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Sample records for british population fails

  1. HIV testing, risk perception, and behaviour in the British population

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Soazig; Nardone, Anthony; Field, Nigel; Mercer, Catherine H.; Tanton, Clare; Macdowall, Wendy; Johnson, Anne M.; Sonnenberg, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between HIV risk behaviour, risk perception and testing in Britain. Design: A probability sample survey of the British population. Methods: We analyzed data on sexual behaviour, self-perceived HIV risk and HIV testing (excluding testing because of blood donation) from 13 751 sexually experienced men and women aged 16–74, interviewed between 2010 and 2012 using computer-assisted face-to-face and self-interviewing. Results: Altogether, 3.5% of men and 5.4% of women reported having an HIV test in the past year. Higher perceived risk of HIV was associated with sexual risk behaviours and with HIV testing. However, the majority of those rating themselves as ‘greatly’ or ‘quite a lot’ at risk of HIV (3.4% of men, 2.5% of women) had not tested in the past year. This was also found among the groups most affected by HIV: MSM and black Africans. Within these groups, the majority reporting sexual risk behaviours did not perceive themselves as at risk and had not tested for HIV. Overall, 29.6% of men and 39.9% of women who tested for HIV in the past year could be classified as low risk across a range of measures. Conclusion: Most people who perceive themselves as at risk of HIV have not recently tested, including among MSM and black Africans. Many people tested in Britain are at low risk, reflecting current policy that aims to normalize testing. Strategies to further improve uptake of testing are needed, particularly in those at greatest risk, to further reduce undiagnosed HIV infection at late diagnoses. PMID:26963528

  2. SunSmart? Skin Cancer Knowledge and Preventive Behaviour in a British Population Representative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, A.; Waller, J.; Hiom, S.; Swanston, D.

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of skin cancer has risen rapidly in the UK over the last 20 years, prompting public health organizations to try and raise awareness of the dangers of sun exposure and the need to practice sun-safe behaviour. This study aimed to assess baseline levels of sun-safe knowledge and behaviour in a British population-representative sample,…

  3. The fine scale genetic structure of the British population

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Dan; Boumertit, Abdelhamid; Day, Tammy; Hutnik, Katarzyna; Royrvik, Ellen C; Cunliffe, Barry; Lawson, Daniel J; Falush, Daniel; Freeman, Colin; Pirinen, Matti; Myers, Simon; Robinson, Mark; Donnelly, Peter; Bodmer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Summary Fine-scale genetic variation between human populations is interesting as a signature of historical demographic events and because of its potential for confounding disease studies. We use haplotype-based statistical methods to analyse genome-wide SNP data from a carefully chosen geographically diverse sample of 2,039 individuals from the United Kingdom (UK). This reveals a rich and detailed pattern of genetic differentiation with remarkable concordance between genetic clusters and geography. The regional genetic differentiation and differing patterns of shared ancestry with 6,209 individuals from across Europe carry clear signals of historical demographic events. We estimate the genetic contribution to SE England from Anglo-Saxon migrations to be under half, identify the regions not carrying genetic material from these migrations, suggest significant pre-Roman but post-Mesolithic movement into SE England from the Continent, and show that in non-Saxon parts of the UK there exist genetically differentiated subgroups rather than a general “Celtic” population. PMID:25788095

  4. The fine-scale genetic structure of the British population.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Stephen; Winney, Bruce; Hellenthal, Garrett; Davison, Dan; Boumertit, Abdelhamid; Day, Tammy; Hutnik, Katarzyna; Royrvik, Ellen C; Cunliffe, Barry; Lawson, Daniel J; Falush, Daniel; Freeman, Colin; Pirinen, Matti; Myers, Simon; Robinson, Mark; Donnelly, Peter; Bodmer, Walter

    2015-03-19

    Fine-scale genetic variation between human populations is interesting as a signature of historical demographic events and because of its potential for confounding disease studies. We use haplotype-based statistical methods to analyse genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from a carefully chosen geographically diverse sample of 2,039 individuals from the United Kingdom. This reveals a rich and detailed pattern of genetic differentiation with remarkable concordance between genetic clusters and geography. The regional genetic differentiation and differing patterns of shared ancestry with 6,209 individuals from across Europe carry clear signals of historical demographic events. We estimate the genetic contribution to southeastern England from Anglo-Saxon migrations to be under half, and identify the regions not carrying genetic material from these migrations. We suggest significant pre-Roman but post-Mesolithic movement into southeastern England from continental Europe, and show that in non-Saxon parts of the United Kingdom, there exist genetically differentiated subgroups rather than a general 'Celtic' population. PMID:25788095

  5. The prevalence of periodontal disease in a Romano-British population c. 200-400 AD

    PubMed Central

    Raitapuro-Murray, T.; Molleson, T. I.; Hughes, F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of moderate to severe periodontitis in an ancient British cohort c. 200-400 AD. Design Observational study to assess periodontal and other oral disease parameters. Setting Natural History Museum, London. Subjects and methods 303 skulls from a Romano-British burial site in Poundbury, Dorset were examined for evidence of dental disease. Main outcome measures The primary outcome measure was presence of moderate to severe periodontitis. Secondary outcomes included: amount of horizontal bone loss; prevalence of ante-mortem tooth loss; and presence of other dental pathologies. Results The overall prevalence of moderate to severe periodontitis was just greater than 5%. The prevalence rate remained nearly constant between ages 20 to 60, after which it rose to around 10%. The number of affected teeth increased with age. Horizontal bone loss was generally minor. Caries was seen in around 50% of the cohort, and evidence of pulpal and apical pathology was seen in around 25%. Conclusions The prevalence of moderate to severe periodontitis was markedly decreased when compared to the prevalence in modern populations, underlining the potential importance of risk factors such as smoking and diabetes in determining susceptibility to progressive periodontitis in modern populations. PMID:25342357

  6. Population genetic structure of Bombus terrestris in Europe: Isolation and genetic differentiation of Irish and British populations.

    PubMed

    Moreira, António S; Horgan, Finbarr G; Murray, Tomás E; Kakouli-Duarte, Thomais

    2015-07-01

    The genetic structure of the earth bumblebee (Bombus terrestris L.) was examined across 22 wild populations and two commercially reared populations using eight microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial genes. Our study included wild bumblebee samples from six populations in Ireland, one from the Isle of Man, four from Britain and 11 from mainland Europe. A further sample was acquired from New Zealand. Observed levels of genetic variability and heterozygosity were low in Ireland and the Isle of Man, but relatively high in continental Europe and among commercial populations. Estimates of Fst revealed significant genetic differentiation among populations. Bayesian cluster analysis indicated that Irish populations were highly differentiated from British and continental populations, the latter two showing higher levels of admixture. The data suggest that the Irish Sea and prevailing south westerly winds act as a considerable geographical barrier to gene flow between populations in Ireland and Britain; however, some immigration from the Isle of Man to Ireland was detected. The results are discussed in the context of the recent commercialization of bumblebees for the European horticultural industry. PMID:25958977

  7. Modelling vitamin D status due to oral intake and sun exposure in an adult British population.

    PubMed

    Diffey, Brian L

    2013-08-28

    A mathematical model is described for estimating changes in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels throughout the year as a consequence of varying the oral intake of vitamin D and the behaviour outdoors of white British adults resident in different regions of the UK. The model yields seasonal and geographical patterns of 25(OH)D concentrations that agree closely with observational studies. Use of the model allows estimates to be easily made of the sun exposure and oral intake necessary to avoid vitamin D deficiency in defined proportions of the population, as well as strategies that would lead to vitamin D sufficiency throughout the year. The analysis demonstrates that addressing concerns about insufficient vitamin D levels, especially during the winter, may be achieved by modifying oral vitamin D intake over the winter, increasing summer sun exposure or a combination of both. PMID:23339973

  8. The phylogeny and population structure of Mycobacterium bovis in the British Isles.

    PubMed

    Allen, A R; Dale, J; McCormick, C; Mallon, T R; Costello, E; Gordon, S V; Hewinson, R G; Skuce, R A; Smith, N H

    2013-12-01

    To further understand the epidemic of bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, we identified 16 mutations that are phylogenetically informative for Mycobacterium bovis strains from these regions. We determined the status of these mutations among a collection of 501 strains representing the molecular diversity found in these three regions of the British Isles. The resulting linear phylogenies from each region were concordant, showing that the same lineage of M. bovis was present. The dominance of this lineage is unique within Europe, and suggests that in the past the populations were homogenous. Comparison of approximately 500 strains isolated in 2005 from each region by spoligotype and 5 locus VNTR profiling, revealed distinct differences in the genotype frequencies and sub-lineage makeup between each region. We concluded that whilst each region shared the same major phylogenetic lineage of M. bovis, more recent evolution had resulted in the development of region-specific populations. Regional differences in the M. bovis populations suggest that it may be possible to identify the movement of strains from one region to another. PMID:23933404

  9. The use of denial in an ethnically diverse British cancer population: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Roy, R; Symonds, R P; Kumar, D M; Ibrahim, K; Mitchell, A; Fallowfield, L

    2005-01-01

    A total of 82 Asian and 117 randomly selected white Caucasian patients at the Leicestershire Cancer Centre were assessed using measures of coping and adaption to cancer. On the Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) scale, Asian patients were more fatalistic (P<0.0001) and had more significant hopeless/helpless scores (P=0.007). The two ethnic groups answered the three questions thought to assess denial differently. Caucasians were more likely not to dwell on their illness (73 vs 55.5%, P<0.0001) and agree with the statement ‘I have difficulty believing this is happening to me' (73 vs 60.5%, P<0.0001). However, Asian patients were more likely to agree with the statement ‘I don't really believe I have cancer' (48.2 vs 31.3%, P=0.019). Within both groups there was an association with denial and anxious preoccupation (P<0.001). On the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale, there was no difference in anxiety scores between either sexes or between the Asian and Caucasian groups. However, Asian patients were more depressed (P=0.001). Although denial was significantly related to the presence of both depression (P<0.0001) and anxiety (P=0.001) in the entire patient population, there were different predictors of denial in each subgroup. On multiple regression analysis depression was linked with denial in Caucasians, whereas Fighting Spirit (minus helplessness/hopelessness) was linked with denial in Asian patients. There are definite differences in coping styles in British cancer patients according to ethnicity. While significant numbers in both groups employ denial in some form, Caucasian patients appear to adapt to the psychological pressures of cancer more successfully than Asian patients at a particular point in time. Further work is required to elucidate longitudinal relationships between denial and adaption to cancer. PMID:15812548

  10. HCV co-infection in HIV positive population in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background As HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) share some modes of transmission co-infection is not uncommon. This study used a population-based sample of HIV and HCV tested individuals to determine the prevalence of HIV/HCV co-infection, the sequence of virus diagnoses, and demographic and associated risk factors. Methods Positive cases of HIV were linked to the combined laboratory database (of negative and positive HCV antibody results) and HCV reported cases in British Columbia (BC). Results Of 4,598 HIV cases with personal identifiers, 3,219 (70%) were linked to the combined HCV database, 1,700 (53%) of these were anti-HCV positive. HCV was diagnosed first in 52% of co-infected cases (median time to HIV identification 3 1/2 years). HIV and HCV was diagnosed within a two week window in 26% of cases. Among individuals who were diagnosed with HIV infection at baseline, subsequent diagnoses of HCV infection was independently associated with: i) intravenous drug use (IDU) in males and females, Hazard Ratio (HR) = 6.64 (95% CI: 4.86-9.07) and 9.76 (95% CI: 5.76-16.54) respectively; ii) reported Aboriginal ethnicity in females HR = 2.09 (95% CI: 1.34-3.27) and iii) males not identified as men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM), HR = 2.99 (95% CI: 2.09-4.27). Identification of HCV first compared to HIV first was independently associated with IDU in males and females OR = 2.83 (95% CI: 1.84-4.37) and 2.25 (95% CI: 1.15-4.39) respectively, but not Aboriginal ethnicity or MSM. HIV was identified first in 22%, with median time to HCV identification of 15 months; Conclusion The ability to link BC public health and laboratory HIV and HCV information provided a unique opportunity to explore demographic and risk factors associated with HIV/HCV co-infection. Over half of persons with HIV infection who were tested for HCV were anti-HCV positive; half of these had HCV diagnosed first with HIV identification a median 3.5 years later. This highlights the importance of public health follow-up and

  11. Population dynamics of the Cui-ui of Pyramid Lake, Nevada: a Potamodromous catostomid subject to failed reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoppettone, Gayton G.; Rissler, Peter H.; Fabes, Mark C.; Shea, Sean P.

    2015-01-01

    Fishes of the Truckee River basin (California and Nevada) evolved in an aquatic system that has been episodically diminished by extended drought. For potamodromous species, such as the endangered Cui-ui endemic to Pyramid Lake, Nevada, prehistoric episodic severe drought presumably led to periods of failed reproduction due to restricted access to spawning habitat. The response of the Cui-ui population to more recent failed reproduction caused by anthropogenic activity was studied to learn how to manage this species through periods of spawning disruption. Adult Cui-ui survival averaged 91% and 89% for females and males, respectively, in drought years when spawning migrations were either precluded or few fish migrated because of no or low stream flow. In each of 2 years when stream access was precluded, the adult survival was nearly 100% suggesting that Cui-ui survival is extended in the absence of a spawning migration. Survival averaged 62% and 60% for females and males, respectively, in years of spawning migrations. Strong predominant year-classes developed in the year immediately following a period of failed reproduction, indicating the species’ capacity for population rebound. Year-class predominance persisted for 6–10 years and through years of low survival associated with migration years, and this predominance is probably due, in part, to a diverse age at maturity. Contemporary water diversions from the Truckee River provided the opportunity to study the response of the Cui-ui population to years of failed reproduction. A projected drier Truckee River basin associated with global climate change will test the Cui-ui’s adaptive capacity to endure periods of reproductive failure. This study is aimed at assisting Cui-ui managers in conserving the species in this highly regulated and changing system. The study also adds insight into the prehistoric population dynamics of a potamodromous species in the arid western United States subject to wide fluctuations in

  12. People of the British Isles: preliminary analysis of genotypes and surnames in a UK-control population

    PubMed Central

    Winney, Bruce; Boumertit, Abdelhamid; Day, Tammy; Davison, Dan; Echeta, Chikodi; Evseeva, Irina; Hutnik, Katarzyna; Leslie, Stephen; Nicodemus, Kristin; Royrvik, Ellen C; Tonks, Susan; Yang, Xiaofeng; Cheshire, James; Longley, Paul; Mateos, Pablo; Groom, Alexandra; Relton, Caroline; Bishop, D Tim; Black, Kathryn; Northwood, Emma; Parkinson, Louise; Frayling, Timothy M; Steele, Anna; Sampson, Julian R; King, Turi; Dixon, Ron; Middleton, Derek; Jennings, Barbara; Bowden, Rory; Donnelly, Peter; Bodmer, Walter

    2012-01-01

    There is a great deal of interest in a fine-scale population structure in the UK, both as a signature of historical immigration events and because of the effect population structure may have on disease association studies. Although population structure appears to have a minor impact on the current generation of genome-wide association studies, it is likely to have a significant part in the next generation of studies designed to search for rare variants. A powerful way of detecting such structure is to control and document carefully the provenance of the samples involved. In this study, we describe the collection of a cohort of rural UK samples (The People of the British Isles), aimed at providing a well-characterised UK-control population that can be used as a resource by the research community, as well as providing a fine-scale genetic information on the British population. So far, some 4000 samples have been collected, the majority of which fit the criteria of coming from a rural area and having all four grandparents from approximately the same area. Analysis of the first 3865 samples that have been geocoded indicates that 75% have a mean distance between grandparental places of birth of 37.3 km, and that about 70% of grandparental places of birth can be classed as rural. Preliminary genotyping of 1057 samples demonstrates the value of these samples for investigating a fine-scale population structure within the UK, and shows how this can be enhanced by the use of surnames. PMID:21829225

  13. Temporal trends in ankyloglossia and frenotomy in British Columbia, Canada, 2004-2013: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, K.S.; Kinniburgh, Brooke; Metcalfe, Amy; Razaz, Neda; Sabr, Yasser; Lisonkova, Sarka

    2016-01-01

    Background: Routine surveillance of congenital anomalies has shown recent increases in ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) in British Columbia, Canada. We examined the temporal trends in ankyloglossia and its surgical treatment (frenotomy). Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort study involving all live births in British Columbia from Apr. 1, 2004, to Mar. 31, 2014, with data obtained from the province's Perinatal Data Registry. Spatiotemporal trends in ankyloglossia and frenotomy, and associations with maternal and infant characteristics, were quantified using logistic regression analysis. Results: There were 459 445 live births and 3022 cases of ankyloglossia between 2004 and 2013. The population incidence of ankyloglossia increased by 70% (rate ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-2.01), from 5.0 per 1000 live births in 2004 to 8.4 per 1000 in 2013. During the same period, the population rate of frenotomy increased by 89% (95% CI 52%-134%), from 2.8 per 1000 live births in 2004 to 5.3 per 1000 in 2013. The 2 regional health authorities with the lowest population rates of frenotomy (1.5 and 1.8 per 1000 live births) had the lowest rates of ankyloglossia and the lowest rates of frenotomy among cases with ankyloglossia, whereas the 2 regional health authorities with the highest population rates of frenotomy (5.2 and 5.3 per 1000 live births) had high rates of ankyloglossia and the highest rates of frenotomy among cases of ankyloglossia. Nulliparity, multiple birth, male infant sex, birth weight and year were independently associated with ankyloglossia. Interpretation: Large temporal increases and substantial spatial variations in ankyloglossia and frenotomy rates were observed that may indicate a diagnostic suspicion bias and increasing use of a potentially unnecessary surgical procedure among infants. PMID:27280112

  14. Immunoglobulin (GM and KM) allotypes and relation to population history in native peoples of British Columbia: Haida and Bella Coola.

    PubMed

    Field, L L; Gofton, J P; Kinsella, T D

    1988-06-01

    Differences in the frequencies of GM haplotypes among native peoples of the Americas support the hypothesis that there were three distinct waves of migration from northeast Asia into the Americas: Paleo-Indian, Na-Dene, and Inuit (Eskimo)-Aleut (Salzano and Steinberg: Am. J. Hum. Genet. 17:273-279, 1965; Sukernik and Osipova: Hum. Genet. 61:148-153, 1982; Williams et al.:Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 66:1-19, 1985; Szathmary: In R Kirk and E Szathmary (eds): Out of Asia: Peopling of the Americas and the Pacific. Canberra: The Journal of Pacific History, Canberra Australian National University, pp. 79-104, 1985). We studied GM allotypes in two linguistically unique populations of Canadian west coast native peoples, the Haida and the Bella Coola, and compared them to GM frequencies in populations that are supposed descendants of the three migrations, in order to investigate the possible genetic relationships of these British Columbia (BC) groups to other native populations. We also estimated the amount of European admixture from the frequency of the Caucasian haplotype, Gm3;5. Results showed that the frequencies in both BC populations of the three common native haplotypes (Gm1,17;21, Gm1,2,17;21, and Gm1,17;15,16), were intermediate between the frequencies in supposed descendants of Paleo-Indian and Na-Dene. These genetic findings are consistent with the controversial hypothesis of archeologist C. Borden (Science 203:963-971, 1979) that, following deglaciation about 13,000 years ago, British Columbia was repopulated by peoples from the north (?Na-Dene) and by culturally distinct peoples from the south (?Paleo-Indian). Caucasian admixture estimates suggested that the Haida and Bella Coola have also experienced moderate amounts (12-20%) of genetic input from European-originating peoples.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3414788

  15. Hypoplastic enamel defects and environmental stress in a homogeneous Romano-British population.

    PubMed

    Brook, Alan H; Smith, Joyce M

    2006-05-01

    This study investigated hypoplastic enamel defects in a well-defined sample of Romano-Britons from the 3rd to the 5th century AD and compared the findings with a modern British sample investigated by the same authors. All 178 excavated skulls with intact dentitions were examined for hypoplastic defects using the Federation Dentaire International (FDI) Developmental Defects of Enamel Index criteria. Histopathological and microradiographic sections were prepared of 5 teeth. Hypoplastic defects were found in the teeth of 37% of skulls, with 25% having 4 or more teeth affected. The teeth most frequently involved were canines. Of the defects, 75% were horizontal grooves, 12.7% were pitting, and 7.1% were areas of missing enamel. The location of defects was 82% buccal, 16.5% lingual, and 1.2% occlusal. The reproducibility of diagnosis was 84%. Microscopic and microradiographic investigations showed areas of hypomineralization of enamel and wide zones of interglobular dentine related to the hypoplastic grooves. There was higher frequency, different morphology, and greater severity of hypoplastic enamel defects compared with the modern British sample. The defects may be related to repeated environmental stresses between the ages of 2 and 6 yr. Identified environmental stresses in these Romano-Britons, including high lead ingestion, poor nutrition, and recurrent infections, may be important etiological factors for the enamel defects. PMID:16674715

  16. The Extent and Distribution of Gambling-Related Harms and the Prevention Paradox in a British Population Survey.

    PubMed

    Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; Griffiths, Mark D

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To examine whether the "prevention paradox" applies to British individuals in relation to gambling-related harm. Methods Data were derived from 7,756 individuals participating in the British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2010, a comprehensive interview-based survey conducted in Great Britain between November 2009 and May 2010. Gambling-related harm was assessed using an adapted version of the DSM-IV Pathological Gambling criteria. The previous year's prevalence of problem gamblers was examined using the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Gambling involvement was measured by gambling frequency and gambling participation (gambling volume as expressed by time and money spent gambling). Results The prevalence rates for past-year gambling harms were dependence harm (16.4%), social harm (2.2%), and chasing losses (7.9%). Gambling-related harms were distributed across low- to moderate-risk gamblers (and not limited to just problem gamblers) and were reported by the majority of gamblers who were non-high time and spend regular gamblers than high time and spend regular gamblers. Conclusions The prevention paradox is a promising way of examining gambling-related harm. This suggests that prevention of gambling might need to consider the population approach to minimizing gambling harm. PMID:27156382

  17. Burden of poor oral health in older age: findings from a population-based study of older British men

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, S E; Whincup, P H; Watt, R G; Tsakos, G; Papacosta, A O; Lennon, L T; Wannamethee, S G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Evidence of the extent of poor oral health in the older UK adult population is limited. We describe the prevalence of oral health conditions, using objective clinical and subjective measures, in a population-based study of older men. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting and participants A representative sample of men aged 71–92 years in 2010–2012 from the British Regional Heart Study, initially recruited in 1978–1980 from general practices across Britain. Physical examination among 1660 men included the number of teeth, and periodontal disease in index teeth in each sextant (loss of attachment, periodontal pocket, gingival bleeding). Postal questionnaires (completed by 2147 men including all participants who were clinically examined) included self-rated oral health, oral impacts on daily life and current perception of dry mouth experience. Results Among 1660 men clinically examined, 338 (20%) were edentulous and a further 728 (43%) had <21 teeth. For periodontal disease, 233 (19%) had loss of attachment (>5.5 mm) affecting 1–20% of sites while 303 (24%) had >20% sites affected. The prevalence of gingival bleeding was 16%. Among 2147 men who returned postal questionnaires, 35% reported fair/poor oral health; 11% reported difficulty eating due to oral health problems. 31% reported 1–2 symptoms of dry mouth and 20% reported 3–5 symptoms of dry mouth. The prevalence of edentulism, loss of attachment, or fair/poor self-rated oral health was greater in those from manual social class. Conclusions These findings highlight the high burden of poor oral health in older British men. This was reflected in both the objective clinical and subjective measures of oral health conditions. The determinants of these oral health problems in older populations merit further research to reduce the burden and consequences of poor oral health in older people. PMID:26715480

  18. Simulation model of Cryptomonas ovata population dynamics in southern Kootenay Lake, British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, James E.

    1978-01-01

    The model simulates well the timing and magnitude of all observed population changes and, more importantly, it gives insight into the important mechanisms which regulate population density of C. ovata in this natural system.

