Science.gov

Sample records for brittle matrix composites

  1. Stability analysis of bridged cracks in brittle matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, Roberto; Muju, Sandeep

    1991-01-01

    The bridging of matrix cracks by fibers is an important toughening mechanism in fiber reinforced brittle matrix composites. This paper presents the results of a nonlinear finite element analysis of the Mode-I propagation of a bridged matrix crack in a finite size specimen. The composite is modeled as an orthotropic continuum and the bridging due to the fibers is modeled as a distribution of tractions which resist crack opening. A critical stress intensity factor criterion is employed for matrix crack propagation while a critical crack opening condition is used for fiber failure. The structural response of the specimen (load-deflection curves) as well as the stress intensity factor of the propagating crack are calculated for various constituent properties and specimen configurations for both tensile and bending loading. By controlling the length of the bridged crack results are obtained which highlight the transition from stable to unstable behavior of the propagating crack.

  2. Elastic shear moduli of brittle matrix composites with interfacial debonding

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, F.G.; Pagano, N.J.

    1994-12-31

    Elastic shear moduli of brittle matrix composites with interfacial debonding are studied. Compatibility displacement boundary conditions between representative volume elements are imposed through finite element analyses. Comparisons of the moduli between the full RVE model and quarter cell model are made. Parametric studies assessing the effect of the debonding, the shear moduli ratios in the constituents and the fiber volume fractions on the composite shear moduli are also presented. Results show that the commonly used quarter cell model overestimate the moduli. The disparity increases as the rigidity of the fibers or fiber volume fraction increases.

  3. Interfacial sliding in fibrous brittle-matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Herbert Frederick, II

    Ceramic materials have desirable characteristics for use in high temperature applications, but due to their brittle nature they were avoided until the recent advent of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) in which ceramic fibers are inserted into a ceramic matrix to toughen the material by retarding crack growth. This work investigates the role of sliding at interfaces in making brittle matrix composites (BMCs) more crack resistant. A two-dimensional study investigates the effects of roughness, toughness, and friction on the fracture behavior of BMCs. This study was then expanded to an axisymmetric study of a fiber engulfed by a crack. The results indicate that there are significant interaction effects between friction and the other parameters. To achieve 'long' sliding lengths, the magnitude of the interfacial critical energy release rate must be significantly less than the magnitude required to ensure crack deflection. The study then investigates the three-dimensional nature of a crack as it flows past a fiber. A computational analysis is performed to determine the crack propagation angle at a frictional interface. The computational results show good agreement with a novel experimental analysis using modified DCDC specimens. The experiments show, in real time, the propagation of a crack which is perpendicular to and intersects a frictional interface.

  4. Matrix cracking in brittle-matrix composites with tailored interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Danchaivijit, S.; Chao, L.Y.; Shetty, D.K.

    1995-10-01

    Matrix cracking from controlled through cracks with bridging filaments was studied in a model unidirectional composite of SiC filaments in an epoxy-bonded alumina matrix. An unbonded, frictional interface was produced by moderating the curing shrinkage of the epoxy with the alumina filler and coating the filaments with a releasing agent. Uniaxial tension test specimens (2.5 x 25 x 125 mm) with filament-bridged through cracks were fabricated by a novel two-step casting technique involving casting, precracking and joining of cracked and uncracked sections. Distinct matrix-cracking stresses, corresponding to the extension of the filament-bridged cracks, were measured in uniaxial tension tests using a high-sensitivity extensometer. The crack-length dependence of the matrix-cracking stress was found to be in good agreement with the prediction of a fracture-mechanics analysis that employed a new crack-closure force-crack-opening displacement relation in the calculation of the stress intensity for fiber-bridged cracks. The prediction was based on independent experimental measurements of the matrix fracture toughness (K{sub cm}), the interfacial sliding friction stress ({tau}) and the residual stress in the matrix ({sigma}{sub m}{sup I}). The matrix-cracking stress for crack lengths (2a) greater than 3 mm was independent of the crack length and agreed with the prediction of the steady-state theory of Budiansky, Hutchinson and Evans. Tests on specimens without the deliberately introduced cracks indicated a matrix-cracking stress significantly higher than the steady-state stress.

  5. Radial matrix cracking in unidirectional brittle matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, G.P.; Pagano, N.J.

    1994-12-31

    This work presents a mathematical study of radial cracking in the transverse direction of a unidirectional composite under the influence of thermal and mechanical loads. The formulation is based on the use of Reissner`s variational theorem in conjunction with an equilibrium stress field in which the r-dependence is assumed. In this study, this newly developed model is employed to evaluate the effect of the extent of radial matrix cracking on the elastic response of a unidirectional composite. Parametric studies are also conducted to examine the effect of varying the elastic properties of the constituents on the energy release rate of a radial crack. The computed values are shown to be in good agreement with the reported exact solution.

  6. Analysis of the progressive failure of brittle matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, David J.

    1995-01-01

    This report investigates two of the most common modes of localized failures, namely, periodic fiber-bridged matrix cracks and transverse matrix cracks. A modification of Daniels' bundle theory is combined with Weibull's weakest link theory to model the statistical distribution of the periodic matrix cracking strength for an individual layer. Results of the model predictions are compared with experimental data from the open literature. Extensions to the model are made to account for possible imperfections within the layer (i.e., nonuniform fiber lengths, irregular crack spacing, and degraded in-situ fiber properties), and the results of these studies are presented. A generalized shear-lag analysis is derived which is capable of modeling the development of transverse matrix cracks in material systems having a general multilayer configuration and under states of full in-plane load. A method for computing the effective elastic properties for the damaged layer at the global level is detailed based upon the solution for the effects of the damage at the local level. This methodology is general in nature and is therefore also applicable to (0(sub m)/90(sub n))(sub s) systems. The characteristic stress-strain response for more general cases is shown to be qualitatively correct (experimental data is not available for a quantitative evaluation), and the damage evolution is recorded in terms of the matrix crack density as a function of the applied strain. Probabilistic effects are introduced to account for the statistical nature of the material strengths, thus allowing cumulative distribution curves for the probability of failure to be generated for each of the example laminates. Additionally, Oh and Finney's classic work on fracture location in brittle materials is extended and combined with the shear-lag analysis. The result is an analytical form for predicting the probability density function for the location of the next transverse crack occurrence within a crack bounded

  7. A constitutive law for continuous fiber reinforced brittle matrix composites with fiber fragmentation and stress recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumeister, Jonas M.

    1993-08-01

    THE TENSILE BEHAVIOR of a brittle matrix composite is studied for post matrix crack saturation conditions. Scatter of fiber strength following the Weibull distribution as well as the influence of the major microstructural variables is considered. The stress in a fiber is assumed to recover linearly around a failure due to a fiber-matrix interface behavior mainly ruled by friction. The constitutive behavior for such a composite is analysed. Results are given for a simplified and a refined approximate description and compared with an analysis resulting from the exact analytical theory of fiber fragmentation. It is shown that the stress-strain relation for the refined model excellently follows the exact solution and gives the location of the maximum to within 1% in both stress and strain; for most materials the agreement is even better. Also it is shown that all relations can be normalized to depend on only two variables; a stress reference and the Weibull exponent. For systems with low scatter in fiber strength the simplified model is sufficient to determine the stress maximum but not the postcritical behavior. In addition, the simplified model gives explicit analytical expressions for the maximum stress and corresponding strain. None of the models contain any volume dependence or statistical scatter, but the maximum stress given by the stress-strain relation constitutes an upper bound for the ultimate tensile strength of the composite.

  8. Model of brittle matrix composite toughening based on discrete fiber reinforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Asher A.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical approach for the analysis of the effectiveness of fiber reinforcement in brittle matrix composites is presented. The analytical method allows consideration of discrete fiber distribution and examination of the development of crack growth parameters on microscale. The problem associated with the bridging zone development is addressed here; therefore, the bridging zone is considered to be smaller than the main preexisting crack, and the small scale approach is used. The mechanics of the reinforcement is accurately accounted for in the process zone of a growing crack. Closed form solutions characterizing the initial failure process are presented for linear and nonlinear force - fiber pullout displacement relationships. The implicit exact solution for the extended bridging zone is presented as well.

  9. Abrasive wear behavior of a brittle matrix (MoSi2) composite reinforced with a ductile phase (Nb)

    SciTech Connect

    Alman, David E.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2001-10-01

    The toughness of a variety of brittle ceramic and intermetallic matrices has been improved through the incorporation of ductile metallic reinforcements. In these composites resistance to catastrophic failure of the matrix is derived through a combination of mechanisms, including matrix crack bridging, matrix crack defection and rupturing of the ductile phase. The degree to which these mechanisms operate is a function of composite microstructure. In general, the ductile phase is softer than the matrix phase. This may have unique implications when the materials are subjected to a wear environment, whether intentional or not. Hence, it is important to understand the wear behavior of these new materials. MoSi2–Nb was selected as a model composite system, in part because of the wide body of open literature regarding this system. The influences of abrasive wear environment and the composite microstructure (Nb reinforcement size, shape and volume fraction) on the wear resistance of the composites are reported.

  10. Near-tip dual-length scale mechanics of mode-I cracking in laminate brittle matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, R.; Islam, S.; Charalambides, P. G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of an on-going study of the near-tip mechanics of mode-I cracking in brittle matrix composite laminates. A finite element model is developed within the context of two competing characteristic lengths present in the composite: the microstructural length (the thickness of the layers) and a macro-length (crack-length, uncracked ligament size, etc.). For various values of the parameters which describe the ratio of these lengths and the constituent properties, the stresses ahead of a crack perpendicular to the laminates are compared with those predicted by assuming the composite is homogeneous orthotropic. The results can be used to determine the conditions for which homogenization can provide a sufficiently accurate description of the stresses in the vicinity of the crack-tip.

  11. Progressive fracture modes in a unidirectional brittle matrix composite under tension

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, N.J.; Kim, R.Y.

    1995-12-31

    In this work we augment the data set of our recent publication on progressive matrix microcrack initiation, which was accomplished under flexure, by conducting similar tests under direct tension. The new data supports completely that which was done earlier. We also provide an analysis to portray the statistical variation of the major controlling parameter in this phenomenon, i.e., the matrix fracture toughness, wherein sufficient data seem to be available to identify the {open_quotes}tails{close_quotes} of the distribution. We also examine the progression of fiber damage and observe the correlation between this mechanism and the composite stiffness degradation, where we again note significant departure from commonly-accepted concepts prevalent in the literature. Included are model results for the crack deflection problem and observations regarding the status of debonding criteria.

  12. Single-fiber push-in vs. single-fiber push-out: A comparison between two test methods to determine the interfacial properties of brittle matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ferber, M.K.; Lara-Curzio, E.; Russ, S.E.; Chawla, K.K.

    1995-10-01

    Interfacial properties of Nicalon{trademark}-reinforced brittle matrix composites were determined from single-fiber load-controlled push-in tests using a Mechanical Properties Microprobe (Nanoindenter) and single-fiber displacement-controlled push-out tests using the Interfacial Test System (ITS). A comparison between the results from these two tests is presented along with a discussion of data analysis techniques.

  13. Fracture process zone of brittle composites

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental-numerical analysis was used to study the fracture process zone (FPZ) trailing the crack tip in brittle composites. Two major parts are included in this dissertation. Part 1 is a static mode 1 fracture analysis of ceramic matrix composites. Part 2 is a mixed mode 1 and mode 2 dynamic fracture analysis of concrete. In Part 1, the FPZ which trailed a stably growing crack in SiC(w)/Al2O3 ceramic matrix composite was investigated through a hybrid experimental-numerical analysis. Surface displacements on the sides of three-point bend and wedge loaded-double cantilever beam (WL-DCB) specimens with chevron notch starter cracks were measured with moire interferometry during crack growth. The three-point bend specimens were precracked by the single edge precrack bend (SEPB) method. The experimental data was then input to two and three dimensional finite element models of the three-point bend and WL-DCB specimens, respectively, to determine by an inverse analysis the crack closure stress (CCS) versus crack opening displacement (COD) relations for SiC(w)/Al2O3. Energy dissipation rates in the trailing process zone plus the matrix fracture and fiber breakage accounted for about 80 percent of the release energy rate with the remainder being dissipated through the frontal process zone. In Part 2, a hybrid experimental-numerical procedure was used to analyze rapid crack growth in an impact loaded three-point bend concrete specimen with an offset straight precrack. Two-beam dynamic moire interferometry was used to record eight sequential moire patterns of the horizontal or vertical displacements by a ultra-high speed camera with an exposure of 2 microseconds and a framing rate of 100,000 frames/sec. The fracture responses of ceramic composites and concrete were both characterized by FPZ models which are the dominant fracture energy dissipation mechanism in this type of brittle composite.

  14. Numerical, micro-mechanical prediction of crack growth resistance in a fibre-reinforced/brittle matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Michael G.; Ghosh, Asish; Salem, Jonathan A.

    1990-01-01

    Micromechanics fracture models are incorporated into three distinct fracture process zones which contribute to the crack growth resistance of fibrous composites. The frontal process zone includes microcracking, fiber debonding, and some fiber failure. The elastic process zone is related only to the linear elastic creation of new matrix and fiber fracture surfaces. The wake process zone includes fiber bridging, fiber pullout, and fiber breakage. The R-curve predictions of the model compare well with empirical results for a unidirectional, continuous fiber C/C composite. Separating the contributions of each process zone reveals the wake region to contain the dominant crack growth resistance mechanisms. Fractography showed the effects of the micromechanisms on the macroscopic fracture behavior.

  15. Aerogel: Tile Composites Toughen a Brittle Superinsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan; Rasky, Daniel; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Pure aerogels, though familiar in the laboratory for decades as exotic lightweight insulators with unusual physical properties, have had limited industrial applications due to their low strength and high brittleness. Composites formed of aerogels and the ceramic fiber matrices like those used as space shuttle tiles bypass the fragility of pure aerogels and can enhance the performance of space shuttle tiles in their harsh operating environment. Using a layer of aerogel embedded in a tile may open up a wide range of applications where thermal insulation, gas convection control and mechanical strength matter.

  16. Hybrid matrix fiber composites

    DOEpatents

    Deteresa, Steven J.; Lyon, Richard E.; Groves, Scott E.

    2003-07-15

    Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites include two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

  17. Composition effect on intrinsic plasticity or brittleness in metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan-Yun; Inoue, Akihisa; Chang, Chuntao; Liu, Jian; Shen, Baolong; Wang, Xinmin; Li, Run-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The high plasticity of metallic glasses is highly desirable for a wide range of novel engineering applications. However, the physical origin of the ductile/brittle behaviour of metallic glasses with various compositions and thermal histories has not been fully clarified. Here we have found that metallic glasses with compositions at or near intermetallic compounds, in contrast to the ones at or near eutectics, are extremely ductile and also insensitive to annealing-induced embrittlement. We have also proposed a close correlation between the element distribution features and the plasticity of metallic glasses by tracing the evolutions of the element distribution rearrangement and the corresponding potential energy change within the sliding shear band. These novel results provide useful and universal guidelines to search for new ductile metallic glasses at or near the intermetallic compound compositions in a number of glass-forming alloy systems. PMID:25043428

  18. Composition Effect on Intrinsic Plasticity or Brittleness in Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuan-Yun; Inoue, Akihisa; Chang, Chuntao; Liu, Jian; Shen, Baolong; Wang, Xinmin; Li, Run-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The high plasticity of metallic glasses is highly desirable for a wide range of novel engineering applications. However, the physical origin of the ductile/brittle behaviour of metallic glasses with various compositions and thermal histories has not been fully clarified. Here we have found that metallic glasses with compositions at or near intermetallic compounds, in contrast to the ones at or near eutectics, are extremely ductile and also insensitive to annealing-induced embrittlement. We have also proposed a close correlation between the element distribution features and the plasticity of metallic glasses by tracing the evolutions of the element distribution rearrangement and the corresponding potential energy change within the sliding shear band. These novel results provide useful and universal guidelines to search for new ductile metallic glasses at or near the intermetallic compound compositions in a number of glass-forming alloy systems. PMID:25043428

  19. Using Brittle Fragmentation Theory to represent Aerosol Mineral Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez García-Pando, C.; Miller, R. L.; Perlwitz, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Improved estimates of dust aerosol effects upon climate require the characterization of dust mineral and chemical composition. Regional variations in soil mineral composition lead to variations in dust aerosol composition. Yet, deriving aerosol mineral content also requires knowledge of the parent soil size distribution along with the fragmentation of soil particles and aggregates during the emission process. These processes modify the size distribution and mineral abundance of the emitted aerosols compared to the parent soil. An additional challenge for modeling is that global atlases of soil texture and composition are based on wet sieving, a technique that breaks the aggregates, particularly phyllosilicates, that are encountered in natural soils, drastically altering the original size distribution of the soil that is subject to wind erosion. We propose both a semi-empirical and theoretical method to constrain the size-resolved mineral composition of emitted dust aerosols based on global atlases of soil texture and composition. Our semi-empirical method re-aggregates clay phyllosilicate minerals into larger soil particle sizes and constrains the size distribution of each emitted mineral based on observed mineral distributions at the source. Our theoretical method extends Kok's brittle fragmentation theory to individual minerals. To this end we reconstruct the undisturbed size distribution for each mineral as a function of soil texture and soil type and calculate the emitted size distribution applying brittle fragmentation and assuming homogeneous fragmentation properties among the mineral aggregates. These approaches were tested within the NASA GISS Earth System ModelE. We discuss the improvements achieved and suggest future developments.

  20. Method for preparing surfaces of metal composites having a brittle phase for plating. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Coates, C.W.; Wilson, T.J.

    1982-05-19

    The present invention is directed to a method for preparing surfaces of two-phase metal composites having relatively brittle and malleable components for plating with corrosion-resistant material. In practice of the present invention, the surfaces of the composite are etched to remove a major portion or fraction of the brittle component. The etched surface is then peened with particulates for breaking the brittle component from the surfaces and for spreading or smearing the malleable component over the surfaces. The peened surface is then chemically cleaned of residual traces of the brittle component to which the corrosion-resistant material may be plated thereon in an adherent manner.

  1. Metal Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Warren; Herling, Darrell R.

    2004-02-01

    Metal matrix composites have found selected application in areas that can cost-effectively capitalize on improvements in specific stiffness, specific strength, fatigue resistance, wear resistance, and coefficient of thermal expansion. Metal matrix composites comprise a relatively wide range of materials defined by the metal matrix, reinforcement type, and reinforcement geometry. In the area of the matrix, most metallic systems have been explored, including aluminum, beryllium, magnesium, titanium, iron, nickel, cobalt, and silver. However, aluminum is by far the most preferred. For reinforcements, the materials are typically ceramics, which provide a very beneficial combination of stiffness, strength, and relatively low density. Candidate reinforcement materials include SiC, Al2O3, B4C, TiC, TiB2, graphite, and a number of other ceramics. In addition, metallic materials such as tungsten and steel fibers have been considered.

  2. Production of aluminium metal matrix composites by liquid processing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, N. Rajesh Jesudoss; Kumar, R.; Tharmaraj, R.; Velu, P. Shenbaga

    2016-05-01

    Owing to high strength to low weight ratio, Aluminium matrix composites are widely used in diverse applications of many industries. This lucrative property is achieved by reinforcing the brittle ceramic particles in the aluminium matrix. Aluminium matrix composites are produced by liquid processing methods and solid processing methods. Nevertheless, liquidprocessing techniques stand out because of its simplicity and its suitability for mass production. In this review article, the production of aluminium matrix composites by different liquid processing technique is discussed and a comparative study is carried out.

  3. Method for preparing surfaces of metal composites having a brittle phase for plating

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Cameron W.; Wilson, Thomas J.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for preparing surfaces of two-phase metal composites having relatively brittle and malleable components for plating with corrosion-resistant material. In practice of the present invention, the surfaces of the composites are etched to remove a major portion or fraction of the brittle component. The etched surface is then peened with particulates for breaking the brittle component from the surfaces and for spreading or smearing the malleable component over the surfaces. The peened surface is then chemically cleaned of residual traces of the brittle component so as to provide a surface of essentially the malleable component to which the corrosion-resistant material may be plated thereon in an adherent manner.

  4. Hybridized polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, E. E.; Hoggatt, J. T.; Symonds, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    The extent to which graphite fibers are released from resin matrix composites that are exposed to fire and impact conditions was determined. Laboratory simulations of those conditions that could exist in the event of an aircraft crash and burn situation were evaluated. The effectiveness of various hybridizing concepts in preventing this release of graphite fibers were also evaluated. The baseline (i.e., unhybridized) laminates examined were prepared from commercially available graphite/epoxy, graphite/polyimide, and graphite/phenolic materials. Hybridizing concepts investigated included resin fillers, laminate coatings, resin blending, and mechanical interlocking of the graphite reinforcement. The baseline and hybridized laminates' mechanical properties, before and after isothermal and humidity aging, were also compared. It was found that a small amount of graphite fiber was released from the graphite/epoxy laminates during the burn and impact conditions used in this program. However, the extent to which the fibers were released is not considered a severe enough problem to preclude the use of graphite reinforced composites in civil aircraft structure. It also was found that several hybrid concepts eliminated this fiber release. Isothermal and humidity aging did not appear to alter the fiber release tendencies.

  5. Properties of five toughened matrix composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cano, Roberto J.; Dow, Marvin B.

    1992-01-01

    The use of toughened matrix composite materials offers an attractive solution to the problem of poor damage tolerance associated with advanced composite materials. In this study, the unidirectional laminate strengths and moduli, notched (open-hole) and unnotched tension and compression properties of quasi-isotropic laminates, and compression-after-impact strengths of five carbon fiber/toughened matrix composites, IM7/E7T1-2, IM7/X1845, G40-800X/5255-3, IM7/5255-3, and IM7/5260 have been evaluated. The compression-after-impact (CAI) strengths were determined primarily by impacting quasi-isotropic laminates with the NASA Langley air gun. A few CAI tests were also made with a drop-weight impactor. For a given impact energy, compression after impact strengths were determined to be dependent on impactor velocity. Properties and strengths for the five materials tested are compared with NASA data on other toughened matrix materials (IM7/8551-7, IM6/1808I, IM7/F655, and T800/F3900). This investigation found that all five materials were stronger and more impact damage tolerant than more brittle carbon/epoxy composite materials currently used in aircraft structures.

  6. Influence of Composition and Deformation Conditions on the Strength and Brittleness of Shale Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybacki, E.; Reinicke, A.; Meier, T.; Makasi, M.; Dresen, G. H.

    2015-12-01

    Stimulation of shale gas reservoirs by hydraulic fracturing operations aims to increase the production rate by increasing the rock surface connected to the borehole. Prospective shales are often believed to display high strength and brittleness to decrease the breakdown pressure required to (re-) initiate a fracture as well as slow healing of natural and hydraulically induced fractures to increase the lifetime of the fracture network. Laboratory deformation tests were performed on several, mainly European black shales with different mineralogical composition, porosity and maturity at ambient and elevated pressures and temperatures. Mechanical properties such as compressive strength and elastic moduli strongly depend on shale composition, porosity, water content, structural anisotropy, and on pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions, but less on strain rate. We observed a transition from brittle to semibrittle deformation at high P-T conditions, in particular for high porosity shales. At given P-T conditions, the variation of compressive strength and Young's modulus with composition can be roughly estimated from the volumetric proportion of all components including organic matter and pores. We determined also brittleness index values based on pre-failure deformation behavior, Young's modulus and bulk composition. At low P-T conditions, where samples showed pronounced post-failure weakening, brittleness may be empirically estimated from bulk composition or Young's modulus. Similar to strength, at given P-T conditions, brittleness depends on the fraction of all components and not the amount of a specific component, e.g. clays, alone. Beside strength and brittleness, knowledge of the long term creep properties of shales is required to estimate in-situ stress anisotropy and the healing of (propped) hydraulic fractures.

  7. Molybdenum disilicide alloy matrix composite

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, John J.; Honnell, Richard E.; Gibbs, W. Scott

    1991-01-01

    Compositions of matter consisting of matrix materials having silicon carbide dispersed throughout them and methods of making the compositions. A matrix material is an alloy of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, and at least one secondary component which is a refractory silicide. The silicon carbide dispersant may be in the form of VLS whiskers, VS whiskers, or submicron powder or a mixture of these forms.

  8. Molybdenum disilicide alloy matrix composite

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, J.J.; Honnell, R.E.; Gibbs, W.S.

    1991-12-03

    Compositions of matter consisting of matrix materials having silicon carbide dispersed throughout them and methods of making the compositions are disclosed. A matrix material is an alloy of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, and at least one secondary component which is a refractory silicide. The silicon carbide dispersant may be in the form of VLS whiskers, VS whiskers, or submicron powder or a mixture of these forms. 3 figures.

  9. Molybdenum disilicide alloy matrix composite

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, John J.; Honnell, Richard E.; Gibbs, W. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Compositions of matter consisting of matrix matrials having silicon carbide dispersed throughout them and methods of making the compositions. A matrix material is an alloy of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, and at least one secondary component which is a refractory silicide. The silicon carbide dispersant may be in the form of VLS whiskers, VS whiskers, or submicron powder or a mixture of these forms.

  10. Molybdenum disilicide matrix composite

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, John J.; Carter, David H.; Gac, Frank D.

    1991-01-01

    A composition consisting of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, which is reinforced with VS silicon carbide whiskers dispersed throughout it and a method of making the reinforced composition. Use of the reinforcing material increases fracture toughness at low temperatures and strength at high temperatures, as compared to pure molybdenum disilicide.

  11. Molybdenum disilicide matrix composite

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, John J.; Carter, David H.; Gac, Frank D.

    1990-01-01

    A composition consisting of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, which is reinforced with VS silicon carbide whiskers dispersed throughout it and a method of making the reinforced composition. Use of the reinforcing material increases fracture toughness at low temperatures and strength at high temperatures, as compared to pure molybdenum disilicide.

  12. Matrix cracking in ceramic-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Danchaivijit, S.; Shetty, D.K. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1993-10-01

    Matrix cracking in ceramic-matrix composites with unbonded frictional interface has been studied using fracture mechanics theory. The critical stress for extension of a fiber-bridged crack has been analyzed using the stress-intensity approach. The analysis uses a new shear-lag formulation of the crack-closure traction applied by the bridging fibers based on the assumption of a constant sliding friction stress over the sliding length of the fiber-matrix interface. The new formulation satisfies two required limiting conditions: (a) when the stress in the bridging fiber approaches the far-field applied stress, the crack-opening displacement approaches a steady-state upper limit that is in agreement with the previous formulations; and (b) in the limit of zero crack opening, the stress in the bridging fiber approaches the far-field fiber stress. This lower limit of the bridging stress is distinctly different from the previous formulations. For all other conditions, the closure traction is a function of the far-field applied stress in addition to the local crack-opening displacement, the interfacial sliding friction stress, and the material properties. Numerical calculations using the stress-intensity approach indicate that the critical stress for crack extension decreases with increasing crack length and approaches a constant steady-state value for large cracks. The steady-state matrix-cracking stress agrees with a steady-state energy balance analysis applied to the continuum model, but it is slightly less than the matrix-cracking stress predicted by such theories of steady-state cracking as that of Aveston, Cooper, and Kelly. The origin of this difference and a method for reconciliation of the two theoretical approaches are discussed.

  13. High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites Conference held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on March 16 to 18, 1983. The purpose of the conference is to provide scientists and engineers working in the field of high temperature polymer matrix composites an opportunity to review, exchange, and assess the latest developments in this rapidly expanding area of materials technology. Technical papers are presented in the following areas: (1) matrix development; (2) adhesive development; (3) characterization; (4) environmental effects; and (5) applications.

  14. Hybridized polymer matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, B. A.; Visser, T.

    1981-01-01

    Under certain conditions of combined fire and impact, graphite fibers are released to the atmosphere by graphite fiber composites. The retention of graphite fibers in these situations is investigated. Hybrid combinations of graphite tape and cloth, glass cloth, and resin additives are studied with resin systems. Polyimide resins form the most resistant composites and resins based on simple novolac epoxies the least resistant of those tested. Great improvement in the containment of the fibers is obtained in using graphite/glass hybrids, and nearly complete prevention of individual fiber release is made possible by the use of resin additives.

  15. Hybridized polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, A.

    1981-01-01

    Design approaches and materials are described from which are fabricated pyrostatic graphite/epoxy (Gr/Ep) laminates that show improved retention of graphite particulates when subjected to burning. Sixteen hybridized plus two standard Gr/Ep laminates were designed, fabricated, and tested in an effort to eliminate the release of carbon (graphite) fiber particles from burned/burning, mechanically disturbed samples. The term pyrostatic is defined as meaning mechanically intact in the presence of fire. Graphite particulate retentive laminates were constructed whose constituent materials, cost of fabrication, and physical and mechanical properties were not significantly different from existing Gr/Ep composites. All but one laminate (a Celion graphite/bis-maleimide polyimide) were based on an off-the-shelf Gr/Ep, the AS-1/3501-5A system. Of the 16 candidates studied, four thin (10-ply) and four thick (50-ply) hybridized composites are recommended.

  16. Sapphire reinforced alumina matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Setlock, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Unidirectionally reinforced A1203 matrix composites have been fabricated by hot pressing. Approximately 30 volume % of either coated or uncoated sapphire fiber was used as reinforcement. Unstabilized ZrO2 was applied as the fiber coating. Composite mechanical behavior was analyzed both after fabrication and after additional heat treatment. The results of composite tensile tests were correlated with fiber-matrix interfacial shear strengths determined from fiber push-out tests. Substantially higher strength and greater fiber pull-out were observed for the coated fiber composites for all processing conditions studied. The coated fiber composites retained up to 95% and 87% of their as-fabricated strength when heat treated at 14000C for 8 or 24 hours, respectively. Electron microscopy analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed extensive fiber pull-out both before and after heat treatment.

  17. Ceramic matrix composite article and process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite article

    DOEpatents

    Cairo, Ronald Robert; DiMascio, Paul Stephen; Parolini, Jason Robert

    2016-01-12

    A ceramic matrix composite article and a process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite are disclosed. The ceramic matrix composite article includes a matrix distribution pattern formed by a manifold and ceramic matrix composite plies laid up on the matrix distribution pattern, includes the manifold, or a combination thereof. The manifold includes one or more matrix distribution channels operably connected to a delivery interface, the delivery interface configured for providing matrix material to one or more of the ceramic matrix composite plies. The process includes providing the manifold, forming the matrix distribution pattern by transporting the matrix material through the manifold, and contacting the ceramic matrix composite plies with the matrix material.

  18. Characterization and control of the fiber-matrix interface in ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lowden, R.A.

    1989-03-01

    Fiber-reinforced SiC composites fabricated by thermal-gradient forced-flow chemical-vapor infiltration (FCVI) have exhibited both composite (toughened) and brittle behavior during mechanical property evaluation. Detailed analysis of the fiber-matrix interface revealed that a silica layer on the surface of Nicalon Si-C-O fibers tightly bonds the fiber to the matrix. The strongly bonded fiber and matrix, combined with the reduction in the strength of the fibers that occurs during processing, resulted in the observed brittle behavior. The mechanical behavior of Nicalon/SiC composites has been improved by applying thin coatings (silicon carbide, boron, boron nitride, molybdenum, carbon) to the fibers, prior to densification, to control the interfacial bond. Varying degrees of bonding have been achieved with different coating materials and film thicknesses. Fiber-matrix bond strengths have been quantitatively evaluated using an indentation method and a simple tensile test. The effects of bonding and friction on the mechanical behavior of this composite system have been investigated. 167 refs., 59 figs., 18 tabs.

  19. Hybridized polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henshaw, J.

    1983-01-01

    Methods of improving the fire resistance of graphite epoxy composite laminates were investigated with the objective of reducing the volume of loose graphite fibers disseminated into the airstream as the result of a high intensity aircraft fuel fire. Improvements were sought by modifying the standard graphite epoxy systems without significantly negating their structural effectiveness. The modifications consisted primarily of an addition of a third constituent material such as glass fibers, glass flakes, carbon black in a glassy resin. These additions were designed to encourage coalescense of the graphite fibers and thereby reduce their aerodynamic float characteristics. A total of 38 fire tests were conducted on thin (1.0 mm) and thick (6.0 mm) hybrid panels.

  20. Corrosion of Titanium Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, B.S., Jr.; Alman, D.E.

    2002-09-22

    The corrosion behavior of unalloyed Ti and titanium matrix composites containing up to 20 vol% of TiC or TiB{sub 2} was determined in deaerated 2 wt% HCl at 50, 70, and 90 degrees C. Corrosion rates were calculated from corrosion currents determined by extrapolation of the tafel slopes. All curves exhibited active-passive behavior but no transpassive region. Corrosion rates for Ti + TiC composites were similar to those for unalloyed Ti except at 90 degrees C where the composites were slightly higher. Corrosion rates for Ti + TiB{sub 2} composites were generally higher than those for unalloyed Ti and increased with higher concentrations of TiB{sub 2}. XRD and SEM-EDS analyses showed that the TiC reinforcement did not react with the Ti matrix during fabrication while the TiB{sub 2} reacted to form a TiB phase.

  1. Characterization of Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, I. M.; Chun, H. J.; Karalekas, D.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental methods were developed, adapted, and applied to the characterization of a metal matrix composite system, namely, silicon carbide/aluminim (SCS-2/6061 Al), and its constituents. The silicon carbide fiber was characterized by determining its modulus, strength, and coefficient of thermal expansion. The aluminum matrix was characterized thermomechanically up to 399 C (750 F) at two strain rates. The unidirectional SiC/Al composite was characterized mechanically under longitudinal, transverse, and in-plane shear loading up to 399 C (750 F). Isothermal and non-isothermal creep behavior was also measured. The applicability of a proposed set of multifactor thermoviscoplastic nonlinear constitutive relations and a computer code was investigated. Agreement between predictions and experimental results was shown in a few cases. The elastoplastic thermomechanical behavior of the composite was also described by a number of new analytical models developed or adapted for the material system studied. These models include the rule of mixtures, composite cylinder model with various thermoelastoplastic analyses and a model based on average field theory. In most cases satisfactory agreement was demonstrated between analytical predictions and experimental results for the cases of stress-strain behavior and thermal deformation behavior at different temperatures. In addition, some models yielded detailed three-dimensional stress distributions in the constituents within the composite.

  2. Fibre-matrix bond strength studies of glass, ceramic, and metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grande, D. H.; Mandell, J. F.; Hong, K. C. C.

    1988-01-01

    An indentation test technique for compressively loading the ends of individual fibers to produce debonding has been applied to metal, glass, and glass-ceramic matrix composites; bond strength values at debond initiation are calculated using a finite-element model. Results are correlated with composite longitudinal and interlaminar shear behavior for carbon and Nicalon fiber-reinforced glasses and glass-ceramics including the effects of matrix modifications, processing conditions, and high-temperature oxidation embrittlement. The data indicate that significant bonding to improve off-axis and shear properties can be tolerated before the longitudinal behavior becomes brittle. Residual stress and other mechanical bonding effects are important, but improved analyses and multiaxial interfacial failure criteria are needed to adequately interpret bond strength data in terms of composite performance.

  3. Metal-matrix composites: Status and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Applications of metal matrix composites for air frames and jet engine components are discussed. The current state of the art in primary and secondary fabrication is presented. The present and projected costs were analyzed to determine the cost effectiveness of metal matrix composites. The various types of metal matrix composites and their characteristics are described.

  4. Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites: A comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1987-01-01

    The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.

  5. Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites - A comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1987-01-01

    The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.

  6. Matrix resin effects in composite delamination - Mode I fracture aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunston, Donald L.; Moulton, Richard J.; Johnston, Norman J.; Bascom, Willard D.

    1987-01-01

    A number of thermoset, toughened thermoset, and thermoplastic resin matrix systems were characterized for Mode I critical strain energy release rates, and their composites were tested for interlaminar critical strain energy release rates using the double cantilever beam method. A clear correlation is found between the two sets of data. With brittle resins, the interlaminar critical strain energy release rates are somewhat larger than the neat resin values due to a full transfer of the neat resin toughness to the composite and toughening mechanisms associated with crack growth. With tougher matrices, the higher critical strain energy release rates are only partially transferred to the composites, presumably because the fibers restrict the crack-tip deformation zones.

  7. Third Intermetallic Matrix Composites Symposium, volume 350

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, J.A.; Bowman, R.R.; Lewandowski, J.J.

    1994-04-01

    Partial contents include: issues in potential IMC application for aerospace structures; powder metallurgy processing of intermetallic matrix composites; microstructure and properties of intermetallic matrix composites produced by reaction synthesis; combustion synthesis of niobium aluminide matrix composites; ambient temperature synthesis of bulk intermetallics; wear behavior of SHS intermetallic matrix composites; fracture characteristics of metal-intermetallic laminates produced by SHS reactions; and vapor phase synthesis of Ti aluminides and the interfacial bonding effect on the mechanical property of micro-composites reinforced by pyrolized SiC fibers.

  8. Thermoplastic matrix composite processing model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dara, P. H.; Loos, A. C.

    1985-01-01

    The effects the processing parameters pressure, temperature, and time have on the quality of continuous graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites were quantitatively accessed by defining the extent to which intimate contact and bond formation has occurred at successive ply interfaces. Two models are presented predicting the extents to which the ply interfaces have achieved intimate contact and cohesive strength. The models are based on experimental observation of compression molded laminates and neat resin conditions, respectively. Identified as the mechanism explaining the phenomenon by which the plies bond to themselves is the theory of autohesion (or self diffusion). Theoretical predictions from the Reptation Theory between autohesive strength and contact time are used to explain the effects of the processing parameters on the observed experimental strengths. The application of a time-temperature relationship for autohesive strength predictions is evaluated. A viscoelastic compression molding model of a tow was developed to explain the phenomenon by which the prepreg ply interfaces develop intimate contact.

  9. Evaluation of metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okelly, K. P.

    1971-01-01

    The results of an evaluation of candidate metal-matrix composite materials for shuttle space radiators mounted to external structure are presented. The evaluation was specifically applicable to considerations of the manufacturing and properties of a potential space radiator. Two candidates, boron/aluminum and graphite/aluminum were obtained or made in various forms and tested in sufficient depth to allow selection of one of the two for future scale-up programs. The effort accomplished on this program verified that aluminum reinforced with boron was within the state-of-the-art in industry and possessed properties usable in the external skin areas available for shuttle radiators where re-entry temperatures will not exceed 800 F. It further demonstrated that graphite/aluminum has an apparently attractive future for space applications but requires extension development prior to scale-up.

  10. Proposed framework for thermomechanical life modeling of metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, Gary R.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Saltsman, James F.

    1993-01-01

    The framework of a mechanics of materials model is proposed for thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) life prediction of unidirectional, continuous-fiber metal matrix composites (MMC's). Axially loaded MMC test samples are analyzed as structural components whose fatigue lives are governed by local stress-strain conditions resulting from combined interactions of the matrix, interfacial layer, and fiber constituents. The metallic matrix is identified as the vehicle for tracking fatigue crack initiation and propagation. The proposed framework has three major elements. First, TMF flow and failure characteristics of in situ matrix material are approximated from tests of unreinforced matrix material, and matrix TMF life prediction equations are numerically calibrated. The macrocrack initiation fatigue life of the matrix material is divided into microcrack initiation and microcrack propagation phases. Second, the influencing factors created by the presence of fibers and interfaces are analyzed, characterized, and documented in equation form. Some of the influences act on the microcrack initiation portion of the matrix fatigue life, others on the microcrack propagation life, while some affect both. Influencing factors include coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch strains, residual (mean) stresses, multiaxial stress states, off-axis fibers, internal stress concentrations, multiple initiation sites, nonuniform fiber spacing, fiber debonding, interfacial layers and cracking, fractured fibers, fiber deflections of crack fronts, fiber bridging of matrix cracks, and internal oxidation along internal interfaces. Equations exist for some, but not all, of the currently identified influencing factors. The third element is the inclusion of overriding influences such as maximum tensile strain limits of brittle fibers that could cause local fractures and ensuing catastrophic failure of surrounding matrix material. Some experimental data exist for assessing the plausibility of the proposed

  11. Metal- and intermetallic-matrix composites for aerospace propulsion and power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, J.

    1992-01-01

    The requirements for high specific strength refractory materials of prospective military, civil, and space propulsion systems are presently addressed in the context of emerging capabilities in metal- and intermetallic-matrix composites. The candidate systems encompass composite matrix compositions of superalloy, Nb-Zr refractory alloy, Cu-base, and Ti-base alloy types, as well as such intermetallics as TiAl, Ti3Al, NiAl, and MoSi2. The brittleness of intermetallic matrices remains a major consideration, as does their general difficulty of fabrication.

  12. Multiscale Modeling of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Mital, Subodh K.; Pineda, Evan J.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Results of multiscale modeling simulations of the nonlinear response of SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites are reported, wherein the microstructure of the ceramic matrix is captured. This micro scale architecture, which contains free Si material as well as the SiC ceramic, is responsible for residual stresses that play an important role in the subsequent thermo-mechanical behavior of the SiC/SiC composite. Using the novel Multiscale Generalized Method of Cells recursive micromechanics theory, the microstructure of the matrix, as well as the microstructure of the composite (fiber and matrix) can be captured.

  13. Role of matrix/reinforcement interfaces in the fracture toughness of brittle materials toughened by ductile reinforcements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, L.; Abbaschian, R.

    1992-10-01

    Crack interactions with ductile reinforcements, especially behavior of a crack tip at the interface, have been studied using MoSi2 composites reinforced with Nb foils. Effects of fracture energy of interfaces on toughness of the composites have also been investigated. Variation of interfacial bonding was achieved by depositing an oxide coating or by the development of a reaction prod- uct layer between the reinforcement and matrix. Toughness was measured using bend tests on chevron-notched specimens. It has been established that as a crack interacts with a ductile re- inforcement, three mechanisms compcte: interfacial debonding, multiple matrix fracture, and direct crack propagation through the reinforcement. Decohesion length at the matrix/reinforcement interface depends on the predominant mechanism. Furthermore, the results add to the evidence that the extent to which interfacial bonding is conducive to toughness of the composites depends on the criterion used to describe the toughness and that ductility of the ductile reinforcement is also an important factor in controlling toughness of the composites. Loss of ductility of the ductile reinforcement due to inappropriate processing could result in little improvement in tough- ness of the composites.

  14. Formation of the properties of antimony matrix alloys for frame-type composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulevskii, V. A.; Antipov, V. I.; Vinogradov, L. V.; Kolmakov, A. G.; Lazarev, E. M.; Samarina, A. M.; Mukhina, Yu. E.

    2009-12-01

    A frame-type composite material (CM) produced upon impregnation represents a system consisting of a rigid porous frame and a matrix material filling its voids. When metals are used as a matrix material, they bring up specific problems related to melting of a metal, such as the thermal effect of the metal on the frame and the chemical interaction of the matrix and frame with the formation of brittle compounds. A CM that combines the best characteristics of its components can be produced. Since impregnation is, as a rule, performed under vacuum, melting of a matrix metal is accompanied by an increase in the evaporation rate. The evaporation of a matrix metal can be decreased by controlling its chemical composition, decreasing the melting temperature of the melt, and controlling the cooling rate. In this work, antimony alloys are used as a matrix material and their properties are studied.

  15. Simulating Microfracture In Metal-Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Chamis, Christos C.; Gotsis, Pascal K.

    1994-01-01

    Computational procedures developed for simulating microfracture in metal-matrix/fiber composite materials under mechanical and/or thermal loads at ambient and high temperatures. Procedures evaluate microfracture behavior of composites, establish hierarchies and sequences of fracture modes, and examine influences of compliant layers and partial debonding on properties of composites and on initiation of microfractures in them.

  16. High-temperature polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    Polymers research at the NASA Lewis Research Center has produced high-temperature, easily processable resin systems, such as PMR-15. In addition, the Polymers Branch has investigated ways to improve the mechanical properties of polymers and the microcracking resistance of polymer matrix composites in response to industry need for new and improved aeropropulsion materials. Current and future research in the Polymers Branch is aimed at advancing the upper use temperature of polymer matrix composites to 700 F and beyond by developing new resins, by examining the use of fiber reinforcements other than graphite, and by developing coatings for polymer matrix composites to increase their oxidation resistance.

  17. Metal matrix composites microfracture: Computational simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Caruso, John J.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1990-01-01

    Fiber/matrix fracture and fiber-matrix interface debonding in a metal matrix composite (MMC) are computationally simulated. These simulations are part of a research activity to develop computational methods for microfracture, microfracture propagation and fracture toughness of the metal matrix composites. The three-dimensional finite element model used in the simulation consists of a group of nine unidirectional fibers in three by three unit cell array of SiC/Ti15 metal matrix composite with a fiber volume ration of 0.35. This computational procedure is used to predict the fracture process and establish the hierarchy of fracture modes based on strain energy release rate. It is also used to predict stress redistribution to surrounding matrix-fibers due to initial and progressive fracture of fiber/matrix and due to debonding of fiber-matrix interface. Microfracture results for various loading cases such as longitudinal, transverse, shear and bending are presented and discussed. Step-by-step procedures are outlined to evaluate composite microfracture for a given composite system.

  18. Micromechanical analysis of the failure process in ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Asher A.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of the effectiveness of fiber reinforcement in brittle matrix composites is presented. The analytical method allows consideration of discrete fiber distribution and examination of the development of crack growth parameters on the microscale. The problem associated with bridging zone development is addressed here; therefore, the bridging zone is considered to be smaller than the main preexisting crack, and the small scale approach is used. The mechanics of the reinforcement is accurately accounted for in the process zone of a growing crack. Closed form solutions characterizing the initial failure process are presented for linear and nonlinear force-fiber pullout displacement relationships. The implicit exact solution for the extended bridging zone is presented as well.

  19. Celsian Glass-Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Dicarlo, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Glass-ceramic matrix reinforced fiber composite materials developed for use in low dielectric applications, such as radomes. Materials strong and tough, exhibit low dielectric properties, and endure high temperatures.

  20. Spark plasma sintering of aluminum matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Vineet

    2011-12-01

    Aluminum matrix composites make a distinct category of advanced engineering materials having superior properties over conventional aluminum alloys. Aluminum matrix composites exhibit high hardness, yield strength, and excellent wear and corrosion resistance. Due to these attractive properties, aluminum matrix composites materials have many structural applications in the automotive and the aerospace industries. In this thesis, efforts are made to process high strength aluminum matrix composites which can be useful in the applications of light weight and strong materials. Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) is a relatively novel process where powder mixture is consolidated under the simultaneous influence of uniaxial pressure and pulsed direct current. In this work, SPS was used to process aluminum matrix composites having three different reinforcements: multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), silicon carbide (SiC), and iron-based metallic glass (MG). In Al-CNT composites, significant improvement in micro-hardness, nano-hardness, and compressive yield strength was observed. The Al-CNT composites further exhibited improved wear resistance and lower friction coefficient due to strengthening and self-lubricating effects of CNTs. In Al-SiC and Al-MG composites, microstructure, densification, and tribological behaviors were also studied. Reinforcing MG and SiC also resulted in increase in micro-hardness and wear resistance.

  1. Polymer Matrix Composite Material Oxygen Compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Tom

    2001-01-01

    Carbon fiber/polymer matrix composite materials look promising as a material to construct liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks. Based on mechanical impact tests the risk will be greater than aluminum, however, the risk can probably be managed to an acceptable level. Proper tank design and operation can minimize risk. A risk assessment (hazard analysis) will be used to determine the overall acceptability for using polymer matrix composite materials.

  2. Micromechanical Modeling of Woven Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of an extensive micromechanical modeling effort for woven metal matrix composites. The model is employed to predict the mechanical response of 8-harness (8H) satin weave carbon/copper (C/Cu) composites. Experimental mechanical results for this novel high thermal conductivity material were recently reported by Bednarcyk et al. along with preliminary model results. The micromechanics model developed herein is based on an embedded approach. A micromechanics model for the local (micro-scale) behavior of the woven composite, the original method of cells (Aboudi), is embedded in a global (macro-scale) micromechanics model (the three-dimensional generalized method of cells (GMC-3D) (Aboudi). This approach allows representation of true repeating unit cells for woven metal matrix composites via GMC-3D, and representation of local effects, such as matrix plasticity, yarn porosity, and imperfect fiber-matrix bonding. In addition, the equations of GMC-3D were reformulated to significantly reduce the number of unknown quantities that characterize the deformation fields at the microlevel in order to make possible the analysis of actual microstructures of woven composites. The resulting micromechanical model (WCGMC) provides an intermediate level of geometric representation, versatility, and computational efficiency with respect to previous analytical and numerical models for woven composites, but surpasses all previous modeling work by allowing the mechanical response of a woven metal matrix composite, with an elastoplastic matrix, to be examined for the first time. WCGMC is employed to examine the effects of composite microstructure, porosity, residual stresses, and imperfect fiber-matrix bonding on the predicted mechanical response of 8H satin C/Cu. The previously reported experimental results are summarized, and the model predictions are compared to monotonic and cyclic tensile and shear test data. By considering appropriate levels of porosity

  3. Influence of the interface and fiber spacing on the fracture behavior of glass matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Matikas, T.E.; Karpur, P.; Kim, R.; Dutton, R.

    1995-09-01

    In this work, a nondestructive methodology is provided to determine the presence of microcracking in unidirectional SiC fiber reinforced brittle (borosilicate glass) matrix composites and to detect internal cracks in the composites that did not reach the surface of the specimen. The methodology is based on a combination of several ultrasonic techniques including shear back reflectivity (SBR), back-reflected surface wave imaging and acoustic microscopy. The composites used in this study were made with controlled fiber spacing consisting of regular arrays of either TiB{sub 2} coated SIGMA 1240 or carbon coated SCS-6 monofilament fibers in a series of borosilicate glasses. The combinations of different constituents provided composite samples with various fiber matrix interface properties. The composites were subjected to axial loading, and the stress in the composite when matrix cracking first occurs was determined and compared with theoretical values provided by a semi-empirical model which can assume either a completely bonded (i.e. perfect) or completely unbonded (i.e. pure slip) fiber-matrix interface. Results from the tensile data for different glass matrix composite systems were also compared with data of interface elastic property evaluation using ultrasonic SBR technique, allowing investigation f the influence of the fiber-matrix interface elastic property, the volume fraction of the fibers, and the state of radial residual stresses at the interface on the fracture behavior of glass matrix composites.

  4. Fabrication of fiber composites with a MAX phase matrix by reactive melt infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, F.; Krenkel, W.

    2011-10-01

    Due to the inherent brittleness of ceramics it is very desirable to increase the damage tolerance of ceramics. The ternary MAX phases are a promising group of materials with high fracture toughness. The topic of this study is the development of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) with a matrix containing MAX phases, to achieve a damage tolerant structural composite material. For this purpose carbon fiber reinforced preforms with a carbon-titanium carbide matrix (C/C-TiC) were developed and infiltrated with silicon by a pressureless reactive melt infiltration. Finally liquid silicon caused the formation of SiC, TiSi2 and Ti3SiC2 in the matrix of the composite.

  5. Tough high performance composite matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H. (Inventor); Johnston, Norman J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention is a semi-interpentrating polymer network which includes a high performance thermosetting polyimide having a nadic end group acting as a crosslinking site and a high performance linear thermoplastic polyimide. Provided is an improved high temperature matrix resin which is capable of performing in the 200 to 300 C range. This resin has significantly improved toughness and microcracking resistance, excellent processability, mechanical performance, and moisture and solvent resistances.

  6. METCAN-PC - METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE ANALYZER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    High temperature metal matrix composites offer great potential for use in advanced aerospace structural applications. The realization of this potential however, requires concurrent developments in (1) a technology base for fabricating high temperature metal matrix composite structural components, (2) experimental techniques for measuring their thermal and mechanical characteristics, and (3) computational methods to predict their behavior. METCAN (METal matrix Composite ANalyzer) is a computer program developed to predict this behavior. METCAN can be used to computationally simulate the non-linear behavior of high temperature metal matrix composites (HT-MMC), thus allowing the potential payoff for the specific application to be assessed. It provides a comprehensive analysis of composite thermal and mechanical performance. METCAN treats material nonlinearity at the constituent (fiber, matrix, and interphase) level, where the behavior of each constituent is modeled accounting for time-temperature-stress dependence. The composite properties are synthesized from the constituent instantaneous properties by making use of composite micromechanics and macromechanics. Factors which affect the behavior of the composite properties include the fabrication process variables, the fiber and matrix properties, the bonding between the fiber and matrix and/or the properties of the interphase between the fiber and matrix. The METCAN simulation is performed as point-wise analysis and produces composite properties which are readily incorporated into a finite element code to perform a global structural analysis. After the global structural analysis is performed, METCAN decomposes the composite properties back into the localized response at the various levels of the simulation. At this point the constituent properties are updated and the next iteration in the analysis is initiated. This cyclic procedure is referred to as the integrated approach to metal matrix composite analysis. METCAN

  7. Fracture toughness testing of polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental techniques and associated data analysis methods used to measure the resistance to interlaminar fracture, or 'fracture toughness', of polymer matrix composite materials are described. A review in the use of energy techniques to characterize fracture behavior in elastic solids is given. An overview is presented of the types of approaches employed in the design of delamination-resistant composite materials.

  8. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, J. F.; Prewo, K. M.

    1977-01-01

    The results of research for the origination of graphite-fiber reinforced glass matrix composites are presented. The method selected to form the composites consisted of pulling the graphite fiber through a slurry containing powdered glass, winding up the graphite fiber and the glass it picks up on a drum, drying, cutting into segments, loading the tape segment into a graphite die, and hot pressing. During the course of the work, composites were made with a variety of graphite fibers in a glass matrix.

  9. Nanophosphor composite scintillators comprising a polymer matrix

    DOEpatents

    Muenchausen, Ross Edward; Mckigney, Edward Allen; Gilbertson, Robert David

    2010-11-16

    An improved nanophosphor composite comprises surface modified nanophosphor particles in a solid matrix. The nanophosphor particle surface is modified with an organic ligand, or by covalently bonding a polymeric or polymeric precursor material. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during formation of the composite material. The improved nanophosphor composite may be used in any conventional scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  10. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Thompson, E. R.

    1981-01-01

    A broad group of fibers and matrices were combined to create a wide range of composite properties. Primary material fabrication procedures were developed which readily permit the fabrication of flat plate and shaped composites. Composite mechanical properties were measured under a wide range of test conditions. Tensile, flexure mechanical fatigue, thermal fatigue, fracture toughness, and fatigue crack growth resistance were evaluated. Selected fiber-matrix combinations were shown to maintain their strength at up to 1300 K when tested in an inert atmosphere. Composite high temperature mechanical properties were shown to be limited primarily by the oxidation resistance of the graphite fibers. Composite thermal dimensional stability was measured and found to be excellent.

  11. Optimum interface properties for metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    1989-01-01

    Due to the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch (CTE) between the fiber and the matrix, high residual sresses exist in metal matrix composite systems upon cool down from processing temperature to room temperature. An interface material can be placed between the fiber and the matrix to reduce the high tensile residual stresses in the matrix. A computer program was written to minimize the residual stress in the matrix subject to the interface material properties. The decision variables are the interface modulus, thickness and thermal expansion coefficient. The properties of the interface material are optimized such that the average distortion energy in the matrix and the interface is minimized. As a result, the only active variable is the thermal expansion coefficient. The optimum modulus of the interface is always the minimum allowable value and the interface thickness is always the maximum allowable value, independent of the fiber/matrix system. The optimum interface thermal expansion coefficient is always between the values of the fiber and the matrix. Using this analysis, a survey of materials was conducted for use as fiber coatings in some specific composite systems.

  12. Intermetallic bonded ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Plucknett, K.P.; Tiegs, T.N.; Alexander, K.B.; Becher, P.F.; Schneibel, J.H.; Waters, S.B.; Menchhofer, P.A.

    1995-07-01

    A range of carbide and oxide-based cermets have been developed utilizing ductile nickel aluminide (Ni{sub 3}Al) alloy binder phases. Some of these, notably materials based upon tungsten and titanium carbides (WC and TiC respectively), offer potential as alternatives to the cermets which use cobalt binders (i.e. WC/Co). Samples have been prepared by blending commercially available Ni{sub 3}Al alloy powders with the desired ceramic phases, followed by hot-pressing. Alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) matrix materials have also been prepared by pressurized molten alloy infiltration. The microstructure, flexure strength and fracture toughness of selected materials are discussed.

  13. Fiber coatings for ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, H.W.; Bohlen, J.W.

    1992-08-01

    Two fiber coating concepts for ceramic matrix composites were successfully demonstrated in a preliminary study. These coatings were designed to promote toughness in composites and resist oxidation. The concepts were: (1) thin, multiple unbonded layers, and (2) a single porous layer that provided low interfacial strengths between the fiber and matrix. Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) SiC and sol-gel derived oxides were used to produce the fiber coatings. Specimens consisted of a single coated monofilament fiber and a sheath of CVD SiC to represent the matrix. Results from flexure tests showed that matrix cracks were deflected and that fibers debonded the same as in specimens made using carbon-coated fibers. Crack deflection and fiber debonding were also evident after exposure in air at elevated temperatures. 5 refs.

  14. Solidification processing of monotectic alloy matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frier, Nancy L.; Shiohara, Yuh; Russell, Kenneth C.

    1989-01-01

    Directionally solidified aluminum-indium alloys of the monotectic composition were found to form an in situ rod composite which obeys a lambda exp 2 R = constant relation. The experimental data shows good agreement with previously reported results. A theoretical boundary between cellular and dendritic growth conditions was derived and compared with experiments. The unique wetting characteristics of the monotectic alloys can be utilized to tailor the interface structure in metal matrix composites. Metal matrix composites with monotectic and hypermonotectic Al-In matrices were made by pressure infiltration, remelted and directionally solidified to observe the wetting characteristics of the alloys as well as the effect on structure of solidification in the constrained field of the fiber interstices. Models for monotectic growth are modified to take into account solidification in these constrained fields.

  15. Influence of Binder in Iron Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin, S.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Hussain, Z.; Ahmad, Z. A.

    2010-03-11

    The ability to use iron and its alloys as the matrix material in composite systems is of great importance because it is the most widely used metallic material with a variety of commercially available steel grades [1]. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of binder in particulate iron based metal matrix composites. There are four types of binder that were used in this study; Stearic Acid, Gummi Arabisch, Polyvinyl alcohol 15000 MW and Polyvinyl alcohol 22000 MW. Six different weight percentage of each binder was prepared to produce the composite materials using powder metallurgy (P/M) route; consists of dry mixing, uniaxially compacting at 750 MPa and vacuum sintering at 1100 deg. C for two hours. Their characterization included a study of density, porosity, hardness and microstructure. Results indicate that MMC was affected by the binder and stearic acid as a binder produced better properties of the composite.

  16. Modeling of cumulative tool wear in machining metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, N.P.; Tan, V.K.; Oon, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) are notoriously known for their low machinability because of the abrasive and brittle reinforcement. Although a near-net-shape product could be produced, finish machining is still required for the final shape and dimension. The classical Taylor`s tool life equation that relates tool life and cutting conditions has been traditionally used to study machinability. The turning operation is commonly used to investigate the machinability of a material; tedious and costly milling experiments have to be performed separately; while a facing test is not applicable for the Taylor`s model since the facing speed varies as the tool moves radially. Collecting intensive machining data for MMCs is often difficult because of the constraints on size, cost of the material, and the availability of sophisticated machine tools. A more flexible model and machinability testing technique are, therefore, sought. This study presents and verifies new models for turning, facing, and milling operations. Different cutting conditions were utilized to assess the machinability of MMCs reinforced with silicon carbide or alumina particles. Experimental data show that tool wear does not depend on the order of different cutting speeds since abrasion is the main wear mechanism. Correlation between data for turning, milling, and facing is presented. It is more economical to rank machinability using data for facing and then to convert the data for turning and milling, if required. Subsurface damages such as work-hardened and cracked matrix alloy, and fractured and delaminated particles are discussed.

  17. Plastic matrix composites with continuous fiber reinforcement

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-19

    Most plastic resins are not suitable for structural applications. Although many resins are extremely tough, most lack strength, stiffness, and deform under load with time. By mixing strong, stiff, fibrous materials into the plastic matrix, a variety of structural composite materials can be formed. The properties of these composites can be tailored by fiber selection, orientation, and other factors to suit specific applications. The advantages and disadvantages of fiberglass, carbon-graphite, aramid (Kevlar 49), and boron fibers are summarized.

  18. Processable polyimide adhesive and matrix composite resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Progar, Donald J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A high temperature polyimide composition prepared by reacting 4,4'-isophthaloyldiphthalic anhydride with metaphenylenediamine is employed to prepare matrix resins, adhesives, films, coatings, moldings, and laminates, especially those showing enhanced flow with retention of mechanical and adhesive properties. It can be used in the aerospace industry, for example, in joining metals to metals or metals to composite structures. One area of application is in the manufacture of lighter and stronger aircraft and spacecraft structures.

  19. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Thompson, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    High levels of mechanical performance in tension, flexure, fatigue, and creep loading situations of graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composites are discussed. At test temperatures of up to 813 K it was found that the major limiting factor was the oxidative instability of the reinforcing graphite fibers. Particular points to note include the following: (1) a wide variety of graphite fibers were found to be comparable with the glass matrix composite fabrication process; (2) choice of fiber, to a large extent, controlled resultant composite performance; (3) composite fatigue performance was found to be excellent at both 300 K and 703 K; (4) composite creep and stress rupture at temperatures of up to 813 K was limited by the oxidative stability of the fiber; (5) exceptionally low values of composite thermal expansion coefficient were attributable to the dimensional stability of both matrix and fiber; and (6) component fabricability was demonstrated through the hot pressing of hot sections and brazing using glass and metal joining phases.

  20. Development of Matrix Microstructures in UHTC Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia; Stackpoole, Margaret; Gusman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    One of the major issues hindering the use of ultra high temperature ceramics for aerospace applications is low fracture toughness. There is considerable interest in developing fiber-reinforced composites to improve fracture toughness. Considerable knowledge has been gained in controlling and improving the microstructure of monolithic UHTCs, and this paper addresses the question of transferring that knowledge to composites. Some model composites have been made and the microstructures of the matrix developed has been explored and compared to the microstructure of monolithic materials in the hafnium diboride/silicon carbide family. Both 2D and 3D weaves have been impregnated and processed.

  1. Metal matrix composites for aircraft propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of advanced aircraft propulsion systems have indicated that performance gains and operating costs are possible through the application of metal matrix composites. Compressor fan blades and turbine blades have been identified as components with high payoff potential as a result of these studies. This paper will present the current status of development of five candidate materials for such applications. Boron fiber/aluminum, boron fiber/titanium, and silicon carbide fiber/titanium composites are considered for lightweight compressor fan blades. Directionally solidified eutectic superalloy and tungsten wire/superalloy composites are considered for application to turbine blades for use temperatures to 1100 C (2000 F).

  2. Fracture toughness of SiC/Al metal matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yury; Parker, B. H.; Chu, H. P.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to evaluate fracture toughness of SiC/Al metal matrix composite (MMC). The material was a 12.7 mm thick extrusion of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy with 40 v/o SiC particulates. Specimen configuration and test procedure conformed to ASTM E399 Standard for compact specimens. It was found that special procedures were necessary to obtain fatigue cracks of controlled lengths in the preparation of precracked specimens for the MMC material. Fatigue loading with both minimum and maximum loads in compression was used to start the precrack. The initial precracking would stop by self-arrest. Afterwards, the precrack could be safely extended to the desired length by additional cyclic tensile loading. Test results met practically all the E399 criteria for the calculation of plane strain fracture toughness of the material. A valid K sub IC value of the SiC/Al composite was established as K sub IC = 8.9 MPa square root of m. The threshold stress intensity under which crack would cease to grow in the material was estimated as delta K sub th = 2MPa square root of m for R = 0.09 using the fatigue precracking data. Fractographic examinations show that failure occurred by the micromechanism involved with plastic deformation although the specimens broke by brittle fracture. The effect of precracking by cyclic loading in compression on fracture toughness is included in the discussion.

  3. Ceramic-matrix composites fatigue and fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, David L.

    1995-10-01

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) have been shown to exhibit excellent high-temperature properties. There are some published data on the mechanical properties of Nicalon fiber-reinforced composites with various matrices, but much of the work was performed in bending, and there is little information on the failure modes in textile-reinforced CMCs, especially under cyclic-loading conditions. This article is an interim report on research that examines the tensile deformation, fracture, smoothbar fatigue, and fatigue crack-growth behavior of several CMCs. Unidirectional, two-dimensional eight-harness satin weave, and three-dimensional angle-interlock weave Nicalon fiber architectures infiltrated with polymers and then pyrolized were investigated and are compared with similar experiments on Nicalon-reinforced calcium-silicate glass-ceramic-matrix composites.

  4. Thermomechanical fatigue of polymer matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Strait, L.H.; Koudela, K.L.; Karasek, M.L.; Amateau, M.F.; Runt, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    The present research was undertaken to evaluate the effects of mechanical constraint on the response of polymer matrix composites during thermal cycling. Analytical and experimental techniques were used to characterize the response of carbon-fiber-reinforced cyanate ester and bismaleimide composites. Cross-ply laminates were subjected to thermal cycles from 24 to 177 C in the unconstrained, fully constrained, and overconstrained conditions. Laminate response, damage mechanisms, and residual compressive properties were characterized for each material and degree of constraint. The results of this research indicate that the level of constraint can have a significant effect on the response of polymer matrix composites during thermal cycling. However, longer-term testing is required to determine if the observed changes in response will ultimately affect the final failure mode and fatigue endurance of the materials.

  5. Inelastic deformation of metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissenden, C. J.; Herakovich, C. T.; Pindera, M-J.

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical model capable of predicting the thermomechanical response of continuously reinforced metal matrix composite laminates subjected to multiaxial loading was developed. A micromechanical model is used in conjunction with nonlinear lamination theory to determine inelastic laminae response. Matrix viscoplasticity, residual stresses, and damage to the fiber/matrix interfacial zone are explicitly included in the model. The representative cell of the micromechanical model is considered to be in a state of generalized plane strain, enabling a quasi two-dimensional analysis to be performed. Constant strain finite elements are formulated with elastic-viscoplastic constitutive equations. Interfacial debonding is incorporated into the model through interface elements based on the interfacial debonding theory originally presented by Needleman, and modified by Tvergaard. Nonlinear interfacial constitutive equations relate interfacial tractions to displacement discontinuities at the interface. Theoretical predictions are compared with the results of an experimental program conducted on silicon carbide/titanium (SiC/Ti) unidirectional, (O4), and angle-ply, (+34)(sub s), tubular specimens. Multiaxial loading included increments of axial tension, compression, torque, and internal pressure. Loadings were chosen in an effort to distinguish inelastic deformation due to damage from matrix plasticity and separate time-dependent effects from time-independent effects. Results show that fiber/matrix debonding is nonuniform throughout the composite and is a major factor in the effective response. Also, significant creep behavior occurs at relatively low applied stress levels at room temperature.

  6. Thermal stress effects in intermetallic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, P. K.; Sensmeier, M. D.; Kupperman, D. S.; Wadley, H. N. G.

    1993-01-01

    Intermetallic matrix composites develop residual stresses from the large thermal expansion mismatch (delta-alpha) between the fibers and matrix. This work was undertaken to: establish improved techniques to measure these thermal stresses in IMC's; determine residual stresses in a variety of IMC systems by experiments and modeling; and, determine the effect of residual stresses on selected mechanical properties of an IMC. X ray diffraction (XRD), neutron diffraction (ND), synchrotron XRD (SXRD), and ultrasonics (US) techniques for measuring thermal stresses in IMC were examined and ND was selected as the most promising technique. ND was demonstrated on a variety of IMC systems encompassing Ti- and Ni-base matrices, SiC, W, and Al2O3 fibers, and different fiber fractions (Vf). Experimental results on these systems agreed with predictions of a concentric cylinder model. In SiC/Ti-base systems, little yielding was found and stresses were controlled primarily by delta-alpha and Vf. In Ni-base matrix systems, yield strength of the matrix and Vf controlled stress levels. The longitudinal residual stresses in SCS-6/Ti-24Al-llNb composite were modified by thermomechanical processing. Increasing residual stress decreased ultimate tensile strength in agreement with model predictions. Fiber pushout strength showed an unexpected inverse correlation with residual stress. In-plane shear yield strength showed no dependence on residual stress. Higher levels of residual tension led to higher fatigue crack growth rates, as suggested by matrix mean stress effects.

  7. Thermal shock resistance of ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carper, D. M.; Nied, H. F.

    1993-01-01

    The experimental and analytical investigation of the thermal shock phenomena in ceramic matrix composites is detailed. The composite systems examined were oxide-based, consisting of an aluminosilicate matrix with either polycrystalline aluminosilicate or single crystal alumina fiber reinforcement. The program was divided into three technical tasks; baseline mechanical properties, thermal shock modeling, and thermal shock testing. The analytical investigation focused on the development of simple expressions for transient thermal stresses induced during thermal shock. The effect of various material parameters, including thermal conductivity, elastic modulus, and thermal expansion, were examined analytically for their effect on thermal shock performance. Using a simple maximum stress criteria for each constituent, it was observed that fiber fracture would occur only at the most extreme thermal shock conditions and that matrix fracture, splitting parallel to the reinforcing fiber, was to be expected for most practical cases. Thermal shock resistance for the two material systems was determined experimentally by subjecting plates to sudden changes in temperature on one surface while maintaining the opposite surface at a constant temperature. This temperature change was varied in severity (magnitude) and in number of shocks applied to a given sample. The results showed that for the most severe conditions examined that only surface matrix fracture was present with no observable fiber fracture. The impact of this damage on material performance was limited to the matrix dominated properties only. Specifically, compression strength was observed to decrease by as much as 50 percent from the measured baseline.

  8. Unified Viscoplastic Behavior of Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, S. M.; Robinson, D. N.; Bartolotta, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    The need for unified constitutive models was recognized more than a decade ago in the results of phenomenological tests on monolithic metals that exhibited strong creep-plasticity interaction. Recently, metallic alloys have been combined to form high-temperature ductile/ductile composite materials, raising the natural question of whether these metallic composites exhibit the same phenomenological features as their monolithic constituents. This question is addressed in the context of a limited, yet definite (to illustrate creep/plasticity interaction) set of experimental data on the model metal matrix composite (MMC) system W/Kanthal. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a unified viscoplastic representation, extended for unidirectional composites and correlated to W/Kanthal, can accurately predict the observed longitudinal composite creep/plasticity interaction response and strain rate dependency. Finally, the predicted influence of fiber orientation on the creep response of W/Kanthal is illustrated.

  9. The ductile-brittle size transition of iron aluminide ligaments in an FeAl/TiC composite

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, R.; Schneibel, J.H.

    1998-08-10

    The fracture surfaces of FeAl/TiC composites containing 70 vol% TiC were investigated. Since thin iron aluminide ligaments in the composites fractured in a ductile manner, whereas thicker ones fractured by cleavage, a systematic correlation of the fracture mode to the ligament thickness was performed. The results clearly show that FeAl ligaments thicker than about 1--2 {micro}m fracture by cleavage and those smaller in size fracture predominantly in a ductile manner. The ductile failure mode is attributed to the limited dislocation pile-up distance available for very thin ligaments, which prevents high stresses from building up and eliminates cleavage fracture. It is also shown that the ductile-brittle transition size is controlled by alloying and/or heat treatment. No significant dependence of the fracture toughness on the fracture mode would be found.

  10. Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Materials Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calomino, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Under the former NASA EPM Program, much initial progress was made in identifying constituent materials and processes for SiC/SiC ceramic composite hot-section components. This presentation discusses the performance benefits of these approaches and elaborates on further constituent and property improvements made under NASA UEET. These include specific treatments at NASA that significantly improve the creep and environmental resistance of the Sylramic(TM) SiC fiber as well as the thermal conductivity and creep resistance of the CVI Sic matrix. Also discussed are recent findings concerning the beneficial effects of certain 2D-fabric architectures and carbon between the BN interphase coating and Sic matrix.

  11. Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Materials Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James

    2001-01-01

    Under the former NASA EPM Program, much initial progress was made in identifying constituent materials and processes for SiC/SiC ceramic composite hot-section components. This presentation discusses the performance benefits of these approaches and elaborates on further constituent and property improvements made under NASA UEET. These include specific treatments at NASA that significantly improve the creep and environmental resistance of the Sylramic(TM) Sic fiber as well as the thermal conductivity and creep resistance of the CVI Sic matrix. Also discussed are recent findings concerning the beneficial effects of certain 2D-fabric architectures and carbon between the BN interphase coating and Sic matrix.

  12. Solidification processing of metal-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mortensen, A.; Cornie, J.A.; Flemings, M.C.

    1988-02-01

    Infiltration of fibers with molten metal and metal/reinforcement slurry casting have been developed for the net-shape solidification processing of MMCs, the largest portion of whose production costs are associated with processing. The low viscosity of liquid metals renders the fabrication of MMCs by casting much easier than that of polymer matrix composites. Attention is given to the methods developed to date to deal with problems that arise from fiber/matrix reactivity and porosity due to poor infiltration. 219 references.

  13. Particle fracture simulation in non-uniform microstructures of metal-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Moorthy, S.

    1998-01-23

    This paper deals with the evolution of damage in microstructures of reinforced ductile-matrix composites, by particle cracking and splitting. A small deformation Voronoi Cell finite element model is developed, in which each element may consist of a matrix phase, an inclusion phase and a crack phase. Brittle inclusions may be of arbitrary shapes and sizes, and may be dispersed non-uniformly in the matrix. Damage initiation of inclusions is assumed to follow a maximum principal stress theory. Complete particle cracking or splitting is assumed at the onset of damage. The model is validated by a few comparison studies. Various geometric patterns are studied to test the effectiveness of the model, as well as to understand the effect of morphology on damage evolution. Actual microstructures from optical micrographs of Al-Si-Mg composite systems are analyzed and compared with experimentally observed results. Quantitative characterization and statistical analysis is conducted to correlate morphological parameters with mechanical response.

  14. High temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites

    DOEpatents

    Merrill, Gary B.; Morrison, Jay Alan

    2001-01-01

    A ceramic composition is provided to insulate ceramic matrix composites under high temperature, high heat flux environments. The composition comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of various dimensions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere. The spheres may be any combination of Mullite spheres, Alumina spheres, or stabilized Zirconia spheres. The filler powder may be any combination of Alumina, Mullite, Ceria, or Hafnia. Preferably, the phosphate binder is Aluminum Ortho-Phosphate. A method of manufacturing the ceramic insulating composition and its application to CMC substrates are also provided.

  15. High temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites

    DOEpatents

    Merrill, Gary B.; Morrison, Jay Alan

    2004-01-13

    A ceramic composition is provided to insulate ceramic matrix composites under high temperature, high heat flux environments. The composition comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of various dimensions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere. The spheres may be any combination of Mullite spheres, Alumina spheres, or stabilized Zirconia spheres. The filler powder may be any combination of Alumina, Mullite, Ceria, or Hafnia. Preferably, the phosphate binder is Aluminum Ortho-Phosphate. A method of manufacturing the ceramic insulating composition and its application to CMC substrates are also provided.

  16. High temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites

    DOEpatents

    Merrill, Gary B.; Morrison, Jay Alan

    2000-01-01

    A ceramic composition is provided to insulate ceramic matrix composites under high temperature, high heat flux environments. The composite comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of varios dimentions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere. The spheres may be any combination of Mullite spheres, Alumina spheres, or stabilized Zirconia spheres. The filler powder may be any combination of Alumina, Mullite, Ceria, or Hafnia. Preferably, the phosphate binder is Aluminum Ortho-Phosphate. A method of manufacturing the ceramic insulating composition and its application to CMC substates are also provided.

  17. METCAN: The metal matrix composite analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Dale A.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1988-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are the subject of intensive study and are receiving serious consideration for critical structural applications in advanced aerospace systems. MMC structural analysis and design methodologies are studied. Predicting the mechanical and thermal behavior and the structural response of components fabricated from MMC requires the use of a variety of mathematical models. These models relate stresses to applied forces, stress intensities at the tips of cracks to nominal stresses, buckling resistance to applied force, or vibration response to excitation forces. The extensive research in computational mechanics methods for predicting the nonlinear behavior of MMC are described. This research has culminated in the development of the METCAN (METal Matrix Composite ANalyzer) computer code.

  18. Thermal expansion measurements of metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, Stephen S.; Dries, Gregory A.

    1988-01-01

    The laser-interferometric-dilatometer system currently operational at NASA-Langley is described. The system, designed to characterize metal matrix composites, features high precision, automated data acquisition, and the ability to test a wide variety of specimen geometries over temperature ranges within 80-422 K. The paper presents typical thermal-expansion measurement data for a Gr/Al rod; Gr/Al and Gr/Mg unidirectional laminates; and a Gr/Mg (+ or -8)s laminate.

  19. Metal matrix composites - Their time to shine?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1987-01-01

    Basic types of metal matrix composite (MMC) systems (namely, the particulates-, the whisker/flakes-, and the continuous-fiber-reinforced) are discussed together with the advantages and the disadvantages of each system. Special consideration is given to the new MMC systems under development that meet the needs of aerospace applications and to the properties of stiffness and thermal expansion of these systems. As a family of structural materials, MMCs have great potential for missile airframe applications.

  20. Spin Forming of Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An exploratory effort between NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and SpinCraft, Inc., to experimentally spin form cylinders and concentric parts from small and thin sheets of aluminum Metal Matrix Composites (MMC), successfully yielded good microstructure data and forming parameters. MSFC and SpinCraft will collaborate on the recent technical findings and develop strategy to implement this technology for NASA's advanced propulsion and airframe applications such as pressure bulkheads, combustion liner assemblies, propellant tank domes, and nose cone assemblies.

  1. Ceramic Matrix Composites for Rotorcraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components are being developed for turbine engine applications. Compared to metallic components, the CMC components offer benefits of higher temperature capability and less cooling requirements which correlates to improved efficiency and reduced emissions. This presentation discusses a technology develop effort for overcoming challenges in fabricating a CMC vane for the high pressure turbine. The areas of technology development include small component fabrication, ceramic joining and integration, material and component testing and characterization, and design and analysis of concept components.

  2. Vacuum brazing of high volume fraction SiC particles reinforced aluminum matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Dongfeng; Niu, Jitai; Gao, Zeng; Wang, Peng

    2015-03-01

    This experiment chooses A356 aluminum matrix composites containing 55% SiC particle reinforcing phase as the parent metal and Al-Si-Cu-Zn-Ni alloy metal as the filler metal. The brazing process is carried out in vacuum brazing furnace at the temperature of 550°C and 560°C for 3 min, respectively. The interfacial microstructures and fracture surfaces are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy spectrum analysis (EDS). The result shows that adequacy of element diffusion are superior when brazing at 560°C, because of higher activity and liquidity. Dislocations and twins are observed at the interface between filler and composite due to the different expansion coefficient of the aluminum alloy matrix and SiC particles. The fracture analysis shows that the brittle fracture mainly located at interface of filler and composites.

  3. Method of producing a hybrid matrix fiber composite

    DOEpatents

    Deteresa, Steven J.; Lyon, Richard E.; Groves, Scott E.

    2006-03-28

    Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites comprised of two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

  4. Program For Analysis Of Metal-Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L. N.; Mital, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    METCAN (METal matrix Composite ANalyzer) is computer program used to simulate computationally nonlinear behavior of high-temperature metal-matrix composite structural components in specific applications, providing comprehensive analyses of thermal and mechanical performances. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  5. Probabilistic Modeling of Ceramic Matrix Composite Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shan, Ashwin R.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Mital, Subodh K.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1998-01-01

    Uncertainties associated with the primitive random variables such as manufacturing process (processing temperature, fiber volume ratio, void volume ratio), constituent properties (fiber, matrix and interface), and geometric parameters (ply thickness, interphase thickness) have been simulated to quantify the scatter in the first matrix cracking strength (FMCS) and the ultimate tensile strength of SCS-6/RBSN (SiC fiber (SCS-6) reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride composite) ceramic matrix composite laminate at room temperature. Cumulative probability distribution function for the FMCS and ultimate tensile strength at room temperature (RT) of (0)(sub 8), (0(sub 2)/90(sub 2), and (+/-45(sub 2))(sub S) laminates have been simulated and the sensitivity of primitive variables to the respective strengths have been quantified. Computationally predicted scatter of the strengths for a uniaxial laminate have been compared with those from limited experimental data. Also the experimental procedure used in the tests has been described briefly. Results show a very good agreement between the computational simulation and the experimental data. Dominating failure modes in (0)(sub 8), (0/90)(sub s) and (+/-45)(sub S) laminates have been identified. Results indicate that the first matrix cracking strength for the (0)(sub S), and (0/90)(sub S) laminates is sensitive to the thermal properties, modulus and strengths of both the fiber and matrix whereas the ultimate tensile strength is sensitive to the fiber strength and the fiber volume ratio. In the case of a (+/-45)(sub S), laminate, both the FMCS and the ultimate tensile strengths have a small scatter range and are sensitive to the fiber tensile strength as well as the fiber volume ratio.

  6. Graphite fiber textile preform/copper matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilatovs, G. J.; Lee, Bruce; Bass, Lowell

    1995-01-01

    Graphite fiber reinforced/copper matrix composites have sufficiently high thermal conduction to make them candidate materials for critical heat transmitting and rejection components. The term textile composites arises because the preform is braided from fiber tows, conferring three-dimensional reinforcement and near net shape. The principal issues investigated in the past two years have centered on developing methods to characterize the preform and fabricated composite and on braidability. It is necessary to have an analytic structural description for both processing and final property modeling. The structure of the true 3-D braids used is complex and has required considerable effort to model. A structural mapping has been developed as a foundation for analytic models for thermal conduction and mechanical properties. The conductivity has contributions both from the copper and the reinforcement. The latter is accomplished by graphitization of the fibers, the higher the amount of graphitization the greater the conduction. This is accompanied by an increase in the fiber modulus, which is desirable from a stiffness point of view but decreases the braidability; the highest conductivity fibers are simply too brittle to be braided. Considerable effort has been expended on determining the optimal braidability--conductivity region. While a number of preforms have been fabricated, one other complication intervenes; graphite and copper are immiscible, resulting in a poor mechanical bond and difficulties in infiltration by molten copper. The approach taken is to utilize a proprietary fiber coating process developed by TRA, of Salt Lake City, Utah, which forms an itermediary bond. A number of preforms have been fabricated from a variety of fiber types and two sets of these have been infiltrated with OFHC copper, one with the TRA coating and one without. Mechanical tests have been performed using a small-scale specimen method and show the coated specimens to have superior

  7. Creep of plain weave polymer matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Abhishek

    Polymer matrix composites are increasingly used in various industrial sectors to reduce structural weight and improve performance. Woven (also known as textile) composites are one class of polymer matrix composites with increasing market share mostly due to their lightweight, their flexibility to form into desired shape, their mechanical properties and toughness. Due to the viscoelasticity of the polymer matrix, time-dependent degradation in modulus (creep) and strength (creep rupture) are two of the major mechanical properties required by engineers to design a structure reliably when using these materials. Unfortunately, creep and creep rupture of woven composites have received little attention by the research community and thus, there is a dire need to generate additional knowledge and prediction models, given the increasing market share of woven composites in load bearing structural applications. Currently, available creep models are limited in scope and have not been validated for any loading orientation and time period beyond the experimental time window. In this thesis, an analytical creep model, namely the Modified Equivalent Laminate Model (MELM), was developed to predict tensile creep of plain weave composites for any orientation of the load with respect to the orientation of the fill and warp fibers, using creep of unidirectional composites. The ability of the model to predict creep for any orientation of the load is a "first" in this area. The model was validated using an extensive experimental involving the tensile creep of plain weave composites under varying loading orientation and service conditions. Plain weave epoxy (F263)/ carbon fiber (T300) composite, currently used in aerospace applications, was procured as fabrics from Hexcel Corporation. Creep tests were conducted under two loading conditions: on-axis loading (0°) and off-axis loading (45°). Constant load creep, in the temperature range of 80-240°C and stress range of 1-70% UTS of the

  8. Ceramic matrix composites by microwave assisted CVI

    SciTech Connect

    Currier, R.P.; Devlin, D.J.

    1993-05-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) processes for producing continuously reinforced ceramic composites are reviewed. The potential advantages of microwave assisted CVI are noted. Recent numerical studies of microwave assisted CVI are then reviewed. These studies predict inverted thermal gradients in fibrous ceramic preforms subjected to microwave radiation and suggest processing strategies for achieving uniformly dense composites. Comparisons are made to experimental results obtained using silicon based composite systems. The importance of microwave-material interactions is stressed. In particular, emphasis is placed on the role played by the relative ability of fiber and matrix to dissipate microwave energy. Results suggest that microwave induced inverted gradients can in fact be exploited using the CVI technique to promote inside-out densification.

  9. Ceramic matrix composites by microwave assisted CVI

    SciTech Connect

    Currier, R.P.; Devlin, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) processes for producing continuously reinforced ceramic composites are reviewed. The potential advantages of microwave assisted CVI are noted. Recent numerical studies of microwave assisted CVI are then reviewed. These studies predict inverted thermal gradients in fibrous ceramic preforms subjected to microwave radiation and suggest processing strategies for achieving uniformly dense composites. Comparisons are made to experimental results obtained using silicon based composite systems. The importance of microwave-material interactions is stressed. In particular, emphasis is placed on the role played by the relative ability of fiber and matrix to dissipate microwave energy. Results suggest that microwave induced inverted gradients can in fact be exploited using the CVI technique to promote inside-out densification.

  10. A first look at erosion of continuous-fiber reinforced ceramic-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Karasek, K.R.; Gonczy, S.T. ); Kupperman, J.B.; Zamirowski, E.J.; Goretta, K.C.; Routbort, J.L. )

    1991-12-01

    We report the initial results of a study of solid-particle erosion of Nicalon{trademark} Sic reinforced carbon-modified-silica-glass composites. SiC abrasives with diameters between 42 to 390{mu}m were used with impact angles of 30{degrees} and 90{degrees}, and velocities ranged 30 to 80 m/s. Fibers were parallel to the surface in all cases. Woven-fiber composites exhibited the same erosive behavior as uniaxial composites. Interfacial chemistry was controlled, and the comparison between composites which exhibit low-strength-brittle and high-strength-fibrous fractures under flexure conditions showed no significant difference in erosion resistance. This result and SEM data indicate that most of the fracture occurs within the matrix and/or at the fiber-matrix interface. We have found in previous work that polymer-matrix composites (with fibers parallel to the surface) are more susceptible to erosion damage than the matrix polymer. This also appears to be the case for the ceramic composites.

  11. Polymer Matrix Composite Lines and Ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.

    2001-01-01

    Since composite laminates are beginning to be identified for use in reusable launch vehicle propulsion systems, a task was undertaken to assess the feasibility of making cryogenic feedlines with integral flanges from polymer matrix composite materials. An additional level of complexity was added by having the feedlines be elbow shaped. Four materials, each with a unique manufacturing method, were chosen for this program. Feedlines were to be made by hand layup (HLU) with standard autoclave cure, HLU with electron beam cure, solvent-assisted resin transfer molding (SARTM), and thermoplastic tape laying (TTL). A test matrix of fill and drain cycles with both liquid nitrogen and liquid helium, along with a heat up to 250 F, was planned for each of the feedlines. A pressurization to failure was performed on any feedlines that passed the cryogenic cycling testing. A damage tolerance subtask was also undertaken in this study. The effects of foreign object impact to the materials used was assessed by cross-sectional examination and by permeability after impact testing. At the end of the program, the manufacture of the electron beam-cured feedlines never came to fruition. All of the TTL feedlines leaked heavily before any cryogenic testing, all of the SARTM feedlines leaked heavily after one cryogenic cycle. Thus, only the HLU with autoclave cure feedlines underwent the complete test matrix. They passed the cyclic testing and were pressurized to failure.

  12. Application of fiber bridging models to fatigue crack growth in unidirectional titanium matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakuckas, J. G., Jr.; Johnson, W. S.

    1992-01-01

    Several fiber bridging models were reviewed and applied to study the matrix fatigue crack growth behavior in center notched (0)(sub 8) SCS-6/Ti-15-3 and (0)(sub 4) SCS-6/Ti-6Al-4V laminates. Observations revealed that fatigue damage consisted primarily of matrix cracks and fiber matrix interfacial failure in the (0)(sub 8) SCS-6/Ti-15-3 laminates. Fiber-matrix interface failure included fracture of the brittle reaction zone and cracking between the two carbon rich fiber coatings. Intact fibers in the wake of the matrix cracks reduce the stress intensity factor range. Thus, an applied stress intensity factor range is inappropriate to characterize matrix crack growth behavior. Fiber bridging models were used to determine the matrix stress intensity factor range in titanium metal matrix composites. In these models, the fibers in the wake of the crack are idealized as a closure pressure. An unknown constant frictional shear stress is assumed to act along the debond or slip length of the bridging fibers. The frictional shear stress was used as a curve fitting parameter to available data (crack growth data, crack opening displacement data, and debond length data). Large variations in the frictional shear stress required to fit the experimental data indicate that the fiber bridging models in their present form lack predictive capabilities. However, these models provide an efficient and relatively simple engineering method for conducting parametric studies of the matrix growth behavior based on constituent properties.

  13. Nanotube reinforced thermoplastic polymer matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shofner, Meisha Lei

    The inherent high strength, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity make nanotubes attractive reinforcements for polymer matrix composites. However, the structure that makes them desirable also causes highly anisotropic properties and limited reactivity with other materials. This thesis isolates these problems in two separate studies aimed at improving mechanical properties with single wall nanotube (SWNT) reinforced thermoplastic polymer composites. The two studies demonstrate the effect of solid freeform fabrication (SFF) and chemical functionalization on anisotropy and limited reactivity, respectively. Both studies showed mechanical property improvements. The alignment study demonstrates a maximum increase of 93% in tensile modulus with single wall nanotubes (SWNTs). The chemical functionalization study shows a larger increase in storage modulus for functionalized SWNTs as compared to purified SVWNTs with respective increases of 9% and 44% in storage modulus. Improved interfacial properties are also observed as a decrease in mechanical damping. Maximum property increases in composites are obtained when nanotubes are aligned, requiring additional processing consideration to the anisotropic structure. Melt spinning and extrusion processing effectively align nanotubes, but the end product of these techniques, composite fibers, requires further processing to be incorporated into finished parts. Extrusion-based SFF is a novel technique for processing nanotube reinforced composites because it allows for the direct fabrication of finished parts containing aligned nanotubes. SFF processing produces parts containing preferentially oriented nanotubes with improved mechanical properties when compared to isotropic composites. Functionalization of the nanotube surface disrupts the rope structure to obtain smaller ropes and promote further interfacial bonding. The chemically inert nature of nanotubes resulting from a structure containing few defects and the

  14. Reliability analysis of ceramic matrix composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, David J.; Wetherhold, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    At a macroscopic level, a composite lamina may be considered as a homogeneous orthotropic solid whose directional strengths are random variables. Incorporation of these random variable strengths into failure models, either interactive or non-interactive, allows for the evaluation of the lamina reliability under a given stress state. Using a non-interactive criterion for demonstration purposes, laminate reliabilities are calculated assuming previously established load sharing rules for the redistribution of load as the failure of laminae occur. The matrix cracking predicted by ACK theory is modeled to allow a loss of stiffness in the fiber direction. The subsequent failure in the fiber direction is controlled by a modified bundle theory. Results using this modified bundle model are compared with previous models which did not permit separate consideration of matrix cracking, as well as to results obtained from experimental data.

  15. Cooled Ceramic Matrix Composite Propulsion Structures Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Dickens, Kevin W.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program has successfully demonstrated cooled ceramic matrix composite (CMC) technology in a scramjet engine test. This demonstration represented the world s largest cooled nonmetallic matrix composite panel fabricated for a scramjet engine and the first cooled nonmetallic composite to be tested in a scramjet facility. Lightweight, high-temperature, actively cooled structures have been identified as a key technology for enabling reliable and low-cost space access. Tradeoff studies have shown this to be the case for a variety of launch platforms, including rockets and hypersonic cruise vehicles. Actively cooled carbon and CMC structures may meet high-performance goals at significantly lower weight, while improving safety by operating with a higher margin between the design temperature and material upper-use temperature. Studies have shown that using actively cooled CMCs can reduce the weight of the cooled flow-path component from 4.5 to 1.6 lb/sq ft and the weight of the propulsion system s cooled surface area by more than 50 percent. This weight savings enables advanced concepts, increased payload, and increased range. The ability of the cooled CMC flow-path components to operate over 1000 F hotter than the state-of-the-art metallic concept adds system design flexibility to space-access vehicle concepts. Other potential system-level benefits include smaller fuel pumps, lower part count, lower cost, and increased operating margin.

  16. Interfacial roughness in ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Jero, P.D.; Parthasarathy, T.A.; Kerans, R.J.

    1992-08-01

    Recent work using push-out and push-back tests has shown that interfacial roughness contributes substantially to the sliding friction in at least some ceramic matrix composites (CMC's). Other work examining frictional heating of CMC's during cyclic fatigue has shown the important role that interfacial friction plays, and further that the interface is degraded upon extended cycling. From this it is apparent that interfacial roughness may play a key role in determining composite behavior. Although the observation of a seating drop during fiber push-back gives some information about the amplitude and spatial extent of the interfacial roughness, actual measurement of the roughness has proven difficult due to its extremely fine scale. In the present work, a laser interferometer has been used to examine the roughness of composite interfaces (both fiber and matrix) as well as virgin fibers. In addition, long range (mm scale) push-out tests have been followed by interferometric characterization to examine the severity and rate of interfacial degradation associated with fiber sliding. 4 refs.

  17. Metal-Matrix/Hollow-Ceramic-Sphere Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Dean M.

    2011-01-01

    A family of metal/ceramic composite materials has been developed that are relatively inexpensive, lightweight alternatives to structural materials that are typified by beryllium, aluminum, and graphite/epoxy composites. These metal/ceramic composites were originally intended to replace beryllium (which is toxic and expensive) as a structural material for lightweight mirrors for aerospace applications. These materials also have potential utility in automotive and many other terrestrial applications in which there are requirements for lightweight materials that have high strengths and other tailorable properties as described below. The ceramic component of a material in this family consists of hollow ceramic spheres that have been formulated to be lightweight (0.5 g/cm3) and have high crush strength [40.80 ksi (.276.552 MPa)]. The hollow spheres are coated with a metal to enhance a specific performance . such as shielding against radiation (cosmic rays or x rays) or against electromagnetic interference at radio and lower frequencies, or a material to reduce the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the final composite material, and/or materials to mitigate any mismatch between the spheres and the matrix metal. Because of the high crush strength of the spheres, the initial composite workpiece can be forged or extruded into a high-strength part. The total time taken in processing from the raw ingredients to a finished part is typically 10 to 14 days depending on machining required.

  18. Metal Matrix Composite Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Jones, C. S. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are attractive materials for aerospace applications because of their high specific strength, high specific stiffness, and lower thermal expansion coefficient. They are affordable since complex parts can be produced by low cost casting process. As a result there are many commercial and Department of Defense applications of MMCs today. This seminar will give an overview of MMCs and their state-of-the-art technology assessment. Topics to be covered are types of MMCs, fabrication methods, product forms, applications, and material selection issues for design and manufacture. Some examples of current and future aerospace applications will also be presented and discussed.

  19. METal matrix composite ANalyzer (METCAN): Theoretical manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L. N.; Chamis, C. C.

    1993-01-01

    This manuscript is intended to be a companion volume to the 'METCAN User's Manual' and the 'METAN Demonstration Manual.' The primary purpose of the manual is to give details pertaining to micromechanics and macromechanics equations of high temperature metal matrix composites that are programmed in the METCAN computer code. The subroutines which contain the programmed equations are also mentioned in order to facilitate any future changes or modifications that the user may intend to incorporate in the code. Assumptions and derivations leading to the micromechanics equations are briefly mentioned.

  20. Experimental study of the fracture toughness of a ceramic/ceramic-matrix composite sandwich structure

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.; Taya, M.; Dunn, M.L.; Watanabe, Ryuzo

    1995-06-01

    A hybrid experimental-numerical approach has been used to measure the fracture resistance of a sandwich structure consisting of a 304 stainless steel/partially stabilized zirconia ceramic-matrix composite crack-arresting layer embedded in a partially stabilized zirconia ceramic specimen. The mode 1 fracture toughness increases significantly when the crack propagates from the ceramic into the ceramic-matrix composite region. The increased toughening due to the stainless steel particles is explained reasonably well by a toughening model based on processing-induced thermal residual stresses. In addition, several experimental modifications were made to the chevron-notch wedge-loaded double cantilever beam specimen to overcome numerous problems encountered in generating a precrack in the small, brittle specimens used in this study.

  1. Effectiveness of metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites as orbital debris shield materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgill, Preston B.; Mount, Angela R.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of two metal matrix composites and one ceramic matrix material in defeating hypervelocity impacts at about 3.8 km/s are evaluated to determine the potential of these composites as spacecraft shield materials. The metal matrix composites investigated consist of SiC particles (70 percent by volume) in an aluminum matrix and Al2O3 particles (50 percent by volume) in an Al matrix. The ceramic composite consists of ZrB2 platelets in a ZrC matrix. Both the metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites are found to perform as well or better than 6061-T6 aluminum, which is presently used in the Whipple type bumper shield of Space Station Freedom. Test results indicate that the composites tested may have applications as micrometeoroid/orbital debris shield materials.

  2. Graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composites for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Bacon, J. F.; Dicus, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    The graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composite system is described. Although this composite is not yet a mature material, it possesses low density, attractive mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, and good environmental stability. Properties are reported for a borosilicate glass matrix unidirectionally reinforced with 60 volume percent HMS graphite fiber. The flexural strength and fatigue characteristics at room and elevated temperature, resistance to thermal cycling and continuous high temperature oxidation, and thermal expansion characteristics of the composite are reported. The properties of this new composite are compared to those of advanced resin and metal matrix composites showing that graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composites are attractive for aerospace applications.

  3. Fiber reinforced thermoplastic resin matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert J. (Inventor); Chang, Glenn E. C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Polyimide polymer composites having a combination of enhanced thermal and mechanical properties even when subjected to service temperatures as high as 700.degree. F. are described. They comprise (a) from 10 to 50 parts by weight of a thermoplastic polyimide resin prepared from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane and (b) from 90 to 50 parts by weight of continuous reinforcing fibers, the total of (a) and (b) being 100 parts by weight. Composites based on polyimide resin formed from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane and pyromellitic dianhydride and continuous carbon fibers retained at least about 50% of their room temperature shear strength after exposure to 700.degree. F. for a period of 16 hours in flowing air. Preferably, the thermoplastic polyimide resin is formed in situ in the composite material by thermal imidization of a corresponding amide-acid polymer prepared from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane. It is also preferred to initially size the continuous reinforcing fibers with up to about one percent by weight of an amide-acid polymer prepared from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane. In this way imidization at a suitable elevated temperature results in the in-situ formation of a substantially homogeneous thermoplastic matrix of the polyimide resin tightly and intimately bonded to the continuous fibers. The resultant composites tend to have optimum thermo-mechanical properties.

  4. Aluminum-Alloy-Matrix/Alumina-Reinforcement Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashalikar, Uday; Rozenoyer, Boris

    2004-01-01

    Isotropic composites of aluminum-alloy matrices reinforced with particulate alumina have been developed as lightweight, high-specific-strength, less-expensive alternatives to nickel-base and ferrous superalloys. These composites feature a specific gravity of about 3.45 grams per cubic centimeter and specific strengths of about 200 MPa/(grams per cubic centimeter). The room-temperature tensile strength is 100 ksi (689 MPa) and stiffness is 30 Msi (206 GPa). At 500 F (260 C), these composites have shown 80 percent retention in strength and 95 percent retention in stiffness. These materials also have excellent fatigue tolerance and tribological properties. They can be fabricated in net (or nearly net) sizes and shapes to make housings, pistons, valves, and ducts in turbomachinery, and to make structural components of such diverse systems as diesel engines, automotive brake systems, and power-generation, mining, and oil-drilling equipment. Separately, incorporation of these metal matrix composites within aluminum gravity castings for localized reinforcement has been demonstrated. A composite part of this type can be fabricated in a pressure infiltration casting process. The process begins with the placement of a mold with alumina particulate preform of net or nearly net size and shape in a crucible in a vacuum furnace. A charge of the alloy is placed in the crucible with the preform. The interior of the furnace is evacuated, then the furnace heaters are turned on to heat the alloy above its liquidus temperature. Next, the interior of the furnace is filled with argon gas at a pressure about 900 psi (approximately equal to 6.2 MPa) to force the molten alloy to infiltrate the preform. Once infiltrated, the entire contents of the crucible can be allowed to cool in place, and the composite part recovered from the mold.

  5. Characterization of Hybrid CNT Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Kinney, Megan C.; Pressley, James; Sauti, Godfrey; Czabaj, Michael W.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been studied extensively since their discovery and demonstrated at the nanoscale superior mechanical, electrical and thermal properties in comparison to micro and macro scale properties of conventional engineering materials. This combination of properties suggests their potential to enhance multi-functionality of composites in regions of primary structures on aerospace vehicles where lightweight materials with improved thermal and electrical conductivity are desirable. In this study, hybrid multifunctional polymer matrix composites were fabricated by interleaving layers of CNT sheets into Hexcel® IM7/8552 prepreg, a well-characterized toughened epoxy carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite. The resin content of these interleaved CNT sheets, as well as ply stacking location were varied to determine the effects on the electrical, thermal, and mechanical performance of the composites. The direct-current electrical conductivity of the hybrid CNT composites was characterized by in-line and Montgomery four-probe methods. For [0](sub 20) laminates containing a single layer of CNT sheet between each ply of IM7/8552, in-plane electrical conductivity of the hybrid laminate increased significantly, while in-plane thermal conductivity increased only slightly in comparison to the control IM7/8552 laminates. Photo-microscopy and short beam shear (SBS) strength tests were used to characterize the consolidation quality of the fabricated laminates. Hybrid panels fabricated without any pretreatment of the CNT sheets resulted in a SBS strength reduction of 70 percent. Aligning the tubes and pre-infusing the CNT sheets with resin significantly improved the SBS strength of the hybrid composite To determine the cause of this performance reduction, Mode I and Mode II fracture toughness of the CNT sheet to CFRP interface was characterized by double cantilever beam (DCB) and end notch flexure (ENF) testing, respectively. Results are compared to the

  6. Fatigue damage accumulation in various metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review some of the latest understanding of the fatigue behavior of continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites. The emphasis is on the development of an understanding of different fatigue damage mechanisms and why and how they occur. The fatigue failure modes in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites are controlled by the three constituents of the system: fiber, matrix, and fiber/matrix interface. The relative strains to fatigue failure of the fiber and matrix will determine the failure mode. Several examples of matrix, fiber, and self-similar damage growth dominated fatigue damage are given for several metal matrix composite systems. Composite analysis, failure modes, and damage modeling are discussed. Boron/aluminum, silicon-carbide/aluminum, FP/aluminum, and borsic/titanium metal matrix composites are discussed.

  7. Pendulum impact resistance of tungsten fiber/metal matrix composites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winsa, E. A.; Petrasek, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    The impact properties of copper, copper-10 nickel, and a superalloy matrix reinforced with tungsten fibers were studied. In most cases the following increased composite impact strength: increased fiber or matrix toughness, decreased fiber-matrix reaction, increased test temperature, hot working and heat treatment. Notch sensitivity was reduced by increasing fiber or matrix toughness. The effect of fiber content depended on the relative toughness of the fibers and matrix. Above 530 K a 60 volume per cent superalloy matrix composite had a greater impact strength than a turbine blade superalloy, whereas below 530 K a hot worked 56 volume per cent composite had a greater impact strength than the superalloy.

  8. Interface modification during oxidation of a glass-ceramic matrix/SiC fibre composite

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, A.M.; Martin-Meizoso, A.; Plucknett, K.P.; Braski, D.N.

    1996-04-01

    Oxidation heat treatments between 375{degrees}C and 600{degrees}C for 100 hours in air, have been performed on the calcium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic matrix/SiC fibre reinforced composite CAS/Nicalon (manufactured by Coming, USA). Using a commercial nano-indentation system to perform fibre push-down tests, the fibre-matrix interfacial debond fracture surface energy (G{sub i}) and frictional shear stress ({tau}) have been determined. Modification of interface properties, compared to the as fabricated material, was observed at heat treatment temperatures as low as 375{degrees}C, where a significant drop in G{sub i} and an increase in {tau} were recorded. With 450{degrees}C, 525{degrees}C and 600{degrees}C heat treatments, an increase in G{sub i} but a dramatic increase in {tau} were recorded. Under four-point flexure testing, the as fabricated and the 375{degrees}C heat treated materials displayed tough, composite behaviour with extensive fibre pull out, but at {le}450{degrees}C, brittle failure with minimal fibre pull out, was observed. This transition from tough mechanical response to one of brittleness is due to the large increase in {tau} reducing fibre pull out to a minimum and therefore reducing the total required work of fracture. The large increases in {tau} and G{sub i} have been attributed to the oxidative removal of the lubricating, carbon interface and the compressive residual stresses across the interface.

  9. Intelligent processing for metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backman, D. G.; Russell, E. S.; Wei, D. Y.; Pang, Y.

    Intelligent processing of materials (IPM) is a powerful processing concept which requires integration of process knowledge, analytical models, process sensors, and expert system based control technology. An IPM system to manufacture metal matrix composites (MMC) using inductively coupled plasma deposition is under development. Process knowledge is contained in a reduced-order process simulator, consisting of thermal, fluid flow, solid mechanics, and material kinetics models. A working deposit thermal model has been developed, while the solid mechanics and material kinetics models are under development. Future directions for IPM development are discussed, including integration with related MMC processing operations, and establishment of a control system in which expert system based control is used to replicate operator decision-making.

  10. Ceramic matrix composites in simulated SSME environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbell, Thomas P.; Eckel, Andrew J.

    1988-01-01

    Future Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME)-type rocket engines can benefit from the use of fiber-reinforced ceramix matrix composites (FRCMC). Ceramics reinforced with long continuous fibers exhibit improved tolerance to severe thermomechanical and environmental exposures. An in-house NASA-Lewis program to evaluate the durability of FRCMC in simulated SSME environments is described. Primary tests involve multiple (one second) exposures of FRCMC specimens in a hydrogen/oxygen rocket test rig. This rig generates surface heating rates of 1000 to 2500 C/second. The FRCMC durability evaluation involves measurement of retained strength as a function of thermal shock severity and number of upshock cycles. Preliminary test results for monolithic silicon nitride (Si3N4) and silicon carbide (SiC), and one type of silicon based FRCMC, are presented. The test data are examined in terms of simple thermal shock theory.

  11. Fracture toughness testing of polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    1992-01-01

    A review of the interlaminar fracture indicates that a standard specimen geometry is needed to obtain consistent fracture toughness measurements in polymer matrix composites. In general, the variability of measured toughness values increases as the toughness of the material increases. This variability could be caused by incorrect sizing of test specimens and/or inconsistent data reduction procedures. A standard data reduction procedure is therefore needed as well, particularly for the tougher materials. Little work has been reported on the effects of fiber orientation, fiber architecture, fiber surface treatment or interlaminar fracture toughness, and the mechanisms by which the fibers increase fracture toughness are not well understood. The little data that is available indicates that woven fiber reinforcement and fiber sizings can significantly increase interlaminar fracture toughness.

  12. Micromechanics Fatigue Damage Analysis Modeling for Fabric Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, J. B.; Xue, D.; Shi, Y.

    2013-01-01

    A micromechanics analysis modeling method was developed to analyze the damage progression and fatigue failure of fabric reinforced composite structures, especially for the brittle ceramic matrix material composites. A repeating unit cell concept of fabric reinforced composites was used to represent the global composite structure. The thermal and mechanical properties of the repeating unit cell were considered as the same as those of the global composite structure. The three-phase micromechanics, the shear-lag, and the continuum fracture mechanics models were integrated with a statistical model in the repeating unit cell to predict the progressive damages and fatigue life of the composite structures. The global structure failure was defined as the loss of loading capability of the repeating unit cell, which depends on the stiffness reduction due to material slice failures and nonlinear material properties in the repeating unit cell. The present methodology is demonstrated with the analysis results evaluated through the experimental test performed with carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix plain weave composite specimens.

  13. Characterizing damage in ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Baker, Christopher; Morscher, Gregory

    2014-04-01

    With the upcoming implementation of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) within aerospace systems (e.g., aviation turbine engines), an in-depth understanding of the failure process due to mechanical loads is required. This includes developing a basic understanding of the complex, multi-mechanism failure process as well as the associated nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that are capable of recognizing and quantifying the damage. Various NDE techniques have been successfully utilized for assessing the damage state of woven CMCs, in particular, consisting of silicon carbide fibers and silicon carbide matrices (SiC/SiC). The multiple NDE techniques, studied by the authors of this paper, included acousto-ultrasonics, modal acoustic emissions, electrical resistance, impedance based structural health monitoring, pulsed thermography as well as thermoelastic stress analysis. The observed damage within the composites was introduced using multiple experimental tactics including uniaxial tensile tests, creep tests, and most recently, ballistic impact. This paper offers a brief review and summary of results for each of the applied NDE tools.

  14. A Model of Spontaneous Complex Tremor Migration Patterns and Background Slow-Slip Events via Interaction of Brittle Asperities and a Ductile Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.; Ampuero, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Slow-slip events (SSE) and tectonic tremors offer a unique window into a broad spectrum of earthquake behavior and fault mechanics at the bottom of seismogenic zones. Our previous heterogeneous fault models composed of brittle asperities embedded in a matrix with velocity weakening-to-strengthening transition reproduced tremor migration patterns observed in the Cascadia subduction zone including forward tremor propagation and Rapid Tremor Reversals (RTRs). Tremors were driven by a background SSE whose existence did not require tremors. Here we assess the importance of feedback between tremors and SSE by considering a ductile (pure velocity-strengthening) background matrix. In this new model complex tremor swarms and SSE result solely from the interaction between brittle asperity failures via intervening transient creep. In particular, in the absence of tremor asperities the model produces no SSE. The new model is less complicated than our previous one and matches some observations better. It reproduces the scale and recurrence interval of large tremor episodes and the migration speed and distance of RTR observed in Cascadia, and the ratio of RTR to forward migration speeds spans a wider range. Observations of tremor-genic and tremor-less slow slip occurring in a same segment of the Cascadia subduction zone suggest that natural faults are in between these two end-member models. We study the tremor-driven SSE model through numerical simulations of heterogeneous rate-and-state faults with mixed velocity-weakening (VW) and velocity-strengthening (VS) materials. We find that the (b-a)*sigma value (effectively the frictional properties and pore pressure) of the VW fault portions determine the criticalness of the whole fault (i.e. its ability to produce spontaneous transient events). A combined analytical and numerical study of fault criticalness as a function of density of VW material and contrast of (b-a)*sigma values reveals subcritical-to-supercritical transitions

  15. Designing metallic glass matrix composites with high toughness and tensile ductility.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Douglas C; Suh, Jin-Yoo; Wiest, Aaron; Duan, Gang; Lind, Mary-Laura; Demetriou, Marios D; Johnson, William L

    2008-02-28

    The selection and design of modern high-performance structural engineering materials is driven by optimizing combinations of mechanical properties such as strength, ductility, toughness, elasticity and requirements for predictable and graceful (non-catastrophic) failure in service. Highly processable bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are a new class of engineering materials and have attracted significant technological interest. Although many BMGs exhibit high strength and show substantial fracture toughness, they lack ductility and fail in an apparently brittle manner in unconstrained loading geometries. For instance, some BMGs exhibit significant plastic deformation in compression or bending tests, but all exhibit negligible plasticity (<0.5% strain) in uniaxial tension. To overcome brittle failure in tension, BMG-matrix composites have been introduced. The inhomogeneous microstructure with isolated dendrites in a BMG matrix stabilizes the glass against the catastrophic failure associated with unlimited extension of a shear band and results in enhanced global plasticity and more graceful failure. Tensile strengths of approximately 1 GPa, tensile ductility of approximately 2-3 per cent, and an enhanced mode I fracture toughness of K(1C) approximately 40 MPa m(1/2) were reported. Building on this approach, we have developed 'designed composites' by matching fundamental mechanical and microstructural length scales. Here, we report titanium-zirconium-based BMG composites with room-temperature tensile ductility exceeding 10 per cent, yield strengths of 1.2-1.5 GPa, K(1C) up to approximately 170 MPa m(1/2), and fracture energies for crack propagation as high as G(1C) approximately 340 kJ m(-2). The K(1C) and G(1C) values equal or surpass those achievable in the toughest titanium or steel alloys, placing BMG composites among the toughest known materials. PMID:18305540

  16. ZNF469 frequently mutated in the brittle cornea syndrome (BCS) is a single exon gene possibly regulating the expression of several extracellular matrix components

    PubMed Central

    Rohrbach, Marianne; Spencer, Helen L.; Porter, Louise F.; Burkitt-Wright, Emma M.M.; Bürer, Céline; Janecke, Andreas; Bakshi, Madhura; Sillence, David; Al-Hussain, Hailah; Baumgartner, Matthias; Steinmann, Beat; Black, Graeme C.M.; Manson, Forbes D.C.; Giunta, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Brittle cornea syndrome (BCS; MIM 229200) is an autosomal recessive generalized connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in ZNF469 and PRDM5. It is characterized by extreme thinning and fragility of the cornea that may rupture in the absence of significant trauma leading to blindness. Keratoconus or keratoglobus, high myopia, blue sclerae, hyperelasticity of the skin without excessive fragility, and hypermobility of the small joints are additional features of BCS. Transcriptional regulation of extracellular matrix components, particularly of fibrillar collagens, by PRDM5 and ZNF469 suggests that they might be part of the same pathway, the disruption of which is likely to cause the features of BCS. In the present study, we have performed molecular analysis of a cohort of 23 BCS affected patients on both ZNF469 and PRDM5, including those who were clinically reported previously [1]; the clinical description of three additional patients is reported in detail. We identified either homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in ZNF469 in 18 patients while, 4 were found to be homozygous for PRDM5 mutations. In one single patient a mutation in neither ZNF469 nor PRDM5 was identified. Furthermore, we report the 12 novel ZNF469 variants identified in our patient cohort, and show evidence that ZNF469 is a single exon rather than a two exon gene. PMID:23680354

  17. Advanced composites: Environmental effects on selected resin matrix materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welhart, E. K.

    1976-01-01

    The effects that expected space flight environment has upon the mechanical properties of epoxy and polyimide matrix composites were analyzed. Environmental phenomena covered water immersion, high temperature aging, humidity, lightning strike, galvanic action, electromagnetic interference, thermal shock, rain and sand erosion, and thermal/vacuum outgassing. The technology state-of-the-art for graphite and boron reinforced epoxy and polyimide matrix materials is summarized to determine the relative merit of using composites in the space shuttle program. Resin matrix composites generally are affected to some degree by natural environmental phenomena with polyimide resin matrix materials less affected than epoxies.

  18. INTEGRATED COI S200 - Hi-NiCalon FIBER WITH AN S200 MATRIX (POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE - PMC) / AETB 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    INTEGRATED COI S200 - Hi-NiCalon FIBER WITH AN S200 MATRIX (POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE - PMC) / AETB 16 (FOAM CORE) / CARBON REINFORCED CYANOESTER (CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITE - CMC) HOT STRUCTURE, PANEL 884-1: SAMPLE 3

  19. INTEGRATED COI S200 - Hi-NiCalon FIBER WITH AN S200 MATRIX (POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE - PMC) / AETB 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    INTEGRATED COI S200 - Hi-NiCalon FIBER WITH AN S200 MATRIX (POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE - PMC) / AETB 16 (FOAM CORE) / CARBON REINFORCED CYANOESTER (CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITE - CMC) HOT STRUCTURE, PANEL 884-1: SAMPLE 1

  20. Auger analysis of a fiber/matrix interface in a ceramic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honecy, Frank S.; Pepper, Stephen V.

    1988-01-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profiling was used to characterize the fiber/matrix interface of an SiC fiber, reaction bonded Si3N4 matrix composite. Depth profiles of the as received double coated fiber revealed concentration oscillations which disappeared after annealing the fiber in the environment used to fabricate the composite. After the composite was fractured, the Auger depth profiles showed that failure occurred in neither the Beta-SiC fiber body nor in the Si3N4 matrix but, concurrently, at the fiber coating/matrix interface and within the fiber coating itself.

  1. Experimental research on the penetration of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material bullet into steel target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. W.; Chen, G.

    2012-08-01

    In the present paper, the penetration experiments of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material bullets into 45# steel targets are conducted by employing H25 artillery. In which, an experimental technique of sub-caliber penetration is constructed. The quasi static and dynamic behaviours of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material are also experimental investigated. The self-sharpening phenomenon of composite material is observed. Integrated with metallographic analysis, the failure modes of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material are identified systemically and compared with the quasi-static and dynamic material tests. It includes four failure modes, i.e., shear fracture of tungsten fiber, brittle fracture of tungsten fiber and shear fracture of metallic glass matrix as well as melting of tungsten fiber and metallic glass matrix. Comparatively, three failure mechanisms of tungsten fiber in the bullet nose are also identified, i.e., shear fracture, splitting fracture and bending or/and buckling. Finally, the mechanism of self-sharpening behaviour of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material is discussed.

  2. Parametric Study Of A Ceramic-Fiber/Metal-Matrix Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L. N.; Hopkins, D. A.; Chamis, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes computer-model parametric study of effects of degradation of constituent materials upon mechanical properties of ceramic-fiber/metal-matrix composite material. Contributes to understanding of weakening effects of large changes in temperature and mechanical stresses in fabrication and use. Concerned mainly with influences of in situ fiber and matrix properties upon behavior of composite. Particular attention given to influence of in situ matrix strength and influence of interphase degradation.

  3. Surface characterization of LDEF carbon fiber/polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grammer, Holly L.; Wightman, James P.; Young, Philip R.; Slemp, Wayne S.

    1995-01-01

    XPS (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) analysis of both carbon fiber/epoxy matrix and carbon fiber/polysulfone matrix composites revealed significant changes in the surface composition as a result of exposure to low-earth orbit. The carbon 1s curve fit XPS analysis in conjunction with the SEM photomicrographs revealed significant erosion of the polymer matrix resins by atomic oxygen to expose the carbon fibers of the composite samples. This erosion effect on the composites was seen after 10 months in orbit and was even more obvious after 69 months.

  4. The elevated temperature behavior of particle reinforced Al matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    The elevated temperature modulus, strength and creep of SiC particle reinforced composites produced by the DURALCAN{trademark} are discussed. It is shown that the reinforcing particles provide an increased modulus over the complete temperature range studied, and the temperature dependence of the composite modulus is controlled by the temperature dependence of the matrix modulus. The composite strength decreases with increasing temperature, reflecting softening of the matrix due to over aging, and as a result, is dependent on the thermal stability of the matrix. The particles provide increased creep resistance, and there are differences between the creep of melt processed composites and those produced by powder metallurgy.

  5. Modeling the Stress Strain Behavior of Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.

    2006-01-01

    Woven SiC fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites represent one of the most mature composite systems to date. Future components fabricated out of these woven ceramic matrix composites are expected to vary in shape, curvature, architecture, and thickness. The design of future components using woven ceramic matrix composites necessitates a modeling approach that can account for these variations which are physically controlled by local constituent contents and architecture. Research over the years supported primarily by NASA Glenn Research Center has led to the development of simple mechanistic-based models that can describe the entire stress-strain curve for composite systems fabricated with chemical vapor infiltrated matrices and melt-infiltrated matrices for a wide range of constituent content and architecture. Several examples will be presented that demonstrate the approach to modeling which incorporates a thorough understanding of the stress-dependent matrix cracking properties of the composite system.

  6. Tungsten fiber reinforced copper matrix composites: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdanels, David L.

    1989-01-01

    Tungsten fiber reinforced copper matrix (W/Cu) composites have served as an ideal model system with which to analyze the properties of metal matrix composites. A series of research programs were conducted to investigate the stress-strain behavior of W/Cu composites; the effect of fiber content on the strength, modulus, and conductivity of W/Cu composites; and the effect of alloying elements on the behavior of tungsten wire and of W/Cu composites. Later programs investigated the stress-rupture, creep, and impact behavior of these composites at elevated temperatures. Analysis of the results of these programs as allows prediction of the effects of fiber properties, matrix properties, and fiber content on the properties of W/Cu composites. These analyses form the basis for the rule-of-mixtures prediction of composite properties which was universally adopted as the criteria for measuring composite efficiency. In addition, the analyses allows extrapolation of potential properties of other metal matrix composites and are used to select candidate fibers and matrices for development of tungsten fiber reinforced superalloy composite materials for high temperature aircraft and rocket engine turbine applications. The W/Cu composite efforts are summarized, some of the results obtained are described, and an update is provided on more recent work using W/Cu composites as high strength, high thermal conductivity composite materials for high heat flux, elevated temperature applications.

  7. Evaluation of waterjet-machined metal matrix composite tensile specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, C.A.; Smith, M.T.

    1986-04-01

    Four magnesium/boron carbide metal matrix composite (MMC) tensile specimens fabricated using the waterjet machining method were evaluated in order to determine the effects of the waterjet material removal process on the composite material surface structure and properties. These results were then compared with data from material conventionally machined. Results showed that while waterjet cutting produces a rough surface finish and does not meet specified dimensional tolerances, the technique appears to be suitable for sectioning and rough machining of metal matrix composites.

  8. Toughened Matrix SiC Fiber Reinforced Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Stanley R.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Morscher, Gregory N.; Kiser, James D.

    2005-01-01

    First matrix cracking stress is a critical parameter for application of Sic fiber reinforced composites in highly stressed, environmentally demanding applications such as turbine blades. High matrix fracture toughness is a key property that contributes to high composite fracture stress. Silicon nitride offers reduced matrix elastic modulus, lower coefficient of thermal expansion, and potentially high fracture toughness compared to Sic matrices. All of these factors can be used to advantage to increase matrix fracture stress. As a first model system we are pursuing toughened silicon nitride matrix composites reinforced with SCS-9 fibers. Fabrication is by tape casting the matrix plies and tape lay-up with fiber plies followed by hot pressing at 1800 C. Progress toward this end will be reported.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of AZ91/CNT magnesium matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yong-Ha; Park, Yong-Ho; Park, Ik-Min; Oak, Jeong-jung; Kimura, Hisamichi; Cho, Kyung-Mox

    2008-12-01

    Carbon Nano Tube (CNT) reinforced AZ91 metal matrix composites (MMC) were fabricated by the squeeze infiltrated method. Properties of magnesium alloys have been improved by impurity reduction, surface treatment and alloy design, and thus the usage for the magnesium alloys has been extended recently. However there still remain barriers for the adaption of magnesium alloys for engineering materials. In this study, we report light-weight, high strength heat resistant magnesium matrix composites. Microstructural study and tensile test were performed for the squeeze infiltrated magnesium matrix composites. The wear properties were characterized and the possibility for the application to automotive power train and engine parts was investigated. It was found that the squeeze infiltration technique is a proper method to fabricate magnesium matrix composites reducing casting defects such as pores and matrix/reinforcement interface separation etc. Improved tensile and mechanical properties were obtained with CNT reinforcing magnesium alloys

  10. Detecting Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites Using Electrical Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Craig E.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The majority of damage in SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites subjected to monotonic tensile loads is in the form of distributed matrix cracks. These cracks initiate near stress concentrations, such as 90 deg fiber tows or large matrix pores and continue to accumulate with additional stress until matrix crack saturation is achieved. Such damage is difficult to detect with conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques (immersion ultrasonics, x-ray, etc.). Monitoring a specimen.s electrical resistance change provides an indirect approach for monitoring matrix crack density. Sylramic-iBN fiber- reinforced SiC composites with a melt infiltrated (MI) matrix were tensile tested at room temperature. Results showed an increase in resistance of more than 500% prior to fracture, which can be detected either in situ or post-damage. A relationship between resistance change and matrix crack density was also determined.

  11. Detecting Cracks in Ceramic Matrix Composites by Electrical Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Craig; Gyekenyesi, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The majority of damage in SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites subjected to monotonic tensile loads is in the form of distributed matrix cracks. These cracks initiate near stress concentrations, such as 90o fiber tows or large matrix pores and continue to accumulate with additional stress until matrix crack saturation is achieved. Such damage is difficult to detect with conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques (immersion ultrasonics, x-ray, etc.). Monitoring a specimen.s electrical resistance change provides an indirect approach for monitoring matrix crack density. Sylramic-iBN fiber- reinforced SiC composites with a melt infiltrated (MI) matrix were tensile tested at room temperature. Results showed an increase in resistance of more than 500% prior to fracture, which can be detected either in situ or post-damage. A relationship between resistance change and matrix crack density was also determined.

  12. Mechanical Properties of Continuous Fiber Reinforced Zirconium Diboride Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuffle, Kevin; Creegan, Peter; Nowell, Steven; Bull, Jeffrey D.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Continuous fiber reinforced zirconium diboride matrix composites, SCS-9a-(RBSiCZrB2)matrix, are being developed for leading edge, rocket nozzle and turbine engine applications. Recently, the composite materials have been characterized for tensile properties to 1250 C, the highest temperature tested. The tensile properties are fiber dominated as the matrix is microcracked on fabrication, but favorable failure characteristic are observed. Compression and shear mechanical testing results will be reported if completed. The effects of fiber volume fraction and matrix density on mechanical properties will be discussed. The target applications of the materials will be discussed. Specific testing being performed towards qualification for these applications will be included.

  13. Continuous fiber ceramic matrix composites for heat engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, David E.

    1988-01-01

    High strength at elevated temperatures, low density, resistance to wear, and abundance of nonstrategic raw materials make structural ceramics attractive for advanced heat engine applications. Unfortunately, ceramics have a low fracture toughness and fail catastrophically because of overload, impact, and contact stresses. Ceramic matrix composites provide the means to achieve improved fracture toughness while retaining desirable characteristics, such as high strength and low density. Materials scientists and engineers are trying to develop the ideal fibers and matrices to achieve the optimum ceramic matrix composite properties. A need exists for the development of failure models for the design of ceramic matrix composite heat engine components. Phenomenological failure models are currently the most frequently used in industry, but they are deterministic and do not adequately describe ceramic matrix composite behavior. Semi-empirical models were proposed, which relate the failure of notched composite laminates to the stress a characteristic distance away from the notch. Shear lag models describe composite failure modes at the micromechanics level. The enhanced matrix cracking stress occurs at the same applied stress level predicted by the two models of steady state cracking. Finally, statistical models take into consideration the distribution in composite failure strength. The intent is to develop these models into computer algorithms for the failure analysis of ceramic matrix composites under monotonically increasing loads. The algorithms will be included in a postprocessor to general purpose finite element programs.

  14. Microplasticity phenomena in graphite/magnesium metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, J.S.; Rawal, S.; Misra, M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses localized matrix plasticity in a Pitch 55 graphite/magnesium (Gr/Mg) metal matrix composite (MMC) due to damping/hysteresis effects in bending. It was found that for this material system, chosen mainly for its damping ability, plasticity or permanent deformation occurs in the matrix material of the composite from relatively small structural deformations. Hysteresis loops were determined on a local level in the diffusion bond region between adjacent graphite fiber bundles as well as on the free edge of the magnesium face sheet of the composite. Moire interferometry was combined with research on the microstructure of this particular material system to yield these subtle results.

  15. Nanophosphor composite scintillator with a liquid matrix

    DOEpatents

    McKigney, Edward Allen; Burrell, Anthony Keiran; Bennett, Bryan L.; Cooke, David Wayne; Ott, Kevin Curtis; Bacrania, Minesh Kantilal; Del Sesto, Rico Emilio; Gilbertson, Robert David; Muenchausen, Ross Edward; McCleskey, Thomas Mark

    2010-03-16

    An improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid comprises nanophosphor particles in a liquid matrix. The nanophosphor particles are optionally surface modified with an organic ligand. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially surface charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during dispersion in a liquid scintillator matrix. The improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid may be used in any conventional liquid scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  16. Effect of reinforcement and fiber-matrix interface on dynamic fracture of fiber-reinforced composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Khanna, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental technique of dynamic photoelasticity coupled with high speed photography has been used to study the interaction of running cracks with brittle and ductile fibers embedded in a brittle polymeric matrix. The effect of reinforcement and the fiber-matrix interface on dynamic stress intensity factor, crack bridging phenomena, crack surface morphology and toughening mechanisms occurring during dynamic fracturing of reinforced brittle matrix composites has been investigated. It is found that reinforcement reduces the crack velocity and the stress intensity factor. Thus the energy supplied to the crack tip is reduced resulting in reduction of the crack jump distance. Fiber pullout experiments were done to characterize the fiber-matrix interface. Rapid pullout results in an increase in interface shear strength. For rapid pullout of fibers the difference between maximum pullout loads. for well and weakly bonded fibers, is much smaller than for very slow pullout. A fiber-matrix interface which is weaker in the vicinity of the crack path, termed the partly debonded interface, produces higher crack closing forces and lower stress intensity factor compared to well bonded fibers. The former interface condition results in low fracture energy and shorter crack jump compared to the later. The interface condition significantly affects the fracture surface morphology. The fracture surface roughness is lower for reinforced materials compared to monolithic. Further the partly debonded fibers result in lower surface roughness compared to the well bonded fibers. Inclined fibers with various interface conditions have no significant effect on the stress intensity factor. The fiber debonded length, however, decreases, as compared to fibers which are aligned with the loading direction, due to the kinking of the fibers.

  17. Pseudomonas biofilm matrix composition and niche biology

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Ethan E.; Wozniak, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms are a predominant form of growth for bacteria in the environment and in the clinic. Critical for biofilm development are adherence, proliferation, and dispersion phases. Each of these stages includes reinforcement by, or modulation of, the extracellular matrix. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been a model organism for the study of biofilm formation. Additionally, other Pseudomonas species utilize biofilm formation during plant colonization and environmental persistence. Pseudomonads produce several biofilm matrix molecules, including polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins. Accessory matrix components shown to aid biofilm formation and adaptability under varying conditions are also produced by pseudomonads. Adaptation facilitated by biofilm formation allows for selection of genetic variants with unique and distinguishable colony morphology. Examples include rugose small-colony variants and wrinkly spreaders (WS), which over produce Psl/Pel or cellulose, respectively, and mucoid bacteria that over produce alginate. The well-documented emergence of these variants suggests that pseudomonads take advantage of matrix-building subpopulations conferring specific benefits for the entire population. This review will focus on various polysaccharides as well as additional Pseudomonas biofilm matrix components. Discussions will center on structure–function relationships, regulation, and the role of individual matrix molecules in niche biology. PMID:22212072

  18. Failure Mechanisms for Ceramic Matrix Textile Composites at High Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Brian

    1999-03-01

    OAK B188 Failure Mechanisms for Ceramic Matrix Textile Composites at High Temperature. This summary refers to work done in approximately the twelve months to the present in our contract ''Failure Mechanisms for Ceramic Matrix Textile Composites at High Temperature,'' which commenced in August, 1997. Our activities have consisted mainly of measurements of creep-controlled crack growth in ceramic matrix composites (CMCS) at high temperature; imaging of deformation fields in textile CMCS; the assessment of mechanisms of damage in textile composites, especially those with through-thickness reinforcement; the formulation of models of delamination crack growth under fatigue in textile composites; analytical models of the bridging traction law for creeping fibers in a CMC at high temperature; and an analytical model of a bridging fiber tow in a textile composite.

  19. Thermal and mechanical behavior of metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, John M. (Editor); Moeller, Helen H. (Editor); Johnson, W. S. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The present conference discusses local stresses in metal-matrix composites (MMCs) subjected to thermal and mechanical loads, the computational simulation of high-temperature MMCs' cyclic behavior, an analysis of a ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) flexure specimen, and a plasticity analysis of fibrous composite laminates under thermomechanical loads. Also discussed are a comparison of methods for determining the fiber-matrix interface frictional stresses of CMCs, the monotonic and cyclic behavior of an SiC/calcium aluminosilicate CMC, the mechanical and thermal properties of an SiC particle-reinforced Al alloy MMC, the temperature-dependent tensile and shear response of a graphite-reinforced 6061 Al-alloy MMC, the fiber/matrix interface bonding strength of MMCs, and fatigue crack growth in an Al2O3 short fiber-reinforced Al-2Mg matrix MMC.

  20. Infrared transient-liquid-phase joining of SCS-6/{beta}21S titanium matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, C.A.; Sikka, V.K.; Blue, R.A.; Lin, R.Y.

    1996-02-01

    Fiber-reinforced titanium matrix composites (TMCs) are among the advanced materials being considered for use in the aerospace industry due to their light weight, high strength, and high modulus. A rapid infrared joining process has been developed for the joining of composites and advanced materials. Rapid infrared joining has been shown not to have many of the problems associated with conventional joining methods. Two models were utilized to predict the joint evolution and fiber reaction zone growth. TMC, 16-ply SCS-6/{beta}21S, has been successfully joined with total processing times of under 2 min utilizing the rapid infrared joining technique. The process utilizes a 50 C/sec ramping rate, 17-{micro}m Ti-15Cu-15Ni wt % filler material between the faying surfaces; a joining temperature of 1,100 C; and 120 sec of time to join the composite material. Joint shear strength testing of the rapid infrared joints at temperatures as high as 800 C has revealed no joint failures. Also, due to the rapid cooling of the process, no poststabilization of the matrix material is necessary to prevent the formation of a brittle omega phase during subsequent use of the TMC at intermediate temperatures, 270 to 430 C, for up to 20 h.

  1. Modeling of 3-D Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Sullivan, Roy M.; Mital, Subodh K.

    2003-01-01

    Three different approaches are being pursued at the NASA Glenn Research Center to predict the nanostructural behavior of three-dimensional woven ceramic matrix composites. These are: a micromechanics-based approach using W-CEMCAN (Woven Ceramic Matrix Composite Analyzer), a laminate analogy method and a structural frame approach (based on the finite element method). All three techniques are applied to predict the thermomechanical properties of a three-dimensional woven angle interlock C/SiC composite. The properties are predicted for room temperature and 1100 C and the predicted properties are compared to measurements. General observations regarding the three approaches for three-dimensional composite modeling are discussed.

  2. Transverse thermal expansion of carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmer, J. F.; Diefendorf, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Thermal expansion coefficients and moduli of elasticity have been determined experimentally for a series of epoxy-matrix composites reinforced with carbon and Kevlar fibers. It is found that in the transverse direction the difference between the properties of the fiber and the matrix is not as pronounced as in the longitudinal direction, where the composite properties are fiber-dominated. Therefore, the pattern of fiber packing tends to affect transverse composite properties. The transverse properties of the composites tested are examined from the standpoint of the concept of homogeneity defined as the variation of packing (or lack thereof) throughout a sample.

  3. Modified Process For Formation Of Silicon Carbide Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrendt, Donald R.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    1996-01-01

    Modified version of process for making SiC-fiber/SiC-matrix composite material reduces damage to SiC (SCS-6) fibers and to carbon-rich coatings on fibers. Modification consists of addition of second polymer-infiltration-and-pyrolysis step to increase carbon content of porous matrix before infiltration with liquid silicon or silicon alloy.

  4. Ultrasonic Assessment of Impact-Induced Damage and Microcracking in Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liaw, Benjamin; Villars, Esther; Delmont, Frantz; Bowles, Kenneth J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of this NASA FAR project is to conduct ultrasonic assessment of impact-induced damage and microcracking in polymer matrix composites at various temperatures. It is believed that the proposed study of impact damage assessment on polymer matrix composites will benefit several NASA missions and current interests, such as ballistic impact testing of composite fan containment and high strain rate deformation modeling of polymer matrix composites. Impact-induced damage mechanisms in GLARE and ARALL fiber-metal laminates subject to instrumented drop-weight impacts at various temperatures were studied. GLARE and ARALL are hybrid composites made of alternating layers of aluminum and glass (for GLARE) and aramid- (for ARALL) fiber-reinforced epoxy. Damage in pure aluminum panels impacted by foreign objects was mainly characterized by large plastic deformation surrounding a deep penetration dent. On the other hand, plastic deformation in fiber-metal laminates was often not as severe although the penetration dent was still produced. The more stiff fiber-reinforced epoxy layers provided better bending rigidity; thus, enhancing impact damage tolerance. Severe cracking, however, occurred due to the use of these more brittle fiber-reinforced epoxy layers. Fracture patterns, e.g., crack length and delamination size, were greatly affected by the lay-up configuration rather than by the number of layers, which implies that thickness effect was not significant for the panels tested in this study. Immersion ultrasound techniques were then used to assess damages generated by instrumented drop-weight impacts onto these fiber-metal laminate panels as well as 6061-T6 aluminum/cast acrylic sandwich plates adhered by epoxy. Depending on several parameters, such as impact velocity, mass, temperature, laminate configuration, sandwich construction, etc., various types of impact damage were observed, including plastic deformation, radiating cracks emanating from the impact site

  5. Mechanical behavior of reactively hot-pressed aluminide matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, M.; Suganuma, K.; Niihara, K.

    1997-12-31

    FeAl and Ni{sub 3}Al matrix composites containing various fine particles were fabricated successfully by reactive hot-pressing. The strength and the fracture toughness of these composites at ambient temperatures were evaluated. The addition of {beta}-SiC particles was effective for strengthening of the Fe-40at%Al matrix, however, an extreme decrease of fracture toughness occurred due to the suppression of stress relaxation effect by plastic deformation at a crack tip. The fracture toughness of the reactively hot pressed Fe-40at%Al and its composites was also affected by the environmental embrittlement effect. TiB{sub 2} and ZrB{sub 2} particles in the Fe-40at%Al matrix composites were clarified to play a role in the reduction of the environmental effect. For the Ni-25at%Al matrix, higher flexural strength was achieved by the addition of TiB{sub 2}, TiC and TiN particles. TiB{sub 2} particles reacted with the matrix during hot-pressing. The Ni-25at%Al/TiB{sub 2} composite had a fracture strength of 1.5 GPa in spite of large grain size of the matrix. TiC and TiN were the best choices as effective reinforcing materials for the Ni{sub 3}Al matrix among the chemical compatible ones.

  6. Steel-SiC Metal Matrix Composite Development

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Don D.

    2005-07-17

    The goal of this project is to develop a method for fabricating SiC-reinforced high-strength steel. We are developing a metal-matrix composite (MMC) in which SiC fibers are be embedded within a metal matrix of steel, with adequate interfacial bonding to deliver the full benefit of the tensile strength of the SiC fibers in the composite.

  7. Modification of natural matrix lac-bagasse for matrix composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhayati, Nanik Dwi; Widjaya, Karna; Triyono

    2016-02-01

    Material technology continues to be developed in order to a material that is more efficient with composite technology is a combination of two or more materials to obtain the desired material properties. The objective of this research was to modification and characterize the natural matrix lac-bagasse as composite films. The first step, natural matrix lac was changed from solid to liquid using an ethanol as a solvent so the matrix homogenly. Natural matrix lac was modified by adding citric acid with concentration variation. Secondly, the bagasse delignification using acid hydrolysis method. The composite films natural matrix lac-bagasse were prepared with optimum modified the addition citric acid 5% (v/v) and delignification bagasse optimum at 1,5% (v/v) in hot press at 80°C 6 Kg/cm-1. Thirdly, composite films without and with modification were characterized functional group analysis using FTIR spectrophotometer and mechanical properties using Universal Testing Machine. The result of research showed natural matrix lac can be modified by reaction with citric acid. FTIR spectra showed without and with modification had functional groups wide absorption 3448 cm-1 group -OH, C=O ester strong on 1712 cm-1 and the methylene group -CH2 on absorption 1465 cm-1. The mechanical properties showed tensile strength 0,55 MPa and elongation at break of 0,95 %. So that composite films natural matrix lac can be made with reinforcement bagasse for material application.

  8. Matrix toughness, long-term behavior, and damage tolerance of notched graphite fiber-reinforced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakis, C. E.; Simonds, R. A.; Stinchcomb, W. W.; Vick, L. W.

    1990-01-01

    The long-term behavior of notched graphite-fiber-reinforced composite laminates with brittle or tough matrix materials and different fiber architectures was investigated using damage measurements and stiffness change, residual strength, and life data. The fiber/matrix materials included T300/5208, AS4/3501-6, AS4/1808, AS4/PEEK, and C3000/PMR-15 matrices and unidirectional tape and woven cloth fiber architectures. Results of damage evaluation and of residual strength measurements during the fatigue damage development showed that the long-term behavior and damage tolerance are controlled by a number of interacting factors such as the matrix toughness, fiber architecture, loading levels, and damage types and distributions.

  9. Light weight polymer matrix composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Lowell, Carl E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A graphite fiber reinforced polymer matrix is layed up, cured, and thermally aged at about 750 F in the presence of an inert gas. The heat treatment improves the structural integrity and alters the electrical conductivity of the materials. In the preferred embodiment PMR-15 polyimides and Celion-6000 graphite fibers are used.

  10. Light weight polymer matrix composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Lowell, Carl E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A graphite fiber reinforced polymer matrix is layed up, cured, and thermally aged at about 750.degree. F. in the presence of an inert gas. The heat treatment improves the structural integrity and alters the electrical conductivity of the materials. In the preferred embodiment PMR-15 polyimides and Celion-6000 graphite fibers are used.

  11. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, J. F.; Prewo, K. M.; Thompson, E. R.

    1978-01-01

    A composite that can be used at temperatures up to 875 K with mechanical properties equal or superior to graphite fiber reinforced epoxy composites is presented. The composite system consist of graphite fiber, uniaxially or biaxially, reinforced borosilicate glass. The mechanical and thermal properties of such a graphite fiber reinforced glass composite are described, and the system is shown to offer promise as a high performance structural material. Specific properties that were measured were: a modified borosilicate glass uniaxially reinforced by Hercules HMS graphite fiber has a three-point flexural strength of 1030 MPa, a four-point flexural strength of 964 MPa, an elastic modulus of 199 GPa and a failure strain of 0.0052. The preparation and properties of similar composites with Hercules HTS, Celanese DG-102, Thornel 300 and Thornel Pitch graphite fibers are also described.

  12. Analysis of thermal mechanical fatigue in titanium matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. Steven; Mirdamadi, Massoud

    1993-01-01

    Titanium metal matrix composites are being evaluated for structural applications on advanced hypersonic vehicles. These composites are reinforced with ceramic fibers such as silicon carbide, SCS-6. This combination of matrix and fiber results in a high stiffness, high strength composite that has good retention of properties even at elevated temperatures. However, significant thermal stresses are developed within the composite between the fiber and the matrix due to the difference in their respective coefficients of thermal expansion. In addition to the internal stresses that are generated due to thermal cycling, the overall laminate will be subjected to considerable mechanical loads during the thermal cycling. In order to develop life prediction methodology, one must be able to predict the stresses and strains that occur in the composite's constituents during the complex loading. Thus the purpose is to describe such an analytical tool, VISCOPLY.

  13. Tensile behavior and cyclic creep of continuous fiber-reinforced glass matrix composites at room and elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccaccini, A. R.; West, G.; Janczak, J.; Lewis, M. H.; Kern, H.

    1997-06-01

    In this study we investigated the stress-strain behavior at room and elevated temperatures and the tensile creep and cyclic creep response of a unidirectional SiC fiber-reinforced aluminosilicate glass matrix composite. The interfacial condition of the as-received material was measured by a push-out indentation technique. The stress-strain behavior was that expected for this kind of composite, i.e. “pseudoductile” behavior with extensive fiber “pull-out” at room temperature and brittle failure at intermediate temperatures (750 °C) due to oxidation embrittlement. The stiffness of the composite at 750°C was analyzed for different loading rates, highlighing the influence of the loading rate on apparent composite stiffness, due to matrix softening. The creep studies were conducted at temperatures above and below the softening temperature of the glass (T g, 745 °C) in air. The cyclic creep experiments showed the existence of extensive viscous strain recovery during the unloading period. The creep strain recovery was quantified using strain recovery ratios. These ratios showed a slight dependence on the temperatures investigated (700 and 750 °C). The crept composites retained their “graceful” fracture behavior only partially after testing, indicating that oxidation of the fiber/matrix interface due to oxygen diffusion through the matrix occurred in the peripheral area of the samples.

  14. Comparison Of Models Of Metal-Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.; Johnson, W. S.; Naik, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Report presents comparative review of four mathematical models of micromechanical behaviors of fiber/metal-matrix composite materials. Models differ in various details, all based on properties of fiber and matrix constituent materials, all involve square arrays of fibers continuous and parallel and all assume complete bonding between constituents. Computer programs implementing models used to predict properties and stress-vs.-strain behaviors of unidirectional- and cross-ply laminated composites made of boron fibers in aluminum matrices and silicon carbide fibers in titanium matrices. Stresses in fiber and matrix constituent materials also predicted.

  15. Fatigue of continuous fiber reinforced titanium matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1991-01-01

    Several lay-ups of SCS-6/Ti-15-3 composites were investigated. Static and fatigue tests were conducted for both notched and unnotched specimens at room and elevated temperatures. Test results indicated that the stress in the 0 fibers is the controlling factor in fatigue life. The static and fatigue strength of these materials is shown to be dependent on the level of residual stresses and the fiber/ matrix interfacial strength. Fatigue tests of notched specimens showed that cracks can initiate and grow many fiber spacings in the matrix material without breaking fibers. These matrix cracks can significantly reduce the residual strength of notched composite.

  16. Approach to inherently stable interfaces for ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Kupp, E.R.; Stinton, D.P.; Shanmugham, S.

    1996-09-01

    Virtually all ceramic matrix composites require and interface coating between the fibers and matrix to achieve the desired mechanical performance. To date, the most effective interface materials for non- oxide matrix composites have been carbon and boron nitride. They are, however, susceptible to oxidation at elevated temperatures, and thus under many envisioned operating environments they will fail, possibly allowing oxidation of the fibers as well, adversely affecting mechanical behavior. Current efforts are directed toward developing stable interface coating, which include oxides and silicon carbide with appropriate thermomechanical properties.

  17. Explosive bonding of metal-matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reece, O. Y.

    1969-01-01

    Explosive bonding process produces sheet composites of aluminum alloy reinforced by high-strength stainless steel wires. The bonds are excellent metallurgically, no external heat is required, various metals can be bonded, and the process is inexpensive.

  18. Fracture technology for brittle materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.

    1988-01-01

    Ceramics materials have the potential for use in high-temperature, fuel-efficient engines. However, because these materials are brittle, their fracture characteristics must be well documented prior to their application. Thus Lewis is working to understand the fracture and strength properties of brittle ceramic and ceramic matrix materials. An understanding of fracture properties aids both designers who are attempting to design high-temperature structures and materials scientists who seek to design more temperature-resistant materials. Both analytical and experimental approaches to fracture analysis are being taken. Methods for testing fracture toughness, crack growth resistance, and strength are being developed. The failure mechanisms at both room and elevated temperatures are also being investigated. Such investigations aid materials scientists in developing better high-temperature materials. Of concern is the anisotropy of ceramic materials and the experimental verification of ceramic design codes that will allow brittle material behavior to be accurately predicted at high temperature.

  19. Stable Boron Nitride Interphases for Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.

    1999-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC's) require strong fibers for good toughness and weak interphases so that cracks which are formed in the matrix debond and deflect around the fibers. If the fibers are strongly bonded to the matrix, CMC's behave like monolithic ceramics (e.g., a ceramic coffee cup), and when subjected to mechanical loads that induce cracking, such CMC's fail catastrophically. Since CMC's are being developed for high temperature corrosive environments such as the combustor liner for advanced High Speed Civil Transport aircraft, the interphases need to be able to withstand the environment when the matrix cracks.

  20. Metal matrix composite structural panel construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcwithey, R. R.; Royster, D. M. (Inventor); Bales, T. T.

    1983-01-01

    Lightweight capped honeycomb stiffeners for use in fabricating metal or metal/matrix exterior structural panels on aerospace type vehicles and the process for fabricating same are disclosed. The stiffener stringers are formed in sheets, cut to the desired width and length and brazed in spaced relationship to a skin with the honeycomb material serving directly as the required lightweight stiffeners and not requiring separate metal encasement for the exposed honeycomb cells.

  1. Fatigue damage criteria - Matrix, fibers and interfaces of continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1988-01-01

    Continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC) are projected for use in high temperature, stiffness critical parts that will be subjected to cyclic loadings. Depending on the relative fatigue behavior of the fiber and matrix, and the interface properties, the failure modes of MMC can be grouped into four catagories: (1) matrix dominated, (2) fiber dominated, (3) self-similar damage growth, and (4) fiber/matrix interfacial failures. These four types of damage are discussed and illustrated by examples. The emphasis is on the fatigue of unnotched laminates.

  2. Experimental study on mechanical behavior of fiber/matrix interface in metal matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; Chiang, F.P.

    1994-12-31

    The technique SIEM(Speckle Interferometry with Electron Microscopy) was employed to quantitatively measure the deformation on the fiber/matrix interface in SCS-6/Ti-6-4 composite at a microscale level. The displacement field within the fiber/matrix interphase zone was determined by in-situ observation with sensitivity of 0.003({micro}m). The macro-mechanical properties were compared with micro-mechanical behavior. It is shown that the strength in the interphase zone is weaker than the matrix tensile strength. The deformation process can be characterized by the uniform deformation, interface strain concentration and debond, and matrix plastic deformation.

  3. Strain Rate Dependent Modeling of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1999-01-01

    A research program is in progress to develop strain rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to high strain rate impact loads. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive equations have been developed to model the polymer matrix, and have been incorporated into a micromechanics approach to analyze polymer matrix composites. The Hashin failure criterion has been implemented within the micromechanics results to predict ply failure strengths. The deformation model has been implemented within LS-DYNA, a commercially available transient dynamic finite element code. The deformation response and ply failure stresses for the representative polymer matrix composite AS4/PEEK have been predicted for a variety of fiber orientations and strain rates. The predicted results compare favorably to experimentally obtained values.

  4. Analysis of thermal stresses in polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, David E.; Griffin, O. H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    In the present micromechanics study of the thermally-induced stress field which emerges at very low temperatures in the matrix and fibers of continuous fiber-reinforced polymer composites, the results obtained by a specialized FEM analysis are compared to an analytical solution of the composite cylinder model for several composite materials. Attention is given to the influence of microstructural geometry and constituent properties; it is established that the distributions and magnitudes of the thermally-induced stresses are affected by the assumed microstructural geometry of the sample. While matrix stresses are not a strong function of fiber properties, the temperature dependence of the matrix properties significantly affects the magnitudes of thermally-induced matrix stresses.

  5. An Investigation of Reliability Models for Ceramic Matrix Composites and their Implementation into Finite Element Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Stephen F.

    1998-01-01

    The development of modeling approaches for the failure analysis of ceramic-based material systems used in high temperature environments was the primary objective of this research effort. These materials have the potential to support many key engineering technologies related to the design of aeropropulsion systems. Monolithic ceramics exhibit a number of useful properties such as retention of strength at high temperatures, chemical inertness, and low density. However, the use of monolithic ceramics has been limited by their inherent brittleness and a large variation in strength. This behavior has motivated material scientists to reinforce the monolithic material with a ceramic fiber. The addition of a second ceramic phase with an optimized interface increases toughness and marginally increases strength. The primary purpose of the fiber is to arrest crack growth, not to increase strength. The material systems of interest in this research effort were laminated ceramic matrix composites, as well as two- and three- dimensional fabric reinforced ceramic composites. These emerging composite systems can compete with metals in many demanding applications. However, the ongoing metamorphosis of ceramic composite material systems, and the lack of standardized design data has in the past tended to minimize research efforts related to structural analysis. Many structural components fabricated from ceramic matrix composites (CMC) have been designed by "trial and error." The justification for this approach lies in the fact that during the initial developmental phases for a material system fabrication issues are paramount. Emphasis is placed on demonstrating feasibility rather than fully understanding the processes controlling mechanical behavior. This is understandable during periods of rapid improvements in material properties for any composite system. But to avoid the ad hoc approach, the analytical methods developed under this effort can be used to develop rational structural

  6. Micromechanics effects in creep of metal-matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, L. C.; Allison, J. E.

    1995-12-01

    The creep of metal-matrix composites is analyzed by finite element techniques. An axisymmetric unit-cell model with spherical reinforcing particles is used. Parameters appropriate to TiC particles in a precipitation-hardened (2219) Al matrix are chosen. The effects of matrix plasticity and residual stresses on the creep of the composite are calculated. We confirm (1) that the steady-state rate is independent of the particle elastic moduli and the matrix elastic and plastic properties, (2) that the ratio of composite to matrix steady-state rates depends only on the volume fraction and geometry of the reinforcing phase, and (3) that this ratio can be determined from a calculation of the stress-strain relation for the geometrically identical composite (same phase volume and geometry) with rigid particles in the appropriate power-law hardening matrix. The values of steady-state creep are compared to experimental ones (Krajewski et al.). Continuum mechanics predictions give a larger reduction of the composite creep relative to the unreinforced material than measured, suggesting that the effective creep rate of the matrix is larger than in unreinforced precipitation-hardened Al due to changes in microstructure, dislocation density, or creep mechanism. Changes in matrix creep properties are also suggested by the comparison of calculated and measured creep strain rates in the primary creep regime, where significantly different time dependencies are found. It is found that creep calculations performed for a timeindependent matrix creep law can be transformed to obtain the creep for a time-dependent creep law.

  7. Joining and fabrication of metal-matrix composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royster, D. M.; Wiant, H. R.; Bales, T. T.

    1975-01-01

    Manufacturing technology associated with developing fabrication processes to incorporate metal-matrix composites into flight hardware is studied. The joining of composite to itself and to titanium by innovative brazing, diffusion bonding, and adhesive bonding is examined. The effects of the fabrication processes on the material properties and their influence on the design of YF-12 wing panels are discussed.

  8. Technological Readiness of Ceramic Matrix Composites: A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neergaard, Lynn; Effinger, Michael

    2000-01-01

    This review intends to provide a snapshot of the state of industry of ceramic matrix composites (CMC). It is therefore organized in terms of design needs, composite properties, system capabilities, and technological availability. This publication will cover CMCs in use and development, with technological readiness levels (TRL) from laboratory testing of coupons to flight proven hardware.

  9. The tensile failure modes of metal-matrix composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. A.; Wills, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    The strengths of individual boron fibers extracted from various as-received and thermally fatigued aluminum alloy matrix materials were measured. The results are described in terms of a Weibull distribution, and strengths of composites fabricated from these fibers are calculated in terms of lower and upper bounds. Tests conducted on composite specimens indicated that strengths approaching the upper bounds can be achieved in composites fabricated by normal diffusion bonding techniques. Cyclic temperature changes effectively reduced the strength values toward the lower bounds. It was concluded that this effect resulted from the degradation of the strength of the fiber-matrix bond.

  10. Advanced composites: Fabrication processes for selected resin matrix materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welhart, E. K.

    1976-01-01

    This design note is based on present state of the art for epoxy and polyimide matrix composite fabrication technology. Boron/epoxy and polyimide and graphite/epoxy and polyimide structural parts can be successfully fabricated. Fabrication cycles for polyimide matrix composites have been shortened to near epoxy cycle times. Nondestructive testing has proven useful in detecting defects and anomalies in composite structure elements. Fabrication methods and tooling materials are discussed along with the advantages and disadvantages of different tooling materials. Types of honeycomb core, material costs and fabrication methods are shown in table form for comparison. Fabrication limits based on tooling size, pressure capabilities and various machining operations are also discussed.

  11. Advanced Ceramic Matrix Composites with Multifunctional and Hybrid Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Morscher, Gregory N.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are leading candidate materials for a number of applications in aeronautics, space, energy, and nuclear industries. Potential composite applications differ in their requirements for thickness. For example, many space applications such as "nozzle ramps" or "heat exchangers" require very thin (< 1 mm) structures whereas turbine blades would require very thick parts (> or = 1 cm). Little is known about the effect of thickness on stress-strain behavior or the elevated temperature tensile properties controlled by oxidation diffusion. In this study, composites consisting of woven Hi-Nicalon (trademark) fibers a carbon interphase and CVI SiC matrix were fabricated with different numbers of plies and thicknesses. The effect of thickness on matrix crack formation, matrix crack growth and diffusion kinetics will be discussed. In another approach, hybrid fiber-lay up concepts have been utilized to "alloy" desirable properties of different fiber types for mechanical properties, thermal stress management, and oxidation resistance. Such an approach has potential for the C(sub I)-SiC and SiC(sub f)-SiC composite systems. CVI SiC matrix composites with different stacking sequences of woven C fiber (T300) layers and woven SiC fiber (Hi-Nicalon (trademark)) layers were fabricated. The results will be compared to standard C fiber reinforced CVI SiC matrix and Hi-Nicalon reinforced CVI SiC matrix composites. In addition, shear properties of these composites at different temperatures will also be presented. Other design and implementation issues will be discussed along with advantages and benefits of using these materials for various components in high temperature applications.

  12. Properties of advanced fibers for reinforcing metal and ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, J.

    1993-12-31

    The mechanical properties of ceramic reinforcing fibers need to be well characterized before their incorporation into composite materials. Critical fiber properties include strength and Weibull modulus, bundle strength, modulus and creep resistance. Important composite properties include thermochemical stability, interface debond energy and interfacial sliding resistance. Tailoring these interfacial properties by fiber coating can, in turn, influence fiber properties. Methods of measuring strength related properties are addressed and the results of a computer simulation to assess the quality of measured data statistically are presented. The readily available monofilament fibers are mostly chemically vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide. Current aerospace programs have identified the need for new ceramic fibers as enabling materials for their success. Alternate fibers such as sapphire are therefore currently under development with several objectives including: a CTE greater than that of SiC, higher strength and creep resistance, and chemical stability in new candidate matrices. The strength of a ceramic fiber is statistical, being determined by the largest flaw in the flaw population of the tested length of fiber. In a brittle matrix material such as an intermetallic, for toughening by continuous fiber reinforcement, fibers need to exhibit pull-out during matrix crack propagation. However, the stress distribution along a bridging fiber has a maximum in the crack plane and for fiber failure to occur away from the crack plane, a prerequisite for pull-out, a weak link must also exist away from the crack plane.

  13. Fiber shape effects on metal matrix composite behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, H. C.; Lee, H.-J.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of different fiber shapes on the behavior of metal matrix composites is computationally simulated. A three-dimensional finite element model consisting of a group of nine unidirectional fibers in a three by three unit cell array of a SiC/Ti-15-3 metal matrix composite is used in the analysis. The model is employed to represent five fiber shapes that include a circle, an ellipse, a kidney, and two different cross shapes. The distribution of stresses and the composite material properties, such as moduli, coefficients of thermal expansion, and Poisson's ratios, are obtained from the finite element analysis using the various fiber shapes. Comparisons of these results are used to determine the sensitivity of the composite behavior to the different fiber shapes. In general, fiber dominated properties are not affected by fiber geometry and matrix dominated properties are only moderately affected.

  14. Brittle nails (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Like the skin, the fingernails are a reflection of a person's state of health. Low levels of zinc and iron as well as thyroid problems can cause brittle nails. However, brittle nails are often a normal ...

  15. Time-dependent deformation of titanium metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.; Bahei-El-din, Y. A.; Mirdamadi, M.

    1995-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite element program called VISCOPAC was developed and used to conduct a micromechanics analysis of titanium metal matrix composites. The VISCOPAC program uses a modified Eisenberg-Yen thermo-viscoplastic constitutive model to predict matrix behavior under thermomechanical fatigue loading. The analysis incorporated temperature-dependent elastic properties in the fiber and temperature-dependent viscoplastic properties in the matrix. The material model was described and the necessary material constants were determined experimentally. Fiber-matrix interfacial behavior was analyzed using a discrete fiber-matrix model. The thermal residual stresses due to the fabrication cycle were predicted with a failed interface, The failed interface resulted in lower thermal residual stresses in the matrix and fiber. Stresses due to a uniform transverse load were calculated at two temperatures, room temperature and an elevated temperature of 650 C. At both temperatures, a large stress concentration was calculated when the interface had failed. The results indicate the importance of accuracy accounting for fiber-matrix interface failure and the need for a micromechanics-based analytical technique to understand and predict the behavior of titanium metal matrix composites.

  16. Improving Turbine Performance with Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A.

    2007-01-01

    Under the new NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program, efforts are on-going within the Supersonics Project aimed at the implementation of advanced SiC/SiC ceramic composites into hot section components of future gas turbine engines. Due to recent NASA advancements in SiC-based fibers and matrices, these composites are lighter and capable of much higher service temperatures than current metallic superalloys, which in turn will allow the engines to operate at higher efficiencies and reduced emissions. This presentation briefly reviews studies within Task 6.3.3 that are primarily aimed at developing physics-based concepts, tools, and process/property models for micro- and macro-structural design, fabrication, and lifing of SiC/SiC turbine components in general and airfoils in particular. Particular emphasis is currently being placed on understanding and modeling (1) creep effects on residual stress development within the component, (2) fiber architecture effects on key composite properties such as design strength, and (3) preform formation processes so that the optimum architectures can be implemented into complex-shaped components, such as turbine vanes and blades.

  17. New ASTM Standards for Nondestructive Testing of Aerospace Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess M.; Saulsberry, Regor L.

    2010-01-01

    Problem: Lack of consensus standards containing procedural detail for NDE of polymer matrix composite materials: I. Flat panel composites. II. Composite components with more complex geometries a) Pressure vessels: 1) composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs). 2) composite pressure vessels (CPVs). III. Sandwich core constructions. Metal and brittle matrix composites are a possible subject of future effort.

  18. Micromechanical characterization of nonlinear behavior of advanced polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Chen, J. L.; Sun, C. T.

    1994-01-01

    Due to the presence of curing stresses and oriented crystalline structures in the matrix of polymer matrix fiber composites, the in situ nonlinear properties of the matrix are expected to be rather different from those of the bulk resin. A plane stress micromechanical model was developed to retrieve the in situ elastic-plastic properties of Narmco 5260 and Amoco 8320 matrices from measured elastic-plastic properties of IM7/5260 and IM7/8320 advance composites. In the micromechanical model, the fiber was assumed to be orthotropically elastic and the matrix to be orthotropic in elastic and plastic properties. The results indicate that both in situ elastic and plastic properties of the matrices are orthotropic.

  19. Localized plasticity of graphite/magnesium metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, J.S.; Rawal, S.; Misra, M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses localized matrix plasticity in a pitch 55 graphite/magnesium (Gr/Mg) metal matrix composite (MMC) due to damping/hysteresis effects in bending. It was found that for this material system, chosen mainly for its damping ability, plasticity or permanent deformation occurs in the matrix material of the composite from relatively small structural deformations. The behavior of the plasticity is unique to these MMC systems as it is constrained to follow its original loading path back to its zero deformation state upon unloading. This retracement of loading path is attributed to the Gr fibers acting as elastic constraint layers. For optical rail platforms, the ability to recover the original platform shape, even with localized matrix plasticity, implies a high level of survivability. Moire interferometry was combined with research on the microstructure of this particular material system to yield these subtle results.

  20. Competitive formation of glasses and glass-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Zhao Ping; Ma, D.; Liu, Chain T; Chang, Y. Austin

    2007-01-01

    By systematically investigating the effect of chemical composition on the competitive formation of glasses in various systems, we attempt to address two long-standing scientific puzzles upon metallic glasses, i.e., (i) which composition is the best for forming glasses and glass-matrix composites and (ii) what determines the easy glass-forming composition range in a given alloy system. Our findings have led to the construction of a qualitative microstructure selection map, which is useful for guiding the design of bulkier metallic glasses and glass-matrix composites. In addition, our analysis demonstrates that the classical kinetic treatment of glass formation is insufficient; to analyze glass formation properly, it is necessary to go beyond simple assumptions of single polymorphic solidification during crystallization.

  1. Effective thermal conductivity of composites with fibre-matrix debonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fadale, T. D.; Taya, M.

    1991-01-01

    Debonding of the fiber-matrix interface is a major cause for the degradation of the mechanical properties and the loss of thermal conductivity of fiber-reinforced composites. This paper discusses two analytical approaches for modeling the thermal conduction problem of composites. One is based on the concept of modeling the thermal barrier by an equivalent heat transfer coefficient at the fiber-matrix interface, as described by Hasselman and Johnson (1987) and Benveniste and Miloh (1986). The other approach, suggested by Hatta and Taya (1986), is by treating a composite with debonded interface as a coated-fiber composite. The major advantage of the latter aproach is that the thickness of the fiber coating can be realistically modeled depending upon the extent of degradation of the composite with the thermal conductivity of the coating as that of air.

  2. Interfacial studies in fiber-reinforced thermoplastic-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The major theme of this dissertation is structure/property relationships in fiber-reinforced thermoplastic-matrix composites. Effort has been focused on the interface: interfacial crystallization and fiber/matrix adhesion. Included are investigations on interfacial nucleation and morphology, measurement of fiber/matrix adhesion, effects of interfacial adsorption and crystallization on fiber/matrix adhesion, and composites reinforced with thermotropic liquid crystal copolyester fibers. Crystallization of a copolyester and polybutylene terephthalate with glass, carbon, or aramid fibers has been studied with regard to interfacial morphology. Techniques employed included hot-stage optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Nucleation by the fibers was found to be a general phenomenon. Morphology could be varied by changing the cooling rate. In order to better monitor fiber /matrix adhesion, a buckled plate test has been developed. The test measures transverse toughness as the parameter characterizing interfacial adhesion in unidirectional, continuous-fiber composites. The test is simple to perform yet has advantages over other interfacial evaluation techniques. The buckled plate test was found to be a sensitive measure of fiber/matrix adhesion. The buckled plate test has been used along with the transverse tensile test to examine how interfacial adsorption and crystallization affect fiber/matrix adhesion in polycarbonate/carbon fiber composites. Adsorption was found to be of primary importance in developing adhesion, while crystallization is a secondary effect. The toughness data have been fit successfully for annealing time and temperature dependence. The dependence of adsorption and transverse toughness on matrix molecular weight was found to be large, with higher molecular weights adsorbing more effectively.

  3. Considerations concerning fatigue life of metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, V. M.; Bartolotta, Paul A.

    1993-01-01

    Since metal matrix composites (MMC) are composed from two very distinct materials each having their own physical and mechanical properties, it is feasible that the fatigue resistance depends on the strength of the weaker constituent. Based on this assumption, isothermal fatigue lives of several MMC's were analyzed utilizing a fatigue life diagram approach. For each MMC, the fatigue life diagram was quantified using the mechanical properties of its constituents. The fatigue life regions controlled by fiber fracture and matrix were also quantitatively defined.

  4. Process-interactive nondestructive evaluation for metal-matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, P. K.; Shannon, R. E.; Clark, W. G., Jr.; Harrigan, W. C., Jr.

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) has been conducted on composite products at various stages of fabrication processes including raw powders, powder mixtures, billets and final product extrusions. Eddy current was found to be effective in identifying matrix powder alloy chemistry and particle size, and in determining the mix ratio of silicon carbide (SiC) reinforcement particles in aluminum matrix alloy powders. Ultrasonic techniques were capable of identifying SiC clusters in large-scale, consolidated powder metallurgy (P/M) metal matrix composite (MMC) billets, while eddy current methods could be used to determine near-surface density variations in the billets. Multiple NDE techniques (eddy current, ultrasonics and resistivity) could be employed to quantify microstructural characteristics of composite extrusions. These results suggest that NDE methods can be integrated into manufacturing processes to provide online, closed-loop control of fabrication parameters.

  5. Interphase layer optimization for metal matrix composites with fabrication considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morel, M.; Saravanos, D. A.; Chamis, C. C.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology is presented to reduce the final matrix microstresses for metal matrix composites by concurrently optimizing the interphase characteristics and fabrication process. Application cases include interphase tailoring with and without fabrication considerations for two material systems, graphite/copper and silicon carbide/titanium. Results indicate that concurrent interphase/fabrication optimization produces significant reductions in the matrix residual stresses and strong coupling between interphase and fabrication tailoring. The interphase coefficient of thermal expansion and the fabrication consolidation pressure are the most important design parameters and must be concurrently optimized to further reduce the microstresses to more desirable magnitudes.

  6. Non-steady state cracking in ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dharani, L. R.; Chai, L.

    1989-01-01

    A micromechanics analytical model based on the consistent shear lag theory is developed for predicting the failure modes in a fiber-reinforced unidirectional ceramic matrix composite. The model accounts for the relatively large matrix stiffness. The fiber and matrix stresses are established as functions of the applied stress, crack geometry, and most importantly, the microstructural properties of the constituents. From the predicted stress, the mode of failure is established based on the point stress criterion. The role of the microstructural properties on the failure mode and ultimate strength is assessed.

  7. Metal matrix composite micromechanics: In-situ behavior influence on composite properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L. N.; Hopkins, D. A.; Chamis, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    Recent efforts in computational mechanics methods for simulating the nonlinear behavior of metal matrix composites have culminated in the implementation of the Metal Matrix Composite Analyzer (METCAN) computer code. In METCAN material nonlinearity is treated at the constituent (fiber, matrix, and interphase) level where the current material model describes a time-temperature-stress dependency of the constituent properties in a material behavior space. The composite properties are synthesized from the constituent instantaneous properties by virtue of composite micromechanics and macromechanics models. The behavior of metal matrix composites depends on fabrication process variables, in situ fiber and matrix properties, bonding between the fiber and matrix, and/or the properties of an interphase between the fiber and matrix. Specifically, the influence of in situ matrix strength and the interphase degradation on the unidirectional composite stress-strain behavior is examined. These types of studies provide insight into micromechanical behavior that may be helpful in resolving discrepancies between experimentally observed composite behavior and predicted response.

  8. Progressive delamination in polymer matrix composite laminates: A new approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Minnetyan, L.

    1992-01-01

    A new approach independent of stress intensity factors and fracture toughness parameters has been developed and is described for the computational simulation of progressive delamination in polymer matrix composite laminates. The damage stages are quantified based on physics via composite mechanics while the degradation of the laminate behavior is quantified via the finite element method. The approach accounts for all types of composite behavior, laminate configuration, load conditions, and delamination processes starting from damage initiation, to unstable propagation, and to laminate fracture. Results of laminate fracture in composite beams, panels, plates, and shells are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of this new approach.

  9. Preparing polymeric matrix composites using an aqueous slurry technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Norman J. (Inventor); Towell, Timothy W. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An aqueous process was developed to prepare a consolidated composite laminate from an aqueous slurry. An aqueous poly(amic acid) surfactant solution was prepared by dissolving a poly(amic acid) powder in an aqueous ammonia solution. A polymeric powder was added to this solution to form a slurry. The slurry was deposited on carbon fiber to form a prepreg which was dried and stacked to form a composite laminate. The composite laminate was consolidated using pressure and was heated to form the polymeric matrix. The resulting composite laminate exhibited high fracture toughness and excellent consolidation.

  10. Composition of matrix in the CR chondrite LAP 02342

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, John T.; Rubin, Alan E.

    2009-03-01

    We report evidence of interchondrule matrix heterogeneity on a scale of ˜50 μm in the well-preserved CR2 chondrite LAP 02342. Despite minor effects resulting from asteroidal aqueous alteration, the matrix in this CR chondrite seems to preserve much of the compositional record of nebular fines. We carried out electron-microprobe studies using a 3-μm-diameter beam; we analyzed 10 elements in 36- or 49-point grids on 11 ca. 50 × 50-μm rectangular areas of matrix. Each grid area has a distinct composition, inconsistent with a simple model of matrix material having a uniform composition throughout the nebular formation region of the CR chondrites. On S-Fe, Mg-Si, K-Na and K-Al scatter diagrams, the grid areas (i.e., different matrix patches) are largely separated from each other; plots of means with 95% confidence limits demonstrate that the compositions are resolvable. Five matrix areas were analyzed again in duplicate runs; excellent agreement was observed between duplicate studies. LAP 02342 experienced two forms of mild aqueous alteration - as patchy enrichments in Ca (inferred to reflect CaCO 3) and as regions in which sulfide laths are embedded within phyllosilicates. Despite this evidence of aqueous transport, the effect on the composition of matrix is not resolvable. For example, matrix points that were adjacent to points with high CaCO 3 contents show elemental concentrations similar to those in regions having only one or two points with a Ca enrichment. It appears that secondary minerals are found in areas where there are suitable precursor phases and voids into which new phases could grow unimpeded. Calcium appears to be unique in forming a phase that greatly lowers the Ca ++ content of the aqueous medium, thus enhancing the rate of diffusion. Because chondrules vary widely in bulk composition, the formation of chondrules in small sets (100 or less) could generate "smoke" and mesostasis spray with compositions unique to each set. However, if these

  11. Ductility of a continuous fiber reinforced aluminum matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansson, S.; Leckie, Frederick A.

    1991-01-01

    The transverse properties of an aluminum alloy metal matrix composite reinforced by continuous alumina fibers have been investigated. The composite is subjected to both mechanical and cyclic thermal loading. The ductility can vary by an order of magnitude according to the operating conditions. For high mechanical and low thermal loading the ductility is small, for low mechanical and high thermal loading the ductility is an order of magnitude higher. Experiments on a beam in bending confirm that the ductility is strongly dependent on the loading conditions. The observations suggest a means of utilizing the inherent ductility of the matrix.

  12. Damage evolution in metal matrix composites subjected to thermomechanical fatigue

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.H.; Hurtado, L.D.; Helms, K.L.E.

    1995-05-01

    A thermomechanical analysis of unidirectional continuous fiber metal matrix composites is presented. The analysis includes the effects of processing induced residual thermal stresses, interface cracking, and inelastic matrix behavior on damage evolution. Due to the complexity of the nonlinear effects, the analysis is performed computationally using the finite element method. The interface fracture is modeled by a nonlinear constitutive model. The problem formulation is summarized and results are presented for a four-ply unidirectional SCS-6/{beta}21S titanium composite under high temperature isothermal mechanical fatigue.

  13. Acousto-ultrasonic decay in metal matrix composite panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kautz, Harold E.

    1995-01-01

    Acousto-ultrasonic (A-U) decay rates (UD) were measured in metal matrix composite (MMC) panels. The MMC panels had fiber architectures and cross-sectional thicknesses corresponding to those designed for aerospace turbine engine structures. The wavelength-to-thickness ratio produced by the combination of experimental frequency setting conditions and specimen geometry was found to be a key parameter for identifying optimum conditions for UD measurements. The ratio was shown to be a useful rule of thumb when applied to ceramic matrix composites (CMC)s and monolithic thermo-plastics.

  14. Composite Matrix Regenerator for Stirling Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, Timothy R.

    1997-01-01

    This project concerns the design, fabrication and testing of carbon regenerators for use in Stirling power convertors. Radial fiber design with nonmetallic components offers a number of potential advantages over conventional steel regenerators: reduced conduction and pressure drop losses, and the capability for higher temperature, higher frequency operation. Diverse composite fabrication methods are explored and lessons learned are summarized. A pulsed single-blow test rig has been developed that has been used for generating thermal effectiveness data for different flow velocities. Carbon regenerators have been fabricated by carbon vapor infiltration of electroflocked preforms. Performance data in a small Stirling engine are obtained. Prototype regenerators designed for the BP-1000 power convertor were fabricated and delivered to NASA-Lewis.

  15. Electron beam curing of polymer matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Janke, C.J.; Wheeler, D.; Saunders, C.

    1998-01-08

    The purpose of the CRADA was to conduct research and development activities to better understand and utilize the electron beam PMC curing technology. This technology will be used to replace or supplement existing PMC thermal curing processes in Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Programs (DP) projects and American aircraft and aerospace industries. This effort involved Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc./Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. (Contractor), Sandia National Laboratories, and ten industrial Participants including four major aircraft and aerospace companies, three advanced materials companies, and three electron beam processing organizations. The technical objective of the CRADA was to synthesize and/or modify high performance, electron beam curable materials that meet specific end-use application requirements. There were six tasks in this CRADA including: Electron beam materials development; Electron beam database development; Economic analysis; Low-cost Electron Beam tooling development; Electron beam curing systems integration; and Demonstration articles/prototype structures development. The contractor managed, participated and integrated all the tasks, and optimized the project efforts through the coordination, exchange, and dissemination of information to the project participants. Members of the Contractor team were also the principal inventors on several electron beam related patents and a 1997 R and D 100 Award winner on Electron-Beam-Curable Cationic Epoxy Resins. The CRADA achieved a major breakthrough for the composites industry by having successfully developed high-performance electron beam curable cationic epoxy resins for use in composites, adhesives, tooling compounds, potting compounds, syntactic foams, etc. UCB Chemicals, the world`s largest supplier of radiation-curable polymers, has acquired a license to produce and sell these resins worldwide.

  16. Ceramic matrix composites -- Advanced high-temperature structural materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lowden, R.A.; Ferber, M.K.; Hellmann, J.R.; Chawla, K.K.; DiPietro, S.G.

    1995-10-01

    This symposium on Ceramic Matrix Composites: Advanced High-Temperature Structural Materials was held at the 1994 MRS Fall Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts on November 28--December 2. The symposium was sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technology`s Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites Program, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, and NASA Lewis Research Center. Among the competing materials for advanced, high-temperature applications, ceramic matrix composites are leading candidates. The symposium was organized such that papers concerning constituents--fibers and matrices--were presented first, followed by composite processing, modeling of mechanical behavior, and thermomechanical testing. More stable reinforcements are necessary to enhance the performance and life of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, and to ensure final acceptance of these materials for high-temperature applications. Encouraging results in the areas of polymer-derived SiC fibers and single crystal oxide filaments were given, suggesting composites with improved thermomechanical properties and stability will be realized in the near future. The significance of the fiber-matrix interface in the design and performance of these materials is evident. Numerous mechanical models to relate interface properties to composite behavior, and interpret test methods and data, were enthusiastically discussed. One issue of great concern for any advanced material for use in extreme environments is stability. This theme arose frequently throughout the symposium and was the topic of focus on the final day. Fifty nine papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  17. Probabilistic Residual Strength Model Developed for Life Prediction of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, David J.; Verrilli, Michael J.; Calomino, Anthony M.

    2004-01-01

    For the next generation of reusable launch vehicles, NASA is investigating introducing ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) in place of current superalloys for structural propulsion applications (e.g., nozzles, vanes, combustors, and heat exchangers). The higher use temperatures of CMCs will reduce vehicle weight by eliminating and/or reducing cooling system requirements. The increased strength-to-weight ratio of CMCs relative to superalloys further enhances their weight savings potential. However, in order to provide safe designs for components made of these new materials, a comprehensive life prediction methodology for CMC structures needs to be developed. A robust methodology for lifing composite structures has yet to be adopted by the engineering community. Current industry design practice continues to utilize deterministic empirically based models borrowed from metals design for predicting material life capabilities. The deterministic nature of these models inadequately addresses the stochastic character of brittle composites, and their empirical reliance makes predictions beyond the experimental test conditions a risky extrapolation. A team of engineers at the NASA Glenn Research Center has been developing a new life prediction engineering model. The Probabilistic Residual Strength (PRS) model uses the residual strength of the composite as its damage metric. Expected life and material strength are both considered probabilistically to account for the observed stochastic material response. Extensive experimental testing has been carried out on C/SiC (a candidate aerospace CMC material system) in a controlled 1000 ppm O2/argon environment at elevated temperatures of 800 and 1200 C. The test matrix was established to allow observation of the material behavior, characterization of the model, and validation of the model's predictive capabilities. Sample results of the validation study are illustrated in the graphs.

  18. Fabrication of Fiber-Reinforced Celsian Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Setlock, John A.

    2000-01-01

    A method has been developed for the fabrication of small diameter, multifilament tow fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites. Its application has been successfully demonstrated for the Hi-Nicalon/celsian system. Strong and tough celsian matrix composites, reinforced with BN/SiC-coated Hi-Nicalon fibers, have been fabricated by infiltrating the fiber tows with the matrix slurry, winding the tows on a drum, cutting and stacking of the prepreg tapes in the desired orientation, and hot pressing. The monoclinic celsian phase in the matrix was produced in situ, during hot pressing, from the 0.75BaO-0.25SrO-Al2O3-2SiO2 mixed precursor synthesized by solid state reaction from metal oxides. Hot pressing resulted in almost fully dense fiber-reinforced composites. The unidirectional composites having approx. 42 vol% of fibers exhibited graceful failure with extensive fiber pullout in three-point bend tests at room temperature. Values of yield stress and strain were 435 +/- 35 MPa and 0.27 +/- 0.01 percent, respectively, and ultimate strengths of 900 +/- 60 MPa were observed. The Young's modulus of the composites was measured to be 165 +/- 5 GPa.

  19. Modeling of crack bridging in a unidirectional metal matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Kantzos, Pete; Telesman, Jack

    1992-01-01

    The effective fatigue crack driving force and crack opening profiles were determined analytically for fatigue tested unidirectional composite specimens exhibiting fiber bridging. The crack closure pressure due to bridging was modeled using two approaches: the fiber pressure model and the shear lag model. For both closure models, the Bueckner weight function method and the finite element method were used to calculate crack opening displacements and the crack driving force. The predicted near crack tip opening profile agreed well with the experimentally measured profiles for single edge notch SCS-6/Ti-15-3 metal matrix composite specimens. The numerically determined effective crack driving force, Delta K(eff), was calculated using both models to correlate the measure crack growth rate in the composite. The calculated Delta K(eff) from both models accounted for the crack bridging by showing a good agreement between the measured fatigue crack growth rates of the bridged composite and that of unreinforced, unbridged titanium matrix alloy specimens.

  20. Creep behavior of tungsten fiber reinforced niobium metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobstein, T. L.

    1989-01-01

    Tungsten fiber reinforced niobium metal matrix composites were evaluated for use in space nuclear power conversion systems. The composite panels were fabricated using the arc-spray monotape technique at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The creep behavior of W/Nb composite material was determined at 1400 and 1500 K in vacuum over a wide range of applied loads. The time to reach 1 percent strain, the time to rupture, and the minimum creep rate were measured. The W/Nb composites exceeded the properties of monolithic niobium alloys significantly even when compared on a strength to density basis. The effect of fiber orientation on the creep strength also was evaluated. Kirkendall void formation was observed at the fiber/matrix interface; the void distribution differed depending on the fiber orientation relative to the stress axis. A relationship was found between the fiber orientation and the creep strength.

  1. Creep behavior of tungsten fiber reinforced niobium metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobstein, Toni L.

    1992-01-01

    Tungsten fiber reinforced niobium metal matrix composites were evaluated for use in space nuclear power conversion systems. The composite panels were fabricated using the arc-spray monotape technique at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The creep behavior of W/Nb composite material was determined at 1400 and 1500 K in vacuum over a wide range of applied loads. The time to reach 1 percent strain, the time to rupture, and the minimum creep rate were measured. The W/Nb composites exceeded the properties of monolithic niobium alloys significantly even when compared creep strength also was evaluated. Kirkendall void formation was observed at the fiber/matrix interface; the void distribution differed depending the fiber orientation relative to the stress axis. A relationship was found between the fiber orientation and the creep strength.

  2. Rate Dependent Deformation and Strength Analysis of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1999-01-01

    A research program is being undertaken to develop rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composite materials. In previous work in this program, strain-rate dependent inelastic constitutive equations used to analyze polymers have been implemented into a mechanics of materials based composite micromechanics method. In the current work, modifications to the micromechanics model have been implemented to improve the calculation of the effective inelastic strain. Additionally, modifications to the polymer constitutive model are discussed in which pressure dependence is incorporated into the equations in order to improve the calculation of constituent and composite shear stresses. The Hashin failure criterion is implemented into the analysis method to allow for the calculation of ply level failure stresses. The deformation response and failure stresses for two representative uniaxial polymer matrix composites, IM7/977-2 and AS4-PEEK, are predicted for varying strain rates and fiber orientations. The predicted results compare favorably to experimentally obtained values.

  3. High Strain Rate Behavior of Polymer Matrix Composites Analyzed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2001-01-01

    Procedures for modeling the high-speed impact of composite materials are needed for designing reliable composite engine cases that are lighter than the metal cases in current use. The types of polymer matrix composites that are likely to be used in such an application have a deformation response that is nonlinear and that varies with strain rate. To characterize and validate material models that could be used in the design of impactresistant engine cases, researchers must obtain material data over a wide variety of strain rates. An experimental program has been carried out through a university grant with the Ohio State University to obtain deformation data for a representative polymer matrix composite for strain rates ranging from quasi-static to high rates of several hundred per second. This information has been used to characterize and validate a constitutive model that was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  4. Mechanical Properties of Particulate Reinforced Aluminium Alloy Matrix Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Sayuti, M.; Sulaiman, S.; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Arifin, M. K. A.; Suraya, S.; Vijayaram, T. R.

    2011-01-17

    This paper discusses the mechanical properties of Titanium Carbide (TiC) particulate reinforced aluminium-silicon alloy matrix composite. TiC particulate reinforced LM6 alloy matrix composites were fabricated by carbon dioxide sand molding process with different particulate weight fraction. Tensile strength, hardness and microstructure studies were conducted to determine the maximum load, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and fracture surface analysis have been performed to characterize the morphological aspects of the test samples after tensile testing. Hardness values are measured for the TiC reinforced LM6 alloy composites and it has been found that it gradually increases with increased addition of the reinforcement phase. The tensile strength of the composites increased with the increase percentage of TiC particulate.

  5. 3-D woven, mullite matrix, composite filter

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J.E.; Painter, C.J.; Radford, K.C. LeCostaouec, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    Westinghouse, with Techniweave as a major subcontractor, is conducting a three-phase program aimed at providing advanced candle filters for a 1996 pilot scale demonstration in one of the two hot gas filter systems at Southern Company Service`s Wilsonville PSD Facility. The Base Program (Phases I and II) objective is to develop and demonstrate the suitability of the Westinghouse/Techniweave next generation composite candle filter for use in Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and/or Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems. The Optional Task (Phase M, Task 5) objective is to fabricate, inspect and ship to Wilsonville Hot gas particulate filters are key components for the successful commercializaion of advanced coal-based power-generation systems such as Pressurized Fluidized-bed Combustion (PFBC), including second-generation PFBC, and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC). Current generation monolithic ceramic filters are subject to catastrophic failure because they have very low resistance to crack propagation. To overcome this problem, a damage-tolerant ceramic filter element is needed.

  6. Protection of brittle film against cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musil, J.; Sklenka, J.; Čerstvý, R.

    2016-05-01

    This article reports on the protection of the brittle Zrsbnd Sisbnd O film against cracking in bending by the highly elastic top film (over-layer). In experiments the Zrsbnd Sisbnd O films with different elemental composition and structure were used. Both the brittle and highly elastic films were prepared by magnetron sputtering using a dual magnetron. The brittle film easily cracks in bending. On the other hand, the highly elastic film exhibits enhanced resistance to cracking in bending. Main characteristic parameters of both the brittle and highly elastic films are given. Special attention is devoted to the effect of the structure (crystalline, amorphous) of both the brittle and highly elastic top film on the resistance of cracking of the brittle film. It was found that (1) both the X-ray amorphous and crystalline brittle films easily crack in bending, (2) the highly elastic film can have either X-ray amorphous or crystalline structure and (3) both the X-ray amorphous and crystalline, highly elastic top films perfectly protect the brittle films against cracking in bending. The structure, mechanical properties and optical transparency of the brittle and highly elastic sputtered Zrsbnd Sisbnd O films are described in detail. At the end of this article, the principle of the low-temperature formation of the highly elastic films is also explained.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Cast Ferrous Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, R. R.; Chakrabarti, A. K.; Mukherjee, P. S.

    2012-02-01

    TiC/SiC reinforced cast ferrous composites have been prepared by smelting red mud—30 pct charcoal briquettes in a 20-kg basic lined, single-phase direct arc furnace. Elements like silicon, aluminum, zirconium, and so on are also reduced from their respective oxides in the red mud and dissolved in the ferrous matrix. TiC/SiC particulates in the composite grow in a typical spiraling fashion.

  8. Ceramic fiber reinforced glass-ceramic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A slurry of BSAS glass powders is cast into tapes which are cut to predetermined sizes. Mats of continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-SiC fibers are alternately stacked with these matrix tapes. This tape-mat stack is warm-pressed to produce a 'green' composite which is heated to burn out organic constituents. The remaining interim material is then hot-pressed to form a BSAS glass-ceramic fiber-reinforced composite.

  9. Fiber/matrix adhesion in graphite/PEKK composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucher, R. A.; Hinkley, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments with poly ether ketone ketone (PEKK) resin and AS-4, IM-7, and G30-500 fibers showed excellent correlation between resin/fiber contact angle and composite transverse flexural strength as measures of resin/fiber interfacial strength. Both tests indicate the strongest interface for G30-500/PEKK followed by IM-7/PEKK and AS-4/PEKK. Also discussed are fiber effects on interlaminar fracture and on the in situ crystallization of the matrix during composite fabrication.

  10. Polymer precursors for ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, M. H.; Kumar, K.

    1986-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a polycyclohexasilane is reported. Because of its cyclic structure, it is anticipated that this polymer might serve as a precursor to SIC having a high char yield with little rearrangement to form small, volatile cyclic silanes, and, as such, would be of interest as a precursor to SiC composite matrices and fibers, or as a binder in ceramic processing. Several approaches to the synthesis of a bifunctional cyclic monomer were attempted; the most successful of these was metal coupling of PhMeSiCl2 and Me2SiCl2. The procedure gives six-membered ring compounds with all degrees of phenyl substitution, from none to hexaphenyl. The compounds with from 0-2 groups were isolated and characterized. The fraction with degree of phenyl substitution equal to 2, a mixture of cis and trans 1,2-; 1,3-; and 1,4 isomers, was isolated in 32 percent yield. Pure 1,4 diphenyldecamethylcyclohexasilane was isolated from the mixed diphenyl compounds and characterized. Diphenyldecamethylcyclohexasilanes were dephenylated to dichlorodecamethylcyclohexasilanes by treating with H2SO4.NH4Cl in benzene. The latter were purified and polymerized by reacting with sodium in toluene. The polymers were characterized by HPGPC, elemental analysis, proton NMR, and IR. Thermogravimetric analyses were carried out on the polymers. As the yield of residual SiC was low, polymers were heat treated to increase the residual char yield. As high as 51.52 percent residual char yield was obtained in one case.

  11. Thermosetting polymer-matrix composites for structural repair applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goertzen, William Kirby

    2007-12-01

    Several classes of thermosetting polymer matrix composites were evaluated for use in structural repair applications. Initial work involved the characterization and evaluation of woven carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites for structural pipeline repair. Cyanate ester resins were evaluated as a replacement for epoxy in composites for high-temperature pipe repair applications, and as the basis for adhesives for resin infusion repair of high-temperature composite materials. Carbon fiber/cyanate ester matrix composites and fumed silica/cyanate ester nanocomposites were evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, viscoelastic, and rheological properties as they relate to their structure, chemistry, and processing characteristics. The bisphenol E cyanate ester under investigation possesses a high glass transition temperature, excellent mechanical properties, and unique ambient temperature processability. The incorporation of fumed silica served to enhance the mechanical and rheological properties of the polymer and reduce thermal expansion without sacrificing glass transition or drastically altering curing kinetics. Characterization of the composites included dynamic mechanical analysis, thermomechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological and rheokinetic evaluation, and transmission electron microscopy.

  12. Thermosetting Polymer-Matrix Composites for Strucutral Repair Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Goertzen, William Kirby

    2007-12-01

    Several classes of thermosetting polymer matrix composites were evaluated for use in structural repair applications. Initial work involved the characterization and evaluation of woven carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites for structural pipeline repair. Cyanate ester resins were evaluated as a replacement for epoxy in composites for high-temperature pipe repair applications, and as the basis for adhesives for resin infusion repair of high-temperature composite materials. Carbon fiber/cyanate ester matrix composites and fumed silica/cyanate ester nanocomposites were evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, viscoelastic, and rheological properties as they relate to their structure, chemistry, and processing characteristics. The bisphenol E cyanate ester under investigation possesses a high glass transition temperature, excellent mechanical properties, and unique ambient temperature processability. The incorporate of fumed silica served to enhance the mechanical and rheological properties of the polymer and reduce thermal expansion without sacrificing glass transition or drastically altering curing kinetics. Characterization of the composites included dynamic mechanical analysis, thermomechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological and rheokinetic evaluation, and transmission electron microscopy.

  13. High Strain Rate Deformation Modeling of a Polymer Matrix Composite. Part 1; Matrix Constitutive Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    Recently applications have exposed polymer matrix composite materials to very high strain rate loading conditions, requiring an ability to understand and predict the material behavior under these extreme conditions. In this first paper of a two part report, background information is presented, along with the constitutive equations which will be used to model the rate dependent nonlinear deformation response of the polymer matrix. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive models which were originally developed to model the viscoplastic deformation of metals have been adapted to model the nonlinear viscoelastic deformation of polymers. The modified equations were correlated by analyzing the tensile/ compressive response of both 977-2 toughened epoxy matrix and PEEK thermoplastic matrix over a variety of strain rates. For the cases examined, the modified constitutive equations appear to do an adequate job of modeling the polymer deformation response. A second follow-up paper will describe the implementation of the polymer deformation model into a composite micromechanical model, to allow for the modeling of the nonlinear, rate dependent deformation response of polymer matrix composites.

  14. Matrix cracking initiation stress in fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Kangutkar, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    One of the important design parameters in CMC's is the matrix cracking initiation stress (MCIS) which corresponds to the stress at which first matrix cracks are observed. Above the MCIS, the fibers will be exposed to the oxidizing environment which may degrade the mechanical property of the fibers and thus of the composite. In this thesis, a systematic study to explore the effects of matrix toughness and inherent strength, fiber diameter, stiffness and volume fraction, temperature and interfacial bonding on the MCIS was carried out. Composites were fabricated using three different matrices - borosilicate glass, aluminosilicate glass and polycrystalline zirconium silicate (or zircon), and two different reinforcing fibers - an SiC monofilament (140 {mu}m diameter) and an SiC yarn (16 {mu}m diameter). In-situ observations during 3-point bend test inside the SEM indicate that matrix cracking is a local phenomenon and occurs first in the matrix between widest spaced fibers. In all composites the MCIS was found to increase with fiber additions and scaled with the monolithic strength.

  15. Processing of magnesia pyrochlore composites for inert matrix materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, S. J.; Xu, P.; Wang, J.; Tulenko, J. S.; Nino, J. C.

    2007-05-01

    Inert matrix (IM) materials for nuclear fuel in light water reactors must meet several critical requirements that include high temperature stability, good irradiation behaviour, high thermal conductivity, and hot water corrosion resistance. MgO possesses all of the necessary requirements for an ideal IM candidate, except hot water corrosion resistance. A composite approach is being investigated in order to improve the corrosion resistance of MgO, while simultaneously taking advantage of the high thermal conductivity of MgO and its ability to be reprocessed in nitric acid. MgO-pyrochlore composite compositions are fabricated based on neutronic property simulations for assessment as potential IM materials. The selected pyrochlore compositions are synthesized by both sol gel and solid state processing, and how composite processing affects the microstructure will be discussed. Among the multiple composite processing approaches investigated, ball milling produces the most homogeneous and consistent microstructures.

  16. Arc spray fabrication of metal matrix composite monotape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westfall, L. J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Arc metal spraying is used to spray liquid metal onto an array of high strength fibers that were previously wound onto a large drum contained inside a controlled atmosphere chamber. This chamber is first evacuated to remove gaseous contaminants and then backfilled with a neutral gas up to atmospheric pressure. This process is used to produce a large size metal matrix composite monotape.

  17. Metal matrix composites: History, status, factors and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyriac, Ajith James

    The history, status, and future of metal matrix composites are presented by evaluating the progression of available literature through time. The trends that existed and issues that still prevail are discussed and a prediction of the future for MMCs is presented. The factors that govern the performance of metal matrix composites are also discussed. In many developed countries and in several developing countries there exists continued interest in MMCs. Researchers tried numerous combinations of matrices and reinforcements since work strictly on MMCs began in the 1950s. This led to developments for aerospace and defense applications, but resultant commercial applications were limited. The introduction of ceramic whiskers as reinforcement and the development of 'in-situ' eutectics in the 1960s aided high temperature applications in aircraft engines. In the late 1970s the automobile industries started to take MMCs seriously. In the last 20 years, MMCs evolved from laboratories to a class of materials with numerous applications and commercial markets. After the collapse of the Berlin Wall, prevailing order in the world changed drastically. This effect was evident in the progression of metal matrix composites. The internet connected the world like never before and tremendous information was available for researchers around the world. Globalization and the internet resulted in the transformation of the world to a more level playing field, and this effect is evident in the nature and source of research on metal matrix composites happening around the world.

  18. Outgassing and dimensional changes of polymer matrix composites in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Matthews, R.

    1993-01-01

    A thermal-vacuum outgassing model and test protocol for predicting outgassing times and dimensional changes for polymer matrix composites is described. Experimental results derived from a 'control' sample are used to provide the basis for analytical predictions to compare with the outgassing response of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) flight samples.

  19. Analytical model for force prediction when machining metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikder, Snahungshu

    Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) offer several thermo-mechanical advantages over standard materials and alloys which make them better candidates in different applications. Their light weight, high stiffness, and strength have attracted several industries such as automotive, aerospace, and defence for their wide range of products. However, the wide spread application of Meal Matrix Composites is still a challenge for industry. The hard and abrasive nature of the reinforcement particles is responsible for rapid tool wear and high machining costs. Fracture and debonding of the abrasive reinforcement particles are the considerable damage modes that directly influence the tool performance. It is very important to find highly effective way to machine MMCs. So, it is important to predict forces when machining Metal Matrix Composites because this will help to choose perfect tools for machining and ultimately save both money and time. This research presents an analytical force model for predicting the forces generated during machining of Metal Matrix Composites. In estimating the generated forces, several aspects of cutting mechanics were considered including: shearing force, ploughing force, and particle fracture force. Chip formation force was obtained by classical orthogonal metal cutting mechanics and the Johnson-Cook Equation. The ploughing force was formulated while the fracture force was calculated from the slip line field theory and the Griffith theory of failure. The predicted results were compared with previously measured data. The results showed very good agreement between the theoretically predicted and experimentally measured cutting forces.

  20. Fracture criteria for discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rack, H. J.; Goree, J. G.; Albritton, J.; Ratnaparkhi, P.

    1988-01-01

    Summarized is the progress achieved during the period September 16, 1987 to August 15, l988 on NASA Grant NAG1-724, Fracture Criteria for Discontinuously Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites. Appended are copies of three manuscripts prepared under NASA funding during the performance period.

  1. Fracture criteria for discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rack, H. J.; Goree, J. G.; Albritton, J.; Ratnarparkhi, P.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of sample configuration on the details of initial crack propagation in discontinuously whisker reinforced aluminum metal matrix composites was investigated. Care was taken to allow direct comparison of fracture toughness values utilizing differing sample configurations and orientations, holding all materials variables constant, e.g., extrusion ration, heat treatment, and chemistry.

  2. Key Issues for Aerospace Applications of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Levine, S. R.

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) offer significant advantages for future aerospace applications including turbine engine and liquid rocket engine components, thermal protection systems, and "hot structures". Key characteristics which establish ceramic matrix composites as attractive and often enabling choices are strength retention at high temperatures and reduced weight relative to currently used metallics. However, due to the immaturity of this class of materials which is further compounded by the lack of experience with CMC's in the aerospace industry, there are significant challenges involved in the development and implementation of ceramic matrix composites into aerospace systems. Some of the more critical challenges are attachment and load transfer methodologies; manufacturing techniques, particularly scale up to large and thick section components; operational environment resistance; damage tolerance; durability; repair techniques; reproducibility; database availability; and the lack of validated design and analysis tools. The presentation will examine the technical issues confronting the application of ceramic matrix composites to aerospace systems and identify the key material systems having potential for substantial payoff relative to the primary requirements of light weight and reduced cost for future systems. Current programs and future research opportunities will be described in the presentation which will focus on materials and processes issues.

  3. Analysis of notched metal matrix composites under tension loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Presented are techniques based on 3-D finite-element analysis for the examination of continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites. Examples are shown for specific metal matrix composites such as boron/aluminum and silicon-carbide/aluminum. Specimen stress-strain behavior and stress at first fiber failure were predicted for boron/aluminum laminates containing circular holes and crack-like slits. The predictions compared very well for (+ or - 45) sub 2s laminates. Mesh configuration was shown to have an effect on the calculation of stresses local to the notch. The presence of thin interface layers of matrix material had a significant influence on the slit-tip stress state, causing sharper stress gradients near the notch. Interface layers reduced the slit-tip fibers stresses in a (+ or - 45) sub s silicon-carbide/aluminum laminate but increased them in a (0/90) sub s laminate.

  4. Metal matrix composite fuel for space radioisotope energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, H. R.; Ning, H.; Reece, M. J.; Ambrosi, R. M.; Bannister, N. P.; Stephenson, K.

    2013-02-01

    Radioisotope fuels produce heat that can be used for spacecraft thermal control or converted to electricity. They must retain integrity in the event of destruction or atmospheric entry of the parent spacecraft. Addition of a metal matrix to the actinide oxide could yield a more robust fuel form. Neodymium (III) oxide (Nd2O3) - niobium metal matrix composites were produced using Spark Plasma Sintering; Nd2O3 is a non-radioactive surrogate for americium (III) oxide (Am2O3). Two compositions, 70 and 50 wt% Nd2O3, were mechanically tested under equibiaxial (ring-on-ring) flexure according to ASTM C1499. The addition of the niobium matrix increased the mean flexural strength by a factor of about 2 compared to typical ceramic nuclear fuels, and significantly increased the Weibull modulus to over 20. These improved mechanical properties could result in reduced fuel dispersion in severe accidents and improved safety of space radioisotope power systems.

  5. Strain and hysteresis by stochastic matrix cracking in ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, B. K.; Curtin, W. A.

    1997-02-01

    A theory is presented to predict the stress/strain relations and unload/reload hysteresis behavior during the evolution of multiple matrix cracking in unidirectional fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). The theory is based on the similarity between multiple matrix cracking and fiber fragmentation in a single fiber composite, and determines the crack and strain evolution as a function of the statistical distribution of initial flaws in the material, the interfacial sliding resistance τ, and the thermal residual stresses in the composite. The model properly includes matrix fragments of all lengths, from lengths smaller than the current slip length δ(σ) to larger than 2δ(σ), at applied stress σ, and accounts for their respective and differing contributions to the overall strain and hysteresis behavior of the composite. The procedure by which experimental stress/strain and hysteresis data can be interpreted to derive values for the interfacial shear stress, thermal stresses, and intrinsic matrix flaw distribution is discussed. The actual physical crack spacing needs only to be determined at one load level, such as post-fracture, which greatly simplifies the data acquisition and analysis. Several detailed examples are presented, and the results compared with a widely-used approach in which the crack spacing is assumed constant and equal to the average spacing obtained directly from experiment. The discrepancy between the previous and present theories is manifest in an incorrect estimate for the interfacial sliding, but only by approximately 10%. The effect of changing temperature, and hence residual stresses, without changing either matrix flaws or interfacial sliding resistance, is studied.

  6. Material damping in aluminum and metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawley, Edward F.; Van Schoor, Marthinus C.

    1987-01-01

    The material damping in beam-like specimens of aluminum and metal matrix composites was measured. A unique apparatus to determine damping by free decay while the specimens are in free fall in a vacuum was used. The specimens tested include 2024-T3 and 6061-T4 aluminum, and unidirectional graphite/metal matrix specimens with P55 and P100 fibers and 6061 Aluminum and AZ91C Magnesium as matrix materials. Tests were conducted to determine the dependence of damping on frequency and stress level. For the aluminum specimens, the material damping followed the Zener model at very low stress levels. Below the Zener relaxation frequency, a strong dependence of damping on stress was found for even moderate stress levels. Damping for the aluminum matrix materials was slightly above that predicted by the Zener model for a homogeneous bar of the matrix aluminum. For the magnesium matrix specimens, damping significantly above the Zener prediction for the homogeneous matrix material was observed.

  7. Micromechanical modeling of fiber fragmentation in a single fiber metal matrix composite specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jean E.

    Micromechanical models have been developed in this study to predict the longitudinal mechanical behavior of unidirectional continuous fiber composite materials under a uniaxial applied effective strain of sufficient magnitude to cause irreversible damage in the form of brittle fiber fracture, interface damage resulting in a compliant interphase region, and matrix plasticity. A single fiber composite (SFC) specimen that consists of a single silicon carbide fiber embedded in an aluminum matrix with a thin interphase layer was used to investigate these effects. The objective of this research was to create a micromechanical model to predict the longitudinal constitutive behavior of the composite as damage occurs and to determine if the interfacial shear stress can be estimated from the fiber fragment length at a given effective strain. The aluminum matrix was modeled as either linear elastic, elastic-perfectly plastic, linear strain hardening, or power-law strain hardening. Before fiber fracture, the interphase layer forms a perfect bond between the fiber and matrix. During fiber fracture, the interphase is damaged and the interfacial bond becomes imperfect. The imperfect interface may be compliant or compliant and weak, and was modeled as a spring layer with vanishing thickness. The fiber fragments are assumed to be uniformly distributed such that the fragment lengths are equal at each load level. The Weibull distribution was used to relate the fiber fragment length to the tensile strength of the fiber. An increase in the applied effective strain causes successive fiber fractures, in that the fragments become increasingly shorter. The SFCs studied had either no fiber fractures, one fracture, or successive fractures; one of the four matrix material types; and either perfect, compliant, or compliant and weak interfaces. The finite element method was used to provide numerical solutions for the state of stress and fiber length at a given applied effective strain which

  8. A comparison of fiber effects on polymer matrix composite oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    A number of thermo-oxidative stability studies addressing the effects of fiber reinforcement on composite thermal stability and influence of geometry on the results of aging studies were performed at NASA-Lewis. The information presented herein, a compilation of some results from these studies, shows the influence of the reinforcement fibers on the oxidative degradation of various PMR-15 composites. Reinforcement of graphite and ceramics were studied and three composite oxidation mechanisms were observed. One was a dominant attack of the reinforcement fiber, the second was the aggressive oxidation of the matrix material, and the third was interfacial degradation.

  9. Ni-based Metal Matrix Composite Functionally Graded Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amado, J. M.; Montero, J.; Tobar, M. J.; Yáñez, A.

    Functional graded materials (FGMs) are a class of composites that have a continuous variation of material properties. One of the aims of such variation is to relieve the stress concentrations that appear in laminated materials. Coating techniques using powder as filler material can be adapted for the manufacture of composition gradients by means of a mixing unit in a powder feed system which is the basis of the laser cladding technology. The aim of this paper is to get coats with layers of the highest possible ceramic concentration on a metal matrix composite (MMC) with the help of the FGM methodology.

  10. Graphite fiber textile preform/copper matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filatovs, G. J.

    1993-01-01

    This project has the objective of exploring the use of graphite fiber textile preform/copper matrix composites in spacecraft heat transmitting and radiating components. The preforms are to be fabricated by braiding of tows and when infiltrated with copper will result in a 3-D reinforced, near net shape composite with improved specific properties such as lower density and higher stiffness. It is anticipated that the use of textile technology will result in a more robust preform and consequently better final composite; it is hard to anticipate what performance tradeoffs will result, and these will be explored through testing and characterization.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi-Yim, Haein

    Composites with a bulk metallic glass matrix are synthesized and characterized. This was made possible by the recent development of bulk metallic glasses that exhibit high resistance to crystallization in the undercooled liquid state. In this thesis, experimental methods for processing metallic glass composites are introduced. Three different bulk metallic glass (BMG) forming alloys were used as the matrix materials. Ceramics such as SiC, WC, or TiC, and metals W or Ta were introduced as reinforcement into the metallic glass. Structure, microstructure and thermal stability of the composites are studied by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The metallic glass matrix remained amorphous after adding up to 30 percent volume fraction of particles or short wires. X-ray diffraction patterns of the composites show only peaks from the second phase particles superimposed on the broad diffuse maxima from the amorphous phase. Optical micrographs reveal uniformly distributed particles in the matrix. The thermal stability of the matrix did not deteriorate after adding the particles. In the case of SiC, the matrix becomes even more robust with respect to crystallization. The reactions at the interfaces between the matrix and the different reinforcing materials are investigated with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron microprobe. At the interfaces between the matrix and the WC or SiC particles, ZrC layers formed. W and Si diffused into the matrix, respectively. At the interface between W and the matrix, a thin layer of nanocrystals is observed after cooling the liquid/particulate mixture. The mechanical properties of the composites are studied in compression and tension. Compressive strain to failure increased by over 300% compared to the unreinforced Zr57Nb5Al10Cu15.4 Ni12.6 and the energy to fracture of the tensile samples increased by over 50% adding 15 vol. % W. The effect of silicon on the

  12. Dual-nanoparticulate-reinforced aluminum matrix composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hansang; Cho, Seungchan; Leparoux, Marc; Kawasaki, Akira

    2012-06-01

    Aluminum (Al) matrix composite materials reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNT) and silicon carbide nanoparticles (nano-SiC) were fabricated by mechanical ball milling, followed by hot-pressing. Nano-SiC was used as an active mixing agent for dispersing the CNTs in the Al powder. The hardness of the produced composites was dramatically increased, up to eight times higher than bulk pure Al, by increasing the amount of nano-SiC particles. A small quantity of aluminum carbide (Al4C3) was observed by TEM analysis and quantified using x-ray diffraction. The composite with the highest hardness values contained some nanosized Al4C3. Along with the CNT and the nano-SiC, Al4C3 also seemed to play a role in the enhanced hardness of the composites. The high energy milling process seems to lead to a homogeneous dispersion of the high aspect ratio CNTs, and of the nearly spherical nano-SiC particles in the Al matrix. This powder metallurgical approach could also be applied to other nanoreinforced composites, such as ceramics or complex matrix materials.

  13. Dual-nanoparticulate-reinforced aluminum matrix composite materials.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hansang; Cho, Seungchan; Leparoux, Marc; Kawasaki, Akira

    2012-06-01

    Aluminum (Al) matrix composite materials reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNT) and silicon carbide nanoparticles (nano-SiC) were fabricated by mechanical ball milling, followed by hot-pressing. Nano-SiC was used as an active mixing agent for dispersing the CNTs in the Al powder. The hardness of the produced composites was dramatically increased, up to eight times higher than bulk pure Al, by increasing the amount of nano-SiC particles. A small quantity of aluminum carbide (Al(4)C(3)) was observed by TEM analysis and quantified using x-ray diffraction. The composite with the highest hardness values contained some nanosized Al(4)C(3). Along with the CNT and the nano-SiC, Al(4)C(3) also seemed to play a role in the enhanced hardness of the composites. The high energy milling process seems to lead to a homogeneous dispersion of the high aspect ratio CNTs, and of the nearly spherical nano-SiC particles in the Al matrix. This powder metallurgical approach could also be applied to other nanoreinforced composites, such as ceramics or complex matrix materials. PMID:22571898

  14. Probabilistic Micromechanics and Macromechanics for Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Mital, Subodh K.; Shah, Ashwin R.

    1997-01-01

    The properties of ceramic matrix composites (CMC's) are known to display a considerable amount of scatter due to variations in fiber/matrix properties, interphase properties, interphase bonding, amount of matrix voids, and many geometry- or fabrication-related parameters, such as ply thickness and ply orientation. This paper summarizes preliminary studies in which formal probabilistic descriptions of the material-behavior- and fabrication-related parameters were incorporated into micromechanics and macromechanics for CMC'S. In this process two existing methodologies, namely CMC micromechanics and macromechanics analysis and a fast probability integration (FPI) technique are synergistically coupled to obtain the probabilistic composite behavior or response. Preliminary results in the form of cumulative probability distributions and information on the probability sensitivities of the response to primitive variables for a unidirectional silicon carbide/reaction-bonded silicon nitride (SiC/RBSN) CMC are presented. The cumulative distribution functions are computed for composite moduli, thermal expansion coefficients, thermal conductivities, and longitudinal tensile strength at room temperature. The variations in the constituent properties that directly affect these composite properties are accounted for via assumed probabilistic distributions. Collectively, the results show that the present technique provides valuable information about the composite properties and sensitivity factors, which is useful to design or test engineers. Furthermore, the present methodology is computationally more efficient than a standard Monte-Carlo simulation technique; and the agreement between the two solutions is excellent, as shown via select examples.

  15. Method of making metal matrix composites reinforced with ceramic particulates

    DOEpatents

    Cornie, James A.; Kattamis, Theodoulos; Chambers, Brent V.; Bond, Bruce E.; Varela, Raul H.

    1989-01-01

    Composite materials and methods for making such materials are disclosed in which dispersed ceramic particles are at chemical equilibrium with a base metal matrix, thereby permitting such materials to be remelted and subsequently cast or otherwise processed to form net weight parts and other finished (or semi-finished) articles while maintaining the microstructure and mechanical properties (e.g. wear resistance or hardness) of the original composite. The composite materials of the present invention are composed of ceramic particles in a base metal matrix. The ceramics are preferably carbides of titanium, zirconium, tungsten, molybdenum or other refractory metals. The base metal can be iron, nickel, cobalt, chromium or other high temperature metal and alloys thereof. For ferrous matrices, alloys suitable for use as the base metal include cast iron, carbon steels, stainless steels and iron-based superalloys.

  16. Method of making metal matrix composites reinforced with ceramic particulates

    DOEpatents

    Cornie, J.A.; Kattamis, T.; Chambers, B.V.; Bond, B.E.; Varela, R.H.

    1989-08-01

    Composite materials and methods for making such materials are disclosed in which dispersed ceramic particles are at chemical equilibrium with a base metal matrix, thereby permitting such materials to be remelted and subsequently cast or otherwise processed to form net weight parts and other finished (or semi-finished) articles while maintaining the microstructure and mechanical properties (e.g. wear resistance or hardness) of the original composite. The composite materials of the present invention are composed of ceramic particles in a base metal matrix. The ceramics are preferably carbides of titanium, zirconium, tungsten, molybdenum or other refractory metals. The base metal can be iron, nickel, cobalt, chromium or other high temperature metal and alloys thereof. For ferrous matrices, alloys suitable for use as the base metal include cast iron, carbon steels, stainless steels and iron-based superalloys. 2 figs.

  17. Cellular Magnesium Matrix Foam Composites for Mechanical Damping Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shunmugasamy, Vasanth Chakravarthy; Mansoor, Bilal; Gupta, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    The damping characteristics of metal alloys and metal matrix composites are relevant to the automotive, aerospace, and marine structures. Use of lightweight materials can help in increasing payload capacity and in decreasing fuel consumption. Lightweight composite materials possessing high damping capabilities that can be designed as structural members can greatly benefit in addressing these needs. In this context, the damping properties of lightweight metals such as aluminum and magnesium and their respective composites have been studied in the existing literature. This review focuses on analyzing the damping properties of aluminum and magnesium alloys and their cellular composites. The damping properties of various lightweight alloys and composites are compared on the basis of their density to understand the potential for weight saving in structural applications. Magnesium alloys are observed to possess better damping properties in comparison to aluminum. However, aluminum matrix syntactic foams reinforced with silicon carbide hollow particles possess a damping capacity and density comparable to magnesium alloy. By using the data presented in the study, composites with specific compositions and properties can be selected for a given application. In addition, the comparison of the results helps in identifying the areas where attention needs to be focused to address the future needs.

  18. Ultrasonic Assessment of Impact-Induced Damage and Microcracking in Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekanyesi, John (Technical Monitor); Liaw, Benjamin; Villars, Esther; Delmont, Frantz

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this NASA Faculty Awards for Research (FAR) project is to conduct ultrasonic assessment of impact-induced damage and microcracking in fiber-metal laminated (FML) composites at various temperatures. It is believed that the proposed study of impact damage assessment on FML composites will benefit several NASA's missions and current interests, such as ballistic impact testing of composite fan containment and high strain rate deformation modeling of polymer matrix composites. Impact-induced damage mechanisms in GLARE and ARALL fiber-metal laminates subject to instrumented drop-weight impacts at various temperatures were studied. GLARE and ARALL are hybrid composites made of alternating layers of aluminum and glass- (for GLARE) and aramid- (for ARALL) fiber reinforced epoxy. Damage in pure aluminum panels impacted by foreign objects was mainly characterized by large plastic deformation surrounding a deep penetration dent. On the other hand, plastic deformation in fiber-metal laminates was often not as severe although the penetration dent was still produced. The more stiff fiber-reinforced epoxy layers provided better bending rigidity; thus, enhancing impact damage tolerance. Severe cracking, however, occurred due to the use of these more brittle fiber-reinforced epoxy layers. Fracture patterns, e.g., crack length and delamination size, were greatly affected by the lay-up configuration rather than by the number of layers, which implies that thickness effect was not significant for the panels tested in this study. Immersion ultrasound techniques were then used to assess damages generated by instrumented drop-weight impacts onto these fiber-metal laminate panels as well as 2024-T3 aluminum/cast acrylic sandwich plates adhered by epoxy. Depending on several parameters, such as impact velocity, mass, temperature, laminate configuration, sandwich construction, etc., various types of impact damage were observed, including plastic deformation, radiating

  19. A creep model for metallic composites based on matrix testing: Application to Kanthal composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binienda, W. K.; Robinson, D. N.; Arnold, S. M.; Bartolotta, Paul A.

    1990-01-01

    An anisotropic creep model is formulated for metallic composites with strong fibers and low to moderate fiber volume percent (less than 40 percent). The idealization admits no creep in the local fiber direction and assumes equal creep strength in longitudinal and transverse shear. Identification of the matrix behavior with that of the isotropic limit of the theory permits characterization of the composite through uniaxial creep tests on the matrix material. Constant and step-wise creep tests are required as a data base. The model provides an upper bound on the transverse creep strength of a composite having strong fibers embedded in a particular matrix material. Comparison of the measured transverse strength with the upper bound gives an assessment of the integrity of the composite. Application is made to a Kanthal composite, a model high-temperature composite system. Predictions are made of the creep response of fiber reinforced Kanthal tubes under interior pressure.

  20. Electron Beam-Cure Polymer Matrix Composites: Processing and Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrenn, G.; Frame, B.; Jensen, B.; Nettles, A.

    2001-01-01

    Researchers from NASA and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are evaluating a series of electron beam curable composites for application in reusable launch vehicle airframe and propulsion systems. Objectives are to develop electron beam curable composites that are useful at cryogenic to elevated temperatures (-217 C to 200 C), validate key mechanical properties of these composites, and demonstrate cost-saving fabrication methods at the subcomponent level. Electron beam curing of polymer matrix composites is an enabling capability for production of aerospace structures in a non-autoclave process. Payoffs of this technology will be fabrication of composite structures at room temperature, reduced tooling cost and cure time, and improvements in component durability. This presentation covers the results of material property evaluations for electron beam-cured composites made with either unidirectional tape or woven fabric architectures. Resin systems have been evaluated for performance in ambient, cryogenic, and elevated temperature conditions. Results for electron beam composites and similar composites cured in conventional processes are reviewed for comparison. Fabrication demonstrations were also performed for electron beam-cured composite airframe and propulsion piping subcomponents. These parts have been built to validate manufacturing methods with electron beam composite materials, to evaluate electron beam curing processing parameters, and to demonstrate lightweight, low-cost tooling options.

  1. Thermal stress effects in intermetallic matrix composites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, P.K.; Sensmeier, M.D.; Kupperman, D.S.; Wadley, H.N.G.

    1993-09-01

    Intermetallic matrix composites develop residual stresses from the large thermal expansion mismatch (delta-alpha) between the fibers and matrix. This work was undertaken to: establish improved techniques to measure these thermal stresses in IMC's; determine residual stresses in a variety of IMC systems by experiments and modeling; and, determine the effect of residual stresses on selected mechanical properties of an IMC. X ray diffraction (XRD), neutron diffraction (ND), synchrotron XRD (SXRD), and ultrasonics (US) techniques for measuring thermal stresses in IMC were examined and ND was selected as the most promising technique. ND was demonstrated on a variety of IMC systems encompassing Ti- and Ni-base matrices, SiC, W, and Al2O3 fibers, and different fiber fractions (Vf). Experimental results on these systems agreed with predictions of a concentric cylinder model. In SiC/Ti-base systems, little yielding was found and stresses were controlled primarily by delta-alpha and Vf. In Ni-base matrix systems, yield strength of the matrix and Vf controlled stress levels. The longitudinal residual stresses in SCS-6/Ti-24Al-llNb composite were modified by thermomechanical processing. Increasing residual stress decreased ultimate tensile strength in agreement with model predictions. Fiber pushout strength showed an unexpected inverse correlation with residual stress. In-plane shear yield strength showed no dependence on residual stress. Higher levels of residual tension led to higher fatigue crack growth rates, as suggested by matrix mean stress effects.

  2. Inelastic response of metal matrix composites under biaxial loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissenden, C. J.; Mirzadeh, F.; Pindera, M.-J.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical predictions and experimental results were obtained for inelastic response of unidirectional and angle ply composite tubes subjected to axial and torsional loading. The composite material consist of silicon carbide fibers in a titanium alloy matrix. This material is known to be susceptible to fiber matrix interfacial damage. A method to distinguish between matrix yielding and fiber matrix interfacial damage is suggested. Biaxial tests were conducted on the two different layup configurations using an MTS Axial/Torsional load frame with a PC based data acquisition system. The experimentally determined elastic moduli of the SiC/Ti system are compared with those predicted by a micromechanics model. The test results indicate that fiber matrix interfacial damage occurs at relatively low load levels and is a local phenomenon. The micromechanics model used is the method of cells originally proposed by Aboudi. Finite element models using the ABACUS finite element program were used to study end effects and fixture specimen interactions. The results to date have shown good correlation between theory and experiment for response prior to damage initiation.

  3. Stress corrosion cracking of metal matrix composites: Modeling and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H.

    1990-10-01

    The stress corrosion crack growth ate of metal matrix composites has been described by a model which is dependent on the length-to- diameter ({ell}/d) ratio and volume fraction of the reinforcing phase and matrix creep component. The model predicts a large dependence of the stress corrosion crack growth rate of a metal matrix composite on {ell}/d and matrix creep component and a small dependence on the volume fraction of reinforcement. Experimentally determined crack growth rates for 7090 Al/SiC tested in 3.5% NcCl solution, 6061 Al/SiC tested in moist air with NaCl and immersed in NaCl solution, and Mg/Al{sub 2}0{sub 3} tested in a chloride/chromate solution are all consistent with the model. The close correspondence between the model and experiment for a matrix creep stress exponent of 3 suggest that there is little corrosion damage to the reinforcing phase in these systems. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Thermal expansion behavior of LDEF metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Tuyen D.; Steckel, Gary L.

    1993-01-01

    The thermal expansion behavior of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) metal matrix composite materials was studied by (1) analyzing the flight data that was recorded on orbit to determine the effects of orbital time and heating/cooling rates on the performance of the composite materials, and (2) characterizing and comparing the thermal expansion behavior of post-flight LDEF and lab-control samples. The flight data revealed that structures in space are subjected to nonuniform temperature distributions, and thermal conductivity of a material is an important factor in establishing a uniform temperature distribution and avoiding thermal distortion. The flight and laboratory data showed that both Gr/Al and Gr/Mg composites were stabilized after prolonged thermal cycling on orbit. However, Gr/Al composites showed more stable thermal expansion behavior than Gr/Mg composites and offer advantages for space structures particularly where very tight thermal stability requirements in addition to high material performance must be met.

  5. Evaluation of 2D ceramic matrix composites in aeroconvective environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, Salvatore R.; Love, Wendell L.; Balter-Peterson, Aliza

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation is conducted of a novel ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) material system for use in the aeroconvective-heating environments encountered by the nose caps and wing leading edges of such aerospace vehicles as the Space Shuttle, during orbit-insertion and reentry from LEO. These CMCs are composed of an SiC matrix that is reinforced with Nicalon, Nextel, or carbon refractory fibers in a 2D architecture. The test program conducted for the 2D CMCs gave attention to their subsurface oxidation.

  6. Chemical feasibility of lithium as a matrix for structural composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swann, R. T.; Esterling, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical compatibility of lithium with tows of carbon and aramid fibers and silicon carbide and boron monofilaments was investigated by encapsulating the fibers in liquid lithium and also by sintering. The lithium did not readily wet the various fibers. In particular, very little lithium infiltration into the carbon and aramid tows was achieved and the strength of the tows was seriously degraded. The strength of the boron and silicon carbide monofilaments, however, was not affected by the liquid lithium. Therefore lithium is not feasible as a matrix for carbon and aramid fibers, but a composite containing boron or silicon carbide fibers in a lithium matrix may be feasible for specialized applications.

  7. Nonlinear laminate analysis for metal matrix fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    A nonlinear laminate analysis is described for predicting the mechanical behavior (stress-strain relationships) of angle-ply laminates in which the matrix is strained nonlinearly by both the residual stress and the mechanical load and in which additional nonlinearities are induced due to progressive fiber fractures and ply relative rotations. The nonlinear laminate analysis is based on linear composite mechanics and a piece-wise linear laminate analysis to handle the nonlinear responses. Results obtained by using this nonlinear analysis on boron-fiber/aluminum-matrix angle-ply laminates agree well with experimental data. The results shown illustrate the in situ ply stress-strain behavior and synergistic strength enhancement.

  8. Nonlinear laminate analysis for metal matrix fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    A nonlinear laminate analysis is described for predicting the mechanical behavior (stress-strain relationships) of angleplied laminates in which the matrix is strained nonlinearly by both the residual stress and the mechanical load and in which additional nonlinearities are induced due to progressive fiber fractures and ply relative rotations. The nonlinear laminate analysis (NLA) is based on linear composite mechanics and a piece wise linear laminate analysis to handle the nonlinear responses. Results obtained by using this nonlinear analysis on boron fiber/aluminum matrix angleplied laminates agree well with experimental data. The results shown illustrate the in situ ply stress-strain behavior and synergistic strength enhancement.

  9. Simulation of Fatigue Behavior of High Temperature Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Mike T.; Singhal, Suren N.; Chamis, Christos C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1996-01-01

    A generalized relatively new approach is described for the computational simulation of fatigue behavior of high temperature metal matrix composites (HT-MMCs). This theory is embedded in a specialty-purpose computer code. The effectiveness of the computer code to predict the fatigue behavior of HT-MMCs is demonstrated by applying it to a silicon-fiber/titanium-matrix HT-MMC. Comparative results are shown for mechanical fatigue, thermal fatigue, thermomechanical (in-phase and out-of-phase) fatigue, as well as the effects of oxidizing environments on fatigue life. These results show that the new approach reproduces available experimental data remarkably well.

  10. Incorporation of Mean Stress Effects into the Micromechanical Analysis of the High Strain Rate Response of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.; Gilat, Amos

    2002-01-01

    The results presented here are part of an ongoing research program, to develop strain rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to high strain rate impact loads. A micromechanics approach is employed in this work, in which state variable constitutive equations originally developed for metals have been modified to model the deformation of the polymer matrix, and a strength of materials based micromechanics method is used to predict the effective response of the composite. In the analysis of the inelastic deformation of the polymer matrix, the definitions of the effective stress and effective inelastic strain have been modified in order to account for the effect of hydrostatic stresses, which are significant in polymers. Two representative polymers, a toughened epoxy and a brittle epoxy, are characterized through the use of data from tensile and shear tests across a variety of strain rates. Results computed by using the developed constitutive equations correlate well with data generated via experiments. The procedure used to incorporate the constitutive equations within a micromechanics method is presented, and sample calculations of the deformation response of a composite for various fiber orientations and strain rates are discussed.

  11. Prediction of high temperature metal matrix composite ply properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, J. J.; Chamis, C. C.

    1988-01-01

    The application of the finite element method (superelement technique) in conjunction with basic concepts from mechanics of materials theory is demonstrated to predict the thermomechanical behavior of high temperature metal matrix composites (HTMMC). The simulated behavior is used as a basis to establish characteristic properties of a unidirectional composite idealized an as equivalent homogeneous material. The ply properties predicted include: thermal properties (thermal conductivities and thermal expansion coefficients) and mechanical properties (moduli and Poisson's ratio). These properties are compared with those predicted by a simplified, analytical composite micromechanics model. The predictive capabilities of the finite element method and the simplified model are illustrated through the simulation of the thermomechanical behavior of a P100-graphite/copper unidirectional composite at room temperature and near matrix melting temperature. The advantage of the finite element analysis approach is its ability to more precisely represent the composite local geometry and hence capture the subtle effects that are dependent on this. The closed form micromechanics model does a good job at representing the average behavior of the constituents to predict composite behavior.

  12. Organic matrix composite protective coatings for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dursch, Harry W.; George, Pete

    1995-01-01

    Successful use of composites in low earth orbit (LEO) depends on their ability to survive long-term exposure to atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet radiation, charged particle radiation, thermal cycling, and micrometeoroid and space debris. The AO environment is especially severe for unprotected organic matrix composites surfaces in LEO. Ram facing unprotected graphite/epoxy flown on the 69-month Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission lost up to one ply of thickness (5 mils) resulting in decreased mechanical properties. The expected AO fluence of the 30 year Space Station Alpha mission is approximately 20 times that seen on LDEF. This exposure would result in significant material loss of unprotected ram facing organic matrix composites. Several protective coatings for composites were flown on LDEF including anodized aluminum, vacuum deposited coatings, a variety of thermal control coatings, metalized Teflon, and leafing aluminum. Results from the testing and analysis of the coated and uncoated composite specimens flown on LDEF's leading and trailing edges provide the baseline for determining the effectiveness of protectively coated composites in LEO. In addition to LDEF results, results from shuttle flight experiments and ground based testing will be discussed.

  13. Shock Interaction Studies on Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, K. P. J.; Jagadeesh, G.; Jayaram, V.; Reddy, B. Harinath; Madhu, V.; Reddy, C. Jaya Rami

    Glass fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites are being extensively used for structural applications both in civil and defense sectors, owing to their high specific strength, stiffness and good energy absorbing capability. Understanding the dynamic response of these composites on shock loading is very essential for effective design of structures resistant to blast loads. In the present study, E- glass/epoxy composite laminate has been fabricated and evaluated for their mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength and inter laminar shear strength (ILSS). Further, dynamic response of E-glass laminates is presently studied by shock loading. When E-glass composite subjected to peak shock reflected pressure of 7.2 MPa and estimated temperature of about 14000 K for short duration, it underwent surface discolorations and charring of epoxy matrix. Post test analysis of the composite sample was carried out to study the damage analysis using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), changes in thermal properties of composites using Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) and Thermo-Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA). The results of these investigations are discussed in this paper.

  14. Organic matrix composite protective coatings for space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dursch, H.W.; George, P.

    1995-02-01

    Successful use of composites in low earth orbit (LEO) depends on their ability to survive long-term exposure to atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet radiation, charged particle radiation, thermal cycling, and micrometeoroid and space debris. The AO environment is especially severe for unprotected organic matrix composites surfaces in LEO. Ram facing unprotected graphite/epoxy flown on the 69-month Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission lost up to one ply of thickness (5 mils) resulting in decreased mechanical properties. The expected AO fluence of the 30 year Space Station Alpha mission is approximately 20 times that seen on LDEF. This exposure would result in significant material loss of unprotected ram facing organic matrix composites. Several protective coatings for composites were flown on LDEF including anodized aluminum, vacuum deposited coatings, a variety of thermal control coatings, metalized Teflon, and leafing aluminum. Results from the testing and analysis of the coated and uncoated composite specimens flown on LDEF`s leading and trailing edges provide the baseline for determining the effectiveness of protectively coated composites in LEO. In addition to LDEF results, results from shuttle flight experiments and ground based testing will be discussed.

  15. Rapid Prototyping of Continuous Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, R.; Green, C.; Phillips, T.; Cipriani, R.; Yarlagadda, S.; Gillespie, J. W., Jr.; Effinger, M.; Cooper, K. C.

    2003-01-01

    For ceramics to be used as structural components in high temperature applications, their fracture toughness is improved by embedding continuous ceramic fibers. Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials allow increasing the overall operating temperature, raising the temperature safety margins, avoiding the need for cooling, and improving the damping capacity, while reducing the weight at the same time. They also need to be reliable and available in large quantities as well. In this paper, an innovative rapid prototyping technique to fabricate continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. The process is simple, robust and will be widely applicable to a number of high temperature material systems. This technique was originally developed at the University of Delaware Center for Composite Materials (UD-CCM) for rapid fabrication of polymer matrix composites by a technique called automated tow placement or ATP. The results of mechanical properties and microstructural characterization are presented, together with examples of complex shapes and parts. It is believed that the process will be able to create complex shaped parts at an order of magnitude lower cost than current chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) and polymer impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP) processes.

  16. Rapid Prototyping of Continuous Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, R.; Green, C.; Phillips, T.; Cipriani, R.; Yarlagadda, S.; Gillespie, J.; Effinger, M.; Cooper, K. C.; Gordon, Gail (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    For ceramics to be used as structural components in high temperature applications, their fracture toughness is improved by embedding continuous ceramic fibers. Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials allow increasing the overall operating temperature, raising the temperature safety margins, avoiding the need for cooling, and improving the damping capacity, while reducing the weight at the same time. They also need to be reliable and available in large quantities as well. In this paper, an innovative rapid prototyping technique to fabricate continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. The process is simple, robust and will be widely applicable to a number of high temperature material systems. This technique was originally developed at the University of Delaware Center for Composite Materials (UD-CCM) for rapid fabrication of polymer matrix composites by a technique called automated tow placement or ATP. The results of mechanical properties and microstructural characterization are presented, together with examples of complex shapes and parts. It is believed that the process will be able to create complex shaped parts at an order of magnitude lower cost than current CVI and PIP processes.

  17. Micromechanical analysis of filamentary metal matrix composites under longitudinal loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gdoutos, Emmanuel E.; Karalekas, Dimitrios; Daniel, Isaac M.

    1991-01-01

    A two-material composite cylinder model (CCM) was considered for the study of the mechanical behavior at different temperatures of a fiber-reinforced silicon carbide/aluminum (SiC/Al) composite. An elastoplastic analysis of the model was performed in which the fiber was assumed to be linear elastic and the matrix elastoplastic with work-hardening. The analysis was based on the deformation theory of plasticity in conjunction with the von-Mises yield criterion. Experimental stress-strain curves of an SiC/Al composite were obtained at 24 and 288 C (75 and 550 F). The complete three-dimensional stress distribution in the composite using the CCM was determined. It was found that, in addition to longitudinal stresses, transverse stresses in both the fiber and the matrix were developed as a result of the different Poisson's ratios of the two materials. The transverse stresses, although much smaller than the longitudinal stresses, contributed to the plastic deformation of the matrix. The experimental stress-strain curves were favorably compared with the theoretical predictions.

  18. A honeycomb composite of mollusca shell matrix and calcium alginate.

    PubMed

    You, Hua-jian; Li, Jin; Zhou, Chan; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yao-guang

    2016-03-01

    A honeycomb composite is useful to carry cells for application in bone, cartilage, skin, and soft tissue regenerative therapies. To fabricate a composite, and expand the application of mollusca shells as well as improve preparing methods of calcium alginate in tissue engineering research, Anodonta woodiana shell powder was mixed with sodium alginate at varying mass ratios to obtain a gel mixture. The mixture was frozen and treated with dilute hydrochloric acid to generate a shell matrix/calcium alginate composite. Calcium carbonate served as the control. The composite was transplanted subcutaneously into rats. At 7, 14, 42, and 70 days after transplantation, frozen sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, followed by DAPI, β-actin, and collagen type-I immunofluorescence staining, and observed using laser confocal microscopy. The composite featured a honeycomb structure. The control and composite samples displayed significantly different mechanical properties. The water absorption rate of the composite and control group were respectively 205-496% and 417-586%. The composite (mass ratio of 5:5) showed good biological safety over a 70-day period; the subcutaneous structure of the samples was maintained and the degradation rate was lower than that of the control samples. Freezing the gel mixture afforded control over chemical reaction rates. Given these results, the composite is a promising honeycomb scaffold for tissue engineering. PMID:26700239

  19. Effects of Fiber/Matrix Interface and its Composition on Mechanical Properties of Hi Nicalon/Celsian Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    1998-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMC) are prospective candidate materials for high temperature structural applications in aerospace, energy conservation, power generation, nuclear, petrochemical, and other industries. At NASA Lewis, we are investigating celsian matrix composites reinforced with various types of silicon carbide fibers. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of fiber/matrix interface and its composition on the mechanical properties of silicon carbide (Hi-Nicalon) fiber-reinforced celsian matrix composites.

  20. Modeling the Effect of Multiple Matrix Cracking Modes on Cyclic Hysteresis Loops of 2D Woven Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbiao, Li

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the effect of multiple matrix cracking modes on cyclic loading/unloading hysteresis loops of 2D woven ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) has been investigated. The interface slip between fibers and the matrix existed in matrix cracking mode 3 and mode 5, in which matrix cracking and interface debonding occurred in longitudinal yarns, are considered as the major reason for hysteresis loops of 2D woven CMCs. The effects of fiber volume content, peak stress, matrix crack spacing, interface properties, matrix cracking mode proportion and interface wear on interface slip and hysteresis loops have been analyzed. The cyclic loading/unloading hysteresis loops of 2D woven SiC/SiC composite corresponding to different peak stresses have been predicted using the present analysis. It was found that the damage parameter, i.e., the proportion of matrix cracking mode 3 in the entire cracking modes of the composite, increases with increasing peak stress.

  1. Modeling the Effect of Multiple Matrix Cracking Modes on Cyclic Hysteresis Loops of 2D Woven Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbiao, Li

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the effect of multiple matrix cracking modes on cyclic loading/unloading hysteresis loops of 2D woven ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) has been investigated. The interface slip between fibers and the matrix existed in matrix cracking mode 3 and mode 5, in which matrix cracking and interface debonding occurred in longitudinal yarns, are considered as the major reason for hysteresis loops of 2D woven CMCs. The effects of fiber volume content, peak stress, matrix crack spacing, interface properties, matrix cracking mode proportion and interface wear on interface slip and hysteresis loops have been analyzed. The cyclic loading/unloading hysteresis loops of 2D woven SiC/SiC composite corresponding to different peak stresses have been predicted using the present analysis. It was found that the damage parameter, i.e., the proportion of matrix cracking mode 3 in the entire cracking modes of the composite, increases with increasing peak stress.

  2. Matrix cracking in laminated composites under monotonic and cyclic loadings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, David H.; Lee, Jong-Won

    1991-01-01

    An analytical model based on the internal state variable (ISV) concept and the strain energy method is proposed for characterizing the monotonic and cyclic response of laminated composites containing matrix cracks. A modified constitution is formulated for angle-ply laminates under general in-plane mechanical loading and constant temperature change. A monotonic matrix cracking criterion is developed for predicting the crack density in cross-ply laminates as a function of the applied laminate axial stress. An initial formulation for a cyclic matrix cracking criterion for cross-ply laminates is also discussed. For the monotonic loading case, a number of experimental data and well-known models are compared with the present study for validating the practical applicability of the ISV approach.

  3. Fracture Analysis of Particulate Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.; Cornie, James A.

    2013-01-01

    A fracture analysis of highly loaded particulate reinforced composites was performed using laser moire interferometry to measure the displacements within the plastic zone at the tip of an advancing crack. Ten castings were made of five different particulate reinforcement-aluminum alloy combinations. Each casting included net-shape specimens which were used for the evaluation of fracture toughness, tensile properties, and flexure properties resulting in an extensive materials properties data. Measured fracture toughness range from 14.1 MPa for an alumina reinforced 356 aluminum alloy to 23.9 MPa for a silicon carbide reinforced 2214 aluminum alloy. For the combination of these K(sub Ic) values and the measured tensile strengths, the compact tension specimens were too thin to yield true plane strain K(sub Ic) values. All materials exhibited brittle behavior characterized by very small tensile ductility suggesting that successful application of these materials requires that the design stresses be below the elastic limit. Probabilistic design principles similar to those used with ceramics are recommended when using these materials. Such principles would include the use of experimentally determined design allowables. In the absence of thorough testing, a design allowable stress of 60 percent of the measured ultimate tensile stress is recommended.

  4. Progressive fracture of polymer matrix composite structures: A new approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Minnetyan, L.

    1992-01-01

    A new approach independent of stress intensity factors and fracture toughness parameters has been developed and is described for the computational simulation of progressive fracture of polymer matrix composite structures. The damage stages are quantified based on physics via composite mechanics while the degradation of the structural behavior is quantified via the finite element method. The approach account for all types of composite behavior, structures, load conditions, and fracture processes starting from damage initiation, to unstable propagation and to global structural collapse. Results of structural fracture in composite beams, panels, plates, and shells are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of this new approach. Parameters and guidelines are identified which can be used as criteria for structural fracture, inspection intervals, and retirement for cause. Generalization to structures made of monolithic metallic materials are outlined and lessons learned in undertaking the development of new approaches, in general, are summarized.

  5. Thermal expansion behavior of LDEF metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, T. D.; Steckel, G. L.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of the space environment on the thermal expansion stability of metal matrix composites (graphite/Al and graphite/Mg) will be presented. A sample from each category of metal matrix composites mounted on the leading and trailing edge was chosen for analysis of the temperature-time-thermal strain histories. Typical thermal expansion curves over the same range of temperature were selected at the beginning, mid, and end of the recording duration. The thermal expansion of selected post-flight LDEF samples were measured over the same range of temperature in the laboratory using a Michelson laser interferometer. The thermal strains were monitored concurrently with a laser interferometer and a mounted strain gage.

  6. Oxidation and Corrosion of Ceramics and Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Lee, Kang N.

    2000-01-01

    Ceramics and ceramic matrix composites are candidates for numerous applications in high temperature environments with aggressive gases and possible corrosive deposits. There is a growing realization that high temperature oxidation and corrosion issues must be considered. There are many facets to these studies, which have been extensively covered in some recent reviews. The focus of this paper is on current research, over the past two years. In the authors' view, the most important oxidation and corrosion studies have focused on four major areas during this time frame. These are; (I) Oxidation of precursor-based ceramics; (II) Studies of the interphase material in ceramic matrix composites; (III) Water vapor interactions with ceramics, particularly in combustion environments; and (IV) Development of refractory oxide coatings for silicon-based ceramics. In this paper, we shall explore the most current work in each of these areas.

  7. Method of thermal strain hysteresis reduction in metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dries, Gregory A. (Inventor); Tompkins, Stephen S. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A method is disclosed for treating graphite reinforced metal matrix composites so as to eliminate thermal strain hysteresis and impart dimensional stability through a large thermal cycle. The method is applied to the composite post fabrication and is effective on metal matrix materials using graphite fibers manufactured by both the hot roll bonding and diffusion bonding techniques. The method consists of first heat treating the material in a solution anneal oven followed by a water quench and then subjecting the material to a cryogenic treatment in a cryogenic oven. This heat treatment and cryogenic stress reflief is effective in imparting a dimensional stability and reduced thermal strain hysteresis in the material over a -250.degree. F. to +250.degree. F. thermal cycle.

  8. Isothermal fatigue mechanisms in Ti-based metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Bhaskar S.; Newaz, Golam M.

    1993-01-01

    Stress-controlled isothermal fatigue experiments were performed at room temperature (RT) and 548 C (in argon) on (0)8 SCS6/Ti 15-3 metal matrix composites (MMC's) with 15 and 41 volume percent SCS6 (SiC) fibers. The primary objectives were to evaluate the mechanical responses, and to obtain a clear understanding of the damage mechanisms leading to failure of the MMC's. The mechanical data indicated that strain ranges attained fairly constant values in the stress-controlled experiments at both RT and 538 C, and remained so for more than 85 percent of life. The fatigue data for MMC's with different volume fraction fibers showed that MMC life was controlled by the imposed strain range rather than the stress range. At RT, and at low and intermediate strain ranges, the dominant fatigue mechanism was matrix fatigue, and this was confirmed metallurgically from fractographic evidence as well as from observations of channel type dislocation structures in the matrix of fatigued MMC specimens. Reaction-zone cracks acted as important crack initiating sites at RT, with their role being to facilitate slip band formation and consequent matrix crack initiation through classical fatigue mechanisms. MMC life agreed with matrix life at the lower strain ranges, but was smaller than matrix life at higher strain ranges. Unlike the case of monotonic deformation, debonding damage was another major damage mechanism during fatigue at RT, and it increased for higher strain ranges. At high strain ranges at RT, fractography and metallography showed an absence of matrix cracks, but long lengths of debonds in the outer layers of the SCS6 fibers. Such debonding and consequent rubbing during fatigue is believed to have caused fiber damage and their failure at high strain ranges. Thus, whereas life was matrix dominated at low and intermediate strain ranges, it was fiber dominated at high strain ranges. At 538 C, the mean stain constantly increased (ratchetting) with the number of cycles. At high

  9. Glass matrix composites. I - Graphite fiber reinforced glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Bacon, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental program is described in which graphite fibers of Hercules HMS and HTS, Thornel 300, and Celanese DG-12 were used to reinforce, both uniaxially and biaxially, borosilicate pyrex glass. Composite flexural strength distribution, strength as a function of test temperature, fracture toughness and oxidative stability were determined and shown to be primarily a function of fiber type and the quality of fiber-matrix bond formed during composite fabrication. It is demonstrated that the graphite fiber reinforced glass system offers unique possibilities as a high performance structural material.

  10. High-temperature testing of glass/ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, John F.; Grande, Dodd H.; Dannemann, Kathryn A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in ceramic and other high-temperature composites have created a need for test methods that can be used at 1000 C and above. Present test methods usually require adhesively bonded tabs that cannot be used at high temperatures. This paper discusses some of the difficulties with high-temperature test development and describes several promising test methods. Stress-strain data are given for Nicalon ceramic fiber reinforced glass and glass-ceramic matrix composites tested in air at temperatures up to 1000 C.

  11. Pillared smectite clay coatings for ceramic-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Jagota, S.; Harmer, M.A.; Lemon, M.F.; Jagota, A.; McCarron, E.M. III.

    1995-08-01

    This paper describes a novel route for the low-temperature formation of mullite, from pillared smectite clay precursors, for use as fiber coatings in ceramic-matrix composites. In particular, alumina-pillared bentonite converts in part to mullite at the unusually low temperature of about 800 C. The clay precursors display excellent film-forming capability and have been coated onto silicon carbide fibers. Mechanical tests on composites of the coated fibers and a borosilicate glass demonstrate their success as debond coatings, suggesting that this approach is a viable and simple route to oxide coatings for fibers.

  12. Ceramic Matrix Composites Performances Under High Gamma Radiation Doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cemmi, A.; Baccaro, S.; Fiore, S.; Gislon, P.; Serra, E.; Fassina, S.; Ferrari, E.; Ghisolfi, E.

    2014-06-01

    Ceramic matrix composites reinforced by continuous ceramic fibers (CMCs) represent a class of advanced materials developed for applications in automotive, aerospace, nuclear fusion reactors and in other specific systems for harsh environments. In the present work, the silicon carbide/silicon carbide (SiCf/SiC) composites, manufactured by Chemical Vapour Infiltration process at FN S.p.A. plant, have been evaluated in term of gamma radiation hardness at three different absorbed doses (up to around 3MGy). Samples behavior has been investigated before and after irradiation by means of mechanical tests (flexural strength) and by surface and structural analyses (X-ray diffraction, SEM, FTIR-ATR, EPR).

  13. Emerging Applications of Ceramic and Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthy, Divya; Ramolina, Dheeyana; Sandou, Sherleena

    2012-07-01

    Almost 500 papers were presented during the 43 sessions of the 27th Annual Cocoa Beach Conference & Exposition on Advanced Ceramics & Composites, which was organized by the Engineering Ceramics Division of the American Ceramic Society and sponsored by several federal agencies: NASA Glenn Research Center, the Army Research Office, the Department of Energy, and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. Many of these papers focused on composites, both ceramic and metal matrix, and discussed mechanical behavior, design, fibers/interfaces, processing, and applications. Potential applications under development include components for armor, nuclear energy, and automobiles. A few of these applications have reached commercialization.

  14. Electron Beam Curing of Polymer Matrix Composites - CRADA Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Janke, C. J.; Howell, Dave; Norris, Robert E.

    1997-05-01

    The major cost driver in manufacturing polymer matrix composite (PMC) parts and structures, and one of the elements having the greatest effect on their quality and performance, is the standard thermal cure process. Thermal curing of PMCs requires long cure times and high energy consumption, creates residual thermal stresses in the part, produces volatile toxic by-products, and requires expensive tooling that is tolerant of the high cure temperatures.

  15. Cure shrinkage effects in epoxy and polycyanate matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Spellman, G.P.

    1995-12-22

    A relatively new advanced composite matrix, polycyanate ester, was evaluated for cure shrinkage. The chemical cure shrinkage of composites is difficult to model but a number of clever experimental techniques are available to the investigator. In this work the method of curing a prepreg layup on top of a previously cured laminate of identical ply composition is utilized. The polymeric matrices used in advanced composites have been primarily epoxies and therefore a common system of this type, Fiberite 3501-6, was used as a base case material. Three polycyanate matrix systems were selected for the study. These are: Fiberite 954-2A, YLA RS-3, and Bryte Technology BTCy-1. The first three of these systems were unidirectional prepreg with carbon fiber reinforcement. The Bryte Technology material was reinforced with E-glass fabric. The technique used to evaluate cure shrinkage results in distortion of the flatness of an otherwise symmetric laminate. The first laminate is cured in a conventional fashion. An identical layup is cured on this first laminate. During the second cure all constituents are exposed to the same thermal cycles. However, only the new portion of the laminate will experience volumetric changes associate with matrix cure. The additional strain of cure shrinkage results in an unsymmetric distribution of residual stresses and an associated warpage of the laminate. The baseline material, Fiberite 3501-6, exhibited cure shrinkage that was in accordance with expectations. Cure strains were {minus}4.5E-04. The YLA RS-3 material had cure strains somewhat lower at {minus}3.2E-04. The Fiberite 954-2A cure strain was {minus}1.5E-04 that is 70% lower than the baseline material. The glass fabric material with the Bryte BTCy-1 matrix did not result in meaningful results because the processing methods were not fully compatible with the material.

  16. Metal-Matrix Composite Parts With Metal Inserts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majkowski, T.; Kashalikar, U.

    1995-01-01

    Developmental fabrication process produces metal-matrix composite (MMC) parts with integral metal inserts. With inserts, MMC parts readily joined to similar parts by use of brazing, welding, or mechanical fasteners. Process conceived to make strong, lightweight components of structures erected in outer space. Also useful on Earth, in such automotive parts as rocker arms, cylinder liners, and pistons. Potential industrial applications include parts subjected to high stresses at high temperatures, as in power-generation, mining, and oil-drilling equipment.

  17. Tensile and compressive test results for metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuart, M. J.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental results of the mechanical behavior of two metal matrix composite systems at room temperature are presented. Ultimate stress, ultimate strain, Poisson's ratio, and initial Young's Modulus are documented for BORSIC/Aluminum in uniaxial tension and Boron/Aluminum in uniaxial tension and compression. Poisson's ratio is used for nonlinear stress-strain behavior. A comparison of compression results for B/Al as obtained from sandwich beam compression specimens and IITRI coupon compression specimens is presented.

  18. Durability and Damage Development in Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haque, A.; Rahman, M.; Tyson, O. Z.; Jeelani, S.; Verrilli, Michael J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Damage development in woven SiC/SiNC ceramic matrix composites (CMC's) under tensile and cyclic loading both at room and elevated temperatures have been investigated for the exhaust nozzle of high-efficient turbine engines. The ultimate strength, failure strain, proportional limit and modulus data at a temperature range of 23 to 1250 C are generated. The tensile strength of SiC/SiNC woven composites have been observed to increase with increased temperatures up to 1000 C. The stress/strain plot shows a pseudo-yield point at 25 percent of the failure strain (epsilon(sub r)) which indicates damage initiation in the form of matrix cracking. The evolution of damage beyond 0.25 epsilon(sub f), both at room and elevated temperature comprises multiple matrix cracking, interfacial debonding, and fiber pullout. Although the nature of the stress/strain plot shows damage-tolerant behavior under static loading both at room and elevated temperature, the life expectancy of SiC/SiNC composites degrades significantly under cyclic loading at elevated temperature. This is mostly due to the interactions of fatigue damage caused by the mechanically induced plastic strain and the damage developed by the creep strain. The in situ damage evolutions are monitored by acoustic event parameters, ultrasonic C-scan and stiffness degradation. Rate equations for modulus degradation and fatigue life prediction of ceramic matrix composites both at room and elevated temperatures are developed. These rate equations are observed to show reasonable agreement with experimental results.

  19. Thermal-vacuum response of polymer matrix composites in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Matthews, R.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes a thermal-vacuum outgassing model and test protocol for predicting outgassing times and dimensional changes for polymer matrix composites. Experimental results derived from 'control' samples are used to provide the basis for analytical predictions to compare with the outgassing response of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) flight samples. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) data are also presented. In addition, an example is given illustrating the dimensional change of a 'zero' CTE laminate due to moisture outgassing.

  20. High Temperature Mechanical Characterization of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John Z.

    1998-01-01

    A high temperature mechanical characterization laboratory has been assembled at NASA Lewis Research Center. One contribution of this work is to test ceramic matrix composite specimens in tension in environmental extremes. Two high temperature tensile testing systems were assembled. The systems were assembled based on the performance and experience of other laboratories and meeting projected service conditions for the materials in question. The systems use frames with an electric actuator and a center screw. A PC based data acquisition and analysis system is used to collect and analyze the data. Mechanical extensometers are used to measure specimen strain. Thermocouples, placed near the specimen, are used to measure the specimen gage section temperature. The system for testing in air has a resistance element furnace with molybdenum disilicide elements and pneumatic grips with water cooling attached to hydraulic alignment devices. The system for testing in an inert gas has a graphite resistance element furnace in a chamber with rigidly mounted, water cooled, hydraulically actuated grips. Unidirectional SiC fiber reinforced reaction bonded Si3N4 and triaxially woven, two dimensional, SiC fiber reinforced enhanced SiC composites were tested in unidirectional tension. Theories for predicting the Young's modulus, modulus near the ultimate strength, first matrix cracking stress, and ultimate strength were applied and evaluated for suitability in predicting the mechanical behavior of SiC/RBSN and enhanced SiC/SiC composites. The SiC/RBSN composite exhibited pseudo tough behavior (increased area under the stress/strain curve) from 22 C to 1500 C. The rule of mixtures provides a good estimate of the Young's modulus of the SiC/RBSN composite using the constituent properties from room temperature to 1440 C for short term static tensile tests in air or nitrogen. The rule of mixtures significantly overestimates the secondary modulus near the ultimate strength. The ACK theory

  1. Micro-strain Evolution and Toughening Mechanisms in a Trimodal Al-Based Metal Matrix Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuzheng; Topping, Troy D.; Yang, Hanry; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Schoenung, Julie M.; Nutt, Steven R.

    2015-03-01

    A trimodal metal matrix composite (MMC) based on AA (Al alloy) 5083 (Al-4.4Mg-0.7Mn-0.15Cr wt pct) was synthesized by cryomilling powders followed by compaction of blended powders and ceramic particles using two successive dual mode dynamic forgings. The microstructure consisted of 66.5 vol pct ultrafine grain (UFG) region, 30 vol pct coarse grain (CG) region and 3.5 vol pct reinforcing boron carbide particles. The microstructure imparted high-tensile yield strength (581 MPa) compared to a conventional AA 5083 (242 MPa) and enhanced ductility compared to 100 pct UFG Al MMC. The deformation behavior of the heterogeneous structure and the effects of CG regions on crack propagation were investigated using in situ scanning electron microscopy micro-tensile tests. The micro-strain evolution measured using digital image correlation showed early plastic strain localization in CG regions. Micro-voids due to the strain mismatch at CG/UFG interfaces were responsible for crack initiation. CG region toughening was realized by plasticity-induced crack closure and zone shielding of disconnected micro-cracks. However, these toughening mechanisms did not effectively suppress its brittle behavior. Further optimization of the CG distribution (spacing and morphology) is required to achieve toughness levels required for structural applications.

  2. Crack initiation and propagation behavior of WC particles reinforced Fe-based metal matrix composite produced by laser melting deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiandong; Li, Liqun; Tao, Wang

    2016-08-01

    It is generally believed that cracks in metal matrix composites (MMC) parts manufacturing are crucial to the reliable material properties, especially for the reinforcement particles with high volume fraction. In this paper, WC particles (WCp) reinforced Fe-based metal matrix composites (WCp/Fe) were manufactured by laser melting deposition (LMD) technology to investigate the characteristics of cracks formation. The section morphology of composites were analyzed by optical microscope (OM), and microstructure of WCp, matrix and interface were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in order to study the crack initiation and propagation behavior under different laser process conditions. The temperature of materials during the laser melting deposition was detected by the infrared thermometer. The results showed that the cracks often appeared after five layers laser deposition in this experiment. The cracks crossed through WC particles rather than the interface, so the strength of interface obtained by the LMD was relatively large. When the thermal stress induced by high temperature gradient during LMD and the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between WC and matrix was larger than yield strength of WC, the cracks would initiate inside WC particle. Cracks mostly propagated along the eutectic phases whose brittleness was very large. The obtained thin interface was beneficial to transmitting the stress from particle to matrix. The influence of volume fraction of particles, laser power and scanning speed on cracks were investigated. This paper investigated the influence of WC particles size on cracks systematically, and the smallest size of cracked WC in different laser processing parameters was also researched.

  3. High temperature resin matrix composites for aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. G., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Accomplishments and the outlook for graphite-polyimide composite structures are briefly outlined. Laminates, skin-stiffened and honeycomb sandwich panels, chopped fiber moldings, and structural components were fabricated with Celion/LARC-160 and Celion/PMR-15 composite materials. Interlaminar shear and flexure strength data obtained on as-fabricated specimens and specimens that were exposed for 125 hours at 589 K indicate that epoxy sized and polyimide sized Celion graphite fibers exhibit essentially the same behavior in a PMR-15 matrix composite. Analyses and tests of graphite-polyimide compression and shear panels indicate that utilization in moderately loaded applications offers the potential for achieving a 30 to 50 percent reduction in structural mass compared to conventional aluminum panels. Data on effects of moisture, temperature, thermal cycling, and shuttle fluids on mechanical properties indicate that both LARC-160 and PMR-15 are suitable matrix materials for a graphite-polyimide aft body flap. No technical road blocks to building a graphite-polyimide composite aft body flap are identified.

  4. Fillers for improved graphite fiber retention by polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, E. E.; Sheppard, C. H.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a program designed to determine the extent to which elemental boron and boron containing fillers added to the matrix resin of graphite/epoxy composites prevent the release of graphite fibers when the composites are exposed to fire and impact conditions are described. The fillers evaluated were boron, boron carbide and aluminum boride. The conditions evaluated were laboratory simulations of those that could exist in the event of an aircraft crash and burn situation. The baseline (i.e., unfilled) laminates evaluated were prepared from commercially available graphite/epoxy. The baseline and filled laminates' mechanical properties, before and after isothermal and humidity aging, also were compared. It was found that a small amount of graphite fiber was released from the baseline graphite/epoxy laminates during the burn and impact conditions used in this program. However, the extent to which the fibers were released is not considered a severe enough problem to preclude the use of graphite reinforced composites in civil aircraft structure. It also was found that the addition of boron and boron containing fillers to the resin matrix eliminated this fiber release. Mechanical properties of laminates containing the boron and boron containing fillers were lower than those of the baseline laminates. These property degradations for two systems: boron (5 micron) at 2.5 percent filler loading, and boron (5 micron) at 5.0 percent filler loading do not appear severe enough to preclude their use in structural composite applications.

  5. Modeling of crack bridging in a unidirectional metal matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Kantzos, Pete; Telesman, Jack

    1991-01-01

    The effective fatigue crack driving force and crack opening profiles were determined analytically for fatigue tested unidirectional composite specimens exhibiting fiber bridging. The crack closure pressure due to bridging was modeled using two approaches; the fiber pressure model and the shear lag model. For both closure models, the Bueckner weight function method and the finite element method were used to calculate crack opening displacements and the crack driving force. The predicted near crack tip opening profile agreed well with the experimentally measured profiles for single edge notch SCS-6/Ti-15-3 metal matrix composite specimens. The numerically determined effective crack driving force, Delta K(sup eff), was calculated using both models to correlate the measure crack growth rate in the composite. The calculated Delta K(sup eff) from both models accounted for the crack bridging by showing a good agreement between the measured fatigue crack growth rates of the bridged composite and that of unreinforced, unbridged titanium matrix alloy specimens.

  6. Ultrasonic assessment of interfacial oxidation damage in ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Y. C.; Rokhlin, S. I.; Baaklini, G. Y.

    1993-01-01

    A new approach to characterizing oxidation damage in ceramic matrix composites using ultrasonic techniques is proposed. In this approach, the elastic constants of the composite are determined nondestructively by measuring the angular dependence of both longitudinal and transverse wave velocities. A micromechanical model for composites with anisotropic constituents is used to find the anisotropic properties of an effective fiber, which is a combination of the fiber and the interface. Interfacial properties are extracted from the properties of this effective fiber by analyzing the difference between effective and actual fiber properties. Unidirectional /0/28 SiC/Si3N4 composites with 30 percent fiber volume fraction and 30 percent matrix porosity are used. The samples are exposed in a flowing oxygen environment at elevated temperatures, up to 1400 C, for 100 hours and then measured by ultrasonic methods at room temperature. The Young's modulus in the fiber direction of the sample oxidized at 600 C decreased significantly but it was unchanged for samples oxidized at temperatures above 1200 C. The transverse moduli obtained from ultrasonic measurements decrease continuously up to 1200 C. The shear stiffnesses show behavior similar to the transverse moduli. The effective elastic moduli of the interfacial carbon coating are determined from the experimental data, and their change due to thermal oxidation is discussed.

  7. Microstructure of arc brazed and diffusion bonded joints of stainless steel and SiC reinforced aluminum matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elßner, M.; Weis, S.; Grund, T.; Wagner, G.; Habisch, S.; Mayr, P.

    2016-03-01

    Joint interfaces of aluminum and stainless steel often exhibit intermetallics of Al-Fe, which limit the joint strength. In order to reduce these brittle phases in joints of aluminum matrix composites (AMC) and stainless steel, diffusion bonding and arc brazing are used. Due to the absence of a liquid phase, diffusion welding can reduce the formation of these critical in- termetallics. For this joining technique, the influence of surface treatments and adjusted time- temperature-surface-pressure-regimes is investigated. On the other hand, arc brazing offers the advantage to combine a localized heat input with the application of a low melting filler and was conducted using the system Al-Ag-Cu. Results of the joining tests using both approaches are described and discussed with regard to the microstructure of the joints and the interfaces.

  8. Fiber shape effects on metal matrix composite behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, H. C.; Lee, H.-J.; Chamis, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of different fiber shapes on the behavior of a SiC/Ti-15 metal matrix composite is computationally simulated. A three-dimensional finite element model consisting of a group of nine unidirectional fibers is used in the analysis. The model is employed to represent five different fiber shapes: a circle, an ellipse, a kidney, and two different cross shapes. The distribution of microstresses and the composite material properties, such as moduli, coefficients of thermal expansion, and Poisson's ratios, are obtained from the finite element analysis for the various fiber shapes. Comparisons of these results are used to determine the sensitivity of the composite behavior to the different fiber shapes and assess their potential benefits. No clear benefits result from different fiber shapes though there are some increases/decreases in isolated properties.

  9. Acousto-ultrasonic evaluation of ceramic matrix composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dosreis, Henrique L. M.

    1991-01-01

    Acousto-ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of ceramic composite specimens with a lithium-alumino-silicate glass matrix reinforced with unidirectional silicon carbide (NICALON) fibers was conducted to evaluate their reserve of strength. Ceramic composite specimens with different amount of damage were prepared by four-point cyclic fatigue loading of the specimens at 500 C for a different number of cycles. The reserve of strength of the specimens was measured as the maximum bending stress recorded during four-pointed bending test with the load monotonically increased until failure occurs. It was observed that the reserve of strength did not correlate with the number of fatigue cycles. However, it was also observed that higher values of the stress wave factor measurements correspond to higher values of the reserve of strength test data. Therefore, these results show that the acousto-ultrasonic approach has the potential of being used to monitor damage and to estimate the reserve of strength of ceramic composites.

  10. Self-lubricating carbon nanotube reinforced nickel matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, T. W.; Neira, A.; Hwang, J. Y.; Banerjee, R.; Tiley, J.

    2009-07-01

    Nickel (Ni)--multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT) composites have been processed in a monolithic form using the laser-engineered net shape (LENS) processing technique. Auger electron spectroscopy maps determined that the nanotubes were well dispersed and bonded in the nickel matrix and no interfacial chemical reaction products were determined in the as-synthesized composites. Mechanisms of solid lubrication have been investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy spatial mapping of the worn surfaces to determine the formation of tribochemical products. The Ni-CNT composites exhibit a self-lubricating behavior, forming an in situ, low interfacial shear strength graphitic film during sliding, resulting in a decrease in friction coefficient compared to pure Ni.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of a new high entropy composite matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, G.; Matara, M. A.; Csaki, I.; Popescu, C. A.; Truşcă, R.

    2016-06-01

    Even if high entropy alloys were not reported in a scientific journal till 2003, these new alloys have been investigated since 1995 due to their high temperature properties. In the last years the synthesis of these alloys has been widely investigated. Thus, the present work has been carried out to produce a high entropy composite using an equiatomic AlCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy (HEA) matrix and graphite particles (Gr) as reinforcing material. The high entropy composite was obtained by powder metallurgy route using a planetary ball mill. The mechanically alloyed mixture was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Microstructural investigation realized by SEM revealed the homogenous structure of the composite, with multiple phases and decreasing particles size, mostly reaching nanometric scale.

  12. Composite impact strength improvement through a fiber/matrix interphase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.; Winters, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Research was conducted to improve the impact strength and toughness of fiber/resin composites by means of a fiber coating interphase. Graphite fiber/epoxy resin composites were fabricated with four different fiber coating systems introduced in a matrix-fiber interphase. Two graphite fibers, a high strength and a high modulus type, were studied with the following coating systems: chemical vapor deposited boron, electroless nickel, a polyamide-imide resin and a thermoplastic polysulfone resin. Evaluation methods included the following tests: Izod, flexure, shear fracture toughness, longitudinal and transverse tensile, and transverse and longitudinal compression. No desirable changes could be effected with the high strength fiber, but significant improvements in impact performance were observed with the polyamide-imide resin coated high modulus fiber with no loss in composite modulus.

  13. Thermoplastic matrix composites - LARC-TPI, polyimidesulfone and their blends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Norman J.; St. Clair, Terry L.

    1987-01-01

    Composites were fabricated from unidirectional unsized AS-4 carbon fiber and two baseline polyimides: benzophenone dianhydride-3,3'-diaminodiphenylsulfone (PISO2) and benzophenone dianhydride-3,3'-diaminobenzophenone (LARC-TPI). In addition, each polymer solution prior to prepregging was doped with various amounts of crystalline LARC-TPI powder to enhance melt flow during press molding. The 2:1, 1:1, and 1:2 ratios of crystalline to amorphous resin, respectively, were studied in the LARC-TPI system and the 1:2 ratio in the PISO2 system. Matrix characterization, prepreg fabrication/characterization and composite fabrication and physical/mechanical properties are described. The latter include three point short beam shear and flexure, dry and wet, as well as fracture toughness properties in selected compositions.

  14. Brittle diabetes: psychopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Pelizza, Lorenzo; Bonazzi, Federica; Scaltriti, Sara; Milli, Bruna; Giuseppina, Chierici

    2014-01-01

    Background. The term "brittle" is used to described an uncommon subgroup of type I diabetics whose lives are disrupted by severe glycaemic instability with repeated and prolonged hospitalization. Psychosocial problems are the major perceived underlying causes of brittle behaviour. Aim of this study is a systematic psychopathological assessement of brittleness using specific parameters of general psychopathology and personality traits following the multiaxial format (axis I and II) of the current DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. Methods. Patients comprised 21 brittle type I diabetics and a case-control group of 21 stable diabetics, matched for age, gender, years of education, and diabetes duration. General psychopathology and the DSM-IV-TR personality traits/disorders were assessed using the Syptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Results. The comparison for SCL-90-R parameters exclusively revealed higher scores in "Phobic Anxiety" subscale in brittle diabetics. No differences in all the other SCL-90-R primary symptom dimensions and in the three SCL-90-R global distress indices were observed between the two diabetic groups, as well as in the all MCMI-III clinical syndrome categories corresponding to DSM-IV-TR specific psychiatric disorders. However, brittle patients presented lower scores in MCMI-III compulsive personality traits and higher scores in paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, avoidant, dependent, depressive, and passive-aggressive personality traits. Conclusions. In this study, brittle diabetics show no differencies in terms of global severity of psychopathological distress and axis I specific DSM-IV-TR diagnoses in comparison with non-brittle subjects (except for phobic anxiety). Differently, brittle diabetics are characterized from less functional and maladaptive personality features and suffer more frequently and intensively from specific

  15. Effect of fatigue and thermal loads on silicon carbide fiber reinforced glass matrix composites. Final report, August 15, 1983-September 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Avva, V.S.; Sankar, J.

    1984-11-20

    This final report consists of results obtained in testing the silicon carbide yarn imbedded in 7740 borosilicate glass matrix materials. The study of the behavior of this particular composite material is being continued under cyclic loads and elevated temperatures. The cyclic loads were applied in tension-tension uniaxial mode with a stress ratio, R = 0.1. At the present time, the testing is being continued at room temperature only. This final report briefly addressed some of the difficulties involved in fatigue-testing the materials that are highly brittle.

  16. In situ characterization of metal matrix composites processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munger, Gareth Torrey

    1999-11-01

    The high temperatures and pressures used for the processing of fiber reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC's) can result in the bending and fracture of fibers, and the development of residual stresses in both the fibers and surrounding metal matrix. These phenomena adversely affect the properties of MMC's. Methods for their nondestructive measurement are therefore needed both to better understand the process induced damage mechanisms and to ensure that composites are not placed into service with unacceptable fiber damage and/or residual stresses. A fiber optic luminescence approach based upon the frequency shift of the R lines emission of doped sapphire fibers was used to determine the residual stresses in both Ti/Al2O3 and Ti/SiC composites. To investigate the significance of the creep relaxation effects, residual stresses were measured for sapphire fibers embedded in Ti-6Al-4V plates that had been cooled at different rates. The compressive stresses in the fiber are consistent with the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of sapphire being less than Ti-6Al-4V. A multiple concentric cylinder model was used to predict the residual stress state. The model results confirmed that the creep relaxation was induced responsible for the lower stress in the slowly cooled samples and suggest that cooling rate is important to control during processing. To test the notion of the use of a sapphire fiber as a 'witness to' the stress state in an MMC, a sapphire fiber was inserted into a Ti-6Al-4V coated SIGMA (SiC) fiber bundle prior to its consolidation. A generalized method of cells (GMC) model was used to develop a relationship between the stress state within the sapphire witness fiber and that of the surrounding Ti-6Al-4V matrix and the SIGMA fibers. Fiber fracture during the hot isostatic processing (HIP) consolidation of titanium matrix composite was measured using an in-situ acoustic emission approach. For process cycles in which pressure was applied prior to

  17. Hot extruded carbon nanotube reinforced aluminum matrix composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hansang; Leparoux, Marc

    2012-10-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced aluminum (Al) matrix composite materials were successfully fabricated by mechanical ball milling followed by powder hot extrusion processes. Microstructural analysis revealed that the CNTs were well dispersed at the boundaries and were aligned with the extrusion direction in the composites obtained. Although only a small quantity of CNTs were added to the composite (1 vol%), the Vickers hardness and the tensile strength were significantly enhanced, with an up to three-fold increase relative to that of pure Al. From the fractography of the extruded Al-CNT composite, several shapes were observed in the fracture surface, and this unique morphology is discussed based on the strengthening mechanism. The damage in the CNTs was investigated with Raman spectroscopy. However, the Al-CNT composite materials were not only strengthened by the addition of CNTs but also enhanced by several synergistic effects. The nanoindentation stress-strain curve was successfully constructed by setting the effective zero-load and zero-displacement points and was compared with the tensile stress-strain curve. The yield strengths of the Al-CNT composites from the nanoindentation and tensile tests were compared and discussed. We believe that the yield strength can be predicted using a simple nanoindentation stress/strain curve and that this method will be useful for materials that are difficult to machine, such as complex ceramics.

  18. Aspects of fabrication aluminium matrix heterophase composites by suspension method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolata, A. J.; Dyzia, M.

    2012-05-01

    Composites with an aluminium alloy matrix (AlMMC) exhibit several advantageous properties such as good strength, stiffness, low density, resistance and dimensional stability to elevated temperatures, good thermal expansion coefficient and particularly high resistance to friction wear. Therefore such composites are more and more used in modern engineering constructions. Composites reinforced with hard ceramic particles (Al2O3, SiC) are gradually being implemented into production in automotive or aircraft industries. Another application of AlMMC is in the electronics industry, where the dimensional stability and capacity to absorb and remove heat is used in radiators. However the main problems are still: a reduction of production costs, developing methods of composite material tests and final product quality assessment, standardisation, development of recycling and mechanical processing methods. AlMMC production technologies, based on liquid-phase methods, and the shaping of products by casting methods, belong to the cheapest production methods. Application of a suspension method for the production of composites with heterophase reinforcement may turn out to be a new material and technological solution. The article presents the material and technological aspects of the transfer procedures for the production of composite suspensions from laboratory scale to a semi-industrial scale.

  19. Material and structural studies of metal and polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Serafini, T. T.; Johns, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced composites and design analysis methods for these materials are being developed because of the vast potential of composites for decreasing weight and/or increasing use temperature capability in aerospace systems. These composites have potential for use in airbreathing engine components as well as aeronautical and space vehicle structures. Refractory wire-superalloy composites for use up to 2200 F or more and metal-matrix composites for lower temperature applications such as aerospace structures and turbojet fan and compressor blades are under investigation and are discussed. The development of a number of resin systems, including the polyimides and polyphenylquinoxalines, is described and their potential for use at temperatures approaching 315 C (600 F) is indicated. Various molecular modifications that improve processability and/or increase thermal and oxidative resistance of the resins are also described. Structural analysis methods are discussed for determining the stresses and deformations in complex composite systems. Consideration is also given to residual stresses resulting from the curing process and to the foreign object damage problem in fan blade applications.

  20. Hot extruded carbon nanotube reinforced aluminum matrix composite materials.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hansang; Leparoux, Marc

    2012-10-19

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced aluminum (Al) matrix composite materials were successfully fabricated by mechanical ball milling followed by powder hot extrusion processes. Microstructural analysis revealed that the CNTs were well dispersed at the boundaries and were aligned with the extrusion direction in the composites obtained. Although only a small quantity of CNTs were added to the composite (1 vol%), the Vickers hardness and the tensile strength were significantly enhanced, with an up to three-fold increase relative to that of pure Al. From the fractography of the extruded Al-CNT composite, several shapes were observed in the fracture surface, and this unique morphology is discussed based on the strengthening mechanism. The damage in the CNTs was investigated with Raman spectroscopy. However, the Al-CNT composite materials were not only strengthened by the addition of CNTs but also enhanced by several synergistic effects. The nanoindentation stress-strain curve was successfully constructed by setting the effective zero-load and zero-displacement points and was compared with the tensile stress-strain curve. The yield strengths of the Al-CNT composites from the nanoindentation and tensile tests were compared and discussed. We believe that the yield strength can be predicted using a simple nanoindentation stress/strain curve and that this method will be useful for materials that are difficult to machine, such as complex ceramics. PMID:23011263

  1. Analysis of notched metal matrix composites under tensile loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents techniques based on a three-dimensional finite-element analysis for the analysis of continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composite. Examples are shown for specific metal matrix composites such as boron/aluminum and silicon-carbide/aluminum. Specimen stress-strain behavior and stress at first fiber failure were predicted for boron/aluminum laminates containing circular holes and crack-like slits. The predictions compared very well with test data for laminates containing 0 deg fibers and reasonably well for (+/-45)2s laminates. Mesh configuration was shown to have an effect on the calculation of stresses local to the notch. The presence of thin interface layers of matrix material had a significant influence on the slit tip stress state, causing sharper stress gradients near the notch. Interface layers reduced the slit-tip fibers stress in a (+/-45)2s silicon-carbide/aluminum laminate but increased them in a (0/90)2s laminate.

  2. Development of a Precipitation-Strengthened Matrix for Non-quenchable Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, Nhon Q.; Sorensen, Jim; Klier, Eric M.; Sanaty-Zadeh, Amirreza; Bayansan, Davaadorj; Seidman, David N.; Dunand, David C.

    2016-04-01

    Recent developments in metal matrix composite-encapsulated ceramic armor show promise in lightweight armor technology. The system contains ceramic tiles, such as alumina, sandwiched between unreinforced aluminum or aluminum metal matrix composite (Al-MMC), which has a better toughness compared to the ceramic tiles. The sandwich structures should not be quenched during the fabrication, as the large mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion between the ceramic tiles and the unreinforced aluminum or Al-MMC creates internal stresses high enough to fracture the ceramic tiles. However, slow cooling of most commercial alloys creates large precipitates making solute unavailable for the formation of fine precipitates during aging. Here, we develop a non-quenched, high-strength metal matrix utilizing dilute Al-Sc-Zr alloys. We demonstrate that the dilute Al-0.09 Sc-0.045 Zr at.% alloy and the same alloy containing 0-4 vol.% alumina short fibers do not result in precipitation upon slow cooling from a high temperature, and can thereafter be aged to increase their strength. They exhibit a moderate strength, but improved ductility and toughness as compared to common armor aluminum alloys, such as AA5083-H131, making them attractive as armor materials and hybrid armor systems.

  3. Development of a Precipitation-Strengthened Matrix for Non-quenchable Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, Nhon Q.; Sorensen, Jim; Klier, Eric M.; Sanaty-Zadeh, Amirreza; Bayansan, Davaadorj; Seidman, David N.; Dunand, David C.

    2016-07-01

    Recent developments in metal matrix composite-encapsulated ceramic armor show promise in lightweight armor technology. The system contains ceramic tiles, such as alumina, sandwiched between unreinforced aluminum or aluminum metal matrix composite (Al-MMC), which has a better toughness compared to the ceramic tiles. The sandwich structures should not be quenched during the fabrication, as the large mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion between the ceramic tiles and the unreinforced aluminum or Al-MMC creates internal stresses high enough to fracture the ceramic tiles. However, slow cooling of most commercial alloys creates large precipitates making solute unavailable for the formation of fine precipitates during aging. Here, we develop a non-quenched, high-strength metal matrix utilizing dilute Al-Sc-Zr alloys. We demonstrate that the dilute Al-0.09 Sc-0.045 Zr at.% alloy and the same alloy containing 0-4 vol.% alumina short fibers do not result in precipitation upon slow cooling from a high temperature, and can thereafter be aged to increase their strength. They exhibit a moderate strength, but improved ductility and toughness as compared to common armor aluminum alloys, such as AA5083-H131, making them attractive as armor materials and hybrid armor systems.

  4. Influence of matrix composition of shape of cracking catalyst microparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Klaptsov, V.F.; Nefedov, B.K.; Khlebnikova, M.A.; Maslova, A.A.

    1988-09-01

    The best cracking catalysts in terms of service characteristics are those with particles in the shape of microbeads (microspheres) formed by spray drying. This article presents data on the influence of composition of the matrix, prepared from a mixture of pseudoboehmite and a natural component, on the shape of microparticles of series KN cracking catalysts. Two grades of a kaolinite clay from Troshkovo deposit were used a natural component. Pelletized specimens were used in determining the crushing strength of the catalysts. The results from these studies show that in order to prepare catalysts with spherical microparticles and high strength, it is necessary to use a semisynthetic matrix with pseudoboehmite not greater than 25% and alkaline-earth metals bringing the pH to a level above 7.5-8.

  5. Hoop Tensile Properties of Ceramic Matrix Composite Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verrilli, Michael J.; DiCarlo, James A.; Yun, HeeMan; Barnett, Terry

    2004-01-01

    Tensile stress-strain properties in the hoop direction were obtained for 100-mm diameter SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite cylinders using ring specimens machined form the cylinder ends. The cylinders were fabricated from 2D balanced SiC fabric with several material variants, including wall thickness (6,8, and 12 plies), SiC fiber type (Sylramic, Sylramic-iBN, Hi-Nicalon, and Hi-Nicalon S), fiber sizing type, and matrix type (full CVI SiC, and partial CVI SiC plus slurry cast + melt-infiltrated SiC-Si). Fiber ply splices existed in all the hoops. Tensile hoop measurements are made at room temperature and 1200 C using hydrostatic ring test facilities. The failure mode of the hoops, determined through microstructural examination, is presented. The hoop properties are compared with in-plane data measured on flat panels using same material variants, but containing no splices.

  6. Thermal Fatigue Limitations of Continuous Fiber Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, Gary R.; Arya, Vinod K.

    1997-01-01

    The potential structural benefits of unidirectional, continuous-fiber, metal matrix composites (MMC's) are legendary. When compared to their monolithic matrices, MMC's possess superior properties such as higher stiffness and tensile strength, and lower coefficient of thermal expansion in the direction of the reinforcing fibers. As an added bonus, the MMC density will be lower if the fibers are less dense than the matrix matErial they replace. The potential has been demonstrated unequivocally both analytically and experimentally, especially at ambient temperatures. Successes prompted heavily-funded National efforts within the United States (USAF and NASA) and elsewhere to extend the promise of MMC's into the temperature regime wherein creep, stress relaxation, oxidation, and thermal fatigue damage mechanisms lurk. This is the very regime for which alternative high-temperature materials are becoming mandatory, since further enhancement of state- of-the-art monolithic alloys is rapidly approaching a point of diminishing returns.

  7. LDEF results for polymer matrix composite experiment AO 180

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    This report represents a summary of the results obtained to-date on a polymer matrix composite experiment (AO 180) located at station D-12, about 82 deg off the 'ram' direction. Different material systems comprised of graphite, boron, and aramid (Kevlar) fiber reinforcements were studied. Although previous results were presented on in-situ thermal-vacuum cycling effects, particularly dimensional changes associated with outgassing, additional comparative data will be shown from ground-based tests on control and flight samples. The system employed was fully automated for thermal-vacuum cycling using a laser interferometer for monitoring displacements. Erosion of all three classes of materials due to atomic oxygen (AO) will also be discussed, including angle of incidence effects. Data from this experiment will be compared to published results for similar materials in other LDEF experiments. Composite materials' erosion yields will be presented on an AO design nomogram useful for estimating total material loss for given exposure conditions in low Earth orbit (LEO). Optical properties of these materials will also be compared with control samples. A survey of the damage caused by micrometeoroids/debris impacts will be addressed as they relate to polymer matrix composites. Correlations between hole size and damage pattern will be given. Reference to a new nomogram for estimating the number distribution of micrometeoroid/debris impacts for a given space structure as a function of time in LEO will be addressed based on LDEF data.

  8. Implementation Challenges for Ceramic Matrix Composites in High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are leading candidate materials for a number of applications in aeronautics, space, energy, electronics, nuclear, and transportation industries. In the aeronautics and space exploration systems, these materials are being considered for applications in hot sections of jet engines such as the combustor liner, nozzle components, nose cones, leading edges of reentry vehicles and space propulsion components. Applications in the energy and environmental industries include radiant heater tubes, heat exchangers, heat recuperators, gas and diesel particulate filters (DPFs), and components for land based turbines for power generation. These materials are also being considered for use in the first wall and blanket components of fusion reactors. There are a number of critical issues and challenges related to successful implementation of composite materials. Fabrication of net and complex shape components with high density and tailorable matrix properties is quite expensive, and even then various desirable properties are not achievable. In this presentation, microstructure and thermomechanical properties of composites fabricated by two techniques (chemical vapor infiltration and melt infiltration), will be presented. In addition, critical need for robust joining and assembly technologies in successful implementation of these systems will be discussed. Other implementation issues will be discussed along with advantages and benefits of using these materials for various components in high temperature applications.

  9. Analysis of thermomechanical fatigue of unidirectional titanium metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirdamadi, M.; Johnson, W. S.; Bahei-El-din, Y. A.; Castelli, M. G.

    1991-01-01

    Thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) data was generated for a Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn (Ti-15-3) material reinforced with SCS-6 silicon carbide fibers for both in-phase and out-of-phase thermomechanical cycling. Significant differences in failure mechanisms and fatigue life were noted for in-phase and out-of-phase testing. The purpose of the research is to apply a micromechanical model to the analysis of the data. The analysis predicts the stresses in the fiber and the matrix during the thermal and mechanical cycling by calculating both the thermal and mechanical stresses and their rate-dependent behavior. The rate-dependent behavior of the matrix was characterized and was used to calculate the constituent stresses in the composite. The predicted 0 degree fiber stress range was used to explain the composite failure. It was found that for a given condition, temperature, loading frequency, and time at temperature, the 0 degree fiber stress range may control the fatigue life of the unidirectional composite.

  10. Wear and impact resistance of HVOF sprayedceramic matrix composites coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prawara, B.; Martides, E.; Priyono, B.; Ardy, H.; Rikardo, N.

    2016-02-01

    Ceramic coating has the mechanical properties of high hardness and it is well known for application on wear resistance, but on the other hand the resistance to impact load is low. Therefore its use is limited to applications that have no impact loading. The aim of this research was to obtain ceramic-metallic composite coating which has improved impact resistance compared to conventional ceramic coating. The high impact resistance of ceramic-metallic composite coating is obtained from dispersed metallic alloy phase in ceramic matrix. Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) powder with chrome carbide (Cr3C2) base and ceramic-metal NiAl-Al2O3 with various particle sizes as reinforced particle was deposited on mild steel substrate with High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coating. Repeated impact test showed that reinforced metallic phase size influenced impact resistance of CMC coating. The ability of CMC coating to absorb impact energy has improved eight times and ten times compared with original Cr3C2 and hard chrome plating respectively. On the other hand the high temperature corrosion resistance of CMC coating showed up to 31 cycles of heating at 800°C and water quenching cooling.

  11. Methodologies for the thermomechanical characterization of continuous-fiber ceramic matrix composites: A review of test methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lara-Curzio, E.; Ferber, M.K.; Jenkins, M.G.

    1994-05-01

    Requirements for thermomechanical characterization of ceramic matrix composite materials are reviewed. Feasibility of adapting existent room temperature test methods for polymer and metal matrix composites to test ceramic matrix composites at room and elevated temperatures is investigated.

  12. Influence of interphase morphology on adhesion and composite durability in semicrystalline polymer matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.L. Jr.; Kander, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    The microstructure of the interphase in semicrystalline polymer matrix composites has a dramatic influence on their mechanical properties. Studies have been performed to alter this region and to correlate various interphase morphologies with changes in fiber-matrix adhesion. A reinforced nylon 66 composite, when subjected to specific thermal histories, contains an interphase composed of transcrystallinity. This region has been altered by coating fibers with a diluent, poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), and/or adding the diluent to the matrix material in very small quantities. Interphase morphology was investigated with optical microscopy, and adhesion was measured using a modified fiber pull-out test. It was found that transcrystallinity increases the interfacial shear strength. The effect different interphase morphologies have on the durability of bulk composite samples is currently under investigation.

  13. Rapid Fabrication of Carbide Matrix/Carbon Fiber Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brian E.; Bernander, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Composites of zirconium carbide matrix material reinforced with carbon fibers can be fabricated relatively rapidly in a process that includes a melt infiltration step. Heretofore, these and other ceramic matrix composites have been made in a chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process that takes months. The finished products of the CVI process are highly porous and cannot withstand temperatures above 3,000 F (approx.1,600 C). In contrast, the melt-infiltration-based process takes only a few days, and the composite products are more nearly fully dense and have withstood temperatures as high as 4,350 F (approx.2,400 C) in a highly oxidizing thrust chamber environment. Moreover, because the melt- infiltration-based process takes much less time, the finished products are expected to cost much less. Fabrication begins with the preparation of a carbon fiber preform that, typically, is of the size and shape of a part to be fabricated. By use of low-temperature ultraviolet-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, the carbon fibers in the preform are coated with one or more interfacial material(s), which could include oxides. The interfacial material helps to protect the fibers against chemical attack during the remainder of the fabrication process and against oxidation during subsequent use; it also enables slippage between the fibers and the matrix material, thereby helping to deflect cracks and distribute loads. Once the fibers have been coated with the interfacial material, the fiber preform is further infiltrated with a controlled amount of additional carbon, which serves as a reactant for the formation of the carbide matrix material. The next step is melt infiltration. The preform is exposed to molten zirconium, which wicks into the preform, drawn by capillary action. The molten metal fills most of the interstices of the preform and reacts with the added carbon to form the zirconium carbide matrix material. The zirconium does not react with the underlying fibers because they

  14. Metal matrix coated fiber composites and the methods of manufacturing such composites

    DOEpatents

    Weeks, Jr., Joseph K.; Gensse, Chantal

    1993-01-01

    A fiber coating which allows ceramic or metal fibers to be wetted by molten metals is disclosed. The coating inhibits degradation of the physical properties caused by chemical reaction between the fiber and the coating itself or between the fiber and the metal matrix. The fiber coating preferably includes at least a wetting layer, and in some applications, a wetting layer and a barrier layer between the fiber and the wetting layer. The wetting layer promotes fiber wetting by the metal matrix. The barrier layer inhibits fiber degradation. The fiber coating permits the fibers to be infiltrated with the metal matrix resulting in composites having unique properties not obtainable in pure materials.

  15. Double Vacuum Bag Process for Resin Matrix Composite Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Tan-Hung (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A double vacuum bag molding assembly with improved void management and laminate net shape control which provides a double vacuum enviromnent for use in fabricating composites from prepregs containing air and/or volatiles such as reactive resin matrix composites or composites from solvent containing prepregs with non-reactive resins matrices. By using two vacuum environments during the curing process, a vacuum can be drawn during a B-stage of a two-step cycle without placing the composite under significant relative pressure. During the final cure stage, a significant pressure can be applied by releasing the vacuum in one of the two environments. Inner and outer bags are useful for creating the two vacuum environments with a perforated tool intermediate the two. The composite is placed intermediate a tool plate and a caul plate in the first environment with the inner bag and tool plate defining the first environment. The second environment is characterized by the outer bag which is placed over the inner bag and the tool plate.

  16. Squeeze flow and compaction behavior of toughened polyimide matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Byung Lip; Pater, R.; Soucek, M. D.

    1991-01-01

    The main emphasis was placed upon the squeeze flow and compaction behavior of the Lewis Research Center (LaRC) research project series polyimide matrix composites. The measurement of squeeze film flow behavior was performed by a plastometer which monitors the change of thickness of a prepreg specimen laid between two parallel plates under the specified temperature and pressure history. A critical evaluation of the plastometer data was attempted by examining the morphology of the specimen at various points during the squeeze flow. The effects of crosslinks (Mc) of resin, imidization (B-ataging) condition, and pressure on the squeeze flow behavior were examined. Results are given.

  17. Pressurized Shell Molds For Metal-Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashalikar, Uday K.; Lusignea, Richard N.; Cornie, James

    1993-01-01

    Balanced-pressure molds used to make parts in complex shapes from fiber-reinforced metal-matrix composite materials. In single step, molding process makes parts in nearly final shapes; only minor finishing needed. Because molding pressure same on inside and outside, mold does not have to be especially strong and can be made of cheap, nonstructural material like glass or graphite. Fibers do not have to be cut to conform to molds. Method produces parts with high content of continuous fibers. Parts stiff but light in weight, and coefficients of thermal expansion adjusted. Parts resistant to mechanical and thermal fatigue superior to similar parts made by prior fabrication methods.

  18. Nondestructive Evaluation of Ceramic Matrix Composite Combustor Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Jiangang G.; Verrilli, Michael J.; Stephan, Robert R.; Barnett, Terry R.; Ojard, Greg C.

    2003-01-01

    Combustor liners fabricated from a SiC/SiC composite (silicon carbide fibers in a silicon carbide matrix) were nondestructively interrogated before and after combustion rig testing by x-ray, ultrasonic, and thermographic techniques. In addition, mechanical test results were obtained from witness coupons, representing the as-manufactured liners, and from coupons machined from the components after combustion exposure. Thermography indications correlated with reduced material properties obtained after rig testing. The thermography indications in the SiC/SiC liners were delaminations and damaged fiber tows, as determined through microstructural examinations.

  19. Ceramic matrix composites for rocket engine turbine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbell, Thomas P.; Eckel, Andrew J.

    1992-01-01

    A program to establish the potential for introducing fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites (FRCMC) in future rocket engine turbopumps was instituted in 1987. A brief summary of the overall program (both contract and in-house research) is presented. Tests at NASA Lewis include thermal upshocks in a hydrogen/oxygen test rig capable of generating heating rates up to 2500 C/sec. Post thermal upshock exposure evaluation includes the measurement of residual strength and failure analysis. Test results for monolithic ceramics and several FRCMC are presented. Hydrogen compatibility was assessed by isothermal exposure of monolithic ceramics in high temperature gaseous hydrogen plus water vapor.

  20. Computational simulation of high temperature metal matrix composite behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1991-01-01

    Computational procedures are described to simulate the thermal and mechanical behavior of high temperature metal matrix composite (HT MMC) in the following four broad areas: (1) behavior of HT MMC from micromechanics to laminate; (2) HT MMC structural response for simple and complex structural components; (3) HT MMC microfracture; and (4) tailoring of HT MMC behavior for optimum specific performance. Representative results from each area are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the computational simulation procedures. Relevant reports are referenced for extended discussion regarding the specific area.

  1. Fatigue In Continuous-Fiber/Metal-Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William S.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experimental approaches to quantification of fatigue damage in metal-matrix composites (MMC's). Discusses number of examples of development of damage and failure along with associated analytical models of behavior of MMC. Objectives of report are twofold. First, present experimental procedures and techniques for conducting meaningful fatigue tests to detect and quantify fatigue damage in MMC's. Second, present examples of how fatigue damage initiated and grows in various MMC's. Report furnishes some insight into what type of fatigue damage occurs and how damage quantified.

  2. Analysis of damage and failure in metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Brust, F.W.; Majumdar, B.S.; Newaz, G.M.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the results of the analysis of the constitutive response of a model Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) system. The model is described first, followed by some direct comparison of predicted response to corresponding experimental data. An important result discussed here is that when model verification is made, it is important to compare load direction response to the experimental data, but also, comparisons to the out of load direction response must be made, or the model may not be performing as desired. Some discussion of failure predictions using simple models is also made here.

  3. Numerical analysis on thermal drilling of aluminum metal matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, N. Rajesh Jesudoss; Maheshwaran, M. V.

    2016-05-01

    The work-material deformation is very large and both the tool and workpiece temperatures are high in thermal drilling. Modeling is a necessary tool to understand the material flow, temperatures, stress, and strains, which are difficult to measure experimentally during thermal drilling. The numerical analysis of thermal drilling process of aluminum metal matrix composite has been done in the present work. In this analysis the heat flux of different stages is calculated. The calculated heat flux is applied on the surface of work piece and thermal distribution is predicted in different stages during the thermal drilling process.

  4. Analytical Micromechanics Modeling Technique Developed for Ceramic Matrix Composites Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) promise many advantages for next-generation aerospace propulsion systems. Specifically, carbon-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) CMCs enable higher operational temperatures and provide potential component weight savings by virtue of their high specific strength. These attributes may provide systemwide benefits. Higher operating temperatures lessen or eliminate the need for cooling, thereby reducing both fuel consumption and the complex hardware and plumbing required for heat management. This, in turn, lowers system weight, size, and complexity, while improving efficiency, reliability, and service life, resulting in overall lower operating costs.

  5. Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) Life Prediction Development - 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Stanley R.; Calomino, Anthony M.; Verrilli, Michael J.; Thomas, David J.; Halbig, Michael C.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Ellis, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Accurate life prediction is critical to successful use of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). The tools to accomplish this are immature and not oriented toward the behavior of carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC), the primary system of interest for many reusable and single mission launch vehicle propulsion and airframe applications. This paper describes an approach and progress made to satisfy the need to develop an integrated life prediction system that addresses mechanical durability and environmental degradation of C/SiC.

  6. Energy absorption mechanisms during crack propagation in metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, D. P.; Adams, D. F.

    1979-01-01

    The stress distributions around individual fibers in a unidirectional boron/aluminum composite material subjected to axial and transverse loadings are being studied utilizing a generalized plane strain finite element analysis. This micromechanics analysis was modified to permit the analysis of longitudinal sections, and also to incorporate crack initiation and propagation. The analysis fully models the elastoplastic response of the aluminum matrix, as well as temperature dependent material properties and thermal stress effects. The micromechanics analysis modifications are described, and numerical results are given for both longitudinal and transverse models loaded into the inelastic range, to first failure. Included are initially cracked fiber models.

  7. Fiber-matrix interface studies on bioabsorbable composite materials for internal fixation of bone fractures. I. Raw material evaluation and measurement of fiber-matrix interfacial adhesion.

    PubMed

    Slivka, M A; Chu, C C; Adisaputro, I A

    1997-09-15

    The objective of this study was to characterize and evaluate the performance of various fiber-matrix composite systems by studying the mechanical, thermal, and physical properties of the fiber and matrix components, and by studying the fiber-matrix interface adhesion strength using both microbond and fragmentation methods. The composites studies were poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix reinforced with continuous fibers of either nonabsorbable AS4 carbon (C), absorbable calcium phosphate (CaP), poly(glycolic acid) (PGA), or chitin. Carbon and CaP single fibers had high Young's moduli and failed in a brittle manner. PGA and chitin single fibers had relatively lower Young's moduli and relatively higher ductility. Upon in vitro hydrolysis, CaP fibers retained 17% of their tensile strength and 39% of their Young's modulus after 12 h, PCA fibers retained 10% of their tensile strength and 52% of their Young's modulus after 16 days, and chitin fibers retained 87% of their tensile strength and 130% of their Young's modulus after 25 days. PLLA films had much lower strength and Young's moduli, but much higher ductility relative to the single fibers. Using the microbond method, the initial fiber-matrix interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of C/PLLA and CaP/PLLA microcomposites was 33.9 and 12.6 MPa, respectively. Upon in vitro hydrolysis, C/PLLA retained 49% of IFSS after 15 days and CaP/PLLA retained 46% of IFSS after 6 h. Using a fiber fragmentation method, the initial IFSS of C/PLLA, CaP/PLLA, and chitin/ PLLA was 22.2, 15.6, and 28.3 MPa, respectively. The performance of carbon fibers and C/PLLA composites was superior to the other fibers and fiber/PLLA systems, but the carbon fiber was nonabsorbable. CaP had the most suitable modulus of the absorbable fibers for fixing cortical bone fracture, but its rapid deterioration of mechanical properties and loss of IFSS limits its use. PGA and chitin fibers had suitable mechanical properties and their retention for fixing cancellous

  8. Update on CMH-17 Volume 5: Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David, Kaia; Pierce, Jennifer; Kiser, James; Keith, William P.; Wilson, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    CMC components are projected to enter service in commercial aircraft in 2016. A wide range of issues must be addressed prior to certification of this hardware. The Composite Materials Handbook-17, Volume 5 on ceramic matrix composites is being revised to support FAA certification of CMCs for hot structure and other elevated temperature applications. The handbook supports the development and use of CMCs through publishing and maintaining proven, reliable engineering information and standards that have been thoroughly reviewed. Volume 5 will contain detailed sections describing CMC materials processing, design analysis guidelines, testing procedures, and data analysis and acceptance. A review of the status of and plans for two of these areas, which are being addressed by the M and P Working Group and the Testing Working Group, will be presented along with a timeline for the preparation of CMH-17, Volume 5.

  9. Development of Metal Matrix Composites for NASA'S Advanced Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2000-01-01

    The state-of-the-art development of several aluminum and copper based Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) for NASA's advanced propulsion systems will be presented. The presentation's goal is to provide an overview of NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center's planned and on-going activities in MMC for advanced liquid rocket engines such as the X-33 vehicle's Aerospike and X-34 Fastrac engine. The focus will be on lightweight and environmental compatibility with oxygen and hydrogen of key MMC materials, within each NASA's new propulsion application, that will provide a high payoff for NASA's reusable launch vehicle systems and space access vehicles. Advanced MMC processing techniques such as plasma spray, centrifugal casting, pressure infiltration casting will be discussed. Development of a novel 3D printing method for low cost production of composite preform, and functional gradient MMC to enhanced rocket engine's dimensional stability will be presented.

  10. Flexural analysis of palm fiber reinforced hybrid polymer matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatachalam, G.; Gautham Shankar, A.; Raghav, Dasarath; Santhosh Kiran, R.; Mahesh, Bhargav; Kumar, Krishna

    2015-07-01

    Uncertainty in availability of fossil fuels in the future and global warming increased the need for more environment friendly materials. In this work, an attempt is made to fabricate a hybrid polymer matrix composite. The blend is a mixture of General Purpose Resin and Cashew Nut Shell Liquid, a natural resin extracted from cashew plant. Palm fiber, which has high strength, is used as reinforcement material. The fiber is treated with alkali (NaOH) solution to increase its strength and adhesiveness. Parametric study of flexure strength is carried out by varying alkali concentration, duration of alkali treatment and fiber volume. Taguchi L9 Orthogonal array is followed in the design of experiments procedure for simplification. With the help of ANOVA technique, regression equations are obtained which gives the level of influence of each parameter on the flexure strength of the composite.

  11. Determining material properties of metal-matrix composites by NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, P. K.; Shannon, R. E.; Clark, W. G.; Harrigan, W. C.; Jeong, H.; Hsu, D. K.

    1992-10-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is a promising means of studying silicon carbide particulate (SiCp)-reinforced aluminum metal-matrix composite (MMC) products at various processing stages. Eddy current techniques are effective in characterizing alloy powders and in evaluating the percentage of reinforcement in Al/SiCp powder mixtures. Ultrasonic methods can be used to identify SiCp clusters in large-scale, powder metallurgy processed MMC billets, while eddy current techniques can detect near-surface density variations. Ultrasonic techniques can also be used to determine the anisotropic stiffness constants of composite extrusions; the measured moduli are in good agreement with those determined by tensile testing. These results suggest that NDE can be used to provide on-line, closed-loop control of MMC manufacturing.

  12. Biaxial Yield Surface Investigation of Polymer-Matrix Composites

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Junjie; Qiu, Yuanying; Zhai, Zhi; He, Zhengjia

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a numerical technique for computing the biaxial yield surface of polymer-matrix composites with a given microstructure. Generalized Method of Cells in combination with an Improved Bodner-Partom Viscoplastic model is used to compute the inelastic deformation. The validation of presented model is proved by a fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) strain test system through uniaxial testing under two different strain rate conditions. On this basis, the manufacturing process thermal residual stress and strain rate effect on the biaxial yield surface of composites are considered. The results show that the effect of thermal residual stress on the biaxial yield response is closely dependent on loading conditions. Moreover, biaxial yield strength tends to increase with the increasing strain rate. PMID:23529150

  13. Discontinuously reinforced intermetallic matrix composites via XD synthesis. [exothermal dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. S.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    A review is given of recent results obtained for discontinuously reinforced intermetallic matrix composites produced using the XD process. Intermetallic matrices investigated include NiAl, multiphase NiAl + Ni2AlTi, CoAl, near-gamma titanium aluminides, and Ll2 trialuminides containing minor amounts of second phase. Such mechanical properties as low and high temperature strength, compressive and tensile creep, elastic modulus, ambient ductility, and fracture toughness are discussed as functions of reinforcement size, shape, and volume fraction. Microstructures before and after deformation are examined and correlated with measured properties. An observation of interest in many of the systems examined is 'dispersion weakening' at high temperatures and high strain rates. This behavior is not specific to the XD process; rather similar observations have been reported in other discontinuous composites. Proposed mechanisms for this behavior are presented.

  14. Laser Machining of Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Matrix Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarmon, D. C.; Ojard, G.; Brewer, D.

    2012-01-01

    As interest grows in considering the use of ceramic matrix composites for critical components, the effects of different machining techniques, and the resulting machined surfaces, on strength need to be understood. This work presents the characterization of a Melt Infiltrated SiC/SiC composite material system machined by different methods. While a range of machining approaches were initially considered, only diamond grinding and laser machining were investigated on a series of tensile coupons. The coupons were tested for residual tensile strength, after a stressed steam exposure cycle. The data clearly differentiated the laser machined coupons as having better capability for the samples tested. These results, along with micro-structural characterization, will be presented.

  15. Manufacturing process of a multifunctional composite panel with nanocharged matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volponi, R.; Spena, P.; De Nicola, F.; Guadagno, L.; Raimondo, M.; Vietri, U.

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes an effective manufacturing process developed to overcome drawbacks that can occur using a nanofilled resin as matrix in aeronautical composites. Nanoparticles embedded in epoxy resins impregnating carbon fibers are able to improve a composite with new desired functionalities. As soon as the nanoparticles are dispersed in a resin, the viscosity dizzily rises and usually, the traditional manufacturing processes are not suitable to obtain a good quality of the manufactured panels. An alternative method has been developed starting from the Resin Film Infusion (RFI) process. This method has been firstly tested on several flat panels, and then it has been transferred on a more complex shaped panel with three stringers. In this work, a flame resistant resin based on a tetrafunctional epoxy precursor filled with carbon nanotubes to increase electrical conductivity, has been used for the panel manufacturing.

  16. High Strain Rate Deformation Modeling of a Polymer Matrix Composite. Part 2; Composite Micromechanical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    Recently applications have exposed polymer matrix composite materials to very high strain rate loading conditions, requiring an ability to understand and predict the material behavior under these extreme conditions. In this second paper of a two part report, a three-dimensional composite micromechanical model is described which allows for the analysis of the rate dependent, nonlinear deformation response of a polymer matrix composite. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive equations utilized to model the deformation response of a polymer are implemented within the micromechanics method. The deformation response of two representative laminated carbon fiber reinforced composite materials with varying fiber orientation has been predicted using the described technique. The predicted results compare favorably to both experimental values and the response predicted by the Generalized Method of Cells, a well-established micromechanics analysis method.

  17. Graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic glass matrix composites for use at 1000 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Minford, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    The fabrication and properties of the graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composite system are described. By reinforcing borosilicate glass with graphite fibers it has been possible to develop a composite whose properties can be compared favorably with resin matrix counterparts. Both high elastic modulus and strength can be obtained and maintained to temperatures of approximately 600 C. In addition, composite dimensional stability is superior to resin or metal matrix systems due to the low thermal expansion behavior of the glass matrix.

  18. Life Modeling and Design Analysis for Ceramic Matrix Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The primary research efforts focused on characterizing and modeling static failure, environmental durability, and creep-rupture behavior of two classes of ceramic matrix composites (CMC), silicon carbide fibers in a silicon carbide matrix (SiC/SiC) and carbon fibers in a silicon carbide matrix (C/SiC). An engineering life prediction model (Probabilistic Residual Strength model) has been developed specifically for CMCs. The model uses residual strength as the damage metric for evaluating remaining life and is posed probabilistically in order to account for the stochastic nature of the material s response. In support of the modeling effort, extensive testing of C/SiC in partial pressures of oxygen has been performed. This includes creep testing, tensile testing, half life and residual tensile strength testing. C/SiC is proposed for airframe and propulsion applications in advanced reusable launch vehicles. Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the models predictive capabilities as well as the manner in which experimental tests are being selected in such a manner as to ensure sufficient data is available to aid in model validation.

  19. Graphite Fiber Textile Preform/Cooper Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filatovs, George J.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to produce a finned tube constructed of a highly conductive braided graphite fiber preform infiltrated with a copper matrix. In addition, the tube was to be fabricated with an integral geometry. The preform was integral in the sense that the tube and the fin could be braided to yield one continuous part. This composite component is a candidate for situations with high heat transmitting and radiation requirements. A proof-of-concept finned tube was braided and infiltrated with a copper matrix proving that a viable process was developed to fabricate the desired component. Braiding of high conductivity carbon fibers required much trial-and-error and development of special procedures. There are many tradeoffs between braidability and fiber conductivity. To understand the properties and structure of the braided finned tube, an geometric model of the braid structure was derived. This derivation set the basis for the research because knowing the tow orientations helped decipher the thermal as well as the mechanical and conduction tendencies. Infiltration of the fibers into a copper matrix was a complex procedure, and was performed by TRA, of Salt Lake City, Utah, using a proprietary process. Several batches were fabricated with a final, high quality batch serving as a confirming proof-of-concept.

  20. Micromechanical analysis of a continuous fiber metal matrix composite including the effects of matrix viscoplasticity and evolving damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. H.; Jones, R. H.; Boyd, J. G.

    1994-03-01

    A THERMOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS of a metal matrix continuous fiber composite is performed herein. The analysis includes the effects of matrix inelasticity and interface cracking. Due to these nonlinearities, the analysis is performed computationally using the finite element method. Matrix inelasticity is modeled with a rate dependent viscoplasticity model. Interface fracture is modeled by the use of a nonlinear interface constitutive model. The problem formulation is summarized, and results are given for a typical SiC-Ti composite at elevated temperature. Preliminary results indicate that rate dependent viscoplasticity can be a significant mechanism for dissipating the energy available for interface fracture, thus contributing to improved macroscopic ductility of the composite.

  1. Intermetallic and titanium matrix composite materials for hypersonic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Berton, B.; Surdon, G.; Colin, C. |

    1995-09-01

    As part of the French Program of Research and Technology for Advanced Hypersonic Propulsion (PREPHA) which was launched in 1992 between Aerospatiale, Dassault Aviation, ONERA, SNECMA and SEP, an important work is specially devoted to the development of titanium and intermetallic composite materials for large airframe structures. At Dassault Aviation, starting from a long experience in Superplastic Forming - Diffusion Bonding (SPF-DB) of titanium parts, the effort is brought on the manufacturing and characterization of composites made from Timet beta 21S or IMI 834 foils and Textron SCS6 fiber fabrics. At `Aersopatiale Espace & Defence`, associated since a long time about intermetallic composite materials with university research laboratories, the principal effort is brought on plasma technology to develop the gamma titanium aluminide TiAl matrix composite reinforced by protected silicon carbide fibers (BP SM 1240 or TEXTRON SCS6). The objective, is to achieve, after 3 years of time, to elaborate a medium size integrally stiffened panel (300 x 600 sq mm).

  2. Modeling Woven Polymer Matrix Composites with MAC/GMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) is used to predict the elastic properties of plain weave polymer matrix composites (PMCs). The traditional one step three-dimensional homogertization procedure that has been used in conjunction with MAC/GMC for modeling woven composites in the past is inaccurate due to the lack of shear coupling inherent to the model. However, by performing a two step homogenization procedure in which the woven composite repeating unit cell is homogenized independently in the through-thickness direction prior to homogenization in the plane of the weave, MAC/GMC can now accurately model woven PMCs. This two step procedure is outlined and implemented, and predictions are compared with results from the traditional one step approach and other models and experiments from the literature. Full coupling of this two step technique with MAC/ GMC will result in a widely applicable, efficient, and accurate tool for the design and analysis of woven composite materials and structures.

  3. Insect phylogenomics: results, problems and the impact of matrix composition

    PubMed Central

    Letsch, Harald O.; Meusemann, Karen; Wipfler, Benjamin; Schütte, Kai; Beutel, Rolf; Misof, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationships among insect orders with a main focus on Polyneoptera (lower Neoptera: roaches, mantids, earwigs, grasshoppers, etc.), and Paraneoptera (thrips, lice, bugs in the wide sense). The relationships between and within these groups of insects are difficult to resolve because only few informative molecular and morphological characters are available. Here, we provide the first phylogenomic expressed sequence tags data (‘EST’: short sub-sequences from a c(opy) DNA sequence encoding for proteins) for stick insects (Phasmatodea) and webspinners (Embioptera) to complete published EST data. As recent EST datasets are characterized by a heterogeneous distribution of available genes across taxa, we use different rationales to optimize the data matrix composition. Our results suggest a monophyletic origin of Polyneoptera and Eumetabola (Paraneoptera + Holometabola). However, we identified artefacts of tree reconstruction (human louse Pediculus humanus assigned to Odonata (damselflies and dragonflies) or Holometabola (insects with a complete metamorphosis); mayfly genus Baetis nested within Neoptera), which were most probably rooted in a data matrix composition bias due to the inclusion of sequence data of entire proteomes. Until entire proteomes are available for each species in phylogenomic analyses, this potential pitfall should be carefully considered. PMID:22628473

  4. Insect phylogenomics: results, problems and the impact of matrix composition.

    PubMed

    Letsch, Harald O; Meusemann, Karen; Wipfler, Benjamin; Schütte, Kai; Beutel, Rolf; Misof, Bernhard

    2012-08-22

    In this study, we investigated the relationships among insect orders with a main focus on Polyneoptera (lower Neoptera: roaches, mantids, earwigs, grasshoppers, etc.), and Paraneoptera (thrips, lice, bugs in the wide sense). The relationships between and within these groups of insects are difficult to resolve because only few informative molecular and morphological characters are available. Here, we provide the first phylogenomic expressed sequence tags data ('EST': short sub-sequences from a c(opy) DNA sequence encoding for proteins) for stick insects (Phasmatodea) and webspinners (Embioptera) to complete published EST data. As recent EST datasets are characterized by a heterogeneous distribution of available genes across taxa, we use different rationales to optimize the data matrix composition. Our results suggest a monophyletic origin of Polyneoptera and Eumetabola (Paraneoptera + Holometabola). However, we identified artefacts of tree reconstruction (human louse Pediculus humanus assigned to Odonata (damselflies and dragonflies) or Holometabola (insects with a complete metamorphosis); mayfly genus Baetis nested within Neoptera), which were most probably rooted in a data matrix composition bias due to the inclusion of sequence data of entire proteomes. Until entire proteomes are available for each species in phylogenomic analyses, this potential pitfall should be carefully considered. PMID:22628473

  5. Functionally Graded Al Alloy Matrix In-Situ Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Subramaniya Sarma, V.; Murty, B. S.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, functionally graded (FG) aluminum alloy matrix in-situ composites (FG-AMCs) with TiB2 and TiC reinforcements were synthesized using the horizontal centrifugal casting process. A commercial Al-Si alloy (A356) and an Al-Cu alloy were used as matrices in the present study. The material parameters (such as matrix and reinforcement type) and process parameters (such as mold temperature, mold speed, and melt stirring) were found to influence the gradient in the FG-AMCs. Detailed microstructural analysis of the composites in different processing conditions revealed that the gradients in the reinforcement modify the microstructure and hardness of the Al alloy. The segregated in-situ formed TiB2 and TiC particles change the morphology of Si particles during the solidification of Al-Si alloy. A maximum of 20 vol pct of reinforcement at the surface was achieved by this process in the Al-4Cu-TiB2 system. The stirring of the melt before pouring causes the reinforcement particles to segregate at the periphery of the casting, while in the absence of such stirring, the particles are segregated at the interior of the casting.

  6. Orthorhombic Titanium Matrix Composite Subjected to Simulated Engine Mission Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy P.

    1997-01-01

    Titanium matrix composites (TMC's) are commonly made up of a titanium alloy matrix reinforced by silicon carbide fibers that are oriented parallel to the loading axis. These composites can provide high strength at lower densities than monolithic titanium alloys and superalloys in selected gas turbine engine applications. The use of TMC rings with unidirectional SiC fibers as reinforcing rings within compressor rotors could significantly reduce the weight of these components. In service, these TMC reinforcing rings would be subjected to complex service mission loading cycles, including fatigue and dwell excursions. Orthorhombic titanium aluminide alloys are of particular interest for such TMC applications because their tensile and creep strengths are high in comparison to those of other titanium alloys. The objective of this investigation was to assess, in simulated mission tests at the NASA Lewis Research Center, the durability of a SiC (SCS-6)/Ti-22Al-23Nb (at.%) TMC for compressor ring applications, in cooperation with the Allison Engine Company.

  7. Quantifying Effects of Voids in Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, Marlana B.; Sankar, Bhavani V.; Haftka, Raphael T.; Goldberg, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    Randomness in woven ceramic matrix composite architecture has been found to cause large variability in stiffness and strength. The inherent voids are an aspect of the architecture that may cause a significant portion of the variability. A study is undertaken to investigate the effects of many voids of random sizes and distributions. Response surface approximations were formulated based on void parameters such as area and length fractions to provide an estimate of the effective stiffness. Obtaining quantitative relationships between the properties of the voids and their effects on stiffness of ceramic matrix composites are of ultimate interest, but the exploratory study presented here starts by first modeling the effects of voids on an isotropic material. Several cases with varying void parameters were modeled which resulted in a large amount of variability of the transverse stiffness and out-of-plane shear stiffness. An investigation into a physical explanation for the stiffness degradation led to the observation that the voids need to be treated as an entity that reduces load bearing capabilities in a space larger than what the void directly occupies through a corrected length fraction or area fraction. This provides explanation as to why void volume fraction is not the only important factor to consider when computing loss of stiffness.

  8. Metal-Matrix Composites Prepared by Paper-Manufacturing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Claudia; Aneziris, Christos G.; Pranke, Katja

    2016-01-01

    In this work, metal-matrix composites were prepared via paper-manufacturing technology using metastable austenitic steel powder of type 16-7-3 (Cr-Mn-Ni in wt pct) and magnesia partially stabilized zirconia reinforcing particles. The influence of the process parameters on the paper web formation and the resulting properties of the MMCs were studied and solids retention of >90 wt pct was achieved. During filtration of the aqueous fiber-filler suspension, the steel particles were incorporated in the fiber network, and steel clusters were formed. Calendering had a positive influence on the porosity, bulk density, and tensile strength of the green paper sheets. Within this contribution, the debinding process for the metal-matrix paper sheets was in focus. A debinding rate of 0.5 K/min to 733 K (460 °C) with a dwell time of 90 minutes was sufficient to completely remove cellulose fibers. The sintered composites attained a tensile strength of up to 177 N/mm2 at a total porosity of 66 pct.

  9. Metal matrix composites for sustainable lotus-effect surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nosonovsky, Michael; Hejazi, Vahid; Nyong, Aniedi E; Rohatgi, Pradeep K

    2011-12-01

    The lotus effect involving roughness-induced superhydrophobicity is a way to design nonwetting, self-cleaning, omniphobic, icephobic, and antifouling surfaces. However, such surfaces require micropatterning, which is extremely vulnerable to even small wear rates. This limits the applicability of the lotus effects to situations when wear is practically absent. To design sustainable superhydrophobic surfaces, we suggest using metal matrix composites (MMCs) with hydrophobic reinforcement in the bulk of the material, rather than only at its surface. Such surfaces, if properly designed, provide roughness and heterogeneity needed for superhydrophobicity. In addition, they are sustainable, since when the surface layer is deteriorated and removed due to wear, hydrophobic reinforcement and roughness remains. We present a model and experimental data on wetting of MMCs. We also conducted selected experiments with graphite-reinforced MMCs and showed that the contact angle can be determined from the model. In order to decouple the effects of reinforcement and roughness, the experiments were conducted for initially smooth and etched matrix and composite materials. PMID:21999807

  10. Effect of Fiber Poisson Contraction on Matrix Multicracking Evolution of Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbiao, Li

    2015-12-01

    An analytical methodology has been developed to investigate the effect of fiber Poisson contraction on matrix multicracking evolution of fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs). The modified shear-lag model incorporated with the Coulomb friction law is adopted to solve the stress distribution in the interface slip region and intact region of the damaged composite. The critical matrix strain energy criterion which presupposes the existence of an ultimate or critical strain energy limit beyond which the matrix fails has been adopted to describe matrix multicracking of CMCs. As more energy is placed into the composite, matrix fractures and the interface debonding occurs to dissipate the extra energy. The interface debonded length under the process of matrix multicracking is obtained by treating the interface debonding as a particular crack propagation problem along the fiber/matrix interface. The effects of the interfacial frictional coefficient, fiber Poisson ratio, fiber volume fraction, interface debonded energy and cycle number on the interface debonding and matrix multicracking evolution have been analyzed. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data of unidirectional SiC/CAS, SiC/CAS-II and SiC/Borosilicate composites.

  11. Structural and functional polymer-matrix composites for electromagnetic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Junhua

    This dissertation addresses the science and technology of functional and structural polymer-matrix composite materials for electromagnetic applications, which include electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding and low observability (Stealth). The structural composites are continuous carbon fiber epoxy-matrix composites, which are widely used for airframes. The functional composites are composites with discontinuous fillers and in both bulk and coating forms. Through composite structure variation, attractive electromagnetic properties have been achieved. With no degradation of the tensile strength or modulus, the shielding effectiveness of the structural composites has been improved by enhancing multiple reflections through light activation of the carbon fiber. The multiple reflections loss of the electromagnetic wave increases from 1.1 to 10.2 dB at 1.0 GHz due to the activation. Such a large effect of multiple reflections has not been previously reported in any material. The observability of these composites has been lowered by decreasing the electrical conductivity (and hence decreasing the reflection loss) through carbon fiber coating. The incorporation of mumetal, a magnetic alloy particulate filler (28-40 mum size), in a latex paint has been found to be effective for enhancing the shielding only if the electrical resistivity of the resulting composite coating is below 10 O.cm, as rendered by a conductive particulate filler, such as nickel flake (14-20 mum size). This effectiveness (39 dB at 1.0 GHz) is attributed to the absorption of the electromagnetic wave by the mumetal and the nickel flake, with the high conductivity rendered by the presence of the nickel flake resulting in a relatively high reflection loss of 15.5 dB. Without the nickel flake, the mumetal gives only 3 dB of shielding and 1.5 dB of reflection loss at 1.0 GHz. Nickel powder (0.3-0.5 mum size) has been found to be an effective filler for improving the shielding of polyethersulfone (PES

  12. Monitoring Damage Accumulation in Ceramic Matrix Composites Using Electrical Resistivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Craig E.; Morscher, Gregory N.; Xia, Zhenhai H.

    2008-01-01

    The electric resistance of woven SiC fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites were measured under tensile loading conditions. The results show that the electrical resistance is closely related to damage and that real-time information about the damage state can be obtained through monitoring of the resistance. Such self-sensing capability provides the possibility of on-board/in-situ damage detection and accurate life prediction for high-temperature ceramic matrix composites. Woven silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) ceramic matrix composites (CMC) possess unique properties such as high thermal conductivity, excellent creep resistance, improved toughness, and good environmental stability (oxidation resistance), making them particularly suitable for hot structure applications. In specific, CMCs could be applied to hot section components of gas turbines [1], aerojet engines [2], thermal protection systems [3], and hot control surfaces [4]. The benefits of implementing these materials include reduced cooling air requirements, lower weight, simpler component design, longer service life, and higher thrust [5]. It has been identified in NASA High Speed Research (HSR) program that the SiC/SiC CMC has the most promise for high temperature, high oxidation applications [6]. One of the critical issues in the successful application of CMCs is on-board or insitu assessment of the damage state and an accurate prediction of the remaining service life of a particular component. This is of great concern, since most CMC components envisioned for aerospace applications will be exposed to harsh environments and play a key role in the vehicle s safety. On-line health monitoring can enable prediction of remaining life; thus resulting in improved safety and reliability of structural components. Monitoring can also allow for appropriate corrections to be made in real time, therefore leading to the prevention of catastrophic failures. Most conventional nondestructive

  13. Strong, damage tolerant oxide-fiber/oxide matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yahua

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is an easy and cost effective method to fabricate fiber-reinforced green composites. Non-conductive Nextel(TM) 720 fibers were successfully coated with a transient, conductive polypyrrole submicron surface layer for use directly as an electrode in EPD processing. However, electric-field shielding limits particle infiltration into the conductive fiber bundles and they mostly deposit on the outer surface of the fiber bundle. When the bundle is large, central cavities exist after deposition. The EPD cell was modified for electrophoretic infiltration deposition (EPID). Non conductive fibers were laid on an electrode and charged particles in an ethanol suspension are driven there through by an electric field, infiltrate and deposit on the electrode to then build up into the fiber preform and fill the voids therein. Dense, uniform, green fiber composites were successfully fabricated via constant current EPID. The EPID process is modeled as capillary electrophoretic infiltration. The process consists of two steps: particle electrophoresis outside the capillaries and electrophoretic infiltration inside the capillaries. Due to the zero net flow of the ethanol across the capillary cross-section, there is no electro-osmotic flow contribution to the deposition rate. Hamaker's law was extended to the EPID process, i.e., the deposition yield is proportional to the electric field inside the capillaries. The total deposition yield is controlled by the slow step of the process, i.e., the rate of electrophoresis in the open suspension outside the capillaries. AlPO4 was proposed as a weak layer between oxide fibers and oxide matrix in fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMC's). AlPO 4 nano particles were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation of Al 3+ and HPO42- with urea at 95°C. The solution pH basic region and amorphous AlPO4 precipitated of narrow size distribution with a mean particle size 50nm. Nextel 720 fibers were pretreated with

  14. Preparation and tribological properties of C fibre reinforced C/SiC dual matrix composites fabrication by liquid silicon infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhuan; Xiao, Peng; Xiong, Xiang; Huang, Bo-yun

    2013-02-01

    Three-dimensional needle carbon fibre reinforced carbon and silicon carbide dual matrix composite (C/C-SiC) is one of a new type of high performance brake material. The carbon fibre preform prepared by three-dimensional needling method was first densified by chemical vapour infiltration (CVI) to form porous carbon/carbon (C/C) composites. Then, the porous C/C composites were converted into C/C-SiC by liquid silicon infiltration (LSI), in which silicon carbide matrix was formed by reaction of carbon and melting silicon. The microstructure, mechanical properties and friction behaviour of C/C-SiC have been investigated. The results indicated that the composite was composed of 55 wt% C, 39 wt% SiC and 6 wt% Si. The density of C/C-SiC was 2.2 g cm-3 with 6.4% open porosity. The C/C-SiC exhibited good mechanical properties, especially excellent toughness which can help to avoid catastrophic brittle fracture. The flexural and compressive strength can reach to 214.6 MPa and 271.0 MPa, respectively. In addition, C/C-SiC had excellent impact damage tolerance of 25.2 kJ m-2. Compared to the self-friction, the C/C-SiC with steel opposing material shown higher static coefficient of friction (0.74) and better stability coefficient (0.28), while exhibited lower dynamic coefficient of friction (0.25), higher temperature of friction subsurface (444 °C), higher wear rate (2.88 μm cycle-1). The main wear mechanism of the C/C-SiC composites with different opposing material both includes adhesion and oxidation abrasion.

  15. Elasto-plastic analysis of interface layers for fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doghri, I.; Leckie, F. A.

    1991-01-01

    The mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of fiber and matrix in metal matrix composites reinforced with ceramic fibers induces high thermal stresses in the matrix. Elasto-plastic analyses - with different degrees of simplification and modelization - show that an interface layer with a sufficiently high CTE can reduce the tensile hoop stress in the matrix substantially.

  16. Probabilistic Evaluation of Advanced Ceramic Matrix Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abumeri, Galib H.; Chamis, Christos C.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the deterministic and probabilistic structural evaluation results of two structures made with advanced ceramic composites (CMC): internally pressurized tube and uniformly loaded flange. The deterministic structural evaluation includes stress, displacement, and buckling analyses. It is carried out using the finite element code MHOST, developed for the 3-D inelastic analysis of structures that are made with advanced materials. The probabilistic evaluation is performed using the integrated probabilistic assessment of composite structures computer code IPACS. The affects of uncertainties in primitive variables related to the material, fabrication process, and loadings on the material property and structural response behavior are quantified. The primitive variables considered are: thermo-mechanical properties of fiber and matrix, fiber and void volume ratios, use temperature, and pressure. The probabilistic structural analysis and probabilistic strength results are used by IPACS to perform reliability and risk evaluation of the two structures. The results will show that the sensitivity information obtained for the two composite structures from the computational simulation can be used to alter the design process to meet desired service requirements. In addition to detailed probabilistic analysis of the two structures, the following were performed specifically on the CMC tube: (1) predicted the failure load and the buckling load, (2) performed coupled non-deterministic multi-disciplinary structural analysis, and (3) demonstrated that probabilistic sensitivities can be used to select a reduced set of design variables for optimization.

  17. Economical Fabrication of Thick-Section Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babcock, Jason; Ramachandran, Gautham; Williams, Brian; Benander, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A method was developed for producing thick-section [>2 in. (approx.5 cm)], continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). Ultramet-modified fiber interface coating and melt infiltration processing, developed previously for thin-section components, were used for the fabrication of CMCs that were an order of magnitude greater in thickness [up to 2.5 in. (approx.6.4 cm)]. Melt processing first involves infiltration of a fiber preform with the desired interface coating, and then with carbon to partially densify the preform. A molten refractory metal is then infiltrated and reacts with the excess carbon to form the carbide matrix without damaging the fiber reinforcement. Infiltration occurs from the inside out as the molten metal fills virtually all the available void space. Densification to <5 vol% porosity is a one-step process requiring no intermediate machining steps. The melt infiltration method requires no external pressure. This prevents over-infiltration of the outer surface plies, which can lead to excessive residual porosity in the center of the part. However, processing of thick-section components required modification of the conventional process conditions, and the means by which the large amount of molten metal is introduced into the fiber preform. Modification of the low-temperature, ultraviolet-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process used to apply interface coatings to the fiber preform was also required to accommodate the high preform thickness. The thick-section CMC processing developed in this work proved to be invaluable for component development, fabrication, and testing in two complementary efforts. In a project for the Army, involving SiC/SiC blisk development, nominally 0.8 in. thick x 8 in. diameter (approx. 2 cm thick x 20 cm diameter) components were successfully infiltrated. Blisk hubs were machined using diamond-embedded cutting tools and successfully spin-tested. Good ply uniformity and extremely low residual porosity (<2

  18. Silicon-Based Ceramic-Matrix Composites for Advanced Turbine Engines: Some Degradation Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Ogbuji, Linus U. J.

    2000-01-01

    SiC/BN/SiC composites are designed to take advantage of the high specific strengths and moduli of non-oxide ceramics, and their excellent resistance to creep, chemical attack, and oxidation, while circumventing the brittleness inherent in ceramics. Hence, these composites have the potential to take turbine engines of the future to higher operating temperatures than is achievable with metal alloys. However, these composites remain developmental and more work needs to be done to optimize processing techniques. This paper highlights the lingering issue of pest degradation in these materials and shows that it results from vestiges of processing steps and can thus be minimized or eliminated.

  19. Advanced composite structures. [metal matrix composites - structural design criteria for spacecraft construction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A monograph is presented which establishes structural design criteria and recommends practices to ensure the design of sound composite structures, including composite-reinforced metal structures. (It does not discuss design criteria for fiber-glass composites and such advanced composite materials as beryllium wire or sapphire whiskers in a matrix material.) Although the criteria were developed for aircraft applications, they are general enough to be applicable to space vehicles and missiles as well. The monograph covers four broad areas: (1) materials, (2) design, (3) fracture control, and (4) design verification. The materials portion deals with such subjects as material system design, material design levels, and material characterization. The design portion includes panel, shell, and joint design, applied loads, internal loads, design factors, reliability, and maintainability. Fracture control includes such items as stress concentrations, service-life philosophy, and the management plan for control of fracture-related aspects of structural design using composite materials. Design verification discusses ways to prove flightworthiness.

  20. Design Concepts for Cooled Ceramic Matrix Composite Turbine Vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This project demonstrated that higher temperature capabilities of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) can be used to reduce emissions and improve fuel consumption in gas turbine engines. The work involved closely coupling aerothermal and structural analyses for the first-stage vane of a high-pressure turbine (HPT). These vanes are actively cooled, typically using film cooling. Ceramic materials have structural and thermal properties different from conventional metals used for the first-stage HPT vane. This project identified vane configurations that satisfy CMC structural strength and life constraints while maintaining vane aerodynamic efficiency and reducing vane cooling to improve engine performance and reduce emissions. The project examined modifications to vane internal configurations to achieve the desired objectives. Thermal and pressure stresses are equally important, and both were analyzed using an ANSYS® structural analysis. Three-dimensional fluid and heat transfer analyses were used to determine vane aerodynamic performance and heat load distributions.

  1. Monitoring damage growth in titanium matrix composites using acoustic emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakuckas, J. G., Jr.; Prosser, W. H.; Johnson, W. S.

    1993-01-01

    The application of the acoustic emission (AE) technique to locate and monitor damage growth in titanium matrix composites (TMC) was investigated. Damage growth was studied using several optical techniques including a long focal length, high magnification microscope system with image acquisition capabilities. Fracture surface examinations were conducted using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The AE technique was used to locate damage based on the arrival times of AE events between two sensors. Using model specimens exhibiting a dominant failure mechanism, correlations were established between the observed damage growth mechanisms and the AE results in terms of the events amplitude. These correlations were used to monitor the damage growth process in laminates exhibiting multiple modes of damage. Results revealed that the AE technique is a viable and effective tool to monitor damage growth in TMC.

  2. Dual resin bonded joints in polyetheretherketone (PEEK) matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenak, Steve; Radford, Donald W.; Dean, Michael W.

    1993-04-01

    The paper describes applications of the dual resin (miscible polymer) bonding technique (Smiley, 1989) developed as an alternative to traditional bonding approaches to joining thermoplastic matrix composite subassemblies into structures. In the experiments, the performance of joint geometries, such as those that could be used to assemble large truss structures in space, are investigated using truss joint models consisting of woven carbon fiber/PEEK tubes of about 1 mm wall thickness. Specific process conditions and hand-held hardware used to apply heat and pressure were chosen to simulate a field asembly technique. Results are presented on tube/cruciform double lap shear tests, pinned-pinned tube compression tests, and single lap shear bond tests of joints obtained using the dual resin bonding technique.

  3. Leveraging metal matrix composites to reduce costs in space mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nye, Ted; Claridge, Rex; Walker, Jim

    1994-01-01

    Advanced metal matrix composites may be one of the most promising technologies for reducing cost in structural components without compromise to strength or stiffness. A microlight 12.50 N (2.81 lb), two-axis, solar array drive assembly (SADA) was made for the Advanced Materials Applications to Space Structures (AMASS) Program flight experiment. The SADA had both its inner and outer axis housings fabricated from silicon carbide particulate reinforced alumimun. Two versions of the housings were made. The first was machined from a solid billet of material. The second was plaster cast to a near net shape that required minimal finish machining. Both manufacturing methods were compared upon completion. Results showed a cost savings with the cast housing was possible for quantities greater than one and probable for quantities greater than two. For quantities approaching ten, casting resulted in a reduction factor of almost three in the cost per part.

  4. Nondestructive evaluation of a ceramic matrix composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosskopf, Paul P.; Duke, John C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Monolithic ceramic materials have proven their usefulness in many applications, yet, their potential for critical structural applications is limited because of their sensitivity to small imperfections. To overcome this extreme sensitivity to small imperfections, ceramic matrix composite materials have been developed that have the ability to withstand some distributed damage. A borosilicate glass reinforced with several layers of silicon-carbide fiber mat has been studied. Four-point flexure and tension tests were performed not only to determine some of the material properties, but also to initiate a controlled amount of damage within each specimen. Acousto-ultrasonic (AU) measurements were performed periodically during mechanical testing. This paper will compare the AU results to the mechanical test results and data from other nondestructive methods including acoustic emission monitoring and X-ray radiography. It was found that the AU measurements were sensitive to the damage that had developed within the material.

  5. Measuring time-dependent diffusion in polymer matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilli, Siva P.; Smith, Lloyd V.; Vaithiyalingam, Shutthanandan

    2014-11-01

    Moisture plays a significant role in influencing the mechanical behavior and long-term durability of polymer matrix composites (PMCs). The common methods used to determine the moisture diffusion coefficients of PMCs are based on the solution of Fickian diffusion in the one-dimensional domain. Fick's Law assumes that equilibrium between the material surface and the external vapor is established instantaneously. A time-dependent boundary condition has been shown to improve correlation with some bulk diffusion measurements, but has not been validated experimentally. The surface moisture content in a Toray 800S/3900-2B toughened quasi-isotropic laminate system, [0/±60] s , was analyzed experimentally using Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). It was found that the surface moisture content showed a rapid increase to an intermediate concentration C 0, followed by a slow linear increase to the saturation level.

  6. Survey of inorganic polymers. [for composite matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, A. H.; Mcinerney, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    A literature search was carried out in order to identify inorganic, metallo-organic, and hybrid inorganic-organic polymers that could serve as potential matrix resins for advanced composites. The five most promising candidates were critically reviewed and recommendations were made for the achievement of their potential in terms of performance and cost. These generic polymer classes comprise: (1) Poly(arylsil sesquioxanes); (2) Poly(silyl arylene siloxanes); (3) Poly(silarylenes); (4) Poly(silicon-linked ferrocenes); and (5) Poly(organo phosphazenes). No single candidate currently possesses the necessary combination of physicomechanical properties, thermal stability, processability, and favorable economics. The first three classes exhibit the best thermal performance. On the other hand, poly (organo phosphazenes), the most extensively studied polymer class, exhibit the best combination of structure-property control, processability, and favorable economics.

  7. Cooled Ceramic Matrix Composite Panel Successfully Tested in Rocket Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckel, Andrew J.

    2001-01-01

    Actively cooled ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components are enabling or enhancing for a broad range of hypersonic and reusable launch vehicle propulsion systems. Teaming with other NASA centers, the Air Force, and industry, the Glenn Ceramics Branch has successfully tested multiple cooled CMC panel concepts in high-heat-flux, high-pressure, flowing rocket engine combustion gas environments. Sub-element components survived multiple cycles and the severe thermal gradients imposed by combustion gas temperatures in excess of 5500 F and cryogenic hydrogen or ambient temperature water internal coolants. These demonstrations are critical for the continued development of this class of materials, and the research is expected to continue with additional concepts and increasingly larger and more complex geometries being fabricated and tested in a broad range of engine operating conditions.

  8. Measuring time-dependent diffusion in polymer matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Pilli, Siva Prasad; Smith, Lloyd V.; Shutthanandan, V.

    2014-11-01

    Moisture plays a significant role in influencing the mechanical behavior and long-term durability of polymer matrix composites (PMC’s). The common methods used to determine the moisture diffusion coefficients of PMCs are based on the solution of Fickian diffusion in the one-dimensional domain. Fick’s Law assumes that equilibrium between the material surface and the external vapor is established instantaneously. A time dependent boundary condition has been shown to improve correlation with some bulk diffusion measurements, but has not been validated experimentally. The surface moisture content in a Toray 800S/3900-2B toughened quasi-isotropic laminate system, [0/±60]s, was analyzed experimentally using Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). It was found that the surface moisture content showed a rapid increase to an intermediate concentration C0, followed by a slow linear increase to the saturation level.

  9. Tensile Properties of Polymeric Matrix Composites Subjected to Cryogenic Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Karen S.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2004-01-01

    Polymer matrix composites (PMC s) have seen limited use as structural materials in cryogenic environments. One reason for the limited use of PMC s in cryogenic structures is a design philosophy that typically requires a large, validated database of material properties in order to ensure a reliable and defect free structure. It is the intent of this paper to provide an initial set of mechanical properties developed from experimental data of an advanced PMC (IM7/PETI-5) exposed to cryogenic temperatures and mechanical loading. The application of this data is to assist in the materials down-select and design of cryogenic fuel tanks for future reusable space vehicles. The details of the material system, test program, and experimental methods will be outlined. Tension modulus and strength were measured at room temperature, -196 C, and -269 C on five different laminates. These properties were also tested after aging at -186 C with and without loading applied. Microcracking was observed in one laminate.

  10. Wear and Reactivity Studies of Melt infiltrated Ceramic Matrix Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarmon, David C.; Ojard, Greg; Brewer, David N.

    2013-01-01

    As interest grows in the use of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for critical gas turbine engine components, the effects of the CMCs interaction with the adjoining structure needs to be understood. A series of CMC/material couples were wear tested in a custom elevated temperature test rig and tested as diffusion couples, to identify interactions. Specifically, melt infiltrated silicon carbide/silicon carbide (MI SiC/SiC) CMC was tested in combination with a nickel-based super alloy, Waspaloy, a thermal barrier coating, Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), and a monolithic ceramic, silicon nitride (Si3N4). To make the tests more representative of actual hardware, the surface of the CMC was kept in the as-received state (not machined) with the full surface features/roughness present. Test results include: scanning electron microscope characterization of the surfaces, micro-structural characterization, and microprobe analysis.

  11. Graphite Fiber Textile Preform/Copper Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filatovs, G. J.; Lee, Bruce; Bass, Lowell

    1996-01-01

    Graphite fiber reinforced/copper matrix composites are candidate materials for critical heat transmitting and rejection components because of their high thermal conduction. The use of textile (braid) preforms allows near-net shapes which confers additional advantages, both for enhanced thermal conduction and increased robustness of the preform against infiltration and handling damage. Issues addressed in the past year center on the determination of the braid structure following infiltration, and the braidability vs. the conductivity of the fibers. Highly conductive fibers eventuate from increased graphitization, which increases the elastic modulus, but lowers the braidability; a balance between these factors must be achieved. Good quality braided preform bars have been fabricated and infiltrated, and their thermal expansion characterized; their analytic modeling is underway. The braided preform of an integral finned tube has been fabricated and is being prepared for infiltration.

  12. Geopolymer - room-temperature ceramic matrix for composites

    SciTech Connect

    Davidovits, J.; Davidovics, M.

    1988-08-01

    The semiamorphous three-dimensional networks of polymeric Na, K, Li, and Mg aluminosilicates of both poly(sialate) and poly(sialate-siloxo) type, collectively known as geopolymers, harden at 20-120 C and are similar to thermoset resins, but are stable at up to 1200-1400 C without shrinkage. A wide variety of alkaline-resistant inorganic reinforcements, notably SiC fibers, have been combined with geopolymer matrices to yield nonburning, nonsmoking high-temperature composites. An SiC fiber-reinforced K-poly(sialate-siloxo) matrix, shaped and hardened at 70 C for 1.5 hr, develops flexural mean strengths of the order of 380 MPa that are retained after firing at up to 900 C. 16 references.

  13. Oxidation resistant coatings for ceramic matrix composite components

    SciTech Connect

    Vaubert, V.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Hirschfeld, D.A.

    1998-11-01

    Corrosion resistant Ca{sub 0.6}Mg{sub 0.4}Zr{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6} (CMZP) and Ca{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6} (CS-50) coatings for fiber-reinforced SiC-matrix composite heat exchanger tubes have been developed. Aqueous slurries of both oxides were prepared with high solids loading. One coating process consisted of dipping the samples in a slip. A tape casting process has also been created that produced relatively thin and dense coatings covering a large area. A processing technique was developed, utilizing a pre-sintering step, which produced coatings with minimal cracking.

  14. Development of Metal Matrix Composites for NASA's Advanced Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J.; Elam, S.

    2001-01-01

    The state-of-the-art development of several Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) for NASA's advanced propulsion systems will be presented. The goal is to provide an overview of NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center's on-going activities in MMC components for advanced liquid rocket engines such as the X-33 vehicle's Aerospike engine and X-34's Fastrac engine. The focus will be on lightweight, low cost, and environmental compatibility with oxygen and hydrogen of key MMC materials, within each of NASA's new propulsion application, that will provide a high payoff for NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicles and space access vehicles. In order to fabricate structures from MMC, effective joining methods must be developed to join MMC to the same or to different monolithic alloys. Therefore, a qualitative assessment of MMC's welding and joining techniques will be outlined.

  15. Nondestructive Damage Evaluation in Ceramic Matrix Composites for Aerospace Applications

    PubMed Central

    Dassios, Konstantinos G.; Kordatos, Evangelos Z.; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.; Matikas, Theodore E.

    2013-01-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) and acoustic emission (AE) are the two major nondestructive methodologies for evaluating damage in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for aerospace applications. The two techniques are applied herein to assess and monitor damage formation and evolution in a SiC-fiber reinforced CMC loaded under cyclic and fatigue loading. The paper explains how IRT and AE can be used for the assessment of the material's performance under fatigue. IRT and AE parameters are specifically used for the characterization of the complex damage mechanisms that occur during CMC fracture, and they enable the identification of the micromechanical processes that control material failure, mainly crack formation and propagation. Additionally, these nondestructive parameters help in early prediction of the residual life of the material and in establishing the fatigue limit of materials rapidly and accurately. PMID:23935428

  16. Deformation and failure mechanisms in metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newaz, G.; Majumdar, B. S.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to determine the key deformation mechanisms and their interaction leading to failure of both 0 degree and 90 degree Ti 15-3/SCS-6 laminae under monotonic loading. The experimental results suggest that inelastic deformation in the 0-degree lamina is dominated by plastic deformation and that in the 90-degree lamina is dominated by both fiber-matrix debonding and plasticity. The loading-unloading response, monitoring of Poisson's ratio and microscopy were utilized to identify the key deformation mechanisms. The sequence of deformation mechanisms leading to failure are identified for both the 0 and the 90-degree specimens. The threshold strains for plasticity or damage which are referred to as 'microdeformation' in the 0 deg and 90 deg laminae are approximately 0.004 and 0.002, respectively, at room temperature. These strain levels may be considered critical in initiation based structural design with these composites.

  17. Thermal analysis of metal foam matrix composite phase change material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiange

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, CPCM (Composite Phase Change Material) was manufactured with metal foam matrix used as filling material. The temperature curves were obtained by experiment. The performance of heat transfer was analyzed. The experimental results show that metal foam matrix can improve temperature uniformity in phase change thermal storage material and enhance heat conduction ability. The thermal performance of CPCM is significantly improved. The efficiency of temperature control can be obviously improved by adding metal foam in phase change material. CPCM is in solid-liquid two-phase region when temperature is close to phase change point of paraffin. An approximate plateau appears. The plateau can be considered as the temperature control zone of CPCM. Heat can be transferred from hot source and be uniformly spread in thermal storage material by using metal foam matrix since thermal storage material has the advantage of strong heat storage capacity and disadvantage of poor heat conduction ability. Natural convection promotes the melting of solid-liquid phase change material. Good thermal conductivity of foam metal accelerates heat conduction of solid-liquid phase change material. The interior temperature difference decreases and the whole temperature becomes more uniform. For the same porosity with a metal foam, melting time of solid-liquid phase change material decreases. Heat conduction is enhanced and natural convection is suppressed when pore size of metal foam is smaller. The thermal storage time decreases and heat absorption rate increases when the pore size of metal foam reduces. The research results can be used to guide fabricating the CPCM.

  18. Condensation Dynamics on Mimicked Metal Matrix Hydrophobic Nanoparticle-Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damle, Viraj; Sun, Xiaoda; Rykaczewski, Konrad

    2014-11-01

    Use of hydrophobic surfaces promotes condensation in the dropwise mode, which is significantly more efficient than the common filmwise mode. However, limited longevity of hydrophobic surface modifiers has prevented their wide spread use in industry. Recently, metal matrix composites (MMCs) having microscale hydrophobic heterogeneities dispersed in hydrophilic metal matrix have been proposed as durable and self-healing alternative to hydrophobic surface coatings interacting with deposited water droplets. While dispersion of hydrophobic microparticles in MMC is likely to lead to surface flooding during condensation, the effect of dispersion of hydrophobic nanoparticles (HNPs) with size comparable to water nuclei critical radii and spacing is not obvious. To this end, we fabricated highly ordered arrays of Teflon nanospheres on silicon substrates that mimic the top surface of the MMCs with dispersed HNPs. We used light and electron microscopy to observe breath figures resulting from condensation on these surfaces at varied degrees of subcooling. Here, we discuss the relation between the droplet size distribution, Teflon nanosphere diameter and spacing, and condensation mode. KR acknowledges startup funding from ASU.

  19. Advanced Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are enabling materials for a number of demanding applications in aerospace, energy, and nuclear industries. In the aerospace systems, these materials are being considered for applications in hot sections of jet engines such as the combustor liner, vanes, nozzle components, nose cones, leading edges of reentry vehicles, and space propulsion components. Applications in the energy and environmental industries include radiant heater tubes, heat exchangers, heat recuperators, gas and diesel particulate filters, and components for land based turbines for power generation. These materials are also being considered for use in the first wall and blanket components of fusion reactors. In the last few years, a number of CMC components have been developed and successfully tested for various aerospace and ground based applications. However, a number of challenges still remain slowing the wide scale implementation of these materials. They include robust fabrication and manufacturing, assembly and integration, coatings, property modeling and life prediction, design codes and databases, repair and refurbishment, and cost. Fabrication of net and complex shape components with high density and tailorable matrix properties is quite expensive, and even then various desirable properties are not achievable. In this presentation, a number of examples of successful CMC component development and testing will be provided. In addition, critical need for robust manufacturing, joining and assembly technologies in successful implementation of these systems will be discussed.

  20. Inelastic response of metal matrix composites under biaxial loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirzadeh, F.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1990-01-01

    Elements of the analytical/experimental program to characterize the response of silicon carbide titanium (SCS-6/Ti-15-3) composite tubes under biaxial loading are outlined. The analytical program comprises prediction of initial yielding and subsequent inelastic response of unidirectional and angle-ply silicon carbide titanium tubes using a combined micromechanics approach and laminate analysis. The micromechanics approach is based on the method of cells model and has the capability of generating the effective thermomechanical response of metal matrix composites in the linear and inelastic region in the presence of temperature and time-dependent properties of the individual constituents and imperfect bonding on the initial yield surfaces and inelastic response of (0) and (+ or - 45)sub s SCS-6/Ti-15-3 laminates loaded by different combinations of stresses. The generated analytical predictions will be compared with the experimental results. The experimental program comprises generation of initial yield surfaces, subsequent stress-strain curves and determination of failure loads of the SCS-6/Ti-15-3 tubes under selected loading conditions. The results of the analytical investigation are employed to define the actual loading paths for the experimental program. A brief overview of the experimental methodology is given. This includes the test capabilities of the Composite Mechanics Laboratory at the University of Virginia, the SCS-6/Ti-15-3 composite tubes secured from McDonnell Douglas Corporation, a text fixture specifically developed for combined axial-torsional loading, and the MTS combined axial-torsion loader that will be employed in the actual testing.

  1. Advanced Measurements of Silicon Carbide Ceramic Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Farhad Farzbod; Stephen J. Reese; Zilong Hua; Marat Khafizov; David H. Hurley

    2012-08-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is being considered as a fuel cladding material for accident tolerant fuel under the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program sponsored by the Nuclear Energy Division of the Department of Energy. Silicon carbide has many potential advantages over traditional zirconium based cladding systems. These include high melting point, low susceptibility to corrosion, and low degradation of mechanical properties under neutron irradiation. In addition, ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) made from SiC have high mechanical toughness enabling these materials to withstand thermal and mechanical shock loading. However, many of the fundamental mechanical and thermal properties of SiC CMCs depend strongly on the fabrication process. As a result, extrapolating current materials science databases for these materials to nuclear applications is not possible. The “Advanced Measurements” work package under the LWRS fuels pathway is tasked with the development of measurement techniques that can characterize fundamental thermal and mechanical properties of SiC CMCs. An emphasis is being placed on development of characterization tools that can used for examination of fresh as well as irradiated samples. The work discuss in this report can be divided into two broad categories. The first involves the development of laser ultrasonic techniques to measure the elastic and yield properties and the second involves the development of laser-based techniques to measurement thermal transport properties. Emphasis has been placed on understanding the anisotropic and heterogeneous nature of SiC CMCs in regards to thermal and mechanical properties. The material properties characterized within this work package will be used as validation of advanced materials physics models of SiC CMCs developed under the LWRS fuels pathway. In addition, it is envisioned that similar measurement techniques can be used to provide process control and quality assurance as well as measurement of

  2. Prediction of thermal cycling induced cracking in polmer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, Hugh L.

    1994-01-01

    The work done in the period August 1993 through February 1994 on the 'Prediction of Thermal Cycling Induced Cracking In Polymer Matrix Composites' program is summarized. Most of the work performed in this period, as well as the previous one, is described in detail in the attached Master's thesis, 'Analysis of Thermally Induced Damage in Composite Space Structures,' by Cecelia Hyun Seon Park. Work on a small thermal cycling and aging chamber was concluded in this period. The chamber was extensively tested and calibrated. Temperatures can be controlled very precisely, and are very uniform in the test chamber. Based on results obtained in the previous period of this program, further experimental progressive cracking studies were carried out. The laminates tested were selected to clarify the differences between the behaviors of thick and thin ply layers, and to explore other variables such as stacking sequence and scaling effects. Most specimens tested were made available from existing stock at Langley Research Center. One laminate type had to be constructed from available prepreg material at Langley Research Center. Specimens from this laminate were cut and prepared at MIT. Thermal conditioning was carried out at Langley Research Center, and at the newly constructed MIT facility. Specimens were examined by edge inspection and by crack configuration studies, in which specimens were sanded down in order to examine the distribution of cracks within the specimens. A method for predicting matrix cracking due to decreasing temperatures and/or thermal cycling in all plies of an arbitrary laminate was implemented as a computer code. The code also predicts changes in properties due to the cracking. Extensive correlations between test results and code predictions were carried out. The computer code was documented and is ready for distribution.

  3. Multi-scale damage modelling in a ceramic matrix composite using a finite-element microstructure meshfree methodology.

    PubMed

    Saucedo-Mora, L; Marrow, T J

    2016-07-13

    The problem of multi-scale modelling of damage development in a SiC ceramic fibre-reinforced SiC matrix ceramic composite tube is addressed, with the objective of demonstrating the ability of the finite-element microstructure meshfree (FEMME) model to introduce important aspects of the microstructure into a larger scale model of the component. These are particularly the location, orientation and geometry of significant porosity and the load-carrying capability and quasi-brittle failure behaviour of the fibre tows. The FEMME model uses finite-element and cellular automata layers, connected by a meshfree layer, to efficiently couple the damage in the microstructure with the strain field at the component level. Comparison is made with experimental observations of damage development in an axially loaded composite tube, studied by X-ray computed tomography and digital volume correlation. Recommendations are made for further development of the model to achieve greater fidelity to the microstructure. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials'. PMID:27242308

  4. Durability of a polymer matrix composite: Neural networks approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Haik, Marwan S.

    In this study, the viscoplastic behavior of a carbon-fiber/thixotropic-epoxy matrix composite was investigated through two deferent modeling efforts. The first model is phenomenological in nature and it utilizes the tensile and stress relaxation experiments to predict the creep strain. In the second model, the composite viscoplastic behavior is no longer represented by closed-form constitutive laws, but it is captured by a neural network formulation. The composite was processed and cured using hand lay-up technique together with autoclave curing system. By performing thermomechanical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry, the glass transition temperature of the composite was noticed to degrade. Experiments were performed to examine the tensile, creep, and load relaxation behavior of the composite under different temperatures. It was found that the composite strength and stiffness decrease significantly at elevated temperatures. A phenomenological model was constructed based on the overstress viscoplastic model. In this model, four material's parameters are extracted from tensile and load relaxation tests. These parameters are used by a system of coupled equations to predict the creep strain. The results of the phenomenological model were satisfactory for predicting creep at low temperature conditions, but for the high stress-high temperature regimes, the model failed to predict the creep strain accurately. The neural network model was built directly from the experimental creep tests performed at various stress-temperature conditions. The optimal structure of the neural network was achieved through the universal approximation theory and the dimensionality of the creep problem (stress, temperature, and time). The neural network model was trained to predict the creep strain based on the stress-temperature-time values. The performance of the neural model is captured by the mean squared error between the neural network prediction and the experimental creep

  5. Prediction of matrix fatigue crack initiation in notched SCS-6/Ti-15-3 metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillberry, B. M.; Johnson, W. S.

    1991-01-01

    Several lay-ups of SCS-6/Ti-15-3 metal matrix composites were tested in either a center hole or a double edge notched geometry. At different cyclic strss levels, the number of cycles required to develop matrix fatigue cracks at the notches was recorded. A fatigue strat-life curve was developed for the Ti-15-3 matrix material. This modified parameter predicted the number of cycles required for matrix crack initiation at the notches. The predictions were in good agreement with the experimental data.

  6. Fracture of brittle solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, R. D.; Nash, S. K.

    1990-01-01

    Upon completion of this experiment, the student should be able to give an elementary account of brittle versus ductile failure, conduct a three-point bend test on a tensile testing machine, and statistically analyze experimental data that exhibit inherently wide scatter. The experimental procedure is described.

  7. Brittleness of ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroupa, F.

    1984-01-01

    The main characteristics of mechanical properties of ceramics are summarized and the causes of their brittleness, especially the limited mobility of dislocations, are discussed. The possibility of improving the fracture toughness of ceramics and the basic research needs relating to technology, structure and mechanical properties of ceramics are stressed in connection with their possible applications in engineering at high temperature.

  8. Fabrication of thermoelectric wire-matrix composites using electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnke, Joseph Frederick

    Thermoelectric materials have potential applications in a wide range of heating and cooling systems. Thermoelectric coolers, for example, are small, lightweight, and silent. They have no moving parts or fluids. What hinders a broader use of thermoelectric materials is their inefficiency when compared to compressor based systems. Theoretical studies have shown that there is a possible enhancement in thermoelectric properties through quantum confinement of the material. Recent studies have attempted to show this enhancement through the fabrication of multilayers, quantum wires and coupled quantum dots. In this study, the fabrication of thermoelectric wire-matrix composites is attempted. Porous anodic aluminum oxide was chosen as the matrix material because of its high porosity, its uniform pore diameter, its low thermal conductivity, and its compatibility with current thermoelectric device structures. CoSb 3 was chosen as the wire material because of its potential to show an enhancement in thermoelectric properties above bulk values at diameters greater than other commonly used thermoelectric materials. Electrodeposition was chosen as the method of fabrication, as it best allowed for infiltration of wire material into the matrix. It was found, however, that cobalt and antimony could not be electrodeposited into the porous matrix from the same bath. Therefore a two bath, multilayer approach was used to fabricate wires, using a post anneal to form the CoSb3 phase. The formation of CoSb3 was demonstrated by depositing alternating layers of cobalt from a CoS0 47H2O bath and antimony from an Sb2O3 bath. Both baths were aqueous and contained a supporting electrolyte of citric acid and potassium citrate. Depositing the antimony layer for 22 times the duration of the cobalt deposition gave the correct stoichiometry in the multilayers. To form CoSb3, the multilayers were annealed in an antimony ambient at temperatures greater than 575°C. The post annealing was found to

  9. Toughening of a particulate-reinforced/ceramic-matrix composite. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Taya, M.; Hayashi, S.; Kobayashi, A.S.; Yoon, H.S.

    1989-09-01

    The toughening mechanism of particulate-reinforced/ceramic-matrix composites was attributed to the thermal residual-stress field induced by the differential thermal expansions of the matrix and the particulate when the composite is cooled from the processing to room temperature. The measured increase 77% in toughness in a TiB{sub 2}-particulate/SiC-matrix ceramic composite compared well with the predicted increase of 52%.

  10. Metal matrix composites. (Latest citations from the US Patent database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods and equipment for manufacturing metal matrix composites. Various matrix composites are described, including aluminium, magnesium, ceramic-metal, titanium, boron, and fiber reinforced. Matrix techniques include rapid solidification, infiltration process, and investment casting. Composites for use in electronic packages, gas turbines, combustion engines, antennae, detectors, aerospace vehicles, and semiconductor devices are presented. (Contains a minimum of 165 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Metal matrix composites. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods and equipment for manufacturing metal matrix composites. Various matrix composites are described, including aluminium, magnesium, ceramic-metal, titanium, boron, and fiber reinforced. Matrix techniques include rapid solidification, infiltration process, and investment casting. Composites for use in electronic packages, gas turbines, combustion engines, antennae, detectors, aerospace vehicles, and semiconductor devices are presented. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. Metal matrix composites. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic File with Exemplary Claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods and equipment for manufacturing metal matrix composites. Various matrix composites are described, including aluminium, magnesium, ceramic-metal, titanium, boron, and fiber reinforced. Matrix techniques include rapid solidification, infiltration process, and investment casting. Composites for use in electronic packages, gas turbines, combustion engines, antennae, detectors, aerospace vehicles, and semiconductor devices are presented. (Contains a minimum of 196 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Metal matrix composites. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods and equipment for manufacturing metal matrix composites. Various matrix composites are described, including aluminium, magnesium, ceramic-metal, titanium, boron, and fiber reinforced. Matrix techniques include rapid solidification, infiltration process, and investment casting. Composites for use in electronic packages, gas turbines, combustion engines, antennae, detectors, aerospace vehicles, and semiconductor devices are presented. (Contains a minimum of 232 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Stochastic Virtual Tests for High-Temperature Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Brian N.; Bale, Hrishikesh A.; Begley, Matthew; Blacklock, Matthew; Do, Bao-Chan; Fast, Tony; Naderi, Mehdi; Novak, Mark; Rajan, Varun P.; Rinaldi, Renaud G.; Ritchie, Robert O.; Rossol, Michael N.; Shaw, John H.; Sudre, Olivier; Yang, Qingda; Zok, Frank W.; Marshall, David B.

    2014-07-01

    We review the development of virtual tests for high-temperature ceramic matrix composites with textile reinforcement. Success hinges on understanding the relationship between the microstructure of continuous-fiber composites, including its stochastic variability, and the evolution of damage events leading to failure. The virtual tests combine advanced experiments and theories to address physical, mathematical, and engineering aspects of material definition and failure prediction. Key new experiments include surface image correlation methods and synchrotron-based, micrometer-resolution 3D imaging, both executed at temperatures exceeding 1,500°C. Computational methods include new probabilistic algorithms for generating stochastic virtual specimens, as well as a new augmented finite element method that deals efficiently with arbitrary systems of crack initiation, bifurcation, and coalescence in heterogeneous materials. Conceptual advances include the use of topology to characterize stochastic microstructures. We discuss the challenge of predicting the probability of an extreme failure event in a computationally tractable manner while retaining the necessary physical detail.

  15. Real-Time Investigation of Solidification of Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, William; Sen, Subhayu

    1999-01-01

    Casting of metal matrix composites can develop imperfections either as non- uniform distributions of the reinforcement phases or as outright defects such as porosity. The solidification process itself initiates these problems. To identify or rectify the problems, one must be able to detect and to study how they form. Until, recently this was only possible by experiments that employed transparent metal model organic materials with glass beads to simulate the reinforcing phases. Recent results obtained from a Space Shuttle experiment (using transparent materials) will be used to illustrate the fundamental physics that dictates the final distribution of agglomerates in a casting. We have further extended this real time investigation to aluminum alloys using X-ray microscopy. A variety of interface-particle interactions will be discussed and how they alter the final properties of the composite. A demonstration of how a solid-liquid interface is distorted by nearby voids or particles, particle pushing or engulfment by the interface, formations of wormholes, Aggregation of particles, and particle-induced segregation of alloying elements will be presented.

  16. Mechanocompatible Polymer-Extracellular-Matrix Composites for Vascular Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bin; Suen, Rachel; Wang, Jiao-Jing; Zhang, Zheng J; Wertheim, Jason A; Ameer, Guillermo A

    2016-07-01

    Small-diameter vascular grafts developed from vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) can potentially be used for bypass surgeries and other vascular reconstruction and repair procedures. The addition of heparin to the ECM improves graft hemocompatibility but often involves chemical cross-linking, which increases ECM mechanical stiffness compared to native arteries. Herein, the importance of maintaining ECM mechanocompatibility is demonstrated, and a mechanocompatible strategy to immobilize heparin onto the ECM via a biodegradable elastomer is described. Specifically, poly(1,8-octamethylene citrate)-co-cysteine is hybridized to the ECM, forming a polymer-ECM composite that allows for heparin immobilization via maleimide-thiol "click" chemistry. Heparinized composites reduce platelet adhesion by >60% in vitro, without altering the elastic modulus of the ECM. In a rat abdominal aortic interposition model, intimal hyperplasia in heparinized mechanocompatible grafts is 65% lower when compared to ECM-only control grafts at four weeks. In contrast, grafts that are heparinized with carbodiimide chemistry exhibit increased intimal hyperplasia (4.2-fold) and increased macrophage infiltration (3.5-fold) compared to ECM-only control grafts. All grafts show similar, partial endothelial cell coverage and little to no ECM remodeling. Overall, a mechanocompatible strategy to improve ECM thromboresistance is described and the importance of ECM mechanical properties for proper in vivo graft performance is highlighted. PMID:27109033

  17. Structural and functional polymer-matrix composites for electromagnetic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Junhua

    This dissertation addresses the science and technology of functional and structural polymer-matrix composite materials for electromagnetic applications, which include electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding and low observability (Stealth). The structural composites are continuous carbon fiber epoxy-matrix composites, which are widely used for airframes. The functional composites are composites with discontinuous fillers and in both bulk and coating forms. Through composite structure variation, attractive electromagnetic properties have been achieved. With no degradation of the tensile strength or modulus, the shielding effectiveness of the structural composites has been improved by enhancing multiple reflections through light activation of the carbon fiber. The multiple reflections loss of the electromagnetic wave increases from 1.1 to 10.2 dB at 1.0 GHz due to the activation. Such a large effect of multiple reflections has not been previously reported in any material. The observability of these composites has been lowered by decreasing the electrical conductivity (and hence decreasing the reflection loss) through carbon fiber coating. The incorporation of mumetal, a magnetic alloy particulate filler (28-40 mum size), in a latex paint has been found to be effective for enhancing the shielding only if the electrical resistivity of the resulting composite coating is below 10 O.cm, as rendered by a conductive particulate filler, such as nickel flake (14-20 mum size). This effectiveness (39 dB at 1.0 GHz) is attributed to the absorption of the electromagnetic wave by the mumetal and the nickel flake, with the high conductivity rendered by the presence of the nickel flake resulting in a relatively high reflection loss of 15.5 dB. Without the nickel flake, the mumetal gives only 3 dB of shielding and 1.5 dB of reflection loss at 1.0 GHz. Nickel powder (0.3-0.5 mum size) has been found to be an effective filler for improving the shielding of polyethersulfone (PES

  18. Metal matrix coated fiber composites and the methods of manufacturing such composites

    DOEpatents

    Weeks, J.K. Jr.; Gensse, C.

    1993-09-14

    A fiber coating which allows ceramic or metal fibers to be wetted by molten metals is disclosed. The coating inhibits degradation of the physical properties caused by chemical reaction between the fiber and the coating itself or between the fiber and the metal matrix. The fiber coating preferably includes at least a wetting layer, and in some applications, a wetting layer and a barrier layer between the fiber and the wetting layer. The wetting layer promotes fiber wetting by the metal matrix. The barrier layer inhibits fiber degradation. The fiber coating permits the fibers to be infiltrated with the metal matrix resulting in composites having unique properties not obtainable in pure materials. 8 figures.

  19. A study of the composition and microstructure of aluminum matrix composites reinforced with alumina fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotova, D.; Serpova, V.; Prokofiev, M.; Rabinskiy, L.; Shavnev, A.

    2016-04-01

    This article presents the results of a study of the microstructure and the composition of aluminum-based metal matrix composites (MMC) reinforced with continuous alumina fibers. An Al-Mg-Cu alloy similar to that of AA 2024 was used. X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence analyses were used for investigation of a probable volume fraction of a spinel phase in MMC. Scanning electron microscopy and an X-ray microanalysis were used to study a change of the elemental composition of the composites microstructure on the polished cross sections. The constant mass fractions of magnesium (0.65 wt. %) and copper (1.25 wt. %) were found in the interphase area within radius of 1 μm around fibers.

  20. Fatigue-life behavior and matrix fatigue crack spacing in unnotched SCS-6/Timetal 21S metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, G. T.; Herrmann, D. J.; Hillberry, B. M.

    1993-01-01

    Fatigue tests of the SCS-6/Timetal 21S composite system were performed to characterize the fatigue behavior for unnotched conditions. The stress-life behavior of the unnotched (9/90)2s laminates was investigated for stress ratios of R = 0.1 and R = 0.3. The occurrence of matrix cracking was also examined in these specimens. This revealed multiple matrix crack initiation sites throughout the composite, as well as evenly spaced surface cracks along the length of the specimens. No difference in fatigue lives were observed for stress ratios of R = 0.1 and R = 0.3 when compared on a stress range basis. The unnotched SCS-6/Timetal 21S composites had shorter fatigue lives than the SCS-6/Ti-15-3 composites, however the neat Timetal 21S matrix material had a longer fatigue life than the neat Ti-15-3.

  1. Fatigue-life behavior and matrix fatigue crack spacing in unnotched SCS-6/Timetal 21S metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, G. T.; Herrmann, D. J.; Hillberry, B. M.

    1993-07-01

    Fatigue tests of the SCS-6/Timetal 21S composite system were performed to characterize the fatigue behavior for unnotched conditions. The stress-life behavior of the unnotched (9/90)2s laminates was investigated for stress ratios of R = 0.1 and R = 0.3. The occurrence of matrix cracking was also examined in these specimens. This revealed multiple matrix crack initiation sites throughout the composite, as well as evenly spaced surface cracks along the length of the specimens. No difference in fatigue lives were observed for stress ratios of R = 0.1 and R = 0.3 when compared on a stress range basis. The unnotched SCS-6/Timetal 21S composites had shorter fatigue lives than the SCS-6/Ti-15-3 composites, however the neat Timetal 21S matrix material had a longer fatigue life than the neat Ti-15-3.

  2. Fracturing and brittleness index analyses of shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhoorn, Auke; Primarini, Mutia; Houben, Maartje

    2016-04-01

    candidate for hydraulic fracturing while if we would rely on stress-strain data (BI2) the Whitby mudstone would be a very good candidate. We are aiming to perform these kind of measurements on a wide variety of shales with varying compositions and origins etc. and compare all results and come up with a better brittleness index, as well as link the brittleness indices to the fracturing behaviour seen in the samples. References: Holt, R., Fjaer, E., Nes, O. & Alassi, H., 2011. A shaly look at brittleness. 45th U.S. Rock Mechanics / Geomechanics Symposium, ARMA-11-366 Jarvie, D., Hill, J., Ruble, T. & Pollastro, R., 2007. Unconventional shale-gas system: The Mississippian Barnett Shale of North-Central Texas as one model for thermogenic shale-gas assessment. AAPG, 91(doi: 10.1306/12190606068), pp. 475-499. Jin, X., Shah, S. N., Rogiers, J.-C. & Zhang, B., 2014. Fraccability Evaluation in Shale Reservoirs - An Integrated Petrophysics and Geomechanics Approach. Woodlands, Texas, SPE.

  3. Strength and fracture behavior of aluminide matrix composites with ceramic fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, M.; Suganuma, K.; Niihara, K.

    1999-07-01

    This paper investigates the fracture behavior of FeAl and Ni{sub 3}Al matrix composites with ceramic continuous fibers 8.5--10 {micro}m in diameter. When stress is applied to these composites, multiple-fracture of fibers predominantly occurs before matrix cracking, because the load carried by the fibers reaches their fracture strength. Fragments which remain longer than the critical length can provide significant strengthening through load bearing even though fiber breaking has occurred. The ultimate fracture strength of the composites also depends on stress relaxation by plastic deformation of the matrix at a crack tip in the multiple-fractured fibers. Ductilizing of the matrix by B doping improves the ultimate strength at ambient temperatures in both composites. However, their mechanical properties at elevated temperatures are quite different. In the case of Ni{sub 3}Al matrix composites, embrittlement of the matrix is undesirable for high strength and reliability at 873--973 K.

  4. Role of interfacial and matrix creep during thermal cycling of continuous fiber reinforced metal-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, I.

    2000-03-14

    A uni-dimensional micro-mechanical model for thermal cycling of continuous fiber reinforced metal-matrix composites is developed. The model treats the fiber and matrix as thermo-elastic and thermo-elasto-plastic-creeping solids, respectively, and allows the operation of multiple matrix creep mechanisms at various stages of deformation through the use of unified creep laws. It also incorporates the effect of interfacial sliding by an interface-diffusion-controlled diffusional creep mechanism proposed earlier (Funn and Dutta, Acta mater., 1999, 47, 149). The results of thermal cycling simulations based on a graphite fiber reinforced pure aluminum-matrix composite were compared with experimental data on a P100 graphite-6061 Al composite. The model successfully captured all the important features of the observed heating/cooling rate dependence, strain hysteresis, residual permanent strain at the end of a cycle, as well as both intrusion and protrusion of the fiber-ends relative to the matrix at the completion of cycling. The analysis showed that the dominant deformation mechanism operative in the matrix changes continually during thermal cycling due to continuous stress and temperature revision. Based on these results, a framework for the construction of a transient deformation mechanism map for thermal excursions of continuous fiber composites is proposed.

  5. Polymer matrix composites research: A survey of federally sponsored programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This report identifies research conducted by agencies of the federal government other than the Department of Energy (DOE) in the area of advanced polymer matrix composites (PMCs). DOE commissioned the report to avoid duplicating other agencies' efforts in planning its own research program for PMCs. PMC materials consist of high-strength, short or continuous fibers fused together by an organic matrix. Compared to traditional structural metals, PMCs provide greater strength and stiffness, reduced weight and increased heat resistance. The key contributors to PMC research identified by the survey are the Department of Defense (DOD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Department of Transportation (DOT). The survey identified a total of 778 projects. More than half of the total projects identified emphasize materials research with a goal toward developing materials with improved performance. Although an almost equal number of identified materials projects focus on thermosets and thermoplastics receive more attention because of their increased impact resistance and their easy formability and re-formability. Slightly more than one third of projects identified target structures research. Only 15 percent of the projects identified focus on manufacturing techniques, despite the need for efficient, economical methods manufacturing products constructed of PMCs--techniques required for PMCs to gain widespread acceptance. Three issues to be addressed concerning PMCs research are economy of use, improvements in processing, and education and training. Five target technologies have been identified that could benefit greatly from increased use of PMCs: aircraft fuselages, automobile frames, high-speed machinery, electronic packaging, and construction.

  6. Prediction of thermal cycling induced cracking in polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, Hugh L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done in the period February 1993 through July 1993 on the 'Prediction of Thermal Cycling Induced Cracking In Polymer Matrix Composites' program. An oral presentation of this work was given to Langley personnel in September of 1993. This document was prepared for archival purposes. Progress studies have been performed on the effects of spatial variations in material strength. Qualitative agreement was found with observed patterns of crack distribution. These results were presented to NASA Langley personnel in November 1992. The analytical methodology developed by Prof. McManus in the summer of 1992 (under an ASEE fellowship) has been generalized. A method for predicting matrix cracking due to decreasing temperatures and/or thermal cycling in all plies of an arbitrary laminate has been implemented as a computer code. The code also predicts changes in properties due to the cracking. Experimental progressive cracking studies on a variety of laminates were carried out at Langley Research Center. Results were correlated to predictions using the new methods. Results were initially mixed. This motivated an exploration of the configuration of cracks within laminates. A crack configuration study was carried out by cutting and/or sanding specimens in order to examine the distribution of cracks within the specimens. These investigations were supplemented by dye-penetrant enhanced X-ray photographs. The behavior of thin plies was found to be different from the behavior of thicker plies (or ply groups) on which existing theories are based. Significant edge effects were also noted, which caused the traditional metric of microcracking (count of cracks on a polished edge) to be very inaccurate in some cases. With edge and configuration taken into account, rough agreement with predictions was achieved. All results to date were reviewed with NASA Langley personnel in September 1993.

  7. Nanoscale multilayered and porous carbide interphases prepared by pressure-pulsed reactive chemical vapor deposition for ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, S.; Jouanny, I.; Ledain, O.; Maillé, L.; Weisbecker, P.

    2013-06-01

    In Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) reinforced by continuous fibers, a good toughness is achieved by adding a thin film called "interphase" between the fiber and the brittle matrix, which acts as a mechanical fuse by deflecting the matrix cracks. Pyrocarbon (PyC), with or without carbide sub-layers, is typically the material of choice to fulfill this role. The aim of this work was to study PyC-free nanoscale multilayered carbide coatings as interphases for CMCs. Nanoscale multilayered (SiC-TiC)n interphases were deposited by pressure-Pulsed Chemical Vapor Deposition (P-CVD) on single filament Hi-Nicalon fibers and embedded in a SiC matrix sheath. The thicknesses of the carbide interphase sub-layers could be made as low as a few nanometers as evidenced by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. By using the P-ReactiveCVD method (P-RCVD), in which the TiC growth involves consumption of SiC, it was not only possible to obtain multilayered (SiC-TiC)n films but also TiC films with a porous multilayered microstructure as a result of the Kirkendall effect. The porosity in the TiC sequences was found to be enhanced when some PyC was added to SiC prior to total RCVD consumption. Because the porosity volume fraction was still not high enough, the role of mechanical fuse of the interphases could not be evidenced from the tensile curves, which remained fully linear even when chemical attack of the fiber surface was avoided.

  8. Numerical studies of fibrous composites from the view point of fiber-matrix interface and fiber-matrix bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Yahya Ilyas

    In the present research, the micromechanics of fibrous composites was studied numerically. The effects of the fiber/matrix interphase region and fiber/matrix bonding were the main goals of this research. Throughout the research NASTRAN finite element analyses were used. First we investigated the effect of the interphase region on the stress field by varying the thickness of the interphase region and the material properties in the interphase region. Second, we numerically simulated the bonding qualities between the fiber and the matrix by the implementation of the fiber/matrix interphase region. The change for bonding between the fiber and the matrix were simulated through a periodic material property change in the interphase region. Third, we developed a bi-dimensional concentric cylindrical model for stress transfer between the fiber and the matrix model in case of a broken fiber or short fiber composites. This model is unique in accounting for the real non-linear stress-strain relationship for the matrix material. The stress transfer between the fiber and the matrix was also analyzed by finite element models. Toward this end finite element analysis proved a useful tool to help us evaluate key model parameters, most importantly the radius of fiber influence. This parameter is also a key parameter of simple models upon which the new model is based. Finally we applied our stress transfer model to analyze single fiber fragmentation test data obtained at Kansas State University.

  9. Metal Matrix Composites Deposition in Twin Wire Arc Spraying Utilizing an External Powder Injection Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, W.; Abdulgader, M.; Hagen, L.; Nellesen, J.

    2014-01-01

    The powder injection parameters, the location of the injection port, as well as the metal matrix composites are important features, which determine the deposition efficiency and embedding behavior of hard materials in the surrounding matrix of the twin wire arc-spraying process. This study investigates the applicability of external powder injection and aims to determine whether the powder injection parameters, the location, and the material combination (composition of the matrix as well as hard material) need to be specifically tailored. Therefore, the position of the injection port in relation to the arc zone was altered along the spraying axis and perpendicular to the arc. The axial position of the injection port determines the thermal activation of the injected powder. An injection behind the arc, close to the nozzle outlet, seems to enhance the thermal activation. The optimal injection positions of different hard materials in combination with zinc-, nickel- and iron-based matrices were found to be closer to the arc zone utilizing a high-speed camera system. The powder size, the mass of the particle, the carrier gas flow, and the electric insulation of the hard material affect the perpendicular position of the radial injection port. These findings show that the local powder injection, the wetting behavior of particles in the realm of the molten pool as well as the atomization behavior of the molten pool all affect the embedding behavior of the hard material in the surrounded metallic matrix. Hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation and EDX analysis along transition zones were utilized to estimate the bonding strength. The observation of a diffusion zone indicates a strong metallurgical bonding for boron carbides embedded in steel matrix.

  10. Particle denuded zones in alumina reinforced aluminum matrix composite weldments

    SciTech Connect

    Chidambaram, A.; Bhole, S.D.

    1996-08-01

    The Welding Institute of Canada (WIC), Ontario, has been studying the weldability of different DURALCAN MMC`s. Research on alumina reinforced (20 vol.%) 6061 Al alloy GTA welds showed satisfactory tensile and yield strengths (0.2% Proof Stress) but the welds failed to pass the bend test requirements with fracture taking place in the relatively brittle heat affected zone (HAZ). Further, the welds were characterized by a region which was devoid of reinforcement particles adjacent to the fusion lines. The present study was undertaken to try and explain the formation of this particle denuded zone (PDZ) at the fusion lines.

  11. Matrix-filler interfaces and physical properties of metal matrix composites with negative thermal expansion manganese nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, Koshi; Kuzuoka, Kota; Sugimoto, Norihiro

    2015-08-01

    Copper matrix composites containing antiperovskite manganese nitrides with negative thermal expansion (NTE) were formed using pulsed electric current sintering. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that the chemically reacted region extends over 10 μm around the matrix-filler interfaces. The small-size filler was chemically deteriorated during formation of composites and it lost the NTE property. Therefore, we produced the composites using only the nitride particles having diameter larger than 50 μm. The large-size filler effectively suppressed the thermal expansion of copper and improved the conductivity of the composites to the level of pure aluminum. The present composites, having high thermal conductivity and low thermal expansion, are suitable for practical applications such as a heat radiation substrate for semiconductor devices.

  12. Shear debonding behavior of a carbon-coated interface in a tungsten fiber-reinforced tungsten matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, J.; Höschen, T.; Rasinski, M.; You, J.-H.

    2011-10-01

    One of the crucial issues related to structural application of tungsten for fusion reactor components is its brittleness. To improve tungsten toughness we explored a novel toughening method based on W fiber reinforcement. The idea is to utilize the effective energy dissipation caused by controlled cracking and friction at fiber/matrix interfaces. To realize this, the interfaces need to be engineered by means of adequate coating. In this work we investigated fracture behavior of a carbon-coated (0.6 μm) interface in a single-filament mini-composite using fiber push-out test. The composite was fabricated by CVD process. Mechanical parameters were determined by fitting the related theoretical models with the experimental data. Calibrated fracture energy and debonding strength was 7.4 J/m 2 and 285 MPa, respectively. This fracture energy value satisfied the theoretical criterion of controlled crack deflection. The result of the carbon coating was compared to the case of uncoated interface which exhibited stronger friction.

  13. Improving processing and toughness of a high performance composite matrix through an interpenetrating polymer network. VI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.

    1990-01-01

    The use of a semiinterpenetrating polymer network (SIPN) of the high-performance polyimide NR-150B2 to reduce brittleness and improve processability in the highly crosslinked acetylene-terminated polyimides Thermid LR-600, AL-600, MC-600, and FA-700 is described. The theoretical basis of the SIPN process is reviewed; the preparation and characterization of the neat SIPN resins and unidirectional graphite-fiber composites are explained; and the results are presented in extensive tables, graphs, and micrographs and discussed in detail. Significant increases in fracture energy were observed with SIPN, from 93 J/sq m for unmodified LR-600 to 283-603 J/sq m for the SIPN materials; the room-temperature flexural strength of the unidirectional composites also increased, from 1344 MPa for an unmodified MC-600 composite to 2020-1751 MPa for the SIPN composites. The potential applicability of SIPN-based composites to aerospace structures and electronic components is indicated.

  14. Burn-Resistant, Strong Metal-Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Tayal, Moti J.

    2003-01-01

    Ceramic particulate fillers increase the specific strengths and burn resistances of metals: This is the conclusion drawn by researchers at Johnson Space Center's White Sands Test Facility. The researchers had theorized that the inclusion of ceramic particles in metal tools and other metal objects used in oxygen-rich atmospheres (e.g., in hyperbaric chambers and spacecraft) could reduce the risk of fire and the consequent injury or death of personnel. In such atmospheres, metal objects act as ignition sources, creating fire hazards. However, not all metals are equally hazardous: some are more burn-resistant than others are. It was the researchers purpose to identify a burn-resistant, high-specific-strength ceramic-particle/metal-matrix composite that could be used in oxygen-rich atmospheres. The researchers studied several metals. Nickel and cobalt alloys exhibit high burn resistances and are dense. The researchers next turned to ceramics, which they knew do not act as ignition sources. Unlike metals, ceramics are naturally burn-resistant. Unfortunately, they also exhibit low fracture toughnesses.

  15. Erosion Resistant Coatings for Polymer Matrix Composites in Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, James K.; Naik, Subhash K.; Horan, Richard; Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Bowman, Cheryl; Ma, Kong; Leissler, George; Sinatra, Raymond; Cupp, Randall

    2003-01-01

    Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs) offer lightweight and frequently low cost alternatives to other materials in many applications. High temperature PMCs are currently used in limited propulsion applications replacing metals. Yet in most cases, PMC propulsion applications are not in the direct engine flow path since particulate erosion degrades PMC component performance and therefore restricts their use in gas turbine engines. This paper compares two erosion resistant coatings (SANRES and SANPRES) on PMCs that are useful for both low and high temperature propulsion applications. Collaborating over a multi-year period, researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center, Allison Advanced Developed Company, and Rolls-Royce Corporation have optimized these coatings in terms of adhesion, surface roughness, and erosion resistance. Results are described for vigorous hot gas/particulate erosion rig and engine testing of uncoated and coated PMC fan bypass vanes from the AE 3007 regional jet gas turbine engine. Moreover, the structural durability of these coatings is described in long-term high cycle fatigue tests. Overall, both coatings performed well in all tests and will be considered for applications in both commercial and defense propulsion applications.

  16. Creep Forming of Carbon-Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Wallace L.; Scotti, Stephan J.; Ashe, Melissa P.; Connolly, Liz

    2007-01-01

    A set of lecture slides describes an investigation of creep forming as a means of imparting desired curvatures to initially flat stock plates of carbon-reinforced ceramic-matrix composite (C-CMC) materials. The investigation is apparently part of a continuing effort to develop improved means of applying small CCMC repair patches to reinforced carbon-carbon leading edges of aerospace vehicles (e.g., space shuttles) prior to re-entry into the atmosphere of the Earth. According to one of the slides, creep forming would be an intermediate step in a process that would yield a fully densified, finished C-CMC part having a desired size and shape (the other steps would include preliminary machining, finish machining, densification by chemical vapor infiltration, and final coating). The investigation included experiments in which C-CMC disks were creep-formed by heating them to unspecified high temperatures for time intervals of the order of 1 hour while they were clamped into single- and double-curvature graphite molds. The creep-formed disks were coated with an oxidation- protection material, then subjected to arc-jet tests, in which the disks exhibited no deterioration after exposure to high-temperature test conditions lasting 490 seconds.

  17. Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) Life Prediction Method Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Stanley R.; Calomino, Anthony M.; Ellis, John R.; Halbig, Michael C.; Mital, Subodh K.; Murthy, Pappu L.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Thomas, David J.; Thomas-Ogbuji, Linus U.; Verrilli, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Advanced launch systems (e.g., Reusable Launch Vehicle and other Shuttle Class concepts, Rocket-Based Combine Cycle, etc.), and interplanetary vehicles will very likely incorporate fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMC) in critical propulsion components. The use of CMC is highly desirable to save weight, to improve reuse capability, and to increase performance. CMC candidate applications are mission and cycle dependent and may include turbopump rotors, housings, combustors, nozzle injectors, exit cones or ramps, and throats. For reusable and single mission uses, accurate prediction of life is critical to mission success. The tools to accomplish life prediction are very immature and not oriented toward the behavior of carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC), the primary system of interest for a variety of space propulsion applications. This paper describes an approach to satisfy the need to develop an integrated life prediction system for CMC that addresses mechanical durability due to cyclic and steady thermomechanical loads, and takes into account the impact of environmental degradation.

  18. 3-D stamp forming of thermoplastic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, M.; Friedrich, K.

    1994-03-01

    In this investigation a mould with hemispherical cavity and 80 kN hydraulic press, allowing variable stamping speeds, are employed for experimentally studying of the 3-D stamp forming process of continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic laminates. In particular, glass fiber (GF) reinforced polyetherimide (PEI) woven fabric made of sheath surrounded, polymer powder impregnated fiber bundles manufactured by Enichem, Italy, is used. Pre-consolidated laminates are heated by contact heating in an external heater up to about 120°C above the glass transition temperature ( T g) of the polymer matrix; they are then stamp formed in a cold matched metal tool. Typical cycle times (including preheating time of the preconsolidated laminates) are in the range of 3 min. Useful processing conditions, such as stamping temperature, stamping velocity and hold-down pressure required for stamp forming of this composite are determined. In addition the effect of die geometries (deformation radian) and original laminate dimensions are studied. The results describe the correlations between processing parameters and fiber buckling. Finally the thickness distribution in stamped parts are investigated in relation to different directions of fiber orientation.

  19. Elevated Temperature Fatigue Endurance of Three Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Verrilli, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    High-cycle fatigue endurance of three candidate materials for the acoustic liners of the Enabling Propulsion Materials Nozzle Program was investigated. The ceramic matrix composite materials investigated were N720/AS (Nextel 720, 3M Corporation), Sylramic S200 (Dow Corning), and UT 22. High-cycle fatigue tests were conducted in air at 910 C on as-machined specimens and on specimens subjected to tensile cyclic load excursions every 160 hr followed by thermal exposure at 910 C in a furnace up to total exposure times of 2066 and 4000 hr. All the fatigue tests were conducted in air at 100 Hz with a servohydraulic test machine. In the as-machined condition, among the three materials investigated only the Sylramic S200 exhibited a deterministic type of high-cycle fatigue behavior. Both the N720/AS and UT-22 exhibited significant scatter in the experimentally observed high-cycle fatigue lives. Among the thermally exposed specimens, N720/AS and Sylramic S200 materials exhibited a reduction in the high-cycle fatigue lives, particularly at the exposure time of 4000 hr.

  20. Spine Fusion Using Cell Matrix Composites Enriched in Bone Marrow-Derived Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nitto, Hironori; Matsukura, Yoichi; Boehm, Cynthia; Valdevit, Antonio; Kambic, Helen; Davros, William; Powell, Kimerly; Easley, Kirk

    2005-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived cells including osteoblastic progenitors can be concentrated rapidly from bone marrow aspirates using the surface of selected implantable matrices for selective cell attachment. Concentration of cells in this way to produce an enriched cellular composite graft improves graft efficacy. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that the biologic milieu of a bone marrow clot will significantly improve the efficacy of such a graft. An established posterior spinal fusion model and cancellous bone matrix was used to compare an enriched cellular composite bone graft alone, bone matrix plus bone marrow clot, and an enriched bone matrix composite graft plus bone marrow clot. Union score, quantitative computed tomography, and mechanical testing were used to define outcome. The union score for the enriched bone matrix plus bone marrow clot composite was superior to the enriched bone matrix alone and the bone matrix plus bone marrow clot. The enriched bone matrix plus bone marrow clot composite also was superior to the enriched bone matrix alone in fusion volume and in fusion area. These data confirm that the addition of a bone marrow clot to an enriched cell-matrix composite graft results in significant improvement in graft performance. Enriched composite grafts prepared using this strategy provide a rapid, simple, safe, and inexpensive method for intraoperative concentration and delivery of bone marrow-derived cells and connective tissue progenitors that may improve the outcome of bone grafting. PMID:12567137

  1. Fatigue damage growth mechanisms in continuous fiber reinforced titanium matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.; Naik, R. A.; Pollock, W. D.

    1990-01-01

    The role of fiber/matrix interface strength, residual thermal stresses, and fiber and matrix properties on fatigue damage accumulation in continuous fiber metal matrix composites (MMC) will be discussed. Results from titanium matrix/silicon-carbide fiber composites will be the primary topic of discussion. Results have been obtained from both notched and unnotched specimens at room and elevated temperatures. The stress in the 0 deg fibers has been indentified as the controlling factor in fatigue life. Fatigue of the notched specimens indicated that cracks can grow many fiber spacings in the matrix materials without breaking fibers.

  2. Fatigue damage growth mechanisms in continuous fiber reinforced titanium matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.; Naik, R. A.; Pollock, W. D.

    1990-01-01

    The role of fiber/matrix interface strength, residual thermal stresses, and fiber and matrix properties on fatigue damage accumulation in continuous fiber metal matrix composites (MMC) is discussed. Results from titanium matrix silicon carbide fiber composites is the primary topic of discussion. Results were obtained from both notched and unnotched specimens at room and elevated temperatures. The stress in the 0 deg fibers was identified as the controlling factor in fatigue life. Fatigue of the notched specimens indicated that cracks can grow in the matrix materials without breaking fibers.

  3. Neutron diffraction measurements and modeling of residual strains in metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saigal, A.; Leisk, G. G.; Hubbard, C. R.; Misture, S. T.; Wang, X. L.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron diffraction measurements at room temperature are used to characterize the residual strains in tungsten fiber-reinforced copper matrix, tungsten fiber-reinforced Kanthal matrix, and diamond particulate-reinforced copper matrix composites. Results of finite element modeling are compared with the neutron diffraction data. In tungsten/Kanthal composites, the fibers are in compression, the matrix is in tension, and the thermal residual strains are a strong function of the volume fraction of fibers. In copper matrix composites, the matrix is in tension and the stresses are independent of the volume fraction of tungsten fibers or diamond particles and the assumed stress free temperature because of the low yield strength of the matrix phase.

  4. Neutron diffraction measurements and modeling of residual strains in metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Saigal, A.; Leisk, G.G.; Hubbard, C.R.; Misture, S.T.; Wang, X.L.

    1996-04-01

    Neutron diffraction measurements at room temperature are used to characterize the residual strains in tungsten fiber-reinforced copper matrix, tungsten fiber-reinforced Kanthal matrix, and diamond particulate-reinforced copper matrix composites. Results of finite element modeling are compared with the neutron diffraction data. In tungsten/Kanthal composites, the fibers are in compression, the matrix is in tension, and the thermal residual strains are a strong function of the volume fraction of fibers. In copper matrix composites, the matrix is in tension and the stresses are independent of the volume fraction of tungsten fibers or diamond particles and the assumed stress free temperature because of the low yield strength of the matrix phase.

  5. Creep-rupture of polymer-matrix composites. [graphite-epoxy laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinson, H. F.; Griffith, W. I.; Morris, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    An accelerated characterization method for resin matrix composites is reviewed. Methods for determining modulus and strength master curves are given. Creep rupture analytical models are discussed as applied to polymers and polymer matrix composites. Comparisons between creep rupture experiments and analytical models are presented. The time dependent creep rupture process in graphite epoxy laminates is examined as a function of temperature and stress level.

  6. Investigation of failure modes in fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Moschler, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    This experimental study was conducted to investigate the damage progression in fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites under tensile loading. As part of this study, the effect of the residual stresses at the fiber-matrix interface on damage progression was evaluated. Composite samples were fabricated from silicon carbide fibers and borosilicate glass matrices. Each glass had a different coefficient of thermal expansion than the fiber and through the variation of this mismatch, the residual stresses at the fiber-matrix interface were varied resulting in different bonding conditions at the fiber-matrix interface. The mechanical properties of the composites were measured using a servo-hydraulic mechanical testing machine. During these tests, transverse strain reversal was observed that is believed to be caused by axial matrix cracks and fiber-matrix debonding. Tensile tests were conducted on the composites using a constant-load straining device in which damage progression was observed using an optical microscope.

  7. High-Temperature Fatigue of a Hybrid Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, J. T.; Sanders, P. G.

    2014-01-01

    An aluminum metal matrix composite (MMC) brake drum was tested in fatigue at room temperature and extreme service temperatures. At room temperature, the hybrid composite did not fail and exceeded estimated vehicle service times. At higher temperatures (62 and 73 pct of the matrix eutectic), fatigue of a hybrid particle/fiber MMC exhibited failure consistent with matrix overloading. Overaging of the A356 matrix coupled with progressive fracture of the SiC particles combined to create the matrix overload condition. No evidence of macro-fatigue crack initiation or growth was observed, and the matrix-particle interface appeared strong with no debonding, visible matrix phases, or porosity. An effective medium model was constructed to test the hypothesis that matrix overloading was the probable failure mode. The measured particle fracture rate was fit using realistic values of the SiC Weibull strength and modulus, which in turn predicted cycles to failure within the range observed in fatigue testing.

  8. Estimate Interface Shear Stress of Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites from Hysteresis Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longbiao; Song, Yingdong

    2013-12-01

    An approach to estimate the fiber/matrix interface shear stress of woven ceramic matrix composites during fatigue loading has been developed in this paper. Based on the analysis of the microstructure, the woven ceramic matrix composites were divided into four elements of 0o warp yarns, 90o weft yarns, matrix outside of the yarns and the open porosity. When matrix cracking and fiber/matrix interface debonding occur upon first loading to the peak stress, it is assumed that fiber slipping relative to matrix in the interface debonded region of the 0o warp yarns is the mainly reason for the occurrence of the hysteresis loops of woven ceramic matrix composiets during unloading and subsequent reloading. The unloading interface reverse slip length and reloading interface new slip length are determined by the interface slip mechanisms. The hysteresis loops of three different cases have been derived. The hysteresis loss energy for the strain energy lost per volume during corresponding cycle is formulated in terms of the fiber/matrix interface shear stress. By comparing the experimental hysteresis loss energy with the computational values, the fiber/matrix interface shear stress of woven ceramic matrix composites corresponding to different cycles can then be derived. The theoretical results have been compared with experimental data of two different woven ceramic composites.

  9. Numerical simulations of interfacial debonding in ductile-phase reinforced intermetallic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Henshall, G.A.; Zywicz, E.; Strum, M.J.

    1993-08-10

    The fracture toughness of brittle intermetallic compounds can be improved by ductile-phase reinforcements. Effectiveness of the ductile phase in bridging cracks, and therefore increasing, the composite toughness, is known qualitatively to depend upon the extent of debonding, between the two phases. Numerical crack-growth simulations are used here to provide semi-quantitative predictions of the influence of interfacial debonding on the macroscopic stress-displacement behavior and, hence, the fracture toughness of an idealized Pb/glass composite. The interfacial toughness required to cause debonding, characterized by a constant critical energy release rate, is varied parametrically. As expected, higher interfacial toughness results in less interphase debonding, higher composite strength, and greater ductile-phase constraint. Consequently, the increase in ductile-phase triaxiality can potentially accelerate internal void formation and growth or facilitate cleavage fracture, either of which would likely decrease the toughness of the composite.

  10. Patches for Repairing Ceramics and Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogenson, Peter A.; Toombs, Gordon R.; Adam, Steven; Tompkins, James V.

    2006-01-01

    Patches consisting mostly of ceramic fabrics impregnated with partially cured polymers and ceramic particles are being developed as means of repairing ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) that must withstand temperatures above the melting points of refractory metal alloys. These patches were conceived for use by space-suited, space-walking astronauts in repairing damaged space-shuttle leading edges: as such, these patches could be applied in the field, in relatively simple procedures, and with minimal requirements for specialized tools. These design characteristics also make the patches useful for repairing ceramics and CMCs in terrestrial settings. In a typical patch as supplied to an astronaut or repair technician, the polymer would be in a tacky condition, denoted as an A stage, produced by partial polymerization of a monomeric liquid. The patch would be pressed against the ceramic or CMC object to be repaired, relying on the tackiness for temporary adhesion. The patch would then be bonded to the workpiece and cured by using a portable device to heat the polymer to a curing temperature above ambient temperature but well below the maximum operating temperature to which the workpiece is expected to be exposed. The patch would subsequently become pyrolized to a ceramic/glass condition upon initial exposure to the high operating temperature. In the original space-shuttle application, this exposure would be Earth-atmosphere-reentry heating to about 3,000 F (about 1,600 C). Patch formulations for space-shuttle applications include SiC and ZrO2 fabrics, a commercial SiC-based pre-ceramic polymer, and suitable proportions of both SiC and ZrO2 particles having sizes of the order of 1 m. These formulations have been tailored for the space-shuttle leading-edge material, atmospheric composition, and reentry temperature profile so as to enable repairs to survive re-entry heating with expected margin. Other formulations could be tailored for specific terrestrial

  11. The strength and notch-sensitivity of ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNulty, John Clark

    The mechanisms that govern the strength of three Nicalon fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) have been elucidated. Specific regard was given to the volume-dependence of tensile strength, the fatigue resistance at ambient and elevated temperatures, and the notch-sensitivity of strength. Mechanism-based materials models were employed to describe these properties. The utility of the models was assessed through comparison with experiments. The CMCs investigated in this study exhibit stochastic behavior, manifested as volume-dependent strength. The volume-dependence was demonstrated through a technique relating the strengths obtained in flexure and tension, coupled with the application of weakest-link statistics. The results indicate that the CMCs exhibit a high reliability, with Weibull moduli being in the range of ˜20 to 40. The reduction in strength under cyclic loading is due to degradation of the interface sliding stress, via a frictional wear process, and the associated reduction in the fiber bundle strength. This degradation was evaluated using hysteresis loop measurements, as well as fiber pullout and push-in techniques. The fatigue thresholds predicted using a model based on the degradation of the sliding stress showed reasonable agreement with the experimental measurements. The moderately notch-insensitive behavior of the CMCs is due to a combination of stress redistribution, arising from inelastic straining, and volume-dependent strength. The variation in notch-sensitivity with notch size and shape was modeled using a non-linear constitutive law to describe the stress-strain response coupled with a fracture criterion that accounts for the size-dependence of the strength. Excellent correlations are obtained between experiment and theory. Due to the poor chemical stability of Nicalon fibers, the strength-limiting mechanism at elevated temperatures is oxidation of the fibers, rather than degradation of the sliding stress. The oxidation mechanism

  12. High Temperature Degradation Mechanisms in Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Ronan A.

    1996-01-01

    Polymer matrix composites are increasingly used in demanding structural applications in which they may be exposed to harsh environments. The durability of such materials is a major concern, potentially limiting both the integrity of the structures and their useful lifetimes. The goal of the current investigation is to develop a mechanism-based model of the chemical degradation which occurs, such that given the external chemical environment and temperatures throughout the laminate, laminate geometry, and ply and/or constituent material properties, we can calculate the concentration of diffusing substances and extent of chemical degradation as functions of time and position throughout the laminate. This objective is met through the development and use of analytical models, coupled to an analysis-driven experimental program which offers both quantitative and qualitative information on the degradation mechanism. Preliminary analyses using a coupled diffusion/reaction model are used to gain insight into the physics of the degradation mechanisms and to identify crucial material parameters. An experimental program is defined based on the results of the preliminary analysis which allows the determination of the necessary material coefficients. Thermogravimetric analyses are carried out in nitrogen, air, and oxygen to provide quantitative information on thermal and oxidative reactions. Powdered samples are used to eliminate diffusion effects. Tests in both inert and oxidative environments allow the separation of thermal and oxidative contributions to specimen mass loss. The concentration dependency of the oxidative reactions is determined from the tests in pure oxygen. Short term isothermal tests at different temperatures are carried out on neat resin and unidirectional macroscopic specimens to identify diffusion effects. Mass loss, specimen shrinkage, the formation of degraded surface layers and surface cracking are recorded as functions of exposure time. Geometry effects

  13. On Poisson's ratio for metal matrix composite laminates. [aluminum boron composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herakovich, C. T.; Shuart, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The definition of Poisson's ratio for nonlinear behavior of metal matrix composite laminates is discussed and experimental results for tensile and compressive loading of five different boron-aluminum laminates are presented. It is shown that there may be considerable difference in the value of Poisson's ratio as defined by a total strain or an incremental strain definition. It is argued that the incremental definition is more appropriate for nonlinear material behavior. Results from a (0) laminate indicate that the incremental definition provides a precursor to failure which is not evident if the total strain definition is used.

  14. Fabrication and Testing of Ceramic Matrix Composite Rocket Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Effinger, Michael; Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Dennis, Jay; Elam, Sandy; Genge, Gary; Eckel, Andy; Jaskowiak, Matha; Kiser, J. Doug; Lang, Jerry

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is pursuing using ceramic matrix composites (CMC) as primary structural components for advanced rocket engines. This endeavor is due to the requirement of increasing safety by two orders of magnitude and reducing costs from $10,000/lb to $1,000/lb both within ten years. Out year goals are even more aggressive. Safety gains, through using CMCS, will be realized by increasing temperature margins, tolerance for extreme thermal transients, and damping capability of components and systems, by using components with lower weight and thermal conductivity, etc. Gains in cost reduction, through using CMCS, are anticipated by enabling higher performance systems, using lighter weight components and systems, enabling 100 mission reusability without system refurbishment, greatly reducing cooling requirements and erosion rates, selecting safe fabrication processes that are ideally cost competitive with metal processes at low volume production, etc. This philosophy contrasts the previous philosophy of rocket engine development focused largely on achieving the highest performance with metals and ablatives -- cost and safety were not the focal point of the initial design. Rocket engine components currently being pursued, largely C/SiC and SiC/SiC, include blisks or rotors, 10 foot by 8 foot nozzle ramps, gas generators, thrust chambers, and upperstage nozzles. The Simplex Turbopump CMC blisk effort has just successfully completed a 4.5 year development and test program. The other components mentioned are in the design or fabrication stage. Although the temperature limits of the CMC materials are not quantified in a realistic environment yet, CMC materials are projected to be the only way to achieve significant safety risks mitigation and cost reductions simultaneously. We, the end-users, material fabricators, technology facilitators, and government organizations are charged with developing and demonstrating a much safer and a

  15. MIT/Marine Industry Collegium Opportunity Brief: Advanced composites for offshore structures. Held in Cambridge, Massachusetts on October 30-31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.

    1991-01-01

    Synopses of Presentations: An Overview of Advanced Structural Composites for Offshore Structures; High-Performance Composites for Deepwater Risers; Failure and Damage Mechanisms in Composites; Environmental Degradation of Composites; Composites Manufacturing; Steel-Concrete-Steel Sandwich Composite Construction for Permanently Floating Platforms; High-Strength Cement Composites for Marine Applications; Minimum Weight Design of Foam Core Sandwich Panels; Design of Fiber Reinforced Brittle and Quasi-Brittle Matrix Composites for Marine Applications; Offshore Applications and Requirements for Use of Advanced Composites; Polymer Composites in Structures; Non-Conventional Profiles of Composites for Structural Applications; Composite in Construction Require a Structural Design System; Economic Evaluation of Composites for Offshore Use.

  16. Interfacial and capillary phenomena in solidification processing of metal-matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asthana, R.; Tewari, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical and hydrodynamic aspects of wetting and interfacial phenomena during the solidification processing of metal-matrix composites are reviewed. Significant experimental results on fiber-matrix interactions and wetting under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions in composites of engineering interest have been compiled, based on a survey of the recent literature. Finally, certain aspects of wetting relevant to stir-casting and infiltration processing of composites are discussed.

  17. A Mechanistic Approach to Matrix Cracking Coupled with Fiber--Matrix Debonding in Short-Fiber Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Tucker, Brian J.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2005-07-01

    A micro-macro mechanistic approach to damage in short-fiber composites is developed in this paper. At the microscale, a reference aligned fiber composite is considered for the analysis of the damage mechanisms such as matrix cracking and fiber/matrix debonding using the modified Mori-Tanaka model. The associated damage variables are defined, and the stiffness reduction law dependent on these variables is established. The stiffness of a random fiber composite containing random matrix microcracks and imperfect interfaces is then obtained from that of the reference composite, which is averaged over all possible orientations and weighted by an orientation distribution function. The macroscopic response is determined using a continuum damage mechanics approach and finite element analysis. Final failure resulting from saturation of matrix microcracks, fiber pull-out and breakage is modeled by a vanishing element technique. The model is validated using the experimental data and results found in the literature as well as the results determined for a random chopped fiber glass/vinyl ester system.

  18. EH3 matrix mineralogy with major and trace element composition compared to chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, S. W.; McDonough, W. F.; NéMeth, P.

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the matrix mineralogy in primitive EH3 chondrites Sahara 97072, ALH 84170, and LAR 06252 with transmission electron microscopy; measured the trace and major element compositions of Sahara 97072 matrix and ferromagnesian chondrules with laser-ablation, inductively coupled, plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS); and analyzed the bulk composition of Sahara 97072 with LA-ICPMS, solution ICPMS, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The fine-grained matrix of EH3 chondrites is unlike that in other chondrite groups, consisting primarily of enstatite, cristobalite, troilite, and kamacite with a notable absence of olivine. Matrix and pyroxene-rich chondrule compositions differ from one another and are distinct from the bulk meteorite. Refractory lithophile elements are enriched by a factor of 1.5-3 in chondrules relative to matrix, whereas the matrix is enriched in moderately volatile elements. The compositional relation between the chondrules and matrix is reminiscent of the difference between EH3 pyroxene-rich chondrules and EH3 Si-rich, highly sulfidized chondrules. Similar refractory element ratios between the matrix and the pyroxene-rich chondrules suggest the fine-grained material primarily consists of the shattered, sulfidized remains of the formerly pyroxene-rich chondrules with the minor addition of metal clasts. The matrix, chondrule, and metal-sulfide nodule compositions are probably complementary, suggesting all the components of the EH3 chondrites came from the same nebular reservoir.

  19. A method for measuring residual strains in fiber-reinforced titanium matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ramamurty, U.; Dary, F.C.; Zok, F.W.

    1996-08-01

    A new method for measuring the residual fiber strains in fiber-reinforced titanium matrix composites has been developed. The method involves selectively etching the matrix over a prescribed length of composite and subsequently measuring the extension of the relaxed fibers relative to neighboring fibers that are still embedded within the matrix material. The extensions are measured using confocal microscopy. The method is demonstrated on three unidirectionally reinforced composites with varying fiber volume fractions. The effects of specimen tilt and fiber splaying following dissolution on the measured fiber extensions are analyzed. The residual fiber strains are rationalized on the basis of the thermoelastic properties of the constituents through a concentric cylinder model. The current method can be applied to other metal matrix composites reinforced with large diameter (monofilament) fibers, provided the matrix can be selectively etched.

  20. Implementation of thermal residual stresses in the analysis of fiber bridged matrix crack growth in titanium matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakuckas, John G., Jr.; Johnson, W. Steven

    1994-01-01

    In this research, thermal residual stresses were incorporated in an analysis of fiber-bridged matrix cracks in unidirectional and cross-ply titanium matrix composites (TMC) containing center holes or center notches. Two TMC were investigated, namely, SCS-6/Timelal-21S laminates. Experimentally, matrix crack initiation and growth were monitored during tension-tension fatigue tests conducted at room temperature and at an elevated temperature of 200 C. Analytically, thermal residual stresses were included in a fiber bridging (FB) model. The local R-ratio and stress-intensity factor in the matrix due to thermal and mechanical loadings were calculated and used to evaluate the matrix crack growth behavior in the two materials studied. The frictional shear stress term, tau, assumed in this model was used as a curve-fitting parameter to matrix crack growth data. The scatter band in the values of tau used to fit the matrix crack growth data was significantly reduced when thermal residual stresses were included in the fiber bridging analysis. For a given material system, lay-up and temperature, a single value of tau was sufficient to analyze the crack growth data. It was revealed in this study that thermal residual stresses are an important factor overlooked in the original FB models.

  1. Combined thermal and bending fatigue of high-temperature metal-matrix composites: Computational simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotsis, Pascal K.

    1991-01-01

    The nonlinear behavior of a high-temperature metal-matrix composite (HT-MMC) was simulated by using the metal matrix composite analyzer (METCAN) computer code. The simulation started with the fabrication process, proceeded to thermomechanical cyclic loading, and ended with the application of a monotonic load. Classical laminate theory and composite micromechanics and macromechanics are used in METCAN, along with a multifactor interaction model for the constituents behavior. The simulation of the stress-strain behavior from the macromechanical and the micromechanical points of view, as well as the initiation and final failure of the constituents and the plies in the composite, were examined in detail. It was shown that, when the fibers and the matrix were perfectly bonded, the fracture started in the matrix and then propagated with increasing load to the fibers. After the fibers fractured, the composite lost its capacity to carry additional load and fractured.

  2. A compliant, high failure strain, fibre-reinforced glass-matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.

    1982-01-01

    A glass-matrix composite reinforced by discontinuous graphite fibers was produced by hot pressing glass-powder-impregnated two-dimensional arrays of in-plane randomly oriented graphite fibers held together by approximately 5-10% by weight of organic binder (generally polyester). The composite tensile behavior is characterized by a highly nonlinear stress-strain curve which differs markedly from that of either unreinforced glass or a similarly reinforced epoxy-matrix composite. By virtue of this nonlinearity, the composite is able to redistribute applied stresses to achieve a high load-carrying capacity. The fibrous microstructure and the low fiber-matrix bond provide a mechanism for achieving high fracture toughness and unusually high compliance. For a 96%-silica-matrix composite, the strength is retained to over 1000 C.

  3. Combined bending and thermal fatigue of high-temperature metal-matrix composites - Computational simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotsis, Pascal K.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1992-01-01

    The nonlinear behavior of a high-temperature metal-matrix composite (HT-MMC) was simulated by using the metal matrix composite analyzer (METCAN) computer code. The simulation started with the fabrication process, proceeded to thermomechanical cyclic loading, and ended with the application of a monotonic load. Classical laminate theory and composite micromechanics and macromechanics are used in METCAN, along with a multifactor interaction model for the constituents behavior. The simulation of the stress-strain behavior from the macromechanical and the micromechanical points of view, as well as the initiation and final failure of the constituents and the plies in the composite, were examined in detail. It was shown that, when the fibers and the matrix were perfectly bonded, the fracture started in the matrix and then propagated with increasing load to the fibers. After the fibers fractured, the composite lost its capacity to carry additional load and fractured.

  4. Symposium Review: Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites at MS&T 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Nikhil; Paramsothy, Muralidharan

    2014-06-01

    This article reflects on the presentations made during the Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites symposium at Materials Science and Technology 2013 (MS&T'13) held in Montreal (Quebec, Canada) from October 27 to 31. The symposium had three sessions on metal matrix composites and one session on polymer matrix composites containing a total of 23 presentations. While the abstracts and full-text papers are available through databases, the discussion that took place during the symposium is often not captured in writing and gets immediately lost. We have tried to recap some of the discussion in this article and hope that it will supplement the information present in the proceedings. The strong themes in the symposium were porous composites, aluminum matrix composites, and nanocomposites. The development of processing methods was also of interest to the speakers and attendees.

  5. Improving processing and toughness of a high performance composite matrix through an interpenetrating polymer network. VI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.

    1990-01-01

    A simultaneous semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) concept is presented which combines easy-to-process, but brittle, thermosetting polyimides with tough, but difficult to process, linear thermoplastic polyimides. The combination results in a semi-IPN with the easy processability of a thermoset and good toughness of a thermoplastic. Four simultaneous semi-IPN systems were developed from commercially available NR-150B2 combined with each of the four Thermid materials (LR-600, AL-600, MC-600, and FA-700). It is concluded that there is a significant improvement in resin fracture toughness of Thermid-polyimide-based semi-IPN systems and some improvement in composite microcracking resistance compared to Thermid LR-600. Excellent composite mechanical properties have been achieved. These new semi-IPN materials have the potential to be used as composite matrices, adhesives, and molding materials.

  6. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of metallic glass fiber-reinforced Al alloy matrix composites

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z.; Georgarakis, K.; Nakayama, K. S.; Li, Y.; Tsarkov, A. A.; Xie, G.; Dudina, D.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.; Yavari, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glass-reinforced metal matrix composites are an emerging class of composite materials. The metallic nature and the high mechanical strength of the reinforcing phase offers unique possibilities for improving the engineering performance of composites. Understanding the structure at the amorphous/crystalline interfaces and the deformation behavior of these composites is of vital importance for their further development and potential application. In the present work, Zr-based metallic glass fibers have been introduced in Al7075 alloy (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) matrices using spark plasma sintering (SPS) producing composites with low porosity. The addition of metallic glass reinforcements in the Al-based matrix significantly improves the mechanical behavior of the composites in compression. High-resolution TEM observations at the interface reveal the formation of a thin interdiffusion layer able to provide good bonding between the reinforcing phase and the Al-based matrix. The deformation behavior of the composites was studied, indicating that local plastic deformation occurred in the matrix near the glassy reinforcements followed by the initiation and propagation of cracks mainly through the matrix. The reinforcing phase is seen to inhibit the plastic deformation and retard the crack propagation. The findings offer new insights into the mechanical behavior of metal matrix composites reinforced with metallic glasses. PMID:27067824

  7. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of metallic glass fiber-reinforced Al alloy matrix composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Georgarakis, K; Nakayama, K S; Li, Y; Tsarkov, A A; Xie, G; Dudina, D; Louzguine-Luzgin, D V; Yavari, A R

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glass-reinforced metal matrix composites are an emerging class of composite materials. The metallic nature and the high mechanical strength of the reinforcing phase offers unique possibilities for improving the engineering performance of composites. Understanding the structure at the amorphous/crystalline interfaces and the deformation behavior of these composites is of vital importance for their further development and potential application. In the present work, Zr-based metallic glass fibers have been introduced in Al7075 alloy (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) matrices using spark plasma sintering (SPS) producing composites with low porosity. The addition of metallic glass reinforcements in the Al-based matrix significantly improves the mechanical behavior of the composites in compression. High-resolution TEM observations at the interface reveal the formation of a thin interdiffusion layer able to provide good bonding between the reinforcing phase and the Al-based matrix. The deformation behavior of the composites was studied, indicating that local plastic deformation occurred in the matrix near the glassy reinforcements followed by the initiation and propagation of cracks mainly through the matrix. The reinforcing phase is seen to inhibit the plastic deformation and retard the crack propagation. The findings offer new insights into the mechanical behavior of metal matrix composites reinforced with metallic glasses. PMID:27067824

  8. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of metallic glass fiber-reinforced Al alloy matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Georgarakis, K.; Nakayama, K. S.; Li, Y.; Tsarkov, A. A.; Xie, G.; Dudina, D.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.; Yavari, A. R.

    2016-04-01

    Metallic glass-reinforced metal matrix composites are an emerging class of composite materials. The metallic nature and the high mechanical strength of the reinforcing phase offers unique possibilities for improving the engineering performance of composites. Understanding the structure at the amorphous/crystalline interfaces and the deformation behavior of these composites is of vital importance for their further development and potential application. In the present work, Zr-based metallic glass fibers have been introduced in Al7075 alloy (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) matrices using spark plasma sintering (SPS) producing composites with low porosity. The addition of metallic glass reinforcements in the Al-based matrix significantly improves the mechanical behavior of the composites in compression. High-resolution TEM observations at the interface reveal the formation of a thin interdiffusion layer able to provide good bonding between the reinforcing phase and the Al-based matrix. The deformation behavior of the composites was studied, indicating that local plastic deformation occurred in the matrix near the glassy reinforcements followed by the initiation and propagation of cracks mainly through the matrix. The reinforcing phase is seen to inhibit the plastic deformation and retard the crack propagation. The findings offer new insights into the mechanical behavior of metal matrix composites reinforced with metallic glasses.

  9. Interphase for ceramic matrix composites reinforced by non-oxide ceramic fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A. (Inventor); Bhatt, Ramakrishna (Inventor); Morscher, Gregory N. (Inventor); Yun, Hee-Mann (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A ceramic matrix composite material is disclosed having non-oxide ceramic fibers, which are formed in a complex fiber architecture by conventional textile processes; a thin mechanically weak interphase material, which is coated on the fibers; and a non-oxide or oxide ceramic matrix, which is formed within the interstices of the interphase-coated fiber architecture. During composite fabrication or post treatment, the interphase is allowed to debond from the matrix while still adhering to the fibers, thereby providing enhanced oxidative durability and damage tolerance to the fibers and the composite material.

  10. Polymer Matrix Composites: A Perspective for a Special Issue of Polymer Reviews

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, Michael R.

    2012-09-04

    Polymer matrix composites, with their high specific strength and stiffness, are used in a wide range of applications from large wind turbine blades to microelectronics. This perspective article provides a brief primer on polymer matrix composites, discusses some of their advantages and limitations, and describes a number of emerging trends in the field. In addition, it introduces four review articles on the topics of recent developments in carbon fibers, natural fiber reinforced composites, evaluation of the interface between the fiber reinforcement and polymer matrix, and carbon nanotube reinforced polymers.

  11. PEKK as a new thermoplastic matrix for high-performance composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, I.Y.

    1988-07-01

    A novel semicrystalline polyetherketoneketone (PEKK) polymer is being developed as a potential high-performance thermoplastic matrix system for advanced composites. This resin with upper use temperature between those of Du Pont's K-3 (polyimide) and J-2 (polyamide) has potential advantages versus other commercial organic matrix systems. The carbon-fiber reinforced composite laminates with PEKK matrix prepared from the proprietary melt impregnated tows showed high flexural, shear, and compressive strengths, excellent environmental durability and hot-wet stability. PEKK neat resin and its carbon composite properties are presented and discussed. 4 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  12. Mechanisms controlling fatigue damage development in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1989-01-01

    Damage in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composite materials can be quite complex since there are a number of different constituents (fiber, matrix, and the fiber/matrix interface) that can fail. Multidirectional lay-ups have an even greater number of possible damage orientations and mechanisms. Based on the simplifying assumption of equivalent constituent strain states in the absence of damage, a strain based failure criteria may be applied to determine when and where initial damage will occur. Based on the relative strain to fatigue failure of the fiber and matrix, the possible damage mechanisms of an MMC can be grouped into three categories: (1) matrix dominated, (2) fiber dominated, and (3) self-similar damage growth. A fourth type of damage development, fiber/matrix interface failure, is dependent on the relative strength of the fiber/matrix interface and the matrix yield strength. These four types of damage are discussed and illustrated by examples.

  13. A macro-micromechanics analysis of a notched metal matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, Catherine A.; Naik, Rajiv A.

    1992-01-01

    Macro- and micromechanics analysis were conducted to determine the matrix and fiber behaviors near the notch in a center-notched metal-matrix composite. In this approach, the macrolevel analysis models the entire notched specimen using a 3D finite element program that uses the vanishing-fiber-diameter model to simulate the elastic-plastic behavior of the matrix and the elastic behavior of the fiber. The microlevel behavior is analyzed using a discrete fiber-matrix model containing one fiber and the surrounding matrix. The viability of this analysis is demonstrated using results for a boron/aluminum monolayer.

  14. Matrix-filler interfaces and physical properties of metal matrix composites with negative thermal expansion manganese nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Takenaka, Koshi; Kuzuoka, Kota; Sugimoto, Norihiro

    2015-08-28

    Copper matrix composites containing antiperovskite manganese nitrides with negative thermal expansion (NTE) were formed using pulsed electric current sintering. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that the chemically reacted region extends over 10 μm around the matrix–filler interfaces. The small-size filler was chemically deteriorated during formation of composites and it lost the NTE property. Therefore, we produced the composites using only the nitride particles having diameter larger than 50 μm. The large-size filler effectively suppressed the thermal expansion of copper and improved the conductivity of the composites to the level of pure aluminum. The present composites, having high thermal conductivity and low thermal expansion, are suitable for practical applications such as a heat radiation substrate for semiconductor devices.

  15. Method Developed for Improving the Thermomechanical Properties of Silicon Carbide Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; DiCarlo, James A.

    2004-01-01

    Today, a major thrust for achieving engine components with improved thermal capability is the development of fiber-reinforced silicon-carbide (SiC) matrix composites. These materials are not only lighter and capable of higher use temperatures than state-of-the-art metallic alloys and oxide matrix composites (approx. 1100 C), but they can provide significantly better static and dynamic toughness than unreinforced silicon-based monolithic ceramics. However, for successful application in advanced engine systems, the SiC matrix composites should be able to withstand component service stresses and temperatures for the desired component lifetime. Since the high-temperature structural life of ceramic materials is typically controlled by creep-induced flaw growth, a key composite property requirement is the ability to display high creep resistance under these conditions. Also, because of the possibility of severe thermal gradients in the components, the composites should provide maximum thermal conductivity to minimize the development of thermal stresses. State-of-the-art SiC matrix composites are typically fabricated via a three-step process: (1) fabrication of a component-shaped architectural preform reinforced by high-performance fibers, (2) chemical vapor infiltration of a fiber coating material such as boron nitride (BN) into the preform, and (3) infiltration of a SiC matrix into the remaining porous areas in the preform. Generally, the highest performing composites have matrices fabricated by the CVI process, which produces a SiC matrix typically more thermally stable and denser than matrices formed by other approaches. As such, the CVI SiC matrix is able to provide better environmental protection to the coated fibers, plus provide the composite with better resistance to crack propagation. Also, the denser CVI SiC matrix should provide optimal creep resistance and thermal conductivity to the composite. However, for adequate preform infiltration, the CVI SiC matrix

  16. The role of rapid solidification processing in the fabrication of fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locci, Ivan E.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced composite processing techniques for fiber reinforced metal matrix composites require the flexibility to meet several widespread objectives. The development of uniquely desired matrix microstructures and uniformly arrayed fiber spacing with sufficient bonding between fiber and matrix to transmit load between them without degradation to the fiber or matrix are the minimum requirements necessary of any fabrication process. For most applications these criteria can be met by fabricating composite monotapes which are then consolidated into composite panels or more complicated components such as fiber reinforced turbine blades. Regardless of the end component, composite monotapes are the building blocks from which near net shape composite structures can be formed. The most common methods for forming composite monotapes are the powder cloth, foil/fiber, plasma spray, and arc spray processes. These practices, however, employ rapid solidification techniques in processing of the composite matrix phase. Consequently, rapid solidification processes play a vital and yet generally overlooked role in composite fabrication. The future potential of rapid solidification processing is discussed.

  17. Mechanical properties of composite sandwich plates containing magnesium matrix composite face sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Song-Jeng; Hsieh, Ti-Ching; Lin, Bo-Zhou; Hong, Pin-Sen

    2008-11-01

    The fabrication of magnesium alloy metal-matrix composites (MMCs) and the mechanical properties of the sandwich formed with this material were investigated. Magnesium alloy composites containing various volume percentage of 0.99, 2.91, 4.76 and 9.09 % silicon-carbide (SiC) particles were prepared by molten metal mixing and machined as the faceplate of the sandwich. The particle had been dispersed by the injecting of the argon gas from a stainless pipe. Optical microscopic examination, hardness and tensile test were carried out. The sandwich was combined by the hot press method and studied by bending test. It is observed that the hardness of MMCs increases, but its strength decreases with increasing volume percentage of silicon-carbide particle, according to the results of hardness and bending test. It can be found that the specific strength and specific bending strength of sandwich composites fabricated with the faceplates of magnesium alloy added SiC reinforcements are a little higher than that sandwich with the aluminum alloy faceplates, but less than that of sandwich with magnesium alloy.

  18. Stress and Damage in Polymer Matrix Composite Materials Due to Material Degradation at High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McManus, Hugh L.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes analytical methods for calculating stresses and damage caused by degradation of the matrix constituent in polymer matrix composite materials. Laminate geometry, material properties, and matrix degradation states are specified as functions of position and time. Matrix shrinkage and property changes are modeled as functions of the degradation states. The model is incorporated into an existing composite mechanics computer code. Stresses, strains, and deformations at the laminate, ply, and micro levels are calculated, and from these calculations it is determined if there is failure of any kind. The rationale for the model (based on published experimental work) is presented, its integration into the laminate analysis code is outlined, and example results are given, with comparisons to existing material and structural data. The mechanisms behind the changes in properties and in surface cracking during long-term aging of polyimide matrix composites are clarified. High-temperature-material test methods are also evaluated.

  19. Factors influencing the Mode I interlaminar fracture toughness of a rubber toughened thermoplastic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, D. S.; Yee, A. F.

    1989-01-01

    The use of a rubber modified thermoplastic resin has been investigated as a method to improve the Mode I interlaminar fracture toughness of a unidirectional continuous carbon fiber composite. Test results show that the improvement in the fracture toughness is less than expected due to rubber particle agglomeration, solvent and molding induced crystallization of the matrix and poor fiber/matrix adhesion. The plastic zone in composites utilizing tough matrices can extend well beyond a single interfibrillar spacing. However, the development of the plastic zone is limited due to the failure of the fiber/matrix interface. In order to fully evaluate the potential of tough composites using toughened matrices, any improvement made in the matrix toughness must be coupled with improvements in the fiber/matrix adhesion.

  20. Effects of Control Mode and R-Ratio on the Fatigue Behavior of a Metal Matrix Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    isothermal, LCF behavior of a [0]_32 MMC tested under strain- and load-controlled conditions for both zero-tension and tension-compression loading conditions. These tests were run at 427 C on thick specimens of SiC-reinforced Ti-15-3. For the fully-reversed tests, no difference was observed in the lives between the load- and strain-controlled tests. However, for the zero-tension tests, the strain-controlled tests had longer lives by a factor of 3 in comparison to the load-controlled tests. This was due to the fact that under strain-control the specimens cyclically softened, reducing the cracking potential. In contrast, the load-controlled tests ratcheted toward larger tensile strains leading to an eventual overload of the fibers. Fatigue tests revealed that specimens tested under fully-reversed conditions had lives approximately an order of magnitude longer than for those specimens tested under zero tension. When examined on a strain-range basis, the fully reversed specimens had similar, but still shorter lives than those of the unreinforced matrix material. However, the composite had a strain limitation at short lives because of the limited strain capacity of the brittle ceramic fiber. The composite also suffered at very high lives because of the lack of an apparent fatigue limit in comparison to the unreinforced matrix. The value of adding fibers to the matrix is apparent when the fatigue lives are plotted as a function of stress range. Here, the composite is far superior to the unreinforced matrix because of the additional load-carrying capacity of the fibers.

  1. Modeling fatigue crack growth in cross ply titanium matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakuckas, J. G., Jr.; Johnson, W. S.

    1993-01-01

    In this study, the fatigue crack growth behavior of fiber bridging matrix cracks in cross-ply SCS-6/Ti-15-3 and SCS-6/Timetal-21S laminates containing center holes was investigated. Experimental observations revealed that matrix cracking was far more extensive and wide spread in the SCS-6/Ti-15-3 laminates compared to that in the SCS-6/Timetal-21S laminates. In addition, the fatigue life of the SCS-6/Ti-15-3 laminates was significantly longer than that of the SCS-6/Timetal-21S laminates. The matrix cracking observed in both material systems was analyzed using a fiber bridging (FB) model which was formulated using the boundary correction factors and weight functions for center hole specimen configurations. A frictional shear stress is assumed in the FB model and was used as a curve fitting parameter to model matrix crack growth data. The higher frictional shear stresses calculated in the SCS-6/Timetal-21S laminates resulted in lower stress intensity factors in the matrix and higher axial stresses in the fibers compared to those in the SCS-6/Ti-15-3 laminates at the same applied stress levels.

  2. Matrix Cracking in Four Different 2D SiC/SiC Composite Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.

    2003-01-01

    Silicon carbide fiber reinforced, silicon carbide matrix composites are some of the most advanced composite systems for high-temperature, high-stress applications in oxidizing environments. A basic area that needs to be understood for the purpose of material behavior modeling and optimization is the architectural, constituent, and mechanistic factors that contribute to non-linear stress-strain behavior. The mechanism that causes non-linear stress-strain in dense-matrix composites is the formation and propagation of bridged matrix cracks. In addition, the occurrence and propagation of matrix cracks controls the time-dependent strength-properties of these materials in oxidizing environments at elevated temperatures. A modal acoustic emission technique has been used to monitor and estimate the stress-dependent matrix cracking. Two different SiC matrix systems, chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI) and melt-infiltrated (MI), with two different SiC fiber reinforcement, Hi-Nicalon (trademark) and Sylramic (trademark) were compared. Even though the averages of the range where matrix cracking occurred for the composites varied by more than 0.1% in strain and almost 200 MPa in stress, the range or distribution for matrix cracking could be reduced to a narrow band of stress for CVI SiC and MI SiC composites if it were assumed that all matrix cracks emanate outside of the load-bearing fiber, interphase, CVI preform minicomposite. A simple relationship was determined to describe stress-dependent matrix cracking which can then be used to estimate the onset of large, bridged matrix cracks or for material behavior models.

  3. A review of failure models for unidirectional ceramic matrix composites under monotonic loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, David E.; Hemann, John H.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1989-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites offer significant potential for improving the performance of turbine engines. In order to achieve their potential, however, improvements in design methodology are needed. In the past most components using structural ceramic matrix composites were designed by trial and error since the emphasis of feasibility demonstration minimized the development of mathematical models. To understand the key parameters controlling response and the mechanics of failure, the development of structural failure models is required. A review of short term failure models with potential for ceramic matrix composite laminates under monotonic loads is presented. Phenomenological, semi-empirical, shear-lag, fracture mechanics, damage mechanics, and statistical models for the fast fracture analysis of continuous fiber unidirectional ceramic matrix composites under monotonic loads are surveyed.

  4. A review of failure models for ceramic matrix composite laminates under monotonic loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, David E.; Hemann, John H.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1989-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites offer significant potential for improving the performance of turbine engines. In order to achieve their potential, however, improvements in design methodology are needed. In the past most components using structural ceramic matrix composites were designed by trial and error since the emphasis of feasibility demonstration minimized the development of mathematical models. To understand the key parameters controlling response and the mechanics of failure, the development of structural failure models is required. A review of short term failure models with potential for ceramic matrix composite laminates under monotonic loads is presented. Phenomenological, semi-empirical, shear-lag, fracture mechanics, damage mechanics, and statistical models for the fast fracture analysis of continuous fiber unidirectional ceramic matrix composites under monotonic loads are surveyed.

  5. Ceramic matrix composites properties/microstresses with complete and partial interphase bond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1993-01-01

    A multilevel substructuring technique which includes a unique fiber substructuring concept is used for the analysis of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites. This technique has four levels of substructuring--from laminate to ply, to supply, and then to fiber. A stand-alone computer code CEMCAN (Ceramic Matrix Composites Analyzer), incorporating this technique and specifically for the simulation of ceramic matrix composites behavior, is currently under development at NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The thermal and mechanical properties, along with the microstresses, for a SiC/RBSN (silicon carbide fiber and reaction bonded silicon nitride matrix) composite at different fiber volume ratios and varying degrees of interfacial bond around the fiber circumference are computed. Values predicted by CEMCAN computer code are shown to bound the experimentally measured values. Results also show that transverse tensile strength test can be a sensitive test method to assess interfacial conditions.

  6. Metal Matrix Composites: Fatigue and Fracture Testing. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and results of testing metal matrix composites for fatigue and fracture. Methods include non-destructive testing techniques, and static and cyclic techniques for assessing compression, tensile, bending, and impact characteristics.

  7. Characterization of SiC (SCS-6) Fiber Reinforced Reaction-Formed Silicon Carbide Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Dickerson, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SCS-6) fiber reinforced-reaction formed silicon carbide matrix composites were fabricated using NASA's reaction forming process. Silicon-2 at a percent of niobium alloy was used as an infiltrant instead of pure silicon to reduce the amount of free silicon in the matrix after reaction forming. The matrix primarily consists of silicon carbide with a bi-modal grain size distribution. Minority phases dispersed within the matrix are niobium disilicide (NbSi2), carbon and silicon. Fiber push-out tests on these composites determined a debond stress of approx. 67 MPa and a frictional stress of approx. 60 MPa. A typical four point flexural strength of the composite is 297 MPa (43.1 KSi). This composite shows tough behavior through fiber pull out.

  8. Characterization of SiC Fiber (SCS-6) Reinforced-Reaction-Formed Silicon Carbide Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Dickerson, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    Silicon carbide fiber (SCS-6) reinforced-reaction-formed silicon carbide matrix composites were fabricated using a reaction-forming process. Silicon-2 at.% niobium alloy was used as an infiltrant instead of pure silicon to reduce the amount of free silicon in the matrix after reaction forming. The matrix primarily consists of silicon carbide with a bimodal grain size distribution. Minority phases dispersed within the matrix are niobium disilicide (NbSi2), carbon, and silicon. Fiber pushout tests on these composites determined a debond stress of approximately 67 MPa and a frictional stress of approximately 60 MPa. A typical four-point flexural strength of the composite is 297 MPa (43.1 KSi). This composite shows tough behavior through fiber pullout.

  9. The mechanical properties measurement of multiwall carbon nanotube reinforced nanocrystalline aluminum matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manjula; Pal, Hemant; Sharma, Vimal

    2015-05-01

    Nanocrystalline aluminum matrix composite containing carbon nanotubes were fabricated using physical mixing method followed by cold pressing. The microstructure of the composite has been investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy techniques. These studies revealed that the carbon nanotubes were homogeneously dispersed throughout the metal matrix. The consolidated samples were pressureless sintered in inert atmosphere to further actuate a strong interface between carbon nanotubes and aluminum matrix. The nanoindentation tests carried out on considered samples showed that with the addition of 0.5 wt% carbon nanotubes, the hardness and elastic modulus of the aluminum matrix increased by 21.2 % and 2 % repectively. The scratch tests revealed a decrease in the friction coefficient of the carbon nanotubes reinforced composite due to the presence of lubricating interfacial layer. The prepared composites were promising entities to be used in the field of sporting goods, construction materials and automobile industries.

  10. The mechanical properties measurement of multiwall carbon nanotube reinforced nanocrystalline aluminum matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Manjula Pal, Hemant; Sharma, Vimal

    2015-05-15

    Nanocrystalline aluminum matrix composite containing carbon nanotubes were fabricated using physical mixing method followed by cold pressing. The microstructure of the composite has been investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy techniques. These studies revealed that the carbon nanotubes were homogeneously dispersed throughout the metal matrix. The consolidated samples were pressureless sintered in inert atmosphere to further actuate a strong interface between carbon nanotubes and aluminum matrix. The nanoindentation tests carried out on considered samples showed that with the addition of 0.5 wt% carbon nanotubes, the hardness and elastic modulus of the aluminum matrix increased by 21.2 % and 2 % repectively. The scratch tests revealed a decrease in the friction coefficient of the carbon nanotubes reinforced composite due to the presence of lubricating interfacial layer. The prepared composites were promising entities to be used in the field of sporting goods, construction materials and automobile industries.

  11. Optimization of interface layers in the design of ceramic fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doghri, I.; Jansson, S.; Leckie, F. A.; Lemaitre, J.

    1990-01-01

    The potential of using an interface layer to reduce thermal stresses in the matrix of composites with a mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of fiber and matrix was investigated. It was found that the performance of the layer can be defined by the product of the CTE and the thickness, and that a compensating layer with a sufficiently high CTE can reduce the thermal stresses in the matrix significantly. A practical procedure offering a window of candidate layer materials is proposed.

  12. Reduction of thermal stresses in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites with interface layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansson, S.; Leckie, F. A.

    1992-01-01

    The potential of using interface layer to reduce thermal stresses in the matrix of composites with a mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion of fiber and matrix has been investigated. It was found that compliant layers, with properties of readily available materials, do not have the potential to reduce thermal stresses significantly. However, interface layers with high coefficient of thermal expansion can compensate for the mismatch and reduce thermal stresses in the matrix significantly.

  13. Reduction of thermal stresses in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites with interface layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansson, S.; Leckie, F. A.

    1990-01-01

    The potential of using an interface layer to reduce thermal stresses in the matrix of composites with a mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion of fiber and matrix was investigated. It was found that compliant layers, with properties of readily available materials, do not have the potential to reduce thermal stresses significantly. However, interface layers with high coefficient of thermal expansion can compensate for the mismatch and reduce thermal stresses in the matrix significantly.

  14. Liquid infiltration and pyrolysis of SiC matrix composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Casadio, S.; Nanneti, C.A.; Donato, A.

    1995-12-01

    SiC matrix composites were prepared by prepregging carbon and Nicalon fibre cloths with polycarbosilane (PCS) solution or nanosized SiC powder dispersion in PCS solution. After consolidation of the stacked cloths and pyrolysis, densification of the matrix was accomplished by multiple infiltration/pyrolysis steps with PCS solution. The pyrolysis behaviour of the SiC nanopowder/PCS matrix material was investigated in comparison to PCS.

  15. Research on ultra-high-temperature materials, monolithic ceramics, ceramic matrix composites and carbon/carbon composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, T. J.; Grimes, H. H.

    1982-01-01

    Research on three classes of materials that show potential for allowing significant increases in operating temperatures in gas turbine engines is discussed. Monolithic ceramics, ceramic matrix composites, and carbon-carbon composites are discussed. Sintering, hot pressing, and densification are discussed.

  16. Ceramic fiber-reinforced monoclinic celsian phase glass-ceramic matrix composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor); Dicarlo, James A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A hyridopolysilazane-derived ceramic fiber reinforced monoclinic celsian phase barium aluminum silicate glass-ceramic matrix composite material is prepared by ball-milling an aqueous slurry of BAS glass powder and fine monoclinic celsian seeds. The fibers improve the mechanical strength and fracture toughness and with the matrix provide superior dielectric properties.

  17. Ultrasonic Characterization of Fiber-Matrix Interphasial Properties and Damage in High-Temperature Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Ya-Cherng

    This study addresses ultrasonic characterization of fiber-matrix interphasial properties and damage in high -temperature composites. To accomplish this, experimental techniques for measurements of ultrasonic phase velocities and methodology for calculation of composite elastic moduli from velocity data are first developed and applied to unidirectional ceramic and intermetallic matrix composites. It is shown that computational error in the composite moduli is comparable to experimental error in the velocity data. For cross -ply composites, a novel method for determination of lamina elastic moduli from measurements on a (0/90) _ {s} composite is developed and validated experimentally. Second, a method to determine the elastic moduli of interphasial layers in high-temperature composites from the measured composite moduli is developed and applied to characterization of 3-μm thick carbon interphasial layers in ceramic and intermetallic matrix composites. Third, the techniques developed are used for assessment of oxidation and fatigue damage in ceramic and metal matrix composites. It is shown that ultrasonic phase velocities are very sensitive to damage and can effectively quantify damage severity. Appropriate models are applied to describe the effect of damage on the measured ultrasonic data, and they show reasonable agreement with experiments.

  18. Parametric studies to determine the effect of compliant layers on metal matrix composite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, J. J.; Chamis, C. C.; Brown, H. C.

    1990-01-01

    Computational simulation studies are conducted to identify compliant layers to reduce matrix stresses which result from the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch and the large temperature range over which the current metal matrix composites will be used. The present study includes variations of compliant layers and their properties to determine their influence on unidirectional composite and constituent response. Two simulation methods are used for these studies. The first approach is based on a three-dimensional linear finite element analysis of a 9 fiber unidirectional composite system. The second approach is a micromechanics based nonlinear computer code developed to determine the behavior of metal matrix composite system for thermal and mechanical loads. The results show that an effective compliant layer for the SCS 6 (SiC)/Ti-24Al-11Nb (Ti3Al + Nb) and SCS 6 (SiC)/Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al (Ti-15-3) composite systems should have modulus 15 percent that of the matrix and a coefficient of thermal expansion of the compliant layer roughly equal to that of the composite system without the CL. The matrix stress in the longitudinal and the transverse tangent (loop) direction are tensile for the Ti3Al + Nb and Ti-15-3 composite systems upon cool down from fabrication. The fiber longitudinal stress is compressive from fabrication cool down. Addition of a recommended compliant layer will result in a reduction in the composite modulus.

  19. Development of interfaces in oxide and silicate matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.H.; Cain, M.G.; Doleman, P.

    1995-12-01

    Silicate and oxide matrix CMCs are being developed for application in advanced gas turbines. High-performance Silicate/Nicalon CMCs have been characterised mainly as materials for interface, process and mechanical modelling due to their limited thermal and oxidative stability. Saphikon (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) monofilaments have been used in the development of interphase chemistry and processing via vapour and liquid-precursor methods. Prototype Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-matrix CMCs have been fabricated and exploration of alternative fibre/interphase chemistries conducted via reactivity studies up to 1600{degrees}C.

  20. Fiber pushout and interfacial shear in metal-matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koss, Donald A.; Hellmann, John R.; Kallas, M. N.

    1993-01-01

    Recent thin-slice pushout tests have suggested that MMC matrix-fiber interface failure processes depend not only on such intrinsic factors as bond strength and toughness, and matrix plasticity, but such extrinsic factors as specimen configuration, thermally-induced residual stresses, and the mechanics associated with a given test. After detailing the contrasts in fiber-pullout and fiber-pushout mechanics, attention is given to selected aspects of thin-slice fiber pushout behavior illustrative of the physical nature of interfacial shear response and its dependence on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors.