E.; Pieters, C. M.; Schroeder, S. E.; Tosi, F.; Hiesinger, H.; Blewett, D. T.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    The surface of Vesta, as observed by the camera and imaging spectrometer onboard the Dawn spacecraft, displays large surface diversity in terms of its geology and mineralogy with noticeably dark and bright areas on the surface often associated with various geological features and showing remarkably different forms. Here we report our initial attempt to spectrally characterize the areas that are distinctively brighter than their surroundings.

  6. Nonlinear Brightness Optimization in Compton Scattering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hartemann, Fred V.; Wu, Sheldon S. Q.

    2013-07-26

    In Compton scattering light sources, a laser pulse is scattered by a relativistic electron beam to generate tunable x and gamma rays. Because of the inhomogeneous nature of the incident radiation, the relativistic Lorentz boost of the electrons is modulated by the ponderomotive force during the interaction, leading to intrinsic spectral broadening and brightness limitations. We discuss these effects, along with an optimization strategy to properly balance the laser bandwidth, diffraction, and nonlinear ponderomotive force.

  7. UV-bright stars in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landsman, Wayne B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper highlights globular cluster studies with Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) in three areas: the discrepancy between observed ultraviolet HB magnitudes and predictions of theoretical HB models; the discovery of two hot subdwarfs in NGC 1851, a globular not previously known to contain such stars; and spectroscopic follow up of newly identified UV-bright stars in M79 and w Cen. I also present results of a recent observation of NGC 6397 with the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometer.

  8. Australia 31-GHz brightness temperature exceedance statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L.

    1988-01-01

    Water vapor radiometer measurements were made at DSS 43 during an 18 month period. Brightness temperatures at 31 GHz were subjected to a statistical analysis which included correction for the effects of occasional water on the radiometer radome. An exceedance plot was constructed, and the 1 percent exceedance statistics occurs at 120 K. The 5 percent exceedance statistics occurs at 70 K, compared with 75 K in Spain. These values are valid for all of the three month groupings that were studied.

  9. Nonlinear brightness optimization in compton scattering.

    PubMed

    Hartemann, Fred V; Wu, Sheldon S Q

    2013-07-26

    In Compton scattering light sources, a laser pulse is scattered by a relativistic electron beam to generate tunable x and gamma rays. Because of the inhomogeneous nature of the incident radiation, the relativistic Lorentz boost of the electrons is modulated by the ponderomotive force during the interaction, leading to intrinsic spectral broadening and brightness limitations. These effects are discussed, along with an optimization strategy to properly balance the laser bandwidth, diffraction, and nonlinear ponderomotive force. PMID:23931374

  10. Marylanders defeat Philadelphia: yellow fever updated.

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, T. E.; Beisel, W. R.; Faulkner, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    Those strategic points which influence this amateur historian to declare a victory for Baltimore and Maryland over Philadelphia are: I. Based upon clinical and epidemiological data, two Marylanders, Potter and Davidge, were among the first to contest Rush and his contagion theory; they told him so and published their views. To prove this point, Potter went to the extreme of inoculating himself with presumedly infected material. Stubbins Ffirth, a young University of Pennsylvania medical student, did the same four years later. To Rush's credit was ultimate abandonment of his originally held views. II. John Crawford, of Baltimore, although not the originator of the insect concept of transmission of infectious agents, published his concepts in 1811. III. Henry Rose Carter, a Maryland graduate, clearly delineated, in 1898, that after identification of an index case of yellow fever an extrinsic incubation period was necessary before the evolution of secondary cases. IV. James Carroll, another University of Maryland graduate, who worked as Deputy under Walter Reed with Lazear and Agramonte, helped prove Finlay's original concept that the Aedes aegypti mosquito was the natural vector of yellow fever. Carroll himself was the first experimentally induced case. V. Studies in primates provide new approaches for management of yellow fever. Nutritional support and treatment with specific anti-viral agents may be useful for therapy of human yellow fever. Maryland members of the Climatological are mindful of Philadelphia's rich medical heritage and of the many battles won in the City of Brotherly Love. Physicians in colonial and early America experienced The best and worst of times, theirs was an age of foolishness and belief, of incredulity and light, of darkness, despair and hope. This tale of two cities ends in peace. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:822563

  11. Bright Ray Craters in Ganymede's Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    GANYMEDE COLOR PHOTOS: This color picture as acquired by Voyager 1 during its approach to Ganymede on Monday afternoon (the 5th of March). At ranges between about 230 to 250 thousand km. The images show detail on the surface with a resolution of four and a half km. This picture is of a region in the northern hemisphere near the terminator. It shows a variety of impact structures, including both razed and unrazed craters, and the odd, groove-like structures discovered by Voyager in the lighter regions. The most striking features are the bright ray craters which have a distinctly 'bluer' color appearing white against the redder background. Ganymede's surface is known to contain large amounts of surface ice and it appears that these relatively young craters have spread bright fresh ice materials over the surface. Likewise, the lighter color and reflectivity of the grooved areas suggests that here, too, there is cleaner ice. We see ray craters with all sizes of ray patterns, ranging from extensive systems of the crater in the southern part of this picture, which has rays at least 300-500 kilometers long, down to craters which have only faint remnants of bright ejects patterns (such as several of the craters in the southern half of PIA01516; P21262). This variation suggests that, as on the Moon, there are processes which act to darken ray material, probably 'gardening' by micrometeoroid impact. JPL manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  12. Brightness illusion in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Agrillo, Christian; Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Bisazza, Angelo

    2016-02-01

    A long-standing debate surrounds the issue of whether human and nonhuman species share similar perceptual mechanisms. One experimental strategy to compare visual perception of vertebrates consists in assessing how animals react in the presence of visual illusions. To date, this methodological approach has been widely used with mammals and birds, while few studies have been reported in distantly related species, such as fish. In the present study we investigated whether fish perceive the brightness illusion, a well-known illusion occurring when 2 objects, identical in physical features, appear to be different in brightness. Twelve guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were initially trained to discriminate which rectangle was darker or lighter between 2 otherwise identical rectangles. Three different conditions were set up: neutral condition between rectangle and background (same background used for both darker and lighter rectangle); congruent condition (darker rectangle in a darker background and lighter rectangle in a lighter background); and incongruent condition (darker rectangle in a lighter background and lighter rectangle in a darker background). After reaching the learning criterion, guppies were presented with the illusory pattern: 2 identical rectangles inserted in 2 different backgrounds. Guppies previously trained to select the darker rectangle showed a significant choice of the rectangle that appears to be darker by human observers (and vice versa). The human-like performance exhibited in the presence of the illusory pattern suggests the existence of similar perceptual mechanisms between humans and fish to elaborate the brightness of objects. PMID:26881944

  13. Search for bright stars with infrared excess

    SciTech Connect

    Raharto, Moedji

    2014-03-24

    Bright stars, stars with visual magnitude smaller than 6.5, can be studied using small telescope. In general, if stars are assumed as black body radiator, then the color in infrared (IR) region is usually equal to zero. Infrared data from IRAS observations at 12 and 25μm (micron) with good flux quality are used to search for bright stars (from Bright Stars Catalogues) with infrared excess. In magnitude scale, stars with IR excess is defined as stars with IR color m{sub 12}−m{sub 25}>0; where m{sub 12}−m{sub 25} = −2.5log(F{sub 12}/F{sub 25})+1.56, where F{sub 12} and F{sub 25} are flux density in Jansky at 12 and 25μm, respectively. Stars with similar spectral type are expected to have similar color. The existence of infrared excess in the same spectral type indicates the existence of circum-stellar dust, the origin of which is probably due to the remnant of pre main-sequence evolution during star formation or post AGB evolution or due to physical process such as the rotation of those stars.

  14. Low-Dispersion Observations of Bright Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, Edward L.

    Seven US2 observing shifts are being requested to obtain low-dispersion SWP and LWP spectra of approximately 15 bright, nearby early-type stars. The targets are taken from the 10-year old effective temperature and bolometric correction study of Code, Davis, Bless, and Hanbury Brown (CDBB). The CDBB stars represent the only sample of stars for which angular diameter measurements are available. The stars which we plan to observe have been unobservable with the low-dispersion mode of IUE in the past because of their extreme brightness; however, the recent refinements in the fast-trailing technique now allow optimally exposed spectra to be obtained. With the new spectra and with Archival spectra which are available for some of the less bright CDBB stars, we plan to repeat the earlier effective temperature and bolometric correction determinations, taking advantage of the higher photometric stability and higher resolution of IUE over previous ultraviolet missions and utilizing improvements in the ground-based optical/lR data and calibrations. This study will tie the large IUE database into a system of fundamental stellar effective temperature and bolometric correction determinations.

  15. Brightness Changes in Sun-like Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Stephen M.; Henry, Gregory W.

    1998-02-01

    Does the Sun's energy output vary with time? Are observable climatic changes on the earth caused by changes in the Sun? Can we gain greater insight into this relation-ship by studying other stars with properties similar to the Sun's? In recent years, satellite observations have shown that the solar irradiance varies in phase with the 1 l-year sunspot cycle. The Sun is brighter by about O.l% at the peak of the sunspot cycle when solar magnetic activity is at its maximum. Over longer intervals, changes in the cart h's climate and solar magnetic activity seem to be correlated. We are using automatic photoelectric telescopes to measure brightness changes in a sample of 150 Sun-like stars. Lowell Observatory astronomers have also observed about 30 of these same stars with a manual telescope in a program that began 10 years before ours. Since these two data sets were acquired with different instruments and so have significant systematic differences, we developed software to combine them accurately and, therefore, extend our observational time coverage. We show sample results of brightness variations over 14 years in several Sun-like stars with different ages. Longitudinal studies like these, combined with cross-sectional studies of the larger sample of stars, may eventually allow us to infer with confidence the Sun's long-term brightness history and its impact on the earth's climate.

  16. Bright light activates a trigeminal nociceptive pathway

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Keiichiro; Tashiro, Akimasa; Chang, Zheng; Bereiter, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Bright light can cause ocular discomfort and/or pain; however, the mechanism linking luminance to trigeminal nerve activity is not known. In this study we identify a novel reflex circuit necessary for bright light to excite nociceptive neurons in superficial laminae of trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc/C1). Vc/C1 neurons encoded light intensity and displayed a long delay (>10 s) for activation. Microinjection of lidocaine into the eye or trigeminal root ganglion (TRG) inhibited light responses completely, whereas topical application onto the ocular surface had no effect. These findings indicated that light-evoked Vc/C1 activity was mediated by an intraocular mechanism and transmission through the TRG. Disrupting local vasomotor activity by intraocular microinjection of the vasoconstrictive agents, norepinephrine or phenylephrine, blocked light-evoked neural activity, whereas ocular surface or intra-TRG microinjection of norepinephrine had no effect. Pupillary muscle activity did not contribute since light-evoked responses were not altered by atropine. Microinjection of lidocaine into the superior salivatory nucleus diminished light-evoked Vc/C1 activity and lacrimation suggesting that increased parasympathetic outflow was critical for light-evoked responses. The reflex circuit also required input through accessory visual pathways since both Vc/C1 activity and lacrimation were prevented by local blockade of the olivary pretectal nucleus. These findings support the hypothesis that bright light activates trigeminal nerve activity through an intraocular mechanism driven by a luminance-responsive circuit and increased parasympathetic outflow to the eye. PMID:20206444

  17. Bright and Dark Slopes on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Ridges on the edge of Ganymede's north polar cap show bright east-facing slopes and dark west-facing slopes with troughs of darker material below the larger ridges. North is to the top. The bright slopes may be due to grain size differences, differences in composition between the original surface and the underlying material, frost deposition, or illumination effects. The large 2.4 kilometer (1.5 mile) diameter crater in this image shows frost deposits located on the north-facing rim slope, away from the sun. A smaller 675 meter (2200 foot) diameter crater in the center of the image is surrounded by a bright deposit which may be ejecta from the impact. Ejecta deposits such as this are uncommon for small craters on Ganymede. This image measures 18 by 19 kilometers (11 by 12 miles) and has a resolution of 45 meters (148 feet) per pixel. NASA's Galileo spacecraft obtained this image on September 6, 1996 during its second orbit around Jupiter.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  18. [Yellow fever: study of an outbreak].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Mirtes; Antunes, Carlos Maurício de Figueiredo

    2009-01-01

    This study had the aim of describing an outbreak of yellow fever that occurred in the municipalities under the jurisdiction of the Regional Healthcare Administration of Diamantina, Minas Gerais, between 2002 and 2003, in which 36 cases were notified. This was an autochthonous outbreak of wild-type yellow fever. Failure of vaccinal coverage and low levels of detection of mild cases were found. Among the cases, 33 (91.7%) were male and the age range was from 16 to 67 years. Nineteen (52.8%) of the cases were classified as severe and 12 men (33.3%) died of the disease. All of the cases came from rural areas and presented fever, headache, vomiting, jaundice, myalgia, oliguria and signs of hemorrhage. Surveillance through laboratory tests was the determining factor in diagnosing the outbreak. By describing the epidemiological and clinic findings, this study contributes towards diagnosing and classifying this disease. It was deduced that there is a relationship between deforestation, and outbreaks, and that there is a potential regional risk of yellow fever because of the local development of tourism. PMID:19967234

  19. Active Processes: Bright Streaks and Dark Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2

    In a region of the south pole known informally as 'Ithaca' numerous fans of dark frost form every spring. HiRISE collected a time lapse series of these images, starting at Ls = 185 and culminating at Ls = 294. 'Ls' is the way we measure time on Mars: at Ls = 180 the sun passes the equator on its way south; at Ls = 270 it reaches its maximum subsolar latitude and summer begins.

    In the earliest image (figure 1) fans are dark, but small narrow bright streaks can be detected. In the next image (figure 2), acquired at Ls = 187, just 106 hours later, dramatic differences are apparent. The dark fans are larger and the bright fans are more pronounced and easily detectable. The third image in the sequence shows no bright fans at all.

    We believe that the bright streaks are fine frost condensed from the gas exiting the vent. The conditions must be just right for the bright frost to condense.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_002622_0945 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 16-Feb-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.2 degrees latitude, 181.5 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 246.9 km (154.3 miles). At this distance the image scale is 49.4 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects 148 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 50 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 05:46 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 88 degrees, thus the sun was about 2 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 185.1 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  20. Cytotoxicity of yellow sand in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y H; Kim, K S; Kwak, N J; Lee, K H; Kweon, S A; Lim, Y

    2003-02-01

    The present study was carried out to observe the cytotoxicity of yellow sand in comparison with silica and titanium dioxide in a rat alveolar type II cell line (RLE-6TN). Yellow sand (China Loess) was obtained from the loess layer in the Gunsu Province of China. The mean particle diameter of yellow sand was about 0.003 +/- 0.001 mm. Major elements of yellow sand were Si(27.7 +/- 0.6%), Al(6.01 +/- 0.17%), and Ca(5.83 +/- 0.23%) in that order. Silica and yellow sand significantly decreased cell viability and increased [Ca2+]i. All three particles increased the generation of H2O2. TiO2 did not change Fenton activity, while silica induced a slight increase of Fenton activity. In contrast, yellow sand induced a significant increase of Fenton activity. Silica, yellow sand and TiO2 induced significant nitrite formations in RLE-6TN cells. Silica showed the highest increase in nitrite formation, while yellow sand induced the least formation of nitrite. Silica and yellow sand increased the release of TNF-a. Based on these results, we suggest that yellow sand can induce cytotoxicity in RLE-6TN cells and reactive oxygen species, Fenton activity and reactive nitrogen species might be involved in this toxicity. PMID:12682428

  1. Catalogue of bright IDS stars with extensive cross-identifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipaeva, N. A.; Sementsov, V. N.; Malkov, O. Yu.

    A new catalogue of bright binary stars is presented. The catalogue1 includes bright IDS systems and bright spectroscopic binaries. Besides IDS data (coordinates, relative positions, magnitudes and spectral classification), the catalogue contains extensive cross-identification and comments for 27452 systems. The catalogue is complete to the 9th mag, but also contains stars down to about 16th mag.

  2. Color and contrast sensitivity after glare from high-brightness LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidenbach, H.-D.

    2008-02-01

    The color contrast capability was investigated for 3 volunteers with 7 specially developed test charts in red, green, blue, cyan, magenta, yellow and black as a reference, namely without and after glare from 4 colored high-brightness LEDs. Each subject completed 56 tests in order to check especially the ability to discriminate low contrast. It was found that a contrast decrease of one level is equivalent to an increase of about 4 s in the required identification time and in addition a delay time between about 14 s and 16 s has been measured at the beginning of the respective test as a result of the dazzling glare from an LED. In addition trials have been performed with 4 different pseudoisochromatic color plates designed by Ishihara for color vision. These plates have been used to determine temporary color deficiencies after an exposure from a high-brightness LED. For this purpose 40 volunteers have been included in a laboratory test. Color vision was impaired for periods between 27 s and 186 s depending on the applied color plate and respective LED color.

  3. Fluorene-fluorenone copolymer: Stable and efficient yellow-emitting material for electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panozzo, S.; Vial, J.-C.; Kervella, Y.; Stéphan, O.

    2002-10-01

    We have synthesized and characterized a new fluorene copolymer exhibiting bright yellow luminescence. In order to ensure a complete π-stacking of the active layer, a 9-fluorenone monomeric unit (FOne) has been used as comonomer in conjunction with the more classical 9,9-di-n-nonylfluorene unit. As expected with fluorene-based materials, when excited at 370 nm, the corresponding dilute copolymer solution photoluminescence spectra exhibit a main peak centered at 450 nm in the blue part of the visible spectrum. However, in the solid state, immediate structural reorganization of the layer occurs, leading to a red-shifted emission (bright yellow emission) centered at 550 nm. The origin of the emitted light has been attributed to excimers and/or aggregates based on short FOne segments and involves mainly exciton transfer between nonaggregated fluorene segments and aggregated ones. It is noteworthy that organic light-emitting devices based on these new materials exhibit no spectral evolution upon device operation. However, although stacking leads generally to a detrimental quenching of the luminescence in the solid state, as for regular poly(alkyl-fluorene), the luminescence efficiency of the fluorene-fluorenone copolymer remains suitable for device preparation. High material stability is attributed to an efficient and fast structural reorganization of the active layer, triggered by the small proportion of fluorenone. High electroluminescence efficiency, when compared to aggregated regular poly(alkyl-fluorene), results from an improved electron injection, a better carrier transport, and the conjunction of an efficient energy transfer from fluorene segments to excimers and/or aggregates with the implication of spin triplet, which is often lacking when using regular semiconducting polymers.

  4. Trace metals in fleece wool and correlations with yellowness.

    PubMed

    King, A L; Millington, K R

    2013-03-01

    The presence of copper and iron in metal-doped wool has been shown previously to be associated with the production of free radicals and yellowing in photo-irradiated wool. In this study, the yellowness and trace metal content of 700 wool samples was measured to determine if photoyellowing, catalysed by metals, is a major determinant of the colour of fleece wool. Iron and copper content did not positively correlate with yellowness and yellower wool tended to have lower levels of these metals. Instead, a strong positive correlation of yellowness with the calcium, manganese and magnesium content was observed in yellow wools. High levels of calcium and magnesium is consistent with biofilm formation by Pseudomonas bacteria that have previously been associated with non-scourable staining of wool. PMID:23292316

  5. How bright is the Io UV footprint?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfond, Bertrand; Grodent, Denis; Gérard, Jean-Claude; Radioti, Aikaterini; Hess, Sébastien

    2010-05-01

    The electro-magnetic interaction between Io and the Jovian magnetosphere generates a perturbation in the magnetospheric plasma which propagates along the magnetic field lines and creates auroral footprint emissions in both hemispheres. Recent results showed that this footprint is formed of several spots and an extended tail. Each feature is suggested to correspond to a different step in the propagation of the perturbation and in the electron energization processes. The present study focuses on the variations of the spots' brightness at different timescales from minutes to years through the rotation period of Jupiter. It relies on FUV images acquired with the STIS and ACS instruments onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Since the footprint is composed of several localized features, a good understanding of the emission region geometry is critical to derive the actual vertical brightness and thus the precipitated energy flux. We developed a 3D emission model in order to assess as precisely as possible the respective contribution of each individual feature and to correctly estimate the precipitating energy flux. As far as the brightness variations on timescales of minutes are concerned, we will present results from the high time resolution campaign executed during summer 2009. On timescale of several hours, we will show that the variation of the emitted power as a function of the location of Io in the plasma torus suggests that the Jovian surface magnetic field strength is an important controlling parameter. Finally, the measured precipitated power and particle fluxes will be discussed in comparison with recent simulations considering both Alfvén waves filamentation and electron acceleration when the Alfvén waves become inertial.

  6. Dark and Bright Ridges on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This high-resolution image of Jupiter's moon Europa, taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft camera, shows dark, relatively smooth region at the lower right hand corner of the image which may be a place where warm ice has welled up from below. The region is approximately 30 square kilometers in area. An isolated bright hill stands within it. The image also shows two prominent ridges which have different characteristics; youngest ridge runs from left to top right and is about 5 kilometers in width (about 3.1 miles). The ridge has two bright, raised rims and a central valley. The rims of the ridge are rough in texture. The inner and outer walls show bright and dark debris streaming downslope, some of it forming broad fans. This ridge overlies and therefore must be younger than a second ridge running from top to bottom on the left side of the image. This dark 2 km wide ridge is relatively flat, and has smaller-scale ridges and troughs along its length.

    North is to the top of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the upper left. This image, centered at approximately 14 degrees south latitude and 194 degrees west longitude, covers an area approximately 15 kilometers by 20 kilometers (9 miles by 12 miles). The resolution is 26 meters (85 feet) per picture element. This image was taken on December 16, 1997 at a range of 1300 kilometers (800 miles) by Galileo's solid state imaging system.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  7. A model of the brightness of moonlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisciunas, Kevin; Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, measurements of the sky brightness from the 2800-m level of Mauna Kea are reported. In addition, a model is presented for predicting the moonlight as a function of the moon's phase, the zenith distance of the moon, the zenith distance of the sky position, the angular separation of the moon and sky position, and the local extinction coefficient. The model equations can be quickly calculated on a pocket calculator. A comparison of the model with lunar data and with some Russian solar data shows the accuracy of the predictions to range from 8 percent to 23 percent.

  8. Bright emission lines in new Seyfert galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasev, V.L.; Denisiuk, E.K.; Lipovetskii, V.A.; Shapovalova, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    Observational data are given on bright emission lines (H-alpha, H-beta, and forbidden N II, S II, and O III) for 14 recently discovered Seyfert galaxies. The investigated objects can be divided into three groups, which correspond approximately to the first (5 objects), the intermediate (4 objects), and the second (4 objects) Seyfert types. Attention is drawn to the properties of the galaxy Markaryan 1018, which has features of both the first and the second type and is distinguished by the weakness of its emission lines, which is probably due to a gas deficit. 7 references.

  9. Rotation and macroturbulence in bright giants

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.F.; Toner, C.G.

    1986-11-01

    Spectral line profiles of 35 F, G, and K bright giants were analyzed to obtain rotation rates, v sin i, and macroturbulence dispersion. This sample indicates that rotation rates of cool class II giants is less than 11 km/s, in contrast with some recent periodicity measurements. Macroturbulence dispersion generally increases with effective temperature, but the range of values at a given effective temperature is much larger than seen for lower luminosity classes; this is interpreted in terms of red-giant and blue-loop evolution. No evidence is found for angular momentum dissipation on the first crossing of the H-R diagram. 57 references.

  10. Raman beam combining for laser brightness enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Jay W.; Allen, Graham S.; Pax, Paul H.; Heebner, John E.; Sridharan, Arun K.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Barty, Chrisopher B. J.

    2015-10-27

    An optical source capable of enhanced scaling of pulse energy and brightness utilizes an ensemble of single-aperture fiber lasers as pump sources, with each such fiber laser operating at acceptable pulse energy levels. Beam combining involves stimulated Raman scattering using a Stokes' shifted seed beam, the latter of which is optimized in terms of its temporal and spectral properties. Beams from fiber lasers can thus be combined to attain pulses with peak energies in excess of the fiber laser self-focusing limit of 4 MW while retaining the advantages of a fiber laser system of high average power with good beam quality.