  19. A first integrative study of the identity and origins of the British Dwarf Pill Millipede populations, Trachysphaera cf. lobata (Diplopoda, Glomerida, Glomeridae)

    PubMed Central

    Wilbrandt, Jeanne; Lee, Paul; Read, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Three populations of the pill millipede genus Trachysphaera Heller 1858 are present in Great Britain, one on the Isle of Wight, one in South Wales and one in mid-Wales. To identify and characterize the British Trachysphaera populations, the intraspecific and interspecific variation of the populations in South Wales and on the Isle of Wight were studied and evaluated in a first integrative study of members of Trachysphaera, utilizing barcoding and SEM. DNA was extracted from 28 British Trachysphaera and 10 French T. lobata (Ribaut 1954) specimens, one each of French T. cf. drescoi (Conde and Demange 1961) and T. pyrenaica (Ribaut 1908), and one of Spanish T. cf. rousseti (Demange 1959); the barcoding fragment of the COI gene was amplified and their genetic intra- and interpopulation distances compared with one another using two Italian T. spp. and one Croatian T. schmidti Heller 1858 specimens as near outgroups. To compare the genetic distances with the morphological characters, 15 characters of a total of 13 British Trachysphaera, together with two specimens of T. pyrenaica, two T. cf. drescoi and one of T. cf. rousseti were imaged, using the same individuals utilized for DNA extraction. Albeit both British populations are genetically distant, they are closely related (1.9–2.5% p-distance) to French T. lobata, corroborating results of earlier studies. Between different Trachysphaera species, genetic distance was high (16.7–18.8%). The morphological study showed the non-reliability of key taxonomic characters in Trachysphaera, with genetically identical individuals exhibiting morphological variation, especially on the telopods. The only observed morphological characters constant within and different between species were the number of rows of sclerotized bacilli on the tergites, as well as the shape of the male and female anal shield. Both, barcoding and the morphological study identify the British Trachysphaera populations as T. lobata. PMID:26175612

  20. The clustering of health-related behaviours in a British population sample: Testing for cohort differences.

    PubMed

    Mawditt, Claire; Sacker, Amanda; Britton, Annie; Kelly, Yvonne; Cable, Noriko

    2016-07-01

    Research findings indicate that health-related behaviours (HRBs) do not co-occur within individuals by chance and therefore cluster. This study uses Latent Profile Analysis (LPA), to identify the clustered patterns and prevalence of four HRBs: smoking, alcohol, diet, physical activity. We used data, collected from participants in their early 30s, from two British cohorts born in 1958 and 1970 (N=21,019). Multi-group LPA models were run separately by gender testing for cohort differences in HRB cluster patterns. For both genders three clusters emerged: 'Risky' (1-9%), 'Moderate Smokers' (20-30%) and 'Mainstream' (68-77%). HRBs amongst members of the 'Mainstream' cluster were more beneficial than HRBs amongst members of the other two clusters, characterised as not smoking, frequent fruit and vegetable consumption, less frequent consumption of chips and fried food and being more physically active. Nevertheless, frequent consumption of sweet foods was common in the 'Mainstream' cluster. There was a large shift in membership to the 'Mainstream' cluster for men and women born in 1970. Amongst women members of the 'Mainstream' cluster, a higher proportion of those born in 1970 appeared to have drunk alcohol above the contemporaneous UK recommended limits but consumed sweet foods less frequently, than those born in 1958. In summary our findings provide additional evidence of HRB clustering, identifying largely consistent HRBs cluster patterns across cohort and gender groups, with some differences in prevalence. This evidence of HRB clustering across time and by gender provides a person-centred understanding that can inform interventions to improve HRBs. PMID:27058943

  1. Comparison of head circumference in an Israeli child population with United States and British standards.

    PubMed

    Palti, H; Peritz, E; Flug, D; Gitlin, M; Adler, B

    1983-01-01

    The head circumference (HC) growth pattern of infants from 1 to 24 months of age was studied in a Jerusalem community. The means of HC of the study population are smaller for each age and sex group than those of the National Center of Health Statistics, USA reference population, London children and the Nellhaus standard. The regression of HC on length explains about 20% of the variance. In an analysis of variance controlling for social class, birth order and length, the differences by region of origin of the mother were not significant. The smaller HC of the study population is probably due to these children being shorter and lighter than the above-mentioned western populations. Malnutrition as a factor for small HC was excluded. PMID:6838166

  2. Genetic Characterization of Human Populations: From ABO to a Genetic Map of the British People

    PubMed Central

    Bodmer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    From 1900, when Landsteiner first described the ABO blood groups, to the present, the methods used to characterize the genetics of human populations have undergone a remarkable development. Concomitantly, our understanding of the history and spread of human populations across the earth has become much more detailed. As has often been said, a better understanding of the genetic relationships among the peoples of the world is one of the best antidotes to racial prejudices. Such an understanding provides us with a fascinating, improved insight into our origins as well as with valuable information about population differences that are of medical relevance. The study of genetic polymorphisms has been essential to the analysis of the relationships between human populations. The evolution of methods used to study human polymorphisms and the resulting contributions to our understanding of human health and history is the subject of this Perspectives. PMID:25657345

  3. Disparities in Paediatric Injury Mortality between Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Populations in British Columbia, 2001-2009.

    PubMed

    Amram, Ofer; Walker, Blake Byron; Schuurman, Nadine; Pike, Ian; Yanchar, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death among children and youth in Canada. Significant disparities in injury mortality rates have been observed between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations, but little is known about the age-, sex-, and mechanism-specific patterns of injury causing death. This study examines paediatric mortality in British Columbia from 2001 to 2009 using comprehensive vital statistics registry data. We highlight important disparities in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mortality rates, and use the Preventable Years of Life Lost (PrYLL) metric to identify differences between age groups and the mechanisms of injury causing death. A significantly greater age-adjusted mortality rate was observed among Aboriginal children (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.41, 3.06), and significantly higher rates of death due to assault, suffocation, and fire were detected for specific age groups. Mapped results highlight regional disparities in PrYLL across the province, which may reflect higher Aboriginal populations in rural and remote areas. Crucially, these disparities underscore the need for community-specific injury prevention policies, particularly in regions with high PrYLL. PMID:27399748

  4. A clonal outbreak of tuberculosis in a homeless population in the interior of British Columbia, Canada, 2008-2015.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J M; Hiscoe, L; Pollock, S L; Hasselback, P; Gardy, J L; Parker, R

    2015-11-01

    A tuberculosis (TB) case was reported May 2008 in Kelowna, British Columbia, leading to a multi-year outbreak in homeless persons. The epidemiological characteristics and social networks of cases are described. Outbreak-related cases were identified from epidemiological information in medical records and from genotyping of TB isolates. Social network information from case interviews were used to identify potential locations of TB transmission, where symptom screening and tuberculin skin testing was conducted. Fifty-two cases that were predominantly male (47/52), Canadian-born (44/50), and were homeless or associated with homeless individuals (42/52) were reported from May 2008 to May 2014. Many isolates (40/49) had partial resistance to isoniazid. Transmission primarily occurred at two homeless shelters, with potential further transmission at sites visited by the general population. TB outbreaks in homeless populations can occur in small, low-incidence cities. Social network information helped prioritize sites for TB screening, thereby improving detection of persons with TB disease or latent infection for treatment. PMID:26018109

  5. Disparities in Paediatric Injury Mortality between Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Populations in British Columbia, 2001–2009

    PubMed Central

    Amram, Ofer; Walker, Blake Byron; Schuurman, Nadine; Pike, Ian; Yanchar, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death among children and youth in Canada. Significant disparities in injury mortality rates have been observed between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations, but little is known about the age-, sex-, and mechanism-specific patterns of injury causing death. This study examines paediatric mortality in British Columbia from 2001 to 2009 using comprehensive vital statistics registry data. We highlight important disparities in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mortality rates, and use the Preventable Years of Life Lost (PrYLL) metric to identify differences between age groups and the mechanisms of injury causing death. A significantly greater age-adjusted mortality rate was observed among Aboriginal children (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.41, 3.06), and significantly higher rates of death due to assault, suffocation, and fire were detected for specific age groups. Mapped results highlight regional disparities in PrYLL across the province, which may reflect higher Aboriginal populations in rural and remote areas. Crucially, these disparities underscore the need for community-specific injury prevention policies, particularly in regions with high PrYLL. PMID:27399748

  6. Cardiovascular risk profile and frailty in a population-based study of older British men

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, S E; Arianayagam, D S; Whincup, P H; Lennon, L T; Cryer, J; Papacosta, A O; Iliffe, S; Wannamethee, S G

    2015-01-01

    Background Frailty in older age is known to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, the extent to which frailty is associated with the CVD risk profile has been little studied. Our aim was to examine the associations of a range of cardiovascular risk factors with frailty and to assess whether these are independent of established CVD. Methods Cross-sectional study of a socially representative sample of 1622 surviving men aged 71–92 examined in 2010–2012 across 24 British towns, from a prospective study initiated in 1978–1980. Frailty was defined using the Fried phenotype, including weight loss, grip strength, exhaustion, slowness and low physical activity. Results Among 1622 men, 303 (19%) were frail and 876 (54%) were pre-frail. Compared with non-frail, those with frailty had a higher odds of obesity (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.38 to 2.99), high waist circumference (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.67 to 3.17), low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.47 to 3.54) and hypertension (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.54). Prevalence of these factors was also higher in those with frailty (prevalence in frail vs non-frail groups was 46% vs 31% for high waist circumference, 20% vs 11% for low HDL and 78% vs 65% for hypertension). Frail individuals had a worse cardiovascular risk profile with an increased risk of high heart rate, poor lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)), raised white cell count (WCC), poor renal function (low estimated glomerular filtration rate), low alanine transaminase and low serum sodium. Some risk factors (HDL-C, hypertension, WCC, FEV1, renal function and albumin) were also associated with being pre-frail. These associations remained when men with prevalent CVD were excluded. Conclusions Frailty was associated with increased risk of a range of cardiovascular factors (including obesity, HDL-C, hypertension, heart rate, lung function, renal function) in older people; these associations were independent

  7. Stimulants and Cannabis Use Among a Marginalized Population in British Columbia, Canada: Role of Trauma and Incarceration.

    PubMed

    Saddichha, Sahoo; Werker, Gregory R; Schuetz, Christian; Krausz, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    High rates of substance use, especially cannabis and stimulant use, have been associated with homelessness, exposure to trauma, and involvement with the criminal justice system. This study explored differences in substance use (cannabis vs. stimulants) and associations with trauma and incarceration among a homeless population. Data were derived from the BC Health of the Homeless Study (BCHOHS), carried out in three cities in British Columbia, Canada. Measures included sociodemographic information, the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Plus. Stimulant users were more likely to be female (43%), using multiple substances (3.2), and engaging in survival sex (14%). Cannabis users had higher rates of lifetime psychotic disorders (32%). Among the incarcerated, cannabis users had been subjected to greater emotional neglect (p < .05) and one in two cannabis users had a history of lifetime depressive disorders (p < .05). Childhood physical abuse and Caucasian ethnicity were also associated with greater crack cocaine use. One explanation for the results is that a history of childhood abuse may lead to a developmental cascade of depressive symptoms and other psychopathology, increasing the chances of cannabis dependence and the development of psychosis. PMID:25028364

  8. Population-based risks of central nervous system tumours in childhood cancer survivors: the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Aliki J; Little, Mark P; Winter, David L; Sugden, Elaine; Ellison, David W; Stiller, Charles A; Stovall, Marilyn; Frobisher, Clare; Lancashire, Emma R; Reulen, Raoul C; Hawkins, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose CNS tumours are the most common second primary neoplasm observed after childhood cancer in Britain, but the relationship of risk to dose of previous radiotherapy and chemotherapy is uncertain. Methods The British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a national population-based cohort study of 17980 individuals surviving at least 5 years after diagnosis of childhood cancer. Linkage to national population-based cancer registries identified 247 second primary neoplasms of the CNS. Cohort and nested case-control studies were undertaken. Results There were 137 meningiomas, 73 gliomas and 37 other CNS neoplasms included in the analysis. The risk of meningioma increased strongly, linearly and independently with each of dose of radiation to meningeal tissue and dose of intrathecal methotrexate. Those whose meningeal tissue received 0.01-9.99,10.00-19.99,20.00-29.99,30.00-39.99 and ≥40Gy had a risk 2,8,52,568 and 479-fold that experienced by those whose meningeal tissue was unexposed, respectively. The risk of meningioma among individuals receiving 1-39,40-69 and at least 70mg/m2 of intrathecal methotrexate was 15,11 and 36-fold that experienced by those unexposed, respectively. The standardised incidence ratio for gliomas was 10·8 (95% confidence interval: 8·5, 13·6). The risk of glioma/primitive neuroectodermal tumours increased linearly with dose of radiation and those with CNS tissue exposed to at least 40Gy experienced a risk 4-fold that experienced by those with CNS tissue unexposed. Conclusion The largest ever study of CNS tumours in childhood cancer survivors indicates the risk of meningioma increases rapidly with increased dose of radiation to meningeal tissue and increased dose of intrathecal methotrexate. PMID:21079138

  9. Population-based 10-year event-free survival after radical prostatectomy for patients with prostate cancer in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Michael; Quirt, Jill; James Morris, W.; So, Alan; Sing, Charmaine Kim; Pickles, Tom; Tyldesley, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We determined (1) the 10-year survival outcomes after radical treatment of prostate cancer and (2) the 10-year event-free survival following radical prostatectomy (RP) at a population-level in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods: We identified all men with a new diagnosis of prostate cancer in BC between 1999 and 2000. Those treated with RP, external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy (BT) were identified. Overall survival, and prostate cancer specific survival (PCSS) were calculated from diagnosis using the Kaplan-Meier method. For those men treated with RP, we calculated the 10-year event-free survival (freedom from salvage EBRT or androgen ablation, or death from prostate cancer). Reasons for initiating androgen therapy were unknown and may include symptomatic metastatic disease or asymptomatic biochemical recurrence. An important limitation was the absence of prostate-specific antigen data for staging or follow-up. Results: Among 6028 incident cases, RP was the curative-intent treatment within 1 year in 1360 (22.6%) patients, EBRT in 1367 (22.7%), and BT in 357 (5.9%). The 10-year PCSS was 98% for RP, 95% for EBRT and 98% for BT (log rank p < 0.0001). The 10-year overall survival was 87%. The 10-year event-free survival for those treated with RP was 79% and varied with Gleason grade: 87%, 74%, and 52% for Gleason 2–6, 7, and 8–10, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: This population-based study provides outcomes which can inform patient decision-making and provide a benchmark to which other therapies can be compared. Event-free rates for patients treated with RP vary with Gleason score. There is room for improvement in the outcomes of patients with high Gleason score treated with RP. PMID:26788230

  10. Local Cattle and Badger Populations Affect the Risk of Confirmed Tuberculosis in British Cattle Herds

    PubMed Central

    Vial, Flavie; Johnston, W. Thomas; Donnelly, Christl A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a priority on the public health agenda in Great Britain, after launching in 1998 the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT) to evaluate the effectiveness of badger (Meles meles) culling as a control strategy. Our study complements previous analyses of the RBCT data (focusing on treatment effects) by presenting analyses of herd-level risks factors associated with the probability of a confirmed bTB breakdown in herds within each treatment: repeated widespread proactive culling, localized reactive culling and no culling (survey-only). Methodology/Principal Findings New cases of bTB breakdowns were monitored inside the RBCT areas from the end of the first proactive badger cull to one year after the last proactive cull. The risk of a herd bTB breakdown was modeled using logistic regression and proportional hazard models adjusting for local farm-level risk factors. Inside survey-only and reactive areas, increased numbers of active badger setts and cattle herds within 1500 m of a farm were associated with an increased bTB risk. Inside proactive areas, the number of M. bovis positive badgers initially culled within 1500 m of a farm was the strongest predictor of the risk of a confirmed bTB breakdown. Conclusions/Significance The use of herd-based models provide insights into how local cattle and badger populations affect the bTB breakdown risks of individual cattle herds in the absence of and in the presence of badger culling. These measures of local bTB risks could be integrated into a risk-based herd testing programme to improve the targeting of interventions aimed at reducing the risks of bTB transmission. PMID:21464920

  11. Conservation prioritization in widespread species: the use of genetic and morphological data to assess population distinctiveness in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Eric B; Tamkee, Patrick; Keeley, Ernest R; Parkinson, Eric A

    2011-01-01

    Prioritization of efforts to maintain biodiversity is an important component of conservation, but is more often applied to ecosystems or species than within species. We assessed distinctiveness among 27 populations of rainbow trout (Salmonidae: Oncorhynchus mykiss) from British Columbia, Canada, using microsatellite DNA variation (representing historical or contemporary demography) and morphology (representing adaptive variation). Standardized genetic scores, that is, the average deviation across individuals within populations from the overall genetic score generated by factorial correspondence analysis, ranged from 1.05 to 4.90 among populations. Similar standardized morphological scores, generated by principal components analysis, ranged from 1.19 to 5.35. There was little correlation between genetic and morphological distinctiveness across populations, although one population was genetically and morphologically the most distinctive. There was, however, a significant correlation (r = 0.26, P = 0.008) between microsatellite (FST) and morphological (PST) divergence. We combined measures of allelic richness, genetic variation within, and divergence among, populations and morphological variation to provide a conservation ranking of populations. Our approach can be combined with other measures of biodiversity value (habitat, rarity, human uses, threat status) to rationalize the prioritization of populations, especially for widespread species where geographic isolation across distinct environments promotes intraspecific variability. PMID:25567956

  12. Population Aging and the Determinants of Healthcare Expenditures: The Case of Hospital, Medical and Pharmaceutical Care in British Columbia, 1996 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    There is a gap between rhetoric and reality concerning healthcare expenditures and population aging: although decades-old research suggests otherwise, there is widespread belief that the sustainability of the healthcare system is under serious threat owing to population aging. To shed new empirical light on this old debate, we used population-based administrative data to quantify recent trends and determinants of expenditure on hospital, medical and pharmaceutical care in British Columbia. We modelled changes in inflation-adjusted expenditure per capita between 1996 and 2006 as a function of two demographic factors (population aging and changes in age-specific mortality rates) and three non-demographic factors (age-specific rates of use of care, quantities of care per user and inflation-adjusted costs per unit of care). We found that population aging contributed less than 1% per year to spending on medical, hospital and pharmaceutical care. Moreover, changes in age-specific mortality rates actually reduced hospital expenditure by —0.3% per year. Based on forecasts through 2036, we found that the future effects of population aging on healthcare spending will continue to be small. We therefore conclude that population aging has exerted, and will continue to exert, only modest pressures on medical, hospital and pharmaceutical costs in Canada. As indicated by the specific non-demographic cost drivers computed in our study, the critical determinants of expenditure on healthcare stem from non-demographic factors over which practitioners, policy makers and patients have discretion. PMID:22851987

  13. British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    The province of British Columbia has a dubious history where support for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) issues in education is concerned. Most notable is the Surrey School Board's decision in 1997 to ban three picture books for children that depict families with two moms or two dads. The North Vancouver School Board has also…

  14. Heterogeneity in Genetic Diversity among Non-Coding Loci Fails to Fit Neutral Coalescent Models of Population History

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Jeffrey L.; Roberts, Trina E.; Winker, Kevin; McCracken, Kevin G.

    2012-01-01

    Inferring aspects of the population histories of species using coalescent analyses of non-coding nuclear DNA has grown in popularity. These inferences, such as divergence, gene flow, and changes in population size, assume that genetic data reflect simple population histories and neutral evolutionary processes. However, violating model assumptions can result in a poor fit between empirical data and the models. We sampled 22 nuclear intron sequences from at least 19 different chromosomes (a genomic transect) to test for deviations from selective neutrality in the gadwall (Anas strepera), a Holarctic duck. Nucleotide diversity among these loci varied by nearly two orders of magnitude (from 0.0004 to 0.029), and this heterogeneity could not be explained by differences in substitution rates alone. Using two different coalescent methods to infer models of population history and then simulating neutral genetic diversity under these models, we found that the observed among-locus heterogeneity in nucleotide diversity was significantly higher than expected for these simple models. Defining more complex models of population history demonstrated that a pre-divergence bottleneck was also unlikely to explain this heterogeneity. However, both selection and interspecific hybridization could account for the heterogeneity observed among loci. Regardless of the cause of the deviation, our results illustrate that violating key assumptions of coalescent models can mislead inferences of population history. PMID:22384117

  15. Injury Hospitalizations Due to Unintentional Falls among the Aboriginal Population of British Columbia, Canada: Incidence, Changes over Time, and Ecological Analysis of Risk Markers, 1991-2010

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC) have higher injury incidence than the general population. Our project describes variability among injury categories, time periods, and geographic, demographic and socio-economic groups. This report focuses on unintentional falls. Methods We used BC’s universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to hospital separation and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We identified residents of specific Aboriginal communities by postal code. We calculated crude incidence and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics with community SRR of injury by linear regression. Results During 1991 through 2010, the crude rate of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury in BC was 33.6 per 10,000 person-years. The Aboriginal rate was 49.9 per 10,000 and SRR was 1.89 (95% confidence interval 1.85-1.94). Among those living on reserves SRR was 2.00 (95% CI 1.93-2.07). Northern and non-urban HSDAs had higher SRRs, within both total and Aboriginal populations. In every age and gender category, the HSDA-standardized SRR was higher among the Aboriginal than among the total population. Between 1991 and 2010, crude rates and SRRs declined substantially, but proportionally more among the Aboriginal population, so the gap between the Aboriginal and total population is narrowing, particularly among females and older adults. These community characteristics were associated with higher risk: lower income, lower educational level, worse housing conditions, and more hazardous types of employment. Conclusions Over the years, as socio-economic conditions improve, risk of

  16. Expanded HAART Coverage is Associated with Decreased Population-level HIV-1-RNA and Annual New HIV Diagnoses in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Montaner, Julio S.G.; Lima, Viviane D.; Barrios, Rolando; Yip, Benita; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; Shannon, Kate; Harrigan, P. Richard; Hogg, Robert S.; Daly, Patricia; Kendall, Perry

    2010-01-01

    Background Cohort studies and mathematical models have suggested that expanded coverage with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) could decrease HIV transmission. This study focuses on the HIV epidemic, stratified by injection drug use, in the province of British Columbia, Canada, and seeks to estimate the association between plasma HIV-1-viral load, HAART coverage and number of new cases of HIV at the population-level. Methods HAART use, plasma HIV-1-viral level determinations, and rates of reportable sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, are all recorded in province-wide registries allowing for temporal comparisons of these parameters. Trends of new HIV positive tests and number of individuals on HAART were modeled using generalized additive models. Poisson log-linear regression models were used to estimate the association between the outcome new HIV positive tests (per 100 population) and the covariates viral load (log10 transformed), year, and number of individuals on HAART. Conclusions Our results demonstrate a strong association at the population-level between increasing levels of HAART coverage, decreased viral load and decreased new HIV diagnoses/year, against a background of increased HIV testing and increased rates of other STIs in the province. Our results support the proposed secondary benefit of HAART, used within current medical guidelines, on HIV transmission at a population level. PMID:20638713

  17. Biology and Conservation of the Common Murre in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia: Vol. 1, Natural History and Population Trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manuwal, David Allen, (Edited By); Carter, Harry R.; Zimmerman, Tara S.; Orthmeyer, Dennis L.

    2001-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Over the past 30 years, the common murre (Uria aalge californica) has been recognized as a prominent indicator of marine conservation issues in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, especially regarding oil pollution, certain fisheries, and human disturbance. To assist the effective management of the common murre and the marine environments in which they live, this summary of available information on the biology and regional status of the common murre has been sponsored by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Division of Migratory Bird Management). In Volume 1 (Chapter 1), the natural history of the common murre is summarized, drawing heavily on breeding studies from the South Farallon Islands, California, plus a host of detailed breeding studies from the North Atlantic Ocean. Population trends of the common murre are summarized in Volume 1 (Chapter 2), focusing on changes in whole-colony counts determined from aerial photographs between the late 1970s and 1995 in California, Oregon and Washington. Historical data and human impacts to murre colonies since the early nineteenth century are also summarized. Volume 2 will summarize population threats, conservation, and management. Information presented in Volume 1 has been obtained and recorded by a large number of researchers and natural historians over two centuries. From the 1960s to 1995, most work in California, Oregon, and Washington was sponsored by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Minerals Management Service, and California Department of Fish and Game. Important breeding biology studies were conducted at the South Farallon Islands (Farallon National Wildlife Refuge) by the Point Reyes Bird Observatory, in coordination with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge). Colony surveys in California were conducted mainly by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge), U.S. Geological Survey (Western

  18. Insomnia and hallucinations in the general population: Findings from the 2000 and 2007 British Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys.

    PubMed

    Sheaves, Bryony; Bebbington, Paul E; Goodwin, Guy M; Harrison, Paul J; Espie, Colin A; Foster, Russell G; Freeman, Daniel

    2016-07-30

    Insomnia is common in people experiencing psychosis. It has been identified as a contributory cause of paranoia, but any causal relationship with hallucinations has yet to be established. We tested the hypotheses that insomnia i) has a cross-sectional association with hallucinations ii) predicts new inceptions of hallucinations and iii) that these associations remain after controlling for depression, anxiety, and paranoia. Data from the second (2000, N=8580) and third (2007, N=7403) British Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys were used to assess cross-sectional associations between insomnia and hallucinations. The 2000 dataset included an 18 month follow up of a subsample (N=2406) used to test whether insomnia predicted new inceptions of hallucinations. Insomnia was associated with hallucinations in both cross-sectional datasets. Mild sleep problems were associated with 2-3 times greater odds of reporting hallucinations, whilst chronic insomnia was associated with four times greater odds. Insomnia was also associated with increased odds of hallucinations occurring de novo over the next 18 months. These associations remained significant, although with smaller odds ratios, after controlling for depression, anxiety and paranoia. This is the first longitudinal evidence that insomnia is associated with the development of hallucinatory experiences. Effective treatment of insomnia may lessen the occurrence of hallucinations. PMID:27173659

  19. Genetic testing of children for adult-onset conditions: opinions of the British adult population and implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Shkedi-Rafid, Shiri; Fenwick, Angela; Dheensa, Sandi; Lucassen, Anneke M

    2015-10-01

    This study set out to explore the attitudes of a representative sample of the British public towards genetic testing in children to predict disease in the future. We sought opinions about genetic testing for adult-onset conditions for which no prevention/treatment is available during childhood, and about genetic 'carrier' status to assess future reproductive risks. The study also examined participants' level of agreement with the reasons professional organisations give in favour of deferring such testing. Participants (n=2998) completed a specially designed questionnaire, distributed by email. Nearly half of the sample (47%) agreed that parents should be able to test their child for adult-onset conditions, even if there is no treatment or prevention at time of testing. This runs contrary to professional guidance about genetic testing in children. Testing for carrier status was supported by a larger proportion (60%). A child's future ability to decide for her/himself if and when to be tested was the least supported argument in favour of deferring testing. PMID:25370041

  20. Ariane fails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    On September 10, 1982, a French Ariane rocket failed during launch from its maker's pads located in Kourou, Guiana, on the northern coast of South America. This was the second failure out of five attempted flights for the commercial rocket upon which the hopes and numerous payloads of ESA, the European Space Agency, are to ride. The European space community, including geophysical, commercial, and military interests, concludes that only three successes out of five attempts are not at all satisfactory (New Scientist, Sept. 16, 1982; Nature, Sept. 16, 1982).Ariane has been widely trumpeted as a strong competitor for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Delta and space shuttle launchers and as an instant, cheap solution to the problems of placing scientific and communications satellites into orbit. The costs of losing the fifth Ariane are high—on the order of $70 million, after insurance coverage. Doubts about using Ariane for future missions have been raised; when Ariane crashed into the Atlantic, it carried with it two satellites, the Marecs B, for marine communications, and the Sirio 2, an Italian telecommunications satellite. There are fears that EXOSAT, the European Space Agency's X ray astronomy observatory satellite may not make the planned flight launch window of November 1982.

  1. Worker compensation injuries among the Aboriginal population of British Columbia, Canada: incidence, annual trends, and ecological analysis of risk markers, 1987–2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC) have higher injury incidence than the general population, but information is scarce regarding variability among injury categories, time periods, and geographic, demographic and socio-economic groups. Our project helps fill these gaps. This report focuses on workplace injuries. Methods We used BC’s universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to worker compensation and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We identified residents of specific Aboriginal communities by postal code. We calculated crude incidence rate and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of worker compensation injury, adjusted for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We assessed annual trend by regressing SRR as a linear function of year. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics of Aboriginal communities with community SRR of injury by multivariable linear regression. Results During the period 1987–2010, the crude rate of worker compensation injury in BC was 146.6 per 10,000 person-years (95% confidence interval: 146.4 to 146.9 per 10,000). The Aboriginal rate was 115.6 per 10,000 (95% CI: 114.4 to 116.8 per 10,000) and SRR was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.87 to 0.89). Among those living on reserves SRR was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.78 to 0.80). HSDA SRRs were highly variable, within both total and Aboriginal populations. Aboriginal males under 35 and females under 40 years of age had lower SRRs, but older Aboriginal females had higher SRRs. SRRs are declining, but more slowly for the Aboriginal population. The Aboriginal population was initially at lower risk than the total population, but parity was reached in 2006. These community characteristics independently predicted injury risk: crowded housing, proportion of population who

  2. Trends and Determinants of Prescription Drug Use during Pregnancy and Postpartum in British Columbia, 2002–2011: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Smolina, Kate; Hanley, Gillian E.; Mintzes, Barbara; Oberlander, Tim F.; Morgan, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe trends, patterns, and determinants of prescription drug use during pregnancy and postpartum. Methods This is a retrospective, population-based study of all women who gave birth between January 2002 and 31 December 2011 in British Columbia, Canada. Study population consisted of 225,973 women who had 322,219 pregnancies. We examined administrative datasets containing person-specific information on filled prescriptions, hospitalizations, and medical services. Main outcome measures were filled prescriptions during pregnancy and postpartum. We used logistic regressions to examine associations between prescription drug use and maternal characteristics. Results Approximately two thirds of women filled a prescription during pregnancy, increasing from 60% in 2002 to 66% in 2011. The proportion of pregnant women using medicines in all three trimesters of pregnancy increased from 20% in 2002 to 27% in 2011. Use of four or more different types of prescription drug during at least one trimester increased from 8.4% in 2002 to 11.7% in 2011. Higher BMI, smoking during pregnancy, age under 25, carrying multiples, and being diagnosed with a chronic condition all significantly increased the odds of prescription drug use during pregnancy. Conclusions The observed increase in the number of prescriptions and number of different drugs being dispensed suggests a trend in prescribing practices with potentially important implications for mothers, their neonates, and caregivers. Monitoring of prescribing practices and further research into the safety of most commonly prescribed medications is crucial in better understanding risks and benefits to the fetus and the mother. PMID:26011706

  3. The Influence of Potato Cultivar on Lipid Content and Fecundity of Bolivian and British Populations of Globodera rostochiensis

    PubMed Central

    Holz, R. A.; Troth, K.; Atkinson, H. J.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of host cultivar on the lipid levels provided by a female to her progeny was investigated with Oil Red O stain and a quantitative image analyzer. A population of Globodera rostochiensis was multiplied at Toralapa Field Station in Bolivia on 25 different potato cultivars grown in that country. The mean neutral lipid content of newly formed second-stage juveniles varied significantly with cultivar over a 200% range. The corresponding range was only 18% and 28% for the same Bolivian and a UK population of G. rostochiensis, respectively, when both completed reproduction concurrently on 10 pot-grown European cultivars in the United Kingdom. Egg numbers per female varied with host for Bolivian cultivars that lack known partial resistance to Globodera spp. There was a 15-fold range between the most and least fecund nematode-host combinations (Kosi and Gendarme). The Bolivian G. rostochiensis population showed only a 2-fold range in mean eggs per cyst when grown on European cultivars in the UK. The fatty acid profiles of lipids from Bolivian G. rostochiensis cysts reared on Bolivian potato cultivars were dominated by C20 (37-64%) and C18 (28-46%) fatty acids and ranged from C14 to C22. The three major fatty acids detected were C20:4:, C20:1, and C18:1. Few differences between cultivars were observed. For a UK population of G. rostochiensis reared on ssp. tuberosum, higher relative percentages of C18 and monounsaturated fatty acids and lower relative percentages of C20 and polyunsaturated fatty acids were found. PMID:19270908

  4. British Communicator Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunstall, Jeremy

    Occupations and organizations within the British press and broadcasting systems are examined in this paper. Its sections summarize recent British research on media communicators and discuss characteristics of craft unions and other media organizations; the historical development of the British press; the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and…

  5. High Levels of Heterogeneity in the HIV Cascade of Care across Different Population Subgroups in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Lillian; Colley, Guillaume; Nosyk, Bohdan; Shopin, Dmitry; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Lima, Viviane D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The HIV cascade of care (cascade) is a comprehensive tool which identifies attrition along the HIV care continuum. We executed analyses to explicate heterogeneity in the cascade across key strata, as well as identify predictors of attrition across stages of the cascade. Methods Using linked individual-level data for the population of HIV-positive individuals in BC, we considered the 2011 calendar year, including individuals diagnosed at least 6 months prior, and excluding individuals that died or were lost to follow-up before January 1st, 2011. We defined five stages in the cascade framework: HIV ‘diagnosed’, ‘linked’ to care, ‘retained’ in care, ‘on HAART’ and virologically ‘suppressed’. We stratified the cascade by sex, age, risk category, and regional health authority. Finally, multiple logistic regression models were built to predict attrition across each stage of the cascade, adjusting for stratification variables. Results We identified 7621 HIV diagnosed individuals during the study period; 80% were male and 5% were <30, 17% 30–39, 37% 40–49 and 40% were ≥50 years. Of these, 32% were MSM, 28% IDU, 8% MSM/IDU, 12% heterosexual, and 20% other. Overall, 85% of individuals ‘on HAART’ were ‘suppressed’; however, this proportion ranged from 60%–93% in our various stratifications. Most individuals, in all subgroups, were lost between the stages: ‘linked’ to ‘retained’ and ‘on HAART’ to ‘suppressed’. Subgroups with the highest attrition between these stages included females and individuals <30 years (regardless of transmission risk group). IDUs experienced the greatest attrition of all subgroups. Logistic regression results found extensive statistically significant heterogeneity in attrition across the cascade between subgroups and regional health authorities. Conclusions We found that extensive heterogeneity in attrition existed across subgroups and regional health authorities along the HIV cascade of

  6. Do women spend longer on wait lists for coronary bypass surgery? Analysis of a population-based registry in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Adrian R; Sobolev, Boris G; Kuramoto, Lisa; Hayden, Robert; MacLeod, Stuart M

    2007-01-01

    Background Studies have shown patients who are delayed for surgical cardiac revascularization are faced with increased risks of symptom deterioration and death. This could explain the observation that operative mortality among persons undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) is higher among women than men. However, in jurisdictions that employ priority wait lists to manage access to elective cardiac surgery, there is little information on whether women wait longer than men for CABG. It is therefore difficult to ascertain whether higher operative mortality among women is due to biological differences or to delayed access to elective CABG. Methods Using records from a population-based registry, we compared the wait-list time between women and men in British Columbia (BC) between 1990 and 2000. We compared the number of weeks from registration to surgery for equal proportions of women and men, after adjusting for priority, comorbidity and age. Results In BC in the 1990s, 9,167 patients aged 40 years and over were registered on wait lists for CABG and spent a total of 136,071 person-weeks waiting. At the time of registration for CABG, women were more likely to have a comorbid condition than men. We found little evidence to suggest that women waited longer than men for CABG after registration, after adjusting for comorbidity and age, either overall or within three priority groups. Conclusion Our findings support the hypothesis that higher operative mortality during elective CABG operations observed among women is not due to longer delays for the procedure. PMID:17683535

  7. Haplotypes of the WNK1 gene associate with blood pressure variation in a severely hypertensive population from the British Genetics of Hypertension study.

    PubMed

    Newhouse, Stephen J; Wallace, Chris; Dobson, Richard; Mein, Charles; Pembroke, Janine; Farrall, Martin; Clayton, David; Brown, Morris; Samani, Nilesh; Dominiczak, Anna; Connell, John M; Webster, John; Lathrop, G Mark; Caulfield, Mark; Munroe, Patricia B

    2005-07-01

    Mutations in the WNK1 gene cause Gordon's syndrome, a rare Mendelian form of hypertension. We assessed whether common WNK1 variants might also contribute to essential hypertension (EH), a multifactorial disorder affecting > 25% of the adult population worldwide. A panel of 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the gene was selected from public databases and was genotyped in 100 white European families to determine the pattern of linkage disequilibrium, haplotype structure and tagging SNPs for the WNK1 locus. Eight tagging SNPs were identified with 90% power to predict common WNK1 haplotypes and SNPs. Family-based association tests were used to test for association with EH and severity of hypertension in 712 severely hypertensive families from the MRC British Genetics of Hypertension study resource. No association was found between WNK1 polymorphisms or haplotypes with hypertension; however, one SNP rs1468326, located 3 kb from the WNK1 promoter, was found to be nominally associated with severity of hypertension, with both systolic blood pressure (BP) (Z = +2.24, P = 0.025) and diastolic BP (Z = +1.99, P = 0.046). We also found nominal support for association of one common WNK1 haplotype with increased systolic BP (Z = +1.91, P = 0.053). This is the first study to perform haplotype association analysis of the WNK1 gene with EH. This finding of association between a SNP near the promoter region and the severity of hypertension suggests that increased expression of WNK1 might contribute to BP variability and susceptibility to EH similar to the mechanism of hypertension observed in Gordon's syndrome. PMID:15888480

  8. Are Sitting Occupations Associated with Increased All-Cause, Cancer, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Risk? A Pooled Analysis of Seven British Population Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Chau, Josephine Y.; Pedisic, Zeljko; Bauman, Adrian; Macniven, Rona; Coombs, Ngaire; Hamer, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background There is mounting evidence for associations between sedentary behaviours and adverse health outcomes, although the data on occupational sitting and mortality risk remain equivocal. The aim of this study was to determine the association between occupational sitting and cardiovascular, cancer and all-cause mortality in a pooled sample of seven British general population cohorts. Methods The sample comprised 5380 women and 5788 men in employment who were drawn from five Health Survey for England and two Scottish Health Survey cohorts. Participants were classified as reporting standing, walking or sitting in their work time and followed up over 12.9 years for mortality. Data were modelled using Cox proportional hazard regression adjusted for age, waist circumference, self-reported general health, frequency of alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, non-occupational physical activity, prevalent cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline, psychological health, social class, and education. Results In total there were 754 all-cause deaths. In women, a standing/walking occupation was associated with lower risk of all-cause (fully adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.68, 95% CI 0.52–0.89) and cancer (HR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.43–0.85) mortality, compared to sitting occupations. There were no associations in men. In analyses with combined occupational type and leisure-time physical activity, the risk of all-cause mortality was lowest in participants with non-sitting occupations and high leisure-time activity. Conclusions Sitting occupations are linked to increased risk for all-cause and cancer mortality in women only, but no such associations exist for cardiovascular mortality in men or women. PMID:24086292

  9. Best of British: British Information Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Marydee

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the importance of British databases and information services to U.S. business searchers and describes several British databases and services. Topics covered include database contents, available search strategies, access from the United States, language differences, and dating problems. A directory of contacts is provided. (six…

  10. British Sign Name Customs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  11. Aboriginal Postsecondary Education: Formal Instruction for the Adult Aboriginal Population. Made in B.C.: A History of Postsecondary Education in British Columbia. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowin, Bob

    2011-01-01

    This report traces the development of initiatives in British Columbia, Canada to provide formal instruction for adults of Aboriginal heritage (also known as native or indigenous peoples), regardless of whether the learner completed secondary school. Activities in public as well as Aboriginal-governed institutions are described. Shorter sections…

  12. Lower Circulating B12 Is Associated with Higher Obesity and Insulin Resistance during Pregnancy in a Non-Diabetic White British Population

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Anita; Bhat, Dattatray S.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Vitamin B12 and folate are critical micronutrients needed to support the increased metabolic demands of pregnancy. Recent studies from India have suggested that low vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with increased obesity; however differences in diet, antenatal vitamin supplementation, and socioeconomic status may limit the generalisability of these findings. We aimed to explore the cross-sectional relationship of circulating serum vitamin B12 and folate at 28 weeks’ gestation with maternal adiposity and related biochemical markers in a white non diabetic UK obstetric cohort. Methods Anthropometry and biochemistry data was available on 995 women recruited at 28 weeks gestation to the Exeter Family Study of Childhood Health. Associations between B12 and folate with maternal BMI and other obesity-related biochemical factors (HOMA-R, fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL and AST) were explored using regression analysis, adjusting for potential confounders (socioeconomic status, vegetarian diet, vitamin supplementation, parity, haemodilution (haematocrit)). Results Higher 28 week BMI was associated with lower circulating vitamin B12 (r = -0.25; P<0.001) and folate (r = -0.15; P<0.001). In multiple regression analysis higher 28 week BMI remained an independent predictor of lower circulating B12 (β (95% CI) = -0.59 (-0.74, -0.44) i.e. for every 1% increase in BMI there was a 0.6% decrease in circulating B12). Other markers of adiposity/body fat metabolism (HOMA-R, triglycerides and AST) were also independently associated with circulating B12. In a similar multiple regression AST was the only independent obesity-related marker associated with serum folate (β (95% CI) = 0.16 (0.21, 0.51)) Conclusion In conclusion, our study has replicated the previous Indian findings of associations between lower serum B12 and higher obesity and insulin resistance during pregnancy in a non-diabetic White British population. These findings may

  13. Auditing the British Medical Journal.

    PubMed Central

    Channer, K S

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to audit the outcome in terms of change in practice of the published research from one volume of the British Medical Journal. All original papers and short reports from one Volume 296 of the British Medical Journal (BMJ) 1988 were read and classified into theoretical only, practical and theoretical and practical. Those papers with any practical message were reviewed by one of a panel of specialists in the subject of the paper to assess if the recommendation made by the paper had become common clinical practice. The results show that most papers originated from teaching centres and research institutes in the UK. Only 8% of main papers and 6% of short reports had a solely practical application, although a further 18% and 22% had practical elements. The majority of the recommendations aimed at changing practice were of relevance to hospital specialists rather than general practitioners (GPs). Of the papers with any practical implications 48% (12% of the total) of main papers and 41% (11% of the total) of short reports were considered to be current practice. The reasons why the papers failed to change practice are discussed. In conclusion, the majority of the original research papers published in the BMJ in 1988 were of a theoretical nature and only about 20% of papers made recommendations for a change in practice. About 50% of the recommendations are now current practice. PMID:7837183

  14. For British eyes only

    SciTech Connect

    Rothstein, L.

    1993-04-01

    Americans are learning about the history of their own nuclear weapons program from British documents released under the 30-year rule. In January, the British government released papers related to the 1958-61 U.S.-Soviet moratorium on nuclear testing and the resumption of U.S. testing in 1962. According to Solly Zuckerman, chief scientific advisor to the British Defense Ministry at the time, the United Kingdom had not appreciated that the nuclear weapons experts of the U.S. and U.S.S.R. used the two-and-a-half-year moratorium to plan the largest program of tests these countries carried out.

  15. Standards for British Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Anthony

    1982-01-01

    Reviews developments in British library standards since 1971, highlighting types of standards, public libraries, academic libraries (university, polytechnic, college), school libraries, and special libraries (hospital and health sciences, prison, subject specializations). Thirty-nine references are cited. (EJS)

  16. Identification of Occupational Cancer Risks in British Columbia, Canada: A Population-Based Case—Control Study of 1,155 Cases of Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Raymond; Le, Nhu; Band, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Objective Cancer has been recognized to have environmental origin, but occupational cancer risk studies have not been fully documented. The objective of this paper was to identify occupations and industries with elevated colon cancer risk based on lifetime occupational histories collected from 15,463 incident cancer cases. Method A group matched case-control design was used. All cases were diagnosed with histologically proven colon cancers, with cancer controls being all other cancer sites, excluding rectum, lung and unknown primary, diagnosed at the same period of time from the British Columbia Cancer Registry. Data analyses were done on all 597 Canadian standard occupation titles and 1,104 standard industry titles using conditional logistic regression for matched data sets and the likelihood ratio test. Results Excess colon cancer risks was observed in a number of occupations and industries, particularly those with low physical activity and those involving exposure to asbestos, wood dusts, engine exhaust and diesel engine emissions, and ammonia. Discussion The results of our study are in line with those from the literature and further suggest that exposure to wood dusts and to ammonia may carry an increased occupational risk of colon cancer. PMID:22073015

  17. Validation of the BPLab® 24-hour blood pressure monitoring system in a pediatric population according to the 1993 British Hypertension Society protocol

    PubMed Central

    Ledyaev, Mikhail Y; Stepanova, Olga V; Ledyaeva, Anastasia M

    2015-01-01

    Background Automatic 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring (ABPM) is a basic procedure performed in adults with arterial hypertension, but ABPM monitors have become widely used in pediatric practice only recently. The main problem is the lack of common normative data sets for ABPM in children and the small number of appropriate monitors that can be used for analysis of the 24-hour BP profile in this age group. The aim of this study was to validate the BPLab® ABPM monitor according to the 1993 British Hypertension Society (BHS-93) protocol, as well as to work out solutions regarding the feasibility of this device in pediatric practice. Methods Our study included 30 children of both sexes and aged 5–15 years, ie, “older” children according to the BHS-93 protocol. Before starting the study, we obtained ethical approval from the regional scientific ethics committee. All participants and their parents signed their written consent for participation in the study. The data were simultaneously obtained by three experts, who had completed a noninvasive BP measurement training course. BP values were measured using the Korotkoff auscultatory method (Phase I for systolic BP and Phase V for diastolic BP). Discrepancies in the systolic and diastolic BP measurements (n=180; 90 for each expert) were analyzed according to the criteria specified in the BHS-93 protocol. Results The device was graded “A” for both systolic BP and diastolic BP according to the criteria of the BHS-93 protocol. Conclusion The BPLab ABPM device may be recommended for extensive pediatric use. PMID:25674018

  18. Using Concept Mapping to Develop a Strategy for Self-Management Support for Underserved Populations Living With Chronic Conditions, British Columbia, August 2013–June 2014

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Kim; Pérez, Guillermina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Self-management support (SMS) is an essential component of public health approaches to chronic conditions. Given increasing concerns about health equity, the needs of diverse populations must be considered. This study examined potential solutions for addressing the gaps in self-management support initiatives for underserved populations. Methods Stakeholders representing government, nongovernment organizations, Aboriginal communities, health authorities, medical practices, and research institutions generated, sorted, and rated ideas on what could be done to improve self-management support for underserved populations. Concept mapping was used to facilitate the collection and organization of the data and to generate conceptual maps. Results Participants generated 92 ideas that were sorted into 11 clusters (foster partnerships, promote integrated community care, enhance health care provider training, shift government policy, support community development, increase community education, enable client engagement, incorporate client support systems, recognize client capacity, tailor self-management support programs, and develop client skills, training, and tools) and grouped into system, community, and individual levels within a partnership framework. Conclusion The strategy can stimulate public health dialogue and be a roadmap for developing SMS initiatives. It has the potential to address SMS and chronic condition inequities in underserved populations in several ways: 1) by targeting populations that have greater inequities, 2) by advocating for shifts in government policies that create and perpetuate inequities, 3) by promoting partnerships that may increase the number of SMS initiatives for underserved groups, and 4) by promoting training and engagement that increase the relevance, uptake, and overall effectiveness of SMS. PMID:26447550

  19. Prevent and "British Values"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Alex; Ghale, Baljeet

    2015-01-01

    At the recent National Union of Teachers' conference the role of the Prevent strategy and the introduction of "British Values" in the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills framework emerged as key issues for delegates. Two of the speeches made at the conference are presented here.

  20. Who Really Failed? Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiuri, Katherine M.; Leon, Raul A.

    2012-01-01

    Scott Jaschik's (2010) article "Who Really Failed?" details the experience of Dominique Homberger, a tenured faculty member at Louisiana State University (LSU) who was removed from teaching her introductory biology course citing student complaints in regards to "the extreme nature" of the grading policy. This removal has sparked a debate, where…

  1. Origins of British geriatrics.

    PubMed Central

    Howell, T. H.

    1976-01-01

    We may see from the foregoing account that British physicians have played a major part in the history of geriatric medicine. Other countries have no counterpart to J H Sheldon of Wolverhampton, whose work on the social medicine of old age was so fundamental, or George Adams of Belfast, to whom we owe such a debt of knowledge about cerebrovascular disease in the aged, or to Marjory Warren and the other pioneers mentioned above. Long may this tradition continue. PMID:785477

  2. Use of the Internet for Sexual Health Among Sexually Experienced Persons Aged 16 to 44 Years: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Survey of the British Population

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Claudia S; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam; Wellings, Kaye; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-01-01

    Background Those who go online regarding their sexual health are potential users of new Internet-based sexual health interventions. Understanding the size and characteristics of this population is important in informing intervention design and delivery. Objective We aimed to estimate the prevalence in Britain of recent use of the Internet for key sexual health reasons (for chlamydia testing, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] testing, sexually transmitted infection [STI] treatment, condoms/contraceptives, and help/advice with one’s sex life) and to identify associated sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Methods Complex survey analysis of data from 8926 sexually experienced persons aged 16-44 years in a 2010-2012 probability survey of Britain’s resident population. Prevalence of recent (past year) use of Internet sources for key sexual health reasons was estimated. Factors associated with use of information/support websites were identified using logistic regression to calculate age-adjusted odds ratios (AORs). Results Recent Internet use for chlamydia/HIV testing or STI treatment (combined) was very low (men: 0.31%; women: 0.16%), whereas 2.35% of men and 0.51% of women reported obtaining condoms/contraceptives online. Additionally, 4.49% of men and 4.57% of women reported recent use of information/support websites for advice/help with their sex lives. Prevalence declined with age (men 16-24 years: 7.7%; 35-44 years: 1.84%, P<.001; women 16-24 years: 7.8%; 35-44 years: 1.84%, P<.001). Use of information/support websites was strongly associated with men’s higher socioeconomic status (managerial/professional vs semiroutine/routine: AOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.27-2.93, P<.001). Despite no overall association with area-level deprivation, those in densely populated urban areas were more likely to report use of information/support websites than those living in rural areas (men: AOR 3.38, 95% CI 1.68-6.77, P<.001; women: AOR 2.51, 95% CI 1.34-4.70, P<.001). No

  3. Does the Intent to Irradiate the Internal Mammary Nodes Impact Survival in Women With Breast Cancer? A Population-Based Analysis in British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Robert A.; Woods, Ryan; Speers, Caroline; Lau, Jeffrey; Lo, Andrea; Truong, Pauline T.; Tyldesley, Scott; Olivotto, Ivo A.; Weir, Lorna

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the value of the intent to include internal mammary nodes (IMNs) in the radiation therapy (RT) volume for patients receiving adjuvant locoregional (breast or chest wall plus axillary and supraclavicular fossa) RT for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: 2413 women with node-positive or T3/4N0 invasive breast cancer, treated with locoregional RT from 2001 to 2006, were identified in a prospectively maintained, population-based database. Intent to include IMNs in RT volume was determined through review of patient charts and RT plans. Distant relapse free survival (D-RFS), breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS), and overall survival (OS) were compared between the two groups. Prespecified pN1 subgroup analyses were performed. Results: The median follow-up time was 6.2 years. Forty-one percent of study participants received IMN RT. The 5-year D-RFS for IMN inclusion and exclusion groups were 82% vs. 82% (p = 0.82), BCSS was 87% vs. 87% (p = 0.81), and OS was 85% vs. 83% (p = 0.06). In the pN1 subgroup, D-RFS was 90% vs. 88% (p = 0.31), BCSS was 94% vs. 92% (p = 0.18), and OS was 91% vs. 88% (p = 0.01). After potential confounding variables were controlled for, women who received IMN RT did not have significantly different D-RFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-1.24; p = 0.85), BCSS (HR = 0.98 (95% CI, 0.79-1.22; p = 0.88), or OS (HR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.78-1.15; p = 0.57). In the pN1 subgroup, IMN RT was associated with trends for improved survival that were not statistically significant: D-RFS (HR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.63-1.22; p = 0.42), BCSS (HR = 0.85; 95% CI, 0.57-1.25; p = 0.39), and OS (HR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.56-1.09; p = 0.14). Conclusions: After a median follow-up time of 6.2 years, although intentional IMN RT was not associated with a significant improvement in survival, this population-based study suggests that IMN RT may contribute to improved outcomes in selected patients with N1 disease.

  4. The construction of a "population problem" in colonial India, 1919-1947.

    PubMed

    Nair, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the construction of a "population problem" among public health officials in India during the inter-war period. British colonial officials came to focus on India's population through their concern with high Indian infant and maternal mortality rates. They raised the problem of population as one way in which to highlight the importance of dealing with public health at an all-India basis, in a context of constitutional devolution of power to Indians where they feared such matters would be relegated to relative local unimportance. While they failed to significantly shape government policy, their arguments in support of India's 'population problem' nevertheless found a receptive audience in the colonial public sphere among Indian intellectuals, economists, eugenicists, women social reformers and birth controllers. The article contributes to the history of population control by situating its pre-history in British colonial public health and development policy and outside the logic of USA's Cold War strategic planning for Asia. PMID:21961187

  5. Pathogenic Potential, Genetic Diversity, and Population Structure of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from a Forest-Dominated Watershed (Comox Lake) in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, Asit

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolates (n = 658) obtained from drinking water intakes of Comox Lake (2011 to 2013) were screened for the following virulence genes (VGs): stx1 and stx2 (Shiga toxin-producing E. coli [STEC]), eae and the adherence factor (EAF) gene (enteropathogenic E. coli [EPEC]), heat-stable (ST) enterotoxin (variants STh and STp) and heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) genes (enterotoxigenic E. coli [ETEC]), and ipaH (enteroinvasive E. coli [EIEC]). The only genes detected were eae and stx2, which were carried by 37.69% (n = 248) of the isolates. Only eae was harbored by 26.74% (n = 176) of the isolates, representing potential atypical EPEC strains, while only stx2 was detected in 10.33% (n = 68) of the isolates, indicating potential STEC strains. Moreover, four isolates were positive for both the stx2 and eae genes, representing potential EHEC strains. The prevalence of VGs (eae or stx2) was significantly (P < 0.0001) higher in the fall season, and multiple genes (eae plus stx2) were detected only in fall. Repetitive element palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprint analysis of 658 E. coli isolates identified 335 unique fingerprints, with an overall Shannon diversity (H′) index of 3.653. Diversity varied among seasons over the years, with relatively higher diversity during fall. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed that the majority of the fingerprints showed a tendency to cluster according to year, season, and month. Taken together, the results indicated that the diversity and population structure of E. coli fluctuate on a temporal scale, reflecting the presence of diverse host sources and their behavior over time in the watershed. Furthermore, the occurrence of potentially pathogenic E. coli strains in the drinking water intakes highlights the risk to human health associated with direct and indirect consumption of untreated surface water. PMID:25548059

  6. Failing by design.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Rita Gunther

    2011-04-01

    It's hardly news that business leaders work in increasingly uncertain environments, where failures are bound to be more common than successes. Yet if you ask executives how well, on a scale of one to 10, their organizations learn from failure, you'll often get a sheepish "Two-or maybe three" in response. Such organizations are missing a big opportunity: Failure may be inevitable but, if managed well, can be very useful. A certain amount of failure can help you keep your options open, find out what doesn't work, create the conditions to attract resources and attention, make room for new leaders, and develop intuition and skill. The key to reaping these benefits is to foster "intelligent failure" throughout your organization. McGrath describes several principles that can help you put intelligent failure to work. You should decide what success and failure would look like before you start a project. Document your initial assumptions, test and revise them as you go, and convert them into knowledge. Fail fast-the longer something takes, the less you'll learn-and fail cheaply, to contain your downside risk. Limit the number of uncertainties in new projects, and build a culture that tolerates, and sometimes even celebrates, failure. Finally, codify and share what you learn. These principles won't give you a means of avoiding all failures down the road-that's simply not realistic. They will help you use small losses to attain bigger wins over time. PMID:21510521

  7. Assessing the Impact of Human Activities on British Columbia’s Estuaries

    PubMed Central

    Robb, Carolyn K.

    2014-01-01

    The world’s marine and coastal ecosystems are under threat and single-sector management efforts have failed to address those threats. Scientific consensus suggests that management should evolve to focus on ecosystems and their human, ecological, and physical components. Estuaries are recognized globally as one of the world’s most productive and most threatened ecosystems and many estuarine areas in British Columbia (BC) have been lost or degraded. To help prioritize activities and areas for regional management efforts, spatial information on human activities that adversely affect BC’s estuaries was compiled. Using statistical analyses, estuaries were assigned to groups facing related threats that could benefit from similar management. The results show that estuaries in the most populated marine ecosections have the highest biological importance but also the highest impacts and the lowest levels of protection. This research is timely, as it will inform ongoing marine planning, land acquisition, and stewardship efforts in BC. PMID:24937486

  8. Accidental Deaths Among British Columbia Indians

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, N.; Hole, L. W.; Barclay, W. S.

    1966-01-01

    A statistical and epidemiological review of British Columbia native Indian and non-Indian mortality revealed that accidents were the leading cause of death among Indians but ranked only fourth among non-Indians. Comparison of accidental death rates by age and sex showed that, without exception, the rates among Indians were considerably higher than the corressponding rates for non-Indians. While the Indians represented some 2% of the total population of British Columbia, they accounted for over 10% of the total accident fatalities, 29% of drownings, and 21% of fatal burns. Socioeconomic, environmental and psychosocial factors and excessive drinking are considered the chief causes responsible for this rather unusual epidemiological phenomenon. This study revealed certain hazardous conditions which are specific to the Indian's present way of life. In the authors' opinion the recognition of these specific hazards is imperative for the planning of effective preventive campaigns. PMID:5902238

  9. Schizotrypanum in British bats.

    PubMed

    Gardner, R A; Molyneux, D H

    1988-08-01

    Two species of Schizotrypanum, T. (S.) dionisii and T. (S.) vespertilionis, were identified from British bats. Laboratory studies on stocks of isolated trypanosomes from 5 species of bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Nyctalus leisleri, N. noctula, Eptesicus serotinus and Myotis brandti) indicated that the predominant species was T. d. dionisii. Collections and dissection of the bat bug Cimex pipistrelli from bat roosts revealed flagellate infection in a total of 12 out of 20 bugs; 7 of these bugs had metacyclic trypanosomes present. C. pipistrelli and the human bed bug, C. lectularius were reared in the laboratory and allowed to feed on wild-caught bats known to be infected with T. d. dionisii. Development occurred in both species of Cimex. Cimex spp. could be used to detect subpatent Schizotrypanum infections by xenodiagnosis. This technique was used to test the parasitological status of bats collected in the wild or reared in captivity. On a single occasion an apparent transmission of T. d. dionisii to an uninfected (by xenodiagnosis) laboratory reared bat was achieved. A stock of Schizotrypanum isolated from a wild-caught C. pipistrelli collected in a N. leisteri roost was identified by DNA buoyant density centrifugation as T. (S.) vespertilionis. A P. pipistrellus known to be infected with T. d. dionisii was found to have cyst-like structures in thoracic skeletal muscle containing amastigotes. The study provided the strongest evidence yet that C. pipistrelli is the vector of Schizotrypanum in British bats. PMID:3174237

  10. Indians Repulse British With Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    During the early introduction of rockets to Europe, they were used only as weapons. Enemy troops in India repulsed the British with rockets. Later, in Britain, Sir William Congreve developed a rocket that could fire to about 9,000 feet. The British fired Congreve rockets against the United States in the War of 1812.

  11. Understanding British addiction statistics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B D

    1975-01-01

    The statistical data issued by the Home Office and Department of Health and Social Security are quite detailed and generally valid measures of hard core addiction in Great Britain (Judson, 1973). Since 1968, the main basis of these high quality British statistics is the routine reports filed by Drug Treatment Centres. The well-trained, experienced staff of these clinics make knowledgeable dicsions about a cleint's addiction, efficiently regulate dosage, and otherwise exert some degree of control over addicts (Judson, 1973; Johnson, 1974). The co-operation of police, courts, prison physicians, and general practitioners is also valuable in collecting data on drug addiction and convictions. Information presented in the tables above indicates that a rising problem of herion addiction between 1962 and 1967 were arrested by the introduction of the treatment clinics in 1968. Further, legally maintained heroin addiction has been reduced by almost one-third since 1968, since many herion addicts have been transferred to injectable methadone. The decline in herion prescribing and the relatively steady number of narcotics addicts has apparently occurred in the face of a continuing, and perhaps increasing, demand for heroin and other opiates. With few exceptions of a minor nature analysis of various tables suggests that the official statistics are internally consistent. There are apparently few "hidden" addicts, since few unknown addicts die of overdoses or are arrested by police (Lewis, 1973), although Blumberg (1974) indicates that some unknown users may exist. In addition, may opitate usersnot officially notified are known by clinic doctors as friends of addicts receiving prescriptions (Judson, 1973; Home Office, 1974). In brief, offical British drug statistics seem to be generally valid and demonstrate that heroin and perhaps methadone addiction has been well contained by the treatment clinics. PMID:1039283

  12. History of British Space Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massie, Harrie; Robins, M. O.

    2009-12-01

    1. The scientific background; 2. The technical background; 3. The initiation of the Skylark rocket programme; 4. Post IGY developments; 5. The Ariel programme; 6. The European Space Research Organisation; 7. Commonwealth co-operation in space research; 8. Smaller rockets for scientific purposes - Skua and Petrel; 9. Attitude controlled Skylark rockets; 10. The Trend Committee and the Science Research Council; 11. The transformation of ESRO into ESA; 12. The Space Science Committee for Europe; 13. Scientific studies by British space scientists I; 14. Scientific studies by British space scientists II; 15. The contribution from British space scientists to astronomy; 16. Concluding remarks; Appendices; Annexes.

  13. British Association of Clinical Anatomists

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    The Annual General Meeting of the British Association of Clinical Anatomists for 1983 was held at the Royal College of Surgeons of England on 14th January 1983. The following are abstracts of the papers presented. PMID:19310890

  14. Can Failing Schools Be Fixed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Ronald C.

    2003-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) requires states and school districts to act aggressively to turn around failing schools. NCLB lists 31 different interventions of varying degrees of severity that are available to state and local policymakers when faced with schools whose students fail to make sufficient academic progress and sets forth…

  15. Bumble Bees Influence Berry Size in Commercial Vaccinium spp. Cultivation in British Columbia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the abundance, diversity, and dispersion patterns of managed and wild bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) populations in commercial highbush blueberry and cranberry (Ericaceae: Vaccinium corymbosum L., Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) fields in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, and assessed their ...

  16. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This pamphlet has been prepared in response to a new problem, a rapidly increasing population, and a new need, population education. It is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of…

  17. Who Really Failed New Orleans?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, Thomas D.

    2008-09-01

    I read with unusual interest the Forum ``Earth Scientists and Public Policy: Have We Failed New Orleans?'' in the 4 March issue of Eos (89(10), 2008). As an Earth scientist who lived in New Orleans during most of the early 1960s, I believe strongly that Earth scientists did not fail to recognize infrastructure problems. Further, they tried to communicate these problems and potential dangers to civic leaders in New Orleans and to government officials in Baton Rouge and Washington.

  18. ADULT EDUCATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VERNER, COOLIE, ED.

    PREPARED UNDER THE SPECIAL EDITORSHIP OF COOLIE VERNER, THIS JOURNAL ISSUE REVIEWS THE OVERALL DEVELOPMENT OF ADULT EDUCATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FROM THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT, TRACES THE GROWTH OF UNIVERSITY EXTENSION DURING THE PERIOD 1915-63, DISCUSSES RECENT TRENDS AND ACTIVITIES IN VOCATIONAL AND NONVOCATIONAL PUBLIC SCHOOL…

  19. American English vs. British English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahheidaripour, Gholamabbass

    1997-01-01

    The present study, using a totally direct method, investigates, within the framework of sociolinguistics and foreign language teaching in Iran, whether teachers of English prefer British or American variety of English language, and whether their preference corresponds to their performance on a related test. Thirty Iranian English language teachers…

  20. Instructor Training on British Railways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, J. D.

    1970-01-01

    The value of instructor training was recognized by British Railways as early as 1950 with the setting up of a training center at Darlington. This article shows the results of this continuous training experience in the benefits to be obtained from re-appraisal techniques and practical work. (Author/EB)

  1. Children's Superstitions: British and Canadian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeish, John

    1984-01-01

    A 100-item test covering nine areas of superstitious belief administered with 10 control items to 1,749 Canadian and British children showed younger children and girls were more superstitious than older children and boys. Academically inclined children were less superstitious. Science-based education had little effect. Implications for Canadian…

  2. Tides of the British Seas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandon, Frank

    1975-01-01

    Examines the gravitational effects and the way that local conditions interact with these effects to produce the tides characteristic of the British seas. Presents some effects of tides including the possibility of harnessing tidal energy and the effect of tidal friction on the use of the earth as a clock. (GS)

  3. British Industrial Libraries Before 1939

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Margaret R.

    1972-01-01

    British industrial firm libraries are traced from their beginnings till 1939, by which date they had spread to many branches of industry and had been recognized as an important part of the industrial and library worlds, thus establishing standard patterns of work. The origins and significance of Aslib are discussed. (27 references) (Author/NH)

  4. Making processing fail-safe

    SciTech Connect

    Freiburghouse, R.

    1982-05-01

    The author describes the Stratus/32 multiprocessor, a fault-tolerant system for commercial applications which supports on-line transaction processing, batch processing, word processing and interactive program development. It uses a combination of hardware and software that provides continuous processing of user programs during computer failure without checkpoint/restart programming at the user or system level. Central to the system's fail-safe operation are processing modules, each of which has redundant logic and communication paths, logic and CPU boards and main and disk memory. Twin components operate in parallel with each other; when one fails, its partner carries on.

  5. Immigrant Incorporation in American Cities: Contextual Determinants of Irish, German and British Intermarriage in 1880

    PubMed Central

    Logan, John R.; Shin, Hyoung-jin

    2013-01-01

    This study adds to a growing body of research on the contextual determinants of marriage choice and provides new information on ethnic intermarriage in the late 19th Century. Census microdata for 66 major cities in 1880 are used to estimate a multilevel model of assortative mating of Irish, German, and British immigrants. Results demonstrate that marital choices made by individuals are significantly affected by the local urban context where they live. In addition the very large disparity in endogamy between the British and other groups can mainly be attributed to the smaller size of the British population in these cities. PMID:24259757

  6. Is journalism failing on climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    How can we build a reliable and affordable energy supply based on renewables? How rapidly do we need to cut greenhouse gas emissions to keep climate change within manageable bounds? What does it take to maintain a stable common currency of different nations? These are just a few examples of questions that are critical for our future and that require an understanding of complex systems—the energy system, the climate system, the financial system. Finding sound answers to these questions requires sophisticated scientific analysis and expert knowledge; a lay person's intuition will clearly not suffice. Yet, decisions in a democracy are (and should be!) taken by politicians and the voting public who are not usually scientific experts. Hence the well-being of our societies—and even more so the living conditions of future generations, which are defined by the decisions we take today—depends on the wider public being well informed about the state of scientific knowledge and discourse. The media are the most important means by which lay people obtain their information about science. Good science journalism is therefore a decisive factor for the long-term success of modern society. Good science journalism clearly must be critical journalism, and it requires journalists who know what is what, who can put things into a perspective, and who are able to make well-informed judgements. After all, the role of science journalism is not simply to act as a 'translator' who conveys the findings of scientists in a language understandable to lay people. Rather, good science journalism will provide the public with a realistic impression of what is well established in science and what are current 'hot topics', uncertainties and controversies. It will also discuss the methods and social context of the scientific endeavour. There is ample evidence that in the area of climate science, journalism too often is failing to deliver this realistic picture to its audience, despite many good

  7. Hepatitis C virus infection in the asymptomatic British blood donor.

    PubMed

    Mutimer, D J; Harrison, R F; O'Donnell, K B; Shaw, J; Martin, B A; Atrah, H; Ala, F A; Skidmore, S; Hubscher, S G; Neuberger, J M

    1995-01-01

    Blood donor screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies is now routine. Most blood transfusion services recommend that seropositive donors are referred for further investigation. Southern European studies suggest that many asymptomatic seropositive donors have clinically significant liver disease. Seropositive donors in areas of high prevalence may not, however, be representative of British donors. We have prospectively examined the prevalence and severity of HCV infection in a British volunteer blood donor population. During a 14 month period, only 0.35% (999/287,332) of all donors in the West Midlands were anti-HCV (screening assay) positive. Only 5% (52/999) of these were confirmed true seropositive. Nearly 80% (41/52) of seropositive donors were referred to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Liver Unit for further investigation. Most underwent complete investigation, including liver biopsy. Forty of forty-one donors had biochemical, histological, or virological evidence of persistent viral infection. Histological changes were generally mild and none was cirrhotic. Covertly infected patients had less severe disease than those with an overt risk factor for HCV exposure. In the British Midlands, the prevalence of blood donor seropositivity is low. In contrast with seropositive Southern European donors, the British donor is more likely to belong to an at-risk group for parenteral exposure and is less likely to have severe histological changes. This study highlights the importance of developing locally relevant guidelines for the counselling and investigation of anti-HCV-positive blood donors. PMID:7493294

  8. Identification of metapopulation dynamics among Northern Goshawks of the Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, and Coastal British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; McClaren, Erica L.; Doyle, Frank I.; Titus, K.; Sage, George K.; Wilson, Robert E.; Gust, J.R.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Northern Goshawks occupying the Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, and coastal British Columbia nest primarily in old-growth and mature forest, which results in spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of individuals across the landscape. We used microsatellite and mitochondrial data to infer genetic structure, gene flow, and fluctuations in population demography through evolutionary time. Patterns in the genetic signatures were used to assess predictions associated with the three population models: panmixia, metapopulation, and isolated populations. Population genetic structure was observed along with asymmetry in gene flow estimates that changed directionality at different temporal scales, consistent with metapopulation model predictions. Therefore, Northern Goshawk assemblages located in the Alexander Archipelago and coastal British Columbia interact through a metapopulation framework, though they may not fit the classic model of a metapopulation. Long-term population sources (coastal mainland British Columbia) and sinks (Revillagigedo and Vancouver islands) were identified. However, there was no trend through evolutionary time in the directionality of dispersal among the remaining assemblages, suggestive of a rescue-effect dynamic. Admiralty, Douglas, and Chichagof island complex appears to be an evolutionarily recent source population in the Alexander Archipelago. In addition, Kupreanof island complex and Kispiox Forest District populations have high dispersal rates to populations in close geographic proximity and potentially serve as local source populations. Metapopulation dynamics occurring in the Alexander Archipelago and coastal British Columbia by Northern Goshawks highlight the importance of both occupied and unoccupied habitats to long-term population persistence of goshawks in this region.

  9. Dust formation by failed supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanek, C. S.

    2014-11-01

    We consider dust formation during the ejection of the hydrogen envelope of a red supergiant during a failed supernova (SN) creating a black hole. While the dense, slow moving ejecta are very efficient at forming dust, only the very last phases of the predicted visual transient will be obscured. The net grain production consists of Md ˜ 10- 2 M⊙ of very large grains (10-1000 μm). This means that failed SNe could be the source of the very large extrasolar dust grains possibly identified by Ulysses, Galileo and radar studies of meteoroid re-entry trails rather than their coming from an ejection process associated with protoplanetary or other discs.

  10. Segmented Coil Fails In Steps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stedman, Ronald S.

    1990-01-01

    Electromagnetic coil degrades in steps when faults occur, continues to operate at reduced level instead of failing catastrophically. Made in segments connected in series and separated by electrically insulating barriers. Fault does not damage adjacent components or create hazard. Used to control valves in such critical applications as cooling systems of power generators and chemical process equipment, where flammable liquids or gases handled. Also adapts to electrical control of motors.

  11. Bioenergetics of the failing heart.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Garnier, Anne; Veksler, Vladimir; Joubert, Frédéric

    2011-07-01

    The heart is responsible for pumping blood throughout the blood vessels to the periphery by repeated, rhythmic contractions at variable intensity. As such the heart should permanently adjust energy production to energy utilization and is a high-energy consumer. For this the heart mainly depends on oxidative metabolism for adequate energy production and on efficient energy transfer systems. In heart failure, there is disequilibrium between the work the heart has to perform and the energy it is able to produce to fulfill its needs. This has led to the concept of energy starvation of the failing heart. This includes decreased oxygen and substrate supply, altered substrate utilization, decreased energy production by mitochondria and glycolysis, altered energy transfer and inefficient energy utilization. Mitochondrial biogenesis and its transcription cascade are down-regulated. Disorganization of the cytoarchitecture of the failing cardiomyocyte also participates in energy wastage. Finally, the failing of the cardiac pump, by decreasing oxygen and substrate supply, leads to a systemic energy starvation. Metabolic therapy has thus emerged as an original and promising approach in the treatment heart failure. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondria and Cardioprotection. PMID:20869993

  12. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - Platygastroidea

    PubMed Central

    Buhl, Peter N.; Notton, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised checklist of the British and Irish Platygastroidea (Platygastridae) substantially updates the previous comprehensive checklist, dating from 1978. Distribution data (i.e. occurrence in England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and the Isle of Man) is reported where known. New information A total of 381 British and Irish Platygastroidea represents a 47% increase on the number of British and Irish species reported in 1978. PMID:27279762

  13. Population-Based Study of Cardiovascular Mortality Among Patients With Prostate Cancer Treated With Radical External Beam Radiation Therapy With and Without Adjuvant Androgen Deprivation Therapy at the British Columbia Cancer Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Julian; Vaid, Moninder; Tyldesley, Scott; Woods, Ryan; Pickles, Tom

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: There are conflicting studies of the impact of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) on cardiovascular (CV) mortality among prostate cancer patients receiving curative intent external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). We assessed the impact of ADT on CV mortality in patients treated in British Columbia. Methods and Materials: Provincial pharmacy and radiotherapy databases were linked to the provincial cancer registry, and defined a cohort of patients treated with curative intent EBRT between 1998 and 2005. We determined the duration of ADT and the cumulative incidence of CV death. We compared death from CV disease with and without ADT, and by duration of ADT using competing risk analysis and Fine and Gray multivariant analysis. A total of 600 randomly selected patients were reviewed to determine baseline CV disease, CV risk factors, and Charlson Index. Results: Of 5,948 prostate cancer patients treated with radical intent EBRT, of whom 1,933 were treated without ADT, 674 received ADT for {<=}6 months and 3,341 received > 6 months of ADT. The cumulative CV mortality at 7 years was 2.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-3.5%), 2.1% (95% CI = 1.2-3.5%), and 1.4 (95% CI = 1.0-2.0%) for patients with no ADT, {<=}6 months of ADT, and >6 months of ADT, respectively (Gray's p = 0.002). Baseline CV disease and risk factors were more prevalent in the no-ADT group compared with the >6-month ADT group. Conclusions: This study demonstrated a lower CV mortality rate among patients treated with longer durations of ADT than those treated without ADT. These differences likely relate to selection of patients for ADT rather than effect of ADT itself.

  14. British psychiatry and its discontents

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Summary Psychiatry in the UK is currently faced with serious difficulties arising from failure in recruiting British doctors and a high rate of early retirement from the specialty. To diagnose the underlying causes, account must be taken of government policies affecting the NHS in general and mental health services in particular. The latter include an excessive run-down of acute hospital beds, as well as projects aimed at changing the clinical role of psychiatrists and promoting mass treatment of milder mental disorders by non-medical personnel. Psychiatrists have reacted to these developments with anger and dismay, but have as yet reached no consensus with regard to either causal factors or appropriate response. Their uncertainty reflects the need for a firmer grasp of the historical background. Modern British psychiatry was effectively created and moulded as an integral part of the NHS. It flourished as long as the public service framework remained intact, but has suffered a decline since the whole structure began to buckle under the pressure of sustained political assaults. A clearer understanding of this vital connection would help to raise psychiatrists' morale and encourage them to establish common ground with medical colleagues and other healthcare professionals. PMID:20929890

  15. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  16. Providing a Background for British Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, Diana Macintyre

    One consequence of teaching British literature far away from British shores is the loss of intimacy that comes from a shared culture. American teachers can help bring Britain into their classrooms by requesting audiovisual aids from the various museums and galleries in Britain that are willing to supply material. Among such sources are (1) Walton…

  17. The Contemporaneity of the British Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Charles Brooks

    The seeming remoteness of material studied in a British literature survey course can be frustrating for the teacher. Students may find little relevance in the story of Beowulf or the descriptions of Gulliver's voyages. However, instructors can highlight the contemporaneity of British literary texts by drawing parallels to modern times. For…

  18. British Support for English Studies in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This survey attempts to document British support for English Studies in Europe. "English Studies" is interpreted as covering English language, British literature in English, and appropriate background studies. The first part consists of short descriptions of the activities of the principal organizations active in this field: Association of…

  19. The Making of a Moral British Bangladeshi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitlyn, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This article traces changing notions of a moral upbringing among British Bangladesh families in London. It reviews ideas of the making of a moral person ("manush corano") in Bangladesh and contrasts those with contemporary practices and ideas about the good child in London. It argues that in London, British Bangladeshis have embraced a…

  20. Integrated Curriculum Programs in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Julie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses British Columbia's integrated curriculum programs (ICPs). In this province of sea and mountains, outdoor adventures figure prominently in its ICPs--with a healthy dose of environmental and sustainability education mixed in. The author presents five examples from British Columbia's ICPs: (1) Earthquest Outdoor…

  1. Utilisation of British University Research Reactors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncton, P. J.; And Others

    British experience relating to the employment of university research reactors and subcritical assemblies in the education of nuclear scientists and technologists, in the training of reactor operators and for fundamental pure and applied research in this field is reviewed. The facilities available in a number of British universities and the uses…

  2. Request Strategies in British English and Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukushima, Saeko

    1996-01-01

    Tests request strategies used by speakers of Japanese and British English in two culturally neutral situations likely to trigger a request. Concludes that the degree of imposition goes on a par with the number of politeness strategies but that there are differences in the types of strategies used: the British use conventional forms and supportive…

  3. The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linkin, Harriet Kramer

    1991-01-01

    Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…

  4. Medical Refugees and the Modernisation of British Medicine, 1930–1960

    PubMed Central

    Weindling, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Summary This paper reappraises the position of medical refugees in Britain between the 1930s and 1950s. Advocates of reforming British medicine in terms of its knowledge base and social provision emerged as strongly supportive of the medical refugees. By way of contrast, an élite in the British Medical Association attempted to exercise a controlling regime through the Home Office Advisory Committee. The effects of these divisions are gauged by reconstructing the complete spectrum of refugees as a total population. Applying this methodology of population reconstruction provides a corrective to the notion of a cohesive ‘medical establishment’ exercising rigid and discriminatory controls. PMID:26166948

  5. We Must Teach Students to Fail Well

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, Leah Blatt

    2009-01-01

    In the author's role as an academic dean, she frequently meets with students on probation who have not yet learned how to fail and are consequently paralyzed academically. One of the most pivotal skills for a student who wishes to succeed in the academic arena is the ability to fail well. "Good failing" requires the strength to make use of a…

  6. Mortality among British Columbia pilots.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, D A; Band, P R; Threlfall, W J; Gallagher, R P

    1991-04-01

    We studied the mortality experience of all pilots who died in the province of British Columbia between 1950 and 1984, using proportional mortality ratios (PMR) and proportional cancer mortality ratios (PCMR). There were 341 deaths during that time in males whose usual occupation was listed as pilot. The PMR for aircraft accidents was significantly elevated (PMR = 3196, 95% C.I. 2810, 3634), and the PMR for atherosclerotic heart disease was significantly depressed (PMR = 47, 95% C.I. 30, 70). Although based on small numbers of deaths, and not statistically significant, elevated PCMRs were seen for cancers of the colon, brain, and nervous system, as well as for Hodgkin's disease. These findings suggest the need for further epidemiologic studies of commercial airline pilots. PMID:2031640

  7. Why Classroom Token Economies Fail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabman, Ronald S.; Tucker, Richard D.

    1974-01-01

    The reasons for clinical failures of classroom token economies are divided into three groups: (1) Problems associated with the token program itself, (2) Problems associated with the teacher, and (3) Problems associated with the specific population on which the classroom token economy is used. Each of these problem areas is discussed. (Author)

  8. Electrocardiogram of the failing heart.

    PubMed

    Hombach, Vinzenz

    2002-09-01

    In the failing heart general specific (e.g., Q-waves after acute myocardial infarction, persistent ST-elevations in post-myocardial infarction left ventricular aneurysm) and unspecific ECG changes (e.g., left bundle branch block, right bundle branch block, ST-T-alterations due to digitalis glycosides or antiarrhythmic drugs) may be seen in the conventional 12-lead ECG. In addition, atrial and ventricular tachy-arrhythmias may be detected and quantified by 24-hour-Holter ECG recordings, that may be relevant for a worse prognosis of patients with congestive heart failure. Heart rate variability as the most relevant derived ECG parameter of sympathetic tone fluctuations may be of important prognostic significance in congestive heart failure patients. An abnormal signal averaged P-wave duration may predict the incidence of atrial fibrillation, as may apply to QRS-prolongation and/or ventricular late potentials in the signal averaged ECG for the incidence of serious life-threatening ventricular tachy-arrhythmias or death from pump failure. Last but not least, cardiac repolarization abnormalities may be detected by QT dispersion-, QT-/QTc-fluctuation- or T-wave alternans studies, but the true prognostic significance of these parameters for predicting sudden cardiac death or death from pump failure in patients with congestive heart failure remains unclear. PMID:12114840

  9. Fail-safe electric actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.J.

    1988-07-19

    In combination with a control mechanism characterized by the ability to be moved from inoperative to operative position and back, a fail-safe actuator device for automatically returning the control mechanism to inoperative position when interruption of electric power occurs is described which comprises: a fluid-driven vaned torque actuator: electric-motor-driven fluid power means for operating the torque actuator; electrically operated valve means for controlling the power fluid flow between the torque actuator and the fluid power generating means; at least one shaft projecting from the torque actuator; coupling means for operatively connecting the shaft to the control mechanism to be operated by the failsafe actuator device; reversible means for storing energy, the reversible means being operatively connected to the shaft; a limit-switch operating cam mounted on and rotable with the shaft; a limit switch positioned for activation by the limit-switch operating cam; and electric circuitry means for interconnecting the motordriven fluid power generating means, the valve means, and the limit switch.

  10. Failed epidural: causes and management.

    PubMed

    Hermanides, J; Hollmann, M W; Stevens, M F; Lirk, P

    2012-08-01

    Failed epidural anaesthesia or analgesia is more frequent than generally recognized. We review the factors known to influence the success rate of epidural anaesthesia. Reasons for an inadequate epidural block include incorrect primary placement, secondary migration of a catheter after correct placement, and suboptimal dosing of local anaesthetic drugs. For catheter placement, the loss of resistance using saline has become the most widely used method. Patient positioning, the use of a midline or paramedian approach, and the method used for catheter fixation can all influence the success rate. When using equipotent doses, the difference in clinical effect between bupivacaine and the newer isoforms levobupivacaine and ropivacaine appears minimal. With continuous infusion, dose is the primary determinant of epidural anaesthesia quality, with volume and concentration playing a lesser role. Addition of adjuvants, especially opioids and epinephrine, may substantially increase the success rate of epidural analgesia. Adjuvant opioids may have a spinal or supraspinal action. The use of patient-controlled epidural analgesia with background infusion appears to be the best method for postoperative analgesia. PMID:22735301

  11. Cancer mortality in the British rubber industry.

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, H G; Veys, C A; Waterhouse, J A; Peters, A

    1982-01-01

    Although it is over 30 years since an excess of bladder cancer was first identified in British rubber workers, the fear has persisted that this hazard could still be affecting men working in the industry today. Furthermore, suspicions have also arisen that other and hitherto unsuspected excesses of cancer might be occurring. For these reasons 33 815 men, who first started work in the industry between 1 January 1946 and 31 December 1960, have been followed up to 31 December 1975 to ascertain the number of deaths attributable to malignant disease and to compare these with the expected number calculated from the published mortality rates applicable to the male population of England and Wales and Scotland. The findings confirm the absence of any excess mortality from bladder cancer among men entering the industry after 1 January 1951 (the presumed bladder carcinogens were withdrawn from production processes in July 1949), but they confirm also a statistically significant excess of both lung and stomach cancer mortality. A small excess of oesophageal cancer was also observed in both the tyre and general rubber goods manufacturing sectors. American reports of an excess of leukaemia among rubber workers receive only limited support from the present study, where a small numerical excess of deaths from leukaemia is not statistically significant. A special feature of the study is the adoption of an analytical method that permits taking into account the long latent period of induction of occupational cancer. PMID:7093147

  12. Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon genomes from East England reveal British migration history

    PubMed Central

    Schiffels, Stephan; Haak, Wolfgang; Paajanen, Pirita; Llamas, Bastien; Popescu, Elizabeth; Loe, Louise; Clarke, Rachel; Lyons, Alice; Mortimer, Richard; Sayer, Duncan; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Cooper, Alan; Durbin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    British population history has been shaped by a series of immigrations, including the early Anglo-Saxon migrations after 400 CE. It remains an open question how these events affected the genetic composition of the current British population. Here, we present whole-genome sequences from 10 individuals excavated close to Cambridge in the East of England, ranging from the late Iron Age to the middle Anglo-Saxon period. By analysing shared rare variants with hundreds of modern samples from Britain and Europe, we estimate that on average the contemporary East English population derives 38% of its ancestry from Anglo-Saxon migrations. We gain further insight with a new method, rarecoal, which infers population history and identifies fine-scale genetic ancestry from rare variants. Using rarecoal we find that the Anglo-Saxon samples are closely related to modern Dutch and Danish populations, while the Iron Age samples share ancestors with multiple Northern European populations including Britain. PMID:26783965

  13. Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon genomes from East England reveal British migration history.

    PubMed

    Schiffels, Stephan; Haak, Wolfgang; Paajanen, Pirita; Llamas, Bastien; Popescu, Elizabeth; Loe, Louise; Clarke, Rachel; Lyons, Alice; Mortimer, Richard; Sayer, Duncan; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Cooper, Alan; Durbin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    British population history has been shaped by a series of immigrations, including the early Anglo-Saxon migrations after 400 CE. It remains an open question how these events affected the genetic composition of the current British population. Here, we present whole-genome sequences from 10 individuals excavated close to Cambridge in the East of England, ranging from the late Iron Age to the middle Anglo-Saxon period. By analysing shared rare variants with hundreds of modern samples from Britain and Europe, we estimate that on average the contemporary East English population derives 38% of its ancestry from Anglo-Saxon migrations. We gain further insight with a new method, rarecoal, which infers population history and identifies fine-scale genetic ancestry from rare variants. Using rarecoal we find that the Anglo-Saxon samples are closely related to modern Dutch and Danish populations, while the Iron Age samples share ancestors with multiple Northern European populations including Britain. PMID:26783965

  14. British American Tobacco’s failure in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, S

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) considered Turkey an important, potential investment market because of its high consumption rates and domestic commitment to tobacco. This paper outlines how British American Tobacco (BAT) attempted to establish a joint venture with the government monopoly TEKEL, while waiting for privatisation and a private tender. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents from the Guildford Depository and online tobacco document sources. Results BAT failed to establish a market share in Turkey until 2000 despite repeated attempts to form a joint venture with Turkey’s tobacco monopoly, TEKEL, once the market liberalised in the mid 1980s. Conclusions BAT’s failure in the Turkish market was due to a misguided investment strategy focused solely on acquiring TEKEL and is contrasted with Philip Morris success in Turkey despite both TTCs working within Turkey’s unstable and corrupt investing climate. PMID:18845622

  15. Emmonsia crescens infection in a British water vole (Arvicola terrestris).

    PubMed

    Chantrey, Julian C; Borman, Andrew M; Johnson, Elizabeth M; Kipar, Anja

    2006-06-01

    Emmonsia crescens, a dimorphic fungus of the order Onygenales, is primarily a pathogen of lower animals and rarely humans. Inhaled conidia of E. crescens fail to germinate in the lungs, and instead simply enlarge in lung tissue to become giant adiaspores. We present here the case of fatal Emmonsia crescens infection in a wild-caught British water vole (Arvicola terrestris). Histopathological examination of the animal, which died in captivity, revealed a multifocally extensive granulomatous reaction containing oval adiaspores scattered irregularly throughout the lungs. Mycological examination of fungus cultured from lung tissue and PCR amplification and sequencing of rDNA gene fragments of the cultured organism confirmed the diagnosis of massive infection by E. crescens. PMID:16772233

  16. The perilous state of seagrass in the British Isles.

    PubMed

    Jones, Benjamin L; Unsworth, Richard K F

    2016-01-01

    Seagrass ecosystems face widespread threat from reduced water quality, coastal development and poor land use. In recent decades, their distribution has declined rapidly, and in the British Isles, this loss is thought to have been extensive. Given increasing knowledge of how these ecosystems support fisheries production, the understanding of their potential rapid loss, and the difficulty in restoring them, it is vital we develop an understanding of the risks they are under, so that management actions can be developed accordingly. Developing an understanding of their environmental status and condition is therefore critical to their long-term management. This study provided, to our knowledge, the first examination of the environmental health of seagrass meadows around the British Isles. This study used a bioindicator approach and involved collecting data on seagrass density and morphology alongside analysis of leaf biochemistry. Our study provides, to the best of our knowledge, the first strong quantitative evidence that seagrass meadows of the British Isles are mostly in poor condition in comparison with global averages, with tissue nitrogen levels 75% higher than global values. Such poor status places their long-term resilience in doubt. Elemental nutrient concentrations and morphological change suggest conditions of excess nitrogen and probable low light, placing many of the meadows sampled in a perilous state, although others, situated away from human populations were perceived to be healthy. Although some sites were of a high environmental health, all sites were considered at risk from anthropogenic impacts, particularly poor water quality and boating-based disturbances. The findings of this study provide a warning of the need to take action, with respect to water quality and disturbance, to prevent the further loss and degradation of these systems across the British Isles. PMID:26909188

  17. The perilous state of seagrass in the British Isles

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Benjamin L.; Unsworth, Richard K. F.

    2016-01-01

    Seagrass ecosystems face widespread threat from reduced water quality, coastal development and poor land use. In recent decades, their distribution has declined rapidly, and in the British Isles, this loss is thought to have been extensive. Given increasing knowledge of how these ecosystems support fisheries production, the understanding of their potential rapid loss, and the difficulty in restoring them, it is vital we develop an understanding of the risks they are under, so that management actions can be developed accordingly. Developing an understanding of their environmental status and condition is therefore critical to their long-term management. This study provided, to our knowledge, the first examination of the environmental health of seagrass meadows around the British Isles. This study used a bioindicator approach and involved collecting data on seagrass density and morphology alongside analysis of leaf biochemistry. Our study provides, to the best of our knowledge, the first strong quantitative evidence that seagrass meadows of the British Isles are mostly in poor condition in comparison with global averages, with tissue nitrogen levels 75% higher than global values. Such poor status places their long-term resilience in doubt. Elemental nutrient concentrations and morphological change suggest conditions of excess nitrogen and probable low light, placing many of the meadows sampled in a perilous state, although others, situated away from human populations were perceived to be healthy. Although some sites were of a high environmental health, all sites were considered at risk from anthropogenic impacts, particularly poor water quality and boating-based disturbances. The findings of this study provide a warning of the need to take action, with respect to water quality and disturbance, to prevent the further loss and degradation of these systems across the British Isles. PMID:26909188

  18. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - Proctotrupoidea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised checklist of the British and Irish Heloridae and Proctotrupidae (Proctotrupoidea) substantially updates the previous comprehensive checklist, dating from 1978. Country level data (i.e. occurrence in England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and the Isle of Man) is reported where known. New information A total of three Heloridae and 39 Proctotrupidae (including only certainly recorded species) represents a 27% increase in the British list since 1978. Most species are still poorly known and there has been a dearth of taxonomic and faunistic work on the British and Irish fauna. PMID:27226750

  19. Bat Rabies in British Columbia 1971-1985

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Bert; Loewen, Ken

    1988-01-01

    Rabies virus was demonstrated in 99 of 1154 bats submitted from British Columbia between 1971 and 1985. Rabies was diagnosed in seven species including big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), the latter accounting for 51% of all positive cases. Colonial species represented 92.9% of all identified bats and 87.7% of all rabid cases. Most bats were submitted from the more densely populated areas of the province, and submissions and positive cases both peaked in the month of August. Daytime activity and inability to fly were the most common behaviors reported in rabid bats. PMID:17422945

  20. Going coastal: Shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckworth, B.V.; Dawson, N.G.; Talbot, S.L.; Flamme, M.J.; Cook, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. Methodology/Principal Findings: By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. Conclusions/Significance: We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species. ?? 2011 This is an open-access article.

  1. British and American attitudes toward credit cards.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bijou; James, Simon; Lester, David

    2006-04-01

    American university students owned more than twice as many credit cards as British university students. However, scores on a credit card attitude scale predicted the number of cards owned by respondents in both countries. PMID:16796091

  2. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - Trigonaloidea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The British and Irish checklist of Trigonaloidea comprises a single species, Pseudogonalos hahnii(Spinola), which is the only species in Europe. New information Country-level distribution and nomenclature of Pseudogonalos hahniiare updated. PMID:27226749

  3. Efficiency Studies in the British Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Geoffrey

    1986-01-01

    The background, purposes, and methods of institutional efficiency studies conducted at selected British universities are discussed. The evaluations focused on financial management, purchasing, and building maintenance and space utilization. (MSE)

  4. Libraries in British Columbia: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/britishcolumbia.html Libraries in British Columbia To use the sharing features ... George University Hospital of Northern BC Northern Health Library Services / ILL Learning & Development Centre 1475 Edmonton Street ...

  5. Failed supernovae explain the compact remnant mass function

    SciTech Connect

    Kochanek, C. S.

    2014-04-10

    One explanation for the absence of higher mass red supergiants (16.5 M {sub ☉} ≲ M ≲ 25 M {sub ☉}) as the progenitors of Type IIP supernovae (SNe) is that they die in failed SNe creating black holes. Simulations show that such failed SNe still eject their hydrogen envelopes in a weak transient, leaving a black hole with the mass of the star's helium core (5-8 M {sub ☉}). Here we show that this naturally explains the typical masses of observed black holes and the gap between neutron star and black hole masses without any fine-tuning of stellar mass loss, binary mass transfer, or the SN mechanism, beyond having it fail in a mass range where many progenitor models have density structures that make the explosions more likely to fail. There is no difficulty including this ∼20% population of failed SNe in any accounting of SN types over the progenitor mass function. And, other than patience, there is no observational barrier to either detecting these black hole formation events or limiting their rates to be well below this prediction.

  6. Is journalism failing on climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    How can we build a reliable and affordable energy supply based on renewables? How rapidly do we need to cut greenhouse gas emissions to keep climate change within manageable bounds? What does it take to maintain a stable common currency of different nations? These are just a few examples of questions that are critical for our future and that require an understanding of complex systems—the energy system, the climate system, the financial system. Finding sound answers to these questions requires sophisticated scientific analysis and expert knowledge; a lay person's intuition will clearly not suffice. Yet, decisions in a democracy are (and should be!) taken by politicians and the voting public who are not usually scientific experts. Hence the well-being of our societies—and even more so the living conditions of future generations, which are defined by the decisions we take today—depends on the wider public being well informed about the state of scientific knowledge and discourse. The media are the most important means by which lay people obtain their information about science. Good science journalism is therefore a decisive factor for the long-term success of modern society. Good science journalism clearly must be critical journalism, and it requires journalists who know what is what, who can put things into a perspective, and who are able to make well-informed judgements. After all, the role of science journalism is not simply to act as a 'translator' who conveys the findings of scientists in a language understandable to lay people. Rather, good science journalism will provide the public with a realistic impression of what is well established in science and what are current 'hot topics', uncertainties and controversies. It will also discuss the methods and social context of the scientific endeavour. There is ample evidence that in the area of climate science, journalism too often is failing to deliver this realistic picture to its audience, despite many good

  7. State and Church in British Honduran Education, 1931-39: A British Colonial Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Offers an analysis of church and state influences on the development of education in British Honduras (now Belize). Focuses on the British neglect of education in the colony; the emergence of tensions between the church and state, exploring issues related to Roman Catholic and Protestant rivalry; and church-state issues. (CMK)

  8. British Columbia Social Studies Assessment, Summary Report. A Report to the Ministry of Education, British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoki, Ted T.; And Others

    An 18-month project assessed social studies in British Columbia during 1976-77. Part of a general educational assessment program of the British Columbia Ministry of Education, the project was carried out in four major phases. During Phase I, an assessment framework was established which represented viewpoints of teachers, students, and the public…

  9. Mass care and the University of British Columbia: A new approach to disaster response.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Reg

    2016-01-01

    In the event of a major earthquake affecting the lower mainland of British Columbia, the University of British Columbia (UBC) would be expected to provide emergency services and support to a population of over 51,000 students, 14,000 faculty and staff and over 10,000 UBC community residents and private companies who live and work on the Point Grey peninsula. This paper will detail how UBC would provide shelter, food, accommodation and support (together known as mass care) to this demographic. PMID:27318287

  10. A fail-safe CMOS logic gate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobin, V.; Whitaker, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a design technique to make Complex CMOS Gates fail-safe for a class of faults. Two classes of faults are defined. The fail-safe design presented has limited fault-tolerance capability. Multiple faults are also covered.

  11. Experiencing the failing dentition: what dentists do.

    PubMed

    Hellyer, P

    2016-05-13

    The heavily restored, failing dentition, often associated with older patients, is one of the clinical challenges of our time. Patients tend to have high hopes for definitive, comfortable solutions and dentists may struggle to meet those expectations. In his autobiographical work, Experience, Martin Amis describes his failing dentition and its emotional consequences. His reflections have much to teach us as a profession. PMID:27173707

  12. Impact of changes in the IOC-MC asthma criteria: a British perspective

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, J; Whyte, G; McConnell, A; Harries, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: Since 2001 the International Olympic Committee-Medical Commission (IOC-MC) has required athletes using inhaled ß2 agonists to provide clinical evidence of their asthmatic condition. The aim of this study was to compare the reported prevalence of asthma at the 2000 and 2004 Olympic Games in the Great British Olympic team (Team GB). Methods: Following local ethics committee approval, 271 athletes (165 men) from the 2004 Team GB volunteered and provided written informed consent. An athlete was confirmed asthmatic if he or she had a positive bronchoprovocation or bronchodilator test as defined by the IOC-MC. Pre-Olympic medical forms from the 2000 Team GB were also examined to establish the prevalence of asthma among the members of Team GB at the 2000 Olympic Games. Results: The prevalence of asthma in the two teams at the 2000 and 2004 Olympic Games was similar (21.2% and 20.7%, respectively). In the 2004 Olympic Games 13 of 62 athletes (21.0%) with a previous diagnosis of asthma tested negative. A further seven with no previous diagnosis of asthma tested positive. Conclusions: The prevalence of asthma within Team GB remained unchanged between 2000 and 2004. The IOC-MC requirement that asthmatic athletes must submit documented evidence of asthma has highlighted that 13 (21.0%) previously diagnosed as asthmatic failed to demonstrate evidence of asthma while seven athletes with no previous history or diagnosis of asthma tested positive. Screening for asthma within elite athletic populations using bronchoprovocation challenges appears warranted to assist athletes in preparing more effectively for major sporting events. PMID:16061702

  13. British English infants segment words only with exaggerated infant-directed speech stimuli.

    PubMed

    Floccia, Caroline; Keren-Portnoy, Tamar; DePaolis, Rory; Duffy, Hester; Delle Luche, Claire; Durrant, Samantha; White, Laurence; Goslin, Jeremy; Vihman, Marilyn

    2016-03-01

    The word segmentation paradigm originally designed by Jusczyk and Aslin (1995) has been widely used to examine how infants from the age of 7.5 months can extract novel words from continuous speech. Here we report a series of 13 studies conducted independently in two British laboratories, showing that British English-learning infants aged 8-10.5 months fail to show evidence of word segmentation when tested in this paradigm. In only one study did we find evidence of word segmentation at 10.5 months, when we used an exaggerated infant-directed speech style. We discuss the impact of variations in infant-directed style within and across languages in the course of language acquisition. PMID:26707426

  14. British firms mark progress off Viet Nam

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-23

    British companies are making more inroads in exploring for oil and gas off Viet Nam. British Gas plc won a 25 year production sharing contract for a license off southern Viet Nam in the South China Sea. Meantime, London independent Lasmo plc started seismic surveys on the block adjoining the British Gas block. Separately, Thailand and Viet Nam have reached agreement to jointly explore for and develop oil and gas found in waters claimed by both countries. Plans call for the two countries to draw up joint development plans covering oil and gas resources in the southeastern fringe of the Gulf of Thailand. Bangkok officials say they would have preferred to delineate maritime boundaries with Hanoi, but opted for the joint development accord, noting that Thailand and Malaysia had taken 12 years to resolve a similar dispute.

  15. British Contributions to Medical Libraries Overseas

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Hilda M.

    1965-01-01

    Since the Second World War, Britain has established or rehabilitated medical schools in eight territories for which she has some responsibility, and, through the British Council, she is making medical library services available in many other countries. Official organizations and professional bodies provide abstract and review journals which enable medical men overseas to keep abreast of modern knowledge, while the Library Association Medical Section and the British National Book Centre have established flourishing exchange services, whose facilities are offered to medical libraries abroad. The most pressing need in developing countries at the present time is for professional medical librarians. Opportunities for training in Britain are open to librarians through at least six official sources besides the British Council and World Health Organization, but so far only two trainees have presented themselves on such grants. Less experienced librarians in the developing countries also need the continuing support of their senior colleagues overseas. PMID:14223737

  16. Ambient Noise Tomography of the British Isles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolson, H. J.; Curtis, A.; Baptie, B.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, surface wave tomography using empirical Green’s functions computed via the ambient noise interferometry method has become an established approach to lithospheric imaging problems. To date, ambient noise tomography has been successfully applied to seismometer arrays in the United States, Australia, Iceland, China, South Africa, Europe and the Tibetan Plateau. The basis of the ambient seismic interferometry method is that, by cross-correlating noise data between two seismic stations and stacking over a long enough time period, one can approximate the Green’s Function that would have been recorded at one of the stations if the other had actually been a source. Consequently, one of the main advantages of ambient noise interferometry is that traditional seismic sources such as earthquakes or ballistics are not required; therefore it is ideal for application to seismically quiescent areas such as the British Isles. The British Isles are an archipelago located adjacent to the Eurasian continental shelf in a typically intra-plate setting, formed by a complex amalgamation of several terranes. These range from Laurentian north of the Highland Boundary fault to Avalonian south of the Iapetus Suture and evidence of the regions turbulent geological past can be inferred from its lithospheric structure. Previous studies of the structure of the British Isles considered relatively few seismic stations and/or were limited to using offshore shots, quarry blasts or teleseismic earthquakes as seismic energy sources. We have applied the ambient noise tomography method to noise data recorded on approximately 100 broadband and short period seismometers, including many new stations, in the British Isles and mainland Europe. This dense coverage of the British Isles allows us to image the crust and upper mantle velocity structure with a horizontal resolution in the region of 100km across the North Sea and 30km in the mainland United Kingdom. Here we present the first

  17. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - Braconidae

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Mark R.; Godfray, H. Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of British and Irish Braconidae is revised, based in large part on the collections of the National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh, and the Natural History Museum, London. Distribution records are provided at the country level together with extensive synonymy and bibliography. New information Of the 1,338 species regarded as valid, presumed native and certainly identified, 83 are here recorded for the first time from the British Isles. One new synonym is established (Dyscritus suffolciensis Morley, 1933 = Syntretus splendidus (Marshall, 1887) syn. nov.) PMID:27226759

  18. Prevalence of ischaemic heart disease in middle aged British men.

    PubMed Central

    Shaper, A G; Cook, D G; Walker, M; Macfarlane, P W

    1984-01-01

    The prevalence of ischaemic heart disease was determined by an administered questionnaire and electrocardiography in 7735 men aged 40-59 years drawn at random from general practices in 24 British towns. Overall, one quarter of these men had some evidence of ischaemic heart disease on questionnaire or electrocardiogram or both. On questionnaire, 14% of men had possible myocardial infarction or angina, with considerable overlap of the two syndromes. The prevalence of possible myocardial infarction combined with angina and of definite angina only showed a fourfold increase over the age range studied. Electrocardiographic evidence of ischaemic heart disease (definite or possible) was present in 15% of men, there being myocardial infarction in 4.2% and myocardial ischaemia in 10.3%. Electrocardiographic evidence of myocardial infarction increased fourfold over the age range studied. There was considerable overlap of questionnaire and electrocardiographic evidence of ischaemic heart disease. Nevertheless, more than half of those with possible myocardial infarction combined with angina had no resting electrocardiographic evidence of ischaemic heart disease, and half of those with definite myocardial infarction on electrocardiogram had no history of chest pain at any time. This national population based study strongly suggests that the prevalence of ischaemic heart disease in middle aged British men is greater than has been indicated by previous studies based on occupational groups. PMID:6732989

  19. Classroom Management. Another Lesson from British Infant Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Shirley

    1995-01-01

    British teachers excel in managing students' behaviors during classroom learning activities. The paper examines the major differences between British and American schools for young children, then discusses three factors that influence British teachers' abilities (knowledge of child development, structuring of learning activities, and shaping…

  20. Constructions of Racism by British Chinese Pupils and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise; Francis, Becky

    2005-01-01

    British Chinese pupils stand out as a high achieving group within the British education system and yet very little theoretical or policy attention has been given to these pupils' identities and experiences of education. In this paper we consider British Chinese pupils' (and parents') reports of their experiences of racism/s and their views on the…

  1. Martin Trow on British Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Harold

    2009-01-01

    For almost half a century from the early 1960s Martin Trow was the most persistent American commentator on British higher education. He analysed the main reports from Robbins to Dearing, developed and applied a language for discussing common problems amongst different systems, and focused on the uncertain progress of the UK to mass higher…

  2. Live from Westminster: Broadcasting the British Parliament.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Peter Hardiman

    1978-01-01

    Describes live radio broadcasting from the chambers of the British Parliament. After 55 years of campaigning by broadcasters and Members of Parliament, and following experimental broadcasting by the BBC and Independent Local Radio, service was installed in April 1978. Initial experimentation, current procedures, and implications for television…

  3. The first British illustrated surgical catalogue.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, N H

    2004-06-01

    Surgical instrument catalogues are valuable documents, which help in both the identification and dating of instruments. A rare copy of the first British illustrated surgical catalogue was offered for sale in 2003. This paper gives brief details of the catalogue and its author, JH Savigny. PMID:15386890

  4. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  5. British Chinese Children: Agency and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Carmen Lau

    2013-01-01

    The assumption that Chinese young people are passive beings with little or no agency is a dominant theme within the academic literature. However PhD research findings demonstrate how British Chinese adolescents (aged 11-14) do exhibit varying degrees of agency in their lives. Here, agency is understood as individuals having the capacity to act, to…

  6. British Columbia. Reference Series No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of British Columbia and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. A discussion of the province's history includes the early European explorers, Indian natives, and later fur traders and settlers. The building of the transcontinental railway, entry…

  7. British Columbian Geography in Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broom, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores how Geography's position in British Columbia (BC), Canada's school social studies curricula has been affected by changes in educational cycles over the twentieth century. The amount of instructional time, the importance assigned to the subject and the content of the subject have varied in accordance with the pre-eminence given…

  8. Power and Authority in British Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Graeme C.; Eustace, Rowland.

    An extensive project involving formal and informal interviews and examination of university documents revealed that the governance of British universities does not coincide with any single stereotype. Decisions are made within institutions in ways that are subtle and complex, and that maintain both academic freedom and a significant degree of…

  9. British Writers; Modules for Teacher Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliard, Fred

    This booklet, containing eight instructional modules on works by major British writers, can be used either within a lower-level literature course for non-English majors or in a survey course for English majors. The first four modules focus on works from the early English period through the Elizabethan Age: "Beowulf,""Sir Gawain and the Green…

  10. Vocational and Civic Education: Whither British Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The current crisis in British VET (Vocational Education and Training) is explained in terms of the decline of opportunities beyond preparation for university for young people after school. The continuing large numbers of "NEETS" (those not in employment, education or training) is but one aspect of this problem: much larger is the decline in good…

  11. Earnings Returns to the British Education Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devereux, Paul J.; Fan, Wen

    2011-01-01

    We study the effects of the large expansion in British educational attainment that took place for cohorts born between 1970 and 1975. Using the Quarterly Labour Force Survey, we find that the expansion caused men to increase education by about a year on average and gain about 8% higher wages; women obtained a slightly greater increase in education…

  12. The Discourses of British Domestic Sitcom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bee, Jim

    This analysis of the British domestic situation comedy (sitcom) as a genre begins by noting that it is considered basically taxonomical, using the categories of character, narrative, and theme to develop understanding of its discursive strategies. Considered to be preliminary and tentative, the results of this analysis suggest that: (1) the sitcom…

  13. First Employment of British Pharmacology Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Michael; Markham, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    A survey was conducted in UK Universities to identify the employment of pharmacology graduates (BSc, MSc and PhD) 6 months after graduation in 2003. The aim was to provide data for the British Pharmacological Society (BPS) so they could offer advice to interested bodies and to University staff for careers information. 85% of 52 Universities…

  14. British I.T.A. Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, John

    1968-01-01

    The conclusions and recommendations drawn from a 7-year study of the Initial Teaching Alphabet (i/t/a) made by the Reading Research Unit of London University are reported. The British research showed conclusively that traditional orthography (TO) is a major handicap for teachers and students of reading. Students taught with i/t/a made…

  15. Gnathostomiasis Acquired by British Tourists in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Emma C.; van Tulleken, Christoffer; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Bailey, Robin L.; Chiodini, Peter L.

    2009-01-01

    Infection with Gnathostoma spinigerum has been generally confined to Southeast Asia and Central and South America. However, gnathostomiasis was recently found in British tourists who had visited Botswana. Consequently, travel to Africa should now be considered a risk factor for gnathostomiasis. PMID:19331741

  16. The British Enterprise in Higher Education Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macnair, Gordon

    1990-01-01

    The Training Agency of the British Employment Department is operating a program of grants to encourage curriculum change. The objectives are to change teaching and learning so that college students can develop skills and attitudes relevant to later working life, including: communications, ability to work in teams, effective use of resources,…

  17. Macro and Microenvironments at the British Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenton, Helen

    This paper describes the storage of the 12 million items that have just been moved into the new British Library building. The specifications for the storage and environmental conditions for different types of library and archive material are explained. The varying environmental parameters for storage areas and public areas, including reading rooms…

  18. The British Novel: Conrad to the Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Paul L.

    Intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students who desire a useful research tool, this bibliography cites the works of and about British novelists, beginning with Joseph Conrad and terminating in 1950. The listings are selective with proper emphasis given to less celebrated but distinctive writers. A preface explaining the numerous…

  19. Indians of British Columbia (An Historical Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    An historical review is presented of the 6 major groups of Indians of the coastal region of British Columbia: the Coast Salish, Nootka, Kwakiutl, Bella Coola, Tsimshian, and Haida. Characteristics of each tribe are contrasted in the following 7 sections of the review: (1) Introduction--the life style, sociocultural factors, and unique…

  20. Accounting for social impacts and costs in the forest industry, British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, Robert . E-mail: rgale@web.net; Gale, Fred . E-mail: fred.gale@utas.edu.au

    2006-03-15

    Business reviews of the forest industry in British Colombia, Canada, typically portray an unequivocally positive picture of its financial and economic health. In doing so, they fail to consider the following six categories of social impacts and costs: (1) direct and indirect subsidies; (2) government support through investment; (3) community dependence; (4) the maintenance of public order; (5) aboriginal title; and (6) the overestimation of employment. Our findings show that conventional economic and financial accounting methods inflate the industry's net contribution to the economy. We make a number of recommendations to address this shortcoming to improve future accounting and reporting procedures.

  1. Fitness and survival in fragmented populations of Narthecium ossifragum at the species' range margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaliki, Marina; Diekmann, Martin

    2009-05-01

    Decreasing population size and increasing isolation may lead to reduced plant fitness. These effects of habitat fragmentation may especially apply to populations close to the margin of their geographical range, where populations generally are often smaller and more isolated, and the environment is less favourable than at the range centre. In this context we studied north-west German range-margin populations of Narthecium ossifragum (L.) HUDS., a clonal, perennial herb typical for acidic and nutrient-poor wet heathlands. We asked whether plant fitness and reproduction of the range-margin populations were affected by population size and habitat quality, and whether any changes in population size over the past 10-20 years were related to past population size and habitat quality. Population size varied between 60 and 100.000 individuals and was highly positively related to shoot density. Larger (and denser) populations formed more flowers and fruits, but fewer seeds. Soil water content had a strong positive effect on seed production and seed mass, and the latter also increased with increasing soil phosphorus content. Relative light intensity showed a positive impact on shoot density and, hence, population size. Compared to British range centre populations, the populations at the German range margin formed more, but smaller seeds that failed to germinate both in the field and in laboratory experiments. Despite the lack of sexual reproduction, population sizes generally had not decreased during the past two decades, most likely due to successful clonal growth. The change in population size of Narthecium, however, was negatively related to the present soil phosphorus content, indicating that an increased supply of nutrients and a decrease in light availability may have a negative effect on population dynamics. The results imply that fragmented and small range-margin populations not necessarily are doomed to extinction, provided that the habitat quality remains suitable

  2. Self-Esteem: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of British-Chinese, White British and Hong Kong Chinese Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Yiu Man

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the self-esteem scores of 1303 children, including Chinese children from Britain and Hong Kong and white British children, using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Finds that British Chinese have significantly higher self-esteem than the Hong Kong children, but there is little difference among white British children. (CMK)

  3. How to Recognize a Failed Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Brownson, Elisha G; Pham, Tam N; Chung, Kevin K

    2016-10-01

    Failed burn resuscitation can occur at various points. Early failed resuscitation will be largely caused by prehospital factors. During resuscitation, failure will present as a patient's nonresponse to adjunctive therapy. Late failure will occur in the setting of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Burn care providers must be vigilant during the resuscitation to identify a threatened resuscitation so that adjunctive therapies or rescue maneuvers can be used to convert to a successful resuscitation. However, when a patient's resuscitative course becomes unsalvageable, transition to comfort care should be taken to avoid prolongation of suffering. PMID:27600128

  4. Rodenticides in British barn owls.

    PubMed

    Newton, I; Wyllie, I; Freestone, P

    1990-01-01

    effect on Barn Owl populations in Britain, further monitoring of residue levels and population trends in desirable. PMID:15092196

  5. Failed Citizenship, Civic Engagement, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Many racial, ethnic, cultural, linguistic, and religious groups are denied structural inclusion into their nation-state. Consequently, they do not internalize the values and symbols of the nation-state, develop a strong identity with it, or acquire political efficacy. The author conceptualizes this process as "failed citizenship,"…

  6. Examination of a Failed Professional Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Rachel L.; Penny, G. Richard

    2015-01-01

    Schools are using various forms of professional learning communities (PLCs) in order to increase student achievement and improve educational practices through enhanced communication and collaboration among teachers. This study examined a PLC that had too narrow a focus and failed therefore to affect student achievement. A critical shortcoming of…

  7. The Art of Saving a Failing School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Les

    2012-01-01

    While the debate continues over whether to close failing schools or attempt fixing them, the author asserts that the solution most often lies in assigning strong leaders to them who will take definite and immediate action. Reviewing his own success turning around schools, he says creating a sense of urgency, unloading poor performing staff, and…

  8. Contested Spaces of a "Failing" Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawai, Roi; Serriere, Stephanie; Mitra, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Amid the recent proliferation of teacher-led movements resisting high-stakes testing across the United States, the authors identify how a "failing" elementary school reclaimed local discourse by taking political action against top-down measures. Framed as competing modes of school reform, the authors offer the sociocultural framework of…

  9. Fail-safe bidirectional valve driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujimoto, H.

    1974-01-01

    Cross-coupled diodes are added to commonly used bidirectional valve driver circuit to protect circuit and power supply. Circuit may be used in systems requiring fail-safe bidirectional valve operation, particularly in chemical- and petroleum-processing control systems and computer-controlled hydraulic or pneumatic systems.

  10. WIC: A Food Program That Fails.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, George G.

    1991-01-01

    Relates the origin and aims of the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) begun in 1972. It has failed to improve the health of newborn children or lower the infant mortality rate, because these problems relate to behavior rather than lack of food. Prenatal care and medical intervention are more appropriate…

  11. Truffle diversity (Tuber, Tuberaceae) in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Berch, Shannon M; Bonito, Gregory

    2016-08-01

    To improve baseline data for the developing truffle industry in British Columbia, we compiled existing Tuber species sequences from published and unpublished studies and generated new ITS sequences for truffles belonging to Tuber collected in the province. In doing so, we obtained evidence that 13 species of Tuber occur in the province, including six introduced and seven native species, two of which are putative undescribed species. Of the native species, the Tuber anniae species complex is widely distributed in the province while Tuber beyerlei appears to be much more restricted in distribution. Four of the introduced species have commercial value (Tuber melanosporum, Tuber aestivum, Tuber brumale, and Tuber borchii) as do two of the native species (Tuber gibbosum and Tuber oregonense). Focused sampling on likely tree hosts, both hardwood and Pinaceae species, as well as in currently unexplored parts of the province seems likely to expand our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of Tuber species in British Columbia. PMID:27083929

  12. Innovative Drugs to Treat Depression: Did Animal Models Fail to Be Predictive or Did Clinical Trials Fail to Detect Effects?

    PubMed Central

    Belzung, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Over recent decades, encouraging preclinical evidence using rodent models pointed to innovative pharmacological targets to treat major depressive disorder. However, subsequent clinical trials have failed to show convincing results. Two explanations for these rather disappointing results can be put forward, either animal models of psychiatric disorders have failed to predict the clinical effectiveness of treatments or clinical trials have failed to detect the effects of these new drugs. A careful analysis of the literature reveals that both statements are true. Indeed, in some cases, clinical efficacy has been predicted on the basis of inappropriate animal models, although the contrary is also true, as some clinical trials have not targeted the appropriate dose or clinical population. On the one hand, refinement of animal models requires using species that have better homological validity, designing models that rely on experimental manipulations inducing pathological features, and trying to model subtypes of depression. On the other hand, clinical research should consider carefully the results from preclinical studies, in order to study these compounds at the correct dose, in the appropriate psychiatric nosological entity or symptomatology, in relevant subpopulations of patients characterized by specific biomarkers. To achieve these goals, translational research has to strengthen the dialogue between basic and clinical science. PMID:24345817

  13. Innovative drugs to treat depression: did animal models fail to be predictive or did clinical trials fail to detect effects?

    PubMed

    Belzung, Catherine

    2014-04-01

    Over recent decades, encouraging preclinical evidence using rodent models pointed to innovative pharmacological targets to treat major depressive disorder. However, subsequent clinical trials have failed to show convincing results. Two explanations for these rather disappointing results can be put forward, either animal models of psychiatric disorders have failed to predict the clinical effectiveness of treatments or clinical trials have failed to detect the effects of these new drugs. A careful analysis of the literature reveals that both statements are true. Indeed, in some cases, clinical efficacy has been predicted on the basis of inappropriate animal models, although the contrary is also true, as some clinical trials have not targeted the appropriate dose or clinical population. On the one hand, refinement of animal models requires using species that have better homological validity, designing models that rely on experimental manipulations inducing pathological features, and trying to model subtypes of depression. On the other hand, clinical research should consider carefully the results from preclinical studies, in order to study these compounds at the correct dose, in the appropriate psychiatric nosological entity or symptomatology, in relevant subpopulations of patients characterized by specific biomarkers. To achieve these goals, translational research has to strengthen the dialogue between basic and clinical science. PMID:24345817

  14. Blast furnace injection developments in British Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Jukes, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    British Steel has four integrated steel works, i.e., Llanwern, Port Talbot, Scunthorpe, Teesside, with a total of ten blast furnaces, nine of which are currently operating. The furnaces range in size from the 14 meters (45 feet 11 inches) hearth diameter Redcar No. 1 furnace at Teesside (a single furnace works) to the 8.33 meters (27 feet 4 inches) hearth Queen Mary and Queen Bess furnaces at Schunthorpe, with a total of four furnaces at that works. All have injection systems installed, those at Scunthorpe being equipped with granular coal injection and all others currently working with oil injection. The driving force behind the development of blast furnace injection has been as a means for introducing reducing agents (British Steel now refers to coke plus hydrocarbon injectants as total reductants) into the process as a part substitute/supplement for top charged coke and the technology is still being developed and used for that purpose. By utilizing practical experience and observing the work of others, British Steel has been assessing blast furnace injection technology experimentally for purposes other than the introduction of reducing agents.

  15. Sustainable development in British land use regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Basiago, A.D.

    1995-12-01

    Sustainable development is a new international theory of development founded on principles of futurity, environment, equity and participation. It is the legacy of twenty years of international environmental law that has established a doctrine of global trusteeship. Sustainable development has entered British land use regulation through the Maastricth Treaty; the EU`s Fifth Environmental Action Program; as well as the British government`s Planning Policy Guidance notes on land use principles, local plans, transport and historic preservation, and its white papers. The Earth Summit accord Agenda 21 is a blueprint on how to make development socially, economically and environmentally sustainable. Under its terms, Britain has prepared a national sustainable development strategy for the UN`s Commission on Sustainable Development. It features Local Agenda 21 strategies in which local authorities develop policies for sustainable development and establish partnerships with other sectors. In this paper, the Local Agenda 21 strategies of seven local authorities are evaluated according to the paradigm introduced in Agenda 21 and elaborated by Kahn that describes sustainable development as a dynamic system of integrated and interlinked economic, social and environmental sustainability. The author concludes that sustainable development in British land use regulation is guided by notions of economic development, social justice and environmental planning and not by the dynamic, integrated model of Agenda 21. 46 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Analysis of failed nuclear plant components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diercks, D. R.

    1993-12-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has conducted analyses of failed components from nuclear power- gener-ating stations since 1974. The considerations involved in working with and analyzing radioactive compo-nents are reviewed here, and the decontamination of these components is discussed. Analyses of four failed components from nuclear plants are then described to illustrate the kinds of failures seen in serv-ice. The failures discussed are (1) intergranular stress- corrosion cracking of core spray injection piping in a boiling water reactor, (2) failure of canopy seal welds in adapter tube assemblies in the control rod drive head of a pressurized water reactor, (3) thermal fatigue of a recirculation pump shaft in a boiling water reactor, and (4) failure of pump seal wear rings by nickel leaching in a boiling water reactor.

  17. Risk externalities and too big to fail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taleb, Nassim N.; Tapiero, Charles S.

    2010-09-01

    This paper establishes the case for a fallacy of economies of scale in large aggregate institutions and the effects of scale risks. The problem of rogue trading and excessive risk taking is taken as a case example. Assuming (conservatively) that a firm exposure and losses are limited to its capital while external losses are unbounded, we establish a condition for a firm not to be allowed to be too big to fail. In such a case, the expected external losses second derivative with respect to the firm capital at risk is positive. Examples and analytical results are obtained based on simplifying assumptions and focusing exclusively on the risk externalities that firms too big to fail can have.

  18. Gravitational wave triggered searches for failed supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annis, James; Dark Energy Survey Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Stellar core collapses occur to all stars of sufficiently high mass and often result in supernovae. A small fraction of supergiant stars, however, are thought to collapse directly into black holes without producing supernovae. A survey of such ``failed'' supernovae would require monitoring millions of supergiants for several years. That is very challenging even for current surveys. With the start of the Advanced LIGO science run, we investigate the possibility of detecting failed supernovae by looking for missing supergiants associated with gravitational wave triggers. We use the Dark Energy Camera (DECam). Our project is a joint effort between the community and the Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration. In this talk we report on our ongoing efforts and discuss prospects for future searches.

  19. Pass-Fail: How Is It Working?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Clinton I.; And Others

    This study investigates the pass/fail (P/F) grading system. A sample of 154 Indiana University students was interviewed. Half of the group, 77 students, had not taken any P/F courses. Of the remaining 77 students, 42% had taken only one P/F course and most of the rest from two to five courses. Results of the student interview questionnaire…

  20. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - Chalcidoidea and Mymarommatoidea

    PubMed Central

    Dale-Skey, Natalie; Askew, Richard R.; Noyes, John S.; Livermore, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised checklist of the British and Irish Chalcidoidea and Mymarommatoidea substantially updates the previous comprehensive checklist, dating from 1978. Country level data (i.e. occurrence in England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and the Isle of Man) is reported where known. New information A total of 1754 British and Irish Chalcidoidea species represents a 22% increase on the number of British species known in 1978. PMID:27346954

  1. Trends in paediatric sport- and recreation-related injuries: An injury surveillance study at the British Columbia Children’s Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia) from 1992 to 2005

    PubMed Central

    Pakzad-Vaezi, Kaivon; Singhal, Ash

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sport- and recreation-related injuries are a major source of morbidity in the paediatric population. Long-term trends for these injuries are largely unknown. METHODS: A traumatic injury surveillance system (the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program) was used to examine the demographics and trends of paediatric sports injuries in children who presented to or were directly admitted to the British Columbia Children’s Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia) emergency department or intensive care unit from 1992 to 2005. RESULTS: Over the 14-year study period, there was a significant increase in sport- and recreation-related injuries among patients who presented to the British Columbia Children’s Hospital. Of 104,414 injuries between 1992 and 2005, 27,466 were related to sports and recreational activities. The number of sport-related injuries increased by 28%, while all-cause injuries did not change significantly. Males comprised 68% of the sport-related injuries, and both sexes displayed an increasing trend over time. Cycling, basketball, soccer and ice hockey were the top four injury-causing activities. The main body parts injured were the face, head and digits. CONCLUSIONS: Paediatric sports injuries significantly increased at the British Columbia Children’s Hospital over the 14-year study period. This is likely due to increased sport participation, increased risk associated with certain sports, or both. Trends in paediatric sports injury may be predicted by changes in popular media, possibly allowing prevention programs to help to avoid these injuries before they occur. PMID:22468125

  2. Closer to home (or home alone?) The British Columbia long-term care system in transition.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, B L; Simon, H J; Stadler, K L

    1997-01-01

    Finding ways to organize and deliver long-term care that provides for quality of life at an affordable price is of increasing importance as the population ages, family size decreases, and women enter the workforce. For the past 2 decades, British Columbia has provided a model system that has apparently avoided disruptive conflicts. Although formal users' complaints are rare, this study--based on focus groups and interviews with users, their families, and advocates--identified problems users encountered toward resolving concerns about the structure, process, and outcome of long-term care. We present these findings in the context of British Columbia's current devolution from provincial to regional control that aims to save costs and keep disabled elderly persons in the community. British Columbia may be continuing to lead the way in meeting the needs of its burgeoning elderly population for long-term care. Study findings have implications for the development of US long-term care policy by pointing to the value of obtaining users' views of long-term care to identify both obvious and more subtle trouble spots. PMID:9392982

  3. Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis for failed keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Hager, Jonathan L; Phillips, David L; Goins, Kenneth M; Kitzmann, Anna S; Greiner, Mark A; Cohen, Alex W; Welder, Jeffrey D; Wagoner, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of the Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis (Kpro-1) in eyes with failed keratoplasty. A retrospective review was performed of every patient treated with a Kpro-1 at a tertiary eye care center between January 1, 2008 and July 1, 2013. Eyes with a failed keratoplasty originally performed for corneal edema, trauma, or keratoconus were included in the statistical analysis. The main outcome measures were visual outcome, prosthesis retention, and postoperative complications. Twenty-four eyes met the inclusion criteria, including 13 eyes with corneal edema, 8 eyes with trauma, and 3 eyes with keratoconus. After a mean follow-up period of 28.9 months (range 7-63 months), the median best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/125. The BCVA was ≥20/40 in 4 (16.7 %) eyes, ≥20/70 in 9 (37.5 %) eyes, and ≥20/200 in 14 (58.3 %) eyes. Overall, the postoperative BCVA improved in 17 (70.9 %) eyes, was unchanged in 3 (12.5 %) eyes, and was worse in 4 (16.7 %) eyes. The initial Kpro-1 was retained in 22 (91.7 %) eyes, and was successfully repeated in the other 2 eyes. One or more serious prosthesis- or sight-threatening complications occurred in 8 (33.3 %) eyes. These included 1 case of wound dehiscence leading to prosthesis extrusion, 1 case of fungal keratitis leading to prosthesis extrusion, 4 cases of endophthalmitis, and 5 retinal detachments. The Boston Kpro-1 is associated with an excellent prognosis for prosthesis retention and satisfactory visual improvement in eyes with previous failed keratoplasty. PMID:25975459

  4. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS IN TWO OREGON ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of Pacific estuarine tide flats, from British Columbia to Baja California. The spatial distribution of shrimp populations within estuaries has rarely been quantified because ...

  5. SPECTRA AND LIGHT CURVES OF FAILED SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, Chris L.; Dahl, Jon A.; Fontes, Christopher J. E-mail: dahl@lanl.go

    2009-12-10

    Astronomers have proposed a number of mechanisms to produce supernova explosions. Although many of these mechanisms are now not considered primary engines behind supernovae (SNe), they do produce transients that will be observed by upcoming ground-based surveys and NASA satellites. Here, we present the first radiation-hydrodynamics calculations of the spectra and light curves from three of these 'failed' SNe: SNe with considerable fallback, accretion-induced collapse of white dwarfs, and energetic helium flashes (also known as type Ia SNe).

  6. Lead poisoning of swans in British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, L.K.; Elliott, J.E.; Langelier, K.M.; Scheuhammer, A.M.; Bowes, V.

    1994-12-31

    Between February 29 and March 15, 1992, 30 trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) were found dead or debilitated at Judson Lake in the lower Fraser valley of southwestern British Columbia. Autopsies of 17 swans revealed the cause of death as lead poisoning from ingestion of lead shot. Lead shot was present in the gizzards of 20 of the swans examined; average number of pellets was nine. Lead was detected in all liver and kidney samples tested. Liver lead concentrations ranged from 21 to 166 ug/g dry wt., with a mean of 64 ug/g d.w. Lead levels in kidneys ranged from 212 to 303 ug/g d.w., with a mean of 120 ug/g d.w. The amount of lead shot in the gizzard was not well correlated with lead levels in the liver and kidney; correlation coefficients of 0.20 and 0.54 were attained, respectively. High iron levels were noted in livers. Other elements (Se, Co, Zn, Mn, Cd, Ca, Mg) were not elevated in either the liver or kidney. The incident prompted the authors to review lead poisoning of swans in British Columbia; data from published and unpublished sources are analyzed, presented and discussed.

  7. Removal of failed crown and bridge

    PubMed Central

    Rahul, G R.; Poduval, Soorya T.; Shetty, Karunakar

    2012-01-01

    Crown and bridge have life span of many years but they fail for a number of reasons. Over the years, many devices have been designed to remove crowns and bridges from abutment teeth. While the removal of temporary crowns and bridges is usually very straightforward, the removal of a definitive cast crown with unknown cement is more challenging. Removal is often by destructive means. There are a number of circumstances, however, in which conservative disassembly would aid the practitioner in completing restorative/endodontic procedures. There are different mechanisms available to remove a failed crown or bridge. But there is no information published about the classification of available systems for crown and bridge removal. So it is logical to classify these systems into different groups which can help a clinician in choosing a particular type of system depending upon the clinical situation. The aim of this article is to provide a classification for various crown and bridge removal systems; describe how a number of systems work; and when and why they might be used. A PubMed search of English literature was conducted up to January 2010 using the terms: Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure. Additionally, the bibliographies of 3 previous reviews, their cross references as well as articles published in various journals like International Endodontic Journal, Journal of Endodontics and were manually searched. Key words:Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure. PMID:24558549

  8. Triacylglycerol turnover in the failing heart.

    PubMed

    Carley, Andrew N; Lewandowski, E Douglas

    2016-10-01

    No longer regarded as physiologically inert the endogenous triacylglyceride (TAG) pool within the cardiomyocyte is now recognized to play a dynamic role in metabolic regulation. Beyond static measures of content, the relative rates of interconversion among acyl intermediates are more closely linked to dynamic processes of physiological function in normal and diseased hearts, with the potential for both adaptive and maladaptive contributions. Indeed, multiple inefficiencies in cardiac metabolism have been identified in the decompensated, hypertrophied and failing heart. Among the intracellular responses to physiological, metabolic and pathological stresses, TAG plays a central role in the balance of lipid handling and signaling mechanisms. TAG dynamics are profoundly altered from normal in both diabetic and pathologically stressed hearts. More than just expansion or contraction of the stored lipid pool, the turnover rates of TAG are sensitive to and compete against other enzymatic pathways, anabolic and catabolic, for reactive acyl-CoA units. The rates of TAG synthesis and lipolysis thusly affect multiple components of cardiomyocyte function, including energy metabolism, cell signaling, and enzyme activation, as well as the regulation of gene expression in both normal and diseased states. This review examines the multiple etiologies and metabolic consequences of the failing heart and the central role of lipid storage dynamics in the pathogenic process. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heart Lipid Metabolism edited by G.D. Lopaschuk. PMID:26993578

  9. Mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation in the failing heart

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Julie L.; Martin, Ola J.; Lai, Ling; Riley, Nicholas M.; Richards, Alicia L.; Vega, Rick B.; Leone, Teresa C.; Pagliarini, David J.; Muoio, Deborah M.; Bedi, Kenneth C.; Margulies, Kenneth B.; Coon, Joshua J.; Kelly, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial fuel and energy metabolic derangements contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure. Recent evidence implicates posttranslational mechanisms in the energy metabolic disturbances that contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure. We hypothesized that accumulation of metabolite intermediates of fuel oxidation pathways drives posttranslational modifications of mitochondrial proteins during the development of heart failure. Myocardial acetylproteomics demonstrated extensive mitochondrial protein lysine hyperacetylation in the early stages of heart failure in well-defined mouse models and the in end-stage failing human heart. To determine the functional impact of increased mitochondrial protein acetylation, we focused on succinate dehydrogenase A (SDHA), a critical component of both the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and respiratory complex II. An acetyl-mimetic mutation targeting an SDHA lysine residue shown to be hyperacetylated in the failing human heart reduced catalytic function and reduced complex II–driven respiration. These results identify alterations in mitochondrial acetyl-CoA homeostasis as a potential driver of the development of energy metabolic derangements that contribute to heart failure. PMID:26998524

  10. British and Finnish Baseball: International Variations on an American Pastime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…

  11. Proceedings of the Society of British Neurological Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    1967-01-01

    The 74th Meeting of the Society of British Neurological Surgeons was held jointly with the British Neuropathological Society in the Anatomy Department, Trinity College, Dublin, on 29-30 September 1966. The Presidents, Mr. Wylie McKissock (London) and Professor W. Blackwood (London), occupied the chair in rotation.

  12. "Sort of" in British Women's and Men's Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miettinen, Hanna; Watson, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This paper (Note 1) examines the form sort of in British men and women's speech, and investigates whether there is a gender difference in the use of this form. We do so through corpus analysis of the British National Corpus (BNC). We contend there is no quantitative difference in the use of sort of in men and women's speech. Contrary to general…

  13. Knowledge, Character and Professionalisation in Nineteenth-Century British Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Historians have frequently referred to the British Association for the Advancement of Science as an institution that had the professionalisation of British science as its chief aim. This article seeks to complicate this picture by asking what, if any, concept of "professionalisation" would have been understood by nineteenth-century…

  14. The Limits of Movement Politics: The Case of British Feminism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetson, Dorothy M.

    Analysis of the British feminist movement from 1850 to 1975 reveals a constant struggle by feminists for equality in the face of legal and social restrictions and a corresponding lack of response by the British government to movement demands. The political organization of the feminist movement is described in four phases. During the first phase,…

  15. Universities Under Financial Crisis: The Case of British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, John D.

    1987-01-01

    The consequences of the 1980-83 economic recession in Canada for the political climate in British Columbia and for the University of British Columbia are discussed. The University's response to budgetary cuts is placed in a provincial and national context, and the implications of reductions in public support for higher education are addressed.…

  16. Prospects for Adult Literacy Policy in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darville, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Intended to assist in the formulation of effective policies for adult literacy in British Columbia, this paper reviews the current discussion of adult literacy policy and programming across Canada. It also reviews existing policies in Canada and in British Columbia, in education ministries, and in other ministries with interests and activities…

  17. Britishness as Racist Nativism: A Case of the Unnamed "Other"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Heather Jane

    2016-01-01

    The construct of Britishness, as with nationalism elsewhere in the world, although amorphous and permeable over time, continues to be used by politicians and the media as a powerful exclusionary force. Moreover in England, fundamental British values (FBV), its most recent and official incarnation, now hold particular currency in education policy…

  18. The Politics of Britishness: Multiculturalism, Schooling and Social Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This paper is set against a backdrop of contemporary concerns about Britishness. It explores the dominant view that unprecedented levels of cultural diversity within western contexts such as the UK are undermining social cohesion and are attributable to minority groups' failure to connect or assimilate with mainstream "British"…

  19. Profiles of British Muslim Identity: Adolescent Girls in Birmingham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutnik, Nimmi; Street, Rebecca Coran

    2010-01-01

    By asking students to fill in 10 statements beginning with "I am..." and a further 10 statements beginning with "I am not..." we constructed profiles of British Muslim ethnic and national identity. Participants were 108 British Muslim girls of mean age 12.6 years studying in a single sex girls' school in Birmingham, UK. Using content analysis we…

  20. Soaps and Suspicious Activity: Dramatic Experiences in British Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferree, Angela M.

    2001-01-01

    Offers examples of dramatic experiences (student produced soap operas) in two classrooms in British comprehensive secondary schools. Concludes that students in other countries would find such experiences as meaningful and enjoyable as their British counterparts. Notes that the two teachers managed to be flexible, appropriating effective…

  1. Problem Gambling Treatment within the British National Health Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study examines the…

  2. Migrant labour, racism and the British National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Kyriakides, Christopher; Virdee, Satnam

    2003-11-01

    This study explores the dynamics of racism, specifically its generation and reproduction as an ideology, and its role in affecting the reception and occupational location of migrant medical labour in Britain. It is argued that the treatment of 'overseas doctors' in Britain draws on a complex interplay between racism and nationalism underpinned by the historical construction of 'welfarism' as a moral legitimator of 'Britishness'. Through an exploration of internal and external immigration controls introduced with the aim of regulating migrant labour, we demonstrate how British social policy and elite discourses of 'race' combine to construct moral prescriptions of threat such that migrants and British-born 'non-whites' entering the British medical profession are forced to negotiate 'saviour/pariah' ascriptions indicative of discriminatory but contradictory processes specific to the operation of the British National Health Service as a normative institution. PMID:14660122

  3. The Special Relationship: The United States as the British Have Seen It. A Selective Reading List by British Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Esmond, Comp.

    The selective annotated bibliography is a reader's guide to aspects of the American past and present as seen by British writers since the 1940s. Approximately 250 entries provide a sampling of how British students of United States studies perceive the New World. Childrens books are omitted. Nine categories are organized alphabetically by author.…

  4. Anderson localization makes adiabatic quantum optimization fail

    PubMed Central

    Altshuler, Boris; Krovi, Hari; Roland, Jérémie

    2010-01-01

    Understanding NP-complete problems is a central topic in computer science (NP stands for nondeterministic polynomial time). This is why adiabatic quantum optimization has attracted so much attention, as it provided a new approach to tackle NP-complete problems using a quantum computer. The efficiency of this approach is limited by small spectral gaps between the ground and excited states of the quantum computer’s Hamiltonian. We show that the statistics of the gaps can be analyzed in a novel way, borrowed from the study of quantum disordered systems in statistical mechanics. It turns out that due to a phenomenon similar to Anderson localization, exponentially small gaps appear close to the end of the adiabatic algorithm for large random instances of NP-complete problems. This implies that unfortunately, adiabatic quantum optimization fails: The system gets trapped in one of the numerous local minima. PMID:20616043

  5. When do Floquet systems fail to heat?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, Anushya

    Periodically driven quantum systems do not have a conserved energy. Thus, statistical mechanical lore holds that if they thermalize, it must be to infinite temperature. I will first show this holds in undriven systems that satisfy the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis. I will then present two counter-examples to infinite temperature heating. The first is the bosonic O(N) model at infinite N, in which the steady states are paramagnetic and have non-trivial correlations. The second is the Clifford circuit model, which can fail to heat depending on the choice of circuit elements. The resulting steady states can then be localized or delocalized but not ergodic. Such models shed light on the nature of interacting Floquet localization.

  6. Fail-over file transfer process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semancik, Susan K. (Inventor); Conger, Annette M. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention provides a fail-over file transfer process to handle data file transfer when the transfer is unsuccessful in order to avoid unnecessary network congestion and enhance reliability in an automated data file transfer system. If a file cannot be delivered after attempting to send the file to a receiver up to a preset number of times, and the receiver has indicated the availability of other backup receiving locations, then the file delivery is automatically attempted to one of the backup receiving locations up to the preset number of times. Failure of the file transfer to one of the backup receiving locations results in a failure notification being sent to the receiver, and the receiver may retrieve the file from the location indicated in the failure notification when ready.

  7. Fail-safe liquid containment materials

    SciTech Connect

    Watt, D.F.; Pan, R.

    1994-12-31

    The transportation of hazardous liquids poses a problem if the vehicle hauling the liquids is involved an accident. The current work is attempting to develop an inexpensive tough flexible sparsely-reinforced elastomer sheet to incorporate inside the containers, to contain leakage should the outer shell fail. The thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer is chosen as an ideal candidate for at least one side of a two-sheet matrix material because of its unique physical properties. This matrix is reinforced with webs of continuous fiber of various types and patterns. The reinforcement becomes a load carrying structure element designed to resist both crack initiation and propagation, in the accident event. In this paper, we focus on studying the deformation behaviour of the sparsely reinforced elastomer sheet by means of tensile tests, tear tests, snag tests, slow puncture tests, large missile impact tests and hydraulic bulge tests.

  8. The best argument against kidney sales fails.

    PubMed

    Semrau, Luke

    2015-06-01

    Simon Rippon has recently argued against kidney markets on the grounds that introducing the option to vend will result in many people, especially the poor, being subject to harmful pressure to vend. Though compelling, Rippon's argument fails. What he takes to be a single phenomenon-social and legal pressure to vend-is actually two. Only one of these forms of pressure is, by Rippon's own account, harmful. Further, an empirically informed view of the regulated market suggests that this harmful pressure is easily avoided. Thus, the harm that is the lynchpin of Rippon's opposition is neither a necessary feature of the market nor is it likely to play a significant role in its operation. PMID:25256300

  9. Diagnosing And Treating The Failing Right Heart

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, John J.; Tedford, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Right ventricular failure (RVF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There is an increasing interest in proper assessment of right ventricle (RV) function as well as understanding mechanisms behind RVF. Recent findings Within this manuscript, we discuss the metabolic changes that occur in the RV that occur in response to RVF- in particular, a shift towards glycolysis and increased glutaminolysis. We will detail the advances made in non-invasive imaging in assessing the function of the RV and review the methods to assess right ventricle-pulmonary artery coupling. We lastly investigate the role of new treatment options in the failing RV, such as β-blocker therapy. Summary RVF is a complicated entity. Although some inferences on RV function and treatment can be made from LV, the RV has unique features, anatomically, metabolically and embryologically, which requires dedicated RV-directed research. PMID:25807224

  10. Etiologic analysis of 100 anatomically failed dacryocystorhinostomies

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Tarjani Vivek; Mohammed, Faraz Ali; Ali, Mohammad Javed; Naik, Milind N

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the etiological factors contributing to the failure of a dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). Patients and methods Retrospective review was performed in 100 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with anatomically failed DCR at presentation to a tertiary care hospital over a 5-year period from 2010 to 2015. Patient records were reviewed for demographic data, type of past surgery, preoperative endoscopic findings, previous use of adjuvants such as intubation and mitomycin C, and intraoperative notes during the re-revision. The potential etiological factors for failure were noted. Results Of the 100 patients with failed DCRs, the primary surgery was an external DCR in 73 and endoscopic DCR in 27 patients. Six patients in each group had multiple revisions. The mean ages at presentation in the external and endoscopic groups were 39.41 years and 37.19 years, respectively. All patients presented with epiphora. The most common causes of failure were inadequate osteotomy (69.8% in the external group and 85.1% in the endoscopic group, P=0.19) followed by inadequate or inappropriate sac marsupialization (60.2% in the external group and 77.7% in the endoscopic group, P=0.16) and cicatricial closure of the ostium (50.6% in the external group and 55.5% in the endoscopic group, P=0.83). The least common causes such as ostium granulomas and paradoxical middle turbinate (1.37%, n=1) were noted in the external group only. Conclusion Inadequate osteotomy, incomplete sac marsupialization, and cicatricial closure of the ostium were the most common causes of failure and did not significantly differ in the external and endoscopic groups. Meticulous evaluation to identify causative factors for failure and addressing them are crucial for subsequent successful outcomes. PMID:27555748

  11. -Graphy: The Remains of a British Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Graham P.

    2007-01-01

    Within Britain, geography as a discipline has been criticized recently for failing either to add to or teach knowledge about the world at large. Instead it has concentrated first at university and then in schools on spatial social science, with examples drawn overwhelmingly from the white Western world. The recent history of geography is reviewed…

  12. Origin of British and Irish mammals: disparate post-glacial colonisation and species introductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, W. Ian; Provan, Jim; McCabe, A. Marshal; Yalden, Derek W.

    2014-08-01

    ecological divergence in Ireland in comparison to Britain and continental Europe, were also those which arrived in Ireland very early in the Holocene either with or without the assistance of people. Cold tolerant mammal species recolonized quickly after LGM but disappeared, potentially as a result of a short period of rapid warming. Other early arrivals were less cold tolerant and succumbed to the colder conditions during the Younger Dryas or shortly after the start of the Holocene (11.5 kya), or the area of suitable habitat was insufficient to sustain a viable population especially in larger species. Late Pleistocene mammals in Ireland were restricted to those able to colonize up to ca 15 kya, probably originating from adjacent areas of unglaciated Britain and land now below sea level, to the south and west (of Ireland). These few, early colonizers retain genetic diversity which dates from before the LGM. Late Pleistocene Ireland, therefore, had a much depleted complement of mammal species in comparison to Britain. Mammal species, colonising predominantly from southeast and east Europe occupied west Europe only as far as Britain between ca 15 and 8 kya, were excluded from Ireland by the Irish and Celtic Seas. Smaller species in particular failed to colonise Ireland. Britain being isolated as an island from ca. 8 kya has similar species richness and composition to adjacent lowland areas of northwest continental Europe and its mammals almost all show strongest genetic affinity to populations in neighbouring continental Europe with a few retaining genotypes associated with earlier, western lineages. The role of people in the deliberate introduction of mammal species and distinct genotypes is much more significant with regards to Ireland than Britain reflecting the larger species richness of the latter and its more enduring land link with continental Europe. The prime motivation of early people in moving mammals was likely to be resource driven but also potentially cultural; as

  13. GM2 gangliosidosis in British Jacob sheep.

    PubMed

    Wessels, M E; Holmes, J P; Jeffrey, M; Jackson, M; Mackintosh, A; Kolodny, E H; Zeng, B J; Wang, C B; Scholes, S F E

    2014-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease) was diagnosed in 6- to 8-month-old pedigree Jacob lambs from two unrelated flocks presenting clinically with progressive neurological dysfunction of 10 day's to 8 week's duration. Clinical signs included hindlimb ataxia and weakness, recumbency and proprioceptive defects. Histopathological examination of the nervous system identified extensive neuronal cytoplasmic accumulation of material that stained with periodic acid--Schiff and Luxol fast blue. Electron microscopy identified membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the nervous system. Serum biochemistry detected a marked decrease in hexosaminidase A activity in the one lamb tested, when compared with the concentration in age matched controls and genetic analysis identified a mutation in the sheep hexa allele G444R consistent with Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep in North America. The identification of Tay-Sachs disease in British Jacob sheep supports previous evidence that the mutation in North American Jacob sheep originated from imported UK stock. PMID:24309906

  14. Mercury, cadmium, and lead in British otters

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, C.F.; Last, N.I.; Macdonald, S.M.

    1986-12-01

    Otters (subfamily Lutrinae), at the top of the food chain and feeding largely on fish, are likely to be especially vulnerable to the effects of bioaccumulating pollutants, while their aquatic habitat is often a sink for such chemicals derived from agricultural, industrial and domestic sources. The European otter (Lutra lutra) has shown substantial declines through much of its range over the past 30 years, which have been attributed to pollution by organochlorines. There are few published data on metals in tissues of European otters and these refer only to mercury. The present paper reports on burdens of mercury, cadmium and lead in tissues of a sample of British otters collected between 1982 and 1984.

  15. The emergence and spread of finch trichomonosis in the British Isles

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Becki; Robinson, Robert A.; Colvile, Katie M.; Peck, Kirsi M.; Chantrey, Julian; Pennycott, Tom W.; Simpson, Victor R.; Toms, Mike P.; Cunningham, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    Finch trichomonosis, caused by the protozoal parasite Trichomonas gallinae, was first recognized as an emerging infectious disease of British passerines in 2005. The first year of seasonal epidemic mortality occurred in 2006 with significant declines of greenfinch Carduelis chloris and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs populations. Here, we demonstrate that large-scale mortality, principally of greenfinch, continued in subsequent years, 2007–2009, with a shifting geographical distribution across the British Isles over time. Consequent to the emergence of finch trichomonosis, the breeding greenfinch population in Great Britain has declined from ca 4.3 million to ca 2.8 million birds and the maximum mean number of greenfinches (a proxy for flock size) visiting gardens has declined by 50 per cent. The annual rate of decline of the breeding greenfinch population within England has exceeded 7 per cent since the initial epidemic. Although initially chaffinch populations were regionally diminished by the disease, this has not continued. Retrospective analyses of disease surveillance data showed a rapid, widespread emergence of finch trichomonosis across Great Britain in 2005 and we hypothesize that the disease emerged by T. gallinae jumping from columbiforms to passeriforms. Further investigation is required to determine the continuing impact of finch trichomonosis and to develop our understanding of how protozoal diseases jump host species. PMID:22966140

  16. Of mice and (Viking?) men: phylogeography of British and Irish house mice.

    PubMed

    Searle, Jeremy B; Jones, Catherine S; Gündüz, Islam; Scascitelli, Moira; Jones, Eleanor P; Herman, Jeremy S; Rambau, R Victor; Noble, Leslie R; Berry, R J; Giménez, Mabel D; Jóhannesdóttir, Fríoa

    2009-01-22

    The west European subspecies of house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) has gained much of its current widespread distribution through commensalism with humans. This means that the phylogeography of M. m. domesticus should reflect patterns of human movements. We studied restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequence variations in mouse mitochondrial (mt) DNA throughout the British Isles (328 mice from 105 localities, including previously published data). There is a major mtDNA lineage revealed by both RFLP and sequence analyses, which is restricted to the northern and western peripheries of the British Isles, and also occurs in Norway. This distribution of the 'Orkney' lineage fits well with the sphere of influence of the Norwegian Vikings and was probably generated through inadvertent transport by them. To form viable populations, house mice would have required large human settlements such as the Norwegian Vikings founded. The other parts of the British Isles (essentially most of mainland Britain) are characterized by house mice with different mtDNA sequences, some of which are also found in Germany, and which probably reflect both Iron Age movements of people and mice and earlier development of large human settlements. MtDNA studies on house mice have the potential to reveal novel aspects of human history. PMID:18826939

  17. Examination of the Factor Structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire among British and Trinidadian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Barron, David; Swami, Viren; Hutchinson, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Much debate in schizotypal research has centred on the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), with research variously showing higher-order dimensionality consisting of two to seven dimensions. In addition, cross-cultural support for the stability of those factors remains limited. Here, we examined the factor structure of the SPQ among British and Trinidadian adults. Participants from a White British subsample (n = 351) resident in the UK and from an African Caribbean subsample (n = 284) resident in Trinidad completed the SPQ. The higher-order factor structure of the SPQ was analysed through confirmatory factor analysis, followed by multiple-group analysis for the model of best fit. Between-group differences for sex and ethnicity were investigated using multivariate analysis of variance in relation to the higher-order domains. The model of best-fit was the four-factor structure, which demonstrated measurement invariance across groups. Additionally, these data had an adequate fit for two alternative models: (a) 3-factor and (b) modified 4-factor model. The British subsample had significantly higher scores across all domains than the Trinidadian group, and men scored significantly higher on the disorganised domain than women. The four-factor structure received confirmatory support and, importantly, support for use with populations varying in ethnicity and culture. PMID:25699263

  18. Mortality in an extended follow-up of British coal workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCalman; L; Miller; G, B.

    2009-02-01

    The Pneumoconiosis Field Research (PFR) programme was established in the 1950s, to evaluate effects of coal mining exposures on the health and mortality of British coal workers. Surveys of working miners were carried out at 5-yearly intervals, initially in 24 collieries but later concentrating on 10, collecting detailed work histories and health information for each recruit. Here we report on cause-specific mortality in a cohort of almost 18,000 men from 10 British collieries, followed up for periods up to 47 years, yielding over 516,000 life-years of follow-up. External analyses compared cause-specific death rates in the cohort to those of the population of the regions in which the collieries were situated, using Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMRs). The causes investigated included lung cancer, stomach cancer, non-malignant respiratory disorders and cardiovascular disorders. SMRs showed evidence of an initial healthy worker effect diminishing over time. Several causes, including non-malignant respiratory disease and lung cancer, showed a significant deficit of mortality at the start of the study period with an excess in the latter part of the follow-up period. In these results, effects of working conditions are likely to be confounded with smoking habits. Overall, we believe our results may be generalised to the British coal industry since nationalisation.

  19. Many Teens Give Sex Ed a Failing Grade

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160906.html Many Teens Give Sex Ed a Failing Grade International study finds courses ... HealthDay News) -- Teens around the world are getting sex education in schools that fail to address their ...

  20. Failed Supernovae, Dusty Stars and Cepheid Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Jill Renee

    This dissertation explores evolved massive stars through three different projects. The first study monitors the fates of massive stars, the second looks at the mid-IR contribution of dusty asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in 6 nearby galaxies and the final study determines the distance to M81 using Cepheid variables and estimates the effect of metallicity on the Cepheid period-luminosity relations. We have been monitoring 27 galaxies within 10 Mpc with the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) in the U, B, V and R bands to search for failed supernovae, massive stars that collapse to form a black hole without a SN explosion. We search for stars that have "vanished" over the course of our survey or show the low luminosity, long period transient predicted by Lovegrove & Woosley (2013) for failed explosions of red supergiants. After analyzing the first 4 years of data we are left with two good candidates requiring further study. Under the assumption that further data will eliminate these candidates, we find an upper limit on the fraction of core collapses leading to a failed SN of f = 0.40 at 90% confidence. For 1 or 2 surviving candidates the median fractions are f . ≃ 0.30 and f ≃ 0.40 respectively with symmetric 90% confidence limits of 0.07 ≤ f ≤ 0.62 and 0.15 ≤ f ≤ 0.69. As the duration of the survey continues to increase, it will definitively probe the f ≃ 20-30% failure rates needed to explain the absence of massive SN progenitors. We measure the integrated contributions of dusty AGB stars and other luminous red mid-IR sources to the mid-IR luminosities of 6 galaxies (M81, NGC 2403, NGC 300, M33 and the Magellanic Clouds). We find a trend of decreasing AGB contribution with increasing galaxy metallicity, luminosity and mass and decreasing specific star formation rate. However, these galaxy properties are strongly correlated in our sample and the simplest explanation of the trend is galaxy metallicity. In total, hot dust emission from AGB and other

  1. Math anxiety, self-efficacy, and ability in British undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    McMullan, Miriam; Jones, Ray; Lea, Susan

    2012-04-01

    Nurses need to be able to make drug calculations competently. In this study, involving 229 second year British nursing students, we explored the influence of mathematics anxiety, self-efficacy, and numerical ability on drug calculation ability and determined which factors would best predict this skill. Strong significant relationships (p < .001) existed between anxiety, self-efficacy, and ability. Students who failed the numerical and/or drug calculation ability tests were more anxious (p < .001) and less confident (p ≤ .002) in performing calculations than those who passed. Numerical ability made the strongest unique contribution in predicting drug calculation ability (beta = 0.50, p < .001) followed by drug calculation self-efficacy (beta = 0.16, p = .04). Early testing is recommended for basic numerical skills. Faculty are advised to refresh students' numerical skills before introducing drug calculations. PMID:22261975

  2. Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo Infection in Cattle in the South Okanagan District of British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Kingscote, Barbara F.

    1985-01-01

    An outbreak of leptospirosis due to Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in the South Okanagan District of British Columbia was investigated. The infection was associated primarily with bulls, but serovar hardjo was isolated from both bulls and cows at slaughter. Kidney and cerebrospinal fluid were found to contain leptospires, independently of the presence and level of serum agglutinins. Treatment of a bull twice in six months with dihydrostreptomycin failed to diminish an agglutinin titer (1/200) which persisted for two years without reexposure of the bull. A serological survey of cull cows sold through a central auction mart revealed the presence of hardjo agglutinins in 15.4% of 1300 sera representing 163 herds in 20 locations. Thirty percent of these herds contained reactor cattle. The number of premises from which reactor cattle came in a given locality varied from 4% to 67.7%. Measures to control leptospirosis in the study are suggested. PMID:17422584

  3. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Each lot of substandard pistachios may be reworked to meet aflatoxin or quality requirements. The... reporting. If a lot fails to meet the aflatoxin and/or the quality requirements of this part, a failed lot.... This form must be completed and submitted to the committee each time a lot fails either aflatoxin...

  4. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Each lot of substandard pistachios may be reworked to meet aflatoxin or quality requirements. The... reporting. If a lot fails to meet the aflatoxin and/or the quality requirements of this part, a failed lot.... This form must be completed and submitted to the committee each time a lot fails either aflatoxin...

  5. 30 CFR 77.312 - Fail safe monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fail safe monitoring systems. 77.312 Section 77... Thermal Dryers § 77.312 Fail safe monitoring systems. Thermal dryer systems and controls shall be protected by a fail safe monitoring system which will safely shut down the system and any related...

  6. 30 CFR 77.312 - Fail safe monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fail safe monitoring systems. 77.312 Section 77... Thermal Dryers § 77.312 Fail safe monitoring systems. Thermal dryer systems and controls shall be protected by a fail safe monitoring system which will safely shut down the system and any related...

  7. 30 CFR 77.312 - Fail safe monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fail safe monitoring systems. 77.312 Section 77... Thermal Dryers § 77.312 Fail safe monitoring systems. Thermal dryer systems and controls shall be protected by a fail safe monitoring system which will safely shut down the system and any related...

  8. 30 CFR 77.312 - Fail safe monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fail safe monitoring systems. 77.312 Section 77... Thermal Dryers § 77.312 Fail safe monitoring systems. Thermal dryer systems and controls shall be protected by a fail safe monitoring system which will safely shut down the system and any related...

  9. 30 CFR 77.312 - Fail safe monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fail safe monitoring systems. 77.312 Section 77... Thermal Dryers § 77.312 Fail safe monitoring systems. Thermal dryer systems and controls shall be protected by a fail safe monitoring system which will safely shut down the system and any related...

  10. How Elite Universities Fail Latino Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavans, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    The US Census Bureau reveals that although there are more than 41.3 million Latinos in the US as on 2004--about 14 percent of the population, only a very small percentage of them attend the country's elite colleges. A large part of the problem is that, like most of the nation, elite colleges and universities have little awareness of the…

  11. British participation in the first Solvay Councils on physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilbron, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of the makeup and contributions of the British contingents to the first two Solvay Councils can elucidate the character of British mathematical physics and its internal dynamics at a critical time in its development. The paper provides this analysis, outlines the process of selection of the participants, parses the meaning of "international" in the Solvay context, and offers an explanation of the differential attendance of the British at the two Councils. Most of those invited to the first refused whereas all but one of those invited to the second accepted. The unusual social and scientific views of Ernest Solvay help to explain this divergence.

  12. Cancer mortality in Indian and British ethnic immigrants from the Indian subcontinent to England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Swerdlow, A. J.; Marmot, M. G.; Grulich, A. E.; Head, J.

    1995-01-01

    Risk of cancer mortality from 1973 to 1985 in persons born in the Indian subcontinent who migrated to England and Wales was analysed by ethnicity, and compared with cancer mortality in the England and Wales native population, using data from England and Wales death certificates. There were substantial highly significant raised risks in Indian ethnic migrants for cancers of the mouth and pharynx, gall bladder, and liver in each sex, larynx and thyroid in males, and oesophagus in females. There were also substantial raised risks in these migrants of each sex for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and myeloma. For the mouth and pharynx, and liver in each sex, and gall bladder in females, there were also raised risks of lesser magnitude in British ethnic migrants. For colon and rectal cancer and cutaneous melanoma in each sex, ovarian cancer in women and bladder cancer in men, there were appreciable significantly reduced risks in the Indian ethnic migrants not shared by those of British ethnicity. Appreciable raised risks in British ethnic migrants not shared by those of Indian ethnicity occurred for nasopharyngeal cancer in males, soft tissue malignancy in both sexes and non-melanoma skin cancer in males. In migrants of both ethnicities there were appreciable significantly raised risks in each sex for leukaemia and decreased risks in each sex for gastric cancer, for lung cancer except in females of British ethnicity and in males for testicular cancer. The results suggest the need for public health measures to combat the high risks of oral and pharyngeal cancers and liver cancer in the Indian ethnic immigrant population of England and Wales, by prevention of betel quid chewing and hepatitis transmission respectively. The data also imply that early exposures or early acquired behaviours in India, or exposures during migration, may increase the risk of leukaemia and reduce the risks of gastric and testicular cancers in the migrants irrespective of their ethnicity. Aetiological

  13. Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.

    PubMed

    Porter, M E

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units. PMID:10121317

  14. The Born rule fails in cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Don N.

    2009-07-01

    The Born rule may be stated mathematically as the rule that probabilities in quantum theory are expectation values of a complete orthogonal set of projection operators. This rule works for single laboratory settings in which the observer can distinguish all the different possible outcomes corresponding to the projection operators. However, theories of inflation suggest that the universe may be so large that any laboratory, no matter how precisely it is defined by its internal state, may exist in a large number of very distantly separated copies throughout the vast universe. In this case, no observer within the universe can distinguish all possible outcomes for all copies of the laboratory. Then normalized probabilities for the local outcomes that can be locally distinguished cannot be given by the expectation values of any projection operators. Thus the Born rule fails and must be replaced by another rule for observational probabilities in cosmology. The freedom of what this new rule is to be is the measure problem in cosmology. A particular volume-averaged form is proposed.

  15. Arthroscopic revisions in failed meniscal surgery.

    PubMed

    Spahn, Gunter

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to classify meniscal tear forms as found in 195 revision arthroscopies. Interval between primary arthroscopy and revision was 7.8+/-5.6 month. All patients were available for control after 1 year. In 174 knees the lesion was located in the medial meniscus and in 21 knees in the lateral meniscus. In the medial meniscus an unstable posterior meniscal horn was seen in 93 knees followed by incomplete horizontal tear and meniscal destruction in 37. Flap tear, circumferential tear, and failed meniscal repair were also seen. In the lateral meniscus destruction of a discoid meniscus, instability near the popliteal hiatus, and various tear forms were seen with nearly equal frequency. Postoperatively Lysholm score increased significantly in both groups. Most meniscal tears, found in revision arthroscopy, are caused by an insufficient primary operation. A diligent analysis of the tear form is absolutely necessary. An adequate radical resection technique to establish a smooth meniscal crest is indispensable. PMID:12904905

  16. Rescuing failed oral implants via Wnt activation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xing; Li, Jingtao; Chen, Tao; Mouraret, Sylvain; Dhamdhere, Girija; Brunski, John B.; Zou, Shujuan; Helms, Jill A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Implant osseointegration is not always guaranteed and once fibrous encapsulation occurs clinicians have few options other than implant removal. Our goal was to test whether a WNT protein therapeutic could rescue such failed implants. Material and Methods Titanium implants were placed in over-sized murine oral osteotomies. A lack of primary stability was verified by mechanical testing. Interfacial strains were estimated by finite element modelling and histology coupled with histomorphometry confirmed the lack of peri-implant bone. After fibrous encapsulation was established peri-implant injections of a liposomal formulation of WNT3A protein (L-WNT3A) or liposomal PBS (L-PBS) were then initiated. Quantitative assays were employed to analyse the effects of L-WNT3A treatment. Results Implants in gap-type interfaces exhibited high interfacial strains and no primary stability. After verification of implant failure, L-WNT3A or L-PBS injections were initiated. L-WNT3A induced a rapid, significant increase in Wnt responsiveness in the peri-implant environment, cell proliferation and osteogenic protein expression. The amount of peri-implant bone and bone in contact with the implant were significantly higher in L-WNT3A cases. Conclusions These data demonstrate L-WNT3A can induce peri-implant bone formation even in cases where fibrous encapsulation predominates. PMID:26718012

  17. Cognitive emotion regulation fails the stress test

    PubMed Central

    Raio, Candace M.; Orederu, Temidayo A.; Palazzolo, Laura; Shurick, Ashley A.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive emotion regulation has been widely shown in the laboratory to be an effective way to alter the nature of emotional responses. Despite its success in experimental contexts, however, we often fail to use these strategies in everyday life where stress is pervasive. The successful execution of cognitive regulation relies on intact executive functioning and engagement of the prefrontal cortex, both of which are rapidly impaired by the deleterious effects of stress. Because it is specifically under stressful conditions that we may benefit most from such deliberate forms of emotion regulation, we tested the efficacy of cognitive regulation after stress exposure. Participants first underwent fear-conditioning, where they learned that one stimulus (CS+) predicted an aversive outcome but another predicted a neutral outcome (CS−). Cognitive regulation training directly followed where participants were taught to regulate fear responses to the aversive stimulus. The next day, participants underwent an acute stress induction or a control task before repeating the fear-conditioning task using these newly acquired regulation skills. Skin conductance served as an index of fear arousal, and salivary α-amylase and cortisol concentrations were assayed as neuroendocrine markers of stress response. Although groups showed no differences in fear arousal during initial fear learning, nonstressed participants demonstrated robust fear reduction following regulation training, whereas stressed participants showed no such reduction. Our results suggest that stress markedly impairs the cognitive regulation of emotion and highlights critical limitations of this technique to control affective responses under stress. PMID:23980142

  18. Population crises and population cycles.

    PubMed

    Russell, C; Russell, W M

    2000-01-01

    To prevent a population irretrievably depleting its resources, mammals have evolved a behavioural and physiological response to population crisis. When a mammalian population becomes dangerously dense, there is a reversal of behaviour. Co-operation and parental behaviour are replaced by competition, dominance and aggressive violence, leading to high mortality, especially of females and young, and a reduced population. The stress of overpopulation and the resulting violence impairs both the immune and the reproductive systems. Hence epidemics complete the crash of the population, and reproduction is slowed for three or four generations, giving the resources ample time to recover. In some mammal species, crisis and crisis response recur regularly, leading to cycles of population growth and relapse, oscillating about a fixed mean. Population crisis response and population cycles have been equally prominent in the history of human societies. But in man successive advances in food production have made possible growing populations, though with every such advance population soon outgrew resources again. Hence human cycles have been superimposed on a rising curve, producing a saw-tooth graph. Because advances in food production amounted to sudden disturbances in the relations between human populations and their environments, the crisis response in man has failed to avert famine and resource damage. In the large human societies evolved since the coming of settled agriculture and cities, the basic effects of violence, epidemics, famine and resource damage have been mediated by such specifically human disasters as inflation, unemployment, and political tyranny. An account of past crises, periods of relative relief from population pressure, and resulting cycles, is given for a number of regions: China, North Africa and Western Asia, the northern Mediterranean, and north-western Europe. The paper ends with an account of the present world-wide population crisis, and the solution

  19. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food... failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? (a) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of...

  20. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food... failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? (a) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of...

  1. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food... failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? (a) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of...

  2. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food... failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? (a) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of...

  3. Why some family planning program fail.

    PubMed

    1976-04-01

    40 experts representing Nepal, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Korea, and the Philippines participated in a 3-day workshop in Manila in March 1976 for the purpose of discussing and proposing ways of dealing with the financial problems confronting the population programs of the individual countries. The Inter-Governmental Coordinating Committee for Southeast Asia Family/Population Planning sponsored the workshop. The recommendations made at the meeting were: 1) standardization of financing reporting procedures by the region's country programs on family planning; 2) closer coordination between donor agencies and policy-making bodies of country programs in the disbursement of funds; 3) frequent exchanges of experiences, ideas, technicaL knowledge, and other matters pertaining to the financial management of such programs; and 4) inclusion of applicable financial management topics in the training of clinical staffs and those involved in follow-up operations. Additionally, a proposal was made that national population organizations or committees develop research and evaluation units. Workshop discussion sessions focused on financial planning and management, accounting and disbursement of funds, use and control of foreign aid, cost of effectiveness and benefit analysis, and financial reporting. PMID:12309355

  4. Ailing and failing endosseous dental implants: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Eric T; Covington, Lemuel L; Bishop, Barry G; Breault, Lawrence G

    2003-05-15

    Although the overall success rate of implant dentistry is very high, dental implants occasionally fail. It is essential for the clinician to recognize unhealthy implants and to determine whether they are ailing, failing, or failed prior to beginning any salvage efforts. Ailing and failing implants are amenable to therapy. Implants diagnosed as failed should be removed. This review provides the reader with information on non-surgical and surgical therapies available for managing ailing and failing implants. Undoubtedly, the best steps to avoid encountering ailing or failing implants involve proper case selection, excellent surgical technique, placing an adequate restoration on the implant, educating the implant patient to maintain meticulous oral hygiene, and evaluating the implant both clinically and radiographically at frequent recall visits. PMID:12761588

  5. Disorganized junior doctors fail the MRCP (UK).

    PubMed

    Stanley, Adrian G; Khan, Khalid M; Hussain, Walayat; Tweed, Michael

    2006-02-01

    Career progression during undergraduate and early postgraduate years is currently determined by successfully passing examinations. Both academic factors (secondary school examination results, learning style and training opportunities) and non-academic factors (maturity, ethnic origin, gender and motivation) have been identified as predicting examination outcome. Few studies have examined organization skills. Disorganized medical students are more likely to perform poorly in end-of-year examinations but this observation has not been examined in junior doctors. This study asked whether organization skills relate to examination outcome amongst junior doctors taking the clinical Part II examination for the Membership of the Royal College of Physicians (Practical Assessment of Clinical Examination Skills). The study was conducted prospectively at four consecutive clinical courses that provided clinical teaching and practice to prepare trainees for the examination. Arrival time at registration for the course was the chosen surrogate for organization skills. Trainees were advised that they should arrive promptly at 8.00 a.m. for registration and it was explained that the course would start at 8.30 a.m. Recorded arrival times were compared with the pass lists published by the Royal College of Physicians. The mean arrival time was 8.17 a.m. A total of 81 doctors (53.3%) passed the examination with a mean arrival time of 8.14 a.m. However, 71 doctors failed the exam and arrived, on average, six minutes later than doctors who passed (p?=?0.006). Better-prepared junior doctors were more likely to pass the final examination. Arriving on time represents a composite of several skills involved in the planning of appropriate travel arrangements and is therefore a valid marker of organization skills and preparation. This novel study has shown that good time-keeping skills are positively associated with examination outcome. PMID:16627323

  6. Beliefs about Overcoming Psychological Problems among British and Japanese Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Ota, Hiromi; Tatsuro, Hosoe; Koyasu, Masuo

    2000-01-01

    Examines the cultural differences among Japanese students, British students, and Japanese students studying in Britain, concerning their beliefs on overcoming five psychological problems: depression, obesity, smoking cessation, agoraphobia, and lack of confidence. (CMK)

  7. The American Revolution in British Social Studies Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Victor D.

    1985-01-01

    The transition of American Revolutionary studies in British upper primary and secondary schools from a rather smug Victorian notion of a gracious monarch granting ungrateful colonies their independence to a more sophisticated and varied treatment is examined. (RM)

  8. Towards Diversification of Secondary Special Education in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1978-01-01

    Discussed is the trend in British Columbia, Canada, towards diversification of secondary special education programs, which in the past were restricted to occupational programs that became "dumping grounds" for all types of problem students. (DLS)

  9. SPECIES RICHNESS AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION PRIORITIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Patterns in the geographic distribution of seven species groups were used to identify important areas for conservation in British Columbia, Canada. Potential priority sites for conservation were determined using an integer programming algorithm that maximized the number of speci...

  10. BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE MAKES BOTH MOLD HALVES INDIVIDUALLY WHICH ARE LATER ROTATED, ASSEMBLED, AND LOWERED TO POURING CONVEYORS BY ASSISTING MACHINES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL